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Sample records for psychometric-function slopes show

  1. Variations in the slope of the psychometric functions for speech intelligibility: a systematic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Alexandra; Akeroyd, Michael A

    2014-06-06

    Although many studies have looked at the effects of different listening conditions on the intelligibility of speech, their analyses have often concentrated on changes to a single value on the psychometric function, namely, the threshold. Far less commonly has the slope of the psychometric function, that is, the rate at which intelligibility changes with level, been considered. The slope of the function is crucial because it is the slope, rather than the threshold, that determines the improvement in intelligibility caused by any given improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by, for instance, a hearing aid. The aim of the current study was to systematically survey and reanalyze the psychometric function data available in the literature in an attempt to quantify the range of slope changes across studies and to identify listening conditions that affect the slope of the psychometric function. The data for 885 individual psychometric functions, taken from 139 different studies, were fitted with a common logistic equation from which the slope was calculated. Large variations in slope across studies were found, with slope values ranging from as shallow as 1% per dB to as steep as 44% per dB (median = 6.6% per dB), suggesting that the perceptual benefit offered by an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio depends greatly on listening environment. The type and number of maskers used were found to be major factors on the value of the slope of the psychometric function while other minor effects of target predictability, target corpus, and target/masker similarity were also found. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Slope of psychometric functions and termination rule analysis for low contrast acuity charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkeet, Andrew; Bailey, Ian L

    2017-03-01

    To assess whether the slopes of psychometric functions for measuring low contrast letter acuity were different from those for measuring high contrast letter acuity. Ten participants, wearing their best spectacle correction, were assessed monocularly. Stimuli were logarithmic progression charts, generated on a computer monitor, with nine rows of five randomised Sloan letters generated in either high contrast format (Weber contrast 99.2%) or low contrast format (Weber contrast 18.7%). For each participant, psychometric functions were generated by probit analysis of the data on each of 16 attempts at a low contrast chart and 16 attempts at a high contrast chart. Each of these probit fits yielded an estimate of Probit Size which provided information about how steep or flat the psychometric function was, along with an estimate of Probit Acuity Threshold. Probit Size was significantly larger (p psychometric functions were flatter for low contrast charts. Mean Probit Sizes in logMAR were 0.099 (SEM 0.022) for low contrast charts and 0.071 (SEM 0.009) for high contrast charts if a guess rate of 1/26 was assumed, or were 0.086 (SEM 0.019) for low contrast charts and 0.064 for high contrast charts if a guess rate of 1/10 was assumed. Monte Carlo analysis showed that these means were likely to be biased estimates, with true Probit Size probably being larger (i.e. slightly flatter fits) by 0.016-0.019 logMAR. As expected, Probit Acuity Thresholds were poorer for low contrast charts than for high contrast charts (p psychometric functions would be expected to give greater intra-subject variability in low contrast letter-by-letter acuity thresholds than for high contrast letter-by-letter acuity thresholds, and that this difference would depend on the termination rule used when measuring acuity. Likewise the variation in letter-by- letter acuity thresholds with termination rule will be different for high and low contrast charts. For low contrast and high contrast Sloan letter

  3. Relation between Visual Acuity and Slope of Psychometric Function in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Tokutake

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mita et al. (2010 devised a technique of comparing a visual acuity (VA change in an individual with more accurate VA than conventional VA tests by significant difference examined logarithmic (Log VA ± standard deviation (SD. Using this technique, in this study, we examined a relation between VA and the slope of the psychometric function in normal young subjects. Six occlusion foil conditions were employed (1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.1 and without the foil under a full refractive correction. Ten normal young adults (22.8 years old on average who have no ophthalmologic disease except ametropia participated in the measurement. The experiment was carried out with the constant method, a series of ten Landolt rings were used and each ring was presented 20 times randomly in a measurement. A 5.6-inch type of liquid crystal display driven by a computer, which has 1,280×800 pixels spatial resolution, was used to present the stimulus. In the normal young adults, the slope of the psychometric function did not change as the VA change systematically, and there was almost no correlation between them (r = −0.103.

  4. Fitting psychometric functions using a fixed-slope parameter: an advanced alternative for estimating odor thresholds with data generated by ASTM E679.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mei; Jaeger, Sara R; Hautus, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Psychometric functions are predominately used for estimating detection thresholds in vision and audition. However, the requirement of large data quantities for fitting psychometric functions (>30 replications) reduces their suitability in olfactory studies because olfactory response data are often limited (psychometric functions to olfactory data obtained using the current standard protocol-American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E679. The slope parameter of the individual-judge psychometric function is fixed to be the same as that of the group function; the same-shaped symmetrical sigmoid function is fitted only using the intercept. This study evaluated the proposed method by comparing it with 2 available methods. Comparison to conventional psychometric functions (fitted slope and intercept) indicated that the assumption of a fixed slope did not compromise precision of the threshold estimates. No systematic difference was obtained between the proposed method and the ASTM method in terms of group threshold estimates or threshold distributions, but there were changes in the rank, by threshold, of judges in the group. Overall, the fixed-slope psychometric function is recommended for obtaining relatively reliable individual threshold estimates when the quantity of data is limited.

  5. Four theorems on the psychometric function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A May

    Full Text Available In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, Δx. This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull "slope" parameter, β, can be approximated by β(Noise x β(Transducer, where β(Noise is the β of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and β(Transducer depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for β(Noise and β(Transducer, from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when d' ∝ (Δx(b, β ≈ β(Noise x b. We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4-0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull β reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of β for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is

  6. Four Theorems on the Psychometric Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Keith A.; Solomon, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, . This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull “slope” parameter, , can be approximated by , where is the of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for and , from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when , . We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4–0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is stimulus-independent, it has lower kurtosis than a Gaussian. PMID:24124456

  7. Psychometric functions for detection and discrimination with and without flankers

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Miguel A.; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío; Woods, Russell L.; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies reported that flanking stimuli broaden the psychometric function and lower detection thresholds. We measured psychometric functions for detection and discrimination with and without flankers to investigate whether these effects occur throughout the contrast continuum. Our results confirm that lower detection thresholds with flankers are accompanied by broader psychometric functions. Psychometric functions for discrimination reveal that discrimination thresholds with and without flankers are similar across standard levels, and that the broadening of psychometric functions with flankers disappears as standard contrast increases, to the point that psychometric functions at high standard levels are virtually identical with or without flankers. Threshold-versus-contrast (TvC) curves with flankers only differ from TvC curves without flankers in occasional shallower dippers and lower branches on the left of the dipper, but they run virtually superimposed at high standard levels. We discuss differences between our results and other results in the literature, and how they are likely attributed to the differential vulnerability of alternative psychophysical procedures to the effects of presentation order. We show that different models of flanker facilitation can fit the data equally well, which stresses that succeeding at fitting a model does not validate it in any sense. PMID:21264745

  8. Modeling psychometric functions in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yssaad-Fesselier, Rosa; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2006-02-01

    We demonstrate some procedures in the statistical computing environment R for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters of a psychometric function by fitting a generalized nonlinear regression model to the data. A feature for fitting a linear model to the threshold (or other) parameters of several psychometric functions simultaneously provides a powerful tool for testing hypotheses about the data and, potentially, for reducing the number of parameters necessary to describe them. Finally, we illustrate procedures for treating one parameter as a random effect that would permit a simplified approach to modeling stimulus-independent variability due to factors such as lapses or interobserver differences. These tools will facilitate a more comprehensive and explicit approach to the modeling of psychometric data.

  9. Changes across the psychometric function following perceptual learning of an RSVP reading task

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    Daniel Robert Coates

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have shown that perceptual learning can result in improvements inreading speed for people with macular disease (e.g. Chung, 2011; Tarita-Nistor et al., 2014.The improvements were reported as an increase in reading speed defined by specific criteria;however, little is known about how other properties of the reading performance or the participantsperceptual responses change as a consequence of learning. In this paper, we performeddetailed analyses of data following perceptual learning using an RSVP (rapid serial visualpresentation reading task, looking beyond the change in reading speed defined by the thresholdat a given accuracy on a psychometric function relating response accuracy with word exposureduration. Specifically, we explored the statistical characteristics of theresponse data to address two specific questions: was there a change in theslope of the psychometric function and did the improvements in performance occurconsistently across different word exposure durations? Our results show thatthere is a general steepening of the slope of the psychometric function, leadingto non-uniform improvements across stimulus levels.

  10. Observers can voluntarily shift their psychometric functions without losing sensitivity.

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    Morgan, Michael; Dillenburger, Barbara; Raphael, Sabine; Solomon, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    Psychometric sensory discrimination functions are usually modeled by cumulative Gaussian functions with just two parameters, their central tendency (μ) and their slope (1/σ). These correspond to Fechner's "constant" and "variable" errors, respectively. Fechner pointed out that even the constant error could vary over space and time and could masquerade as variable error. We wondered whether observers could deliberately introduce a constant error into their performance without loss of precision. In three-dot vernier and bisection tasks with the method of single stimuli, observers were instructed to favour one of the two responses when unsure of their answer. The slope of the resulting psychometric function was not significantly changed, despite a significant change in central tendency. Similar results were obtained when altered feedback was used to induce bias. We inferred that observers can adopt artificial response criteria without any significant increase in criterion fluctuation. These findings have implications for some studies that have measured perceptual "illusions" by shifts in the psychometric functions of sophisticated observers.

  11. Psychometric function for NU-6 word recognition in noise: effects of first language and dominant language.

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    Shi, Lu-Feng; Zaki, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    The present study attempted to establish psychometric function in individuals whose first language is not English. Psychometric function was obtained for one of the most commonly used clinical tests, the Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 (Tillman & Carhart 1966), so that findings could be directly applied to everyday clinical practice. Five groups of 14 normal-hearing, adult listeners differing in their first language and dominant language (English monolinguals, English- and Arabic-dominant Arabic-English bilinguals, and English- and Russian-dominant Russian-English bilinguals) participated. Both forms of the Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 test (8 lists of 50 monosyllabic English words) were presented. The lists were randomly assigned to eight signal-to-noise ratios (-3 to 18 dB in 3 dB steps). Listeners responded verbally and in writing. Psychometric functions were derived via logistic regression and described by two parameters: the 50% correct performance level (θ) and the slope (k). Both English-dominant bilingual groups obtained psychometric functions comparable with monolinguals. The θ and k of the functions for these three groups of participants were consistent with the literature. Compared with these three groups, non-English-dominant bilinguals' functions grew significantly more gradually (i.e., a significantly higher θ and a significantly lower k). No differences in either θ or k were found between bilinguals with the same dominant language but different first languages. Bilinguals reporting themselves to be dominant in English generate monolingual-like psychometric functions. By contrast, a different set of psychometric properties describes the function of bilinguals dominant in their first language. Because first language did not appear to be a significant factor in determining bilinguals' functions, it is concluded that English learning history and English proficiency are more important variables than first language for

  12. A quantitative confidence signal detection model: 1. Fitting psychometric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yongwoo; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2016-04-01

    Perceptual thresholds are commonly assayed in the laboratory and clinic. When precision and accuracy are required, thresholds are quantified by fitting a psychometric function to forced-choice data. The primary shortcoming of this approach is that it typically requires 100 trials or more to yield accurate (i.e., small bias) and precise (i.e., small variance) psychometric parameter estimates. We show that confidence probability judgments combined with a model of confidence can yield psychometric parameter estimates that are markedly more precise and/or markedly more efficient than conventional methods. Specifically, both human data and simulations show that including confidence probability judgments for just 20 trials can yield psychometric parameter estimates that match the precision of those obtained from 100 trials using conventional analyses. Such an efficiency advantage would be especially beneficial for tasks (e.g., taste, smell, and vestibular assays) that require more than a few seconds for each trial, but this potential benefit could accrue for many other tasks. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Tailoring a psychophysical discrimination experiment upon assessment of the psychometric function: Predictions and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardi, Andrea; Tabarelli, Davide; Ricci, Leonardo

    2015-02-01

    Decision making is a widespread research topic and plays a crucial role in neuroscience as well as in other research and application fields of, for example, biology, medicine and economics. The most basic implementation of decision making, namely binary discrimination, is successfully interpreted by means of signal detection theory (SDT), a statistical model that is deeply linked to physics. An additional, widespread tool to investigate discrimination ability is the psychometric function, which measures the probability of a given response as a function of the magnitude of a physical quantity underlying the stimulus. However, the link between psychometric functions and binary discrimination experiments is often neglected or misinterpreted. Aim of the present paper is to provide a detailed description of an experimental investigation on a prototypical discrimination task and to discuss the results in terms of SDT. To this purpose, we provide an outline of the theory and describe the implementation of two behavioural experiments in the visual modality: upon the assessment of the so-called psychometric function, we show how to tailor a binary discrimination experiment on performance and decisional bias, and to measure these quantities on a statistical base. Attention is devoted to the evaluation of uncertainties, an aspect which is also often overlooked in the scientific literature.

  14. A MATLAB toolbox for the efficient estimation of the psychometric function using the updated maximum-likelihood adaptive procedure

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    Richards, V. M.; Dai, W.

    2014-01-01

    A MATLAB toolbox for the efficient estimation of the threshold, slope, and lapse rate of the psychometric function is described. The toolbox enables the efficient implementation of the updated maximum-likelihood (UML) procedure. The toolbox uses an object-oriented architecture for organizing the experimental variables and computational algorithms, which provides experimenters with flexibility in experimental design and data management. Descriptions of the UML procedure and the UML Toolbox are provided, followed by toolbox use examples. Finally, guidelines and recommendations of parameter configurations are given. PMID:24671826

  15. A MATLAB toolbox for the efficient estimation of the psychometric function using the updated maximum-likelihood adaptive procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Dai, Wei; Richards, Virginia M

    2015-03-01

    A MATLAB toolbox for the efficient estimation of the threshold, slope, and lapse rate of the psychometric function is described. The toolbox enables the efficient implementation of the updated maximum-likelihood (UML) procedure. The toolbox uses an object-oriented architecture for organizing the experimental variables and computational algorithms, which provides experimenters with flexibility in experimental design and data management. Descriptions of the UML procedure and the UML Toolbox are provided, followed by toolbox use examples. Finally, guidelines and recommendations of parameter configurations are given.

  16. A biologically inspired psychometric function for accuracy of visual identification as a function of exposure duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

    The psychometric function of letter identification is typically described as a function of stimulus intensity. However, the effect of stimulus exposure duration on letter identification remains poorly described. This is surprising because the effect of exposure duration has played a central role......-Z) was presented at the centre of the screen. Exposure duration was varied from 5 to 210 milliseconds. The letter was followed by a pattern mask. Three subjects each completed 54,080 trials in a 26-Alternative Forced Choice procedure. We compared the exponential, the gamma and the Weibull psychometric functions......, all of these having a temporal offset included, as well as the ex-Gaussian, and finally a new psychometric function, motivated from single-neuron studies by (Albrecht, Geisler, Frazor & Crane, 2002). The new psychometric function stands out by having a nonmonotonous hazard rate which is initially...

  17. A biologically inspired psychometric function for accuracy of visual identification as a function of exposure duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

    The psychometric function of letter identification is typically described as a function of stimulus intensity. However, the effect of stimulus exposure duration on letter identification remains poorly described. This is surprising because the effect of exposure duration has played a central role ...

  18. Trial-dependent psychometric functions accounting for perceptual learning in 2-AFC discrimination tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, Florian; Cochrane, Aaron; Green, C Shawn

    2017-09-01

    The majority of theoretical models of learning consider learning to be a continuous function of experience. However, most perceptual learning studies use thresholds estimated by fitting psychometric functions to independent blocks, sometimes then fitting a parametric function to these block-wise estimated thresholds. Critically, such approaches tend to violate the basic principle that learning is continuous through time (e.g., by aggregating trials into large "blocks" for analysis that each assume stationarity, then fitting learning functions to these aggregated blocks). To address this discrepancy between base theory and analysis practice, here we instead propose fitting a parametric function to thresholds from each individual trial. In particular, we implemented a dynamic psychometric function whose parameters were allowed to change continuously with each trial, thus parameterizing nonstationarity. We fit the resulting continuous time parametric model to data from two different perceptual learning tasks. In nearly every case, the quality of the fits derived from the continuous time parametric model outperformed the fits derived from a nonparametric approach wherein separate psychometric functions were fit to blocks of trials. Because such a continuous trial-dependent model of perceptual learning also offers a number of additional advantages (e.g., the ability to extrapolate beyond the observed data; the ability to estimate performance on individual critical trials), we suggest that this technique would be a useful addition to each psychophysicist's analysis toolkit.

  19. Joint entropy for space and spatial frequency domains estimated from psychometric functions of achromatic discrimination.

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    Silveira, Vladímir de Aquino; Souza, Givago da Silva; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-01-01

    We used psychometric functions to estimate the joint entropy for space discrimination and spatial frequency discrimination. Space discrimination was taken as discrimination of spatial extent. Seven subjects were tested. Gábor functions comprising unidimensionalsinusoidal gratings (0.4, 2, and 10 cpd) and bidimensionalGaussian envelopes (1°) were used as reference stimuli. The experiment comprised the comparison between reference and test stimulithat differed in grating's spatial frequency or envelope's standard deviation. We tested 21 different envelope's standard deviations around the reference standard deviation to study spatial extent discrimination and 19 different grating's spatial frequencies around the reference spatial frequency to study spatial frequency discrimination. Two series of psychometric functions were obtained for 2%, 5%, 10%, and 100% stimulus contrast. The psychometric function data points for spatial extent discrimination or spatial frequency discrimination were fitted with Gaussian functions using the least square method, and the spatial extent and spatial frequency entropies were estimated from the standard deviation of these Gaussian functions. Then, joint entropy was obtained by multiplying the square root of space extent entropy times the spatial frequency entropy. We compared our results to the theoretical minimum for unidimensional Gábor functions, 1/4π or 0.0796. At low and intermediate spatial frequencies and high contrasts, joint entropy reached levels below the theoretical minimum, suggesting non-linear interactions between two or more visual mechanisms. We concluded that non-linear interactions of visual pathways, such as the M and P pathways, could explain joint entropy values below the theoretical minimum at low and intermediate spatial frequencies and high contrasts. These non-linear interactions might be at work at intermediate and high contrasts at all spatial frequencies once there was a substantial decrease in joint

  20. Paradoxical Psychometric Functions (“Swan Functions” are Explained by Dilution Masking in Four Stimulus Dimensions

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    Daniel H. Baker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The visual system dissects the retinal image into millions of local analyses along numerous visual dimensions. However, our perceptions of the world are not fragmentary, so further processes must be involved in stitching it all back together. Simply summing up the responses would not work because this would convey an increase in image contrast with an increase in the number of mechanisms stimulated. Here, we consider a generic model of signal combination and counter-suppression designed to address this problem. The model is derived and tested for simple stimulus pairings (e.g. A + B, but is readily extended over multiple analysers. The model can account for nonlinear contrast transduction, dilution masking, and signal combination at threshold and above. It also predicts nonmonotonic psychometric functions where sensitivity to signal A in the presence of pedestal B first declines with increasing signal strength (paradoxically dropping below 50% correct in two-interval forced choice, but then rises back up again, producing a contour that follows the wings and neck of a swan. We looked for and found these “swan” functions in four different stimulus dimensions (ocularity, space, orientation, and time, providing some support for our proposal.

  1. Psychometric Functions for Shortened Administrations of a Speech Recognition Approach Using Tri-Word Presentations and Phonemic Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Stanley A.; Gelfand, Jessica T.

    2012-01-01

    Method: Complete psychometric functions for phoneme and word recognition scores at 8 signal-to-noise ratios from -15 dB to 20 dB were generated for the first 10, 20, and 25, as well as all 50, three-word presentations of the Tri-Word or Computer Assisted Speech Recognition Assessment (CASRA) Test (Gelfand, 1998) based on the results of 12…

  2. Numerical exploration of the influence of neural noise on the psychometric function at low stimulation intensity levels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C M Gómez

    2008-12-01

    The relationship between stimulus intensity and the probability of detecting the presence of the stimulus is described by the psychometrical function. The probabilistic nature of this relationship is based on the stochastic behaviour of sensory neural channels and sensory networks involved in perceptual processing (Kiang 1968). This study tries to establish a continuum of variability across different levels of integration in the central nervous system. Once the opening and closing times of ionic channels was simulated, a threshold to the collective behaviour of voltage-gated ionic channels was imposed in order to generate the spike train of a single neuron. Afterwards, the trains of spikes of different neurons were added up, simulating the activity of a sensory nerve. By adding the activity due to the stimulus to the spontaneous neural behaviour, the psychometric function was simulated using a thresholding approach. The results can replicate the stochastic resonance phenomenon, but also open up the possibility that attentional phenomena can be mediated not only by increasing neural activity (bursting or oscillatory), but also by increasing noise at the neural level.

  3. Fitting model-based psychometric functions to simultaneity and temporal-order judgment data: MATLAB and R routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío; García-Pérez, Miguel A

    2013-12-01

    Research on temporal-order perception uses temporal-order judgment (TOJ) tasks or synchrony judgment (SJ) tasks in their binary SJ2 or ternary SJ3 variants. In all cases, two stimuli are presented with some temporal delay, and observers judge the order of presentation. Arbitrary psychometric functions are typically fitted to obtain performance measures such as sensitivity or the point of subjective simultaneity, but the parameters of these functions are uninterpretable. We describe routines in MATLAB and R that fit model-based functions whose parameters are interpretable in terms of the processes underlying temporal-order and simultaneity judgments and responses. These functions arise from an independent-channels model assuming arrival latencies with exponential distributions and a trichotomous decision space. Different routines fit data separately for SJ2, SJ3, and TOJ tasks, jointly for any two tasks, or also jointly for the three tasks (for common cases in which two or even the three tasks were used with the same stimuli and participants). Additional routines provide bootstrap p-values and confidence intervals for estimated parameters. A further routine is included that obtains performance measures from the fitted functions. An R package for Windows and source code of the MATLAB and R routines are available as Supplementary Files.

  4. ElevationSlope_SLOPE2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Bennington County 2012 2.0m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce...

  5. ElevationSlope_SLOPE1M2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Essex County 2005 1m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce change in...

  6. ElevationSlope_SLOPE1M2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Bennington Floodplain 2010 1m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce...

  7. ElevationSlope_SLOPE1M2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Bennington Floodplain 2007 1m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce...

  8. ElevationSlope_SLOPE1M2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Barre Montpelier 2009 1m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce...

  9. Slope Stability Analysis Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouajaj, Ahmed; Bahi, Lahcen; Ouadif, Latifa; Awa, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    An analysis of slope stability using Geographic Information System (GIS) is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on the calculation of the safety factor in 2D and 3D using ArcGis. Hovland's Method in 3D and 2D were used in the stability analysis of the slope located at the 34 kilometer point (K.P.34) on the highway in the North of Morocco connecting Tangier to Ksar Sghir. Results shows that the safety factors obtained in 3D are always higher than those obtained in 2D and the slope becomes unstable when the water table level is less than 1 m.

  10. SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS USING GIS

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    A. Bouajaj

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of slope stability using Geographic Information System (GIS is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on the calculation of the safety factor in 2D and 3D using ArcGis. Hovland's Method in 3D and 2D were used in the stability analysis of the slope located at the 34 kilometer point (K.P.34 on the highway in the North of Morocco connecting Tangier to Ksar Sghir. Results shows that the safety factors obtained in 3D are always higher than those obtained in 2D and the slope becomes unstable when the water table level is less than 1 m.

  11. A slippery directional slope: Individual differences in using slope as a directional cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Steven M; Newcombe, Nora S

    2014-05-01

    Navigators rely on many different types of cues to build representations of large-scale spaces. Sloped terrain is an important cue that has received recent attention in comparative and human spatial research. However, the studies to date have been unable to determine how directional slope information leads to more accurate spatial representations. Moreover, whereas some studies have shown that the inclusion of slope cues improves performance on spatial tasks across participants (Kelly, 2011; Restat, Steck, Mochnatzki, & Mallot, 2004), other research has suggested individual differences in the benefits of slope cues (Chai & Jacobs, 2010; Nardi, Newcombe, & Shipley, 2011). We sought to clarify the role of sloped terrain in improving the representation of large-scale environments. In Experiment 1, participants learned the layout of buildings in one of two desktop virtual environments: either a directionally sloped terrain or a completely flat one. Participants in the sloped environment outperformed those in the flat environment. However, participants used slope information as an additional cue, rather than as a preferred reference direction. In Experiment 2, the two virtual environments were again either flat or sloped, but we increased the complexity of the relations between the slope and the path. In this experiment, better performance in the sloped environment was only seen for participants with good self-reported senses of direction. Taken together, the studies show that slope provides useful information for building environmental representations in simple cases, but that individual differences emerge in more complex situations. We suggest that good and bad navigators use different navigational strategies.

  12. INFLUENCES OF SLOPE GRADIENT ON SOIL EROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青泉; 陈力; 李家春

    2001-01-01

    The main factors influencing soil erosion include the net rain excess, the water depth, the velocity, the shear stress of overland flows , and the erosion-resisting capacity of soil. The laws of these factors varying with the slope gradient were investigated by using the kinematic wave theory. Furthermore, the critical slope gradient of erosion was driven. The analysis shows that the critical slope gradient of soil erosion is dependent on grain size , soil bulk density , surface roughness, runoff length, net rain excess, and the friction coefficient of soil, etc. The critical slope gradient has been estimated theoretically with its range between 41. 5 °~ 50°.

  13. Fuzzy Logic System for Slope Stability Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to predict the stability of slopes using fuzzy logic system. GeoStudio, a commercially available software was used to compute safety factors for various designs of slope. The general formulation of the software could analyze slope stability using various methods of analysis i.e. Morgenstern-Price, Janbu, Bishop and Ordinary to calculate the safety factors. After analyzing, fuzzy logic was used to predict the slope stability. Fuzzy logic is based on natural language and conceptually easy to understand, flexible, tolerant of imprecise data and able to model nonlinear functions of arbitrary complexity. Several important parameters such as height of slope, unit weight of slope material, angle of slope, coefficient of cohesion and internal angle of friction were used as the input parameters, while the factor of safety was the output parameter. A model to test the stability of the slope was generated from the calculated data. This model presented a relationship between input parameters and stability of the slopes. Results showed that the prediction using fuzzy logic was accurate and close to the target data.

  14. Impact cratering on slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschauer, Johannes; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The majority of impact craters have circular outlines and axially symmetric morphologies. Deviation from crater circularity is caused by either target heterogeneity, a very oblique impact incidence, post-impact deformation, or by topography. Here, we investigate the effect of topography on crater formation and systematically study impact cratering processes on inclined hillsides up to 25° slope utilizing analogue experiments. A spring-driven air gun mounted in a vertical position shoots into three different types of granular bulk solids (two sorts of glass beads, quartz sand) to emulate impact cratering on slopes. In all, 170 experiments were conducted. The transient crater develops roughly symmetrically perpendicular to the slope plane, resulting in higher ejection angles uphill than downhill when measured with respect to a horizontal plane. Craters become increasingly elliptical with increasing slope angle. At slope angles close to angle of repose of the respective bulk solids, aspect ratios of the craters reach ∼1.7. Uphill-downhill cross sections become increasingly asymmetric, the depth-diameter ratio of the craters decreases, and the deepest point shifts downhill with increasing slope angle. Mass wasting is initiated both in the uphill and downhill sectors of the crater rim. For steep slopes the landslides that emanate from the uphill rim can overshoot the crater cavity and superpose the downhill crater rim in a narrow tongue. Mass wasting initiated at the downhill sector forms broader and shallower tongues and is triggered by the deposition of ejecta on the inclined slope. Our experiments help to explain asymmetric crater morphologies observed on asteroids such as Ceres, Vesta, Lutetia, and also on Mars.

  15. Psychometric functioning, socio-demographic variability of childhood maltreatment in the general population and its effects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Andrea; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Appel, Katja; Mahler, Jessie; Spitzer, Carsten; Wingenfeld, Katja; Barnow, Sven; Driessen, Martin; Freyberger, Harald J; Völzke, Henry; Grabe, Hans J

    2014-09-01

    Maltreatment of children is a major public-health and social-welfare problem but socio-demographic variability has received little attention. This work addresses such variability in a general population cohort and associations with depression. Analyses were based on the cross-sectional SHIP-LEGEND examination among 2265 adults (29-89 years). Childhood maltreatment was multi-dimensionally assessed with the German 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ): emotional neglect; emotional abuse; physical neglect; physical abuse; sexual abuse. Non-linear associations between CTQ responses and age were assessed with fractional polynomials and cubic splines. Scale properties were analysed with confirmatory factor analyses and item response models. Associations between childhood maltreatment domains and depression [Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)] were assessed. The majority (58.9%) reported events indicative of at least mild levels of childhood maltreatment. CTQ subscales showed characteristically different non-linear associations to age across the five studied domains, indicating methodological issues like recall bias and the influence of seminal events. Psychometric scale properties were acceptable to good for all subscales except for physical neglect. Associations to depression measures varied systematically across socio-demographic strata. We conclude that socio-demographic variability is a major issue when studying self-reported childhood maltreatment in a community sample. This needs to be taken into account for the study of associations to psychiatric key outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Gas hydrate dissociation structures in submarine slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidley, I.; Grozic, J.L.H. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Studies have suggested that gas hydrates may play a role in submarine slope failures. However, the mechanics surrounding such failures are poorly understood. This paper discussed experimental tests conducted on a small-scale physical model of submarine soils with hydrate inclusions. The laboratory tests investigated the effects of slope angle and depth of burial of the hydrate on gas escape structures and slope stability. Laponite was used to model the soils due to its ability to swell and produce a clear, colorless thixotropic gel when dispersed in water. An R-11 refrigerant was used to form hydrate layers and nodules. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the path of the fluid escape structures and the development of a subsequent slip plane caused by the dissociation of the R-11 hydrates. Slope angles of 5, 10, and 15 degrees were examined. Slopes were examined using high-resolution, high-speed imaging techniques. Hydrate placement and slope inclinations were varied in order to obtain stability data. Results of the study showed that slope angle influenced the direction of travel of the escaping gas, and that the depth of burial affected sensitivity to slope angle. Theoretical models developed from the experimental data have accurately mapped deformations and stress states during testing. Further research is being conducted to investigate the influence of the size, shape, and placement of the hydrates. 30 refs., 15 figs.

  17. Mild Slope Ligningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    Der gives en beskrivelse af forudsætningerne for Mild Slope ligningen, som kort fortalt kan benyttes til at beregne harmoniske, lineære bølger i områder med "små" gradienter på dybderne.......Der gives en beskrivelse af forudsætningerne for Mild Slope ligningen, som kort fortalt kan benyttes til at beregne harmoniske, lineære bølger i områder med "små" gradienter på dybderne....

  18. Slope stability monitoring from microseismic field using polarization methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Kolesnikov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of seismoacoustic emission (SAE associated with fracturing in zones of shear stress concentration shows that SAE signals are polarized along the stress direction. The proposed polarization methodology for monitoring of slope stability makes use of three-component recording of the microseismic field on a slope in order to pick the signals of slope processes by filtering and polarization analysis. Slope activity is indicated by rather strong roughly horizontal polarization of the respective portion of the field in the direction of slope dip. The methodology was tested in microseismic observations on a landslide slope in the Northern Tien-Shan (Kyrgyzstan.

  19. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Greenwood, J.R.; Achim, A.; Gardiner, B.A.; Nicoll, B.C.; Cammeraat, E.; Mickovski, S.B.; Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  20. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Norris; J.R. Greenwood; A. Achim; B.A. Gardiner; B.C. Nicoll; E. Cammeraat; S.B. Mickovski

    2008-01-01

    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  1. The Chukchi slope current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, W. Bryce; Pickart, Robert S.

    2017-04-01

    Using a collection of 46 shipboard hydrographic/velocity transects occupied across the shelfbreak and slope of the Chukchi Sea between 2002 and 2014, we have quantified the existence of a current transporting Pacific-origin water westward over the upper continental slope. It has been named the Chukchi slope current, which is believed to emanate from Barrow Canyon. The current is surface-intensified, order 50 km wide, and advects both summer and winter waters. It is not trapped to a particular isobath, but instead is reminiscent of a free jet. There is no significant variation in Pacific water transport with distance from Barrow Canyon. A potential vorticity analysis suggests that the flow is baroclinically unstable, consistent with the notion that it meanders. The current is present during all synoptic wind conditions, but increases in strength from summer to fall presumably due to the seasonal enhancement of the easterly winds in the region. Its transport increased over the 12-year period of data coverage, also likely in response to wind forcing. In the mean, the slope current transports 0.50 ± 0.07 Sv of Pacific water. This estimate allows us to construct a balanced mass budget of the Chukchi shelf inflows and outflows. Our study also confirms the existence of an eastward-flowing Chukchi shelfbreak jet transporting 0.10 ± 0.03 Sv of Pacific water towards Barrow Canyon.

  2. Slope constrained Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, J.; Sigmund, Ole

    1998-01-01

    pointwise bounds on the density slopes. A finite element discretization procedure is described, and a proof of convergence of finite element solutions to exact solutions is given, as well as numerical examples obtained by a continuation/SLP (sequential linear programming) method. The convergence proof...

  3. Stability analysis of the open-pit mine slope and the study on the incensement of the slope angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-xu(刘宝许); QIAO Lan(乔兰); LAI Xing-ping(来兴平)

    2004-01-01

    Based on the exploration of the engineering geology and the rock mechanics testing, limit equilibrium analysis method was adopted to calculate the stability of the Huogeqi Copper Mine slope, the results show that the original slope angle is too conservative and the slope have the potential of more preferable slope angle. In order to discuss the possibility of slope angle enhancement, sensitivity analysis of parameters related to limit state slope was made. Quantitatively determined angle value of the adding and the optimal slope angle was obtained. The study having performed showed that it is not only useful for the safety control of open-pit mine slope but also for the open-pit mine design for the similar geological condition.

  4. MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF COFFEE IN HIGH SLOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE SANTINATO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian coffee farming is carried out both on flat and steep lands. In flat areas, mechanized operations are intensive; however, in steep slope areas, certain mechanized operations cannot be performed, such as harvesting. Based on this, the industry has developed machinery to harvest coffee in areas with up to 30% slope. However, harvesters have their efficiency and operational performance influenced by land slope. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the operational performance and harvesting efficiency of a steep-slope harvester under different situations, using different speed settings. The experiment was carried out in the county of Santo Antônio do Amparo, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using five coffee stands with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% slope. Evaluations were performed with a self-propelled harvester (Electron, TDI®, Araguari, MG, Brazil at three rotation speeds (600, 800 and 1.000 rpm and two ground speeds (800 and 1.000 m h-1. The results showed the lower speed (800 m h-1 was suitable for 10% slope areas since the amount of fallen coffee berries. For areas of 20% slope, harvesting time was 21.6% longer than in flatter areas. Downtime varied from 10.66 to 29.18% total harvest due to a higher number of maneuvers.

  5. Wave run-up on sandbag slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamnoon Rasmeemasmuang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On occasions, sandbag revetments are temporarily applied to armour sandy beaches from erosion. Nevertheless, an empirical formula to determine the wave run -up height on sandbag slopes has not been available heretofore. In this study a wave run-up formula which considers the roughness of slope surfaces is proposed for the case of sandbag slopes. A series of laboratory experiments on the wave run -up on smooth slopes and sandbag slopes were conducted in a regular-wave flume, leading to the finding of empirical parameters for the formula. The proposed empirical formula is applicable to wave steepness ranging from 0.01 to 0.14 and to the thickness of placed sandbags relative to the wave height ranging from 0.17 to 3.0. The study shows that the wave run-up height computed by the formula for the sandbag slopes is 26-40% lower than that computed by the formula for the smooth slopes.

  6. Can C7 Slope Substitute the T1 slope? An Analysis Using Cervical Radiographs and Kinematic MRIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Koji; Buser, Zorica; Paholpak, Permsak; Seesumpun, Kittipong; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2017-08-01

    Retrospective analysis of consecutive 45 radiographs and 120 kinematic magnetic resonance images (kMRI) OBJECTIVE.: The aim was to assess the visibility of C7 and T1 endplates on radiographs, and to verify the correlation between C7 or T1 slope and cervical balance parameters using kMRI. Because the T1 slope is not always visible due to the anatomical interference, several studies have used C7 slope instead of T1. However, it is still unclear whether the C7 endplate is more visible on radiographs than T1, and if C7 slope has similarity with T1 slope. The endplate visibility was determined using weight-bearing radiography. Subsequently, using weight-bearing MR images, the C7 slope of upper and lower endplate, T1 slope, C1 inclination, C2 slope, atlas-dens interval (ADI), C2-C7 lordotic angle, cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA), cervical tilt, cranial tilt, neck tilt, thoracic inlet angle (TIA) were measured, for the analysis of correlation between three types of slopes and cervical balance parameters. 82% of the upper C7, and 18% of T1 endplate were clearly visible. The upper C7 endplate was significantly visible, whereas T1 endplate was significantly invisible (residual analysis, p < 0.01). Linear regression analysis showed correlation between the upper C7 slope and T1 slope (R = 0.818, p < 0.01) and, lower C7 slope and T1 slope (R = 0.840, p < 0.01). T1 slope significantly correlated with neck tilt, TIA, C2-C7 angle, cSVA, cervical and cranial tilt, but not with the C1 inclination, C2 slope and ADI. Upper and lower C7 slopes showed the close resemblance with T1 slope in terms of correlation with those parameters. Both, upper and lower C7 slope correlated strongly with T1 slope and showed similar relationship with cervical balance parameters as T1 slope. Therefore, C7 slope could potentially substitute T1 slope, especially upper C7 slope due to the good visibility. 3.

  7. Slope earthquake stability

    CERN Document Server

    Changwei, Yang; Jing, Lian; Wenying, Yu; Jianjing, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This book begins with the dynamic characteristics of the covering layerbedrock type slope, containing monitoring data of the seismic array, shaking table tests, numerical analysis and theoretical derivation. Then it focuses on the landslide mechanism and assessment method. It also proposes a model that assessing the hazard area based on the field investigations. Many questions, exercises and solutions are given. Researchers and engineers in the field of Geotechnical Engineering and Anti-seismic Engineering can benefit from it.

  8. ElevationSlope_SLOPE0p7M2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Rutland/GI Counties 2013 0.7m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce...

  9. ElevationSlope_SLOPE0p7M2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Windham County 2015 0.7m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce...

  10. ElevationSlope_SLOPE1p6M2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce...

  11. ElevationSlope_SLOPE1p6M2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce...

  12. ElevationSlope_SLOPE0p7M2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Eastern VT 2014 0.7m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce change in...

  13. ElevationSlope_SLOPE1p6M2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce...

  14. ElevationSlope_SLOPE3p2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): ( and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce change in elevation over the...

  15. ElevationSlope_SLOPE3p2M2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): ( and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce change in elevation over the...

  16. Slope Streaks in Terra Sabaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version This HiRISE image shows the rim of a crater in the region of Terra Sabaea in the northern hemisphere of Mars. The subimage (figure 1) is a close-up view of the crater rim revealing dark and light-toned slope streaks. Slope streak formation is among the few known processes currently active on Mars. While their mechanism of formation and triggering is debated, they are most commonly believed to form by downslope movement of extremely dry sand or very fine-grained dust in an almost fluidlike manner (analogous to a terrestrial snow avalanche) exposing darker underlying material. Other ideas include the triggering of slope streak formation by possible concentrations of near-surface ice or scouring of the surface by running water from aquifers intercepting slope faces, spring discharge (perhaps brines), and/or hydrothermal activity. Several of the slope streaks in the subimage, particularly the three longest darker streaks, show evidence that downslope movement is being diverted around obstacles such as large boulders. Several streaks also appear to originate at boulders or clumps of rocky material. In general, the slope streaks do not have large deposits of displaced material at their downslope ends and do not run out onto the crater floor suggesting that they have little reserve kinetic energy. The darkest slope streaks are youngest and can be seen to cross cut and superpose older and lighter-toned streaks. The lighter-toned streaks are believed to be dark streaks that have lightened with time as new dust is deposited on their surface. Observation Geometry Image PSP_001808_1875 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Dec-2006. The complete image is centered at 7.4 degrees latitude, 47.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 272.1 km (170.1 miles). At this distance the

  17. A Different Pitch to Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbert, William

    2017-01-01

    The query "When are we ever going to use this?" is easily answered when discussing the slope of a line. The pitch of a roof, the grade of a road, and stair stringers are three applications of slope that are used extensively. The concept of slope, which is introduced fairly early in the mathematics curriculum has hands-on applications…

  18. Comments on the slope function

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Minkyoo

    2016-01-01

    The exact slope function was first proposed in $SL(2)$ sector and generalized to $SU(2)$ sector later. In this note, we consider the slope function in $SU(1|1)$ sector of ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM. We derive the quantity through the method invented by N. Gromov and discuss about its validity. Further, we give comments on the slope function in deformed SYM.

  19. The effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z.; Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Hua, G.; Tao, X.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Beach slope changes the tidal induced saltwater-freshwater circulations in coastal aquifers. However, the effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater-freshwater mixing process is far from understood. Based on sand flume experiments and numerical simulations, we investigated the intrusion process of saltwater into freshwater under tidal forcing and variable beach slopes. The sand flume experiment results show that milder slope induces larger upper saline plume (USP) and seaward salt wedge interface (SWI) under tidal forcing. While, the steady state SWI keeps stagnant with different beach slopes. Consistent with the previous research, our numerical simulations also show a lager flux exchange across the milder beach induced by the tidal fluctuations. The groundwater table fluctuates more intensify with deeper beach slope. The next step of our study will pay attention to the effect of beach slope on the instability of USP which induces the salt-fingering flow.

  20. EXTENDED MILD-SLOPE EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄虎; 丁平兴; 吕秀红

    2001-01-01

    The Hamiltonian formalism for surface waves and the mild-slope approximation were empolyed in handling the case of slowly varying three-dimensional currents and an uneven bottom, thus leading to an extended mild-slope equation. The bottom topography consists of two components: the slowly varying component whose horizontal length scale is longer than the surface wave length, and the fast varying component with the amplitude being smaller than that of the surface wave. The frequency of the fast varying depth component is, however, comparable to that of the surface waves. The extended mild- slope equation is more widely applicable and contains as special cases famous mild-slope equations below: the classical mild-slope equation of Berkhoff , Kirby' s mild-slope equation with current, and Dingemans' s mild-slope equation for rippled bed. The extended shallow water equations for ambient currents and rapidly varying topography are also obtained.

  1. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  2. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  3. Dynamic Response and Dynamic Failure Mode of a Weak Intercalated Rock Slope Using a Shaking Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Gang; Zhang, Jianjing; Wu, Jinbiao; Yan, Kongming

    2016-08-01

    A large-scale shaking table test was performed to study the dynamic response of slopes parallel to geological bedding (bedding slopes) and slopes that cross-cut geological bedding (counter-bedding slopes). The test results show that the acceleration amplification coefficients increase with increasing elevation and, when the input earthquake amplitude is greater than 0.3 g, both bedding and counter-bedding slopes begin to show nonlinear dynamic response characteristics. With increasing elevation, the displacement of the bedding slope surface increases greatly. Conversely, the displacement of the counter-bedding slope surface increases first and then decreases; the slope develops a bulge at the relative elevation of 0.85. The displacement of the bedding slope surface is greater than that of the counter-bedding slope. The counter-bedding slope is more seismically stable compared with the bedding slope. Based on the Hilbert-Huang transform and marginal spectrum theories, the processes that develop dynamic damage of the bedding and counter-bedding slopes are identified. It is shown that the dynamic failure mode of the bedding slope is mainly represented by vertical tensile cracks at the rear of the slope, bedding slide of the strata along the weak intercalation, and rock collapse from the slope crest. However, the dynamic failure mode of the counter-bedding slope is mainly represented by staggered horizontal and vertical fissures, extrusion of the weak intercalation, and breakage at the slope crest.

  4. [Responses of plant functional traits and soil factors to slope aspect in alpine meadow of South Gansu, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min-Xi, Liu; Jian-Zu, Ma

    2012-12-01

    This paper studied the plant functional traits, soil factors, and their relationships at different slope aspects in the alpine meadow of South Gansu. On the sunny slope, grasses were the dominant functional groups; while on the shady slope, forbs and shrubs dominated. The plant community biomass was significantly higher on shady slope than on sunny slope, while the leaf N/P ratio was in adverse. The leaf phosphorus content, specific leaf area, and plant average height at different slope aspects were in the order of shady slope > partial shady slope > sunny slope, whereas the leaf nitrogen content on different slopes had less difference. The survival strategies of the vegetations on sunny and shady slopes had great changes, reflecting in the differences in the plant leaf traits and dominant functional groups. Soil temperature was in the order of sunny slope > partial shady slope > shady slope, while soil water content was in the order of shady slope > partial shady slope > sunny slope. Soil total phosphorus content increased from the sunny slope to the shady slope, while the other soil nutrients contents showed the sequence of shady slope > sunny slope > partial shady slope. The specific leaf area and plant average height were significantly positively correlated to the soil organic carbon, total phosphorous, and water contents, and significantly negatively correlated to soil pH. Soil water content and soil pH co-affected the distribution patterns of plant functional traits and soil nutrients at different slope aspects of alpine meadow.

  5. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  6. Mycorrhizal aspects in slope stabilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Frank

    2016-04-01

    In order to re-colonise and stabilise slopes affected by superficial soil failure with plants essential requirements have to be met: the plants must grow the plants must survive sustainably plant succession must start and continuously develop These requirements, however, are anything but easy given, particularly under the often hostile environmental conditions dominating on bare and steep slopes. Mycorrhizal fungi, the symbiotic partners of almost all plants used in eco-engineering, are said to improve the plants' ability to overcome periods governed by strongly (growth) limiting factors. Subsequently, results of investigations are presented of mycorrhizal effects on different plant and soil functions related to eco-engineering in general and soil and slope stabilisation in particular. Generally, inoculation yielded higher biomass of the host plants above as well as below ground. Furthermore, the survival rate was higher for mycorrhized compared to non-mycorrhized plants, particularly under extreme environmental conditions. However, the scale of the mycorrhizal impact may be species specific of both the plant host as well as the fungal partner(s) and often becomes evident only after a certain time lag. Depending on the plant-fungus combination the root length per soil volume was found to be between 0 and 2.5 times higher for inoculated compared to non-inoculated specimens. On an alpine graded ski slope the survival of inoculated compared to non-treated Salix herbacea cuttings was significant after one vegetation period only for one of the three added mycorrhizal fungus species. However, after three years all of the inoculated plantlets performed significantly better than the non-inoculated controls. The analysis of the potential for producing and stabilising soil aggregates of five different ectomycorrhizal fungi showed high variation and, for the species Inocybe lacera, no significant difference compared to untreated soil. Furthermore, inoculation of Salix

  7. Decision Guide for Roof Slope Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    This decision guide has been written for personnel who are responsible for the design, construction, and replacement of Air Force roofs. It provides the necessary information and analytical tools for making prudent and cost-effective decisions regarding the amount of slope to provide in various roofing situations. Because the expertise and experience of the decision makers will vary, the guide contains both basic slope-related concepts as well as more sophisticated technical data. This breadth of information enables the less experienced user to develop an understanding of roof slope issues before applying the more sophisticated analytical tools, while the experienced user can proceed directly to the technical sections. Although much of this guide is devoted to the analysis of costs, it is not a cost-estimating document. It does, however, provide the reader with the relative costs of a variety of roof slope options; and it shows how to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of different options. The selection of the proper roof slope coupled with good roof design, a quality installation, periodic inspection, and appropriate maintenance and repair will achieve the Air Force's objective of obtaining the best possible roofing value for its buildings.

  8. The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    conversion program. Our results show that SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention on rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings demonstrate that there exist heterogeneous effects of SLCP implementation on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower......By overcoming the barriers that limit access to financial liquidity and human resource, the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) can promote rural livelihood diversification. This paper examines this effect using a household survey data set spanning the 1999 implementation of the Sloping land...... income group was more affected by the program in terms of income diversification....

  9. New Insights into the Sedimentary Dynamics along Carbonate Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Marco; Betzler, Christian; Lindhorst, Sebastian; Lüdmann, Thomas; Eberli, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    Hydroacoustic, sedimentological and seismic data of the leeward slope of Great Bahama Bank and the windward slope of the adjacent Cay Sal Bank provide new insights into carbonate platform slope sedimentation. Our study focuses on the diversity and complexity of the slope morphologies and sedimentary patterns which characterize the youngest high-frequency sequence, forming since the Last Glacial Maximum. It is shown that both carbonate platform slopes are dissected by furrows, gullies and channels which are genetically not related. Along the windward slope of Cay Sal Bank, toe of slope erosion, in conjunction with the local tectonic regime is responsible for channel incisions. Our data show that these channels were active during the regression after the last interglacial highstand of sea level. During this regression, downwelling transported platform sediment downslope, which was redistributed along the slope by contour currents. It is also shown that large mass transport complexes at the leeward slope of Great Bahama Bank formed during the last sea level lowstand, probably triggered by the release of pore-water pressure. These MTC created a complex slope morphology of gullies and scarps. These gullies act as a point source by confining the exported platform sediments during the present day sea level highstand.

  10. Study of slope topple mechanism on belt express way around Jilin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aref M.O. Al-Jabali; Lei NIE; Shiwei SHEN

    2006-01-01

    The Slope Program is a complex problem, and the constructive mechanics is the emphasis and difficult point of the slope researching. The research on the slope constructive mechanics takes an important theory and experience role of the stability analysis and preventive methods. On the basis of the field survey of the overturn-slope on the Jilin Belt Highway, the authors analyzed its constructive mechanics, valuated its stability, and showed the treatments of the slope.

  11. Talus slope evolution under the influence of glaciers with the example of slopes near the Hans Glacier, SW Spitsbergen, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderak, Krzysztof; Kondracka, Marta; Gądek, Bogdan

    2017-05-01

    On Spitsbergen, which is 60% glaciated, talus slopes have frequently developed in interaction with glaciers, which had an influence on the evolution of the internal structure of slopes. This paper presents the results of geophysical surveys (electrical resistivity tomography - ERT and ground-penetrating radar - GPR) of the talus slopes near the Hans Glacier (SW Spitsbergen). The aim of investigations was to compare the talus slopes under the influence of glaciers in two different parts of the area in order to reveal differences in their internal structure. We assumed that different locations of talus slopes can have an influence on the slope structure, showing different stages of evolution of the talus slopes. The maximum thickness of studied slopes ranges from 20 m in a marginal zone of the glacier, to up to 35 m without contact with the glacier. Permafrost begins at a depth of 2-3 m and can develop until bedrock is reached. The internal structure of these talus slopes contains glacial ice, which is covered by a layer of slope material with a thickness from a few to up to 10 m. The buried glacial ice is slowly melting simultaneously with the deglaciation of the area but can remain in the structure of the talus slopes for much longer. Morphogenetic processes, such as avalanches, rockfalls, and debris flows are most visible until the glacial ice is completely melted within the internal structure of the slope. Based on the geophysical and geomorphological data, general models were proposed for the early stages of evolution of talus slopes in valleys under deglaciation.

  12. ElevationSlope_SLOPE1p6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m; Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m; Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and related SLOPE...

  13. Reorienting with terrain slope and landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Daniele; Newcombe, Nora S; Shipley, Thomas F

    2013-02-01

    Orientation (or reorientation) is the first step in navigation, because establishing a spatial frame of reference is essential for a sense of location and heading direction. Recent research on nonhuman animals has revealed that the vertical component of an environment provides an important source of spatial information, in both terrestrial and aquatic settings. Nonetheless, humans show large individual and sex differences in the ability to use terrain slope for reorientation. To understand why some participants--mainly women--exhibit a difficulty with slope, we tested reorientation in a richer environment than had been used previously, including both a tilted floor and a set of distinct objects that could be used as landmarks. This environment allowed for the use of two different strategies for solving the task, one based on directional cues (slope gradient) and one based on positional cues (landmarks). Overall, rather than using both cues, participants tended to focus on just one. Although men and women did not differ significantly in their encoding of or reliance on the two strategies, men showed greater confidence in solving the reorientation task. These facts suggest that one possible cause of the female difficulty with slope might be a generally lower spatial confidence during reorientation.

  14. Wave overtopping resistance of grassed dike slopes in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Luong, N.Q.; Verhagen, H.J.; Schiereck, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The resistance of various grassed slopes against wave overtopping has been appraised by means of the Wave Overtopping Simulator in situ for a couple of years in Viet Nam. Destructive test results show that a dike slope covered with grass could suffer a certain overtopping discharge not smaller than

  15. Wave overtopping resistance of grassed dike slopes in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Luong, N.Q.; Verhagen, H.J.; Schiereck, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The resistance of various grassed slopes against wave overtopping has been appraised by means of the Wave Overtopping Simulator in situ for a couple of years in Viet Nam. Destructive test results show that a dike slope covered with grass could suffer a certain overtopping discharge not smaller than

  16. A continuous seismic section across the continental slope off Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagaay, R.A.; Collette, B.J.

    1967-01-01

    Continuous seismic reflection data show that there are no unconsolidated sediments on the outer part of the Irish continental shelf west of Donegal Bay and on the upper part of the slope. Both the “basement” and the sediment cover on the lower part of the slope are heavily intersected, presumably by

  17. [Analysis of related factors of slope plant hyperspectral remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Tu, Lin-Ling

    2014-09-01

    In the present paper, the slope gradient, aspect, detection zenith angle and plant types were analyzed. In order to strengthen the theoretical discussion, the research was under laboratory condition, and modeled uniform slope for slope plant. Through experiments we found that these factors indeed have influence on plant hyperspectral remote sensing. When choosing slope gradient as the variate, the blade reflection first increases and then decreases as the slope gradient changes from 0° to 36°; When keeping other factors constant, and only detection zenith angle increasing from 0° to 60°, the spectral characteristic of slope plants do not change significantly in visible light band, but decreases gradually in near infrared band; With only slope aspect changing, when the dome meets the light direction, the blade reflectance gets maximum, and when the dome meets the backlit direction, the blade reflectance gets minimum, furthermore, setting the line of vertical intersection of incidence plane and the dome as an axis, the reflectance on the axis's both sides shows symmetric distribution; In addition, spectral curves of different plant types have a lot differences between each other, which means that the plant types also affect hyperspectral remote sensing results of slope plants. This research breaks through the limitations of the traditional vertical remote sensing data collection and uses the multi-angle and hyperspectral information to analyze spectral characteristics of slope plants. So this research has theoretical significance to the development of quantitative remote sensing, and has application value to the plant remote sensing monitoring.

  18. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  19. Deformation Mechanism and Stability of a Rocky Slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Runqiu; Xiao Huabo; Ju Nengpan; Zhao Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    A high slope is located on the side of the spillway at a hydropower station in Southwest China, which has some weak inter-layers inclining outwards. Parts of the slope show heavy weathering and unloading. There appeared deformation and tensile crack either on the surface or on the afteredge of the slope during excavation, and under a platform (elev. 488 m), two levels of slopes collapsed on the downriver side. Based on the investigation in situ and the analysis of the geological structure, the conceptual model of deformation and failure mechanism was erected for this slope. Furthermore, the deformation characteristics were studied with FLAC3D numerical simulation. Comprehensive analysis shows that the whole deformation of the slope is unloading rebound in certain depth scope and the whole body does not slide along any weak interlayer. In addition, two parts with prominent local deformation in the shallow layer of the slope show the models of "creep sliding-tensile cracking" and "sliding-tensile cracking", respectively. Based on the above analysis, the corresponding project of support and reinforcement is proposed to make the slope more stable.

  20. Measuring acoustic emissions in an avalanche slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiweger, Ingrid; Schweizer, Jürg

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of acoustic emissions are a common technique for monitoring damage and predicting imminent failure of a material. Within natural hazards it has already been used to successfully predict the break-off of a hanging glacier. To explore the applicability of the acoustic emission (AE) technique for avalanche prediction, we installed two acoustic sensors (with 30 kHz and 60 kHz resonance frequency) in an avalanche prone slope at the Mittelgrat in the Parsenn ski area above Davos, Switzerland. The slope is north-east facing, frequently wind loaded, and approximately 35° steep. The AE signals - in particular the event energy and waiting time distributions - were compared with slope stability. The latter was determined by observing avalanche activity. The results of two winter's measurements yielded that the exponent β of the inverse cumulative distribution of event energy showed a significant drop (from a value of 3.5 to roughly 2.5) at very unstable conditions, i.e. on the three days during our measurement periods when spontaneous avalanches released on our study slope.

  1. Improved Large-Scale Slope Analysis on Mars Based on Correlation of Slopes Derived with Different Baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wu, B.

    2017-07-01

    The surface slopes of planetary bodies are important factors for exploration missions, such as landing site selection and rover manoeuvre. Generally, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) such as those generated from the HiRISE images on Mars are preferred to generate detailed slopes with a better fidelity of terrain features. Unfortunately, high-resolution datasets normally only cover small area and are not always available. While lower resolution datasets, such as MOLA, provide global coverage of the Martian surface. Slopes generated from the low-resolution DEM will be based on a large baseline and be smoothed from the real situation. In order to carry out slope analysis at large scale on Martian surface based low-resolution data such as MOLA data, while alleviating the smoothness problem of slopes due to its low resolution, this paper presents an amplifying function of slopes derived from low-resolution DEMs based on the relationships between DEM resolutions and slopes. First, slope maps are derived from the HiRISE DEM (meter-level resolution DEM generated from HiRISE images) and a series of down-sampled HiRISE DEMs. The latter are used to simulate low-resolution DEMs. Then the high-resolution slope map is down- sampled to the same resolution with the slope map from the lower-resolution DEMs. Thus, a comparison can be conducted pixel-wise. For each pixel on the slope map derived from the lower-resolution DEM, it can reach the same value with the down-sampled HiRISE slope by multiplying an amplifying factor. Seven sets of HiRISE images with representative terrain types are used for correlation analysis. It shows that the relationship between the amplifying factors and the original MOLA slopes can be described by the exponential function. Verifications using other datasets show that after applying the proposed amplifying function, the updated slope maps give better representations of slopes on Martian surface compared with the original slopes.

  2. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  3. Dynamic and Static Combination Analysis Method of Slope Stability Analysis during Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of laboratory model tests for simulating the slope failure due to vibration, including unreinforced slope and the slope reinforced by using geotextile, show that the slope failure occurs when a cumulative plastic displacement exceeds a certain critical value. To overcome the defects of conventional stability analysis, which evaluates the slope characteristics only by its strength parameters, a numerical procedure considering the stiffness and deformation of materials and geosynthetics is proposed to evaluate the seismic slope stability. In the proposed procedure, the failure of slope is defined when the cumulative plastic displacement calculated by a dynamic response analysis using actual seismic wave exceeds the critical value of displacement estimated by a static stability analysis considering seismic coefficient. The proposed procedure is applied to the laboratory model tests and an actual failure of slope in earthquake. The case study shows the possibility that the proposed procedure gives the realistic evaluation of seismic slope stability.

  4. Integrating concepts and skills: Slope and kinematics graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Edward P., Jr.

    The concept of force is a foundational idea in physics. To predict the results of applying forces to objects, a student must be able to interpret data representing changes in distance, time, speed, and acceleration. Comprehension of kinematics concepts requires students to interpret motion graphs, where rates of change are represented as slopes of line segments. Studies have shown that majorities of students who show proficiency with mathematical concepts fail accurately to interpret motion graphs. The primary aim of this study was to examine how students apply their knowledge of slope when interpreting kinematics graphs. To answer the research questions a mixed methods research design, which included a survey and interviews, was adopted. Ninety eight (N=98) high school students completed surveys which were quantitatively analyzed along with qualitative information collected from interviews of students (N=15) and teachers ( N=2). The study showed that students who recalled methods for calculating slopes and speeds calculated slopes accurately, but calculated speeds inaccurately. When comparing the slopes and speeds, most students resorted to calculating instead of visual inspection. Most students recalled and applied memorized rules. Students who calculated slopes and speeds inaccurately failed to recall methods of calculating slopes and speeds, but when comparing speeds, these students connected the concepts of distance and time to the line segments and the rates of change they represented. This study's findings will likely help mathematics and science educators to better assist their students to apply their knowledge of the definition of slope and skills in kinematics concepts.

  5. Multi-factor sensitivity analysis of shallow unsaturated clay slope stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuoying Tan; Meifeng Cai

    2005-01-01

    An unsaturated clay slope, with various sloping angles and a thickness of 14 m, consists of backfill, slope soil and residual soil. Slide interfaces were determined by geophysical approaches and the original slope was reconstructed. Sub-slope masses were classified based on the varieties of sloping angle. A force recursive principle was proposed to calculate the stability coefficient of the sub-slope masses. The influencing factors such as sloping angle, water content, hydrostatic pressure, seismic force as well as train load were analyzed. The range and correlation of the above-mentioned factors were discussed and coupled wave equations were established to reflect the relationships between unit weight, cohesion, internal frictional angle, and water content, as well as between internal frictional angle and cohesion. The sensitivity analysis of slope stability was carried out and susceptive factors were determined when the factors were taken as independent and dependent variables respectively. The results show that sloping angle, water content and earthquake are the principal susceptive factors influencing slope stability. The impact of hydrostatic pressure on slope stability is similar to the seismic force in quantity. Train load plays a small role in slope stability and its influencing only reaches the roadbed and its neighboring slope segment. If the factors are taken as independent variables, the influencing extent of water content and cohesion on slope stability can be weakened and train load can be magnified.

  6. Slope stability hazard management systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Weather-related geo-hazards are a major concern for both natural slopes and man-made slopes and embankments.Government agencies and private companies are increasingly required to ensure that there is adequate protection of sloping surfaces in order that interaction with the climate does not produce instability. Superior theoretical formulations and computer tools are now available to address engineering design issues related to the near ground surface soil-atmospheric interactions. An example is given in this paper that illustrates the consequences of not paying adequate attention to the hazards of slope stability prior to the construction of a highway in South America. On the other hand, examples are given from Hong Kong and Mainland China where significant benefits are derived from putting in place a hazard slope stability management system. Some results from a hazard management slope stability study related to the railway system in Canada are also reported. The study took advantage of recent research on unsaturated soil behaviour and applied this information to real-time modelling of climatic conditions. The quantification of the water balance at the ground surface, and subsequent infiltration, is used as the primary tool for hazard level assessment. The suggested hazard model can be applied at either specific high risk locations or in a more general, broad-based manner over large areas. A more thorough understanding of unsaturated soil behaviour as it applies to near ground surface soils,along with the numerical computational power of the computer has made it possible for new approaches to be used in slope hazard management engineering.

  7. Seepage and slope stability modelling of rainfall-induced slope failures in topographic hollows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Prasad Acharya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on topographic hollows, their flow direction and flow accumulation characteristics, and highlights discharge of hillslope seepage so as to understand porewater pressure development phenomena in relation with slope failure in topographic hollows. For this purpose, a small catchment in Niihama city of Shikoku Island in western Japan, with a record of seven slope failures triggered by typhoon-caused heavy rainfall on 19–20 October 2004, was selected. After extensive fieldwork and computation of hydro-mechanical parameters in unsaturated and saturated conditions through a series of laboratory experiments, seepage and slope stability modellings of these slope failures were done in GeoStudio environment using the precipitation data of 19–20 October 2004. The results of seepage modelling showed that the porewater pressure was rapid transient in silty sand, and the maximum porewater pressure measured in an area close to the base of topographic hollows was found to be higher with bigger topographic hollows. Furthermore, a threshold relationship between the topographic hollow area and maximum porewater pressure in this study indicates that a topographic hollow of 1000 sq. m area can develop maximum porewater pressure of 1.253 kPa. However, the porewater pressures required to initiate slope instability in the upper part of the topographic hollows is relatively smaller than those in the lower part of the topographic hollows.

  8. Motion of rock masses on slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Petje

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the different ways of how rock masses (stones, rocks, and blocks move along slopes and for each different way of motion (free fall, bouncing, rolling, sliding, slowing down, lubrication, fluidizationadequatedynamicequationsaregiven.Knowingthe kinematics and dynamics of travelling rock masses is necessary for mathematical modeling of motion and by this an assessment of maximal possible rockfall runout distances as an example of a sudden and hazardeous natural phenomenon, threatening man and his property, especially in the natural environment.

  9. The effects of plant density of Melastoma malabathricum on the erosion rate of slope soil at different slope orientations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aimee Halim n; Osman Normaniza

    2015-01-01

    abstract Malaysia's cut slopes, especially for road lines accommodation, are prone to erosions and landslides. These problems mainly occur due to lack of vegetation cover and strong erosive forces. In addition, the topography factors have also become a major factor affecting soil degradation. Thus, this study is aimed at determining the effects of planting density of a selected species, namely Melastoma malabathricum;one, two, and three seedlings per box, on the erosion rate at selected slopes of different orientation (morning and evening sun) at the Guthrie Corridor Expressway, Selangor. In six months of observation, treatment with three seedlings/box on the morning sun slope showed a lower erosion rate by 69.2%than those with the same treatment on the evening sun slope. In addition, the treatment of the three seedlings recorded at month six (final observation) had the highest reduction of soil saturation level (STL), by 23.6%. Furthermore, the physiological values of the species studied, grown on the morning sun slope, were higher in terms of stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate by 12.1%and15.8%(three seedlings/box), respectively. The overall results showed that plant density was inversely related to the STL and erosion rate on the slope. In conclusion, a planting density of three seedlings/box and morning sun orientation gave positive effects on the plant's physiological performance of the slope, reducing the STL, as well as alleviating the erosion rate of slope soils.

  10. Effects of rainfall infiltration on deep slope failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the finite element method and the limit equilibrium method, a numerical model has been established for examining the effects of rainfall infiltration on the stability of slopes. This model is able to availably reflect the variations in pore pressure field in slopes, dead weight of soil, and the softening of soil strength caused by rainfall infiltration. As a case study, an actual landslide located at the Nongji Jixiao in Chongqing is studied to analyze the effects of rainfall infiltration on the seepage field and the slope stability. The simulated results show that a deep slope failure is prone to occur when rainfall infiltration will lead to a remarkable variation in the seepage field, in particular, for large range pore water pressure increase in slopes.

  11. Effects of rainfall infiltration on deep slope failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN JianPing; LIU QingQuan; LI JiaChun; AN Yi

    2009-01-01

    With the finite element method and the limit equilibrium method, a numerical model has been estab-lished for examining the effects of rainfall infiltration on the stability of slopes. This model is able to availably reflect the variations in pore pressure field in slopes, dead weight of soil, and the softening of soil strength caused by rainfall infiltration. As a case study, an actual landslide located at the Nongji Jixiao in Chongqing is studied to analyze the effects of rainfall infiltration on the seepage field and the slope stability. The simulated results show that a deep slope failure is prone to occur when rainfall infiltration will lead to a remarkable variation in the seepage field, in particular, for large range pore water pressure increase in slopes.

  12. Geosynthetic clay liners - slope stability field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, D.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Koerner, R.M. [Geosynthetic Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bonaparte, R. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A field research project was developed to examine the internal shear performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). Several combinations of cross sections were assembled using GCL materials that were available at the time of project initiation. The cross sections utilized were intended to simulate landfill cover applications. Thirteen (13) resulting test plots were constructed on two different slope angles, and each plot is instrumented for physical displacement and soil moisture characteristics. Test plots were constructed in a manner that dictated the shear plane in the clay portion of the GCL product. The project purpose is to assess field performance and to verify design parameters associated with the application of GCLs in waste containment applications. Interim research data shows that test slopes on 2H:1V show global deformation, but little internal shear evidence, and the 3H:1V slopes show little deformation at approximately 650 days. The research is ongoing, and this paper presents the most recent information available from the project.

  13. Area utilization efficiency of a sloping heliostat system for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L Y

    1983-02-15

    Area utilization efficiency (AUE) is formulated for a sloping heliostat system facing any direction. The effects of slope shading, incidence factor, sun shading, and tower blocking by the mirrors are all taken into account. Our results show that annually averaged AUEs calculated for heliostat systems (1) increase with tower height at low slope angles but less rapidly at high slopes, (2) increase monotonically with slope angle and saturate at large slopes for systems facing due south, (3) reach a maximum at a certain slope for systems facing other directions than due south, and (4) drop sharply at slopes greater than a certain value for systems facing due east or west due to slope shading effect. The results are useful for solar energy collection on nonflat terrains.

  14. Study of Slope Reinforcement Force Based on FLAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xian-wu; MAO xian-biao; MIAO Xie-xing; CHEN Zhan-qing

    2006-01-01

    A slope will slide if the unbalanced force does not tend to zero when the stability of the slope is analyzed with the help of FLAC. Thus the ultimate reason of slope sliding is the unbalanced force determined by FLAC. The slope will remain stable if the unbalanced force is counterbalanced by a reinforcement force which is produced by a suitable reinforcement method. In this paper, the stability of the slope was analyzed by using FLAC, and the unbalanced force of the slope was obtained through the FISH function in FLAC. According to the equilibrium conditions, the relationship between the reinforcement force and unbalanced force was derived and accordingly the reinforcement force was determined. The reinforcement design was adopted by using pre-stressed anchor bars on the basis of the reinforcement force. An example is used to show that the effect of slope reinforcement based on the reinforcement force is safe and economical. The method doesn't need to suppose a sliding surface to obtain the reinforcement force, and it is also clear in physical meaning. So this method realized the organic unification of the stability analysis and the slope reinforcement

  15. INFLUENCE OF LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI ON SLOPE STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoteusz Adam Zydroń

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of effect of the leaf area ratio on the results of slope stability calculation of one of the landslide's prone slope of in the Pogórze Wiśnickie was presented in the paper. The calculations were carried out in modules Vadose/W and SLOPE/W of package GeoStudio 2012. The calculations involved the integration of rainfall infiltration process and slope stability calculations. As a result, the calculations allow to determinate precipitation conditions (time and accumulated precipitation height causing slope failure (i.e. rainfall threshold. The calculation results showed significant impact of LAI on the results of modeling. It was revealed, that LAI values in range 1-3, corresponding to the grass vegetation, contribute in long-term to accumulation of precipitation within slope, which limits its retention ability when intense rainfalls occur. In turn, the leaf are index LAI = 5, corresponding to the coverage of trees, increase the retentive capacity of the soil, which resulting in delayed response of slope on rainfall with in comparison to an area covered with grass plants. It was also found significant impact of moisture content conditions on rainfall threshold. It was revealed that in case of analyzed slope threshold rainfall can be comprised from 90 mm to over 700 mm.

  16. ElevationSlope_SLOPE0p7M

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Windham County 2015 0.7m; Eastern VT 2014 0.7m; Rutland/GI Counties 2013 0.7m and related SLOPE datasets....

  17. Western Slope of Andes, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Along the western flank of the Andes, 400 km SE of Lima Peru, erosion has carved the mountain slopes into long, narrow serpentine ridges. The gently-sloping sediments have been turned into a plate of worms wiggling their way downhill to the ocean. The image was acquired September 28, 2004, covers an area of 38 x 31.6 km, and is located near 14.7 degrees south latitude, 74.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Artificial neural network based inverse design method for circular sliding slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁德馨; 张志军

    2004-01-01

    Current design method for circular sliding slopes is not so reasonable that it often results in slope sliding. As a result, artificial neural network (ANN) is used to establish an artificial neural network based inverse design method for circular sliding slopes. A sample set containing 21 successful circular sliding slopes excavated in the past is used to train the network. A test sample of 3 successful circular sliding slopes excavated in the past is used to test the trained network. The test results show that the ANN based inverse design method is valid and can be applied to the design of circular sliding slopes.

  19. Effect of slope height and horizontal forces on the bearing capacity of strip footings near slopes in cohesionless soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal......, and in such cases the bearing capacity of the footing cannot be found using the existing methods. The present work comprises finite element based upper- and lower-bound calculations, using the geotechnical software OptumG2 to investigate the effect of the slope height and horizontal forces on the total bearing...... capacity, both without and with using superposition as presupposed in the traditional bearing capacity equation. The results for friction angles 30, 35 and 40 degrees, slope inclinations 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, for selfweight and surcharge are given as charts showing the slope inclination factors suitable...

  20. The Alaska North Slope spill analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Leslie [Pearson Consulting LLC (United States)], email: pearson.consulting@mac.com; Robertson, Tim L.; DeCola, Elise [Nuka Research and Planning Group, LLC (United States)], email: timrobertson@nukaresearch.com, email: elise@nukaresearch.com; Rosen, Ira [Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (United States)], email: ira.rosen@alaska.gov

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports Alaska North Slope crude oil spills, provides information to help operators identify risks and presents recommendations for future risk reduction and mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency and severity of future spills from piping infrastructure integrity loss. The North Slope spills analysis project was conducted during 2010 by compiling available spill data, and analyzing the cause of past spills in wells and associated piping, flowlines, process centers with their associated piping and above ground storage tanks, and crude oil transmission pipelines. An expert panel, established to provide independent review of this analysis and the presented data, identified seven recommendations on measures, programs, and practices to monitor and address common causes of failures while considering information provided from regulators and operators. These recommendations must be evaluated by the State of Alaska which will consider implementation options to move forward. Based on the study observations, future analyses may show changes to some of the observed trends.

  1. Slope Morphology of Twin Peaks, Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Steven; Paine, Colin; Clarke, Jon; Caprarelli, Graziella

    2010-05-01

    Development of slope form over time has long been a concern of geomorphologists, although recently this concern has been moved to slope processes rather than form. There are two basic approaches. The first is theoretical, involving modeling of different types and rates of processes, and calculation of results in terms of slope evolution over time. Comparisons with real-life slopes can follow this approach [1], [2]. The second, inductive, approach involves field measurements to test ideas about slope evolution starting from the assumption that observed slopes represent different stages of an essentially similar evolution [3]. Space is substituted for time, and a number of slopes, assumed to be of increasing age, are measured and placed in an evolutionary sequence (e.g. [4], [5], [6]). [5] showed that slope angles are modally distributed, with the modal angles controlled by the materials (regolith) of which the slopes are formed, and by the processes operating on them. Data can be obtained directly from field work or from digital elevation models (DEM) derived from remote sensing investigations [7]. DEMs are particularly useful to study inaccessible planets, such as Mars, where on site observations are restricted to only a few landing sites. Here we present a study of slopes on the Twin Peaks, two small hills located 780 m north and 910 m south of the Mars Pathfinder landing site at the mouth of the Ares and Tiu flood channels. The presence of streamlined hills, jumbled surfaces and conglomerates suggested the region was modified by massive flooding 1.8 - 3.5 billion years ago [8], [9]. The streamlined forms and terraces of the Twin Peaks were taken to indicate catastrophic flood conditions that were believed to be prevalent in the area [8]. It was also suggested that the northernmost peak was topped by floodwater, causing its flatter appearance. Other researchers postulated alternative geomorphological origins for the features observed at the Pathfinder landing site

  2. Exploring Slope with Stairs & Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Toni M.; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan; Peixoto, Nathalia; Suh, Jennifer M.; Bagshaw, Graham; Collins, Laurena K.

    2013-01-01

    As much as ever before, mathematics teachers are searching for ways to connect mathematics to real-life scenarios within STEM contexts. As students develop skill in proportional reasoning, they examine graphical representations of linear functions, learn to associate "slope" with "steepness" and rate of change, and develop…

  3. Short-term vegetation recovery after a spring grassland fire in Lithuania. Effect of time and slope position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is study the effects of a grassland fire in vegetation recuperation according to fire severity, slope exposition and position. We designed two experimental plots, one located in an east faced slope (Slope A and other in a west faced (Slope B. Vegetation recuperation was assessed 10, 17, 31 and 46 days after the fire. The results showed that fire severity was higher in slope B, than in slope A. In both slopes vegetation recuperation was different according position. Bottom positions recovered faster than slope and upslope positions, that it is attributed to fire severity (higher in slope and upslope areas and ash and soil transport and deposition in bottom areas. The vegetation recuperated faster in slope B and 46 days after the fire, 100% of the plot was covered. This was attributed to higher severity, more complex topography, and inclination of Slope A, that delayed the vegetation recover.

  4. Slope Deformation Prediction Based on Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei JIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper principally studies the prediction of slope deformation based on Support Vector Machine (SVM. In the prediction process,explore how to reconstruct the phase space. The geological body’s displacement data obtained from chaotic time series are used as SVM’s training samples. Slope displacement caused by multivariable coupling is predicted by means of single variable. Results show that this model is of high fitting accuracy and generalization, and provides reference for deformation prediction in slope engineering.

  5. Numerical simulation of roadbed slope under seismic action in permafrost regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingYu Liu; JianKun Liu; ZhongQin Su; Li Liu; Min Xie

    2013-01-01

    The deformation and strength characteristics of roadbed slope under seismic loading in permafrost regions are simulated numerically. The seismic response of roadbed at different positions and inclinations of a slope section was analyzed. Results show that, roadbed slope damage is mainly led by lateral displacement, and the deformation gradually decreases with increasing depth;roadbed and foundation displacement and plastic strain increases with the magnitude of slope angle, hence the roadbed safety factor will be reduced.

  6. Research on the slope spectrum of the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new concept dealing with digital analysis of loess terrain,slope spectrum,is presented and discussed in this paper,by introducing its characteristic,represen-tation and extracting method from DEMs. Using 48 geomorphological units in dif-ferent parts of the loess as test areas and 5 m-resolution DEMs as original test data,the quantitative depiction and spatial distribution of slope spectrum in China’s Loess Plateau have been studied on the basis of a series of carefully-designed experiments. In addition,initial experiment indicates a strong relationship between the slope spectrum and the loess landform types,displaying a potential importance of the slope spectrum in geomorphological studies. Based on the slope spectrums derived from the 25 m-resolution DEM data in whole loess terrain in northern part of Shaanxi,13 slope spectrum indices were extracted and integrated into a compre-hensive layer with image integration method. Based on that,a series of unsuper-vised classifications was applied in order to make a landform classification in northern Shaanxi Loess Plateau. Experimental results show that the slope spec-trum analysis is an effective method in revealing the macro landform features. A continuous change of slope spectrum from south to north in northern Shaanxi Loess Plateau shows an obvious spatial distribution of different loess landforms. This also proves the great significance of the slope spectrum method in describing the terrain roughness and landform evolution as well as a further understanding on landform genesis and spatial distribution rule of different landforms in the Loess Plateau.

  7. Biomechanics and Physiology for Propelling Wheelchair Uphill Slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Tsutomu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Lee, Hokyoo; Ueda, Hisatoshi; Yoneda, Ikuo; Booka, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    A vertical slope of sidewalks significantly inhibits to the mobility of manual wheelchair users in their daily life. International guidelines of the vertical slope are specified approximately 4% or 5% (1:20) gradient or less as preferred, and allow 8.3% (1:12) as its maximum when it is impossible. Relevant research of the physical strain for wheelchair users with pushing on slopes, and the validity assessment of slope guidelines have been investigated. However, the analysis for the effect of a slope distance and their transient performance are still remained. The purpose of this study is to clarify the physiological and biomechanical characteristics of manual wheelchair users that propelling a wheelchair on an uphill slope. We measured these data by a metabolic analysis system, a heart rate monitor system and an instrumented wheelchair wheel. Sixteen unimpaired subjects (non-wheelchair users) were examined to investigate the effect of a long slope with 120m distance and 8% gradient. And five wheelchair users with cervical cord injury were examined to evaluate the influence of different gradients (5%, 6.7%, 8.3%, 10% and 12.5%) with 3m length in laboratory. Our experimental results of the long slope showed that wheelchair propulsion velocity and power increased considerably at the beginning of the slope where the peak mean value of them were 0.96 m/s and 70.8W and they decreased linearly to 0.55m/s and 33.6W at final interval. A mean oxygen uptake and heart rate were increased as the distance increased and their results indicated the extremely high exercise intensity at a final interval that were 1.2liter /min and 152bpm. While wheelchair pushing cadence reduced after an initial interval, mean of strokes per10m increased to compensate the decrease of upper limb's power. The results of different gradients indicated that the normalized power of subjects with cervical cord injury was significant difference between each subject in the ability to climb a slope. Mean

  8. The influence of slope on Spartium junceum root system: morphological, anatomical and biomechanical adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Fabio; Scippa, G S; Lasserre, B; Montagnoli, A; Tognetti, R; Marchetti, M; Chiatante, D

    2017-05-01

    Root systems have a pivotal role in plant anchorage and their mechanical interactions with the soil may contribute to soil reinforcement and stabilization of slide-prone slopes. In order to understand the responses of root system to mechanical stress induced by slope, samples of Spartium junceum L., growing in slope and in plane natural conditions, were compared in their morphology, biomechanical properties and anatomical features. Soils sampled in slope and plane revealed similar characteristics, with the exception of organic matter content and penetrometer resistance, both higher in slope. Slope significantly influenced root morphology and in particular the distribution of lateral roots along the soil depth. Indeed, first-order lateral roots of plants growing on slope condition showed an asymmetric distribution between up- and down-slope. Contrarily, this asymmetric distribution was not observed in plants growing in plane. The tensile strength was higher in lateral roots growing up-slope and in plane conditions than in those growing down-slope. Anatomical investigations revealed that, while roots grown up-slope had higher area covered by xylem fibers, the ratio of xylem and phloem fibers to root diameter did not differ among the three conditions, as also, no differences were found for xylem fiber cell wall thickness. Roots growing up-slope were the main contributors to anchorage properties, which included higher strength and higher number of fibers in the xylematic tissues. Results suggested that a combination of root-specific morphological, anatomical and biomechanical traits, determines anchorage functions in slope conditions.

  9. Lacustrine Basin Slope Break — A New Domain of Strata and Lithological Trap Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYingmin; LiuHao; XinRenchen; JinWudi; WangYuan; LiWeiguo

    2004-01-01

    Based on the studies of the Songliao Basin characterized by Cretaceous down-warping, of the Jurassic compressional flexural Junggar basin and of the Bohai Bay Basin characterized by Paleogene rifting, the multiple-grades slope break has developed in lacustrine basins of different origins. Their genetic types can be divided into tectonic slope break, depositional slope break and erodent slope break. The dominant agent of the slope break is tectogenesis, and the scale of slope breaks relates with the size of tectogenesis. The results of the study show that control of mutual grades slope breaks on atectonic traps mainly represent: 1) Atectonic traps develop close to mutual grades slope breaks, with beads-shaped distribution along the slope breaks. 2) In the longitudinal direction, the development of atectonic traps is characterized by the inheritance. 3) Different slope breaks and their different geographical positions can lead to different development types of atectonic traps. 4) A slope break can form different kinds of atectonic traps because of its great lateral variation. 5) The existence of mutual-grade slope breaks leads to different responses of erosion and deposition at different geographical positions in the basin. The oil source bed, reservoir and cap rock combination of atectonic traps is fine. 6) The oil-bearing condition of atectonic traps controlled by slope breaks is very favorable.

  10. Influence of soil physical properties and vegetation coverage at different slope aspects in a reclaimed dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian; Bai, Zhongke; Cao, Yingui; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jinman

    2017-09-05

    Vegetation coverage is an important parameter for affecting soil erosion and the physical and chemical properties of soil. To analyze the mutual influence between vegetation coverage and soil quality at different slope aspects in a reclaimed dump, fitting analyses were built between the normalized difference vegetation index and soil physical properties at each slope aspect. Twenty six quadrats were sampled in slope-platform alternate mode. Each quadrat was 10 m × 10 m. Vegetation index and soil physical properties were measured and calculated. Through curve fitting analysis, the results showed that soil bulk density has a negative correlation with the vegetation index on shady and half shady slopes, sunny slopes, and half sunny slopes. Soil porosity has a positive correlation with the vegetation index on shady and half shady slopes, sunny slope, and half sunny slope. The soil mass water content has a concave function relationship with the vegetation index on shady and half shady slopes and has a quadratic function relationship with the vegetation index on sunny and half sunny slopes, with the parabola moving upwards. The soil gravel content has a linear relationship with the vegetation index on shady and half shady slopes, and the image has a negative slope with a quadratic function relationship to the vegetation index on sunny slope and half sunny slope, with the parabola moving downwards. Due to differences among hydrothermal conditions, the relationship between vegetation coverage and soil quality indicators at different slope aspects is different; therefore, reasonable improvement of soil quality indicators on sunny and half sunny slopes could help plants to grow. These findings feed into a reference document that sets out how vegetation and soil quality may be improved in mining areas.

  11. THE EQUIVALENT SLOPE - A NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATING SOIL LOSS FROM IRREGULAR SLOPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoguang ZHAO; Hui SHI; Ming'an SHAO

    2004-01-01

    The slopes in field conditions are always irregular, but the supposed uniform slopes are used in most erosion models. Some studies used several uniform slopes to approximate an irregular slope for estimating soil erosion. This approximation is both time-consuming and weak in physical insights. In this paper, the concept of equivalent slope is presented based on that runoff potential on uniform slope is equal to that of irregular slope, and the equivalent uniform slope is used to estimate soil erosion instead of the irregular slopes. The estimated results of slope-length factors for convex and concave slopes are consistent with those from the method of Foster and Wischmeier.The experiments in the southern part of the Loess Plateau in China confirmed the applicability of the present method. The method is simple and has, to some extent, clear physical meanings, and is applicable for estimating soil erosion from irregular slopes.

  12. Psychometric Function Reconstruction from Adaptive Tracking Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-29

    reduced variability and length of the track can be shown by the use of the "sweat factor" defined by Taylor and Creelman (1967). This is a measure of...Psychophysics, 35, 385-392. Taylor, M. M., and Creelman , C. D. (1967). PEST: Efficient estimates on probability functions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of

  13. The sloping land conversion program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen; Lan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Through addressing the motivations behind rural households’ livelihood diversification, this paper examines the effect of the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) on livelihood diversification using a longitudinal household survey data set spanning the overall implementation of the SLCP. Our...... results show that the SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention to increase rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the implementation of the SLCP has had heterogeneous effects on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower...... income group was more affected by the program in terms of income diversification....

  14. Mass movement slope streaks imaged by the Mars Orbiter Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Veverka, Joseph; Malin, Michael; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-10-01

    Narrow, fan-shaped dark streaks on steep Martian slopes were originally observed in Viking Orbiter images, but a definitive explanation was not possible because of resolution limitations. Pictures acquired by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft show innumerable examples of dark slope streaks distributed widely, but not uniformly, across the brighter equatorial regions, as well as individual details of these features that were not visible in Viking Orbiter data. Dark slope streaks (as well as much rarer bright slope streaks) represent one of the most widespread and easily recognized styles of mass movement currently affecting the Martian surface. New dark streaks have formed since Viking and even during the MGS mission, confirming earlier suppositions that higher contrast dark streaks are younger, and fade (brighten) with time. The darkest slope streaks represent ~10% contrast with surrounding slope materials. No small outcrops supplying dark material (or bright material, for bright streaks) have been found at streak apexes. Digitate downslope ends indicate slope streak formation involves a ground-hugging flow subject to deflection by minor topographic obstacles. The model we favor explains most dark slope streaks as scars from dust avalanches following oversteepening of air fall deposits. This process is analogous to terrestrial avalanches of oversteepened dry, loose snow which produce shallow avalanche scars with similar morphologies. Low angles of internal friction typically 10-30¡ for terrestrial loess and clay materials suggest that mass movement of (low-cohesion) Martian dusty air fall is possible on a wide range of gradients. Martian gravity, presumed low density of the air fall deposits, and thin (unresolved by MOC) failed layer depths imply extremely low cohesive strength at time of failure, consistent with expectations for an air fall deposit of dust particles. As speed increases during a dust avalanche, a

  15. Dynamic characteristics and simulation of traffic flow with slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Hong-Di; Lu Wei-Zhen; Xue Yu; Dong Li-Yun

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new traffic model to describe traffic flow with slope under consideration of the gravity effect. Based on the model, stability analysis is conducted and a numerical simulation is performed to explore the characteristics of the traffic flow with slope. The result shows that the perturbation of the system is an inherent one,which is induced by the slope. In addition, the hysteresis loop is represented through plotting the figure of velocity against headway and highly depends on the slope angle. The kinematic wave at high density is also obtained through reproducing the phenomenon of stop-and-go traffic, which is significant to explore the phase transition of traffic flow and the evolution of traffic congestion.

  16. Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, W.Z.

    1994-01-01

    An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.

  17. VT Lidar Slope (1 meter) - 2005 - Essex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Essex County 2005 1m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command...

  18. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection, i.e. selecting the slope with rank k among all 􀀀n 2lines induced by a collection P of points, results in a widely used robust estimator for linefitting. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(n·log2 n) time using only...

  19. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection, i.e. selecting the slope with rank k among all 􀀀n 2lines induced by a collection P of points, results in a widely used robust estimator for linefitting. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(n·log2 n) time using only...

  20. The Impact of Vegetative Slope on Water Flow and Pollutant Transport through Embankments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liting Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Embankments are common structures along rivers or lakes in riparian zones in plain areas. They should have natural slopes instead of slopes covered by concrete or other hard materials, in order to rebuild sustainable ecosystems for riparian zones. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetative slopes on water flow and pollutant transport through the embankments. Three embankments with different slope treatments (a bare slope, a slope covered in centipede grass, a slope covered in tall fescue were examined, and three inflow applications of pollute water with different concentration of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP used to simulate different agricultural non-point pollution levels. The results showed that the water flux rates of the three embankments were relatively stable under all inflow events, and almost all values were higher than 80%. The embankments with vegetative slopes had better nitrogen removal than the bare slope under all events, and the one with tall fescue slope was best, but the benefits of vegetative slopes decreased with increasing inflow concentration. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the embankments on phosphorus removal, for which the reductions were all high (above 90% with most loads remaining in the front third of embankment bodies. Overall, the embankments with vegetative slopes had positive effects on water exchange and reducing non-point pollutant into lake or river water, which provides a quantitative scientific basis for the actual layout of lakeshores.

  1. Effect of Different Groundwater Levels on Seismic Dynamic Response and Failure Mode of Sandy Slope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Huang

    Full Text Available Heavy seismic damage tends to occur in slopes when groundwater is present. The main objectives of this paper are to determine the dynamic response and failure mode of sandy slope subjected simultaneously to seismic forces and variable groundwater conditions. This paper applies the finite element method, which is a fast and efficient design tool in modern engineering analysis, to evaluate dynamic response of the slope subjected simultaneously to seismic forces and variable groundwater conditions. Shaking table test is conducted to analyze the failure mode and verify the accuracy of the finite element method results. The research results show that dynamic response values of the slope have different variation rules under near and far field earthquakes. And the damage location and pattern of the slope are different in varying groundwater conditions. The destruction starts at the top of the slope when the slope is in no groundwater, which shows that the slope appears obvious whipping effect under the earthquake. The destruction starts at the toe of the slope when the slope is in the high groundwater levels. Meanwhile, the top of the slope shows obvious seismic subsidence phenomenon after earthquake. Furthermore, the existence of the groundwater has a certain effect of damping.

  2. Effect of Different Groundwater Levels on Seismic Dynamic Response and Failure Mode of Sandy Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Lv, Yuejun; Peng, Yanju; Zhang, Lifang; Xiu, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Heavy seismic damage tends to occur in slopes when groundwater is present. The main objectives of this paper are to determine the dynamic response and failure mode of sandy slope subjected simultaneously to seismic forces and variable groundwater conditions. This paper applies the finite element method, which is a fast and efficient design tool in modern engineering analysis, to evaluate dynamic response of the slope subjected simultaneously to seismic forces and variable groundwater conditions. Shaking table test is conducted to analyze the failure mode and verify the accuracy of the finite element method results. The research results show that dynamic response values of the slope have different variation rules under near and far field earthquakes. And the damage location and pattern of the slope are different in varying groundwater conditions. The destruction starts at the top of the slope when the slope is in no groundwater, which shows that the slope appears obvious whipping effect under the earthquake. The destruction starts at the toe of the slope when the slope is in the high groundwater levels. Meanwhile, the top of the slope shows obvious seismic subsidence phenomenon after earthquake. Furthermore, the existence of the groundwater has a certain effect of damping. PMID:26560103

  3. Effect of Different Groundwater Levels on Seismic Dynamic Response and Failure Mode of Sandy Slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Lv, Yuejun; Peng, Yanju; Zhang, Lifang; Xiu, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Heavy seismic damage tends to occur in slopes when groundwater is present. The main objectives of this paper are to determine the dynamic response and failure mode of sandy slope subjected simultaneously to seismic forces and variable groundwater conditions. This paper applies the finite element method, which is a fast and efficient design tool in modern engineering analysis, to evaluate dynamic response of the slope subjected simultaneously to seismic forces and variable groundwater conditions. Shaking table test is conducted to analyze the failure mode and verify the accuracy of the finite element method results. The research results show that dynamic response values of the slope have different variation rules under near and far field earthquakes. And the damage location and pattern of the slope are different in varying groundwater conditions. The destruction starts at the top of the slope when the slope is in no groundwater, which shows that the slope appears obvious whipping effect under the earthquake. The destruction starts at the toe of the slope when the slope is in the high groundwater levels. Meanwhile, the top of the slope shows obvious seismic subsidence phenomenon after earthquake. Furthermore, the existence of the groundwater has a certain effect of damping.

  4. Optimum Design of Highway Excavation Slope Angle: Evidence from Dawu Section of Jingzhu Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The optimum design of the highway excavation slope angle is one of the most important problems to the highway construction and to the slope improvement. The Dawu Section of Jingzhu (Beijing-Zhuhai) Highway is taken as an example to illustrate the study method for excavation slope angle design.The analysis of the engineering condition from different angles with different factors shows that the stability of the slope is calculated by using residual pushing force and the Sarma method. Then the sensitive analysis of the slope stability is conducted by using residual pushing force method. Finally, the optimum angle of design is presented on the precondition of ensuring the whole stability of slope and the economic reasonability. The study results show that the most sensitive factors are the shear strength parameter and t he seismic force, and that the optimum excavation slope angle is 60°.``

  5. Estimating significances of differences between slopes: A new methodology and software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco M. N. C. S. Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the significance of slope differences is a common requirement in studies of self-thinning, ontogeny and sexual dimorphism, among others. This has long been carried out testing for the overlap of the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of the slopes. However, the numerical random re-sampling with repetition favours the occurrence of re-combinations yielding largely diverging slopes, widening the confidence intervals and thus increasing the chances of overlooking significant differences. To overcome this problem a permutation test simulating the null hypothesis of no differences between slopes is proposed. This new methodology, when applied both to artificial and factual data, showed an enhanced ability to differentiate slopes.

  6. Slope evolution of GRB correlations and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Piedipalumbo, Ester; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Gamma -ray bursts (GRBs) observed up to redshifts $z>9.4$ can be used as possible probes to test cosmological models. Here we show how changes of the slope of the {\\it luminosity $L^*_X$ -break time $T^*_a$} correlation in GRB afterglows, hereafter the LT correlation, affect the determination of the cosmological parameters. With a simulated data set of 101 GRBs with a central value of the correlation slope that differs on the intrinsic one by a $5\\sigma$ factor, we find an overstimated value of the matter density parameter, $\\Omega_M$, compared to the value obtained with SNe Ia, while the Hubble constant, $H_0$, best fit value is still compatible in 1$\\sigma$ compared to other probes. We show that this compatibility of $H_0$ is due to the large intrinsic scatter associated with the simulated sample. Instead, if we consider a subsample of high luminous GRBs ($HighL$), we find that both the evaluation of $H_0$ and $\\Omega_M$ are not more compatible in 1$\\sigma$ and $\\Omega_M$ is underestimated by the $13\\%$. Ho...

  7. Examination of slope design parameters and slope performance in some gneisses in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayetey, J. K.

    Relict joint properties are studied. Their influence on the weathered rock mass is examined in the different parts of the profile. A slope in a typical profile is monitored for 13 years and evidence is led to show that different parts of the profile have their engineering properties relevant to slope design, modified over the years. It is suggested that in the tropics where weathering is intensive and fast the engineering properties obtained at the time of site investigation would lead to over design or under design if not modified depending on whether the material concerned is self-stabilising as in some parts of the laterite horizon or decreases in strength as in the saprolite.

  8. Research on the Slope Protection Mechanism of Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the slope protection mechanism of roots. In ecological slope protection, plant roots can fix soil and protect slop through biological and mechanical action. However, previous studies on the slope protection mechanism are still not deep enough and inadequate. By taking four kinds of typical plant roots along Wu-Shen Expressway as the research object, through the indoor tensile test and root morphology observation analysis, the tensile strength and ultimate tension were studied and the influence to the stability of the slope was discussed in this study. The results show that the mean ultimate tension of roots is 7.19~29.96 N. The mean tension of shrub roots is 2~4 times greater than that of herb roots. The ultimate tension of the same plant roots increases with the diameter significantly. To the range of improvement, Shrub roots exceed herb ones. It also indicates that the mean tensile strength of roots are 24.48~74.25 MPa. Compared with the steel HRB235, the tensile strength of herb roots is as great as 1/5~1/3, while Shrub roots is about 1/10~1/5. The slope stability coefficient with plant growing is a positive correlation with roots tension and root number through the sliding surface and is a negative correlation with plants weight. In addition, the slope stability coefficient is related to plant density and root morphology. The test results demonstrate that the roots tension with acute angle or right angle to the landslide surface and the roots shear stiffness with obtuse angle can improve the performance of slope’s anti-slide. Four kinds of plants can improve the stability coefficient of shallow soil. As for the slope protection effect, herbage is superior to shrub. In general, grass-shrub mixed community is the ideal system for slope protection.

  9. Geospatial Data Integration for Assessing Landslide Hazard on Engineered Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P. E.; Mills, J. P.; Barr, S. L.; Birkinshaw, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    Road and rail networks are essential components of national infrastructures, underpinning the economy, and facilitating the mobility of goods and the human workforce. Earthwork slopes such as cuttings and embankments are primary components, and their reliability is of fundamental importance. However, instability and failure can occur, through processes such as landslides. Monitoring the condition of earthworks is a costly and continuous process for network operators, and currently, geospatial data is largely underutilised. The research presented here addresses this by combining airborne laser scanning and multispectral aerial imagery to develop a methodology for assessing landslide hazard. This is based on the extraction of key slope stability variables from the remotely sensed data. The methodology is implemented through numerical modelling, which is parameterised with the slope stability information, simulated climate conditions, and geotechnical properties. This allows determination of slope stability (expressed through the factor of safety) for a range of simulated scenarios. Regression analysis is then performed in order to develop a functional model relating slope stability to the input variables. The remotely sensed raster datasets are robustly re-sampled to two-dimensional cross-sections to facilitate meaningful interpretation of slope behaviour and mapping of landslide hazard. Results are stored in a geodatabase for spatial analysis within a GIS environment. For a test site located in England, UK, results have shown the utility of the approach in deriving practical hazard assessment information. Outcomes were compared to the network operator's hazard grading data, and show general agreement. The utility of the slope information was also assessed with respect to auto-population of slope geometry, and found to deliver significant improvements over the network operator's existing field-based approaches.

  10. Reliability analysis method for slope stability based on sample weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-gang YANG

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The single safety factor criteria for slope stability evaluation, derived from the rigid limit equilibrium method or finite element method (FEM, may not include some important information, especially for steep slopes with complex geological conditions. This paper presents a new reliability method that uses sample weight analysis. Based on the distribution characteristics of random variables, the minimal sample size of every random variable is extracted according to a small sample t-distribution under a certain expected value, and the weight coefficient of each extracted sample is considered to be its contribution to the random variables. Then, the weight coefficients of the random sample combinations are determined using the Bayes formula, and different sample combinations are taken as the input for slope stability analysis. According to one-to-one mapping between the input sample combination and the output safety coefficient, the reliability index of slope stability can be obtained with the multiplication principle. Slope stability analysis of the left bank of the Baihetan Project is used as an example, and the analysis results show that the present method is reasonable and practicable for the reliability analysis of steep slopes with complex geological conditions.

  11. Performance of the APS optical slope measuring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Jun, E-mail: jqian@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, 60439 (United States); Sullivan, Joe; Erdmann, Mark; Khounsary, Ali; Assoufid, Lahsen [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, 60439 (United States)

    2013-05-11

    An optical slope measuring system (OSMS) was recently brought into operation at the Advanced Photon Source of the Argonne National Laboratory. This system is equipped with a precision autocollimator and a very accurate mirror-based pentaprism on a scanning stage and kept in an environment-controlled enclosure. This system has the capability to measure precision optics with sub-microradian rms slope errors as documented with a series of tests demonstrating accuracy, stability, reliability and repeatability. Measurements of a flat mirror with 0.2 μrad rms slope error are presented which show that the variation of the slope profile measurements with the mirror setting at different locations along the scanning direction is only 60 nrad and the corresponding height error profile has 2 nm rms. -- Highlights: ► This is the first time to present the APS OSMS in publication. ► The APS OSMS is capable to measure flat and near flat mirrors with slope error <100 nrad rms. ► The accuracy of the slope error measurements of a 350 mm long mirror is less than 60 nrad rms.

  12. Alternative method for direct measurement of tibial slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijak Lazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The tibial slope is one of the most frequently cited anatomical causes of anterior cruciate ligament trauma. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of direct measuring of the tibial slope of the knee without prior soft tissue dissection in cadavers. Methods. Measurement was performed on the two groups of samples: osteological and cadaveric. The osteological group consisted of 102 matured tibiae and measurement was performed: indirectly by sagittal photographing of the tibia, and directly by a set of parallel bars. The cadaveric group consisted of 50 cadaveric knees and measurement was performed directly by a set of parallel bars. The difference and correlation between indirect and the direct measurements were observed, which included also measuring of the difference and correlation of the tibial slope on the medial and lateral condyles. Results. A statistically significant difference between the direct and indirect method of measuring (p 0.05. However, the slope on the medial condyle, as well as indirect measurement showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01. Conclusion. By the use of a set of parallel bars it is possible to measure the tibial slope directly without removal of the soft tissue. The results of indirect, photographic measurement did not statistically differ from the results of direct measurement of the tibial slope.

  13. Submarine landslides along the eastern Mediterranean Israeli continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuven, Einav; Katz, Oded; Aharonov, Einat

    2013-04-01

    of these channels is not clear yet. Field relations show that the landslides, both young and old, either emerge from the over-steepened steps, or are displaced by them, and hence submarine landslides and steps are apparently contemporaneous. In addition this suggests that salt dynamics at depth is a main drive for at least some of these shallow slides. The above preliminary results testify to the complicated and highly dynamic nature of the studied continental slope, yet to be revealed.

  14. The Influence of Shales on Slope Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Shales play a major role in the stability of slopes, both natural and engineered. This paper attempts to provide a review of the state-of-the-art in shale slope stability. The complexities of shale terminology and classification are first reviewed followed by a brief discussion of the important physical and mechanical properties of relevance to shale slope stability. The varied mechanisms of shale slope stability are outlined and their importance highlighted by reference to international shale slope failures. Stability analysis and modelling of anisotropic rock slope masses are briefly discussed and the potential role of brittle rock fracture and damage highlighted. A short review of shale slopes in open pits is presented.

  15. Primary Investigations on Yangtze River Bank Slope Stability in Wanzhou for the Three Gorges Reservoir Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wenxing; Yin Kunlong; Xu Yixian

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the main factors contributing to bank slope failures, such as the structure of rock and soil, water level change, bank slope gradient, vegetation, weathering and human activities. Based on these investigations, the bank slope failure models are analyzed. The stability of bank slopes in Wanzhou is investigated using geological surveying, 2D resistivity imaging surveying, excavated trenches and other methods. Finally, the disasters of bank slope failures in Wanzhou were investigated in detail. The results show that instability problems might occur in 60.38 km of bank slopes when the water level rises to 175 m. It is suggested that 37.8 km of unstable bank slopes should be stabilized, and 14.2 km of unstable banks should be moved or avoided after further geological surveying and reconnaissance. These results provide scientific basis and reliable data for the government to develop the third geodisaster prevention plan for the Three Gorges reservoir.

  16. Comparison of the Effects of the Different Methods for Computing the Slope Length Factor at a Watershed Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Suhua

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The slope length factor is one of the parameters of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and is sometimes calculated based on a digital elevation model (DEM. The methods for calculating the slope length factor are important because the values obtained may depend on the methods used for calculation. The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in spatial distribution of the slope length factor between the different methods at a watershed scale. One method used the uniform slope length factor equation (USLFE where the effects of slope irregularities (such as slope gradient, etc. on soil erosion by water were not considered. The other method used segmented slope length factor equation(SSLFE which considered the effects of slope irregularities on soil erosion by water. The Arc Macro Language (AML Version 4 program for the revised universal soil loss equation(RUSLE.which uses the USLFE, was chosen to calculate the slope length factor. In a parallel analysis, the AML code of RUSLE Version 4 was modified according to the SSLFE to calculate the slope length factor. Two watersheds with different slope and gully densities were chosen. The results show that the slope length factor and soil loss using the USLFE method were lower than those using the SSLFE method, especially on downslopes watershed with more frequent steep slopes and higher gully densities. In addition, the slope length factor and soil loss calculated by the USLFE showed less spatial variation.

  17. Methods to Analyze Flexural Buckling of the Consequent Slabbed Rock Slope under Top Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequent slabbed rock slope is prone to flexural buckling failure under its self-weight and top loading. However, nearly none of the existing studies consider the effect of the top loading on the slope flexural critical buckling height (CBH. Therefore, on the basis of Euler’s Method and the flexural buckling failure mode of the consequent slabbed rock slope, the calculation method of the CBH of the vertical slabbed rock slope under the self-weight is firstly proposed, and then it is extended to that of the consequent slabbed rock slope. The effect of slope dip angle, friction angle, and cohesion between the neighboring rock slabs and rock elastic modulus on the slope CBH is discussed. Secondly, the calculation method of the CBH of the consequent slabbed rock slope under its self-weight and top loading is proposed according to the superposition principle. Finally, on the basis of the hypothesis that the rock mechanical behavior obeys the statistical damage model, the effect of the rock mechanical parameters n and ε0 on the slope CBH is studied. The results show that the rock strength has much effect on the slope CBH. If the rock is supposed to be a linear elastic body without failure in Euler’s Method, the result from it is the maximum of the slope CBH.

  18. Weathering Characteristics of Sloping Fields in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-Tao; XU Fei-Fei; CAI Yi; YANG Da-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of understanding the weathering characteristics of surface layers in purple mudstone sloping fields of the Three Gorges Reservoir area of China, oxide content of major elements, composition of clay minerals, magnetic susceptibility, and difference in weathering characteristics of surface layers under different slope gradients were determined.The results showed that the oxide content of Si, Al, and Fe ranged from 60% to 75% and the weathering coefficient with depth showed no trend along the slope gradient. Also, for gentle (10° and 15°) and intermediate (25° and 40°) slopes the clay relative diffraction peak for kaolinite at the surface between 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm declined with an increase in slope gradient, while the relative diffraction peak for kaolinite in weathered layers on steep slopes (50° and 60°) disappeared altogether. Magnetic susceptibility decreased with increasing depth and, for a given depth layer, decreased with an increase in slope gradient. Analysis of the oxide content, weathering coefficients, clay minerals, and magnetic susceptibility showed that in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, the pedogenesis of the weathering layer in purple mudstone sloping fields was weak with weaker soil formation going from gentle slope to steep slope.

  19. Three Practical Methods for Analyzing Slope Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiguang; ZHANG Shitao; ZHU Chuanbing; YIN Ying

    2008-01-01

    Since the environmental capacity and the arable as well as the inhabitant lands have actually reached a full balance, the slopes are becoming the more and more important options for various engineering constructions. Because of the geological complexity of the slope, the design and thedecision-making of a slope-based engineering is still not ractical to rely solely on the theoretical analysis and numerical calculation, but mainly on the experience of the experts. Therefore, it hasimportant practical significance to turn some successful experience into mathematic equations. Basedupon the abundant typical slope engineering construction cases in Yunnan, Southwestern China, 3methods for yzing the slope stability have been developed in this paper. First of all, the corresponded analogous mathematic equation for analyzing slope stability has been established through case studies. Then, artificial neural network and multivariate regression analysis have alsobeen set up when 7 main influencing factors are adopted

  20. Mathematical Model of the Identical Slope Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The formation of the identical slope surface and the method of construction are discussed. Onthe basement of building the parameter equation of variable-radius circle family envelope, the frequentlyused parameter equation of the identical slope surface of the top of taper moving along column helix,horizental arc and line is built. The equation can be used to construct the identical slope surface's con-tours, gradient lines and three dimensional figures correctly.

  1. Comparing Potential Unstable Sites and Stable Sites on Revegetated Cut-Slopes of Mountainous Terrain in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Kil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a diverse set of variables to explain slope stabilization on stable versus failure-prone revegetated cut-slopes in Korea. A field survey was conducted at potential unstable sites and stable sites using 23 variables. Through a non-parametric test of the field survey results, 15 variables were identified as primary determinants of slope failure. Of these variables, one described physical characteristics (elapsed year; four variables described vegetation properties (plant community, vegetation coverage rate, number of trees, and number of herbs; and 10 variables represented soil properties (porosity, soil hardness, water content, sand ratio and silt ratio of soil texture, tensile strength, permeability coefficient, soil depth, soil acidity, salt concentration, and organic matter. Slope angle, which was mainly considered in previous studies, of variables in physical characteristics was not statistically selected as one of the 15 variables because most of sites were located on steep slopes. The vegetation community, vegetation coverage, and number of trees influence slope stabilization. Vegetation coverage is highly correlated with other soil and vegetation variables, making it a major indicator of slope stabilization. All soil variables were related to slope failure such that subsequent slope failure was related to the method of slope revegetation rather than the environmental condition of the slope. Slope failure did not occur in revegetated slopes that matched the characteristics of the surrounding landscape and contained a large number of native trees. Most soil and vegetation variables showed differing values for whether a revegetated slope is potentially unstable or stable.

  2. Links among Slope Morphology, Canyon Types and Tectonics on Passive and Active Margins in the Northernmost South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho-Shing Yu; Emmy T Y Chang

    2009-01-01

    We examine slope profile types and variations in slope gradient and slope relief with depth for both passive and active margins in the northern most South China Sea.The passive South China margin is characterized by an exponential slope profile,mainly assodated with clustered slope-confined canyons.The active Taiwan margin shows a linear-like shape with great variations along the lower slope.Fewer eanyom occur on the Taiwau margin,and hence the influence of canyon incision on slope morphology is relatively less significant.Quantitative analyses of slope curvature,slope gradleut and square root of relief variance are useful statistical parameters to explain characteristics and variability of morphology of the slope of the South China margin,but not for the Kaoping slope on the Talwan side.On the active Taiwan margin,tectonic activities are dominant over sediment deposition and surface erosion,producing a slope profile quite different from those of passive margins of the Middle Atlantic,KwaZulu-Natal,South Africa where failure on slope and accompanying canyon incision are the dominant processes shaping the slope morphology.

  3. Mechanism analysis of landslide of a layered slope induced by drawdown of water level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Junfeng; LI; Zhengguo; QI; Tao

    2005-01-01

    The frequent drawdown of water level of Yangtze River will greatly influence the stability of the widely existing slopes in the Three Gorges reservoir zone, especially those layered ones. Apart from the fluctuating speed of water level, the different geological materials will also play important roles in the failure of slopes. Thus, it must be first to study the mechanism of such a landslide caused by drawdown of water level.A new experimental setup is designed to study the performance of a layered slope under the drawdown of water level. The pattern of landslide of a layered slope induced by drawdown of water level has been explored by means of simulating experiments. The influence of fluctuating speed of water level on the stability of the layered slope is probed,especially the whole process of deformation and development of landslide of the slope versus time. The experimental results show that the slope is stable during the water level rising, and the sliding body occurs in the upper layer of the slope under a certain drawdown speed of water level. In the process of slope failure, some new small sliding body will develop on the main sliding body, and the result is that they speed up the disassembly of the whole slope.Based on the simulating experiment on landslide of a layered slope induced by drawdown of water level, the stress and displacement field of the slope are calculated.The seepage velocity, the pore water pressure, and the gradient of pore water head are also calculated for the whole process of drawdown of water level. The computing results are in good agreement with the experimental results. Accordingly, the mechanism of deformation and landslide of the layered slope induced by drawdown of water level is analyzed. It may provide basis for treating this kind of layered slopes in practical engineering.

  4. Stability of submarine slopes in the northern South China Sea: a numerical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; LUAN Xiwu

    2013-01-01

    Submarine landslides occur frequently on most continental margins.They are effective mechanisms of sediment transfer but also a geological hazard to seafloor installations.In this paper,submarine slope stability is evaluated using a 2D limit equilibrium method.Considerations of slope,sediment,and triggering force on the factor of safety (FOS) were calculated in drained and undrained (φ=0) cases.Results show that submarine slopes are stable when the slope is <16° under static conditions and without a weak interlayer.With a weak interlayer,slopes are stable at <18° in the drained case and at <9° in the undrained case.Earthquake loading can drastically reduce the shear strength of sediment with increased pore water pressure.The slope became unstable at >13° with earthquake peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.5 g;whereas with a weak layer,a PGA of 0.2 g could trigger instability at slopes > 10°,and >3 ° for PGA of 0.5 g.The northern slope of the South China Sea is geomorphologically stable under static conditions.However,because of the possibility of high PGA at the eastern margin of the South China Sea,submarine slides are likely on the Taiwan Bank slope and eastern part of the Dongsha slope.Therefore,submarine slides recognized in seismic profiles on the Taiwan Bank slope would be triggered by an earthquake,the most important factor for triggering submarine slides on the northern slope of the South China Sea.Considering the distribution of PGA,we consider the northern slope of the South China Sea to be stable,excluding the Taiwan Bank slope,which is tectonically active.

  5. Slope Estimation from ICESat/GLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Mahoney

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel technique to infer ground slope angle from waveform LiDAR, known as the independent slope method (ISM. The technique is applied to large footprint waveforms (\\(\\sim\\ mean diameter from the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS to produce a slope dataset of near-global coverage at \\(0.5^{\\circ} \\times 0.5^{\\circ}\\ resolution. ISM slope estimates are compared against high resolution airborne LiDAR slope measurements for nine sites across three continents. ISM slope estimates compare better with the aircraft data (R\\(^{2}=0.87\\ and RMSE\\(=5.16^{\\circ}\\ than the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTM DEM inferred slopes (R\\(^{2}=0.71\\ and RMSE\\(=8.69^{\\circ}\\ ISM slope estimates are concurrent with GLAS waveforms and can be used to correct biophysical parameters, such as tree height and biomass. They can also be fused with other DEMs, such as SRTM, to improve slope estimates.

  6. Profile Orientation and Slope Stability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Ping Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of soil slope stability using a terrestrial laser scanner, particle swarm optimization, and the force equilibrium method. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a slope needed to be analyzed in many different directions in order to assess its stability conclusively, rather than using just one cross-sectional profile to represent the entire slope. To achieve this purpose, this study illustrates how a particle swarm optimization algorithm can be successfully incorporated into the analysis with slope stability analysis software, STABL. This study compares results obtained with those of previous studies and makes important observations.

  7. Slope of the Slope Derivative Surface used to characterize the complexity of the seafloor around St. John, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope of slope was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell by applying the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst 'Slope' Tool to a previously created slope...

  8. Linking Slope Sedimentation, Gradient, Morphology, and Active Faulting: An Integrated Example from the Palos Verdes Slope, Southern California Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K. L.; Brothers, D. S.; Paull, C. K.; McGann, M.; Caress, D. W.; Conrad, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Seafloor gradient variations associated with restraining and releasing bends along the active (1.6-1.9 mm/yr) right-lateral Palos Verdes Fault appear to control Holocene sediment thickness, depositional environment, and morphodynamic processes along a section of the continental slope offshore Los Angeles, California. Autonomous underwater mapping vehicle (AUV), remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and shipboard methods were used to acquire a dense grid of high-resolution chirp profiles (150 m line spacing; 11 cm vertical resolution), multibeam bathymetry (2 m grid), and targeted sediment core samples (<2 m length). Detailed interpretation of Holocene deposits in the chirp profiles combined with radiocarbon dating and laser particle-size analyses allow correlation of Holocene sediment thickness and seafloor gradient with sediment gravity flow deposits. Holocene down-slope flows appear to have been generated by mass wasting processes, primarily on the upper slope (~100-200 m water depth) where shipboard multibeam bathymetry reveals submarine landslide headwall scarps in a region that has been isolated from terrigenous sediment sources throughout the Holocene. Submarine landslides appear to have transformed into sandy and organic-rich turbidity currents that created up-slope migrating sediment waves, a low relief (<5 m) fault-bounded channel, and a series of depocenters. A down-slope gradient profile and a Holocene isopach down-slope profile show that the primary depocenter occurs within a small pull-apart basin associated with a decrease in seafloor gradient of ~1.5°. Holocene sediment-flow deposits vary in number, thickness, and character with subtle changes in seabed gradient (<0.5°) and depositional environment. These results help quantify morphodynamic sensitivity to seafloor gradients and have implications for down-slope flow dynamics, deep-water depositional architecture, Holocene sediment, nutrient, and contaminant transport, and turbidite paleoseismology along

  9. Landform Degradation and Slope Processes on Io: The Galileo View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Chuang, Frank C.; Head, James W., III; McEwen, Alfred S.; Milazzo, Moses P.; Nixon, Brian E.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Schenk, Paul M.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Galileo mission has revealed remarkable evidence of mass movement and landform degradation on Io. We recognize four major slope types observed on a number of intermediate resolution (250 m/pixel) images and several additional textures on very high resolution (10 m/pixel) images. Slopes and scarps on Io often show evidence of erosion, seen in the simplest form as alcove-carving slumps and slides at all scales. Many of the mass movement deposits on Io are probably mostly the consequence of block release and brittle slope failure. Sputtering plays no significant role. Sapping as envisioned by McCauley et al. remains viable. We speculate that alcove-lined canyons seen in one observation and lobed deposits seen along the bases of scarps in several locations may reflect the plastic deformation and 'glacial' flow of interstitial volatiles (e.g., SO2) heated by locally high geothermal energy to mobilize the volatile. The appearance of some slopes and near-slope surface textures seen in very high resolution images is consistent with erosion from sublimation-degradation. However, a suitable volatile (e.g., H2S) that can sublimate fast enough to alter Io's youthful surface has not been identified. Disaggregation from chemical decomposition of solid S2O and other polysulfur oxides may conceivably operate on Io. This mechanism could degrade landforms in a manner that resembles degradation from sublimation, and at a rate that can compete with resurfacing.

  10. Soil Erodibility of Slope Farmland in Guizhou Mountain Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian; LI; Li; CHENG; Zhenggang; CHEN; Qing; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied soil erodibility of slope farmland in Guizhou mountain areas by the plot runoff method,analysis and test. Results show that the variation coefficient of erodibility K value calculated according to formula introduced by Sharply is low and relatively stable and accurate,so it is a suitable method for calculating erodibility K value of slope farmland in Guizhou mountain areas. K value of layer A slope farmland decreases with increase of years. The erodibility of entire soil layer is high,and the erosion resistance is weak. From the influence of different planting system and use types in 4 years,K values of different soil layers decrease,average reduction of A,B and C layers reaches 3. 17%- 11. 64%( 1. 26%- 12. 34% for layer A,1. 29%- 13. 80% for layer B,and 1. 26%- 10. 80% for layer C). Except engineering terraced treatment,the decline of K value of grassland,zoning crop rotation,economic fruit forest,grain and grass intercropping,plant hedge, and mixed forest treatment is higher than farmers’ treatment,and the decline level is grassland > zoning crop rotation > economic fruit forest > grain and grass intercropping > plant hedge > and mixed forest treatment. Planting grass and trees is favorable for lowering erodibility of slope farmland and improving farmland quality. Interplanting of corns with other plants can increase plant coverage and species,so it is favorable for improving erodibility of slope farmland.

  11. Constitutive models in stability analysis of rock slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    言志信; 段建; 王后裕

    2008-01-01

    Equivalent Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was established,and the relationship between different constitutive models was studied.The application of equivalent Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion in Ansys was achieved by means of transforming material parameters.The stability research aiming at the most common rock slope without conspicuous slide surface was accomplished,the methods of measurably assessing the stability of rock slope without conspicuous slide surface were explored,and the disadvantages of method of minimum slide-resisted reserve as dangerous slide path were pointed out.The results show that through the calculation and analysis of cases,the conception that measurable assessment of the stability of rock slope without conspicuous slide surface can be achieved under condition that equivalent Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion is validated.Its safety parameter formula is explicit in theory and credible in results.The results obtained are approximate to those obtained by using finite element intensity reducing method.

  12. Experimental Study of Wave Breaking on Gentle Slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    -An experimental study of regular wave and irregular wave breaking is performed on a gentle slope of 1:200. In the experiment, asymmetry of wave profile is analyzed to determine its effect on wave breaker indices and to explain the difference between Goda and Nelson about the breaker indices of regular waves on very mild slopes. The study shows that the breaker index of irregular waves is under less influence of bottom slope i, relative water depth d/ L0 and the asymmetry of wave profile than that of regular waves. The breaker index of regular waves from Goda may be used in the case of irregular waves, while the coefficient A should be 0.15. The ratio of irregular wavelength to the length calculated by linear wave theory is 0.74. Analysis is also made on the waveheight damping coefficient of regular waves after breaking and on the breaking probability of large irregular waves.

  13. Slope tunable Fano resonances in asymmetric embedded microring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gencheng; Dai, Tingge; Jiang, Jianfei; Yu, Hui; Hao, Yinlei; Wang, Yuehai; Li, Yubo; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jianyi

    2017-02-01

    An asymmetric embedded microring resonant system is proposed and fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to achieve slope tunable Fano resonances. The Fano resonances originate from the nonlinear phase shift produced by adding an inner ring coupling with the outer ring. The slope of the Fano resonance can be well tuned to be ultra-high by controlling the microheaters to adjust the phase condition. Experimentally, we observe Fano resonance with a maximum extinction ratio of about 40 dB, and the slope can be tuned from -35 dB nm-1 to -93 dB nm-1, which shows good agreement with the theoretical analysis. This device could find potential applications in ultra-high sensitivity sensing systems.

  14. Parametric study on the effect of rainfall pattern to slope stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Sagitaningrum Fathiyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslide in Indonesia usually occurs during the rainy seasons. Previous studies showed that rainfall infiltration has a great effect on the factor of safety (FS of slopes. This research focused on the effect of rainfall pattern on the FS of unsaturated slope with different slope angle i.e.: 30°, 45°, and 60°. Three different rainfall patterns, which are normal, advanced, and delayed were considered in the analysis. The effects of low or high hydraulic conductivity of the soil are also observed. The analyses were conducted with SEEP/W for the seepage and SLOPE/W for the slope stability. It is found that the lowest FS for gentle slope is reached under the application of advanced rainfall pattern and the lowest FS for steep slope is reached under the application of delayed rainfall pattern. Reduction of FS is known to be the largest for gentle slope rather than steep slope due to negative pore water pressure reduction and the rising of ground water level. The largest FS reduction caused by rainfall was achieved for gentle slope under advanced rainfall pattern.

  15. Internal wave-turbulence pressure above sloping sea bottoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2011-01-01

    An accurate bottom pressure sensor has been moored at different sites varying from a shallow sea strait via open ocean guyots to a 1900 m deep Gulf of Mexico. All sites show more or less sloping bottom topography. Focusing on frequencies (sigma) higher than tidal, the pressure records are remarkably

  16. Overtopping And Rear Slope Stabillity Of Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Lykke Andersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study of overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping breakwaters has been carried out. The variation of those two parameters with crest width, crest freeboard and sea state was investigated. The tests showed that the variation in overtopping discharge with crest freeboard...

  17. Overtopping And Rear Slope Stabillity Of Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Lykke Andersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study of overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping breakwaters has been carried out. The variation of those two parameters with crest width, crest freeboard and sea state was investigated. The tests showed that the variation in overtopping discharge with crest freeboard...

  18. 27 CFR 9.192 - Wahluke Slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wahluke Slope. 9.192 Section 9.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.192 Wahluke Slope. (a) Name. The name of the...

  19. Internal waves and temperature fronts on slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Thorpe

    Full Text Available Time series measurements from an array of temperature miniloggers in a line at constant depth along the sloping boundary of a lake are used to describe the `internal surf zone' where internal waves interact with the sloping boundary. More small positive temperature time derivatives are recorded than negative, but there are more large negative values than positive, giving the overall distribution of temperature time derivatives a small negative skewness. This is consistent with the internal wave dynamics; fronts form during the up-slope phase of the motion, bringing cold water up the slope, and the return flow may become unstable, leading to small advecting billows and weak warm fronts. The data are analysed to detect `events', periods in which the temperature derivatives exceed a set threshold. The speed and distance travelled by `events' are described. The motion along the slope may be a consequence of (a instabilities advected by the flow (b internal waves propagating along-slope or (c internal waves approaching the slope from oblique directions. The propagation of several of the observed 'events' can only be explained by (c, evidence that the internal surf zone has some, but possibly not all, the characteristics of the conventional 'surface wave' surf zone, with waves steepening as they approach the slope at oblique angles.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (benthic boundary layers; limnology, Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  20. How vegetation reinforces soil on slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokes, A.; Norris, J.E.; van Beek, L.P.H.; Bogaard, T.; Cammeraat, E.; Mickovski, S.B.; Jenner, A.; Di Iorio, A.; Fourcaud, T.; Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    Once the instability process e.g. erosion or landslides has been identified on a slope, the type of vegetation to best reinforce the soil can then be determined. Plants improve slope stability through changes in mechanical and hydrological properties of the root-soil matrix. The architecture of a pl

  1. The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    By overcoming the barriers that limit access to financial liquidity and human resource, the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) can promote rural livelihood diversification. This paper examines this effect using a household survey data set spanning the 1999 implementation of the Sloping land...

  2. Air pocket removal from downward sloping pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in water pipelines and hydropower tunnels. Water pipelines and wastewater pressure mains in particular are subject to air pocket accumulation in downward sloping reaches, such as inverted siphons or terrain slopes. Air pockets cause energy losses and an assoc

  3. Stability Analysing of Unsaturated Soil Slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士林; 邵龙潭

    2003-01-01

    The stability of unsaturated soil slope has been the hot point recently. Especially, the seeping rainfall makes losing stability of unsaturated soil slope, and causes enormous loss to the producation and safety of other people. The seeping rainfall makes volumetric water content of unsaturated soil slope changing, and the volumetric water content has directly relationship with matric suction. And matric suction also has directly relationship with the stability of unsaturated soil slope. So the change of matric suction influence the stability changing, that is, safety coefficient has decided relationship with volumetric water content. The profile of dangerous volumetric water content curves of unsaturated soil slope has been obtained. If a volumetric water content curve of some unsaturated soil slope belongs to one of these dongerous curves, the unsaturated soil slope could be in danger. So this is called DVWCCP(dangerous volumetric water content curves profile). By monitoring the volumetric water content curves can obtain the stability information of some soil slope to serve producing and safety.

  4. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection is a well-known algorithmic tool used in the context of computing robust estimators for fitting a line to a collection P of n points in the plane. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(nlogn) time using only constant extra space in addition...

  5. Wind-driven export of Weddell Sea slope water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, A. J. S.; Meredith, M. P.; Abrahamsen, E. P.; Morales Maqueda, M. A.; Jones, D. C.; Naveira Garabato, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    The export of waters from the Weddell Gyre to lower latitudes is an integral component of the southern subpolar contribution to the three-dimensional oceanic circulation. Here we use more than 20 years of repeat hydrographic data on the continental slope on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and 5 years of bottom lander data on the slope at 1000 m to show the intermittent presence of a relatively cold, fresh, westward flowing current. This is often bottom-intensified between 600 and 2000 dbar with velocities of over 20 cm s-1, transporting an average of 1.5 ± 1.5 Sv. By comparison with hydrography on the continental slope within the Weddell Sea and modeled tracer release experiments we show that this slope current is an extension of the Antarctic Slope Current that has crossed the South Scotia Ridge west of Orkney Plateau. On monthly to interannual time scales the density of the slope current is negatively correlated (r > 0.6 with a significance of over 95%) with eastward wind stress over the northern Weddell Sea, but lagging it by 6-13 months. This relationship holds in both the high temporal resolution bottom lander time series and the 20+ year annual hydrographic occupations and agrees with Weddell Sea export variability observed further east. We compare several alternative hypotheses for this wind stress/export relationship and find that it is most consistent with wind-driven acceleration of the gyre boundary current, possibly modulated by eddy dynamics, and represents a mechanism by which climatic perturbations can be rapidly transmitted as fluctuations in the supply of intermediate-level waters to lower latitudes.

  6. Karstic slope "breathing": morpho-structural influence and hazard implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoti, Roberto; Falcucci, Emanuela; Gori, Stefano; Eliana Poli, Maria; Zanferrari, Adriano; Braitenberg, Carla; Fabris, Paolo; Grillo, Barbara; Zuliani, David

    2016-04-01

    The study refers to the active slope deformation detected by GPS and tiltmeter stations in the Cansiglio karstic plateau located in the western Carnic Prealps (NE Italy). The observed transient deformation clearly correlates with the rainfall, so that the southernmost border of the Plateau reacts instantly to heavy rains displaying a "back and forth" deformation up to a few centimeters wide, with different time constants, demonstrating a response to different catchment volumes. We carried out a field survey along the southern Cansiglio slope, to achieve structural characterization of the relief and to verify the possible relation between structural features and the peculiar geomorphological setting dominated by widespread karstic features. The Cansiglio plateau develops on the frontal ramp anticline of the Cansiglio thrust, an about ENE-WSW trending, SSE-verging, low angle thrust, belonging to the Neogene-Quaternary front of the eastern Southern Alps. The Cansiglio thrust outcrops at the base of the Cansiglio plateau, where it overlaps the Mesozoic carbonates on the Miocene-Quaternary terrigenous succession. All along its length cataclastic limestone largely outcrop. The Cansiglio thrust is bordered by two transfer zones probably inherited from the Mesozoic paleogeography: the Caneva fault in the west and the Col Longone fault in the east. The carbonatic massif is also characterized by a series of about northward steeply dipping reverse minor faults and a set of subvertical joints parallel to the axes of the Cansiglio anticline. Other NNW-SSE and NNE-SSW conjugate faults and fractures perpendicular to the Cansiglio southern slope are also identified. This structural setting affect pervasively the whole slope and may determine centimetre- to metre-scale rock prisms. Interestingly, along the topmost portion of the slope, some dolines and swallow holes show an incipient coalescence, that trends parallel to the massif front and to the deformation zones related to the

  7. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  8. [Effects of slope gradient on slope runoff and sediment yield under different single rainfall conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji-Jun; Cai, Qiang-Guo; Liu, Song-Bo

    2012-05-01

    Based on the field observation data of runoff and sediment yield produced by single rainfall events in runoff plots, this paper analyzed the variation patterns of runoff and sediment yield on the slopes with different gradients under different single rainfall conditions. The differences in the rainfall conditions had little effects on the variation patterns of slope runoff with the gradient. Under the conditions of six different rainfall events in the study area, the variation patterns of slope runoff with the gradient were basically the same, i. e., the runoff increased with increasing gradient, but the increment of the runoff decreased slightly with increasing gradient, which was mainly determined by the infiltration flux of atmospheric precipitation. Rainfall condition played an important role on the slope sediment yield. Generally, there existed a critical slope gradient for slope erosion, but the critical gradient was not a fixed value, which varied with rainfall condition. The critical slope gradient for slope erosion increased with increasing slope gradient. When the critical slope gradient was greater, the variation of slope sediment yield with slope gradient always became larger.

  9. Automated sliding susceptibility mapping of rock slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Günther

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a suite of extensions for ARCVIEW GIS™ (ESRI that allows to map the spatial distribution of first-order mechanical slope-properties in hard rock terrain, e.g. for large slope areas like water reservoir slopes. Besides digital elevation data, this expert-system includes regional continuous grid-based data on geological structures that might act as potential sliding or cutoff planes for rockslides. The system allows rapid automated mapping of geometrical and kinematical slope properties in hard rock, providing the basis for spatially distributed deterministic sliding-susceptibility evaluations on a pixel base. Changing hydrostatic slope conditions and rock mechanical parameters can be implemented and used for simple predictive static stability calculations. Application is demonstrated for a study area in the Harz Mts., Germany.

  10. Forest harvesting influence on slope erosion in Baikal Basin Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuchin, A. A.; Borisov, A. N.; Burenina, T. A.

    2009-04-01

    of this model. The model describing soil erosion rates on separate slopes and in elementary catchments is: ln M=-9,3+0,95lnX-0,064NlnL+0,069lnXlnm/lnL+5,03K+1,49lnI+ +0,0162ln((X-W)/In)i-0,00026ln((X-W)/In)i2 R2 =0,86; =1,04; FС=221; where M is sediment load module, t/km2; N is time since the last disturbance (fire or logging), years; X is precipitation amount, mm; I is precipitation rate, mm/min; m is soil mineralization level, %; L is length of slope where surface runoff occurs, m; W is forest floor moisture capacity, mm; In is soil water permeability, mm/min; i is slope, degrees; K is investigation methodology indicator (it is assumed to equal 1 in the case of area sprinkling and 2 in erosion observations on permanent runoff sample sites and in catchments); R² is multiple determination coefficient; is standard deviation, ton per km2; and FС is Fisher criterion. All coefficients are 95% confident. This model shows a monotonous increase in sediment load module with increasing total moisture in an area and soil mineralization on burned or harvested sites. This module decreases with increasing forest floor moisture capacity and soil water permeability. These trends, as well as slope-caused soil erosion changes, were reported by earlier studies. Our experimental data obtained by other methods did not impact the earlier identified relationships. Therefore, estimating slope length precipitation rate influences on sediment load and predicting soil erosion slowdown on disturbed sites present a great interest. Numerical experiments with this model showed the sediment load module to increase with increasing precipitation rate and to decrease with increasing slope length. This decrease might be attributable to soil particle re-deposition in the lower parts of a slope. Re-deposited erosion products do not get into streams and become involved again in soil development.

  11. Effect of hydraulic hysteresis on the stability of infinite slopes under steady infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic hysteresis, including capillary soil water retention (SWR), air entrapment SWR, and hydraulic conductivity, is a common phenomenon in unsaturated soils. However, the influence of hydraulic hysteresis on suction stress, and subsequently slope stability, is generally ignored. This paper examines the influence of each of these three types of hysteresis on slope stability using an infinite slope stability analysis under steady infiltration conditions. First, hypothetical slopes for representative silty and sandy soils are examined. Then a monitored hillslope in the San Francisco Bay Area, California is assessed, using observed rainfall conditions and measured hydraulic and geotechnical properties of the colluvial soil. Results show that profiles of suction stress and the corresponding factor of safety are generally strongly affected by hydraulic hysteresis. Results suggest that each of the three types of hydraulic hysteresis may play a major role in the occurrence of slope failure, indicating that ignoring hydraulic hysteresis will likely lead to underestimates of failure potential and hence to inaccurate slope stability analysis.

  12. Vegetation as a driver of temporal variations in slope stability: The impact of hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John H.; Fourcaud, Thierry; Jourdan, Christophe; Maeght, Jean-Luc; Mao, Zhun; Metayer, James; Meylan, Louise; Pierret, Alain; Rapidel, Bruno; Roupsard, Olivier; de Rouw, Anneke; Sanchez, Mario Villatoro; Wang, Yan; Stokes, Alexia

    2017-05-01

    Although vegetation is increasingly used to mitigate landslide risks, how vegetation affects the temporal variability of slope stability is poorly understood, especially in earthquake-prone regions. We combined 3-year long soil moisture monitoring, measurements of soil physical properties and plant functional traits, and numerical modeling to compare slope stability under paired land uses with and without trees in tropical, subtropical, and temperate landslide- and earthquake-prone regions. Trees improved stability for 5-12 months per year from drawdown of soil moisture and resulted in less interannual variability in the duration of high-stability periods compared to slopes without trees. Our meta-analysis of published data also showed that slopes with woody vegetation were more stable and less sensitive to climate and soil factors than slopes with herbaceous vegetation. However, estimates of earthquake magnitude necessary to destabilize slopes at our sites suggest that large additional stabilization from trees is necessary for meaningful protection against external triggers.

  13. Impact of Rain Water Infiltration on the Stability of Earth Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Slope failure occurs very often in natural and man-made slopes which are subjected to frequent changes in ground water level, rapid drawdown, rainfall and earthquakes. The current study discusses the significance of water infiltration, pore water pressure and degree of saturation that affect the stability of earth slopes. Rainwater infiltration not only mechanically reduces the shear strength of a slope material, but also chemically alters the mineral composition of the soil matrix. It results in the alteration of macro structures which in turn decreases the factor of safety. A few case studies are discussed in this paper to quantitatively observe the variation in factor of safety (FOS of various earth slopes by changing the degree of saturation. The results showed that most of the earth slopes get failed or become critical when the degree of saturation approaches to 50 % or more.

  14. Mechanics of weathered clay-marl rock masses along the rupture surface in homogeneous dry slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Srđan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors analyze stress-strain distribution within slope using the shear stress reduction technique based on finite element method, which was previously confirmed to provide approximately the same results as the Janbu's corrected limit equilibrium method. Results obtained indicate that the largest vertical displacements occur at the slope base and crest, while central part of the slope is exposed to the largest horizontal displacements. Normal and shear stress show maximum values in the middle part of the slope. It was also determined that separate stress-strain relations could be derived for the exact upper and lower part of the rupture surface. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37005

  15. Reinforcement mechanism of slope stability method with no cutting trees

    OpenAIRE

    Yuki, Chikata; Harushige, KUSUMI; 楠見, 晴重; Katsumi, TERAOKA

    2008-01-01

    The study in this paper is the slope stability. Although many slopes are prone to collapse, countermeasures against slop failures have not been progressed yet in Japan. Most slope protection methods were to cover shotcrete on the slope in 1960’s. However, the slope covered shotcrete have been deteriorating. Therefore, the slope failures frequently occur due to the natural disaster such as heavy rainfall and earthquake. It is important to develop an effective slope stability method. Moreover, ...

  16. Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.

  17. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  18. A new vision of carbonate slopes: the Little Bahama Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Thierry; Gillet, Hervé; Hanquiez, Vincent; Reijmer, John J.; Tournadour, Elsa; Chabaud, Ludivine; Principaud, Mélanie; Schnyder, Jara; Borgomano, Jean; Fauquembergue, Kelly; Ducassou, Emmanuelle

    2016-04-01

    Recent high-quality multibeam and seismic data allow to image a large part of the uppermost slope of Northeastern Little Bahama Bank between 30 and 400 m water depth and to characterize the uppermost slope (Rankey and Doolitle, 1992) over a surface of 170 km2. The new data set includes multibeam bathymetry and acoustic imagery, 3.5 kHz very-high resolution (VHR) seismic reflexion lines (1120 km), 21 gravity cores and 11 Van Veen grabs. This dataset completes the recent surveys of the slope adjacent to LBB (Carambar cruise, Mulder et al, 2012). The data provide insight into sediment transfer from the shallow carbonate bank to the adjacent slope. Four major terraces and escarpments dominate the morphology of the slope. The terraces are located at 22 m, 27-33 m, 40-46 and 55-64 m below present water depth (mpwd). They could either be related to periods of stagnating sea-level and therefore increased erosion by waves, or periods of accelerated sea-level rise since the Last Glacial Maximum. Escarpments bound the terraces. The deepest one (64-56 mpwd) is also the steepest 35-50°). It corresponds to the marginal scarp of Rankey and Doolitle (1992). The lower part of the uppermost slope shows a discontinuous Holocene sediment wedge with varying thickness between 0 and 35 m. It forms a blind or very crudely stratified echo facies. This Holocene unit can be thicker than 20 m and consists of mud that forms most of the present sediment export. This unit fills small depressions in the substratum and thickens in front of gullies that cut the carbonate platform edge. It forms by off-bank export initiated when a cold front passes by, resulting in density cascading currents. The associated sediment fall-out and convective sedimentation can generate density currents that flow through linear structures on the upper slope. The survey reveals the presence of recently active channels that extend laterally over the entire uppermost slope and interrupt the density cascading fall

  19. Effects of rye grass coverage on soil loss from loess slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuequn Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative coverage is commonly used to reduce urban slope soil erosion. Laboratory experimental study on soil erosion under grass covered slopes is conventionally time and space consuming. In this study, a new method is suggested to study the influences of vegetation coverage on soil erosion from a sloped loess surface under three slope gradients of 5°, 15°, and 25°; four rye grass coverages of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%; and three rainfall intensities of 60, 90, and 120 mm/h with a silt-loamy loess soil. Rye grasses were planted in the field with the studied soil before being transplanted into a laboratory flume. Grass was allowed to resume growth for a period before the rain simulation experiment. Results showed that the grass cover reduced soil erosion by 63.90% to 92.75% and sediment transport rate by 80.59% to 96.17% under different slope gradients and rainfall intensities. The sediment concentration/sediment transport rate from bare slope was significantly higher than from a grass-covered slope. The sediment concentration/transport rate from grass-covered slopes decreased linearly with grass coverage and increased with rainfall intensity. The sediment concentration/transport rate from the bare slope increased as a power function of slope and reached the maximum value at the gradient of about 25°, whereas that from grass-covered slope increased linearly and at much lower levels. The results of this study can be used to estimate the effect of vegetation on soil erosion from loess slopes.

  20. Buoyant Turbulent Kinetic Energy Production in Steep-Slope Katabatic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Holly J.; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Higgins, Chad W.; Parlange, Marc B.

    2016-12-01

    We develop several critical concepts that should be considered when interpreting, modelling and designing future experiments for flows over sloping terrain. Vertical buoyancy fluxes in katabatic flows can be positive and a source of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) despite the statically stable, thermal stratification that drives these flows. This phenomenon occurs when the ratio of along-slope to slope-normal kinematic heat fluxes is greater than the cotangent of the slope angle, suggesting a critical value of slope-angle steepness found in earlier studies. We provide field-data-based evidence that the along-slope heat flux may dominate the variables in this inequality, and therefore in generating buoyant TKE production or suppression over a steep slope. These data show the along-slope heat flux can be more variable and significantly larger in magnitude than the slope-normal component. The gradient Richardson number does not include the effects of the along-slope buoyancy; furthermore, none of the canonical stability parameters can properly reflect the TKE redistribution from turbulent transport divergence and the sink of TKE in cases of counter-gradient momentum fluxes, which we frequently observe near the peak of the katabatic jet. In such cases, canonical stability parameters inadequately represent the physical mechanisms associated with stability. These results have broad implications related to accurately modelling turbulence and surface exchanges over sloping terrain and illustrate the need to more thoroughly investigate the along-slope heat flux and its drivers, the meaning and definitions of stability, and the effects of non-local turbulent transport.

  1. ASTRONOMICAL ALGORITHMS OF EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS SLOPES AND THEIR MODULES DIVIDER

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulfotouh, Hossam M. K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to show the astronomical design principles that are encoded in the geometrical forms of the largest five pyramids of the fourth Egyptian dynasty, in Giza and Dahshur plateaus, based on using the pyramids’ design-modules that are mentioned in the so-called Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. It shows the astronomical algorithms for quantifying the slopes of pyramids, with reference to specific range of earth’s axial tilt, within spherical co-ordinates system. Besid...

  2. Deterministic slope failure hazard assessment in a model catchment and its replication in neighbourhood terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Prasad Acharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we prepare and replicate a deterministic slope failure hazard model in small-scale catchments of tertiary sedimentary terrain of Niihama city in western Japan. It is generally difficult to replicate a deterministic model from one catchment to another due to lack of exactly similar geo-mechanical and hydrological parameters. To overcome this problem, discriminant function modelling was done with the deterministic slope failure hazard model and the DEM-based causal factors of slope failure, which yielded an empirical parametric relationship or a discriminant function equation. This parametric relationship was used to predict the slope failure hazard index in a total of 40 target catchments in the study area. From ROC plots, the prediction rate between 0.719–0.814 and 0.704–0.805 was obtained with inventories of September and October slope failures, respectively. This means September slope failures were better predicted than October slope failures by approximately 1%. The results show that the prediction of the slope failure hazard index is possible, even in a small catchment scale, in similar geophysical settings. Moreover, the replication of the deterministic model through discriminant function modelling was found to be successful in predicting typhoon rainfall-induced slope failures with moderate to good accuracy without any use of geo-mechanical and hydrological parameters.

  3. Effects of basin bottom slope on jet hydrodynamics and river mouth bar formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Robles, A. M.; Ortega-Sánchez, M.; Losada, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    River mouth bars are strategic morphological units primarily responsible for the development of entire deltaic systems. This paper addresses the role of receiving basin slope in the hydrodynamics of an exiting sediment-laden turbulent jet and in resulting mouth bar morphodynamics. We use Delft3D, a coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic numerical model, along with a theoretical formulation to reproduce the physics of the problem, characterized by a fluvially dominated inlet free of waves and tides. We propose an updated theoretical model with a slope-dependent entrainment coefficient, showing that the rate at which ambient fluid is incorporated into a jet increases with higher basin slopes. Transient results reveal that the magnitude of a basin slope can alter the stability of a jet, favoring the formation of an unstable meandering jet. While a stable jet gives rise to "middle-ground" bars accompanied by diverging channels, a "lunate" mouth bar results from unstable jets. Additional morphodynamic simulations demonstrate that the time required for mouth bar stagnation in its final position increases linearly with the basin slope. In contrast, the distance at which the mouth bar eventually forms decreases until reaching an asymptotic value for slopes higher than 2%. Moreover, the basin slope highly influences sedimentary processes responsible for bar formation: for milder slopes, progradation processes prevail, while in steeper basins aggradation is more relevant. Finally, the minimum relative water depth over a bar crest that forces the flow to bifurcate around a fully developed bar decreases with the basin slope.

  4. Slope activity in Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Colin M.; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution repeat imaging of Aeolis Mons, the central mound in Gale crater, reveals active slope processes within tens of kilometers of the Curiosity rover. At one location near the base of northeastern Aeolis Mons, dozens of transient narrow lineae were observed, resembling features (Recurring Slope Lineae) that are potentially due to liquid water. However, the lineae faded and have not recurred in subsequent Mars years. Other small-scale slope activity is common, but has different spatial and temporal characteristics. We have not identified confirmed RSL, which Rummel et al. (Rummel, J.D. et al. [2014]. Astrobiology 14, 887–968) recommended be treated as potential special regions for planetary protection. Repeat images acquired as Curiosity approaches the base of Aeolis Mons could detect changes due to active slope processes, which could enable the rover to examine recently exposed material.

  5. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  6. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  7. ElevationOther_SLOPE10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Used ElevationDEM_DEM10M and the Arc/Info SLOPE command with the "PERCENT_RISE" and ".3048" Z_unit options to create this data layer. Input source dataset is...

  8. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type....

  9. North Slope, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for waterfowl, seabirds, gulls and terns for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set...

  10. On Front Slope Stability of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    2013-01-01

    The short communication presents application of the conventional Van der Meer stability formula for low-crested breakwaters for the prediction of front slope erosion of statically stable berm breakwaters with relatively high berms. The method is verified (Burcharth, 2008) by comparison with the r......The short communication presents application of the conventional Van der Meer stability formula for low-crested breakwaters for the prediction of front slope erosion of statically stable berm breakwaters with relatively high berms. The method is verified (Burcharth, 2008) by comparison...... test results including tests presented in Sigurdarson and Van der Meer (2011) are discussed. A proposal is presented for performance of new model tests with the purpose of developing more accurate formulae for the prediction of front slope erosion as a function of front slope, relative berm height...

  11. 3D geodetic monitoring slope deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Gabriel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available For plenty of slope failures that can be found in Slovakia is necessary and very important their geodetic monitoring (because of their activity, reactivisations, checks. The paper gives new methodologies for these works, using 3D terrestrial survey technologies for measurements in convenient deformation networks. The design of an optimal type of deformation model for various kinds of landslides and their exact processing with an efficient testing procedure to determine the kinematics of the slope deformations are presented too.

  12. The establishment of Atlantic Water transport as a topographically trapped slope current off Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic Water, with its origin in the western Atlantic, enters the Nordic Seas partly as a barotropic current following the continental slope. This water mass is carried across the Atlantic by the baroclinic North Atlantic Current (NAC. When the NAC meets the continental slope at the east side of the Atlantic, some of the transport is converted to barotropic transport over the slope before continuing northward. Here, we show that this baroclinic to barotropic conversion is in agreement with geostrophic theory. Historical observations show that the transport of the slope current increases significantly from the Rockall Channel (RC to the Faroe–Shetland Channel (FSC. Geostrophy predicts that with a northward decreasing buoyancy, baroclinic currents from the west will be transferred into northward topographically steered barotropic flow. We use hydrographic data from two sections crossing the continental slope, one located in the RC and another in the FSC, to estimate baroclinic and barotropic transport changes over the slope, within the framework of geostrophic dynamics. Our results indicate that ~1 Sv of the cross-slope baroclinic flow is mainly converted to northward barotropic transport above the 200–500m isobaths, which is consistent with observed transport changes between the RC and the FSC. Similar processes are also likely to occur further south, along the eastern Atlantic margin. This shows that AW within the slope current in the FSC is derived from both the eastern and the western Atlantic, in agreement with earlier studies of AW inflow to the Nordic Seas.

  13. Numerical computation of homogeneous slope stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuangshuang; Li, Kemin; Ding, Xiaohua; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS) to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759) were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS).

  14. Prediction of slope failure due to earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XiaoLi; KATO Nobuaki; TSUNAKI Ryosuke; MUKAI Keiji

    2009-01-01

    The earthquake-triggered landslides and slope failures are common phenomena during strong earthquakes and have drawn more attention from the world because of severe hazards they induced.These hazards usually cannot be prevented by current mitigating measures,thus,it becomes more and more important to develop a precise technique for the risk assessment of earthquake-induced failures in the mountainous area.The application of discrimination analysis method is proved to be successful and effective in the prediction of earthquake-triggered landslides and slope failures in the region of Imokawa Basin in Japan.Diacriminant score can be used to assess the relative risk of slope failures,as the score increases,the possibility of slope failures occurrence increases accordingly.At the same time,the variables in the judgement formula,such as slope gradient,slope curvature and seismic peak ground acceleration,are easy to obtain.This advantage makes this method more practical and manipulable than others at present.In order to apply this method more effectively,there are still several problems to resolve.

  15. Numerical Computation of Homogeneous Slope Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759 were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS.

  16. Geomorphological control on variably saturated hillslope hydrology and slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Formetta; Simoni, Silvia; Godt, Jonathan W.; Lu, Ning; Rigon, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    In steep topography, the processes governing variably saturated subsurface hydrologic response and the interparticle stresses leading to shallow landslide initiation are physically linked. However, these processes are usually analyzed separately. Here, we take a combined approach, simultaneously analyzing the influence of topography on both hillslope hydrology and the effective stress fields within the hillslope itself. Clearly, runoff and saturated groundwater flow are dominated by gravity and, ultimately, by topography. Less clear is how landscape morphology influences flows in the vadose zone, where transient fluxes are usually taken to be vertical. We aim to assess and quantify the impact of topography on both saturated and unsaturated hillslope hydrology and its effects on shallow slope stability. Three real hillslope morphologies (concave, convex, and planar) are analyzed using a 3-D, physically based, distributed model coupled with a module for computation of the probability of failure, based on the infinite slope assumption. The results of the analyses, which included parameter uncertainty analysis of the results themselves, show that convex and planar slopes are more stable than concave slopes. Specifically, under the same initial, boundary, and infiltration conditions, the percentage of unstable areas ranges from 1.3% for the planar hillslope, 21% for convex, to a maximum value of 33% for the concave morphology. The results are supported by a sensitivity analysis carried out to examine the effect of initial conditions and rainfall intensity.

  17. Geomorphological control on variably saturated hillslope hydrology and slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Formetta; Simoni, Silvia; Godt, Jonathan W.; Lu, Ning; Rigon, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    In steep topography, the processes governing variably saturated subsurface hydrologic response and the interparticle stresses leading to shallow landslide initiation are physically linked. However, these processes are usually analyzed separately. Here, we take a combined approach, simultaneously analyzing the influence of topography on both hillslope hydrology and the effective stress fields within the hillslope itself. Clearly, runoff and saturated groundwater flow are dominated by gravity and, ultimately, by topography. Less clear is how landscape morphology influences flows in the vadose zone, where transient fluxes are usually taken to be vertical. We aim to assess and quantify the impact of topography on both saturated and unsaturated hillslope hydrology and its effects on shallow slope stability. Three real hillslope morphologies (concave, convex, and planar) are analyzed using a 3-D, physically based, distributed model coupled with a module for computation of the probability of failure, based on the infinite slope assumption. The results of the analyses, which included parameter uncertainty analysis of the results themselves, show that convex and planar slopes are more stable than concave slopes. Specifically, under the same initial, boundary, and infiltration conditions, the percentage of unstable areas ranges from 1.3% for the planar hillslope, 21% for convex, to a maximum value of 33% for the concave morphology. The results are supported by a sensitivity analysis carried out to examine the effect of initial conditions and rainfall intensity.

  18. Phase transition on speed limit traffic with slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xing-Li; Song Tao; Kuang Hua; Dai Shi-Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Through introducing a generalized optimal speed function to consider spatial position, slope grade and variable safe headway, the effect of slope in a single-lane highway on the traffic flow is investigated with the extended optimal speed model. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the flux of the whole road with the upgrade (or downgrade) increases linearly with density, saturates at a critical density, then maintains this saturated value in a certain density range and finally decreases with density. The value of saturated flux is equal to the maximum flux of the upgrade (or downgrade) without considering the slight influence of the driver's sensitivity. And the fundamental diagrams also depend on sensitivity, slope grade and slope length. The spatiotemporal pattern gives the segregation of different traffic phases caused by the rarefaction wave and the shock wave under a certain initial vehicle number.A comparison between the upgrade and the downgrade indicates that the value of saturated flux of the downgrade is larger than that of the upgrade under the same condition. This result is in accordance with the real traffic.

  19. Regional variability of slope stability: Application to the Eel margin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Locat, J.; Dartnell, P.; Israel, K.; Florence, Wong

    1999-01-01

    Relative values of downslope driving forces and sediment resisting forces determine the locations of submarine slope failures. Both of these vary regionally, and their impact can be addressed when the data are organized in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The study area on the continental margin near the Eel River provides an excellent opportunity to apply GIS spatial analysis techniques for evaluation of slope stability. In this area, swath bathymetric mapping shows seafloor morphology and distribution of slope steepness in fine detail, and sediment analysis of over 70 box cores delineates the variability of sediment density near the seafloor surface. Based on the results of ten geotechnical studies of submarine study areas, we developed an algorithm that relates surface sediment density to the shear strength appropriate to the type of cyclic loading produced by an earthquake. Strength and stress normalization procedures provide results that are conceptually independent of subbottom depth. Results at depth are rigorously applicable if sediment lithology does not vary significantly and consolidation state can be estimated. Otherwise, the method applies only to shallow-seated slope failure. Regional density, slope, and level of anticipated seismic shaking information were combined in a GIS framework to yield a map that illustrates the relative stability of slopes in the face of seismically induced failure. When a measure of predicted relative slope stability is draped on an oblique view of swath bathymetry, a variation in this slope stability is observed on an otherwise smooth slope along the mid-slope region north of a plunging anticline. The section of slope containing diffuse, pockmarked gullies has a lower measure of stability than a separate section containing gullies that have sharper boundaries and somewhat steeper sides. Such an association suggests that our slope-stability analysis relates to the stability of the gully sides. The remainder of the

  20. The Relationship Between Lithology and Slope Morphology in the Tucson Mountains, Arizona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Khanchoul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lithology and slope morphology is investigated at eight sites on granitic, andesitic, andsedimentary hillslopes in the Tucson Mountains, Arizona. Several methods are used in the study. Topographic profi lesare constructed. Skewness indices, slope length, and mean slope angles of the different slope profi les are computed andcompared with each other. Debris size analysis has permitted for some profi les, the determination of hillfront/piedmontjunctions. The nature and structural characteristics of the bedrock are the ones that determine the hillslope morphologyin this semi-arid region. There are, as a matter of fact, variations in profi les on the same bedrock nature but differentlyexposed. More precise morphologic studies have been also done in comparing the different lithologic pairs. They havepermitted to show some similarities in shapes. The granitic-andesitic slopes and andesiic-sedimentary slopes are thebest comparisons which show the relationship between lithology and slope morphology. The granitic-sedimentary sloperelationship is shown in the hillfront concavities, mountain front and piedmont mean slope angles.

  1. Slides and debris flows on the high-latitude continental slopes of Baffin Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, A. E.; Hiscott, R. N.

    1989-10-01

    The eastern continental margin of Baffin Island around Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 645 was surveyed by using single-channel airgun, high-resolution boomer systems and piston cores. The data show that much of the upper slope between the 300 and ˜1200 m isobaths is erosional. Major sliding and rotational slumping has removed several hundred metres of sediment from the upper slope, giving the sea bed a steplike morphology. From ˜1200 m to the 2300 m isobath, the slope is constructional and is characterized by abundant acoustically transparent lenses, some of which are traced upslope into acoustically transparent to internally deformed wedge-shaped bodies. These lenses are interpreted to be debris-flow deposits and their abundance in the lower slope indicates frequent upper slope failures. The wedge-shaped bodies are much less common and are interpreted to be larger slides and/or slumps. Near the base of the slope, fields of diapiric structures pierce the acoustically well stratified section and locally produce small mounds on the sea floor. On the basis of correlation with ODP Site 645, they are interpreted as mud diapirs. The combined data show that the lower slope of Baffin Island is constructed predominantly of shingled lenses of debris-flow deposits and rotated slump blocks that originated from major erosion of the upper slope.

  2. Parallel processing for efficient 3D slope stability modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Ivan; Mergili, Martin; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Metz, Markus; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2014-05-01

    We test the performance of the GIS-based, three-dimensional slope stability model r.slope.stability. The model was developed as a C- and python-based raster module of the GRASS GIS software. It considers the three-dimensional geometry of the sliding surface, adopting a modification of the model proposed by Hovland (1977), and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers (2006). Given a terrain elevation map and a set of relevant thematic layers, the model evaluates the stability of slopes for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal or truncated in shape. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a value of the factor of safety, FS. For each pixel, the minimum value of FS and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information is used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable slopes in the study area. We test the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, central Italy, an area known to be susceptible to landslides of different type and size. Availability of a comprehensive and detailed landslide inventory map allowed for a critical evaluation of the model results. The r.slope.stability code automatically splits the study area into a defined number of tiles, with proper overlap in order to provide the same statistical significance for the entire study area. The tiles are then processed in parallel by a given number of processors, exploiting a multi-purpose computing environment at CNR IRPI, Perugia. The map of the FS is obtained collecting the individual results, taking the minimum values on the overlapping cells. This procedure significantly reduces the processing time. We show how the gain in terms of processing time depends on the tile dimensions and on the number of cores.

  3. Some new pre-warning criteria for creep slope failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HACK; Robert

    2011-01-01

    The forecasting of the failure time of a slope remains a worldwide problem because of many different possibilities of geological conditions in combination with many varying external factors such as climate and vegetation,and not well-defined or unknown time effects in deformation and failure models.The aim of this paper is to suggest a new method to carry out the phase division and to explore tangential angular features of the displacement-time curve of creep slopes as well as the acceleration characteristics in the process of slope deformation and the pre-warning criteria for critical failure.An imminent failure is pro-ceeded with usually three basic deformation phases,namely primary creep("decelerated") ,secondary creep("steadystate") and tertiary creep("accelerated") .Mostly,only during the accelerated phase the imminence of a possible slope failure is rec-ognized.The analysis of displacement data from a series of landslides allowed to recognize different evolutionary patterns of displacement.A quantitative approach was proposed to describe the tangential angle of the displacement-time curve and a new criterion based on the angle was put forward to divide the accelerated phase into three sub-phases:initial acceleration,medium acceleration,and the critical failure.A pre-warning criterion for critical failure is also proposed consequently. Changes of acceleration showed completely different characteristics from those of cumulative displacement and displacement in the process of slope deformation.The values of acceleration usually oscillate around 0 prior to the critical failure phase,whereas the acceleration increases abruptly when the deformation moves into the critical failure phase.This allows,therefore,for a method to forecast the time of the failure.So it is possible to define different alert acceleration threshold values to be used for emergency management.

  4. Ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes - insights from numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burjanek, Jan; Kleinbrod, Ulrike; Fäh, Donat

    2017-04-01

    The recent events in Nepal (2015 M7.8 Gorkha) and New Zealand (2016 M7.8 Kaikoura) highlighted the importance of earthquake-induced landslides, which caused significant damages. Moreover, landslide created dams present a potential developing hazard. In order to reduce the costly consequences of such events it is important to detect and characterize earthquake susceptible rock slope instabilities before an event, and to take mitigation measures. For the characterisation of instable slopes, acquisition of ambient vibrations might be a new alternative to the already existing methods. We present both observations and 3D numerical simulations of the ambient vibrations of unstable slopes. In particular, models of representative real sites have been developed based on detailed terrain mapping and used for the comparison between synthetics and observations. A finite-difference code has been adopted for the seismic wave propagation in a 3D inhomogeneous visco-elastic media with irregular free surface. It utilizes a curvilinear grid for a precise modeling of curved topography and local mesh refinement to make computational mesh finer near the free surface. Topographic site effects, controlled merely by the shape of the topography, do not explain the observed seismic response. In contrast, steeply-dipping compliant fractures have been found to play a key role in fitting observations. Notably, the synthetized response is controlled by inertial mass of the unstable rock, and by stiffness, depth and network density of the fractures. The developed models fit observed extreme amplification levels (factors of 70!) and show directionality as well. This represents a possibility to characterize slope structure and infer depth or volume of the slope instability from the ambient noise recordings in the future.

  5. The dependence of sheet erosion velocity on slope angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a method for estimating the erosion velocity on forested natural area. As a research object for testing the methodology the authors selected Neskuchny Garden - a city Park on the Moskva river embankment, named after the cognominal Palace of Catherine's age. Here, an almost horizontal surface III of the Moskva river terrace above the flood-plain is especially remarkable, accentuated by the steep sides of the ravine parallel to St. Andrew's, but short and nameless. The crests of the ravine sides are sharp, which is the evidence of its recent formation, but the old trees on the slopes indicate that it has not been growing for at least 100 years. Earlier Russian researchers defined vertical velocity of sheet erosion for different regions and slopes with different parent (in relation to the soil rocks. The comparison of the velocities shows that climatic conditions, in the first approximation, do not have a decisive influence on the erosion velocity of silt loam soils. The velocities on the shores of Issyk-Kul lake and in Moscow proved to be the same. But the composition of the parent rocks strongly affects the sheet erosion velocity. Even low-strength rock material reduces the velocity by times. Phytoindication method gives a real, physically explainable sheet erosion velocities. The speed is rather small but it should be considered when designing long-term structures on the slopes composed of dispersive soils. On the slopes composed of rocky soils sheet erosion velocity is so insignificant that it shouldn't be taken into account when designing. However, there may be other geological processes, significantly disturbing the stability of slopes connected with cracks.

  6. Feature of resistivity response of slope from steady to unsteady

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢忠球; 张玉池; 温佩琳; 段靓靓

    2008-01-01

    Using resistivity as index and referring to the law about effect of slope to resistivity,the apparent resistivities of geophysical model concerned with unsteady rock type slope failure were calculated systematically by using the boundary integral equation method.After studying the feature of resistivity response of slope failure,the variety of resistivity during evolution of slope from steady to unsteady was found and the characteristics of resistivity response about slope failure was concluded.These make electrical exploring method for detecting the slip plane or structural plane of slope failure,evaluating the stability of the slope,and forecasting slope failure become true.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of slope stability and determination of stable slopes in the Chador-Malu iron ore mine using numerical and limit equilibrium methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ATAEIM; BODAGHABADIS

    2008-01-01

    One of the critical aspects in mine design is slope stability analysis and the determination of stable slopes. In the Chador Malu iron ore mine, one of the most important iron ore mines in central Iran, it was considered vital to perform a comprehensive slope stability analysis. At first, we divided the existing rock hosting pit into six zones and a geotechnical map was prepared. Then,the value of MRMR (Mining Rock Mass Rating) was determined for each zone. Owing to the fact that the Chador-Malu iron ore mine is located in a highly tectonic area and the rock mass completely crushed, the Hock-Brown failure criterion was found suitable to estimate geo-mechanical parameters. After that, the value of cohesion (c) and friction angle (e) were calculated for different geotechnical zones and relative graphs and equations were derived as a function of slope height. The stability analyses using numerical and limit equilibrium methods showed that some instability problems might occur by increasing the slope height.Therefore, stable slopes for each geotechnical zone and prepared sections were calculated and presented as a function of slope height.

  8. How alpine heathlands response to the snow cover change on the ski slope? Long-lasting ski slope impact case study from the Hrubý Jeseník Mts (Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Zeidler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and duration of snow cover are important variables that affect ecosystem processes in the alpine zone. The establishment of ski resorts dramatically change their surrounding environment and ski slopes represent significant anthropogenic impact in the mountains. We assessed the changes in environmental factors, phenology, growth, and reproductive performance of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus, a dominant species of alpine heathlands, caused by a “nature-friendly” managed ski slope (i.e., without artificial snow and machine grading at permanent plots established on the ski slope under operations (inside the ski slope and on an unaffected control area (outside the ski slope. A lower mean temperature and a shorter time of great temperature fluctuation during snow melting, a longer time span of snow cover, and a higher snow water equivalent were observed inside the ski slope compared to outside it. Due to changed environmental conditions, the beginning of growth was postponed, and a delay in phenological development was observed in the bilberry at the ski slope. However, bilberry ripened both inside and outside the ski slope in a similar period and showed similar cover and even higher flower and fruit densities inside the ski slope compared with natural surroundings. The persistence of bilberry was not deteriorated and its performance was even better inside the ski slope. On the ski slope, managed snow cover can reduce the potential vegetation shifts due to expected impact of the climate warming. That should be taken into account in conservation and management planning.

  9. Time shift of pulses due to dispersion slope and nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, D.; Menyuk, C.R.; Holzloehner, R.

    1999-12-01

    The authors show that the time delay of optical pulses traveling in long fibers is influenced by the dispersion slope and the fiber nonlinearity. Consequently, one or more new pulses that are inserted by add-drop operations into a pulse train that has already traveled a long distance may shift relative to the old pulses. This time shift delays the initial pulses more than the newly inserted ones, so that the newly inserted pulses can leave their time frames, leading to errors.

  10. Stability analysis and optimum reinforcement design for an intense weathered rock slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Kuan; Tan, Zhuoying; Li, Wen

    2017-05-01

    In view of the complex structural characters of Chengmenshan copper mine slope, the slope stability should be analyzed and additional reinforcement measures need to be considered to ensure mining safety. In this paper, the slope model was built and its stability was analyzed by numerical simulation method under nature and dynamic loading state. After that the design of orthogonal experiment was discussed for the key factors which influence the reinforcement effect of anchors with SPSS software, and the primary and secondary relation of factors and the optimal combination were obtained using the range analysis method. Finally, the slope stability with optimal reinforcement measure was tested. The results show that the safety factor of slope under nature state is low and it is in the critical instability condition. Under dynamic loading state, the failure probability of slope increases from 0 to 18% as the seismic magnitude varies from 6 to 8. Primary and secondary sequence of factors that influence the anchor reinforcement effect is the bonding length, anchor installing angle, anchor length at 3rd bench, anchor length at 2nd bench and anchor length at 1st bench .The safety factor of slope reinforced with anchors is larger than 1.1, which could ensure the safety and stability of the slope.

  11. Formation Mechanism and Stability Assessment of the Colluvial Deposit Slope in Zuoyituo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wenxing; Zhang Yihu; Yin Hongmei

    2004-01-01

    The basic features of the colluvial deposit slope in Zuoyituo such as geological conditions, dimensions, slip surfaces and groundwater conditions are described concisely in this paper. The formation mechanism of the slope is discussed. It is considered that the formation of the colluvial deposit slope in Zuoyituo has undergone accumulation, slip, load, deformation and failure. The effects of rainfall on slope stability are categorized systematically based on existing methodology, and ways to determine the effects quantitatively are presented. The remained slip force method is improved by the addition of quantitative relations to the existing formulae and programs. The parameters of the colluvial deposit slope are determined through experimentation and the method of back-analysis. The safety factors of the slope are calculated with the improved remained slip force method and the Sarma method. The results show that rainfall and water level in the Yangtze River have a significant effect on the stability of the colluvial deposit slope in Zuoyituo. The hazards caused by the instability of the slope are assessed, and prevention methods are put forward.

  12. The logarithmic slope in diffractive DIS

    CERN Document Server

    Gay-Ducati, M B; Machado, M V T

    2002-01-01

    The logarithmic slope of diffractive structure function is a potential observable to separate the hard and soft contributions in diffraction, allowing to disentangle the QCD dynamics at small-x region. In this paper we extend our previous analyzes and calculate the diffractive logarithmic slope for three current approaches in the literature: (i) the Bartels-Wusthoff model, based on perturbative QCD, (ii) the CKMT model, based on Regge theory and (iii) the Golec-Biernat-Wusthoff model which assumes that the saturation phenomena is present in the HERA kinematic region. We analyze the transition region of small to large momentum transfer and verify that future experimental results on the diffractive logarithmic slope could discriminate between these approaches.

  13. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  14. Assessment of Slope Instability and Risk Analysis of Road Cut Slopes in Lashotor Pass, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Taherynia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the stability of natural and artificial rock slopes is an important topic in the rock mechanics sciences. One of the most widely used methods for this purpose is the classification of the slope rock mass. In the recent decades, several rock slope classification systems are presented by many researchers. Each one of these rock mass classification systems uses different parameters and rating systems. These differences are due to the diversity of affecting parameters and the degree of influence on the rock slope stability. Another important point in rock slope stability is appraisal hazard and risk analysis. In the risk analysis, the degree of danger of rock slope instability is determined. The Lashotor pass is located in the Shiraz-Isfahan highway in Iran. Field surveys indicate that there are high potentialities of instability in the road cut slopes of the Lashotor pass. In the current paper, the stability of the rock slopes in the Lashotor pass is studied comprehensively with different classification methods. For risk analyses, we estimated dangerous area by use of the RocFall software. Furthermore, the dangers of falling rocks for the vehicles passing the Lashotor pass are estimated according to rockfall hazard rating system.

  15. Reliability analysis method applied in slope stability: slope prediction and forecast on stability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjuan ZHANG; Li CHEN; Ning QU; Hai'an LIANG

    2006-01-01

    Landslide is one kind of geologic hazards that often happens all over the world. It brings huge losses to human life and property; therefore, it is very important to research it. This study focused in combination between single and regional landslide, traditional slope stability analysis method and reliability analysis method. Meanwhile, methods of prediction of slopes and reliability analysis were discussed.

  16. Thermomechanical forcing of deep rock slope deformation: 2. The Randa rock slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischig, Valentin S.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Evans, Keith F.; Amann, Florian; Loew, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Deformation monitoring between 2004 and 2011 at the rock slope instability above Randa (Switzerland) has revealed an intriguing seasonal trend. Relative dislocation rates across active fractures increase when near-surface rock temperatures drop in the fall and decrease after snowmelt as temperatures rise. This temporal pattern was observed with different monitoring systems at the ground surface and at depths up to 68 m, and represents the behavior of the entire instability. In this paper, the second of two companion pieces, we interpret this seasonal deformation trend as being controlled by thermomechanical (TM) effects driven by near-surface temperature cycles. While Part 1 of this work demonstrated in a conceptual manner how TM effects can drive deep rock slope deformation and progressive failure, we present here in Part 2 a case study where temperature-controlled deformation trends were observed in a natural setting. A 2D discrete-element numerical model is employed, which allows failure along discontinuities and successfully reproduces the observed kinematics of the Randa instability. By implementing simplified ground surface temperature forcing, model results were able to reproduce the observed deformation pattern, and TM-induced displacement rates and seasonal amplitudes in the model are of the same order of magnitude as measured values. Model results, however, exhibit spatial variation in displacement onset times while field measurements show more synchronous change. Additional heat transfer mechanisms, such as fracture ventilation, likely create deviations from the purely transient-conductive temperature field modeled. We suggest that TM effects are especially important at Randa due to the absence of significant groundwater within the unstable rock mass.

  17. Research on monitoring system for slope deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-sheng; ZHANG Xue-zhuang; WANG Ai-gong

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring system for slope deformation which bases on Leica (TCA series)was researched and developed. This system consists of electronic total stations, high precision thermometer, digital barometer, photoelectric frequency adjustor and other related instruments and data collection and processing software. The system can monitor a series of targets automatically to obtain accurate data of distance at predetermined time, besides,it can timely display targets' coordinates and deformation value, velocity, etc. in graph as well. To compare of the results of different monitoring time, we can find the problems of mine slope deformation rapidly and accurately.

  18. Interplay between down-slope and along-slope sedimentary processes during the late Quaternary along the Capo Vaticano margin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorelli, Eleonora; Bosman, Alessandro; Casalbore, Daniele; Falcini, Federico

    2016-04-01

    Late Quaternary along-slope and down-slope sedimentary processes and structures in the upper slope-shelf sector of the Calabro-Tyrrhenian continental margin off Capo Vaticano have been investigated using very high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles and multibeam bathymetric data. The results show that a competition among along-slope bottom currents-vs down-slope mass-wasting mostly contributed in shaping the seafloor and controlling deposition of sedimentary units during the Late Quaternary. Along-slope processes mostly formed elongated drifts located on the upper continental slope and outer shelf, between -90 and -300 m. The contourite deposits and associated erosive elements indicate the presence of a northwestward geostrophic flow that can be related to the modified-LIW issued by the Messina Strait. According to the proposed stratigraphic reconstruction it is likely that the activity of bottom-currents off Capo Vaticano was intensified around the LGM period and during the post-glacial sea-level rise, whereas they were less intense during the Holocene. Gravity-driven down-slope processes formed mass-transport deposits and turbidite systems with erosive channels, locally indenting the present-day shelf. Several slide events affected the upper 10-20 m of the stratigraphic record, dismantling considerable volume of contourite sediment. High-resolution seismic profiles indicate that failure processes appear to be dominated by translational sliding with glide plains mainly developed within contourite deposits. The most striking feature is the Capo Vaticano slide complex, which displays a large spatial coverage (area of about 18 km2) and is composed by several intersecting slide scars and overlapping deposits; these characteristics are peculiar for the Tyrrhenian continental margins, where slide events developed in open-slope areas are usually less complex and smaller in size. The presence of high-amplitude reflectors within contourite deposits (representing

  19. 基于用户相似度加权的Slope One算法%Slope One Algorithm Weighted by User Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田松瑞

    2016-01-01

    Slope One algorithm based on a simple linear regression model. Reducing the response time and mainte-nance difficulty, it significantly improve the recommended performance. However, Slope One algorithm does not con-sider the internal relevance of users. Using data of all users without distinction is likely to cause deviation and effect the recommendation quality. In this paper we propose an improved Slope One algorithm which takes user similarity into account and modifies the rating deviation calculation formula. Combing item-based Slope One algorithm and user-based collaborative filtering algorithm, a new hybrid recommendation algorithm US-Slope One is proposed. The experimental results on Movielens data set show that the proposed algorithm has better prediction accuracy and rec-ommendation quality compared with the original Slope One algorithms.%Slope One算法基于简单的线性回归模型,通过减少响应时间和维护难度,显著提高了推荐性能。然而Slope One算法没有考虑用户内部的关联,同等地使用各个用户数据进行预测,容易造成偏差,影响推荐质量。本文提出了一种改进的Slope One算法,它将用户相似度纳入考虑并且对评分偏差计算公式进行了修正。基于项目的Slope One算法结合基于用户的协同过滤算法,提出新的混合推荐算法US-Slope One。在MovieLens数据集上的实验结果表明,该算法与原Slope One算法相比具有更好的预测准确度和推荐质量。

  20. Inverse problem of bottom slope design for aerator devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 樊博; 许唯临

    2013-01-01

    Air entrainment is an effective approach to protect release works from cavitation damage. The traditional method of aera-tor device designs is that, for given flow conditions, the geometries of the aerator device are designed and then the effects are experi-mentally tested for cavitation damage control. The present paper proposes an inverse problem method of determining the bottom slopes in front of and behind an aerator if the requirements of air entrainment, flow conditions and some of aerator geometric para-meters are given. An RBF neural network model is developed and the relevant bottom slopes are calculated in different conditions of flow and geometry on the basis of the data of 19 aerator devices from different discharge tunnels with safe operation. The case study shows that the methodology provides an effective way to design aerator devices under given target conditions.

  1. Influence of groundwater level to slope displacement by geodetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarviana, Vera; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Santoso, Djoko; Kahar, Joenil; Achmad R., T.

    2016-05-01

    In the rainy season, Indonesia often experience landslide disasters. Rainwater flows on the surface of the ground and partially into the ground, and changing the groundwater level (GWL) which can cause pressure on surrounding material. Water becomes the main factor that triggered landslides because water causes pressure force on the slopes that are prone to move. With the geometric approach, slope material displacement vectors can be known, including the origin of the material pressure using dynamic mathematical model that considers GWL. The data was used 5 campaigns of GPS observations. The results are obtained the correlation coefficients between coefficient changes in groundwater levels to the vector position as a representative of correlation between the physical and geometric parameters. There is relatively strong because of the value of the average correlation coefficient is 0.91997. Further, curves between changes in groundwater levels and the displacement position shows that the greater the groundwater levels, the greater the material position shift occurs.

  2. Reliability Evaluation of Slopes Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khajehzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop a numerical procedure to reliability evaluation of earth slope and locating the critical probabilistic slip surface. The performance function is  formulated using simplified Bishop’s limit equilibrium method  to calculate the reliability index. The reliability index defined by Hasofer and Lind is used as an index of safety measure. Searching the critical probabilistic surface that is associated with the lowest reliability index will be formulated as an optimization problem. In this paper, particle swarm optimization is applied to calculate the minimum Hasofer and Lind reliability index and critical probabilistic failure surface. To demonstrate the applicability and to investigate the effectiveness of the algorithm, two numerical examples from literature are illustrated. Results show that the proposed method is capable to achieve better solutions for reliability analysis of slope if compared with those reported in the literature.

  3. Characteristic of involute slope modification of asymmetric spur gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiao-he; HUA Lin; HAN Xing-hui

    2015-01-01

    The meshing characteristic of asymmetric involute spur gear was studied, the equations of the geometric shape of the asymmetric gear for both sides were deduced, and the equations of contact ratio and the key points of contact were also obtained. Meanwhile, an involute slope modification method considering the effects of static transmission errors was proposed based on the meshing properties. The characteristic of the involute slope modification was analyzed by changing different modification parameters. The mesh stiffness and synthetic mesh stiffness of unmodified and modified asymmetric spur gears were investigated. Furthermore, the spectrums of synthetic mesh stiffness under different modification parameters were compared. Research results showed that the modification parameters influence the meshing performance of gear pairs, and the proposed modification method was feasible to improve the transmission performance of gear pairs with appropriate modification parameters.

  4. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Sheng; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; Church, Matthew; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Greg; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-31

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  5. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, S.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Goldberg, K.A.; Celestre, R.; Church, M.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.

    2009-09-18

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situvisible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  6. The Wideband Slope of Interference Channels: The Infinite Bandwidth Case

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Minqi

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that minimum received energy per bit in the interference channel is $-1.59dB$ as if there were no interference. Thus, the best way to mitigate interference is to operate the interference channel in the low power regime, that is in the limit of infinite bandwidth. However, when the bandwidth is large, but finite, minimum received energy per bit alone does not characterize performance. Verdu introduced the wideband slope $\\mathcal{S}_{0}$ to characterize the performance in this regime. We show that a wideband slope of ${\\mathcal{S}_{0}}/{\\mathcal{S}_{0,{no interference}}}=1/2$ is achievable. This result is similar to recent results on degrees of freedom in the high SNR regime, and we use a type of interference alignment using delays to obtain the result. We also show that in many cases the wideband slope is upper bounded by ${\\mathcal{S}_{0}}/{\\mathcal{S}_{0,{no interference}}}\\leq 1/2}$ for large number of users $K$.

  7. Effects of Topographic Slopes on Hydrological Proecsses and Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on previous research results on river re-distribution models, a modification on the effects of topographic slopes for a runoff parameterization was proposed and implemented to the NCAR's land sur face model (LSM). This modification has two aspects: firstly, the topographic slopes cause outflows from higher topography and inflows into the lower topography points; secondly, topographic slopes also cause decrease of infiltration at higher topography and increases of infiltration at lower topography. Then changes in infiltration result in changes in soil moisture, surface fluxes and then in surface temperature, and eventual ly in the upper atmosphere and the climate. This mechanism is very clearly demonstrated in the point bud gets analysis at the Andes Mountains vicinities. Analysis from a regional scale perspective in the Mackenzie GEWEX Study (MAGS) area, the focus of the ongoing Canadian GEWEX program, shows that the modi fied runoff parameterization does bring significant changes in the regional surface climate. More important ly, detailed analysis from a global perspective shows many encouraging improvements introduced by the modified LSM over the original model in simulating basic atmospheric climate properties such as thermodynamic features (temperature and humidity). All of these improvements in the atmospheric climate simulation illustrate that the inclusion of topographic effects in the LSM can force the AGCM to produce a more realistic model climate.

  8. Low-velocity impact cratering experiments in granular slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kosuke; Sumita, Ikuro

    2017-07-01

    Low-velocity impact cratering experiments are conducted in sloped granular targets to study the effect of the slope angle θ on the crater shape and its scales. We use two types of granular matter, sand and glass beads, former of which has a larger friction coefficient μs = tanθr , where θr is the angle of repose. Experiments show that as θ increases, the crater becomes shallower and elongated in the direction of the slope. Furthermore the crater floor steepens in the upslope side and a thick rim forms in the downslope side, thus forming an asymmetric profile. High-speed images show that these features are results of ejecta being dispersed farther towards the downslope side and the subsequent avalanche which buries much of the crater floor. Such asymmetric ejecta dispersal can be explained by combining the Z-model and a ballistic model. Using the topographic maps of the craters, we classify crater shape regimes I-III, which transition with increasing θ : a full-rim crater (I), a broken-rim crater (II), and a depression (III). The critical θ for the regime transitions are larger for sand compared to glass beads, but collapse to close values when we use a normalized slope θ^ = tanθ / tanθr . Similarly we derive θ^-dependences of the scaled crater depth, length, width and their ratios which collapse the results for different targets and impact energies. We compare the crater profiles formed in our experiments with deep craters on asteroid Vesta and find that some of the scaled profiles nearly overlap and many have similar depth / length ratios. This suggests that these Vestan craters may also have formed in the gravity regime and that the formation process can be approximated by a granular flow with a similar effective friction coefficient.

  9. A Worthwhile Task to Teach Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Lauren L.

    2009-01-01

    Since mathematics is found in every aspect of life, it is important for teachers to provide experiences that help students find connections and develop an appreciation for math and its use in their lives outside school. Slope is an excellent example of a math concept that is usually taught without context or connection. In this article, the…

  10. Negative magnetoresistance slope in superconducting granular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Boris Ya., E-mail: shapib@mail.biu.ac.il; Shapiro, Irina; Levi, Daniel; Shaulov, Avner; Yeshurun, Yosef

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • The theory explaining recently observed negative magneto-resistance slope in ultra-thin YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} films is developed. • Considering film as an array of the Josephson junctions, we solve the sine-Gordon equations including a viscosity term. • The solution yields a negative magneto-resistance slope setting in agreement with the experimental results. - Abstract: A phenomenological theory is developed to explain the recently observed negative magnetoresistance slope in ultra-thin granular YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} films. Viewing this system as a two-dimensional array of extended Josephson junctions, we numerically solve the sine-Gordon equations including a viscosity term that increases linearly with the external field. The solution yields a negative magnetoresistance slope setting in at a field that is determined by the geometry and thus independent of temperature, in agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Slope stability and erosion control: Ecotechnological solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    This book is designed to assist the civil and geotechnical engineer, geomorphologist, forester, landscape architect or ecologist in choosing ecotechnological solutions for slopes that are prone to a variety of mass movements e.g. shallow failure or erosion. Within this book, the 'engineer' is used i

  12. A Novel Way To Practice Slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jane B.

    1997-01-01

    Presents examples of using a tic-tac-toe format to practice finding the slope and identifying parallel and perpendicular lines from various equation formats. Reports the successful use of this format as a review in both precalculus and calculus classes before students work with applications of analytic geometry. (JRH)

  13. Improved wavefront reconstruction algorithm from slope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Phan Huy; Manh, Nguyen The; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Ghim, Young-Sik; Yang, Ho-Soon; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a wavefront reconstruction algorithm from slope measurements based on a zonal method. In this algorithm, the slope measurement sampling geometry used is the Southwell geometry, in which the phase values and the slope data are measured at the same nodes. The proposed algorithm estimates the phase value at a node point using the slope measurements of eight points around the node, as doing so is believed to result in better accuracy with regard to the wavefront. For optimization of the processing time, a successive over-relaxation method is applied to iteration loops. We use a trial-and-error method to determine the best relaxation factor for each type of wavefront in order to optimize the iteration time and, thus, the processing time of the algorithm. Specifically, for a circularly symmetric wavefront, the convergence rate of the algorithm can be improved by using the result of a Fourier Transform as an initial value for the iteration. Various simulations are presented to demonstrate the improvements realized when using the proposed algorithm. Several experimental measurements of deflectometry are also processed by using the proposed algorithm.

  14. Slope stability and erosion control: Ecotechnological solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    This book is designed to assist the civil and geotechnical engineer, geomorphologist, forester, landscape architect or ecologist in choosing ecotechnological solutions for slopes that are prone to a variety of mass movements e.g. shallow failure or erosion. Within this book, the 'engineer' is used

  15. Slope stability and erosion control: Ecotechnological solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    This book is designed to assist the civil and geotechnical engineer, geomorphologist, forester, landscape architect or ecologist in choosing ecotechnological solutions for slopes that are prone to a variety of mass movements e.g. shallow failure or erosion. Within this book, the 'engineer' is used i

  16. INITIAL SLOPE OF THE HYSTERESIS CURVE

    OpenAIRE

    Gerritsma, G.J.; Stam, M.T.H.C.W.; Lodder, J. C.; Popma, Th.J.A.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical expression for the initial slope T of the hysteresis curve is derived for a stripe domain structure in a thin magnetic film, giving that T-1 is proportional to t-1/2 (t = film thickness). This is confirmed by measurements on RF sputtered CoCr films with 20 nm ≤ t ≤ 950 nm.

  17. Initial slope of the hysteresis curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, G.J.; Stam, M.T.H.C.W.; Lodder, J.C.; Popma, Th.J.A.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical expression for the initial slope T of the hysteresis curve is derived for a stripe domain structure in a thin magnetic film, giving that T-1 is proportional to t-1/2 (t = film thickness). This is confirmed by measurements on RF sputtered CoCr films with 20 nm £ t £ 950 nm.

  18. Level-Slope-Curvature - Fact or Artefact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lord (Roger); A.A.J. Pelsser (Antoon)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe first three factors resulting from a principal components analysis of term structure data are in the literature typically interpreted as driving the level, slope and curvature of the term structure. Using slight generalisations of theorems from total positivity, we present sufficient

  19. Speaking rate effects on locus equation slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant–vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change. PMID:24535890

  20. A continental slope stability evaluation in the Zhujiang River Mouth Basin in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ke; WANG Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    In nature, a slope stability is determined by the ratio of a sliding resistance to a slide force. The slide force of a marine deep-water continental slope is mainly affected by sediment mechanics properties, a topography, and a marine seismic. However, the sliding resistance is mainly affected by sedimentary patterns and a sedi-mentary stress history. Both of these are different from case to case, and their impact can be addressed when the data are organized in a geographic information system (GIS). The study area on the continental slope in Zhujiang River Mouth Basin in South China Sea provides an excellent opportunity to apply GIS spatial analysis technology for the evaluation of the slope stability. In this area, a continental slope topography and a three-dimension (3-D) topography mapping show a sea-floor morphology and the distribution of a slope steepness in good detail, and the sediment analysis of seabed samples and an indoor appraisal reveals the variability of a sediment density near the sea-floor surface. On the basis of the results of nine geotechnical studies of submarine study areas, it has worked out that an equivalent cyclic shear stress ratio is roughly between 0.158 and 0.933, which is mainly depending on the initial water content of sediment. A regional density, slope and level of anticipated seismic shaking information are combined in a GIS framework to yield a map that illustrates a continental slope stability zoning under the influencing factors in Zhujiang River Mouth Basin in the South China Sea. The continental slope stability evaluation can contribute to north resources development in the South China Sea, the marine functional zoning, the marine engineering con-struction and adjust measures to local conditions, at the same time also can provide references for other deep-water slope stability analysis.

  1. QRS slopes for assessment of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, E.; Laciar, E.; Anzuola, E.; Laguna, P.; Jané, R.

    2007-11-01

    In this study the slopes of the QRS complex are evaluated for determination of the degree of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of the slope indices to reflect alterations in the conduction velocity of the cardiac impulse. Results obtained in the present study show that chronic chagasic patients have significantly flatter QRS slopes as compared to healthy subjects. Not only that but the extent of slope lessening turns out to be proportional to the degree of myocardial damage caused by the disease. Additionally, when incorporating the slope indices into a classification analysis together with other indices indicative of the presence of ventricular late potentials obtained from high resolution electrocardiography, results show that the percentages of correct classification increase up to 62.5%, which means eight points above the percentages obtained prior to incorporation of the slope indices. It can be concluded that QRS slopes have great potential for assessing the degree of severity associated with Chagas' disease.

  2. QRS slopes for assessment of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueyo, E [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon (13A), and CIBER-BBN, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Laciar, E [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Anzuola, E [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon (13A), and CIBER-BBN, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Laguna, P [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon (13A), and CIBER-BBN, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Jane, R [Department ESAII, CREB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    In this study the slopes of the QRS complex are evaluated for determination of the degree of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of the slope indices to reflect alterations in the conduction velocity of the cardiac impulse. Results obtained in the present study show that chronic chagasic patients have significantly flatter QRS slopes as compared to healthy subjects. Not only that but the extent of slope lessening turns out to be proportional to the degree of myocardial damage caused by the disease. Additionally, when incorporating the slope indices into a classification analysis together with other indices indicative of the presence of ventricular late potentials obtained from high resolution electrocardiography, results show that the percentages of correct classification increase up to 62.5%, which means eight points above the percentages obtained prior to incorporation of the slope indices. It can be concluded that QRS slopes have great potential for assessing the degree of severity associated with Chagas' disease.

  3. Effects of Weak Layer Angle and Thickness on the Stability of Rock Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garmondyu Crusoe Jr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches two key factors (angle and thickness of a weak layer in relation to their influencing mechanism on slope stability. It puts forward the sliding surface angle and morphological model criteria for the control of rock slopes and realization of its failure mechanism. By comparing the Failure Modes and Safety Factors (Fs obtained from numerical analysis, the influence pattern for the weak layer angle and thickness on the stability of rock slopes is established. The result shows that the weak layer angle influences the slope by validating the existence of the “interlocking” situation. It also illustrates that as the angle of the weak layer increases, the Fs unceasingly decreases with an Fs transformation angle. The transformation interval of the Fs demonstrates the law of diminishing of a quadratic function. Analysis of the weak layer thickness on the influence pattern of slope stability reveals three decrease stages in the Fs values. The result also shows that the increase in the thickness of the weak layer increases the failure zone and influences the mode of failure. Given the theoretical and numerical analysis of a weak layer effects on the stability of rock slopes, this work provides a guiding role in understanding the influence of a weak layer on the failure modes and safety factors of rock slopes.

  4. The Health Show

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, David

    2011-01-01

    Dr David Swann interviewed on The Health Show, Series 1, Episode 5, 2011 for BBC World about the award-winning 21st Century Nursing Bag. BBC World News reaches 241million people every week, available in 296 million homes, 1.8 million hotel rooms and has the highest average viewership on a weekday of any international news channel. The Health Show is a new 26-part series for BBC World News covering the most important news stories from around the world.

  5. Effects of grapevine root density and reinforcement on slopes prone to shallow slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisina, Claudia; Bordoni, Massimiliano; Bischetti, Gianbattista; Vercesi, Alberto; Chiaradia, Enrico; Cislaghi, Alessio; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Vergani, Chiara; Chersich, Silvia; Giuseppina Persichillo, Maria; Comolli, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Slope erosion and shallow slope instabilities are the major factors of soil losses in cultivated steep terrains. These phenomena also cause loss of organic matter and plants nutrients, together with the partial or total destruction of the structures, such as the row tillage pattern of the vineyards, which allow for the plants cultivation. Vegetation has long been used as an effective tool to decrease the susceptibility of a slope to erosion and to shallow landslides. In particular, the scientific research focused on the role played by the plant roots, because the belowground biomass has the major control on the potential development of soil erosion and of shallow failures. Instead, a comprehensive study that analyzes the effects of the roots of agricultural plants on both soil erosion and slope instability has not been carried out yet. This aspect should be fundamental where sloped terrains are cultivated with plants of great economical relevance, as grapevine. To contribute to fill this gap, in this study the features of root density in the soil profile have been analyzed in slopes cultivated with vineyards, located on a sample hilly area of Oltrepò Pavese (northern Italy). In this area, the viticulture is the most important branch of the local economy. Moreover, several events of rainfall-induced slope erosion and shallow landslides have occurred in this area in the last 6 years, causing several economical damages linked to the destruction of the vineyards and the loss of high productivity soils. Grapevine root distribution have been measured in different test-site slopes, representative of the main geological, geomorphological, pedological, landslides distribution, agricultural features, in order to identify particular patterns on root density that can influence the development of slope instabilities. Roots have been sampled in each test-site for characterizing their strength, in terms of the relation between root diameter and root force at rupture. Root

  6. Simulation analysis of construction process of high rock slope's stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhan-yuan; LING Xian-zhang; WANG Xuan-qing; ZOU Zu-yin

    2008-01-01

    A self-developed elasto-plastic finite element program was used to analyze the construction sequence of high rock slope' s stabilization in a coal-coking plant, and the result was compared with that employing the ultimate equilibrium method. Based on the results of finite element analysis, the stress contour graphs and dis-placement vector graphs at different construction steps were obtained, and the behavior of the slope during stabi-lization construction process was analyzed quantitatively. Based on the analysis of safety factors of three different schemes of stabilization and two different construction schemes, the assessment of stability and bracing design of the construction process were performed. The results show that the original reinforcement design is improper;the stability of the rock slope is controlled by a developed structural plane, the stability factor after excavation is less than 1, and the free surface should be braced in time ; for stability, the construction sequence should adopt that bracing follows excavation step by step up to down; the local slide occurred during the construction process agrees with the dangerous slide determined by the numerical analysis, which proves the validity and rationality of the adopted method.

  7. Structural highs on the western continental slope of India: Implications for regional tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Rajesh, M.; De, Suritha; Chakraborty, B.; Jauhari, P.

    Transmission(RDT)modetoobtainuniform Fig. 4. The continental slope bathymetry as deduced from multibeam swath contours at 25 m intervals shows the presence of structural highs (white semi-circular patches 01, 04, 05, 08) and a linear depression on the eastern strip considered as Upper... and manual error de- Fig. 5. The 3-Ddigital terrainmodel (DTM) ofa part of thecontinental slope strips are shown. Note the flat summits, steep western and relatively gentle bulged slope wall in the north-central part and a channel-like depression relatively...

  8. A Fashion Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Story: The yearly fashion show day.The children take turns to walk on the stage and show the class their favorite clothes.Now it’s Joe’s and Phoebe’s turn.Joe walks on the stage and says,“My shorts are blue.Do you like my blue shorts?”On the other side of the stage, Phoebe is wearing her favorite pink skirt.“My skirt is pink.Do you like my pink skirt?”asks

  9. On not showing scalps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    proposed by Janet Marstine, the editor of the Routledge Companion to Museum Ethics, I show how the museum succeeded in engaging users in questions of museum ethics. However, this specific debate on human remains in museums developed into an encounter between a global, museological discourse...

  10. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  11. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  12. A Visionary Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  13. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  14. E24 profile slope stability analysis in Haizhou Opencast Coal Mine of Fuxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simplice F. BOBY; Jianping CHEN

    2007-01-01

    The E24 profile slope analyzed belongs to a series of excavated slopes of the Haizhou Opencast Coal Mine. It seems to be divided into Downslope Part and Upslope Part. Its profile comprises two noticeable coal seams, called the 8# and 9# weak layers, considered as the potential failure surfaces. In consideration of the actual configuration as in the perspective of any modification, assessing the stability of this slope with various profile forms under given conditions, and assessing the risk of instability and quantifying the influence of earthworks or other modifications to the stability of this slope, have constituted the primordial objectives carried out. From assumed potential failure surfaces, any specific profiles and specified slip surfaces are defined. A factor of safety (FoS) is computed for each specified slip surface; the smallest FoS found corresponds to the least favorable slip surface. The safety factor values obtained are compared to the suggested safety factor. Limit equilibrium methods of vertical slices implemented in Slope/W, computer program for slope stability analyses, have been adopted to perform the E24 slope stability analysis. The safety factor values computed with 9# weak layer are lower than for 8#; the factors of safety obtained with Sarma's method are the smallest; more, without groundwater (long term) overall values are greater than those determined under groundwater condition (short term). The lowest safety factor value is found for a profile depending on an adopted earthwork sequence. The E24 profile slope stability analysis shows the instability risk for the deepest weak layer, and also shows the short and long term stability of this slope for the envisaged earth movements. However it demonstrates the existence of instability risk for any earthwork firstly affecting the downslope part.

  15. Relief unity emulator and slope stability simulator applied to mass movement occurrence analysis in slope evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Antonio C.

    2010-05-01

    This work refers to a part of my "Fellow" thesis "Geomorphosynthesis and Geomorphocinematic applied to slope stability and evolution" (Colangelo, 2007). Relief unity emulator (rue) is a device that permits to synthesize a slope unity by means of a single generatrix profile that determine the initial conditions for application of a set of a geotechnical, hydrological and morphological models. This initial profile is considered in equilibrium with original environmental conditions, and operates in an integrated manner with these models. The aim is to induce a boundary condition on initial profile and produce a new profile: a threshold profile. For this manner and by iterations we generate a set of new profiles that represents, each one, a meta-stable profile, or a descending profile. The evolution of these profiles is in according with the central geomorphologycal concepts of slope retreat, base level change and head retreat. This set of "descending profiles" will be now sliced at topographic equivalent points, that will linked for describe a "topographic equivalence line". The crossing of this kind of isolines with descending profiles composes a 3D slope unity. This descending slope unity is represented by a mesh built for the crossing of these new slope profiles with the topographic equivalence lines and, the result is a four-dimensional meta-stable object integrated to the slope stability simulator (sss). This composite "rue-sss" device operates with 10 main models and 16 variables. The models describe effective stress, shearing resistance, soil saturation level behavior, potential rupture surface depth, critical depth, potential rupture surface critical gradient, critical soil saturation level, top of percolation flow gradient and unit weight of soil. Of this manner, is possible to evaluate effective friction angles and cohesion, critical soil saturation levels, critical gradients for potential rupture surfaces, neutral stress, shear strength, shear stress

  16. Microstructural and Statistical Study of Semisolid Casting of 6061 Alloy Using a Miniature Cooling Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, Mahdi; Niroumand, Behzad; Shamanian, Morteza

    2014-10-01

    Preparation of metallic semisolid slurries using the cooling slope method is increasingly becoming popular because of the simplicity of design and control of the process. Microstructural features of the resultant semisolid castings such as size and sphericity of the primary particles are affected by several processing parameters such as pouring rate, cooling slope surface angle and length as well as the melt superheat. In this work, a miniature cooling slope for semisolid casting of small parts was built and attempts were made to develop an empirical relationship showing the correlation between the sphericity of the microstructure of semisolid cast 6061-aluminum alloy and the processing variables. The relationships were developed by a two-level factorial method. The results showed that the interaction of cooling slope length and pouring rate factors had the most effect on the sphericity of the final semisolid cast microstructure.

  17. Shanghai Shows Its Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  18. General regularity of dynamic responses of slopes under dynamic input

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Shengwen; WU Faquan; SUN Jinzhong

    2003-01-01

    Through lots of numerical simulations with FLAC3D, dynamic responses of slopes are comprehensively studied in this paper and the general regularities of the isoline of the coefficient of the displacement, velocity and acceleration of the slope section are reached. Given a certain material slope, if the height of the slope is less than a certain value, the displacement, velocity and acceleration linearly enlarge with elevation in the vertical direction; if the height of the slope surpasses the certain value, the displacement,velocity and acceleration do not linearly enlarge with elevation any more, on the other hand, they fluctuate with a certain rhythm. At the same time, the rhythm appears in the horizontal direction, and the displacement, velocity and acceleration of the slope surface enlarge near the slope surface. The distribution form of the isoline of the coefficient of displacement, velocity and acceleration in the section of the slope is remarkably affected by the slope angle. In the certain area near the slope surface, the isoline of displacement,velocity and acceleration is parallel to the surface of the slope; in the mean time the strike direction of the extremum area is parallel to the surface of the slope, too. The charts of the slope dynamic responses can be depicted with two indexes, one is the strike direction of the isoline, and the other is the number of the rhythm extremum area of the direction parallel to the surface of the slope.

  19. Application of dynamic analysis of strength reduction in the slope engineering under earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Hailin; Zheng Yingren; Huang Runqiu; Li Anhong; Du Xiuli

    2010-01-01

    At present,the methods of analyzing the stability of slope under earthquake are not accurate and reasonable because of some limitations.Based on the real dynamic tensile-shear failure mechanism of slope,the paper proposes dynamic analysis of strength reduction FEM(finite element method)and takes the reduction of shear strength parameters and tensile strength parameters into consideration.And it comprehensively takes the transfixion of the failure surface,the non-convergence of calculation and mutation of displacement as the criterion of dynamic instability and failure of the slope.The strength reduction factor under limit state is regarded as the dynamic safety factor of the slope under earthquake effect and its advantages are introduced.Finally,the method is applied in the seismic design of anchors supporting and anti-slide pile supporting of the slope.Calculation examples show that the application of dynamic analysis of strength reduction is feasible in the seismic design of slope engineering,which can consider dynamic interaction of supporting structure and rock-soil mass.Owing to its preciseness and great advantages,it is a new method in the seismic design of slope supporting.

  20. Discussion on the Safety Factors of Slopes Recommended for Small Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vrubel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and assessment of the slope stability of small embankment dams is usually not carried out using slope stability calculations but rather by the comparison of proposed or existing dam slopes with those recommended by technical standards or guidelines. Practical experience shows that in many cases the slopes of small dams are steeper than those recommended. However, most of such steeper slopes at existing dams do not exhibit any visible signs of instability, defects or sliding. For the dam owner and also for dam stability engineers, the safety of the slope, expressed e.g. via a factor of safety, is crucial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety margin provided by recommended slopes. The factor of safety was evaluated for several dam shape and layout variants via the shear strength reduction method using PLAXIS software. The study covers various dam geometries, dam core and shoulder positions and parameter values of utilised soils. Three load cases were considered: one with a steady state seepage condition and two with different reservoir water level drawdown velocities – standard and critical. As numerous older small dams lack a drainage system, variants with and without a toe drain were assessed. Calculated factors of safety were compared with required values specified by national standards and guidelines.

  1. Maternal cortisol slope at 6 months predicts infant cortisol slope and EEG power at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Ashley M; Kao, Katie; Liederman, Jacqueline; Grieve, Philip G; Tarullo, Amanda R

    2017-09-01

    Physiological stress systems and the brain rapidly develop through infancy. While the roles of caregiving and environmental factors have been studied, implications of maternal physiological stress are unclear. We assessed maternal and infant diurnal cortisol when infants were 6 and 12 months. We measured 12-month infant electroencephalography (EEG) 6-9 Hz power during a social interaction. Steeper 6-month maternal slope predicted steeper 12-month infant slope controlling for 6-month infant slope and breastfeeding. Steeper 6-month maternal slope predicted lower 6-9 Hz power. Six-month maternal area under the cuve (AUCg) was unrelated to 12-month infant AUCg and 6-9 Hz power. Psychosocial, caregiving, and breastfeeding variables did not explain results. At 6 months, maternal and infant slopes correlated, as did maternal and infant AUCg. Twelve-month maternal and infant cortisol were unrelated. Results indicate maternal slope is an informative predictor of infant physiology and suggest the importance of maternal physiological stress in this developmental period. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Application of fuzzy optimal selection of similar slopes to the evaluation of slope stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu-hua; CHEN Shou-yu; TANG Lie-xian; ZHANG Hou-quan

    2007-01-01

    The numerical calculation method is widely used in the evaluation of slope stability, but it cannot take the randomness and fuzziness into account that exist in rock and soil engineering objectively. The fuzzy optimization theory is thus introduced to the evaluation of slope stability by this paper and a method of fuzzy optimal selection of similar slopes is put forward to analyze slope stability. By comparing the relative membership degrees that the evaluated object sample of slope is similar to the source samples of which the stabilities are detected clearly, the source sample with the maximal relative membership degree will be chosen as the best similar one to the object sample, and the stability of the object sample can be evaluated by that of the best similar source sample. In the process many uncertain influential factors are considered and characteristics and knowledge of the source samples are obtained. The practical calculation indicates that it can achieve good results to evaluate slope stability by using this method.

  3. The Salpeter Slope of the IMF Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Oey, M S

    2012-01-01

    If we accept a paradigm that star formation is a self-similar, hierarchical process, then the Salpeter slope of the IMF for high-mass stars can be simply and elegantly explained as follows. If the instrinsic IMF at the smallest scales follows a simple -2 power-law slope, then the steepening to the -2.35 Salpeter value results when the most massive stars cannot form in the lowest-mass clumps of a cluster. It is stressed that this steepening MUST occur if clusters form hierarchically from clumps, and the lowest-mass clumps can form stars. This model is consistent with a variety of observations as well as theoretical simulations.

  4. An Extended Mild-Slope Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Junning; HONG Guangwen; ZUO Qihua

    2000-01-01

    On the assumption that the vortex and the vertical velocity component of the current are small, a mild-slope equation for wave propagation on non-uniform flows is deduced from the basic hydrodynamic equations, with the terms of ( h h)2 and /2h h included in the equation. The terms of bottom friction, wind energy input and wave nonlinearity are also introduced into the equation. The wind energy input functions for wind waves and swells are separately considered by adopting Wen′s (1989) empirical formula for wind waves and Snyder′s observation results for swells. Thus, an extended mild-slope equation is obtained, in which the effects of refraction, diffraction, reflection, current, bottom friction, wind energy input and wave nonlinearity are considered synthetically.

  5. Slope reinforcement design using geotextiles and geogrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setser, Darrell M.

    1990-08-01

    A geotextile is defined by ASTM as: any permeable textile material used with foundation, soil, rock, earth, or any other geotechnical engineering related material, as a integral part of a man-made project, structure, or system. A geogrid is defined as: any geotextile-related material used in a similar manner to geotextiles. They are usually made of plastic, but can be metal or wood. Geotextiles and geogrids are collectively referred to as geosynthetics in this paper. Geosynthetic reinforcement of slopes is a relatively new option available to the civil engineer. Slope angles can be increased and 'poor' soil can be used to construct economical soil-geosynthetic facilities. Uncertainties exist in the complex interaction between the soil and the geosynthetic but there are numerous procedures which ignore this in the design. The design procedures available may be conservative yet still may be an economical alternative when compared to more conventional options.

  6. CCN-supersaturation spectra slopes (k)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiusto, J. E.; Lala, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretically the slope k of a CCN-supesaturation spectrum should equal two thirds of the slope of the total (soluble) aerosol size distribution. Workshop results tended to verify this relation. The k values are markedly different depending on whether one is measuring ambient CCN concentrations at supersaturations S above or below approximately 0.1-0.2%. The larger k values for S approximately 0.1% is consistent with the greater decrease in large particle concentration with increasing size. It is concluded that over the S range of 0.02% to 2%, two power fits (and k values) may sometimes suffice for a reasonable approximation of the CCN distribution. At other times, and with laboratory generated aeosols, such an approach is inadequate and requires refinement.

  7. Pipeline modeling and assessment in unstable slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Carlos Nieves [Oleoducto Central S.A., Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia); Ordonez, Mauricio Pereira [SOLSIN S.A.S, Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia)

    2010-07-01

    The OCENSA pipeline system is vulnerable to geotechnical problems such as faults, landslides or creeping slopes, which are well-known in the Andes Mountains and tropical countries like Colombia. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pipe behaviour during the soil displacements of slow landslides. Three different cases of analysis are examined, according to site characteristics. The process starts with a simplified analytical model and develops into 3D finite element numerical simulations applied to the on-site geometry of soil and pipe. Case 1 should be used when the unstable site is subject to landslides impacting significant lengths of pipeline, pipeline is straight, and landslide is simple from the geotechnical perspective. Case 2 should be used when pipeline is straight and landslide is complex (creeping slopes and non-conventional stabilization solutions). Case 3 should be used if the pipeline presents vertical or horizontal bends.

  8. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  9. Ocean processes at the Antarctic continental slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Karen J; Schmidtko, Sunke; Heuzé, Céline; Kaiser, Jan; Jickells, Timothy D; Queste, Bastien Y; Stevens, David P; Wadley, Martin; Thompson, Andrew F; Fielding, Sophie; Guihen, Damien; Creed, Elizabeth; Ridley, Jeff K; Smith, Walker

    2014-07-13

    The Antarctic continental shelves and slopes occupy relatively small areas, but, nevertheless, are important for global climate, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem functioning. Processes of water mass transformation through sea ice formation/melting and ocean-atmosphere interaction are key to the formation of deep and bottom waters as well as determining the heat flux beneath ice shelves. Climate models, however, struggle to capture these physical processes and are unable to reproduce water mass properties of the region. Dynamics at the continental slope are key for correctly modelling climate, yet their small spatial scale presents challenges both for ocean modelling and for observational studies. Cross-slope exchange processes are also vital for the flux of nutrients such as iron from the continental shelf into the mixed layer of the Southern Ocean. An iron-cycling model embedded in an eddy-permitting ocean model reveals the importance of sedimentary iron in fertilizing parts of the Southern Ocean. Ocean gliders play a key role in improving our ability to observe and understand these small-scale processes at the continental shelf break. The Gliders: Excellent New Tools for Observing the Ocean (GENTOO) project deployed three Seagliders for up to two months in early 2012 to sample the water to the east of the Antarctic Peninsula in unprecedented temporal and spatial detail. The glider data resolve small-scale exchange processes across the shelf-break front (the Antarctic Slope Front) and the front's biogeochemical signature. GENTOO demonstrated the capability of ocean gliders to play a key role in a future multi-disciplinary Southern Ocean observing system.

  10. Transhumanism, medical technology and slippery slopes

    OpenAIRE

    McNamee, M. J.; Edwards, S D

    2006-01-01

    In this article, transhumanism is considered to be a quasi‐medical ideology that seeks to promote a variety of therapeutic and human‐enhancing aims. Moderate conceptions are distinguished from strong conceptions of transhumanism and the strong conceptions were found to be more problematic than the moderate ones. A particular critique of Boström's defence of transhumanism is presented. Various forms of slippery slope arguments that may be used for and against transhumanism are discussed and on...

  11. Overtopping and Rear Slope Stability of Reshaping & Non-reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.

    2004-01-01

    Overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping and non-reshaping berm breakwaters have been studied in a wave flume. A total of 695 tests have been performed to cover the influence of crest freeboard, crest width, berm width, berm elevation, stone size and sea state. Formula for average...... overtopping discharge that includes these parameters has been derived. The measurements show good correlation between average overtopping discharge and rear slope damage....

  12. Observation and Research on Gravitational Erosion Process of Bank Slopes in Headstream Area of Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zi-li; CUI Peng; CHEN Xiao-qin; CHEN Jie; ZHU Yin-yan

    2005-01-01

    To reveal the gravitational erosion process in the headstream area of Jiangjia Ravine, continuous observation was conducted duing the rainy season. The observation and research show that the change of water content of the bank slope lags the precipitation process, the infiltration water concentrates mainly in the shallow layer of the bank slope, also the bank slope was unsaturated, the floods and debris flows in the gully down cut the gully bed, and scour the foot of the bank slope. These results in many collapses, which is the main type of gravitational erosion process, and it provides large amounts of loose solid materials for the eruption of debris flows.

  13. Terrestrial slopes in northern high latitudes: A paradigm shift regarding sediment origin, composition, and dynamic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønne, Ida

    2017-01-01

    High-Arctic terrestrial slopes have received limited systematic research interest, but increased vulnerability related to regional warming has driven the call for better knowledge of the dynamics of these systems. Studies of sediment transport from a plateau area in Adventdalen, Svalbard, and associated slopes extending to sea level demonstrate that glacial processes play a more prominent role than earlier anticipated, - especially the impact of glacial meltwater. Traces of drainage at the plateau and the dissection of the plateau edge and upper slope were clearly initiated during various stages of Late Glacial runoff. Further, there is a close association between the sediment distribution and composition at the plateau and the evolution of various types of slopes. The reconstructed sedimentation history shows that the landscape will undergo four stages with contrasting modes of sediment transport: 1) subglacial processes related to active ice, 2) processes related to the margin of active ice, 3) processes related to the melting of inactive ice, and 4) nonglacial processes. These stages form four successions, referred to as supply regimes A-D, which control the supply of water and sediments to a given slope segment. In this landscape, traces of glacial meltwater occur at most altitudes, in "odd" positions and in slope segments "without" catchments. The associated depocenters (isolated, composite or coalescing into aprons), are often outsized compared to the apparent slope catchment. Reworked glacial sediments form a significant part of the slope-debris but are covered partly or entirely by products of physical weathering. Colluvium, senso stricto, thus masks a distinct system shift related to the local termination of glacial meltwater. Consequently, the weathering part of the slope sediment budget in this region is considerably overestimated.

  14. Examining the influence of vegetation on slope hydrology in Hong Kong using the capacitive resistivity technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qifei; Zhao, Kairan; Wang, Yu-Hsing; Wu, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    Vegetation essentially has both beneficial and detrimental hydrological effects on slope stability, and the balance between these effects changes throughout the year. For engineers considering vegetation as an ecotechnological solution to slope instability, it is therefore necessary to understand how the net hydrological effect varies with local weather conditions. In this study, year-round field monitoring was carried out to examine the influence of a native plant on slope hydrology in Hong Kong using the capacitive resistivity technique and a newly developed line-electrode resistivity array. The measured soil resistivity was used to infer the soil moisture conditions on the slopes. The results show that vegetation generally has a strong influence on soil moisture although this effect varies among seasons. During the summer time, vegetation increases the soil moisture if compared with the bare slope. This is mainly due to the high precipitation, most of which enters the vegetated slope because of the increased permeability and infiltration rate caused by the vegetation. During the autumn time, the influence of vegetation evapotranspiration on slope hydrology becomes noticeable mainly because of the low precipitation (monthly less than 100 mm) and the relatively high potential evapotranspiration (monthly around 100 mm). In dry and cold winter, resistivity measurements suggest that the vegetation helps retain the soil water. In the following spring, difference in the soil moisture in bare and vegetated slopes is gradually wiped out because of the frequent rainfall. When the monthly rainfall reaches ~ 400 mm in early summer, the influence of vegetation on slope hydrology (soil moisture) completely disappears.

  15. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  16. Large slope failures in the La Paz basin, Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; Hermanns, R. L.; Rabus, B.; Guzmán, M. A.; Minaya, E.; Clague, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The La Paz basin in the eastern Bolivian Andes has been a hotspot for large-scale, deep-seated gravitational slope deformation during the Holocene. In less than 2 Ma, a network of steep-sided valleys up to 800 m deep formed in sediments of the Altiplano Plateau and underlying basement rocks. We characterize the distribution, extent, mechanisms, and modern activity of large-scale failures within this landscape using optical image interpretation, existing geologic maps, synthetic RADAR interferometry (InSAR), and field investigation. Deposits of nearly 20 landslides larger than 100 Mm3 occur within the basin. Most failures have occurred in weakly lithified Late Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary rocks and include earth flows, translational and rotational landslides, and plug flows. Failures in underlying tectonized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include bedding-parallel rockslides. The largest failure is the 3 km3 Achcocalla earth flow (ca. 11 ka BP), which ran out ~20 km. Other dated events span the period from the early Holocene to nearly the Colonial historic period. InSAR results show that many large slope failures, including the Achocalla earth flow, are currently moving at rates of a few centimeters to a few decimeters per year. Rapid deposition, shallow burial, and rapid incision of the basin fills produced steep slopes in weak geologic materials that, coupled with groundwater discharge from the valley walls, are the primary controls on instability. In contrast, the Altiplano surface has changed little in 2 Ma and the adjacent slopes of the Cordilleran Real, although steep, are relatively stable. Of the over 100 landslides that have occurred in the city of La Paz since the early twentieth century, most are at the margins of large, deep-seated prehistoric failures, and two of the most damaging historic landslides (Hanko-Hanko, 1582; Pampahasi, 2011) were large-scale reactivations of previously failed slopes. Improved understanding of large, deep-seated landslides in

  17. Quasi-stable Slope-Failure Dams in High Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroder, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Collapses of steep mountain slopes in the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir, Hindu Kush, and Tibetan Plateau are well known as a result of:(1) generally high seismicity in active tectonic areas; (2) prior deglaciation leaving undercut, unstable cliffs; (3) present-day debuttressing of rock cliffs by glacial down-wasting in conditions of global warming; and (4) degradation of permafrost cohesion and water-ice cementation in high mountain slopes. Landslide dams across mountain rivers are also well known worldwide and generally do not endure for long because of the common landslide-lake outburst floods (LLOF) whose discharge is commonly sufficiently large to remove much of the dam in a short time. A number of massive slope-failure dams in south High Asia, however, have endured for centuries and require explanations for the length of duration, whereas recent examples require robust assessment for better predictive hazard analysis. Three main factors contribute to longevity of slope-failure dams: (1) mega-rocks >15-30 m that inhibit dam failure in overflow breaches; (2) mega-porosity wherein incoming discharge to the landslide lake is balanced by subterranean water through-flow within the landslide dam; (3) impermeable clay fills caused by remobilization of prior lacustrine-dammed sediment that impart dam strength to allow lasting integrity for a time, and (4) climate-change induced lake-level lowering. Several examples of long-lived or unusually stable, slope-failure dams associated with pronounced structural/tectonic associations include: (1) Pangong Tso, Ladakh and Tibet; (2) Lake Shewa, Afghanistan; (3) Sarez Lake, Tajikistan; and (4) Lake Hunza, Pakistan. Pangong Tso and Lake Shewa were emplaced thousands of years ago and only Lake Shewa shows some instability of the dam front where percolating water maintains lake level but may be causing new slumping. Sarez Lake behind the Usoi landslide dam was emplaced by an earthquake in 1911 and maintains its level by seepage. Lake

  18. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  19. Rock slope instabilities in Norway: First systematic hazard and risk classification of 22 unstable rock slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Martina; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Oppikofer, Thierry; Penna, Ivanna

    2016-04-01

    Unstable rock slopes that can cause large failures of the rock-avalanche type have been mapped in Norway for almost two decades. Four sites have earlier been characterized as high-risk objects based on expertise of few researchers. This resulted in installing continuous monitoring systems and set-up of an early-warning system for those four sites. Other unstable rock slopes have not been ranked related to their hazard or risk. There are ca. 300 other sites known of which 70 sites were installed for periodic deformation measurements using multiple techniques (Global Navigation Satellite Systems, extensometers, measurement bolts, and others). In 2012 a systematic hazard and risk classification system for unstable rock slopes was established in Norway and the mapping approach adapted to that in 2013. Now, the first 22 sites were classified for hazard, consequences and risk using this classification system. The selection of the first group of sites to be classified was based on an assumed high hazard or risk and importance given to the sites by Norwegian media and the public. Nine of the classified 22 unstable rock slopes are large sites that deform inhomogeneously or are strongly broken up in individual blocks. This suggests that different failure scenarios are possible that need to be analyzed individually. A total of 35 failure scenarios for those nine unstable rock slopes were considered. The hazard analyses were based on 9 geological parameters defined in the classification system. The classification system will be presented based on the Gamanjunni unstable rock slope. This slope has a well developed back scarp that exposes 150 m preceding displacement. The lateral limits of the unstable slope are clearly visible in the morphology and InSAR displacement data. There have been no single structures observed that allow sliding kinematically. The lower extend of the displacing rock mass is clearly defined in InSAR data and by a zone of higher rock fall activity. Yearly

  20. Public medical shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  1. The Great Cometary Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  2. 基于项目属性相似和MapReduce并行化的Slope One算法%Slope One algorithm based on item’s attribute similarity and MapReduce in parallel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡旭; 鲁汉榕; 陈新; 周国安

    2015-01-01

    Directing at the Slope One algorithm’s drawback that the predicted precision relies on the number of users’ratings to the predicted item, this paper presents an improved Slope One algorithm based on the item’s attribute similarity and MapReduce in parallel. In this proposed algorithm. We firstly compute the attribute similar-ity between the items, and combine it with the Slope One algorithm to improve the prediction precision, and next, implement the parallel algorithm based on MapReduce over the Hadoop platform. Experimental results on the MovieLens data set show that the improved Slope One algorithm is of higher predicted precision, and is more suit-able for large-scale data set, compared with the Slope One algorithm and the weighted Slope One algorithm.%针对Slope One算法存在预测精度依赖于用户对待预测项目的评分数量的缺陷,提出了一种基于项目属性相似度和MapReduce并行化的Slope One算法。首先计算项目间的属性相似度,并将其与Slope One算法相融合以提高预测精度,然后在Hadoop平台上对改进算法基于MapReduce进行并行化实现。在MovieLens数据集上的实验结果表明,相对于Slope One算法和加权Slope One算法,本文提出的改进Slope One算法具有更高的预测精度,并更适用于大规模数据集。

  3. Design and implementation of adaptive slope compensation in current mode DC-DC converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Zhongjie; Wu Longsheng; Liu Youbao, E-mail: guozhongjie4213@126.com [Xi' an Microelectronic Technology Institute, Xi' an 710054 (China)

    2010-12-15

    To improve the compensation for the inherent instability in a current mode converter, the adaptive slope compensation, giving attention to the problems of the traditional compensation on compensation accuracy, loading capability and turning jitter, is presented. Based on the analysis of current loop, by detecting the input and output voltage, converting the adaptive slope compensation current, the compensation of the current loop is optimized successfully. It can not only improve the compensation accuracy but also eliminate the over compensation, the turning jitter and the poor loading capability in the reported slope compensation. A power supply chip with adaptive slope compensation has been fabricated in a 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process. The measurement results show that the chip starts up and operates steadily with the constant current limit under conditions of 5 V input voltage, from 10% to 100% duty cycle. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. Physical and theoretical modeling of rock slopes against block-flexure toppling failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Block-flexure is the most common mode of toppling failure in natural and excavated rock slopes. In such failure, some rock blocks break due to tensile stresses and some overturn under their own weights and then all of them topple together. In this paper, first, a brief review of previous studies on toppling failures is presented. Then, the physical and mechanical properties of experimental modeling materials are summarized. Next, the physical modeling results of rock slopes with the potential of block-flexural toppling failures are explained and a new analytical solution is proposed for the stability analysis of such slopes. The results of this method are compared with the outcomes of the experiments. The comparative studies show that the proposed analytical approach is appropriate for the stability analysis of rock slopes against block-flexure toppling failure. Finally, a real case study is used for the practical verification of the suggested method.

  5. Evaluation of Slope Assessment System in Predicting Landslides along Roads Underlain by Granitic Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujang B.K. Huat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A slope assessment is to estimate the probability of occurrence and likely severity of landslides in a given area. This study evaluates two existing Slope Assessment Systems (SAS for predicting landslide at the micro level of assessment developed by the Public Works Department of Malaysia, namely the Slope Information Management System (SIMS and the Slope Management and Risk Tracking System (SMART. From the results of this study, it appears that none of the existing SAS is satisfactory for predicting landslide in granitic formation, for various reasons such as the use of hazard score developed from another country and use of data-base derived from different rock formation. A new SAS was developed using nine-parameters equation that was based on the stepwise discriminant analysis. The new SAS appears to show a good capability in predicting landslides in granitic formations.

  6. Quasi-Monte Carlo Simulation-Based SFEM for Slope Reliability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yuzhen; Xie Liquan; Zhang Bingyin

    2005-01-01

    Considering the stochastic spatial variation of geotechnical parameters over the slope, a Stochastic Finite Element Method (SFEM) is established based on the combination of the Shear Strength Reduction (SSR) concept and quasi-Monte Carlo simulation. The shear strength reduction FEM is superior to the slice method based on the limit equilibrium theory in many ways, so it will be more powerful to assess the reliability of global slope stability when combined with probability theory. To illustrate the performance of the proposed method, it is applied to an example of simple slope. The results of simulation show that the proposed method is effective to perform the reliability analysis of global slope stability without presupposing a potential slip surface.

  7. Damage-based long-term modelling of a large alpine rock slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Federico; Agliardi, Federico; Amitrano, David; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2016-04-01

    The morphology and stability of large alpine rock slopes result from the long-term interplay of different factors, following a complex history spanning several glacial cycles over thousands of years in changing morpho-climatic settings. Large rock slopes often experience slow long-term, creep-like movements interpreted as the macroscopic evidence of progressive failure in subcritically stressed rock masses. Slope damage and rock mass weakening associated to deglaciation are considered major triggers of these processes in alpine environments. Depending on rock mass properties, slope topography and removed ice thickness, valley flanks can progressively evolve over time into rockslides showing seasonal displacement trends, interpreted as evidence of hydro-mechanically coupled responses to hydrologic perturbations. The processes linking the long-term evolution of deglaciated rock slopes and their changing sensitivity to hydrologic triggers until rockslide failure, with significant implications in risk management and Early Warning, are not fully understood. We suggest that modelling long-term rock mass damage under changing conditions may provide such a link. We simulated the evolution of the Spriana rock slope (Italian Central Alps). This is affected by a 50 Mm3 rockslide, significantly active since the late 19th century and characterized by massive geological and geotechnical investigations and monitoring during the last decades. Using an improved version of the 2D Finite-Element, damage-based brittle creep model proposed by Amitrano and Helmstetter (2006) and Lacroix and Amitrano (2013), we combined damage and time-to-failure laws to reproduce diffused damage, strain localization and the long-term creep deformation of the slope. The model was implemented for application to real slopes, by accounting for: 1) fractured rock mass properties upscaling based on site characterization data; 2) fluid pressures in a progressive failure context, relating fluid occurrence to

  8. VT Lidar Slope (1.6 meter) - 2008 - West Franklin

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  9. VT Lidar Slope (1.6 meter) - 2012 - Addison County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  10. VT Lidar Slope (1.6 meter) - 2010 - Missisquoi Upper

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  11. Mechanical interaction between roots and soil mass in slope vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The most basic function of slope vegetation is to strengthen rock and soil mass through plant roots which increase the shear strength of the slope markedly and thereby increase the stability of the slope. However, the calculation of the reinforcement ability of slope vegetation still remains at the stage of judging by experience, because it is rather difficult due to the intricacy and volatility of the force condition of plant roots in rock and soil medium. Although some scholars have tried to study the interaction between plant roots and soil mass, the systemic analysis of the mechanical reinforcement mechanism and the contribution of plant roots to strengthening the rock and soil mass on the surface of the slope is untapped. In this paper, by analyzing the mechanism of slope vegetation and the corresponding reinforcement effect, the effects that slope vegetation generates on the shear strength of slope soil mass are studied, thereby a theoretical basis for plant protection designing is provided.

  12. Propagation of internal waves up continental slope and shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Dejun; WANG Wei; QIAO Fangli; YUAN Yeli; XIANG Wenxi

    2008-01-01

    In a two-dimensional and linear framework, a transformation was developed to derive eigensolutions of internal waves over a subcriticai hyperbolic slope and to approximate the continental slope and shelf. The transformation converts a hyperbolic slope in physical space into a fiat bottom in transform space while the governing equations of internal waves remain hyperbolic. The eigensolutions are further used to study the evolution of linear internal waves as it propagates to subcritical continental slope and shelf. The stream function, velocity, and vertical shear of velocity induced by internal wave at the hyperbolic slope are analytically expressed by superposition of the obtained eigensolutions. The velocity and velocity shear increase as the internal wave propagates to a hyperbolic slope. They become very large especially when the slope of internal wave rays approaches the topographic slope, which is consistent with the previous studies.

  13. Evaluation of Slope Assessment Systems for Predicting Landslides of Cut Slopes in Granitic and Meta-sediment Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimi Jamaludin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, slope assessment systems (SAS are widely used in assessing the instability of slope or the probability of occurrence and the likely severity of landslides. These SAS can be derived based on either one particular approach or combination of several approaches of landslide assessments and prediction. This study overviews four slope assessment systems (SAS developed in Malaysia for predicting landslide at a large-scale assessments. They are the Slope Maintenance System (SMS, Slope Priority Ranking System (SPRS, Slope Information Management System (SIMS and the Slope Management and Risk Tracking System (SMART. An attempt is made to evaluate the accuracy of the SAS in predicting landslides based on slope inventory data from 139 cut slopes in granitic formation and 47 cut slopes in meta-sediment formation, which are the two most common rock/soil formations found in Malaysia. Based on this study, it was found that none of existing SAS is satisfactory in predicting landslides of cut slopes in granitic formation, for various reasons such as the use of hazard score developed from another country, insufficient data base, oversimplified approach and use of data base derived from different rock/soil formations. However for the case of cut slope in meta-sediment, the Slope Management and Risk Tracking System (SMART was found to be satisfactory with 90% prediction accuracy. The current database of SMART is largely based on meta-sediment formation.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Moisture Movement in Unsaturated Expansive Soil Slope Suffering Permeation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shanxiong; Yu Song; Liu Zhiguo; Xu Haibin

    2005-01-01

    This study develops a way of analyzing moisture movement in unsaturated expansive soil slope. The basic equations and the integrated finite difference method for moisture movement in unsaturated soils are briefly described, and the calculation code MFUS2 has been developed. The moisture movements in unsaturated expansive soil slopes suffering precipitation were simulated numerically. The simulation results show that expansion or contraction must be taken into account in an analysis model. A simplified equivalent model for calculating rainwater infiltration into expansive soil slopes has been developed. The simplified equivalent model divides the soil slope into two layers according to the extent of weathering of the soil mass at depth. Layer Ⅰ is intensively weathered and moisture can be fully evaporated or rapidly absorbed. The moisture movement parameters take into account the greater soil permeability caused by fissures. Layer Ⅱ is unweathered and the soil is basically undisturbed. The moisture movement parameters of homogeneous soils are applicable. The moisture movements in unsaturated expansive soil slopes suffering precipitation were simulated numerically using the simplified equivalent model. The simulation results show that the moisture movement in the expansive soil slope under rainfall permeation mainly takes place in the extensively weathered layer Ⅰ, which closely simulates the real situation.

  15. Effect of slope angle of an artificial pool on distributions of turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atefeh Fazlollahi; Hossein Afzalimehr; Jueyi Sui

    2015-01-01

    abstract Experiments were carried out over a 2-dimentional pool with a constant length of 1.5 m and four different slopes. The distributions of velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulence intensities have been studied in this paper. Results show that as flow continues up the exit slope, the flow velocity increases near the channel bed and decreases near the water surface. The flow separation was not observed by ADV at the crest of the bed-form. In addition, the length of the separation zone increases with the increasing of entrance and exit slopes. The largest slope angle causes the maximum normalized shear stress. Based on the experiments, it is concluded that the shape of Reynolds stress distribution is generally dependent on the entrance and exit slopes of the pool. Also, the shape of Reynolds stress distribution is affected by both decelerating and accelerating flows. Additionally, with the increase in the slope angle, secondary currents are developed and become more stable. Results of the quadrant analysis show that the momentum between flow and bed-form is mostly transferred by sweep and ejection events.&2015 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation/the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stability analysis of new safety cleaning bank in steep slope mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴爱祥; 姜立春; 鲍勇峰; 李建锋

    2004-01-01

    Based on the study of the slope with gently granular structure in Xingqiao open mine, a new safety cleaning bank mode for steep slope mining was developed, including setting up dint cut, and forming natural retai ning wall based on the character of gentle incline slope. It can effectively eliminate the impact of sliding body on the bottom working place and slope body, reduce the dilution of ore, keep rainwater from upper steps away, decrease influence of the weak intermediate layer, and cut cost of disposal waste rock. The safety and reliability of the mode were analyzed and verified from 3 aspects: static load calculation, ANSYS simulation of dynamic loading and spot experiment. The result of static loading calculation shows that the retaining wall can support accumulation and ex trusion of granular body, and the glide or overturn disaster will not take place. The simulations of dynamic loading show that the retaining wall remains stable until sliding body collapses from 360 m (10 sublevels). Only one new safety cleaning bank in each 1 - 5 sublevels can fully meet the need of engineering. The new mode sustains steep slope mining, increases the angle of ultimate slope, and reduces invalid overburden amount of rock by 3 %-5 %. The result of spot experiment has verified the exactness of the above calculations and simulations.

  17. ANALYSIS METHODS ON STABILITY OF TALL AND BEDDIIG CREEP SLOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUIYongqin; JIANGZhiming; LIUJinghui

    1995-01-01

    Based on the model of slope engineering geology,the creep and its failure mechanism of tall and bedding slope are deeply analyzed in this paper .The creep laws of weak intercalations are also discussed.The analysis om the stability of creep slope and the age forecasting of sliding slope have been conducted through mumerical simulations using Finite Element Method (FEM)and Dintimct Element Method(DEM).

  18. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merino-Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment source patches and sinks are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an "overland flow gradient" (gradient of overland flow routing through the slopes caused by different amounts of run-on coming from upslope in three reclaimed mining slopes of Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated with seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover. Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as "deep sinks", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata. Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a major controlling factor of "hydrological diversity" (heterogeneity of hydrological behaviours quantified as Shannon diversity index: when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  19. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Martín, L.; Moreno-de las Heras, M.; Pérez-Domingo, S.; Espigares, T.; Nicolau, J. M.

    2012-05-01

    Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment source patches and sinks are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an "overland flow gradient" (gradient of overland flow routing through the slopes caused by different amounts of run-on coming from upslope) in three reclaimed mining slopes of Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated with seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover). Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as "deep sinks", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil) to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata). Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a major controlling factor of "hydrological diversity" (heterogeneity of hydrological behaviours quantified as Shannon diversity index): when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  20. [Characteristics of Soil Respiration along Eroded Sloping Land with Different SOC Background on the Hilly Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gai; Xu, Ming-xiang; Zhang, Ya-feng; Wang, Chao-hua; Fan, Hui-min; Wang, Shan-shan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to characterize soil respiration along eroded sloping land at erosion and deposition area under different soil organic carbon(SOC) levels, and linked the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil moisture, SOC and slope position. Experiments were carried out in the plots of S type slopes include five different soil organic carbon levels in the Loess Hilly Region. The S type slopes were divided into control area at the top of the slope, erosion area at the middle of the slope and deposition area at the toe of the slope. We found that soil temperature had a greater impact on soil respiration in the deposition area, whereas soil moisture had a greater impact on soil respiration in the erosion area compared among control area, erosion area and deposition area. In addition, SOC was the most important factor affecting soil respiration, which can explain soil respiration variation 54. 72%, followed by soil moisture, slope position and soil temperature, which explain soil respiration variation 18. 86% , 16. 13% and 10. 29%, respectively. Soil respiration response to erosion showed obvious on-site and off-site effects along the eroded sloping land. Soil respiration in the erosion area was reduced by 21. 14% compared with control area, and soil respiration in the deposition area was increased by 21. 93% compared with control area. Erosion effect on source and sink of carbon emission was correlated with SOC content of the eroded sloping land. When SOC content was higher than 6. 82 g.kg-1, the slope. erosion tended to be a carbon sequestration process, and when SOC content was lower than 3.03 g.kg-1, the slope erosion tended to be a process of the carbon emission source. The model could reflect the relationship between soil respiration and independent variables of soil organic carbon content, soil temperature and moisture.

  1. Intertidal beach slope predictions compared to field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, A.J.; Plant, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a test of a very simple model for predicting beach slope changes. The model assumes that these changes are a function of both the incident wave conditions and the beach slope itself. Following other studies, we hypothesized that the beach slope evolves towards an equilibrium

  2. THE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK OF FORECASTING OPEN MINING SLOPE STABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏春启; 白润才

    2000-01-01

    The artificial neural network model which forecasts Open Mining Slope stability is established by neural network theory and method. The nonlinear reflection relation between stability target of open mining slope and its influence factor is described. The method of forecasting Open Mining Slope stability is brought forward.

  3. Intertidal beach slope predictions compared to field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, A.J.; Plant, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a test of a very simple model for predicting beach slope changes. The model assumes that these changes are a function of both the incident wave conditions and the beach slope itself. Following other studies, we hypothesized that the beach slope evolves towards an equilibrium valu

  4. Spatial filtering of electrical resistivity and slope intensity: Enhancement of spatial estimates of a soil property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourennane, Hocine; Hinschberger, Florent; Chartin, Caroline; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien

    2017-03-01

    To best utilize the electrical resistivity data and slope intensity derived from a Digital Elevation Model, the kriging spatial components technique was applied to separate the nuggets and small- and large-scale structures for both resistivity and slope intensity data. The spatial structures in the resistivity and slope intensity data, which are poorly correlated with soil thickness (ST), are then filtered out prior to integrating the resistivity data and slope intensity into soil thickness estimation over a 12 ha area located in the south-western Parisian Basin (France). ST was measured at 650 locations over the study area by manual augering. Twenty percent of the observations (131 points) were randomly selected to constitute the validation dataset. The remaining 80% of the dataset (519 points) was used as the prediction dataset. The resistivity data represent a set of 7394 measurement points for each of the three investigated depths over the study area. The methodology involves successively (1) a principal component analysis (PCA) on the electrical measurements and (2) a geostatistical filtering of the small-scale component and noise in the first component (PC1) of the PCA. The results show that the correlation between ST and PC1 is greatly improved when the small-scale component and noise are filtered out, and similarly, the correlation between ST and slope intensity is greatly improved once the geostatistical filtering is carried out on the slope data. Thus, the large scales of both slope intensity and the electrical resistivity's PC1 were used as external drifts to predict ST over the entire study area. This prediction was compared with ordinary kriging and kriging either with a large scale of slope intensity or with a large scale of the electrical resistivity's PC1 taken as an external drift. The first prediction of ST by ordinary kriging, which was considered as our reference, was also compared to those achieved by kriging using the raw secondary variables

  5. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Slope of Slope for Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Slope of Slope GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  6. Visible spectral slope survey of Jupiter Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Nicolas; Rivkin, Andrew S.; Sickafoose, Amanda A.

    2016-10-01

    Jupiter's Trojans are predicted by the Nice Model [1,2] to be Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) that moved from 30+ AU to 5.2 AU during the early evolution period of the Solar System. This model, predicting giant planet migration and widespread transport of material throughout the Solar System, is however still lacking important constraints. Correlations between the composition, size, and orbital geometry of Jupiter's Trojans can provide additional information to test predicted migration and evolution models.Two main colour groups have been observed, roughly equivalent to the C (plus low-albedo X) and D classes with distinguishable spectral slopes, and one interpretation is that the two groups have different compositions [3]. Independent compositions together with hints of differing orbital inclination distributions could imply separate formation locations; therefore, determining the relative fractions of C and D asteroids at different sizes would provide a key test for Solar System dynamical models. However, there is a caveat: the distinct colour groups could also arise by other means. Regolith processes or "space weathering" such as micrometeorite impacts and UV irradiation of ice are also plausible explanations for a range of spectrographic slopes from C-like to D-like [4].Here we report on our latest survey observations at Sutherland, South Africa of approximately 50 Trojan targets using the Sutherland High Speed Optical Camera (SHOC) [5] on the 74" telescope. These observations are part of a larger multi-telescope survey to determine the spectral slopes (C-like or D-like) for multiple Trojans, focusing on those of small size. These slopes can be used to determine the relative fraction of C+X and D asteroids at different sizes to determine whether what is seen is more consistent with regolith processes or different compositions.References:[1] A. Morbidelli, et al. Nature, 435, 462-465, (2005)[2] R. Gomes, et al. Nature 435, 466-469 (2005)[3] J.P. Emery, et al. The

  7. Western Ross Sea continental slope gravity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This difference, if real

  8. Seismic Stability of Reinforced Soil Slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, I.; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades increased research interest has been observed on the dynamic response and stability issues of earth walls and reinforced soil structures. The current study aims to provide an insight into the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures and the potential of the geosynthetics...... to prevent the development of slope instability taking advantage of their reinforcing effect. For this purpose, a onedimensional (SDOF) model, based on Newmark’s sliding block model as well as a two-dimensional (plane-strain) dynamic finite-element analyses are conducted in order to investigate the impact...

  9. Slope equalities for genus 5 surface fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Tenni, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    K. Konno proved a slope equality for fibred surfaces with fibres of odd genus and general fibre of maximal gonality. More precisely he found a relation between the invariants of the fibration and certain weights of special fibres (called the Horikawa numbers). We give an alternative and more geometric proof in the case of a genus 5 fibration, under generality assumptions. In our setting we are able to prove that the fibre with positive Horikawa numbers are precisely the trigonal ones, we compute their weights explicitly and thus we exhibit explicit examples of regular surfaces with assigned invariants and Horikawa numbers.

  10. Transhumanism, medical technology and slippery slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, M J; Edwards, S D

    2006-09-01

    In this article, transhumanism is considered to be a quasi-medical ideology that seeks to promote a variety of therapeutic and human-enhancing aims. Moderate conceptions are distinguished from strong conceptions of transhumanism and the strong conceptions were found to be more problematic than the moderate ones. A particular critique of Boström's defence of transhumanism is presented. Various forms of slippery slope arguments that may be used for and against transhumanism are discussed and one particular criticism, moral arbitrariness, that undermines both weak and strong transhumanism is highlighted.

  11. Geotechnical properties of cemented sands in steep slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation into the geotechnical properties specific to assessing the stability of weakly and moderately cemented sand cliffs is presented. A case study from eroding coastal cliffs located in central California provides both the data and impetus for this study. Herein, weakly cemented sand is defined as having an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of less than 100 kPa, and moderately cemented sand is defined as having UCS between 100 and 400 kPa. Testing shows that both materials fail in a brittle fashion and can be modeled effectively using linear Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters, although for weakly cemented sands, curvature of the failure envelope is more evident with decreasing friction and increasing cohesion at higher confinement. Triaxial tests performed to simulate the evolving stress state of an eroding cliff, using a reduction in confinement-type stress path, result in an order of magnitude decrease in strain at failure and a more brittle response. Tests aimed at examining the influence of wetting on steep slopes show that a 60% decrease in UCS, a 50% drop in cohesion, and 80% decrease in the tensile strength occurs in moderately cemented sand upon introduction to water. In weakly cemented sands, all compressive, cohesive, and tensile strength is lost upon wetting and saturation. The results indicate that particular attention must be given to the relative level of cementation, the effects of groundwater or surficial seepage, and the small-scale strain response when performing geotechnical slope stability analyses on these materials. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  12. Erosion characteristic of slope sandstone soaking in acid mine drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Li-chun; CHEN Jia-sheng; WU Ai-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Acid mine drainage(AMD) is one of the main reasons of slope instability in chemical mines with high sulfide. The pH values of the solution inside the mining pit decrease with the increasing of distance from ore body and vary from 1.2 to 4.6,according to the results of the water environmental investigation and the composition test of the slope sandstone in Xinqiao Pyrite Mine. Comparative experiments between original sandstone and AMD eroded sandstone samples show that after AMD erosion the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus decrease by 30%-50% and 25%-45%, respectively, the cohesion and internal friction angle decrease obviously, and the Poisson ratio fluctuates between 0.20-0.29. The greater joints development, the higher residual stress after peak value, and the longer time to damage. Besides above, the reaction mechanism analysis of AMD eroded sandstone shows that the fillings in joints and fissures of sandstone are frequently decomposed and polyreacted, resulting in changes of interior molecule structure and framework composition, and decreases of cohesion and angle of internal friction between rock structure interfaces.

  13. Assessment of highway slope failure using neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung-lin LEE; Hung-ming LIN; Yuh-pin LU

    2009-01-01

    An artificial intelligence technique of back-propagation neural networks is used to assess the slope failure. On-site slope failure data from the South Cross-Island Highway in southern Taiwan are used to test the performance of the neural network model. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of artificial neural networks in the evaluation of slope failure potential based on five major factors, such as the slope gradient angle, the slope height, the cumulative precipitation, daily rainfall and strength of materials.

  14. Impact of T1 slope on surgical and adjacent segment degeneration after Bryan cervical disc arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Li, Yongqian; Li, Jia; Shen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated an association between preoperative T1 slope and surgical and adjacent segment degeneration (SASD) after Bryan cervical disc arthroplasty (BCDA) in patients with cervical degenerative disc disease. Based on preoperative standing lateral radiographs, 90 patients were classified according to T1 slope that was higher or lower than the 50th percentile (high T1 or low T1, 28 and 62 patients, respectively). Patients were also classified as SASD or non-SASD (38 and 52 patients, respectively) determined by radiographs at final follow-up. Visual analog scale (VAS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores for neck and arm pain were noted, and changes in the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine (SACS), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and FSU range of motion (ROM) were also noted. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the risk factors for SASD. The overall rate of SASD was 42.2% (38/90). The SACS, FSU angle, FSU ROM, and SASD rates of the high T1 and low T1 slope groups were significantly different at the last follow-up. The NDI and VAS scores of the high T1 slope group were significantly greater than those of the low T1 slope. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high T1 slope and endplate coverage discrepancy (ie, residual space behind the prosthesis) were significant risk factors for SASD after BCDA. High T1 slope and endplate coverage discrepancy were associated with SASD after BCDA. Patients with a high preoperative T1 slope have a smaller FSU angle and more neck pain after BCDA.

  15. Hydraulic characteristics and sediment generation on slope erosion in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Feng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological processes play important roles in soil erosion processes of the hillslopes. This study was conducted to investigate the hydrological processes and the associated erosional responses on the purple soil slope. Based on a comprehensive survey of the Wangjiaqiao watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir, four typical slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°and 20° were applied to five rainfall intensities (0.6, 1.1, 1.61, 2.12 and 2.54 mm·min-1. The results showed that both surface and subsurface runoff varied greatly depending on the rainfall intensity and slope gradient. Surface runoff volume was 48.1 to 280.1 times of that for subsurface runoff. The critical slope gradient was about 10°. The sediment yield rate increased with increases in both rainfall intensity and slope gradient, while the effect of rainfall intensity on the sediment yield rate was greater than slope gradient. There was a good linear relationship between sediment yield rate and Reynolds numbers, flow velocity and stream power, while Froude numbers, Darcy-Weisbach and Manning friction coefficients were not good hydraulic indicators of the sediment yield rate of purple soil erosion. Among the three good indicators (Re, v and w, stream power was the best predictor of sediment yield rate (R2 = 0.884. Finally, based on the power regression relationship between sediment yield rate, runoff rate, slope gradient and rainfall intensity, an erosion model was proposed to predict the purple soil erosion (R2 = 0.897. The results can help us to understand the relationship between flow hydraulics and sediment generation of slope erosion and offer useful data for the building of erosion model in purple soil.

  16. A new package in MODFLOW to simulate unconfined groundwater flow in sloping aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanrong; Zhan, Hongbin; Tang, Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    The nonhorizontal-model-layer (NHML) grid system is more accurate than the horizontal-model-layer grid system to describe groundwater flow in an unconfined sloping aquifer on the basis of MODFLOW-2000. However, the finite-difference scheme of NHML was based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption that the streamlines were horizontal, which was acceptable for slope less than 0.10. In this study, we presented a new finite-difference scheme of NHML based on the Boussinesq assumption and developed a new package SLOPE which was incorporated into MODFLOW-2000 to become the MODFLOW-SP model. The accuracy of MODFLOW-SP was tested against solution of Mac Cormack (1969). The differences between the solutions of MODFLOW-2000 and MODFLOW-SP were nearly negligible when the slope was less than 0.27, and they were noticeable during the transient flow stage and vanished in steady state when the slope increased above 0.27. We established a model considering the vertical flow using COMSOL Multiphysics to test the robustness of constrains used in MODFLOW-SP. The results showed that streamlines quickly became parallel with the aquifer base except in the narrow regions near the boundaries when the initial flow was not parallel to the aquifer base. MODFLOW-SP can be used to predict the hydraulic head of an unconfined aquifer along the profile perpendicular to the aquifer base when the slope was smaller than 0.50. The errors associated with constrains used in MODFLOW-SP were small but noticeable when the slope increased to 0.75, and became significant for the slope of 1.0.

  17. Long-Term Drainage from the Riprap Side Slope of a Surface Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang

    2017-07-01

    Surface barriers designed to isolate underground nuclear waste in place are expected to function for at least 1000 years. To achieve this long design life, such barriers need to be protected with side slopes against wind- and water-induced erosion and damage by natural or human activities. However, the side slopes are usually constructed with materials coarser than the barrier. Their hydrological characteristics must be understood so that any drainage from them is considered in the barrier design and will not compromise the barrier function. The Prototype Hanford Barrier, an evapotranspiration-capillary (ETC) barrier, was constructed in 1994 at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state, with a gravel side slope and a riprap side slope. The soil water content in the gravel side slope and drainage from both side slopes have been monitored since the completion of construction. The monitoring results show that under natural precipitation the annual drainage rates from the two types of side slopes were very similar and about 5 times the typical recharge from local soil with natural vegetation and 40 times the barrier design criterion. The higher recharge from the side slopes results in some of the drainage migrating laterally to the region beneath the ETC barrier. This edge effect of the enhanced drainage was evaluated for a period of 1000 years by numerical simulation. The edge effect was quantified by the amount of water across the barrier edges and the affecting distance of the barrier edges. These results indicate that design features can be adjusted to reduce the edge effect when necessary.

  18. Sediment transport capacity of concentrated flows on steep loessial slope with erodible beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hai; Liu, Gang; Liu, Puling; Zheng, Fenli; Zhang, Jiaqiong; Hu, Feinan

    2017-05-24

    Previous research on sediment transport capacity has been inadequate and incomplete in describing the detachment and transport process of concentrated flows on slope farmlands during rill development. An indoor concentrated flow scouring experiment was carried out on steep loessial soil slope with erodible bed to investigate the sediment transport capacity under different flow rates and slope gradients. The results indicated that the sediment transport capacity increases with increasing flow rate and slope gradient, and these relationships can be described by power functions and exponential functions, respectively. Multivariate, nonlinear regression analysis showed that sediment transport capacity was more sensitive to slope gradient than to flow rate, and it was more sensitive to unit discharge per unit width than to slope gradient for sediment transport capacity in this study. When similar soil was used, the results were similar to those of previous research conducted under both erodible and non-erodible bed conditions. However, the equation derived from previous research under non-erodible bed conditions with for river bed sand tends to overestimate sediment transport capacity in our experiment.

  19. [Effects of land use type and slope position on soil physical properties in loess tableland area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Wen-Zhao; Wang, Qiu-Xian

    2008-06-01

    Soil samples under different land use types and at different slope positions in the Wangdonggou watershed of loess tableland area were collected to determine their particle composition, bulk density (pb), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), and the effects of land use type and slope position on the soil physical properties were studied in virtue of the variation coefficient and non-parameter tests. The results showed that the physical properties of soil varied in horizontal direction and vertical profile, however at the same slope position or under the same land use type, the pb and particle composition were similar. In horizontal direction, Ks varied strongly, slit content and pb varied weakly, and clay and sand contents varied medially. In vertical profile, soil particles had a continuous distribution, but pb and Ks varied greatly in 0-25 cm layer. With the slope degree descended, soil contained more clay and had a higher pb, and Ks increased. At upper and middle slopes, soil physical properties were similar, and thus, could be merged into one in related researches. There was a significant difference in soil physical properties between grassland and other land use types, which was mainly due to the effects of slope position, but the soil physical properties in farmland and orchard were similar, indicating the important effects of human activities.

  20. Analysing hydro-mechanical behaviour of reinforced slopes through centrifuge modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhof, Rick; Wu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Every year, slope instability is causing casualties and damage to properties and the environment. The behaviour of slopes during and after these kind of events is complex and depends on meteorological conditions, slope geometry, hydro-mechanical soil properties, boundary conditions and the initial state of the soils. This study describes the effects of adding reinforcement, consisting of randomly distributed polyolefin monofilament fibres or Ryegrass (Lolium), on the behaviour of medium-fine sand in loose and medium dense conditions. Direct shear tests were performed on sand specimens with different void ratios, water content and fibre or root density, respectively. To simulate the stress state of real scale field situations, centrifuge model tests were conducted on sand specimens with different slope angles, thickness of the reinforced layer, fibre density, void ratio and water content. An increase in peak shear strength is observed in all reinforced cases. Centrifuge tests show that for slopes that are reinforced the period until failure is extended. The location of shear band formation and patch displacement behaviour indicate that the design of slope reinforcement has a significant effect on the failure behaviour. Future research will focus on the effect of plant water uptake on soil cohesion.

  1. Modified Limiting Equilibrium Method for Stability Analysis of Stratified Rock Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratified rock of Jurassic strata is widely distributed in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. The limit equilibrium method is generally utilized in the stability analysis of rock slope with single failure plane. However, the stratified rock slope cannot be accurately estimated by this method because of different bedding planes and their variable shear strength parameters. Based on the idealized model of rock slope with bedding planes, a modified limiting equilibrium method is presented to determine the potential sliding surface and the factor of safety for the stratified rock slope. In this method, the S-curve model is established to define the spatial variations of the shear strength parameters c and  φ of bedding plane and the tensile strength of rock mass. This method was applied in the stability evaluation of typical stratified rock slope in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China. The result shows that the factor of safety of the case study is 0.973, the critical sliding surface for the potential slip surface appears at bedding plane C, and the tension-controlled failure occurs at 10.5 m to the slope face.

  2. Force analysis of pile foundation in rock slope based on upper-bound theorem of limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming-hua; LIU Jian-hua; LIU Dai-quan; WANG You

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristic that the potential sliding surfaces of rock slope are commonly in the shape of either line or fold line, analysis thought of conventional pile foundation in the flat ground under complex load condition was applied and the upper-bound theorem of limit analysis was used to compute thrust of rock layers with all possible distribution shapes. The interaction of slope and pile was considered design load in terms of slope thrust, and the finite difference method was derived to calculate inner-force and displacement of bridge pile foundation in rock slope under complex load condition. The result of example shows that the distribution model of slope thrust has certain impact on displacement and inner-force of bridge pile foundation. The maximum displacement growth rate reaches 54% and the maximum moment and shear growth rates reach only 15% and 20%, respectively, but the trends of inner-force and displacement of bridge pile foundation are basically the same as those of the conventional pile foundation in the flat ground. When the piles bear the same level lateral thrust, the distribution shapes of slope thrust have different influence on inner-force of pile foundation, especially the rectangle distribution, and the triangle thrust has the smallest displacement and inner-force of pile foundation.

  3. Linear chirped slope profile for spatial calibration in slope measuring deflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siewert, F., E-mail: frank.siewert@helmholtz-berlin.de; Zeschke, T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Institut für Nanometer Optik und Technologie, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Arnold, T.; Paetzelt, H. [Leibnitz Institut für Oberflächen Modifizierung Leipzig e.V., IOM, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Yashchuk, V. V. [Lawerence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Slope measuring deflectometry is commonly used by the X-ray optics community to measure the long-spatial-wavelength surface figure error of optical components dedicated to guide and focus X-rays under grazing incidence condition at synchrotron and free electron laser beamlines. The best performing instruments of this kind are capable of absolute accuracy on the level of 30-50 nrad. However, the exact bandwidth of the measurements, determined at the higher spatial frequencies by the instrument’s spatial resolution, or more generally by the instrument’s modulation transfer function (MTF) is hard to determine. An MTF calibration method based on application of a test surface with a one-dimensional (1D) chirped height profile of constant amplitude was suggested in the past. In this work, we propose a new approach to designing the test surfaces with a 2D-chirped topography, specially optimized for MTF characterization of slope measuring instruments. The design of the developed MTF test samples based on the proposed linear chirped slope profiles (LCSPs) is free of the major drawback of the 1D chirped height profiles, where in the slope domain, the amplitude strongly increases with the local spatial frequency of the profile. We provide the details of fabrication of the LCSP samples. The results of first application of the developed test samples to measure the spatial resolution of the BESSY-NOM at different experimental arrangements are also presented and discussed.

  4. Effects of slope gradient on hydro-erosional processes on an aeolian sand-covered loess slope under simulated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F. B.; Yang, M. Y.; Li, B. B.; Li, Z. B.; Shi, W. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The aeolian sand-covered loess slope of the Wind-Water Erosion Crisscross Region of the Loess Plateau in China may play a key role in contributing excessive sediment to the Yellow River. Understanding its hydro-erosional processes is crucial to assessing, controlling and predicting soil and water losses in this region and maintaining the ecological sustainability of the Yellow River. Simulated rainfall (intensity 90 mm h-1) was used to investigate the runoff and soil loss from loess slopes with different slope gradients (18%, 27%, 36%, 47%, and 58%) and overlying sand layer thicknesses (0, 5 and 10 cm). As compared with uncovered loess slopes, an overlying sand layer delayed runoff production, reduced cumulative runoff and increased cumulative soil loss, as well as enhancing variations among slope gradients. Cumulative runoff and soil loss from the sand-covered loess slopes increased with increasing slope gradients and then slightly decreased, with a peak at about 47% gradient; they both were greater from the 10-cm sand-covered loess slope than from the 5-cm except for with 18% slope gradient. In general, differences in cumulative runoff between sand layer thicknesses became smaller, while those in cumulative soil loss became larger, with increasing slope gradient. Runoff and soil loss rates on the sand-covered loess slopes exhibited unimodal distributions during the rainstorms. Maximum values tended to occur at the same rain duration, and increased considerably with increasing slope gradient and sand layer thickness on slopes that were less than 47%. Liquefaction process might occur on the lower loess slopes covered with thinner sand layers but failures similar to shallow landslides might occur when the sand layer was thicker on steeper slopes. The presence of an overlying sand layer changed the relationship between runoff and soil loss rates during intense rainstorms and this change varied with different slope gradients. Our results demonstrated that the effects

  5. Intensity measures for seismic liquefaction hazard evaluation of sloping site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志雄; 程印; 肖杨; 卢谅; 阳洋

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the correlation between a large number of widely used ground motion intensity measures (IMs) and the corresponding liquefaction potential of a soil deposit during earthquake loading. In order to accomplish this purpose the seismic responses of 32 sloping liquefiable site models consisting of layered cohesionless soil were subjected to 139 earthquake ground motions. Two sets of ground motions, consisting of 80 ordinary records and 59 pulse-like near-fault records are used in the dynamic analyses. The liquefaction potential of the site is expressed in terms of the the mean pore pressure ratio, the maximum ground settlement, the maximum ground horizontal displacement and the maximum ground horizontal acceleration. For each individual accelerogram, the values of the aforementioned liquefaction potential measures are determined. Then, the correlation between the liquefaction potential measures and the IMs is evaluated. The results reveal that the velocity spectrum intensity (VSI) shows the strongest correlation with the liquefaction potential of sloping site. VSI is also proven to be a sufficient intensity measure with respect to earthquake magnitude and source-to-site distance, and has a good predictability, thus making it a prime candidate for the seismic liquefaction hazard evaluation.

  6. Using airborne LIDAR to measure tides and river slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talke, S. A.; Hudson, A.; Chickadel, C. C.; Farquharson, G.; Jessup, A. T.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial variability of tides and the tidally-averaged water-level is often poorly resolved in shallow waters, despite its importance in validating models and interpreting dynamics. In this contribution we explore using airborne LIDAR to remotely observe tides and along-river slope in the Columbia River estuary (CRE). Using an airplane equipped with LIDAR, differential GPS, and an infra-red camera, we flew 8 longitudinal transects over a 50km stretch of the CRE over a 14 hour period in June 2013. After correcting for airplane elevation, pitch and roll and median filtering over 1km blocks, a spatially-resolved data set of relative water level was generated. Results show the tide (amplitude 2m) propagating upstream at the expected phase velocity. A sinusoid with 2 periods (12.4 and 24 hours) was next fit to data to produce a smooth tide and extract the mean slope. Comparison with 4 tide gauges indicates first order agreement with measured tides (rms error 0.1m), and confirms that a substantial sub-tidal gradient exists in the CRE. This proof-of-concept experiment indicates that remote sensing of tides in coastal areas is feasible, with possible applications such as improving bathymetric surveys or inferring water depths.

  7. Interaction between transverse isotropy rock slope and supporting structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段靓靓; 方理刚

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the interaction between transverse isotropy rock mass and supporting structure,the laboratory tests for rock sampled from the slope at expressway project were carried out,and the parameters of elasticity for transverse isotropic rock were determined by the uniaxial compression tests for rock sample with different strike of stratification plane.Then,based on the relationship of stress-stain for transverse isotropic rock mass,the analytical model was established for the interaction between transverse isotropic rock mass and frame beam with pre-stressed anchor cable.Furthermore,the conception of the best anchorage-angle in pre-stressed anchor cable was proposed.At last,the parameters of the interaction between transverse isotropy rock mass and frame beam with pre-stressed anchor cable were investigated by finite element method,and the best anchorage-angle in pre-stressed anchor cable was obtained.The rules of the influence of the directivity of stratification plane on supporting structure were determined.The results show that the analytical model and numerical method on the design of pre-stressed anchor cable with frame beam supporting for transverse isotropy rock slope are reasonable and reliable in practical engineering design.

  8. Seismic ultimate bearing capacity of strip footings on slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influence of earthquake forces on ultimate bearing capacity of foundations on sloping ground was studied. A solution to seismic ultimate bearing capacity of strip footings on slope was obtained by utilizing pseudo-static analysis method and taking the effect of intermediate principal stress into consideration. Based on limit equilibrium theory, the formulae for computing static bearing capacity factors, Nq, Nc, Nγ, and dynamic bearing capacity factors, Nqd, Ncd, Nγd, which are associated with surcharge, cohesion and self-weight of soils respectively, were presented. A great number of analysis calculations were carried out to obtain the relationship curves of the static and dynamic bearing capacity factors versus various calculation parameters. The curves can serve as the practical engineering design. The calculation results also show that when the values of horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients are 0.2, the dynamic bearing capacity factors Nqd, Ncd and Nγd, in which the effects of intermediate principal stress are taken into consideration, increase by 4%-42%, 3%-27% and 34%-57%, respectively.

  9. Seismic Stability of Reinforced Soil Slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, I.; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades increased research interest has been observed on the dynamic response and stability issues of earth walls and reinforced soil structures. The current study aims to provide an insight into the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures and the potential of the geosynthetics...... to prevent the development of slope instability taking advantage of their reinforcing effect. For this purpose, a onedimensional (SDOF) model, based on Newmark’s sliding block model as well as a two-dimensional (plane-strain) dynamic finite-element analyses are conducted in order to investigate the impact...... of the most significant parameters involved, such as the flexibility of the sliding system, the mechanical properties of the soil and of the geosynthetics material, the frequency content of the excitation and the interface shear strength....

  10. Alaskan North Slope Oil & Gas Transportation Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Michael Russell [Geo-Watersheds Scientific LLC, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2017-03-31

    North Slope oil and gas resources are a critical part of US energy supplies and their development is facing a period of new growth to meet increasing national energy needs. While this growth is taking place in areas active in development for more than 20 years, there are many increasing environmental challenges facing industry and management agencies. A majority of all exploration and development activities, pipeline maintenance and other field support activities take place in the middle of winter, when the fragile tundra surface is more stable. The window for the critical oil and gas winter operational season has been steadily decreasing over the last 25 years. The number of companies working on the North Slope is increasing. Many of these companies are smaller and working with fewer resources than the current major companies. The winter operations season starts with the tundra-travel opening, which requires 15 cm of snow on the land surface in the coastal management areas and 23 cm in the foothills management areas. All state managed areas require -5°C soil temperatures at a soil depth of 30 cm. Currently there are no methods to forecast this opening date, so field mobilization efforts are dependent on agency personnel visiting field sites to measure snow and soil temperature conditions. Weeks can be easily lost in the winter operating season due to delays in field verification of tundra conditions and the resulting mobilization. After the season is open, a significant percentage of exploration, construction, and maintenance do not proceed until ice roads and pads can be built. This effort is dependent on access to lake ice and under-ice water. Ice chipping is a common ice-road construction technique used to build faster and stronger ice roads. Seasonal variability in water availability and permitting approaches are a constant constraint to industry. At the end of the winter season, projects reliant on ice-road networks are often faced with ending operations

  11. ASPECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  12. Gravitational slopes, geomorphology, and material strengths of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations

    CERN Document Server

    Groussin, O; Auger, A -T; Kührt, E; Gaskell, R; Capanna, C; Scholten, F; Preusker, F; Lamy, P; Hviid, S; Knollenberg, J; Keller, U; Huettig, C; Sierks, H; Barbieri, C; Rodrigo, R; Koschny, D; Rickman, H; Hearn, M F A; Agarwal, J; Barucci, M A; Bertaux, J -L; Bertini, I; Boudreault, S; Cremonese, G; Da Deppo, V; Davidsson, B; Debei, S; De Cecco, M; El-Maarry, M R; Fornasier, S; Fulle, M; Gutiérrez, P J; Güttler, C; Ip, W -H; Kramm, J -R; Küppers, M; Lazzarin, M; Lara, L M; Moreno, J J Lopez; Marchi, S; Marzari, F; Massironi, M; Michalik, H; Naletto, G; Oklay, N; Pommerol, A; Pajola, M; Thomas, N; Toth, I; Tubiana, C; Vincent, J -B

    2015-01-01

    We study the link between gravitational slopes and the surface morphology on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and provide constraints on the mechanical properties of the cometary material. We computed the gravitational slopes for five regions on the nucleus that are representative of the different morphologies observed on the surface, using two shape models computed from OSIRIS images by the stereo-photoclinometry (SPC) and stereo-photogrammetry (SPG) techniques. We estimated the tensile, shear, and compressive strengths using different surface morphologies and mechanical considerations. The different regions show a similar general pattern in terms of the relation between gravitational slopes and terrain morphology: i) low-slope terrains (0-20 deg) are covered by a fine material and contain a few large ($>$10 m) and isolated boulders, ii) intermediate-slope terrains (20-45 deg) are mainly fallen consolidated materials and debris fields, with numerous intermediate-size boulders from $<$1 m to ...

  13. Effect of rock mass structure and block size on the slope stability--Physical modeling and discrete element simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Shihai; LIAN; Zhenzhong; J.; G.; Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the stability of jointed rock slopes by using our improved three-dimensional discrete element methods (DEM) and physical modeling. Results show that the DEM can simulate all failure modes of rock slopes with different joint configurations. The stress in each rock block is not homogeneous and blocks rotate in failure development. Failure modes depend on the configuration of joints. Toppling failure is observed for the slope with straight joints and sliding failure is observed for the slope with staged joints. The DEM results are also compared with those of limit equilibrium method (LEM). Without considering the joints in rock masses, the LEM predicts much higher factor of safety than physical modeling and DEM. The failure mode and factor of safety predicted by the DEM are in good agreement with laboratory tests for any jointed rock slope.

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of slopes reinforced with piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉峰; 叶茂; 张飞

    2015-01-01

    Based on the upper bound of limit analysis, the plane-strain analysis of the slopes reinforced with a row of piles to the 3D case was extended. A 3D rotational failure mechanism was adopted to yield the upper bound of the factor of safety. Parametric studies were carried out to explore the end effects of the slope failures and the effects of the pile location and diameter on the safety of the reinforced slopes. The results demonstrate that the end effects nearly have no effects on the most suitable location of the installed piles but have significant influence on the safety of the slopes. For a slope constrained to a narrow width, the slope becomes more stable owing to the contribution of the end effects. When the slope is reinforced with a row of piles in small space between piles, the effects of group piles are significant for evaluating the safety of slopes. The presented method is more appropriate for assessing the stability of slopes reinforced with piles and can be also utilized in the design of plies stabilizing the unstable slopes.

  15. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merino-Martín

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment sinks and source patches are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted a field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an overland flow gradient in three reclaimed slopes coming from mining reclamation in a Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated to seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover. Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as a "deep sink", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata. Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a controlling major factor of hydrological diversity: when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  16. Internal deformation within an unstable granular slope: insights from physical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Koyi, H.; Nilfouroushan, F.; Swantesson, J.; Reshetyuk, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The collapses of granular materials frequently occur in nature in the form of, for example, rock avalanches, debris avalanches and debris flow. In previous studies of collapses of a granular material, most of the focus has been on the effect of initial geometry and mechanical properties of the granular materials, the run-out distance, and the topography of final deposit. In this study, results of analogue models and scanned natural failed slopes are used to outline the mode of failure of an unstable slope. Model results and field observations are used to argue that a granular mass moves downslope in a wavy pattern resulting in its intensive deformation. In the models, we mainly investigated the internal deformation of collapses of granular slopes in terms of their internal structures and the spatial and temporal distribution of the latter. Model results showed that a displaced mass of the granular slope has the following two features: (1) Initial collapse resulted in a series of normal faults, where hanging-wall blocks were slightly deformed, like the slump-shear structures in nature; (2) With further collapse, a set of secondary structures, such as deformed/folded fault surfaces, faulted folds, displaced inclined folds, and overturned folds formed near the slope surface. The occurrence of these structures reflects the failure process of the granular mass in space and time. In addition, our model results show that the nature of basal friction has a significant influence on the geometry and kinematics of these structures at the slope toe. Model results show also that the mass does not glide downslope along only one surface, but includes several gliding surfaces each of which take part of the sliding. These gliding surfaces become steeper deeper in the sliding mass. Some of these features observed in the models are also detected in the field. Scanned failed slope surfaces show a wavy pattern similar to that in the models, reflecting the presence of normal faults at

  17. Denudational slope processes and slope response to global climate changes and other disturbances: insights from the Nepal Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Hillslope geomorphology results from a large range of denudational processes mainly controlled by relief, structure, lithology, climate, land-cover and land use. In most areas of the world, the "critical zone" concept is a good integrator of denudation that operates on a long-term scale. However, in large and high mountain areas, short-time scale factors often play a significant role in the denudational pattern, accelerating and/or delaying the transfer of denudation products and fluxes, and creating specific, spatially limited disturbances. We focus on the Nepal Himalayas, where the wide altitudinal range of bio-climatic zones and the intense geodynamic activity create a complex mosaic of landforms, as expressed by the present geomorphology of mountain slopes. On the basis of examples selected in the different Himalayan mountain belts (Siwaliks hills, middle mountains, High Himalaya), we illustrate different types of slopes and disturbances induced by active tectonics, climate extremes, and climate warming trends. Special attention is paid to recent events, such as landslide damming, triggered by either intense rainfalls (Kali Gandaki and Sun Kosi valleys) or the last April-May 2015 Gorkha seismic sequence (southern Khumbu). Lastly, references to older, larger events show that despite the highly dynamic environment, landforms caused by large magnitude disturbances may persist in the landscape in the long term.

  18. Sinogram smoothing and interpolation via alternating projections onto the slope and curvature constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Davood; Ward, Rabab K.

    2016-03-01

    Reducing the radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) requires reducing the number or the energy of the photons that pass through the patient's body. An image reconstructed from such noisy or undersampled measurements will contain much noise and artifacts that can significantly reduce the diagnostic value of the image. Effective sinogram denoising or interpolation can reduce these noise and artifacts. In this paper, we present a novel approach to sinogram smoothing and interpolation. The proposed method iteratively estimates the local slope and curvature of the sinogam and forces the sinogram to follow the estimated slope and curvature. This is performed by projection onto the set of constraints that define the slope and the curvature. The constraints on the slope and curvature correspond to very simple convex sets. Projection onto these sets have simple analytical solutions. Moreover, these operations are highly parallelizable because the equations defining the slope and curvature constraints for all the points in a sinogram can be summarized as five convex sets, regardless of the length of the sinogram. We apply the proposed method on simulated and real data and examine its effect on the quality of the reconstructed image. Our results show that the proposed method is highly effective and can lead to a substantial improvement in the quality of the images reconstructed from noisy sinogram measurements. A comparison with the K-SVD denoising algorithm shows that the proposed algorithm achieves better results. We suggest that the proposed method can be a useful tool for low-dose CT.

  19. Surface-Parallel Sensor Orientation for Assessing Energy Balance Components on Mountain Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Olmo, F. J.; Metzger, S.; Pérez-Priego, O.; Carrara, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Kowalski, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    The consistency of eddy-covariance measurements is often evaluated in terms of the degree of energy balance closure. Even over sloping terrain, instrumentation for measuring energy balance components is commonly installed horizontally, i.e. perpendicular to the geo-potential gradient. Subsequently, turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat are rotated perpendicular to the mean streamlines using tilt-correction algorithms. However, net radiation (Rn) and soil heat fluxes ( G) are treated differently, and typically only Rn is corrected to account for slope. With an applied case study, we show and argue several advantages of installing sensors surface-parallel to measure surface-normal Rn and G. For a 17 % south-west-facing slope, our results show that horizontal installation results in hysteresis in the energy balance closure and errors of up to 25 %. Finally, we propose an approximation to estimate the surface-normal Rn, when only vertical Rn measurements are available.

  20. Improvement parameters in dynamic compaction adjacent to the slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghanbari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic compaction is a cost-effective method commonly used for improvement of sandy soils. A number of researchers have investigated experimentally and numerically the improvement parameters of soils using dynamic compaction, such as crater depth, improvement depth, and radial improvement, however, these parameters are not studied for improvement adjacent to the slopes or trenches. In this research, four different slopes with different inclinations are modeled numerically using the finite element code ABAQUS, and impact loads of dynamic compaction are applied. The static factors of safety are kept similar for all trenches and determined numerically by application of gravity loads to the slope using strength reduction method (SRM. The analysis focuses on crater depth and improvement region which are compared to the state of flat ground. It can be observed that compacted area adjacent to the slopes is narrower and slightly away from the slope compared to the flat state. Moreover, crater depth increases with increase in slope inclination.

  1. Improvement parameters in dynamic compaction adjacent to the slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elham Ghanbari; Amir Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic compaction is a cost-effective method commonly used for improvement of sandy soils. A number of researchers have investigated experimentally and numerically the improvement parameters of soils using dynamic compaction, such as crater depth, improvement depth, and radial improvement, however, these parameters are not studied for improvement adjacent to the slopes or trenches. In this research, four different slopes with different inclinations are modeled numerically using the finite element code ABAQUS, and impact loads of dynamic compaction are applied. The static factors of safety are kept similar for all trenches and determined numerically by application of gravity loads to the slope using strength reduction method (SRM). The analysis focuses on crater depth and improvement region which are compared to the state of flat ground. It can be observed that compacted area adjacent to the slopes is narrower and slightly away from the slope compared to the flat state. Moreover, crater depth increases with increase in slope inclination.

  2. Earth slope reliability analysis under seismic loadings using neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Huai-sheng; DENG Jian; GU De-sheng

    2005-01-01

    A new method was proposed to cope with the earth slope reliability problem under seismic loadings. The algorithm integrates the concepts of artificial neural network, the first order second moment reliability method and the deterministic stability analysis method of earth slope. The performance function and its derivatives in slope stability analysis under seismic loadings were approximated by a trained multi-layer feed-forward neural network with differentiable transfer functions. The statistical moments calculated from the performance function values and the corresponding gradients using neural network were then used in the first order second moment method for the calculation of the reliability index in slope safety analysis. Two earth slope examples were presented for illustrating the applicability of the proposed approach. The new method is effective in slope reliability analysis. And it has potential application to other reliability problems of complicated engineering structure with a considerably large number of random variables.

  3. Dose-response curve slope sets class-specific limits on inhibitory potential of anti-HIV drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Peterson, Susan; Sedaghat, Ahmad R; McMahon, Moira A; Callender, Marc; Zhang, Haili; Zhou, Yan; Pitt, Eleanor; Anderson, Karen S; Acosta, Edward P; Siliciano, Robert F

    2008-07-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can control HIV-1 replication, but suboptimal treatment allows for the evolution of resistance and rebound viremia. A comparative measure of antiviral activity under clinically relevant conditions would guide drug development and the selection of regimens that maximally suppress replication. Here we show that current measures of antiviral activity, including IC(50) and inhibitory quotient, neglect a key dimension, the dose-response curve slope. Using infectivity assays with wide dynamic range, we show that this slope has noteworthy effects on antiviral activity. Slope values are class specific for antiviral drugs and define intrinsic limitations on antiviral activity for some classes. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and integrase inhibitors have slopes of approximately 1, characteristic of noncooperative reactions, whereas non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors and fusion inhibitors unexpectedly show slopes >1. Instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP), the log reduction in single-round infectivity at clinical drug concentrations, is strongly influenced by slope and varies by >8 logs for anti-HIV drugs. IIP provides a more accurate measure of antiviral activity and in general correlates with clinical outcomes. Only agents with slopes >1 achieve high-level inhibition of single-round infectivity, a finding with profound implications for drug and vaccine development.

  4. The effect of slope exposition on the growth dynamics of Larix gmelinii in permafrost conditions of Central Siberia. I. Differences in tree radial dynamics growth in the north- and south-facing slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Benkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to revealing the distinctive characteristics of radial growth of larch trees (Larix gmelinii (Rupr. Rupr. growing in permafrost contrast conditions of the north and south facing slopes (Central Siberia, 64°19´23˝ N, 100°13´28˝ E. Even-aged larch stems regenerated after strong fire in 1899 in opposite north and south facing slopes of the hills situated on the banks of Kulingdakan stream were under study. Two sample sites at the middle part of the slopes were established. 23 model trees in the north facing slope and 13 ones in the south-facing slope were selected for dendrochronological analysis. From each tree, disks at 1.3 m height of the stems were taken. Tree ring widths were measured, comparative analysis of dynamics of radial growth in the slopes was made. In order to separate time intervals, characterized by distinctive climate impact on radial increment, sliding response functions were calculated and analyzed. Daily solar radiation for both sample sites was calculated. The results showed that solar radiation in the north-facing slope is 20 % less than that in south-facing slope. Solar radiation regime promotes intensive thickening of moss-lichen cover, so that its thickness to 2009 was nearly two times thicker than in south-facing slope. Both factors affected the worth thermal soil growth conditions in the north facing slope. The latter was responsible for narrower ring widths formation in the stems and governed higher sensitivity of the trees to air temperature in the periods of cambium reactivation, start and intensive growth.

  5. From incipient slope instability through slope deformation to catastrophic failure - Different stages of failure development on the Ivasnasen and Vollan rock slopes (western Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppikofer, T.; Saintot, A.; Hermanns, R. L.; Böhme, M.; Scheiber, T.; Gosse, J.; Dreiås, G. M.

    2017-07-01

    The long-term evolution of rock slope failures involves different stages, from incipience of slope instability to catastrophic failure, through a more or less long-lasting slope deformation phase that also involves creeping or sliding. Topography, lithology, and structural inheritance are the main intrinsic factors that influence this evolution. Here, we investigate the role of these intrinsic factors on the rock slope failure development of the Ivasnasen and Vollan rock slopes (Sunndal Valley, western Norway) using a multitechnique approach that includes geomorphologic and structural field mapping, kinematic analysis, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating, topographic reconstruction, and deformation quantification. Ivasnasen is a rock slope failure complex with several past rock slope failures and a present unstable rock slope, located on a cataclinal NW-facing slope and developed in augen gneiss. Vollan on the opposite valley side is a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) affecting the whole mountainside, developed in quartzite in the upper part and micaschist in the lower part. These different lithologies belong to different nappe complexes that were emplaced and folded into a series of syn- and anticlines during the Caledonian orogeny. These folds lead to different lithologies being exposed in different structural orientations on the opposite valley flanks, which in turn leads to different types and evolution of rock slope failures. At Ivasnasen the 45°-55° NW-dipping ductile foliation allowed for a fairly simple planar sliding mechanism for the 1.2 million m3 post-glacial rock slope failure. Failure occurred ca. 3.3 ka ago after a short period of prefailure deformation. For the present 2.2 million m3 unstable rock slope at Ivasnasen, a steepening of the foliation at the toe impedes such a mechanism and up to 10 m of displacement has not lead to a catastrophic failure yet. The Vollan DSGSD is characterized by a steep major back scarp

  6. Simulating the seismic behaviour of soil slopes and embankments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    2010-01-01

    In the current study the clarification of the main assumptions, related to the two most commonly used methods of seismic slope stability analysis (pseudostatic and permanent deformation) is attempted. The seismic permanent displacements and the corresponding seismic coefficients were determined via...... parametric dynamic numerical analyses taking into account not only the main parameters dominating the seismic slope stability, but also the inherent assumptions of the applied approaches that affect the obtained results. The investigation conclude to a realistic procedure for seismic slope stability...

  7. Simulating the seismic behaviour of soil slopes and embankments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    2010-01-01

    In the current study the clarification of the main assumptions, related to the two most commonly used methods of seismic slope stability analysis (pseudostatic and permanent deformation) is attempted. The seismic permanent displacements and the corresponding seismic coefficients were determined via...... parametric dynamic numerical analyses taking into account not only the main parameters dominating the seismic slope stability, but also the inherent assumptions of the applied approaches that affect the obtained results. The investigation conclude to a realistic procedure for seismic slope stability...

  8. Numerical modelling of hydrological slope response: GIS application to rainfall induced landslides forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Lucio; Picarelli, Luciano; Savastano, Vincenzo; Damiano, Emilia; Greco, Roberto; Guida, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    A significant part of Italian mountainous areas are covered by pyroclastic deposits resting at slope angles higher than 40-50°. The stability of these steep slopes in loose or poorly cemented pyroclastic materials is essentially guaranteed by the positive effects of matrix suction on shear strength until an increase in saturation (and hence a decrease in suction) is induced by seepage initiated by different processes. The Cervinara flowslide (Campania, Italy) is a typical case where rainfall infiltration increased saturation and hence led to failure of shallow layered pyroclastic deposits. This case study is examined by means of a numerical model calibrated through back-analysis of flume tests, which link instability to rainwater infiltration. The complexity of infiltration process on unsaturated layered slope requires the set up of a numerical model. The model includes a 3D volume finite algorithm (I-MOD3D) developed in VBA application for ARCOBJECTTM/ARCGIS 9.2TM to automate the mesh-generation starting from a Digital Terrain Model allowing the analysis of slope response at catchment scale. Model calibration was carried out using either data from laboratory tests on natural soil samples or from infiltration tests on layered slope model. Model validation was carried out through back-analysis of in situ suction measurements using initial and boundary conditions derived from field monitoring. Comparison between the results of slope model infiltration tests, numerical simulations and in situ measurements showed that the developed numerical model represents reliable tool for predicting slope response to rainfall infiltration for shallow layered pyroclastic deposits.

  9. Long-term vegetation development on a wildfire slope in Innerzwain (Styria, Austria)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bodo Malowerschnig; Oliver Sass

    2014-01-01

    Forest fires in mountainous areas can cause severe defores-tation which can potentially trigger secondary natural hazards like debris falls and avalanches. We documented an extreme case study for the range of possible post-fire land cover (LC) dynamics. We investigated a 15-ha, steep (10°-65°) burnt slope in Styria (Austria) at elevation of 760-1130 m, which burned in 1946 and has not fully recovered to date. Seven 8-class legend LC maps were produced (1954, 1966, 1973, 1982, 1998, 2004, 2009) and integrated in a vector-based GIS, mainly by on-screen interpretation of aerial photos. Our aim was to clarify how post-wildfire LC dynamics take place on a severely damaged, steep slope and to give a basic projection of the future vegetation recovery process. The pre-fire Pinus sylvestrisstands have been mainly replaced by Picea abies and Larix decidua. Regeneration proceeded mainly from the base of the slope upwards. All tree species together still cover no more than 40% of the slope after more than 60 years of recovery, while grassland communities and rock/debris areas have expanded. Multitemporal analysis showed a slow but steady increase in woodland cover. Degraded rock/debris areas, however, expanded as well because soil erosion and related debris flows remained active. Slope angle (with a threshold value of approx. 35-40°) seemed to control whether erosion or regeneration prevailed. According to a simple extrapolation, the slope will not reach its former condition before 2070. This extreme disturbance window of more than 120 years is owed to the steepness of the slope and to the shallow soils on dolomitic bedrock that were severely damaged by the fire. The neglect of any game fencing is a further factor slowing regeneration.

  10. Slope-based stochastic resonance: how noise enables phasic neurons to encode slow signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Yan; Doiron, Brent; Rinzel, John

    2010-06-24

    Fundamental properties of phasic firing neurons are usually characterized in a noise-free condition. In the absence of noise, phasic neurons exhibit Class 3 excitability, which is a lack of repetitive firing to steady current injections. For time-varying inputs, phasic neurons are band-pass filters or slope detectors, because they do not respond to inputs containing exclusively low frequencies or shallow slopes. However, we show that in noisy conditions, response properties of phasic neuron models are distinctly altered. Noise enables a phasic model to encode low-frequency inputs that are outside of the response range of the associated deterministic model. Interestingly, this seemingly stochastic-resonance (SR) like effect differs significantly from the classical SR behavior of spiking systems in both the signal-to-noise ratio and the temporal response pattern. Instead of being most sensitive to the peak of a subthreshold signal, as is typical in a classical SR system, phasic models are most sensitive to the signal's rising and falling phases where the slopes are steep. This finding is consistent with the fact that there is not an absolute input threshold in terms of amplitude; rather, a response threshold is more properly defined as a stimulus slope/frequency. We call the encoding of low-frequency signals with noise by phasic models a slope-based SR, because noise can lower or diminish the slope threshold for ramp stimuli. We demonstrate here similar behaviors in three mechanistic models with Class 3 excitability in the presence of slow-varying noise and we suggest that the slope-based SR is a fundamental behavior associated with general phasic properties rather than with a particular biological mechanism.

  11. Slope-based stochastic resonance: how noise enables phasic neurons to encode slow signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental properties of phasic firing neurons are usually characterized in a noise-free condition. In the absence of noise, phasic neurons exhibit Class 3 excitability, which is a lack of repetitive firing to steady current injections. For time-varying inputs, phasic neurons are band-pass filters or slope detectors, because they do not respond to inputs containing exclusively low frequencies or shallow slopes. However, we show that in noisy conditions, response properties of phasic neuron models are distinctly altered. Noise enables a phasic model to encode low-frequency inputs that are outside of the response range of the associated deterministic model. Interestingly, this seemingly stochastic-resonance (SR like effect differs significantly from the classical SR behavior of spiking systems in both the signal-to-noise ratio and the temporal response pattern. Instead of being most sensitive to the peak of a subthreshold signal, as is typical in a classical SR system, phasic models are most sensitive to the signal's rising and falling phases where the slopes are steep. This finding is consistent with the fact that there is not an absolute input threshold in terms of amplitude; rather, a response threshold is more properly defined as a stimulus slope/frequency. We call the encoding of low-frequency signals with noise by phasic models a slope-based SR, because noise can lower or diminish the slope threshold for ramp stimuli. We demonstrate here similar behaviors in three mechanistic models with Class 3 excitability in the presence of slow-varying noise and we suggest that the slope-based SR is a fundamental behavior associated with general phasic properties rather than with a particular biological mechanism.

  12. Tibial slope in total ankle arthroplasty: Anterior or lateral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Maccario, Camilla; Indino, Cristian; Manzi, Luigi; Gross, Christopher Edward

    2017-06-01

    A new total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) system performed through a lateral approach provides direct visualization of the centre of rotation, allowing for accurate reconstruction of the joint alignment and less bone resection. Radiographic references are needed to describe deformities and plan the surgical procedures. The tibial slope is an important factor when treating malalignment. The aim of this study is to show if there is any difference regarding the post-operative tibial slope (β angle) measurement comparing a fixed-bearing TAA through a lateral approach and a mobile-bearing TAA through an anterior approach. The study included 217 ankles. Between May 2011 and April 2015, 77 patients underwent a TAA with a mobile-bearing implant through an anterior approach and 45 with a fixed-bearing implant through a lateral approach: in these patients the β angle was measured 2 and 12 months postoperatively. 95 subjects with unilateral post-traumatic ankle arthritis composed the control group: in these patients we measured the anterior distal tibial angle (ADTA) of the controlateral, non arthritic tibiotalar joint. In the mobile-bearing group, the mean β angle at 2 and 12 months postoperatively was 86.4±3.1 and 86.8±3.1 (p-value=0.12). In the fixed-bearing group, the mean β angle at 2 and 12 months postoperatively was 83.1±5.4 and 83.9±6.5 (p-value=0.26). A statistically significant difference was found between the β angle of the two groups. In the control group the mean ADTA was 84.9±2.5. A non-statistically significant difference was observed only between β angle of the fixed-bearing group and the ADTA of the control group. Regarding the tibial slope, fixed-bearing TAA through a lateral approach showed a more anatomic placement. In contrast, β angle in mobile-bearing group appeared more reproducible than fixed-bearing group. Copyright © 2016 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Overland flow resistances on varying slope gradients and partitioning on grassed slopes under simulated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chengzhong; Ma, Lan; Wainwright, John; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-04-01

    It is still unclear how slope steepness (S) and revegetation affect resistance (f) to overland flow. A series of experiments on runoff hydraulics was conducted on granular surfaces (bare soil and sandpaper) and grassed surfaces, including grass plots (GP), GP with litter (GL), and GP without leaves (GS) under simulated rainfall and inflow (30grass plots. A greater f occurred at the gentle and steep slopes for the granular surfaces, while f decreased with increasing slopes for the grass treatments. The different f-S relations suggest that f is not a simple function of S. When Re≈1000, the sowing rye grass with level lines increased f by approximately 100 times and decreased bed shear stress to approximately 5%. The contribution of grass leaves, stems, litter, and grain surface to total resistance in the grass plots were averagely 52%, 32%, 16%, and 1%. The greater resistance from leaves may result from the leaves lying at the plot surface impacted by raindrop impact. These results are beneficial to understand the dynamics of runoff and erosion on hillslopes impacted by vegetation restoration.

  14. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  15. The Role of Slope Geometry on Flowslide Occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Deangeli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a study aimed to the prediction of susceptibility to flowslide of granular soil slopes as a consequence of the in situ state of stress. In particular, the slope geometry has been investigated as a factor influencing the initial state of stress. For this purpose the results of numerical models, performed by a finite different approach (FLAC, allowed the complete definition, in any point of the slope, of the stress conditions by changing slope height and inclination. By relating this state of stress to parameters used to describe potential for liquefaction of loose granular soils a chart of instability has been set up.

  16. Geotechnical methods of reinforcement of slopes near railroads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir D.Vereskun; Victor A.Yavna

    2015-01-01

    In order to generate well-based design decisions on reinforcement of landslide slopes and road embankment slopes, a system of combined geotechnical analysis of geological conditions is suggested which includes topographic and geo-physical survey, and laboratory studies of soils using infra-red spectroscopy methods. Calculations of slopes' deflected modes are carried out with taking into account elastic and elasto-plastic behavior of soil, and the presence of supporting man-made constructions. Results of the application of the system suggested may be used as criteria for the classification of landslide slopes along permanent ways according to the degree of danger when used for transportation.

  17. A Hybrid FEM-ANN Approach for Slope Instability Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, T. N.; Chauhan, Nikhil Kumar; Sarkar, K.

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of slope stability is one of the most critical aspects for the life of a slope. In any slope vulnerability appraisal, Factor Of Safety (FOS) is the widely accepted index to understand, how close or far a slope from the failure. In this work, an attempt has been made to simulate a road cut slope in a landslide prone area in Rudrapryag, Uttarakhand, India which lies near Himalayan geodynamic mountain belt. A combination of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been adopted to predict FOS of the slope. In ANN, a three layer, feed- forward back-propagation neural network with one input layer and one hidden layer with three neurons and one output layer has been considered and trained using datasets generated from numerical analysis of the slope and validated with new set of field slope data. Mean absolute percentage error estimated as 1.04 with coefficient of correlation between the FOS of FEM and ANN as 0.973, which indicates that the system is very vigorous and fast to predict FOS for any slope.

  18. A Hybrid FEM-ANN Approach for Slope Instability Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, T. N.; Chauhan, Nikhil Kumar; Sarkar, K.

    2016-09-01

    Assessment of slope stability is one of the most critical aspects for the life of a slope. In any slope vulnerability appraisal, Factor Of Safety (FOS) is the widely accepted index to understand, how close or far a slope from the failure. In this work, an attempt has been made to simulate a road cut slope in a landslide prone area in Rudrapryag, Uttarakhand, India which lies near Himalayan geodynamic mountain belt. A combination of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been adopted to predict FOS of the slope. In ANN, a three layer, feed- forward back-propagation neural network with one input layer and one hidden layer with three neurons and one output layer has been considered and trained using datasets generated from numerical analysis of the slope and validated with new set of field slope data. Mean absolute percentage error estimated as 1.04 with coefficient of correlation between the FOS of FEM and ANN as 0.973, which indicates that the system is very vigorous and fast to predict FOS for any slope.

  19. Adaptive slope compensation for high bandwidth digital current mode controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taeed, Fazel; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive slope compensation method for digital current mode control of dc-dc converters is proposed in this paper. The compensation slope is used for stabilizing the inner current loop in peak current mode control. In this method, the compensation slope is adapted with the variations...... in converter duty cycle. The adaptive slope compensation provides optimum controller operation in term of bandwidth over wide range of operating points. In this paper operation principle of the controller is discussed. The proposed controller is implemented in an FPGA to control a 100 W buck converter...

  20. AN EXAMPLE OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROGRESSIVE SLOPE FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家臣; 骆中洲

    1995-01-01

    In fact, the failure of any slope takes place progressively, but the progressive failure mechanism has not been emphasized sufficently in the present stability analysis of slopes. This paper provides an example of the progressive slope failure which took place at Pingzhuang west surface coal mine and was numbered the 26th slide. The three-dimensional reliability model for progressive slope failure is used to study the failure process of the 26th slide. The outcomes indicate that the progressive failure is indeed the failure mechanism of the slide.

  1. Pursuing optimal electric machines transient diagnosis: The adaptive slope transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Llinares, Joan; Riera-Guasp, Martín; Antonino-Daviu, Jose A.; Habetler, Thomas G.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new linear time-frequency transform to improve the detection of fault components in electric machines transient currents. Linear transforms are analysed from the perspective of the atoms used. A criterion to select the atoms at every point of the time-frequency plane is proposed, taking into account the characteristics of the searched component at each point. This criterion leads to the definition of the Adaptive Slope Transform, which enables a complete and optimal capture of the different components evolutions in a transient current. A comparison with conventional linear transforms (Short-Time Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform) is carried out, showing their inherent limitations. The approach is tested with laboratory and field motors, and the Lower Sideband Harmonic is captured for the first time during an induction motor startup and subsequent load oscillations, accurately tracking its evolution.

  2. DISSIPATION OF WAVE ENERGY ON VERY MILD SLOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and calculation of wave attenuation when waves travel on sand bed, sand ripple bed and muddy bed, respectively. The study shows that (1) The dissipation of wave energy due to bottom percolation may be neglected on sand bed; (2) The wave attenuation due to the friction of sand ripples is one order higher than that of flat sand bed and (3) The energy loss of waves propagating on muddy bed is the largest. Then, the equivalent coefficients of friction are calculated in order to compare with the solution by the bottom-friction model. Wave attenuation are also computed by the Bingham-model and the principle of conservation of wave energy flux on very mild muddy slope. The results coincide well with the wave information from the Lianyungang Wave Observation Station. Theoretical prediction proves that the equivalent coefficients of friction strongly rely on water depth, which inerease with decreasing depth.

  3. Numerical simulation study of the influence on stability of slope by underground mining under opencast coal mine slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ting-ting; LU Guo-bin; TONG Li-ming

    2011-01-01

    In view of the study on mining transferred from open-pit to underground,the research on the problem of the stability of slope is less.This article combined the actual situation of the Gaohai Coal Mine in Fuxin City and set up a three-dimensional model of the part of Huizhou open-pit slope by the finite difference software.Through the three-dimensional numerical simulation study of the influence on the stability of slope by underground mining,the basic characteristics of the open-pit slope deformation and the situation of basic stability were discussed.The simulation results of the mining slope of the displacement and deformation analysis of the state for mining provide a reference to the slope stability research.

  4. Optimizing and slope determination of final wall for Maiduk Mine with consideration of destabilizer factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shamsoddin Saeed Masoud; Maarefvand Parviz; Yaaghubi Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this research, determination of final slope for Maiduk copper mine of Kerman is investigated according to destabilizing factors of the mine. The development of the Maiduk Mine caused the extension of the mine area and also withdrawal of its wall. So, optimizing possibility of mine slope is essential. Finally, the magnitude of optimized slopes for different walls of the mine in association with executive com-mands with better factors of safety is provided. The results show that the most important destabilizer factors are the presence of water and pore pressure in the faults and the main joints. With the omission of pore pressure, mine wall for the designed depth is quite stable. This requires a drainage pattern in the lifetime of the mine. In an optimistic point of view, the minimum factor of safety of the wall will be 2.81 even without drainage. This conclusion allows optimizing the slope to its maximum magnitude of 51 degree. With the pessimistic engineering judgment and with the higher SF, the magnitude of the slope is optimized to 47 degree.

  5. Two-Step Single Slope/SAR ADC with Error Correction for CMOS Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional two-step ADC for CMOS image sensor requires full resolution noise performance in the first stage single slope ADC, leading to high power consumption and large chip area. This paper presents an 11-bit two-step single slope/successive approximation register (SAR ADC scheme for CMOS image sensor applications. The first stage single slope ADC generates a 3-bit data and 1 redundant bit. The redundant bit is combined with the following 8-bit SAR ADC output code using a proposed error correction algorithm. Instead of requiring full resolution noise performance, the first stage single slope circuit of the proposed ADC can tolerate up to 3.125% quantization noise. With the proposed error correction mechanism, the power consumption and chip area of the single slope ADC are significantly reduced. The prototype ADC is fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The chip area of the proposed ADC is 7 μm × 500 μm. The measurement results show that the energy efficiency figure-of-merit (FOM of the proposed ADC core is only 125 pJ/sample under 1.4 V power supply and the chip area efficiency is 84 k μm2·cycles/sample.

  6. The layered subsurface - periglacial slope deposits as crucial elements for soil formation and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Huber, Juliane

    2014-05-01

    Still most concepts of soil formation, weathering production rates and weathering front ideas are dealing with a monolayered near-surface underground and subsoil. At best a line is given on so-called moved regolith. In fact the subsurface is often characterized by stratified and multilayered slope deposits with thicknesses exceeding 1 m. These stratified slope sediments play a significant role in the nature of the physical and chemical properties as well as on soil forming processes. Examples are given for sediment sourced chemical elements and common clay minerals, and the significance of slope sediments as both barriers and pathways for interflow that moves through the stratified sediments. The stratified subsurface is often datable by numeric age techniques (OSL) showing up how sediment features contradict weathering effects and meaning e.g. for soil genesis. In the mid latitudes, geomorphic and sedimentologic evidence supports a periglacial origin, involving solifluction, for the origin of these slope deposits. The study areas are situated within the Colorado Front Range, U.S. and the Bavarian Forest, Germany. The projects are currently financed and supported by the German Science Foundation DFG. Literature: Völkel, J., Huber, J. & Leopold, M. (2011): Significance of slope sediments layering on physical characteristics and interflow within the Critical Zone… - Applied Geochemistry 26: 143-145.

  7. Long-term stability analysis of the left bank abutment slope at Jinping I hydropower station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Zhang; Qiang Yang; Yaoru Liu

    2016-01-01

    The time-dependent behavior of the left bank abutment slope at Jinping I hydropower station has a major influence on the normal operation and long-term safety of the hydropower station. To solve this problem, a geomechanical model containing various faults and weak structural planes is established, and numerical simulation is conducted under normal water load condition using FLAC3D, incorporating creep model proposed based on thermodynamics with internal state variables theory. The creep deformations of the left bank abutment slope are obtained, and the changes of principal stresses and deformations of the dam body are analyzed. The long-term stability of the left bank abutment slope is evaluated ac-cording to the integral curves of energy dissipation rate in domain and its derivative with respect to time, and the non-equilibrium evolution rules and the characteristic time can also be determined using these curves. Numerical results show that the left bank abutment slope tends to be stable in a global sense, and the stress concentration is released. It is also indicated that more attention should be paid to some weak regions within the slope in the long-term deformation process.

  8. Two-step single slope/SAR ADC with error correction for CMOS image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Bermak, Amine; Amira, Abbes; Amor Benammar, Mohieddine; He, Debiao; Zhao, Xiaojin

    2014-01-01

    Conventional two-step ADC for CMOS image sensor requires full resolution noise performance in the first stage single slope ADC, leading to high power consumption and large chip area. This paper presents an 11-bit two-step single slope/successive approximation register (SAR) ADC scheme for CMOS image sensor applications. The first stage single slope ADC generates a 3-bit data and 1 redundant bit. The redundant bit is combined with the following 8-bit SAR ADC output code using a proposed error correction algorithm. Instead of requiring full resolution noise performance, the first stage single slope circuit of the proposed ADC can tolerate up to 3.125% quantization noise. With the proposed error correction mechanism, the power consumption and chip area of the single slope ADC are significantly reduced. The prototype ADC is fabricated using 0.18 μ m CMOS technology. The chip area of the proposed ADC is 7 μ m × 500 μ m. The measurement results show that the energy efficiency figure-of-merit (FOM) of the proposed ADC core is only 125 pJ/sample under 1.4 V power supply and the chip area efficiency is 84 k  μ m(2) · cycles/sample.

  9. Dose-response curve slope helps predict therapeutic potency and breadth of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas E; Montefiori, David C; Lee, Benhur

    2015-09-29

    A new generation of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) with remarkable potency, breadth and epitope diversity has rejuvenated interest in immunotherapeutic strategies. Potencies defined by in vitro IC50 and IC80 values (50 and 80% inhibitory concentrations) figure prominently into the selection of clinical candidates; however, much higher therapeutic levels will be required to reduce multiple logs of virus and impede escape. Here we predict bnAb potency at therapeutic levels by analysing dose-response curve slopes, and show that slope is independent of IC50/IC80 and specifically relates to bnAb epitope class. With few exceptions, CD4-binding site and V3-glycan bnAbs exhibit slopes >1, indicative of higher expected therapeutic effectiveness, whereas V2-glycan, gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER) and gp120-gp41 bnAbs exhibit less favourable slopes <1. Our results indicate that slope is one major predictor of both potency and breadth for bnAbs at clinically relevant concentrations, and may better coordinate the relationship between bnAb epitope structure and therapeutic expectations.

  10. Soil Organic Carbon Loss under Different Slope Gradients in Loess Hilly Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Songwei; HE Xiubin; WEI Fangqiang

    2007-01-01

    Based on field runoff plots observation and sample analysis, the effect of slope gradient on soil organic carbon loss was studied under natural rainfall conditions in loess hilly region. The results showed that with slope gradient increasing (from 10° to 30°), the changing trend of soil erosion intensity (A) was A20°>A30°>A15°>A10°>A25°, suggesting that slope gradient between 20°and 25° was a critical degree ranger to exist. Soil organic carbon loss was mainly influenced by soil erosion intensity, appearing the same trend as did soil erosion intensity with increasing slope gradient. Soil erosion results in organic carbon enrichment in sediment. Average enrichment ratios of five runoff plots varied from 2.27 to 3.74, and decreased with increasing erosion intensity and slope gradient. The decrease of surface runoff and soil erosion is the key to reduce soil organic carbon loss.

  11. Stability investigation of road cut slope in basaltic rockmass, Mahabaleshwar, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashutosh Kainthola; P.K. Singh; T.N. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Slope failures along hill cut road slopes are the major nuisance for commuters and highway planners as they put the human lives at huge risk, coupled with immense monetary losses. Analysis of these vulnerable cut slopes entails the assessment and estimation of the suitable material strength input parameters to be used in the numerical models to accomplish a holistic stability examination. For the present study a 60 m high, basaltic and lateritic road cut hill slope in Mahabaleshwar, India, has been considered. A number of samples of both basalt and laterite, in their natural state were tested in the laboratory and the evaluated maximum, minimum and mean strength parameters were employed for the three cases in a distinct element numerical model. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion has been incorporated in the numerical model for the material as well as the joints. The numerical investigation offered the factor of safety and insights into the probable deformational mechanism for the three cases. Beside, several critical parameters have also been judged from the study viz., mode of failure, factor of safety, shear strain rate, displacement magnitudes etc. The result of this analysis shows that the studied section is prone to recurrent failures due to the capping of a substantially thick layer of weaker lateritic material above the high strength basaltic rock mass. External triggering mechanisms like heavy pre-cipitation and earthquake may also accelerate the slope failure in this area. The study also suggests employing instant preventive measures to avert the further risk of damage.

  12. Evidence of rock slope breathing using ground-based InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouyet, Line; Kristensen, Lene; Derron, Marc-Henri; Michoud, Clément; Blikra, Lars Harald; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Lauknes, Tom Rune

    2017-07-01

    Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (GB-InSAR) campaigns were performed in summer 2011 and 2012 in the Romsdalen valley (Møre & Romsdal county, western Norway) in order to assess displacements on Mannen/Børa rock slope. Located 1 km northwest, a second GB-InSAR system continuously monitors the large Mannen rockslide. The availability of two GB-InSAR positions creates a wide coverage of the rock slope, including a slight dataset overlap valuable for validation. A phenomenon of rock slope breathing is detected in a remote and hard-to-access area in mid-slope. Millimetric upward displacements are recorded in August 2011. Analysis of 2012 GB-InSAR campaign, combined with the large dataset from the continuous station, shows that the slope is affected by inflation/deflation phenomenon between 5 and 10 mm along the line-of-sight. The pattern is not homogenous in time and inversions of movement have a seasonal recurrence. These seasonal changes are confirmed by satellite InSAR observations and can possibly be caused by hydrogeological variations. In addition, combination of GB-InSAR results, in situ measurements and satellite InSAR analyses contributes to a better overview of movement distribution over the whole area.

  13. Long-term stability analysis of the left bank abutment slope at Jinping I hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The time-dependent behavior of the left bank abutment slope at Jinping I hydropower station has a major influence on the normal operation and long-term safety of the hydropower station. To solve this problem, a geomechanical model containing various faults and weak structural planes is established, and numerical simulation is conducted under normal water load condition using FLAC3D, incorporating creep model proposed based on thermodynamics with internal state variables theory. The creep deformations of the left bank abutment slope are obtained, and the changes of principal stresses and deformations of the dam body are analyzed. The long-term stability of the left bank abutment slope is evaluated according to the integral curves of energy dissipation rate in domain and its derivative with respect to time, and the non-equilibrium evolution rules and the characteristic time can also be determined using these curves. Numerical results show that the left bank abutment slope tends to be stable in a global sense, and the stress concentration is released. It is also indicated that more attention should be paid to some weak regions within the slope in the long-term deformation process.

  14. Assessment and mapping of slope stability based on slope units: A case study in Yan’an, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianqi Zhuang; Jianbing Peng; Yonglong Xu; Qiang Xu; Xinghua Zhu; Wei Li

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation frequently triggers shallow landslides in the Loess Plateau of Shaanxi, China, resulting in loss of life, damage to gas and oil routes, and destruction of transport infrastructure and farmland. To assess the possibility of shallow landslides at different precipitation levels, a method to draw slope units and steepest slope profiles based on ARCtools and a new method for calculating slope stability areproposed. The methods were implemented in a case study conducted in Yan’an, north-west China. High resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model) images, soil parameters from in-situ laboratory measurements and maximum depths of precipitation infiltration were used as input parameters in the method. Next,DEM and reverse DEM were employed to map 2146 slope units in the study area, based on which the steepest profiles of the slope units were constructed. Combining analysis of the water content of loess, strength of the sliding surface, its response to precipitation and the infinite slope stability equation, a newequation to calculate infinite slope stability is proposed to assess shallow landslide stability. The slope unit stability was calculated using the equation at 10-, 20-, 50- and 100-year return periods of antecedent effective precipitation. The number of slope units experiencing failure increased in response to increasing effective antecedent rainfall. These results were validated based on the occurrence of landslides in recent decades. Finally, the applicability and limitations of the model are discussed.

  15. Check dams effects on sediment transport in steep slope flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Depending on many influences (geology, relief, hydrology, land use, etc.) some mountainous watershed are prone to cause casualties and facilities damages. Large amounts of sediments episodically released by torrents are often the biggest problem in torrent related hazard mitigation. Series of transversal structures as check dams and ground sills are often used in the panel of risk mitigation technics. A large literature exits on check dams and it mainly concerns engineering design, e.g. toe scouring, stability stress diagram, changes in upper and lower reaches equilibrium slopes. Check dams in steep slope rivers constitute fixed points in the bed profile and prevent general bed incision. However their influence on sediment transport once they are filled is not yet clear. Two flume test campaigns, synthetize in Table 1, were performed to investigate this question: Table 1 : experiment plan Run (duration) Ref1 (50h)CD1a (30h)CD1b (30h)Ref2 (92h)CD2 (18h) Solid feeding discharge (g.s^-1) 44 44 44 60 60 Number of check dams none 1 3 none 2 A nearly 5-m-long, 10-cm-wide and 12%-steep flume was used. The water discharge was set to 0,55 l/s in all runs. A mixture of poorly sorted natural sediments with diameters between 0.8 and 40 mm was used. An open solid-discharge-feeding circuit kept the inlet sediment flux constant during all experiments. As both feeding rates did not present variation, changes in outlet solid discharge were assumed to be due to bed variations in the bed storage. We observed strong fluctuations of solid flux and slope in each reaches of all runs between: (i) steep aggradating armoured bed and (ii) less steep and finer bed releasing bedload sheets during erosion events and inducing bedload pulses. All experiments showed consistent results: transported volume associated with erosion event decreased with the length between two subsequent check dams. Solid transversal structures shorten the upstream erosion-propagation and avoid downstream change in the

  16. Nuclear Slope Parameter Of pp and (-p)p Elastic Scattering in QCD Inspired Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shan-Jun; LU Juan; LU Hai-Liang; MA Wei-Xing; FAN Hong-Yi; HE Xiao-Rong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the quaxk-gluon structure of nucleon and the possible existence of Odderon in strong interaction process due to gluon self-interaction, the elastic scatterings of pp and pp at high energies axe studied. The contributions from individual terms of quark-quark, gluon-gluon interactions, quaxk-gluon interference, and the Odderon terms to the nuclear slope parameter B(s) are analyzed. Our results show that the QCD inspired model gives a good fit to the LHC experimental data of the nucleax slope parameter.

  17. Microstructure-Fibre-Based Optical Parametric Amplification in Telecom Band with Ultra-High Gain Slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; XIAO Li; ZHANG Lei; HUANG Yi-Dong; PENG Jiang-De

    2006-01-01

    @@ We report a microstructure-fibre-based parametric amplification experiment in telecom band with ultra-high gain slope. A peak on-off gain of 52.3 dB is achieved using 25 m high nonlinear microstructure fibre (MF) and only 5.3 W pump power. The parametric gain slope is up to 580dBW-1 km-1. From the experimental data, the linear coefficient of the MF is estimated to be about 66. 7 W-1 km-1. The experiment shows the great potential of MFs in practical fibre parametric amplifiers.

  18. Improved genetic algorithm freely searching for dangerous slip surface of slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Wen; CAO Ping; FENG Tao; YUAN Hai-ping

    2005-01-01

    Based on the slice method of the non-circular slip surface for the calculation of integral stability of slope, an improved genetic algorithm was proposed, which can freely search for the most dangerous slip surface of slope and the corresponding minimum safety factor without supposing the geometric shape of the most dangerous slip surface. This improved genetic algorithm can simulate the genetic evolution process of organisms and avoid the local minimum value compared with the classical methods. The results of engineering cases show that it is a global optimal algorithm and has many advantages, such as higher efficiency and shorter time than the simple genetic algorithm.

  19. PARALLEL SIMULATION OF THE ELLIPTIC MILD SLOPE EQUATION WITH A PERSONAL COMPUTER CLUSTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yong-hong; You Ya-ge; Wang Li-sheng; Shen Yong-ming

    2003-01-01

    With the massage passing interface, a parallel solution method was proposed for the simulation of the elliptic mild slope equation, and implemented numerically on a parallel system based on a personal computer cluster, which was constructed by the authors. The wave transformations over two typical topographies with mild slopes were simulated. Numerical results show that the parallel solution method presented in this paper can not only increase the computational efficiency, but also decrease very much the memory storage on a single computer, so the parallel system based on a PCC can be used to simulate wave transformations over much larger areas.

  20. Experimental test of theory for the stability of partially saturated vertical cut slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael M.; Lu, N.; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.; Take, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Culmann's vertical-cut analysis to unsaturated soils. To test the extended theory, unsaturated sand was compacted to a uniform porosity and moisture content in a laboratory apparatus. A sliding door that extended the height of the free face of the slope was lowered until the vertical cut failed. Digital images of the slope cross section and upper surface were acquired concurrently. A recently developed particle image velocimetry (PIV) tool was used to quantify soil displacement. The PIV analysis showed strain localization at varying distances from the sliding door prior to failure. The areas of localized strain were coincident with the location of the slope crest after failure. Shear-strength and soil-water-characteristic parameters of the sand were independently tested for use in extended analyses of the vertical-cut stability and of the failure plane angle. Experimental failure heights were within 22.3% of the heights predicted using the extended theory.

  1. Numerical analysis of rainfall infiltration in the slope with a fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ping; LIU Qingquan; LI Jiachun; SUN Jianping

    2005-01-01

    With the finite volume method, a 2D numerical model for seepage in unsaturated soil has been established to study the rainfall infiltration in the fractured slope.The result shows that more rain may infiltrate into the slope due to existing fracture and then the pore pressure rises correspondingly. Very probably, it is one of the crucial factors accounting for slope failure. Furthermore a preliminary study has been conducted to investigate the influence of various fracture and rainfall factors such as the depth, width and location of a crack, surface condition, rainfall intensity and duration. Pore pressure and water volumetric content during the transient seepage are carefully examined to reveal the intrinsic mechanism.

  2. Slope Stability Analysis of Earth-Rockfill Dams Using MGA and UST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Nansheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear Unified Strength Theory (UST, which takes into account the effect of intermediate stress and nonlinear behavior on geotechnical strength, is applied in slope stability analysis of earth-rockfill dams (ERD in this paper. The biggest drawback for general determination of slip surface is that it must presuppose the shape of slip surface and is unable to identify the critical noncircular slip surface more accurately. This paper proposes an optimal analytic model of slope stability analysis of ERD and employs modified genetic algorithm (MGA to search for the slip surface on the basis of shear failure criteria of the nonlinear UST without prior assumption of the shape of slip surface. The application of MGA dependent on Matlab toolbox to the slope stability analysis of ERD shows that MGA can consequently overcome the weakness of easily falling into local optimal solutions brought by general optimal algorithms.

  3. Numerical studies of large-amplitude internal waves shoaling and breaking at shelf slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Øyvind; Berntsen, Jarle

    2009-12-01

    Hydro carbon fields beyond the shelf break are presently being explored and developed, which has increased the scientific focus in this area. Measurements from the slopes reveal large variability in temperature and velocity, and some of the observed events are due to interactions between large-amplitude oscillations of the thermocline and the topography. The present study focuses on the strong currents that are generated near the seabed during shoaling and breaking of internal waves along shelf slopes. The parameter regime used is similar to the one for the Nordic Seas. The results show that, during shoaling of large internal waves along (gentle) slopes, the energy is transferred towards smaller scales and strong velocities (over 1 m s - 1) can be generated. To resolve all scales involved is still not feasible, and therefore, the model results are sensitive to the grid size and the subgrid scale closure.

  4. Maximum-Entropy Method for Evaluating the Slope Stability of Earth Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The slope stability is a very important problem in geotechnical engineering. This paper presents an approach for slope reliability analysis based on the maximum-entropy method. The key idea is to implement the maximum entropy principle in estimating the probability density function. The performance function is formulated by the Simplified Bishop’s method to estimate the slope failure probability. The maximum-entropy method is used to estimate the probability density function (PDF of the performance function subject to the moment constraints. A numerical example is calculated and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS and the Advanced First Order Second Moment Method (AFOSM. The results show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. The proposed method should be valuable for performing probabilistic analyses.

  5. RADIOCESIUM, BIOINDICATVE AND GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS IN THE STUDY CONTEXT OF EROSION NETWORK OF THE ARABLE SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trofimets

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the relief transformation at arable lands becomes an actual problem due to the intensive use of interfluve sloped surfaces. This research examines the current state and dynamics of erosion network at arable slope in the upper Oka river basin. The riverbeds of modern streams are identified using the phytoindication analysis. The feature was detected out that these streams do not necessarily match with the ancient stream thalwegs. The radiocaesium analysis made it possible to show that soil washout magnitudes are comparable in the thalwegs of current and ancient streams, which are comparable in the length. Geomorphometric methods joined with the geoinformation analysis allow to quantify the role of current erosion network in transformation of the interfluve sloped surfaces relief.

  6. Study on application of capillary plane radiation air conditioning system based on the slope roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. G.; Wang, T. T.; Liu, X. L.; Dong, X. Z.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, based on the principle of the capillary plane radiation air conditioning system, taking the slope roof as an example, the application of the capillary plane radiation airconditioning system is studied and analysed. Then the numerical solution of differential equations is obtained by the technology of CFD. Finally, we analyze the distribution of indoor temperature of the slope roof and the predicted mean votes (PMV) using Airpak simulation software by establishing a physical model. The results show that the PMV of different sections ranges from 0 to 2.5, which meets the requirement of the comfort. These provide a theoretical basis for application and promotion of capillary plane in the slope roof.

  7. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Numerical study of the sub-threshold slope in T-CNFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailiang, Zhou; Yue, Hao; Minxuan, Zhang

    2010-09-01

    The most attractive merit of tunneling carbon nanotube field effect transistors (T-CNFETs) is the ultra-small inverse sub-threshold slope. In order to obtain as small an average sub-threshold slope as possible, several effective approaches have been proposed based on a numerical insight into the working mechanism of T-CNFETs: tuning the doping level of source/drain leads, minimizing the quantum capacitance value via tuning the bias condition or increasing the insulator capacitance, and adopting a staircase doping strategy in the drain lead. Non-equilibrium Green's function based simulation results show that all these approaches can contribute to a smaller average inverse sub-threshold slope, which is quite desirable in high-frequency or low-power applications.

  8. Effects of aligning pulse duration on the degree and the slope of nitrogen field-free alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fei; Jiang Hong-Bing; Gong Qi-Huang

    2012-01-01

    Through theoretical analysis,we show how aligning pulse durations affect the degree and the time-rate slope of nitrogen field-free alignment at a fixed pulse intensity.It is found that both the degree and the slope first increase,then saturate,and finally decrease with the increasing pump duration.The optimal durations for the maximum degree and the maximum slope of the alignment are found to be different.Additionally,they are found to mainly depend on the molecular rotational period,and are affected by the temperature and the aligning pump intensities.The mechanism of molecular alignment is also discussed.

  9. Sea-level related resedimentation processes on the northern slope of Little Bahama Bank (Middle Pleistocene to Holocene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lantzsch, H.; Roth, S.; Reijmer, J.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Middle Pleistocene to Holocene sediment variations observed in a 26 metre long core taken during a cruise of the RV Marion Dufresne are presented. Core MD992202 was retrieved from the northern slope of Little Bahama Bank and provides an excellent example for sedimentation processes in a mid-slope....... These glacial to interglacial differences in mineralogy, grain-size distribution and organic content clearly show the impact of climatically controlled sea-level fluctuations on the sedimentation patterns of the northern slope of Little Bahama Bank. The coarser deposits (ii) occur mainly at the transitions from...

  10. Stability Analysis on Deep-Cutting Loess Slope and Rational Design on Slope Shape%黄土深路堑边坡稳定性分析及边坡坡型的合理设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振文

    2013-01-01

    边坡的稳定状况直接关系着工程的施工安全、运营安全和建设成本等.如何合理设计边坡,一直是工程设计中的一个重要环节,也是工程设计的一个难点.以某工程为例,利用有限元方法计算分析了不同高度不同坡率下黄土边坡的受力特性.研究表明:路堑开挖过程中,在边坡高度不变的情况下,边坡坡率越缓,坡脚的应力越小,但是随着坡率的逐渐变缓,应力变化趋于缓和.笔者通过比较各种边坡形式,综合评价了黄土深路堑边坡的稳定状况,为边坡的坡型设计和施工提供了可靠的依据.%The stability of a slope has direct effects on the construction safety, operation safety, construction costs etc. How to rationally design the slope is a important part of engineering design, also is a difficult point all the time. In the thesis, a project was taken as an example, so that the mechanical characteristics of loess slope with different heights and different slope ratios could be calculated and analyzed by using FEM. The research shows: in the process of slope excavating with the same slope height, the slower the slope ratio is, the smaller the stress at the slope toe becomes. However, with the slope ratio slows gradually, the change of the stresses tends to moderate. Furthermore, through comparing various slope shapes, the author carried out a comprehensive evaluation on the stability of the loess slope of deep cutting, which will provide reliable basis for the slope shape design and the slope construction.

  11. Effect of minimal shoes and slope on vertical and leg stiffness during running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Lussiana

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that kvert and kleg during running respond differently to change in footwear and/or slope. These two stiffness measures can hence provide a unique insight on the biomechanical adaptations of running under varying conditions and their respective quantification may assist in furthering our understanding of training, performance, and/or injury in this sport.

  12. The World Is Not Flat: Can People Reorient Using Slope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Daniele; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of spatial representation generally focus on flat environments and visual input. However, the world is not flat, and slopes are part of most natural environments. In a series of 4 experiments, we examined whether humans can use a slope as a source of allocentric, directional information for reorientation. A target was hidden in a corner of…

  13. Recurring slope lineae in equatorial regions of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Dundas, Colin M.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Ojha, Lujendra; Wray, James J.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Byrne, Shane; Murchie, Scott L.; Thomas, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The presence of liquid water is a requirement of habitability on a planet. Possible indicators of liquid surface water on Mars include intermittent flow-like features observed on sloping terrains. These recurring slope lineae are narrow, dark markings on steep slopes that appear and incrementally lengthen during warm seasons on low-albedo surfaces. The lineae fade in cooler seasons and recur over multiple Mars years. Recurring slope lineae were initially reported to appear and lengthen at mid-latitudes in the late southern spring and summer and are more common on equator-facing slopes where and when the peak surface temperatures are higher. Here we report extensive activity of recurring slope lineae in equatorial regions of Mars, particularly in the deep canyons of Valles Marineris, from analysis of data acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. We observe the lineae to be most active in seasons when the slopes often face the sun. Expected peak temperatures suggest that activity may not depend solely on temperature. Although the origin of the recurring slope lineae remains an open question, our observations are consistent with intermittent flow of briny water. Such an origin suggests surprisingly abundant liquid water in some near-surface equatorial regions of Mars.

  14. How Do Adults Perceive, Analyse and Measure Slope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce; Chick, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Slope is a mathematical concept that is both fundamental to the study of advanced calculus and commonly perceived in everyday life. The measurement of steepness of terrain as a ratio is an example of an everyday application the concept of slope. In this study, a group of pre-service teachers were tested for their capacity to mathematize the…

  15. 30 CFR 716.2 - Steep-slope mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steep-slope mining. 716.2 Section 716.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.2 Steep-slope mining. The permittee conducting surface coal...

  16. After the Slippery Slope: Dutch Experiences on Regulating Active Euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Th.A.

    2003-01-01

    “When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward.” If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery-slope argument, however, is by

  17. Analysis of hydrological processes in unstable clayey slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    In slope stability research a ground water level increase is often the critical factor for failure. High ground water levels (or more properly stated: high pore water pressures) reduce the internal strength of the slope. It is recognised for quite some time that fast infiltration of precipitation to

  18. After the Slippery Slope: Dutch Experiences on Regulating Active Euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Th.A.

    2003-01-01

    “When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward.” If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery-slope argument, however, is by definit

  19. Teachers' Personal Agency: Making Sense of Slope through Additive Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Janet G.; Gerson, Hope

    2007-01-01

    In the context of a three-year professional development program in mathematics, practicing elementary teachers persistently engaged in collaborative inquiry and reflection to build connected meanings for slope. One teacher invented a compelling representation for slope as a process of repeated addition, using Cuisenaire rods, based on teachers'…

  20. Preliminary blasting as a means of constructing the final slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Jimeno, E.; Lopez Jimeno, C. (Lignitos de Meirama, La Coruna (Spain))

    1983-01-01

    In order to undertake construction of a new belt at the Meirama opencast lignite workings in the Province of Coruna it has been necessary partially to re-site the slope of the general haulage drift. Preliminary blasting was thought to be the most suitable method of blasting in order to maintain slope stability of the rock mass. (17 refs.)

  1. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  2. Slope spectrum variation in a simulated loess watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fayuan; Tang, Guoan; Wang, Chun; Cui, Lingzhou; Zhu, Rui

    2016-06-01

    A simulated loess watershed, where the loess material and relief properly represent the true loess surface, is adopted to investigate the variation in slope spectrum with loess watershed evolution. The evolution of the simulated loess watershed was driven by the exogenetic force of artificial rainfall. For a period of three months, twenty artificial rainfall events with different intensities and durations were carried out. In the process, nine DEM data sets, each with 10 mm grid resolution, were established by the method of close-range photogrammetry. The slope spectra were then extracted from these DEMs. Subsequent series of carefully designed quantitative analyses indicated a strong relationship between the slope spectrum and the evolution of the simulated loess watershed. Quantitative indices of the slope spectrum varied regularly following the evolution of the simulated loess watershed. Mean slope, slope spectrum information entropy ( H), terrain driving force ( T d ), Mean patch area ( AREA_MN), Contagion Index ( CONTAG), and Patch Cohesion Index ( COHESION) kept increasing following the evolution of the simulated watershed, while skewness ( S), Perimeter-Area Fractal Dimension ( PAFRAC), and Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index ( IJI) represented an opposite trend. All the indices changed actively in the early and active development periods, but slowly in the stable development periods. These experimental results indicate that the time series of slope spectra was able to effectively depict the slope distribution of the simulated loess watershed, thus presenting a potential method for modeling loess landforms.

  3. Conceptual model for reinforced grass on inner dike slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ComCoast

    2005-01-01

    A desk study has been carried out in order to develop a conceptual model for the erosion of inner dike slopes with reinforced grass cover. Based on the results the following can be concluded: The presence of a geosynthetic in a grass slope can be taken into account in the EPM method by increasing

  4. After the Slippery Slope: Dutch Experiences on Regulating Active Euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Th.A.

    2003-01-01

    “When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward.” If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery-slope argument, however, is by definit

  5. Influence of bedforms on the transverse bed slope effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, A.W.; Kleinhans, M.G.; Smit, Jaco; Uijttewaal, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The deflection of sediment transport on a transverse slope due to gravity determines the large scale morphology by influencing bar dimensions and bifurcation dynamics. However, existing transverse bed slope predictors in morphodynamic models are based on a small range of flow conditions and sediment

  6. RMS slope of exponentially correlated surface roughness for radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    In radar signature analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface slope is utilized to assess the relative contribution of multiple scattering effects. For an exponentially correlated surface, an effective RMS slope can be determined by truncating the high frequency tail of the roughness spectrum...

  7. Strength of the landward slopes of sea dikes in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Cat, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The landware slopes of sea dikes in the north of Vietnam are steep and solely constructed by soil covered with grass due to the budget constraints and also the out-of-date design guidelines.The resistance against erosion due to wave overtopping of several grass covered slopes were tested with the Wa

  8. Reconstruction of multistage massive rock slope failure: Polymethodical approach in Lake Oeschinen (CH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sibylle; Gilli, Adrian; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    Lateglacial and Holocene rock-slope failures occur often as multistage failures where paraglacial adjustment and stress adaptation are hypothesised to control stages of detachment. However, we have only limited datasets to reconstruct detailed stages of large multistage rock-slope failures, and still aim at improving our models in terms of geohazard assessment. Here we use lake sediments, well-established for paleoclimate and paleoseismological reconstruction, with a focus on the reconstruction of rock-slope failures. We present a unique inventory from Lake Oeschinen (Bernese Alps, Switzerland) covering about 2.4 kyrs of rock-slope failure history. The lake sediments have been analysed using sediment-core analysis, radiocarbon dating and seismic-to-core and core-to-core correlations, and these were linked to historical and meteorological records. The results imply that the lake is significantly younger than the ~9 kyrs old Kandersteg rock avalanche (Tinner et al., 2005) and shows multiple rock-slope failures, two of which could be C14-dated. Several events detached from the same area potentially initiated by prehistoric earthquakes (Monecke et al., 2006) and later from stress relaxation processes. The data imply unexpected short recurrence rates that can be related to certain detachment scarps and also help to understand the generation of a historical lake-outburst flood. Here we show how polymethodical analysis of lake sediments can help to decipher massive multistage rock-slope failure. References Monecke, K., Anselmetti, F.S., Becker, A., Schnellmann, M., Sturm, M., Giardini, D., 2006. Earthquake-induced deformation structures in lake deposits: A Late Pleistocene to Holocene paleoseismic record for Central Switzerland. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 99(3), 343-362. Tinner, W., Kaltenrieder, P., Soom, M., Zwahlen, P., Schmidhalter, M., Boschetti, A., Schlüchter, C., 2005. Der nacheiszeitliche Bergsturz im Kandertal (Schweiz): Alter und Auswirkungen auf die

  9. Wintertime slope winds and its turbulent characteristics in the Yeongdong region of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, H. R.; Eun, S. H.; Kim, B. G.; Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Yeongdong region has various meteorological phenomenons by virtue of complicated geographical characteristics with high Taebaek Mountains running from the north to the south and an adjacent East Sea to the east. There are few studies on the slope winds and its turbulent characteristics over the complex terrain, which are critical information in mountain climbing, hiking, paragliding, even winter sports such as alpine skiing and ski jump etc. For the understanding of diverse mountain winds in the complex terrain in Yeongdong, hot-wire anemometers (Campbell Scientific) have been installed at a couple of sites since October 2014 and several automatic weather stations at several sites around the mountainous region in Yeongdong since November 2012.WRF model simulations have been also done with an ultra-fine horizontal resolution of 300 m for 10 years. Generally, model and observation show that the dominant wind is westerly, approximately more than 75%. It is quite consistent that wind fields from both model and observation agree with each other in the valley region and at the top of the mountain, but there is a significant disagreement in wind direction specifically in the slide slope. Probably this implies model's performance with even an ultra-fine resolution is still not enough for the slide slope domain of complex terrains. Despite that, the observation clearly showed up- and down slope winds for the weak synoptic conditions carefully selected such as strong insolation and a synoptic wind less than 5m/s in the 850 hPa. The up- and down slope flows are also demonstrated in the snow-covered condition as well as grass ground. Further, planar fit transformation algorithm against the coordinate tilt has been applied to raw wind data (10Hz) of the slope site for the analysis of turbulence properties. Turbulence also increases with synoptic wind strength. Detailed analysis of mechanical turbulence and buoyance will be discussed for different surface properties (grass

  10. Slope and deep-sea abundance across scales: Southern Ocean isopods show how complex the deep sea can be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Barnes, David K. A.; Brandt, Angelika

    2007-08-01

    How animals are distributed in the world's largest surface environment, the deep sea, is poorly understood. The ANDEEP (ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity, colonisation history and recent community patterns) III cruise probed richness and abundance of one group, peracarid crustaceans (isopods, amphipods, cumaceans, tanaidaceans, mysidaceans), as a model of deep-sea fauna across Southern Ocean (SO) sites. Analysis of samples from the ANDEEP cruises reveals SO isopods to be highly abundant, rich and endemic as many other taxa in the region are known to be. Samples taken across three spatial scales include sites tens, hundreds and thousands of kilometers apart, sites stretching from the Southern Cape Basin (South Atlantic) to continental Antarctica and including depths from 1030 to 5000 m. Across these spatial scales we investigated ecological success (abundance) of peracarids at order, family, and species levels. Remarkably no significant relationship was found between abundance and spatial scale at any taxonomic level. That is, the variability in abundance at major regional scale is no different to that across just tens of kilometres. Most taxa were represented in only a few samples, but we suggest most inhabitants of the deep Weddell Sea environment to be very patchy rather than rare. Separate plots of family, genus, and species abundance by sample number revealed this to be true—nearly all genera and species are an order of magnitude more abundant than 'background' levels in just one or two samples. Our isopod and amphipod samples reveal the Atlantic sector of the SO, one of the most dynamic and important regions influencing the global deep-sea environment, to be highly complex. Our study suggests that, at least with regard to the study taxa and area, the typical comparisons of regions that are made by ecologists miss the scale at which crucial ecological variability happens. Even without ice scours creating topographical complexity (as on the shelf) the deep Weddell Sea is clearly complex at scales smaller than that measured to date.

  11. Effect of Slope Degree and Slope Position on Soil Nutrient Variability in the Early Succession of Rocky Slope Revegetation%坡度和坡位对岩质边坡早期生态恢复土壤养分变异性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘树林; 周顺涛; 辜彬

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis on 16 rocky slopes of Zhejiang Province which had already been ecological restored for one year,in the early vegetation recovery stage when there was no interactive development between vegetation and environment on the slope,the influence of slope angle and slope position on soil nutrient variability were as follow:(1) in some rocky slopes with slope degree of 45°-52°,available P content showed consistent trends: the lower slope position〉the middle slope position〉the upper slope position,and the total N,total P,total K contents of other rocky slopes varied significantly: the middle slope position〉the lower slope position〉the upper slope position;(2) in different slope positions with similar slope degree,the total N,total K contents and organic matter had no significant differences,but soil available nutrients had showed more remarkable differences in the multiple comparisons of soil nutrients;(3) in different slope angles with the same slope position,significant differences were only found in two groups in the multiple comparisons of soil nutrients,and there was no large—scale variability of soil nutrients.In other words,in the early succession stage of rocky slope revegetation,soil nutrients wouldn′t be significantly influence by slope angle ranging from 30° to 52°.%通过对浙江省经过1a生态恢复的16个岩质边坡,在坡面没有植被和坡面环境形成交互发展的植被早期恢复进行研究,结果表明:(1)除45°~52°类型的边坡土壤有效磷含量为坡下〉坡中〉坡上外,其它3个坡度类型中全氮、全磷、全钾都呈现出较明显的坡中〉坡下〉坡上的分布规律。(2)在相似坡度及不同坡位条件下,全氮、全钾、有机质都没有表现出显著性差异。土壤养分多重比较出现较多差异的是有效态养分。(3)在相同坡位不同坡度条件下,对岩质边坡早期生态恢复的土壤养分进行多

  12. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This report updates a study to examine the cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies. The project was initiated in 1994 to acquire accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of the study is used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers monitored 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers worked with representatives from Husky Oil and Rigel Energy on the development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over eight years indicates that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered thus far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears suffer from high mortality, and the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The research concluded in November 2001 provides sufficient information to accurately asses the status of the grizzly bear population and habitat. The data will be analyzed and integrated in 2002 into models that reflect the variables affecting grizzly bears and a final report will be published.

  13. Debris flow runup on vertical barriers and adverse slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.; Logan, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Runup of debris flows against obstacles in their paths is a complex process that involves profound flow deceleration and redirection. We investigate the dynamics and predictability of runup by comparing results from large-scale laboratory experiments, four simple analytical models, and a depth-integrated numerical model (D-Claw). The experiments and numerical simulations reveal the important influence of unsteady, multidimensional flow on runup, and the analytical models highlight key aspects of the underlying physics. Runup against a vertical barrier normal to the flow path is dominated by rapid development of a shock, or jump in flow height, associated with abrupt deceleration of the flow front. By contrast, runup on sloping obstacles is initially dominated by a smooth flux of mass and momentum from the flow body to the flow front, which precedes shock development and commonly increases the runup height. D-Claw simulations that account for the emergence of shocks show that predicted runup heights vary systematically with the adverse slope angle and also with the Froude number and degree of liquefaction (or effective basal friction) of incoming flows. They additionally clarify the strengths and limitations of simplified analytical models. Numerical simulations based on a priori knowledge of the evolving dynamics of incoming flows yield quite accurate runup predictions. Less predictive accuracy is attained in ab initio simulations that compute runup based solely on knowledge of static debris properties in a distant debris flow source area. Nevertheless, the paucity of inputs required in ab initio simulations enhances their prospective value in runup forecasting.

  14. Determination Of Slope Instability Using Spatially Integrated Mapping Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; Omar, R. C.; Roslan, R.; Khalid, N. H. N.; Hanifah, M. I. M.

    2016-11-01

    The determination and identification of slope instability are often rely on data obtained from in-situ soil investigation work where it involves the logistic of machineries and manpower, thus these aspects may increase the cost especially for remote locations. Therefore a method, which is able to identify possible slope instability without frequent ground walkabout survey, is needed. This paper presents the method used in prediction of slope instability using spatial integrated mapping framework which applicable for remote areas such as tropical forest and natural hilly terrain. Spatial data such as geology, topography, land use map, slope angle and elevation were used in regional analysis during desktop study. Through this framework, the occurrence of slope instability was able to be identified and was validate using a confirmatory site- specific analysis.

  15. Soil Sequence at Western Slope of Lawu Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamulya Jamulya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this  study was sto know the soil sequence according to topographic position on west part of Lawu volcano. Interpretation of topographic map and landsat image, making topographic cross section from upper slope, lower slope to fluvio volcanic plain were carried out for reference the location of soil profile morphological description. Soil morphological description in representative soil profile on every landscape unit. Taking soil samples for analysing physical and chemical properties to know soil development. The result indicated  that go down to the slope, from upper slope, lower slope to fluvio volcanic plain, there were 4 soil landscape or 4 soil great group i.e. Melamudands (Andosol, Eutrudepts (Latosol, Ferrudalfs (Mediteran, and Udifluvents (Alluvial.

  16. Evaluating airborne laser data on steeply sloping terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champoux, Bob

    Accuracy of Airborne Laser Terrain Mapping (ALTM) elevations is not well known on steeply sloping terrain. A unique method was used whereby, the planimetric location of ALTM ground strikes were located in the field and reference elevations measured at these points. Survey-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and rigorous techniques accurately established vertical heights to 0.010 meters, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE). Sampled slopes range from 0.5 degrees to 50.6 degrees. A positive quadratic relationship exists between slope and vertical error. Error is negligible on slopes less than twenty degrees. Incidence angle, footprint size, and elevation spread from the upper reach of the footprint to the lower reach for each laser strike were also determined. An increase in each results in an increase in ALTM elevation imprecision. Elevation spread within the footprint and horizontal error could account for high percentages of vertical error on steeper slopes.

  17. Long Wave Reflection and Transmission over A Sloping Step

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsien-Kuo CHANG; Jin-Cheng LIOU

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examines long wave reflection and transmission induced by a sloping step. Bellman and Kalaba's(1959) invariant imbedding is introduced to find wave reflection. An alternative method matching both the surface elevation and its surface slope of each region at the junction is applied to the determination of wave reflection and transmission.The proposed methods are compared with the accurate numerical results of Porter and Porter (2000) and those of Mei(1983) for a vertical step. The wave reflection obtained for a mildly sloping step differs significantly from the result of Mei. The wave reflection is found to fluctuate owing to wave trapping for the mild sloping step. The height and the face slope of the step are important for determining wave reflection and transmission coefficients.

  18. Mesoscale Characterization of Coupled Hydromechanical Behavior of a Fractured Porous Slope in Response to Free Water-Surface Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Guglielmi, Y.; Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C.-F.; Thoraval, A.

    2008-05-15

    To better understand the role of groundwater-level changes on rock-slope deformation and damage, a carbonate rock slope (30 m x 30 m x 15 m) was extensively instrumented for mesoscale hydraulic and mechanical measurements during water-level changes. The slope is naturally drained by a spring that can be artificially closed or opened by a water gate. In this study, a 2-hour slope-dewatering experiment was analyzed. Changes in fluid pressure and deformation were simultaneously monitored, both at discontinuities and in the intact rock, using short-base extensometers and pressure gauges as well as tiltmeters fixed at the slope surface. Field data were analyzed with different coupled hydromechanical (HM) codes (ROCMAS, FLAC{sup 3D}, and UDEC). Field data indicate that in the faults, a 40 kPa pressure fall occurs in 2 minutes and induces a 0.5 to 31 x 10{sup -6} m normal closure. Pressure fall is slower in the bedding-planes, lasting 120 minutes with no normal deformation. No pressure change or deformation is observed in the intact rock. The slope surface displays a complex tilt towards the interior of the slope, with magnitudes ranging from 0.6 to 15 x 10{sup -6} rad. Close agreement with model for both slope surface and internal measurements is obtained when a high variability in slope-element properties is introduced into the models, with normal stiffnesses of k{sub n{_}faults} = 10{sup -3} x k{sub n{_}bedding-planes} and permeabilities of k{sub h{_}faults} = 10{sup 3} x k{sub h{_}bedding-planes}. A nonlinear correlation between hydraulic and mechanical discontinuity properties is proposed and related to discontinuity damage. A parametric study shows that 90% of slope deformation depends on HM effects in a few highly permeable and highly deformable discontinuities located in the basal, saturated part of the slope while the remaining 10% are related to elasto-plastic deformations in the low-permeability discontinuities induced by complex stress/strain transfers from

  19. Seismically Induced Slope Instabilities and the Corresponding Treatments: the Case of a Road in the Wenchuan Earthquake Hit Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xinpo; HE Siming

    2009-01-01

    On May 12, 2008, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake hit Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province resulted in great loss of life and properties. Besides, abundant landslides and slope failures were triggered in the most seriously hit areas and caused disastrous damages to infrastructures and public facilities. Moreover, abundant unstable slopes caused by the quake have the potential to cause damages for a considerable long period of time. The variety of these slopes and the corresponding treatments are connected with the topographical and geological conditions of the sites. It is decided to document and identify some of these major slope instabilities caused by the earthquake and their treatments. The paper shows the condition of a road in Dujiangyan through in situ explorations. The case history showed significant implications to the reconstruction of the quake-hit regions and future disaster prevention and management works.

  20. Summer Monsoon and Annual Variability of Sea Surface Slope and Their Effects on Alongshore Current near Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲书箴; 程军; 张义钧; 石强; 骆敬新; 范文静

    2004-01-01

    Based on the monthly mean sea level data obtained from 3 years′ (1999-2001) tide-gauge measurements, the annual variability of the sea level near Qingdao and Jiaozhou Bay is studied and discussed in this paper. Results show that the sea surface height at all the tide gauges becomes higher in summer than that in winter,with an obvious seasonal variability.Furthermore the sea surface height measured at a short distance outside the bay is lower than that in thebay, showing a sea surface slope downward from north to south. The reasons for the formation of the slope are explained as well, The dynamic action ofthe summer monsoon and the sea surface slope, and their effects on the monthly mean current are studied by means of dynamics principles. The importance of the summer monsoon and the pressure gradient generated by the sea surface slope, with their effects on the alongshore current, is pointed out and emphasized in this paper.

  1. Slope mass rating and kinematic analysis of slopes along the national highway-58 near Jonk, Rishikesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tariq Siddique; M. Masroor Alam; M.E.A. Mondal; V. Vishal

    2015-01-01

    The road network in the Himalayan terrain, connecting remote areas either in the valleys or on the hill slopes, plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development of India. The planning, development and even maintenance of road and rail networks in such precarious terrains are always a challenging task because of complexities posed by topography, geological structures, varied lithology and neotectonics. Increasing population and construction of roads have led to destabilisation of slopes, thus leading to mass wasting and movement, further aggravation due to recent events of cloud bursts and unprecedented flash floods. Vulnerability analysis of slopes is an important component for the“Landslide Hazard Assessment”and“Slope Mass Characterisation” guide planners to predict and choose suitable ways for construction of roads and other engineering structures. The problem of landslides along the national highway-58 (NH-58) from Rishikesh to Devprayag is a common scene. The slopes along the NH-58 between Jonk and Rishikesh were investigated, which experienced very heavy traffic especially from March to August due to pilgrimage to Kedarnath shrine. On the basis of slope mass rating (SMR) investigation, the area falls in stable class, and landslide susceptibility score (LSS) values also indicate that the slopes under investi-gation fall in low to moderate vulnerability to landslide. More attentions should be paid to the slopes to achieve greater safe and economic benefits along the highway.

  2. Effect of slope height and horizontal forces on the bearing capacity of strip footings near slopes in cohesionless soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal, ...

  3. Slope mass rating and kinematic analysis of slopes along the national highway-58 near Jonk, Rishikesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Siddique

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The road network in the Himalayan terrain, connecting remote areas either in the valleys or on the hill slopes, plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development of India. The planning, development and even maintenance of road and rail networks in such precarious terrains are always a challenging task because of complexities posed by topography, geological structures, varied lithology and neotectonics. Increasing population and construction of roads have led to destabilisation of slopes, thus leading to mass wasting and movement, further aggravation due to recent events of cloud bursts and unprecedented flash floods. Vulnerability analysis of slopes is an important component for the “Landslide Hazard Assessment” and “Slope Mass Characterisation” guide planners to predict and choose suitable ways for construction of roads and other engineering structures. The problem of landslides along the national highway-58 (NH-58 from Rishikesh to Devprayag is a common scene. The slopes along the NH-58 between Jonk and Rishikesh were investigated, which experienced very heavy traffic especially from March to August due to pilgrimage to Kedarnath shrine. On the basis of slope mass rating (SMR investigation, the area falls in stable class, and landslide susceptibility score (LSS values also indicate that the slopes under investigation fall in low to moderate vulnerability to landslide. More attentions should be paid to the slopes to achieve greater safe and economic benefits along the highway.

  4. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  5. Probabilistic stability evaluation and seismic triggering scenarios of submerged slopes in Lake Zurich (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupler, M.; Hilbe, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Kopf, A. J.; Fleischmann, T.; Strasser, M.

    2017-01-01

    Subaqueous landslides and their consequences, such as tsunamis, can cause serious damage to offshore infrastructure and coastal communities. Stability analyses of submerged slopes are therefore crucial, yet complex steps for hazard assessment, as many geotechnical and morphological factors need to be considered. Typically, deterministic models with data from a few sampling locations are used for the evaluation of slope stabilities, as high efforts are required to ensure high spatial data coverage. This study presents a simple but flexible approach for the probabilistic stability assessment of subaqueous slopes that takes into account the spatial variability of geotechnical data. The study area ( 2 km2) in Lake Zurich (northern Switzerland) shows three distinct subaquatic landslides with well-defined headscarps, translation areas (i.e. the zone where translational sliding occurred) and mass transport deposits. The ages of the landslides are known ( 2,210 and 640 cal. yr BP, and 1918 AD), and their triggers have been assigned to different mechanisms by previous studies. A combination of geophysical, geotechnical, and sedimentological methods served to analyse the subaquatic slope in great spatial detail: 3.5 kHz pinger seismic reflection data and a 300 kHz multibeam bathymetric dataset (1 m grid) were used for the detection of landslide features and for the layout of a coring and an in situ cone penetration testing campaign. The assignment of geotechnical data to lithological units enabled the construction of a sediment-mechanical stratigraphy that consists of four units, each with characteristic profiles of bulk density and shear strength. The thickness of each mechanical unit can be flexibly adapted to the local lithological unit thicknesses identified from sediment cores and seismic reflection profiles correlated to sediment cores. The sediment-mechanical stratigraphy was used as input for a Monte Carlo simulated limit-equilibrium model on an infinite slope for

  6. Probabilistic stability evaluation and seismic triggering scenarios of submerged slopes in Lake Zurich (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupler, M.; Hilbe, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Kopf, A. J.; Fleischmann, T.; Strasser, M.

    2017-06-01

    Subaqueous landslides and their consequences, such as tsunamis, can cause serious damage to offshore infrastructure and coastal communities. Stability analyses of submerged slopes are therefore crucial, yet complex steps for hazard assessment, as many geotechnical and morphological factors need to be considered. Typically, deterministic models with data from a few sampling locations are used for the evaluation of slope stabilities, as high efforts are required to ensure high spatial data coverage. This study presents a simple but flexible approach for the probabilistic stability assessment of subaqueous slopes that takes into account the spatial variability of geotechnical data. The study area ( 2 km2) in Lake Zurich (northern Switzerland) shows three distinct subaquatic landslides with well-defined headscarps, translation areas (i.e. the zone where translational sliding occurred) and mass transport deposits. The ages of the landslides are known ( 2,210 and 640 cal. yr BP, and 1918 AD), and their triggers have been assigned to different mechanisms by previous studies. A combination of geophysical, geotechnical, and sedimentological methods served to analyse the subaquatic slope in great spatial detail: 3.5 kHz pinger seismic reflection data and a 300 kHz multibeam bathymetric dataset (1 m grid) were used for the detection of landslide features and for the layout of a coring and an in situ cone penetration testing campaign. The assignment of geotechnical data to lithological units enabled the construction of a sediment-mechanical stratigraphy that consists of four units, each with characteristic profiles of bulk density and shear strength. The thickness of each mechanical unit can be flexibly adapted to the local lithological unit thicknesses identified from sediment cores and seismic reflection profiles correlated to sediment cores. The sediment-mechanical stratigraphy was used as input for a Monte Carlo simulated limit-equilibrium model on an infinite slope for

  7. Landslide trigger factors on populated, unstable slopes, Tusion, Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domej, Gisela

    2015-04-01

    The Pamir region close to the Tajik-Afghan border is regularly affected by severe landslides threatening local population, their livelihood and infrastructure. In addition to landslides appearing as immediate consequence of earthquake, a high number of ground movements without previous seismic activity are also observed. The number of reported events and problem areas has strongly increased within the last ten to fifteen years. Consequently, a study was conducted to determine the triggering factors of these landslides without seismic cause. For accessibility reasons, the community of Tusion, southeast of Khorog, Gorno-Badakhshan, southern Tajikistan, where the capital township is located on a slowly moving slope, was chosen for the pilot project, and geologic mapping as well as seismic refraction and Schlumberger geoelectrics were applied. The geologic survey showed that the valley flanks around Tusion are covered with large amounts of postglacial and fluvial debris as well as moraine deposits. The absence of glacial ice and the retreat of remaining glaciers caused unstable valley flanks at many sites and, in consequence, extensive gravitational mass movements in the past, which are responsible for the today's layered ground structure as well as many secondary slumps. The latter often damage irrigation lines, which tends to further destabilize the slope. To obtain an accurate image of the superposed layers, the geophysical survey was conducted on three inhabited flanks. Arguments in favour for those three locations were not only the possibility of direct risk estimation for the region, but also the fact that the number of landslides increases constantly with population growth. Seismic and electric methods were applied in parallel to distinguish soil types and structural properties as well as to estimate the degree of water saturation. Despite of the methods' simplicity, they revealed precise explanations on triggering factors of landslides. The geophysical survey

  8. Detection of Slope Movement by Comparing Point Clouds Created by SFM Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Kazuo; Hattori, Satoko; Takayama, Toko

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes movement detection method between point clouds created by SFM software, without setting any onsite georeferenced points. SfM software, like Smart3DCaputure, PhotoScan, and Pix4D, are convenient for non-professional operator of photogrammetry, because these systems require simply specification of sequence of photos and output point clouds with colour index which corresponds to the colour of original image pixel where the point is projected. SfM software can execute aerial triangulation and create dense point clouds fully automatically. This is useful when monitoring motion of unstable slopes, or loos rocks in slopes along roads or railroads. Most of existing method, however, uses mesh-based DSM for comparing point clouds before/after movement and it cannot be applied in such cases that part of slopes forms overhangs. And in some cases movement is smaller than precision of ground control points and registering two point clouds with GCP is not appropriate. Change detection method in this paper adopts CCICP (Classification and Combined ICP) algorithm for registering point clouds before / after movement. The CCICP algorithm is a type of ICP (Iterative Closest Points) which minimizes point-to-plane, and point-to-point distances, simultaneously, and also reject incorrect correspondences based on point classification by PCA (Principle Component Analysis). Precision test shows that CCICP method can register two point clouds up to the 1 pixel size order in original images. Ground control points set in site are useful for initial setting of two point clouds. If there are no GCPs in site of slopes, initial setting is achieved by measuring feature points as ground control points in the point clouds before movement, and creating point clouds after movement with these ground control points. When the motion is rigid transformation, in case that a loose Rock is moving in slope, motion including rotation can be analysed by executing CCICP for a loose rock and

  9. Revegetation of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) Producing Slope Surface Using Phosphate Microencapsulation and Artificial Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Gon

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation of sulfides produces acid rock drainage (ARD) upon their exposure to oxidation environment by construction and mining activities. The ARD causes the acidification and metal contamination of soil, surface water and groundwater, the damage of plant, the deterioration of landscape and the reduction of slope stability. The revegetation of slope surface is one of commonly adopted strategies to reduce erosion and to increase slope stability. However, the revegetation of the ARD producing slope surface is frequently failed due to its high acidity and toxic metal content. We developed a revegetation method consisting of microencapsualtion and artificial soil in the laboratory. The revegetation method was applied on the ARD producing slope on which the revegetation using soil coverage and seeding was failed and monitored the plant growth for one year. The phosphate solution was applied on sulfide containing rock to form stable Fe-phosphate mineral on the surface of sulfide, which worked as a physical barrier to prevent contacting oxidants such as oxygen and Fe3+ ion to the sulfide surface. After the microencapsulation, two artificial soil layers were constructed. The first layer containing organic matter, dolomite powder and soil was constructed at 2 cm thickness to neutralize the rising acidic capillary water from the subsurface and to remove the dissolved oxygen from the percolating rain water. Finally, the second layer containing seeds, organic matter, nutrients and soil was constructed at 3 cm thickness on the top. After application of the method, the pH of the soil below the artificial soil layer increased and the ARD production from the rock fragments reduced. The plant growth showed an ordinary state while the plant died two month after germination for the previous revegetation trial. No soil erosion occurred from the slope during the one year field test.

  10. Porosity determination from 2-D resistivity method in studying the slope failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslinda, Umi; Nordiana, M. M.; Bery, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Slope failures have become the main focus for infrastructures development on hilly areas in Malaysia especially the development of tourism and residential. Lack of understanding and information of the subsoil conditions and geotechnical issues are the main cause of the slope failures. The failures happened are due to a combination of few factors such as topography, climate, geology and land use. 2-D resistivity method was conducted at the collapsed area in Selangor. The 2-D resistivity was done to study the instability of the area. The collapsed occurred because of the subsurface materials was unstable. Pole-dipole array was used with 5 m minimum electrode spacing for the 2-D resistivity method. The data was processed using Res2Dinv software and the porosity was calculated using Archie's law equation. The results show that the saturated zone (1-100 Ωm), alluvium or highly weathered rock (100-1000 Ωm), boulders (1600-7000 Ωm) and granitic bedrock (>7000 Ωm). Generally, the slope failures or landslides occur during the wet season or after rainfall. It is because of the water infiltrate to the slope and cause the saturation of the slope which can lead to landslides. Then, the porosity of saturated zone is usually high because of the water content. The area of alluvium or highly weathered rock and saturated zone have high porosity (>20%) and the high porosity also dominated at almost all the collapsed area which means that the materials with porosity >20% is potential to be saturated, unstable and might trigger slope failures.

  11. Hydrological modelling of a slope covered with shallow pyroclastic deposits from field monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Greco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional hydrological model of a slope covered with pyroclastic materials is proposed. The soil cover is constituted by layers of loose volcanic ashes and pumices, with a total thickness between 1.8 m and 2.5 m, lying upon a fractured limestone bedrock. The mean inclination of the slope is around 40°, slightly larger than the friction angle of the ashes. Thus, the equilibrium of the slope, significantly affected by the cohesive contribution exerted by soil suction in unsaturated conditions, may be altered by rainfall infiltration. The model assumes a single homogeneous soil layer occupying the entire depth of the cover, and takes into account seasonally variable canopy interception of precipitation and root water uptake by vegetation, mainly constituted by deciduous chestnut woods with a dense underbrush growing during late spring and summer. The bottom boundary condition links water potential at the soil–bedrock interface with the fluctuations of the water table of the aquifer located in the fractured limestone, which is conceptually modelled as a linear reservoir. Most of the model parameters have been assigned according to literature indications or from experimental data. Soil suction and water content data measured between 1 January 2011 and 20 July 2011 at a monitoring station installed along the slope allowed the remaining parameters to be identified. The calibrated model, which reproduced very closely the data of the calibration set, has been applied to the simulation of the hydrological response of the slope to the hourly precipitation record of 1999, when a large flow-like landslide was triggered close to the monitored location. The simulation results show that the lowest soil suction ever attained occurred just at the time the landslide was triggered, indicating that the model is capable of predicting slope failure conditions.

  12. Quantification of rock slope terrain properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner

    2017-04-01

    Rockfall trajectory simulation codes need information on the terrain properties to formulate appropriate rebound models. Usually, the manuals of rockfall simulation codes give sketches or photographs of terrain samples [1,2]. Based on these the user can select suitable terrains for the simulation area. We now would like to start a discussion whether it is possible to numerically quantify the terrain properties which would make the ground assignment more objective. Different ground properties play a role for the interaction between a falling rock and the ground: • Elastic deformation • plastic deformation • Energy absorption • friction • hardness • roughness • surface vs. underground • etc. The question is now whether it is possible to quantify above parameters and to finally provide tables that contain appropriate simulation parameters. In a first attempt we suggest different methods or parameters that might be evaluated in situ: • Small scale drop tests • Light weight deflectometer (LWD) • Particle sizes • Sliding angle • Particle distribution • Soil cover • Water content Of course, above measurements will never perfectly fit to different mountain slopes. However, if a number of measurements has been made their spreading will give an idea on the natural variability of the ground properties. As an example, the following table gives an idea on how the ME and Evd values vary for different soils. Table 1: LWD measurements on different soil types [3] Ground type Soil layer Soil humidityEvd (median)σ (median)Evd (average) Humus-carb. < 10cm dry 17.4 6.8 15.6 Regosol 10 - 30cm dry 8.6 3.9 9.4 Brownish 30 - 50cm dry 12.1 3.2 11.7 Calcaric 30 - 50cm dry 7.5 3.3 7.0 Acid brownish70 - 100cmdry 7.8 2.1 7.7 Fahlgley 10 - 30cm dry 9.2 4.0 7.7 References [1] Bartelt P et al (2016) RAMMS::rockfall user manual v1.6. SLF, Davos. [2] Dorren L.K.A., 2015. Rockyfor3D (v5.2) revealed - Transparent description of the complete 3D rockfall model. ecoris

  13. F2 slope as a Perceptual Cue for the Front-Back Contrast in Standard Southern British English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chládková, Kateřina; Hamann, Silke; Williams, Daniel; Hellmuth, Sam

    2017-09-01

    Acoustic studies of several languages indicate that second-formant (F2) slopes in high vowels have opposing directions (independent of consonantal context): front [iː]-like vowels are produced with a rising F2 slope, whereas back [uː]-like vowels are produced with a falling F2 slope. The present study first reports acoustic measurements that confirm this pattern for the English variety of Standard Southern British English (SSBE), where /uː/ has shifted from the back to the front area of the vowel space and is now realized with higher midpoint F2 values than several decades ago. Subsequently, we test whether the direction of F2 slope also serves as a reliable cue to the /iː/-/uː/ contrast in perception. The findings show that F2 slope direction is used as a cue (additional to midpoint formant values) to distinguish /iː/ from /uː/ by both young and older Standard Southern British English listeners: an otherwise ambiguous token is identified as /iː/ if it has a rising F2 slope and as /uː/ if it has a falling F2 slope. Furthermore, our results indicate that listeners generalize their reliance on F2 slope to other contrasts, namely /ɛ/-/ɒ/ and /æ/-/ɒ/, even though F2 slope is not employed to differentiate these vowels in production. This suggests that in Standard Southern British English, a rising F2 seems to be perceptually associated with an abstract feature such as [+front], whereas a falling F2 with an abstract feature such as [-front].

  14. Body Mass Index, Modulated by Lateral Posterior Tibial Slope, Predicts ACL Injury Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojicic, Katherine M.; Beaulieu, Melanie L.; Krieger, Daniel Imaizumi; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention strategies to prevent ACL injury rely on increasing knowledge of risk factors. While several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for ACL rupture have been identified, the interaction between them remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between BMI and several knee geometries as potential risk factors for ACL injury. We hypothesized that an increased BMI in the presence of an increased posterior tibial slope or middle cartilage slope would increase risk of ACL injury. We also hypothesized that an increased BMI in the presence of a decreased posterior meniscal height or meniscal bone angle would result in an increased risk of ACL injury. Methods: Sagittal knee MRI files from 76 ACL-injured and 42 non-injured subjects were gathered from the institution’s archive. The PTS, MCS, PMH, and MBA were measured using the circle method and compared with BMI from the subject demographic. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistical regression. Figure 1 details measurements made for each knee geometry. Results: Univariate analysis of PTS showed increases in PTS significantly increase the odds of ACL tear (p = 0.043, OR =1.12). Univariate analysis of MCS showed increases of MCS significantly increase the odds of ACL tear (p = 0.037, OR = 1.12). Multivariate analysis of PTS and BMI centered around the mean (PTS*cBMI) showed increases of PTS in combination with increases in cBMI significantly increases the odds of ACL rupture (p value = .050, OR = 1.03). Table 1 shows predicted increases in ACL injury risk for combinations of increases in PTS and BMI. Conclusion: An increase in BMI will increase the risk of ACL tear when an increase in lateral posterior tibial slope is present. An increase in lateral posterior tibial slope or lateral middle cartilage slope increases the risk of an ACL tear.

  15. Slope gradient and shape effects on soil profiles in the northern mountainous forests of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlollahi Mohammadi, M.; Jalali, S. G. H.; Kooch, Y.; Said-Pullicino, D.

    2016-12-01

    In order to evaluate the variability of the soil profiles at two shapes (concave and convex) and five positions (summit, shoulder, back slope, footslope and toeslope) of a slope, a study of a virgin area was made in a Beech stand of mountain forests, northern Iran. Across the slope positions, the soil profiles demonstrated significant changes due to topography for two shape slopes. The solum depth of the convex slope was higher than the concave one in all five positions, and it decreased from the summit to shoulder and increased from the mid to lower slope positions for both convex and concave slopes. The thin solum at the upper positions and concave slope demonstrated that pedogenetic development is least at upper slope positions and concave slope where leaching and biomass productivity are less than at lower slopes and concave slope. A large decrease in the thickness of O and A horizons from the summit to back slope was noted for both concave and convex slopes, but it increased from back slope toward down slope for both of them. The average thickness of B horizons increased from summit to down slopes in the case of the concave slope, but in the case of convex slope it decreased from summit to shoulder and afterwards it increased to the down slope. The thicknesses of the different horizons varied in part in the different positions and shape slopes because they had different plant species cover and soil features, which were related to topography.

  16. Martian slope streaks as plausible indicators of transient water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anshuman; Sam, Lydia; Martín-Torres, F Javier; Zorzano, María-Paz; Fonseca, Ricardo M

    2017-08-01

    Slope streaks have been frequently observed in the equatorial, low thermal inertia and dusty regions of Mars. The reason behind their formation remains unclear with proposed hypotheses for both dry and wet mechanisms. Here, we report an up-to-date distribution and morphometric investigation of Martian slope streaks. We find: (i) a remarkable coexistence of the slope streak distribution with the regions on Mars with high abundances of water-equivalent hydrogen, chlorine, and iron; (ii) favourable thermodynamic conditions for transient deliquescence and brine development in the slope streak regions; (iii) a significant concurrence of slope streak distribution with the regions of enhanced atmospheric water vapour concentration, thus suggestive of a present-day regolith-atmosphere water cycle; and (iv) terrain preferences and flow patterns supporting a wet mechanism for slope streaks. These results suggest a strong local regolith-atmosphere water coupling in the slope streak regions that leads to the formation of these fluidised features. Our conclusions can have profound astrobiological, habitability, environmental, and planetary protection implications.

  17. Surface Macrofabric of Boulder Dominated Desert Mountain Slopes, California, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald A. FRIEND

    2005-01-01

    Rhyolite domes formed over a million year continuum in eastern California are used to study boulder dominated slopes. Slopes in this study are steep (~25° to ~35°) and are made of coarse boulder sized blocks. These slopes include well varnished vertically oriented eolluvial deposits that have been likened to relict periglacial stone stripes, or as indicated in this study, are the result of ongoing desert slope processes. The deposits are common throughout the arid southwestern US, but their morphometric character, fabric, and rates of formation have not been assessed systematically.Results indicate that boulder deposits examined here are remnant from the original surface formed during volcanic eruption and that these boulder slope deposits evolve slowly. Grain size, grain shape and grain angularity do not change significantly from genesis to ~0.6 Ma; trends in the data change markedly after that time. Mean eigenvectors indicate a fabric oriented downhill, parallel to the slope,consistent with the visual impression that long thin to plate-like rocks orient themselves similarly; however,fabric is actually randomly dispersed, similar to that at slope genesis, as indicated by the eigenvalue analysis resultants of C and K. Interestingly, grains remain or become more angular over the million-year time scale of the study as they decrease in size,indicating active in situ weathering processes on individual grains; this result is counter to the common assumption that as grains weather they become more rounded over time.

  18. Anisotropy of Soil Hydraulic Properties Along Arable Slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Yuan-Shu; ZHANG Bin; A.THIMM; H.ZEPP

    2008-01-01

    The spatial variations of the soil hydraulic properties were mainly considered in vertical direction.The objectives of this study were to measure water-retention curves,θ(ψ),and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions,K(ψ),of the soils sampled at different slope positions in three directions,namely,in vertical direction,along the slope and along the contour,and to determine the effects of sampling direction and slope position of two soil catenas.At the upper slope positions,the surface soils (0-10 cm) sampled in the vertical direction had a lower soil water content,θ,at a certain soil water potential (-1500 kPa <ψ<-10 kPa) and had the greatest unsaturated hydraulic conductivity,K,at ψ> -10kPa.At the lower slope positions,K at ψ>-10 kPa was smaller in the vertical direction than in the direction along the slope.The deep soils (100-110 cm) had similar soil hydraulic properties in all the three directions.The anisotropic variations of the hydraulic properties of the surface soils were ascribed to the effects of natural wetting and drying cycles on the structural heterogeneity.These results suggested that the anisotropy of soil hydraulic properties might be significant in influencing soil water movement along the slope and need to be considered in modeling.

  19. Large slope instabilities in Northern Chile and Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Valbuzzi, Elena; Frattini, Paolo; Valagussa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Deep canyon incision into Tertiary paleosurfaces and large slope instabilities along the canyon flanks characterize the landscape of western slope of the Andes of northern Chile and South Peru. This area belongs to the Coastal Escarpment and Precordillera and is formed by coarse-grained clastic and volcanoclastic formations. The area is characterized by intense seismicity and long-term hyperaridity (Atacama Desert). Landslides along the canyon flanks affect volumes generally up to 1 km3 and locally evolved in large rock avalanches. We prepared a landslide inventory covering an area of about 30,000 km2, extending from Iquique (Chile) to the South and Tacna (Peru) to the North. A total of 606 landslides have been mapped in the area by use of satellite images and direct field surveys, prevalently including large phenomena. The landslides range from 1 10-3 km2 to 464 km2 (Lluta landslide). The total landslide area, inclusive of the landslide scarp and of the deposit, amounts to about 2,130 km2 (about 7% of the area). The mega landslides can be classified as large block slides that can evolve in large rock avalanches (e.g. Minimini landslide). Their initiation seems to be strongly associated to the presence of secondary faults and large fractures transversal to the slope. These landslides show evidence suggesting a re-incision by the main canyon network. This seems particularly true for the Lluta collapse where the main 'landslide' mass is masked or deleted by the successive erosion. Other landslides have been mapped along the Coastal Escarpment and some of the major tectonic escarpments with an E-W trend. We examined area-frequency distributions of landslides by developing logarithmically binned, non-cumulative size frequency distributions that report frequency density as a function of landslide planar area A. The size frequency distribution presents a strong undersampling for smaller landslides, due to the extremely old age of the inventory. For landslides larger than

  20. Submarine landslides along the eastern Mediterranean Israeli continental slope - a possible source for tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, O.; Reuven, E.; Aharonov, E.

    2013-12-01

    interpreted as surface expressions of growth faults rooted at the Messinian evaporates up to 1.5 kilometers below surface; (c) a few north striking channels were also detected with steep walls of more than 15 degrees, up to two kilometers width and a few kilometers length. The nature of these channels is not clear yet although apparently they are also a surface expressions of the growth faults rooted at the Messinian evaporates. Field relations show that the landslides, both young and old, either emerge from the over-steepened steps, or are displaced by them, and hence submarine landslides and steps are apparently contemporaneous. In addition this suggests that salt dynamics at depth is a main drive for at least some of these shallow slides. The above preliminary results testify to the complicated and highly dynamic nature of the studied continental slope, yet to be revealed.

  1. On the seismic response of instable rock slopes based on ambient vibration recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbrod, Ulrike; Burjánek, Jan; Fäh, Donat

    2017-09-01

    Rock slope failures can lead to huge human and economic loss depending on their size and exact location. Reasonable hazard mitigation requires thorough understanding of the underlying slope driving mechanisms and its rock mass properties. Measurements of seismic ambient vibrations could improve the characterization and detection of rock instabilities since there is a link between seismic response and internal structure of the unstable rock mass. An unstable slope near the village Gondo has been investigated. The unstable part shows strongly amplified ground motion with respect to the stable part of the rock slope. The amplification values reach maximum factors of 70. The seismic response on the instable part is highly directional and polarized. Re-measurements have been taken 1 year later showing exactly the same results as the original measurements. Neither the amplified frequencies nor the amplification values have changed. Therefore, ambient vibration measurements are repeatable and stay the same, if the rock mass has not undergone any significant change in structure or volume, respectively. Additionally, four new points have been measured during the re-measuring campaign in order to better map the border of the instability.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Cut slope reinforcement technique in open-pit mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongtao Gao; Jianbo Sun; Shunchuan Wu; Aibing Jin

    2004-01-01

    The design and practice in supporting the cut slope of an open-pit mine were introduced, in which the high pressure grouting method was used in reinforcing the weak formation in the slopes. Based on a detailed geological survey of the slope, a theoretical analysis was carried out, and the design parameters were proposed, where the Tresca or Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria was employed. A patent technology, named "Technology of high pressure and multiple grouting in different levels within a single hole", was employed in the construction. Anchor bars were also installed as grouting proceeds. This method combines anchoring and grouting comprehensively and was found successful in practice.

  3. Water content distribution in the surface layer of Maoping slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuewu; CHEN Huixin; LIU Qingquan; GONG Xin; ZHANG Dawei; LI Lianxiang

    2005-01-01

    The water content distribution in the surface layer of Maoping slope has been studied by testing the water content at 31 control sites. The water content profiles at these sites have also been determined. The water content distributions at different segments have been obtained by using the Kriging method of geostatistics. By comparing the water content distributions with the landform of the slope, it was shown that the water content is closely dependent on the landform of the slope. The water content distribution in the surface layer provided a fundamental basis for landslide predication and treatment.

  4. Value-impregnated factual claims and slippery-slope arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Gert; Lynøe, Niels; Juth, Niklas

    2017-03-01

    Slippery-slope arguments typically question a course of action by estimating that it will end in misery once the first unfortunate step is taken. Previous studies indicate that estimations of the long-term consequences of certain debated actions, such as legalizing physician-assisted suicide, may be strongly influenced by tacit personal values. In this paper, we suggest that to the extent that slippery-slope arguments rest on estimations of future events, they may be mere rationalizations of personal values. This might explain why there are proponents even for strikingly poor slippery-slope arguments.

  5. Heliostat field cost reduction by `slope drive' optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbes, Florian; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Wöhrbach, Markus

    2016-05-01

    An algorithm to optimize power tower heliostat fields employing heliostats with so-called slope drives is presented. It is shown that a field using heliostats with the slope drive axes configuration has the same performance as a field with conventional azimuth-elevation tracking heliostats. Even though heliostats with the slope drive configuration have a limited tracking range, field groups of heliostats with different axes or different drives are not needed for different positions in the heliostat field. The impacts of selected parameters on a benchmark power plant (PS10 near Seville, Spain) are analyzed.

  6. Stability analysis of slopes of expansive soils considering rainfall effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Fang-cai

    2007-01-01

    Typical failure types of slopes of expansive soils are divided to two kinds: slip in surface layer and slip in shallow layer. Based on total strength law of expansive soils, the relationship between its water content and shear strength inculding cohesion and friction angle, was studied in detail. Acoording to change of water content and depth effect during rainfall, distribution of shear strength in slopes of expansive soils was analyzed. Finally,with a slope of expansive soils in Nanning city of Guangxi Autonomous Region of China as a case, safety factor and slip surface was studied.

  7. Theoretical Study of Wave Breaking for Nonlinear Water Waves Propagating on a Sloping Bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Hsu, H. C.; Li, M. S.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a third-order asymptotic solution in a Lagrangian framework describing nonlinear water wave propagation on the surface of a uniform sloping bottom is presented. A two-parameter perturbation method is used to develop a new mathematical derivation. The particle trajectories, wave pressure and Lagrangian velocity potential are obtained as a function of the nonlinear wave steepness and the bottom slope perturbed to third order. This theoretical solution in Lagrangian form satisfies state of the normal pressure at the free surface. The condition of the conservation of mass flux is examined in detail for the first time. The two important properties in Lagrangian coordinates, Lagrangian wave frequency and Lagrangian mean level, are included in the third-order solution. The solution can also be used to estimate the mean return current for waves progressing over the sloping bottom. The Lagrangian solution untangle the description of the features of wave shoaling in the direction of wave propagation from deep to shallow water, as well as the process of successive deformation of a wave profile and water particle trajectories leading to wave breaking. A series of experiment was conducted to validate the obtained theoretical solution. The proposed solution will be used to determine the wave shoaling and breaking process and the comparisons between the experimental and theoretical results are excellent. For example, the variations of phase velocity on sloping bottom are obtained by 7 set of two close wave gauges and the theoretical result could accurately predict the measured phase velocity. The theoretical wave breaking index can be derived by use of the kinematic stability parameter (K.P.S). The comparisons between the theory, experiment (present study, Iwagali et al.(1974), Deo et al.(2003) and Tsai et al.(2005)) and empirical formula of Goda (2004) for the breaking index(u/C) versus the relative water depth(d/L) under two different bottom slopes shows that the

  8. Comparative organic geochemistry of Indian margin (Arabian Sea sediments: estuary to continental slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cowie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface sediments from sites across the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea were analysed for their carbon and nitrogen compositions (elemental and stable isotopic, grain size distributions and biochemical indices of organic matter (OM source and/or degradation state. Site locations ranged from the estuaries of the Mandovi and Zuari rivers to depths of ~ 2000 m on the continental slope, thus spanning nearshore muds and sands on the shelf and both the semi-permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ on the upper slope (~ 200–1300 m and the seasonal hypoxic zone that impinges on the shelf. Source indices showed mixed marine and terrigenous OM within the estuaries, and overwhelming predominance (80%+ of marine OM on the shelf and slope. Thus, riverine OM is heavily diluted by autochthonous marine OM and/or is efficiently remineralised within or immediately offshore of the estuaries. Any terrigenous OM that is exported appears to be retained in nearshore muds; lignin phenols indicate that the small terrigenous OM content of slope sediments is of different origin, potentially from rivers to the north. Organic C contents of surface shelf and slope sediments varied from < 0.5 wt % in relict shelf sands to over 7 wt % at slope sites within the OMZ, decreasing to ≤ 1 wt % at 2000 m. Major variability (~ 5 wt % was found at slope sites within the OMZ of similar depth and near-identical bottom-water oxygen concentration. A strong relationship between organic C and sediment grain size was seen for sediments within the OMZ, but lower C loadings were found for sites on the shelf and below the OMZ. Diagenetic indices confirmed that lower C content below the OMZ is associated with greater extent of OM degradation, but that C-poor shelf sediments are not consistently more degraded than those within the OMZ. Together, the results indicate that OM enrichment on the upper slope can be explained by physical controls (winnowing and/or dilution on the shelf and progressive OM

  9. Slope Stability Analysis and Mitigation Measures in the Area of the Sighişoara Medieval Citadel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George-Cătălin Silvaş

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sighişoara Medieval Citadel has a very big importance to the cultural, architectural and historical heritage of Romania. The citadel is situated on the Fortress Hill and it is the only inhabited fortress in Romania. But underneath the beauty of the Citadel lies some problems that only the inhabitants and the authorities know. These problems consist in the presence of the slope instability phenomenon. Throughout the years the slopes of the Fortress Hill, because of a series of factors, became instable. Thus landslides occurred that affected the Citadel fortress walls. There are still some areas of the walls that have never been reconstructed yet. So a slope stability analysis shall show if the slope instability phenomenon is still active and the mitigation measures recommended will stop the activity of this phenomenon.

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Design and implementation of adaptive slope compensation in current mode DC—DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhongjie, Guo; Longsheng, Wu; Youbao, Liu

    2010-12-01

    To improve the compensation for the inherent instability in a current mode converter, the adaptive slope compensation, giving attention to the problems of the traditional compensation on compensation accuracy, loading capability and turning jitter, is presented. Based on the analysis of current loop, by detecting the input and output voltage, converting the adaptive slope compensation current, the compensation of the current loop is optimized successfully. It can not only improve the compensation accuracy but also eliminate the over compensation, the turning jitter and the poor loading capability in the reported slope compensation. A power supply chip with adaptive slope compensation has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process. The measurement results show that the chip starts up and operates steadily with the constant current limit under conditions of 5 V input voltage, from 10% to 100% duty cycle.

  11. River slopes on basalts: Slope-area trends and lithologic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Adalto Gonçalves; Flores, Diego Moraes

    2017-07-01

    River incisions in continental basalts are distinct and heterogeneous. Knickpoints and the predominance of erosion by plucking contribute to that distinction, whereas significant differences in the vesicularity and jointing of basaltic flows are suggested as controls on the heterogeneities of incisions. We investigated 11 small river channels (<80 km long) installed on continental basalts of the Paraná Volcanic Province, South Brazil, using slope-area analysis (S = ksA-θ), to explore the possible relationships of steepness (ks) and concavity (θ) indices with characteristics of flow basalts. Channels were chosen that did not present signs of significant tectonic interference on a longitudinal profile, i.e., convex reaches and prominent knickpoints. The data were extracted in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment from digital topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000. Basaltic flow zones and morphologies, jointing styles, as well as river bed morphologies and erosion processes were surveyed in the field. The longitudinal profiles of the rivers are stepped, and the lower slope reaches are associated predominantly with vesicular basalts and basaltic breccias. Knickpoints are generated by contrasts in the erodibility of the substrate due to vesicular-massive differences and the partial insertion of channels in tectonically fractured zones (lineaments). The normalized steepness index (ksn) is positively correlated (R2 = 0.8) with the knickzone index (the ratio between the number of knickzones and the channel length). Rivers occurring in simple basaltic flows have distinct upper and lower limits of the steepness index (ks), which are represented by massive and vesicular basalts, respectively. The average concavity index (θ) is 0.56 ± 0.16, and its range is from 0.34 to 0.82. The range in θ is inversely related to the rate of downstream variation in the drainage area (discharge). However, the greatest control is exerted by the proportion of basalts that are

  12. Climate change on the southern slope of Mt.Qomolangma (Everest) Region in Nepal since 1971

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wei; ZHANG Yili; GAO Jungang; YANG Xuchao; LIU Linshan; Narendra R.KHANAL

    2013-01-01

    Based on monthly mean,maximum,and minimum air temperature and monthly mean precipitation data from 10 meteorological stations on the southern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region in Nepal between 1971 and 2009,the spatial and temporal characteristics of climatic change in this region were analyzed using climatic linear trend,Sen's Slope Estimates and Mann-Kendall Test analysis methods.This paper focuses only on the southern slope and attempts to compare the results with those from the northern slope to clarify the characteristics and trends of climatic change in the Mt.Qomolangma region.The results showed that:(1) between 1971 and 2009,the annual mean temperature in the study area was 20.0℃,the rising rate of annual mean temperature was 0.25℃/10a,and the temperature increases were highly influenced by the maximum temperature in this region.On the other hand,the temperature increases on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma region were highly influenced by the minimum temperature.In 1974 and 1992,the temperature rose noticeably in February and September in the southern region when the increment passed 0.9℃.(2) Precipitation had an asymmetric distribution; between 1971 and 2009,the annual precipitation was 1729.01 mm.In this region,precipitation showed an increasing trend of 4.27mm/a,but this was not statistically significant.In addition,the increase in rainfall was mainly concentrated in the period from April to October,including the entire monsoon period (from June to September) when precipitation accounts for about 78.9% of the annual total.(3) The influence of altitude on climate warming was not clear in the southern region,whereas the trend of climate warming was obvious on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma.The annual mean precipitation in the southern region was much higher than that of the northern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region.This shows the barrier effect of the Himalayas as a whole and Mt.Qomolangma in particular.

  13. Long term monitoring of landslide: observation gravitational slope cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Edouard; Lebourg, Thomas; Vidal, Maurin

    2016-04-01

    Since several years of studies on landslides, we realized the role and subtle interactions that existed between the structural complexity, masses dynamics and complex internal circulation of fluids. Thus, to gain a better understanding of the processes taking place during the evolution of an unstable slope, an observational study is necessary. In this perspective, our team currently monitors slow moving landslide zones. The aim of such a monitoring is to gain a better knowledge of the links between external forcing (meteorological, seismological) and signals going out of the slope (kinematic, vibrations, electrical resistivity). In December 2000, a dramatic event affected the sandy/clayey landslide in the Southern Alpes Maritimes (France). A 10 meters high scarp appeared at the foot of the landslide and affected private yards nearby. This area then became a major concern for local authorities and understand the processes taking place, a scientific challenge. In order to understand the land-sliding reactivations and to quantify the natural cycles of deformations, we analyse the main factors of this complex system. After 10 years of observation we are now able to highlight some of the complex behaviours by the measurement of physical parameters (geophysical monitoring). A permanent 115 m ERT line (5 meters electrode spacing) has been installed and provides an acquisition daily since 2006. The daily acquisitions are now accompanied by continuous measurements from boreholes (thermometers, piezometers, tiltmeters) and pluviometry. We are able to control the whole monitoring from the lab, and all these data are transmitted in real time. The analysis of these large amounts of data over large time series allows the detection of seasonal cycles of surface activity. The deformation taking place can be assimilated to a near-elastic deformation and show a lateral decoupling on both sides of the fault cutting the landslide. These deformation cycles can be associated with the

  14. Simulation on slope uncertainty derived from DEMs at different resolution levels: a case study in the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGuoan; ZHAOMudan; LITianwen; LIUYongmei; ZHANGTing

    2003-01-01

    Slope is one of the crucial terrain variables in spatial analysis and land use planning, especially in the Loess Plateau area of China which is suffering from serious soil erosion. DEM based slope extracting method has been widely accepted and applied in practice. However slope accuracy derived from this method usually does not match with its popularity. A quantitative simulation to slope data uncertainty is important not only theoretically but also necessarily to applications. This paper focuses on how resolution and terrain complexity impact on the accuracy of mean slope extracted from DEMs of different resolutions in the Loess Plateau of China. Six typical geomorphologic areas are selected as test areas, representing different terrain types from smooth to rough. Their DEMs are produced from digitizing contours of 1:10,000 scale topographic maps. Field survey results show that 5 m should be the most suitable grid size for representing slope in the Loess Plateau area. Comparative and math-simulation methodology was employed for data processing and analysis. A linear correlativity between mean slope and DEM resolution was found at all test areas, but their regression coefficients related closely with the terrain complexity of the test areas. If taking stream channel density to represent terrain complexity, mean slope error could be regressed against DEM resolution (X) and stream channel density (S) at 8 resolution levels and expressed as(0.0015S2+0.031S-0.0325)X-0.0045S2-0.155S+0.1625, with a R2 value of over 0.98. Practical tests also show an effective result of this model in applications. The new development methodology applied in this study should be helpful to similar researches in spatial data uncertainty investigation.

  15. A Colder Early Mars: Insight from Crater Wall Slope Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W.

    2017-10-01

    Statistics of crater wall slopes in the martian tropics indicates that fluvial erosion in the Late Noachian was minor and episodic. At lower elevations erosion lasted longer, into the Hesperian, which implies a thicker incondensable atmosphere.

  16. Hadronic cross sections, elastic slope and physical bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagundes, D. A.; Menon, M. J. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    An almost model-independent parametrization for the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to elastic slope is discussed. Its applicability in studies of asymptotia and analyses of extensive air shower in cosmic-ray physics is also outlined.

  17. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type....

  18. North Slope, Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears, caribou, and muskoxen for the North Slope, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  19. assessment of slope stability around gilgel gibe-ii hydroelectric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    (1995) technique, whereas the slope having wedge mode of failure was analyzed by. 'SASW' computer .... Engineering properties of rocks ... were determined by using Schmidt hammer in ...... Engineering, 3rd ed., Institute of Mining and.

  20. The swans and geese of Alaska's arctic slope

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A mid-summer aerial search was made on the 23,000 square miles of waterfowl habitat on Alaska's Arctic slope. Observations included 159 whistling swan (Olor...

  1. North Slope, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales, seals, walruses, and polar bears for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector polygons in this data...

  2. Development of the springbok skin - colour pattern, hair slope and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-19

    May 19, 1988 ... Development of the springbok skin - colour pattern, hair slope and horn rudiments in Antidorcas ... No work has evidently been published on the development of .... some specimens a banking-up of melanocytes against the.

  3. Hadronic Cross Sections, Elastic Slope and Physical Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Fagundes, D A

    2012-01-01

    An almost model-independent parametrization for the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to elastic slope is discussed. Its applicability in studies of asymptotia and analyses of extensive air shower in cosmic-ray physics is also outlined.

  4. Recurring Slope Lineae in Mid-Latitude and Equatorial Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A. S.; Dundas, C. M.; Mattson, S.; Toigo, A. D.; Ojha, L.; Wray, J. J.; Chojnacki, M.; Byrne, S.; Murchie, S. L.; Thomas, N.

    2013-12-01

    A key to potential present-day habitability of Mars is the presence of liquid H2O (water). Recurring slope lineae (RSL) could be evidence for the seasonal flow of water on relatively warm slopes. RSL are narrow (250 K to >300 K. In the past year we have monitored active RSL in equatorial (0°-15°S) regions of Mars, especially in the deep canyons of Valles Marineris. They are especially active on north-facing slopes in northern summer and spring and on south-facing slopes in southern spring and summer, following the most normal solar incidence angles on these steep slopes. However, predicted peak temperatures for north-facing slopes are nearly constant throughout the Martian year because orbital periapse occurs near the southern summer solstice. Although warm temperatures and steep low-albedo slopes are required, some additional effect besides temperature may serve to trigger and stop RSL activity. Seasonal variation in the atmospheric column abundance of water does not match the RSL activity. Although seasonal melting of shallow ice could explain the mid-latitude RSL, the equatorial activity requires a different explanation, perhaps migration of briny groundwater. To explain RSL flow lengths, exceeding 1 km in Valles Marineris, the water is likely to be salty. Several RSL attributes are not yet understood: (1) the relation between apparent RSL activity and dustiness of the atmosphere; (2) salt composition and concentration; (3) variability in RSL activity from year to year; (4) seasonal activity on north-facing equatorial slopes in spite of little change in temperature; and (5) temporal changes in the color properties of fans where RSL terminate. Continued orbital monitoring, laboratory experiments, and future orbital and landed exploration with new measurement types are needed. Equatorial water activity, if confirmed, creates new exploration opportunities and challenges. RSL >1 km long near boundary between Eos and Capri Chasmata of Valles Marineris, Mars.

  5. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Devices by the Slope-Efficiency Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    in this case oxygen-free, high -purity copper . The efficiency is defined, then, as the power output divided by the sum of the Fourier heat flow plus...extremely low cost, not high performance. According to the supplier, the module technology has a hot-side temperature limit of 873 K beyond which slope...Eq. 14 and observed maximum temperature for linear device behavior , which for the device being measured is equal to 873 K. The obtained slope is

  6. Reliability Analysis of Slope Stability by Central Point Method

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunge; WU Congliang

    2015-01-01

    Given uncertainty and variability of the slope stability analysis parameter, the paper proceed from the perspective of probability theory and statistics based on the reliability theory. Through the central point method of reliability analysis, performance function about the reliability of slope stability analysis is established. What’s more, the central point method and conventional limit equilibrium methods do comparative analysis by calculation example. The approach’s numerical ...

  7. Analysis of rainfall-induced slope instability using a field of local factor of safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Şener-Kaya, Başak; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Slope-stability analyses are mostly conducted by identifying or assuming a potential failure surface and assessing the factor of safety (FS) of that surface. This approach of assigning a single FS to a potentially unstable slope provides little insight on where the failure initiates or the ultimate geometry and location of a landslide rupture surface. We describe a method to quantify a scalar field of FS based on the concept of the Coulomb stress and the shift in the state of stress toward failure that results from rainfall infiltration. The FS at each point within a hillslope is called the local factor of safety (LFS) and is defined as the ratio of the Coulomb stress at the current state of stress to the Coulomb stress of the potential failure state under the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. Comparative assessment with limit-equilibrium and hybrid finite element limit-equilibrium methods show that the proposed LFS is consistent with these approaches and yields additional insight into the geometry and location of the potential failure surface and how instability may initiate and evolve with changes in pore water conditions. Quantitative assessments applying the new LFS field method to slopes under infiltration conditions demonstrate that the LFS has the potential to overcome several major limitations in the classical FS methodologies such as the shape of the failure surface and the inherent underestimation of slope instability. Comparison with infinite-slope methods, including a recent extension to variably saturated conditions, shows further enhancement in assessing shallow landslide occurrence using the LFS methodology. Although we use only a linear elastic solution for the state of stress with no post-failure analysis that require more sophisticated elastoplastic or other theories, the LFS provides a new means to quantify the potential instability zones in hillslopes under variably saturated conditions using stress-field based methods.

  8. The implementing of some plant species in erosion control on slopes

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    Matić Vjačeslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the need to conserve and improve the environment, it is recommended to employ plant materials in the erosion control of torrents and slopes alongside roads. Considering the well-known properties of some willow species regarding their power of vegetative reproduction, survival in poor soils and often flooded alluvium, we researched into the potentials of the following species: Salix triandra L., Salix purpurea L. and Salix incana Schrk. in the catchment of the warehouse 'Gvozdac', Experimental Estate Goč, Serbia. The research started in 2004 and has continued till the present day. The above-mentioned willow species showed significant efficiency in the bank protection of torrential watercourses and on the moist slopes of embankments and cuts of roads. Some of them can even stand a certain degree of aridity, while other species, on poor, eroded soil exposed to long and extreme drought, could not survive and did not show the expected effect, which is also the consequence of the absence of maintenance and adequate attention to such erosion-control works. In spite of the above, one of the willow species survived even in the most severe conditions, checking the erosion of the road cut slope and the road construction itself, and prevented the impacts of aggressive atmospheric waters, thus halting the erosion ridges and the removal of the asphalt road surface. The above facts prove that, with adequate measures of maintenance, plant materials can be very successfully applied for both longitudinal structures and to check dams in torrent control, as well as in erosion control on the slopes in catchments, both in civil engineering works and in forest exploitation. The research requires closer attention, extending the interests to some grass and shrub species, with the aim of ecological erosion control and reclamation of endangered watercourses, slopes and, in general, environmental protection and nature conservation. .

  9. Relating weak layer and slab properties to snow slope stability

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    J. Schweizer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Snow slope stability evaluation requires considering weak layer as well as slab properties – and in particular their interaction. We developed a stability index from snow micro-penetrometer measurements and compared it to 129 concurrent point observations with the compression test (CT. The index considers the SMP-derived micro-structural strength and the additional load which depends on the hardness of the surface layers. The new quantitative measure of stability discriminated well between point observations rated as either "poor" or "fair" (CT < 19 and those rated as "good" (CT ≥ 19. However, discrimination power within the intermediate range was low. We then applied the index to gridded snow micro-penetrometer measurements from 11 snow slopes to explore the spatial structure and possibly relate it to slope stability. Stability distributions on the 11 slopes reflected various possible strength and load (stress distributions that naturally can occur. Their relation to slope stability was poor possibly because the index does not consider crack propagation. Hence, the relation between spatial patterns of point stability and slope stability remains elusive. Whereas this is the first attempt of a truly quantitative measure of stability, future developments should consider a better reference of stability and incorporate a measure of crack propagation.

  10. Slope excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation in hydraulic projects based on laser scanning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slope excavation is one of the most crucial steps in the construction of a hydraulic project. Excavation project quality assessment and excavated volume calculation are critical in construction management. The positioning of excavation projects using traditional instruments is inefficient and may cause error. To improve the efficiency and precision of calculation and assessment, three-dimensional laser scanning technology was used for slope excavation quality assessment. An efficient data acquisition, processing, and management workflow was presented in this study. Based on the quality control indices, including the average gradient, slope toe elevation, and overbreak and underbreak, cross-sectional quality assessment and holistic quality assessment methods were proposed to assess the slope excavation quality with laser-scanned data. An algorithm was also presented to calculate the excavated volume with laser-scanned data. A field application and a laboratory experiment were carried out to verify the feasibility of these methods for excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation. The results show that the quality assessment indices can be obtained rapidly and accurately with design parameters and scanned data, and the results of holistic quality assessment are consistent with those of cross-sectional quality assessment. In addition, the time consumption in excavation project quality assessment with the laser scanning technology can be reduced by 70%−90%, as compared with the traditional method. The excavated volume calculated with the scanned data only slightly differs from measured data, demonstrating the applicability of the excavated volume calculation method presented in this study.

  11. Analisis Struktur Balok Non Prismatis Menggunakan Metode Persamaan Slope – Deflection

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    Agus Setiawan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Slope – deflection equation method is an analysis method to solve statically indeterminate structure. This method is a simple technique to analyze continuous beam, either prismatic or non prismatic. The technique for analyzing non prismatic beam is based on the prismatic beam concept, but with the introduce of some modification coefficient. These coefficients are available in some textbook discussing about structural analysis. This research has an objective to compare the analysis result of a continuous non prismatic beam, with slope – deflection equation method, and result from a structural analysis program (i.e. SAP 2000 v.11.00. The internal moment at the joints produced from this two method will be compared each other. The results show that there is a small difference resulted in internal moment, obtained from hand calculation with slope – deflection method and from software output. The differences resulted from this two techniques are 2 up to 6%. Based on this result it can be stated that slope-deflection method can be used to analyze statically indeterminate nonprismatic beam with some modification factors. The result obtained is nearly the same with one obtained from commercial softwares. 

  12. Lower limb joint forces during walking on the level and slopes at different inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nathalie; Schwameder, Hermann

    2016-03-01

    Sloped walking is associated with an increase of lower extremity joint loading compared to level walking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse lower limb joint compression forces as well as tibiofemoral joint shear forces during sloped walking at different inclinations. Eighteen healthy male participants (age: 27.0 ± 4.7 years, height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m, mass: 74.5 ± 8.2 kg) were asked to walk at a pre-set speed of 1.1m/s on a ramp (6 m × 1.5 m) at the slopes of -18°, -12°, -6°, 0°, 6°, 12° and 18°. Kinematic data were captured with a twelve-camera motion capture system (Vicon). Kinetic data were recorded with two force plates (AMTI) imbedded into a ramp. A musculoskeletal model (AnyBody) was used to compute lower limb joint forces. Results showed that downhill walking led to significantly increased hip, tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint compression forces (pjoint compression forces (pjoint compression forces with increasing inclination (pligament could not be supported in the current study, since anterior tibiofemoral joint shear forces did not increase with the gradient. Due to diverse tibiofemoral joint shear force patterns in the literature, results should be treated with caution in general. Finally, lower limb joint force analyses provided more insight in the structure loading conditions during sloped walking than joint moment analyses.

  13. Stability Analysis of Anchored Soil Slope Based on Finite Element Limit Equilibrium Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the condition of the plane strain, finite element limit equilibrium method is used to study some key problems of stability analysis for anchored slope. The definition of safe factor in slices method is generalized into FEM. The “true” stress field in the whole structure can be obtained by elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Then, the optimal search for the most dangerous sliding surface with Hooke-Jeeves optimized searching method is introduced. Three cases of stability analysis of natural slope, anchored slope with seepage, and excavation anchored slope are conducted. The differences in safety factor quantity, shape and location of slip surface, anchoring effect among slices method, finite element strength reduction method (SRM, and finite element limit equilibrium method are comparatively analyzed. The results show that the safety factor given by the FEM is greater and the unfavorable slip surface is deeper than that by the slice method. The finite element limit equilibrium method has high calculation accuracy, and to some extent the slice method underestimates the effect of anchor, and the effect of anchor is overrated in the SRM.

  14. Effect of graph generation on slope stability analysis based on graph theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enpu Li; Xiaoying Zhuang; Wenbo Zheng; Yongchang Cai

    2014-01-01

    Limit equilibrium method (LEM) and strength reduction method (SRM) are the most widely used methods for slope stability analysis. However, it can be noted that they both have some limitations in practical application. In the LEM, the constitutive model cannot be considered and many assumptions are needed between slices of soil/rock. The SRM requires iterative calculations and does not give the slip surface directly. A method for slope stability analysis based on the graph theory is recently developed to directly calculate the minimum safety factor and potential critical slip surface according to the stress results of numerical simulation. The method is based on current stress state and can overcome the disadvantages mentioned above in the two traditional methods. The influences of edge generation and mesh geometry on the position of slip surface and the safety factor of slope are studied, in which a new method for edge generation is proposed, and reasonable mesh size is suggested. The results of bench-mark examples and a rock slope show good accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

  15. Copula-Based Slope Reliability Analysis Using the Failure Domain Defined by the g-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the cross-correlation of shear strength parameters (i.e., cohesion and internal friction angle and the subsequent determination of the probability of failure have long been challenges in slope reliability analysis. Here, a copula-based approach is proposed to calculate the probability of failure by integrating the copula-based joint probability density function (PDF on the slope failure domain delimited with the g-line. Here, copulas are used to construct the joint PDF of shear strength parameters with specific marginal distributions and correlation structure. In the paper a failure (limit state function approach is applied to investigate a system characterized by a homogeneous slope. The results show that the values obtained by using the failure function approach are similar to those calculated by means of conventional methods, such as the first-order reliability method (FORM and Monte Carlo simulations (MC. In addition, an entropy weight (EW copula is proposed to address the discrepancies of the results calculated by different copulas to avoid over- or underestimating the slope reliability.

  16. Sliding surface searching method for slopes containing a potential weak structural surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Yao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak structural surface is one of the key factors controlling the stability of slopes. The stability of rock slopes is in general concerned with set of discontinuities. However, in soft rocks, failure can occur along surfaces approaching to a circular failure surface. To better understand the position of potential sliding surface, a new method called simplex-finite stochastic tracking method is proposed. This method basically divides sliding surface into two parts: one is described by smooth curve obtained by random searching, the other one is polyline formed by the weak structural surface. Single or multiple sliding surfaces can be considered, and consequently several types of combined sliding surfaces can be simulated. The paper will adopt the arc-polyline to simulate potential sliding surface and analyze the searching process of sliding surface. Accordingly, software for slope stability analysis using this method was developed and applied in real cases. The results show that, using simplex-finite stochastic tracking method, it is possible to locate the position of a potential sliding surface in the slope.

  17. Sliding surface searching method for slopes containing a potential weak structural surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijun Yao; Zhizhou Tian; Yongjun Jin

    2014-01-01

    Weak structural surface is one of the key factors controlling the stability of slopes. The stability of rock slopes is in general concerned with set of discontinuities. However, in soft rocks, failure can occur along surfaces approaching to a circular failure surface. To better understand the position of potential sliding surface, a new method called simplex-finite stochastic tracking method is proposed. This method basically divides sliding surface into two parts: one is described by smooth curve obtained by random searching, the other one is polyline formed by the weak structural surface. Single or multiple sliding surfaces can be considered, and consequently several types of combined sliding surfaces can be simu-lated. The paper will adopt the arc-polyline to simulate potential sliding surface and analyze the searching process of sliding surface. Accordingly, software for slope stability analysis using this method was developed and applied in real cases. The results show that, using simplex-finite stochastic tracking method, it is possible to locate the position of a potential sliding surface in the slope.

  18. Quantification of rock fall processes on recently deglaciated rock slopes, Gepatsch glacier, Tyrol (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehling, Lucas; Rohn, Joachim; Moser, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The recently deglaciated area in alpine glacier forefields is characterized by intensified mass movement processes in particular debris flows, shallow landslides and rockfalls. Due to enhanced geomorphic activity, rock slopes adjacent to shrinking glaciers contribute in a substantial way to the sediment budget. In this study, direct measurements of rock fall intensity are conducted by rock fall collector nets and natural sediment traps. The study area is a high mountain (1750-3520m a.s.l) catchment, which is recently about 30% glaciated. The extension of the Gepatsch glacier has been reducing since the little ice age maximum in the mid of the 19th century with an average annual shrinking rate of a few decameters at its tongue. The first results of the direct measurements demonstrate that on the recently deglaciated rock slopes, rock fall intensity is at least one order of magnitude higher (2,38-6,64 g/m2/d - corresponding backweathering rate: 0,3-0,9 mm/a) than on rock slopes which had has ice free since the last Pleistocene deglaciation (0,04-0,38 g/m2/d - backweathering rate: 0,005-0,05 mm/a). The highest rock fall intensity is attributed to the recent deglaciated rock slopes which are located close to larger fault systems (>60 g/m2/d - backweathering rate: >8 mm/a). Rock fall intensity shows also considerable intra-annual variations which are related to cold climate weathering processes and rainstorm activity.

  19. The stability of locus equation slopes across stop consonant voicing/aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Harvey M.; Modarresi, Golnaz

    2001-05-01

    The consistency of locus equation slopes as phonetic descriptors of stop place in CV sequences across voiced and voiceless aspirated stops was explored in the speech of five male speakers of American English and two male speakers of Persian. Using traditional locus equation measurement sites for F2 onsets, voiceless labial and coronal stops had significantly lower locus equation slopes relative to their voiced counterparts, whereas velars failed to show voicing differences. When locus equations were derived using F2 onsets for voiced stops that were measured closer to the stop release burst, comparable to the protocol for measuring voiceless aspirated stops, no significant effects of voicing/aspiration on locus equation slopes were observed. This methodological factor, rather than an underlying phonetic-based explanation, provides a reasonable account for the observed flatter locus equation slopes of voiceless labial and coronal stops relative to voiced cognates reported in previous studies [Molis et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 2925 (1994); O. Engstrand and B. Lindblom, PHONUM 4, 101-104]. [Work supported by NIH.

  20. Forearc slope deformation above the Japan Trench megathrust: Implications for subduction erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Brian; Moore, Gregory F.; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Kodaira, Shuichi

    2017-03-01

    Subduction erosion is a commonly invoked model that is used to explain the tectonic subsidence of the Japan Trench forearc slope, although other models have explained the morphology and history of the margin. New multichannel seismic reflection and bathymetric data collected after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake provide the opportunity to investigate the detailed structure of the overriding plate near the earthquake epicenter and obtain new constraints on tectonic models. We use regional-residual separation of the local bathymetry to constrain fault scarp extents and local landward-dipping forearc basins. Seismic images of these basins clearly show landward-dipping horizons in the shallow section. The strata in these basins imply a different mechanism for formation than the surrounding forearc slope, and we propose that these basins formed from local uplift. A regional basal unconformity mapped ∼150 km along-trench has highly variable relief, indicating that forearc slope subsidence occurs at multiple wavelengths in response to multiple different sources. We characterize the upper to middle slope transition and propose that this region may be the landward limit of major subduction erosion and also the main region for large mass wasting. Normal faults found in this setting have maximum lengths of ∼20 km, limiting their role in margin processes. Our results place constraints on the extent of major subduction erosion at the Japan Trench margin, and indicate that subduction erosion should be revisited as the sole model of formation to include additional tectonic processes.

  1. Slope Estimation during Normal Walking Using a Shank-Mounted Inertial Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Álvarez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an approach for the estimation of the slope of the walking surface during normal walking using a body-worn sensor composed of a biaxial accelerometer and a uniaxial gyroscope attached to the shank. It builds upon a state of the art technique that was successfully used to estimate the walking velocity from walking stride data, but did not work when used to estimate the slope of the walking surface. As claimed by the authors, the reason was that it did not take into account the actual inclination of the shank of the stance leg at the beginning of the stride (mid stance. In this paper, inspired by the biomechanical characteristics of human walking, we propose to solve this issue by using the accelerometer as a tilt sensor, assuming that at mid stance it is only measuring the gravity acceleration. Results from a set of experiments involving several users walking at different inclinations on a treadmill confirm the feasibility of our approach. A statistical analysis of slope estimations shows in first instance that the technique is capable of distinguishing the different slopes of the walking surface for every subject. It reports a global RMS error (per-unit difference between actual and estimated inclination of the walking surface for each stride identified in the experiments of 0.05 and this can be reduced to 0.03 with subject-specific calibration and post processing procedures by means of averaging techniques.

  2. Slope Measurements of Parabolic Dish Concentrators Using Color-Coded Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, S.; Heller, P.; Reinalter, W.

    2006-07-01

    A new short, yet highly accurate method for measuring the slope errors of parabolic dish concentrators has been developed. This method uses a flat target with colored stripes that is placed close to the focal plane and a digital camera located at an observation point on the optical axis at some distance from it. A specially developed image analysis algorithm detects the different colors in the images of the reflection of the target in the concentrator and assigns them their known position on the color target. This information, along with the geometric relationship between the components of the measurement setup and the theoretical parabolic shape of the concentrator, is used to calculate the normal vectors of the concentrator surface. From these normal vectors the radial and tangential slopes can be calculated and compared to the design values of the concentrator. The resulting slope errors not only give the total concentrator error for general characterization of the dish, but also indicate systematic errors in fabrication and mounting with high spatial resolution. In order to verify the quality of the results obtained, a ray-tracing code was developed that calculates the flux distribution on planes perpendicular to the optical axis. Measured slope errors of a DISTAL-2 dish concentrator are presented and the calculated flux distributions are compared to measured flux distributions. The comparison shows excellent agreement in the flux distribution on the absorber plane. This verifies the promising potential of this method for fast, highly precise measurement of imperfections in dish concentrator shape. (Author)

  3. Grain refinement of ASTM A356 aluminum alloy using sloping plate process through gravity die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mehmood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sloping plate flow is used for enhancement of material properties through grain refinement in gravity die casting of Aluminum alloy ASTM A356. The castings are prepared with different slope angles of an 800 mm long, naturally cooled stainless steel plate. The specimens obtained are then tested for tensile strength and elongation. Microstructure of the cast specimens is observed and conclusions drawn on the grain size and precipitate morphology as a function of angle of sloping plate. Analysis is presented for the boundary layer created while the material flows over the plate. An indication of the boundary layer thickness is determined by measuring the thickness of the residual metal layer on the plate after casting. An analytical solution of the boundary layer thickness is also presented. It is shown that the calculated boundary layer thickness and the thickness of the layer of material left in the channel after casting are in good agreement. Moreover, microstructure examination and tensile tests show that best properties are achieved with a 60° sloping plate.

  4. Measurements and Slope Analyses of Quaternary Cinder Cones, Camargo Volcanic Field, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, M. I.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Camargo volcanic field (CVF) covers ~3000 km2 and is located in the southeast part of the state of Chihuahua, within the Basin and Range province. The CVF represents the largest mafic alkali volcanic field in northern Mexico. Over a 300 cinder cones have been recognized in the Camargo volcanic field. Volcanic activity ranges from 4.7 to 0.09 Ma revealed by 40Ar/39Ar dating methods. Previous studies say that there is a close relationship between the cinder cone slope angle, due to mechanical weathering, and age. This technique is considered a reliable age indicator, especially in arid climates, such as occur in the CVF. Data were acquired with digital topographic maps (DRG) and digital elevation models (DEM) overlapped in the Global Mapper software. For each cone, the average radius (r) was calculated from six measurements, the height (h) is the difference between peak elevation and the altitude of the contour used to close the radius, and the slope angle was calculated using the equation Θ = tan-1(h/r). The slope angles of 30 cinder cones were calculated showing angles ranging from 4 to 15 degrees. A diffusion model, displayed by an exponential relationship between slope angle and age, places the ages of these 30 cones from 215 to 82 ka, within the range marked by radiometric methods. Future work include the analysis of more cinder cones to cover the whole CVF, and contribute to the validation of this technique.

  5. Slope failure of continental frontal ridges offshore Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, N.; Riedel, M.; Spence, G.; Dugan, B.; Daigle, H.; Hyndman, R. D.; James, T. S.; Naegeli, K.

    2010-12-01

    Bathymetric data from the Northern Cascadia margin offshore Vancouver Island reveal several submarine landslide features on the seaward slopes of frontal ridges. The slides occur just landward of the deformation front of the subducting Juan de Fuca and Explorer plates. Possible trigger mechanisms for the slope failures include earthquakes, pore pressure changes induced by sea-level changes, and the dissociation of gas hydrates. Evidence of gas hydrate has been found beneath the frontal ridges. A bottom simulating reflection (BSR) has been identified in regional seismic data and logging data showed gas hydrate indicators including sonic velocity and high electrical resistivity. The influence of gas hydrate formation and dissociation on slope stability is of special interest since previous studies showed coincident depths of BSRs and failure planes. We investigate two slope failure events in detail using numerical modeling techniques such as finite and discrete element modeling. Hybrid techniques provide a means to model processes ranging from grain-scale interactions up to movements of the sliding body by addressing both the continuous and discontinuous aspects of the problem. These include the internal forces, the evaluation of material failure criterion, deformation, and interaction forces. Furthermore, tensile failure and crack propagation, for example caused by gas hydrate or by the gradual breakdown of the slope material, can be characterized. Particle flow using different shapes and properties can be simulated. By examining the effect of local sea-level changes, glacial rebound, and gas hydrate formation or dissociation on stresses and fluid pressures, the work involves modeling the failure conditions associated with a decrease in shear strength, an increase in pore pressure, and the possible development or re-opening of cracks. Beyond describing the trigger mechanism, we also have interest in reconstructing the dynamics of the slide events to explain their

  6. Testing the suitability of some endemic and exotic species for eco-engineering applications to control slope processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammeraat, L. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2009-04-01

    Eco-engineering is a growing, but still under rated field at the interface of landscape ecology and civil engineering. Although the principles are already known for a long period, the attention for green remediation techniques is increasing, especially in slope stabilizing projects as well as in soil erosion protection. This study discusses tests carried out on the effectiveness of plants to stabilize steep slopes. Four different treatments were compared: A naturally vegetated terrace slope (Brachyopodum retusem grass dominated), a slope completely stripped from vegetation, a slope planted with Arrundo donax (Spanish cane) and a slope with vetiver grass (Vetiver zizanioides), the last one being an often successfully applied, but exotic tropical species for erosion and slope protection. The tests were carried out in double, on unarmored steep bench terrace slopes (30-60° slope angle) on homogeneous marl in E Spain (Rio Serpis Basin). Vegetation was planted in summer and irrigated during the first summer period. Precipitation and soil temperature were measured and runoff and erosion was measured at the installed ‘Gerlach troughs'. Soil physical properties were determined such as bulk density and shear strength. The uprooting resistance of the vetiver grass was also determined as well as root density, root depth and other root parameters. Above ground plant characteristic such as plant height and base diameter were also measured. Results showed that within one year the bare slope was completely covered again with natural Brachiopodum grass dominated vegetation and that the planted vetiver and Spanish cane vegetation seemed to develop successfully. However, investigations showed that especially the roots of the vetiver grasses were not as well and deeply developed as could be expected from literature, although their surface cover and above ground biomass were good. All tested species worked well with respect to retaining soil material under overland flow conditions

  7. Soil management and green water in sloping rainfed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Marqués Pérez, María; Ruíz-Colmenero, Marta; García-Díaz, Andrés; Bienes Allas, Ramón

    2017-04-01

    Improved crop production in areas with restricted water availability is of particular interest. Farmers need to maximize the water use efficiency when the possibilities of further extension of irrigation are limited and water is becoming scarce and expensive. Water in rainfed crops depends on rainfall depth and soil characteristics such as texture and structure, water holding capacity, previous moisture, infiltration, soil surface conditions, steepness and slope length. Land management practices can be used to maximise water availability. In previous studies the unwillingness of farmers to change their practices towards more sustainable use was mainly due to the worry about water competition. This work is aimed at understanding the influence of management practices in the water partitioning of this land use. This study was conducted in a sloping vineyard in the centre of Spain. A rain gauge recorded rainfall depth and intensity in the area. Three different soil management practices were considered: 1) traditional tillage, 2) permanent cover and 3) mowed cover of cereals, both sown in the strips between vines. Two moisture sensors were buried at 10 and 35 cm depths. Three replicates per management practice were performed. It is expected that the lack of tillage increase the potential for litter to protect the soil surface against raindrop impact and to contribute to increasing soil organic carbon, and the corresponding increase in infiltration and water holding capacity. The analysis of two years of daily records of rainfall, runoff and soil moisture are intended to establish any influence of management practices on the partitioning of water. Particularly, the so-called "green water" was estimated, i.e. the fraction of rainfall that infiltrates into the soil and will be further available to plants. Soil characteristics such as texture, structure, moisture, infiltration were established. In addition simulated rainfalls carried out in summer and winter over bounded

  8. Quantifying Slopes with Digital Elevation Models of the Verdugo Hills, California: Effects of Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Burbank, D. W.; Duncan, C. C.

    1996-01-01

    Quantification of surface slope angles is valuable in a wide variety of earth sciences. Slopes measured from digital elevation models (DEMs) or other topographic data sets depend strongly on the length scale or window size used in the slope calculations.

  9. Slope Derivative Surface used to characterize the complexity of the seafloor around St. John, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell using ArcGIS's Spatial Analyst 'Slope' Tool. Slope describes the maximum steepness of a terrain...

  10. A shallow landslide analysis method consisting of contour line based method and slope stability model with critical slip surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, D.

    2015-12-01

    To mitigate sediment related disaster triggered by rainfall event, it is necessary to predict a landslide occurrence and subsequent debris flow behavior. Many landslide analysis method have been developed and proposed by numerous researchers for several decades. Among them, distributed slope stability models simulating temporal and spatial instability of local slopes are more essential for early warning or evacuation in area of lower part of hill-slopes. In the present study, a distributed, physically based landslide analysis method consisting of contour line-based method that subdivide a watershed area into stream tubes, and a slope stability analysis in which critical slip surface is searched to identify location and shape of the most instable slip surface in each stream tube, is developed. A target watershed area is divided into stream tubes using GIS technique, grand water flow for each stream tubes during a rainfall event is analyzed by a kinematic wave model, and slope stability for each stream tube is calculated by a simplified Janbu method searching for a critical slip surface using a dynamic programming method. Comparing to previous methods that assume infinite slope for slope stability analysis, the proposed method has advantage simulating landslides more accurately in spatially and temporally, and estimating amount of collapsed slope mass, that can be delivered to a debris flow simulation model as a input data. We applied this method to a small watershed in the Izu Oshima, Tokyo, Japan, where shallow and wide landslides triggered by heavy rainfall and subsequent debris flows attacked Oshima Town, in 2013. Figure shows the temporal and spatial change of simulated grand water level and landslides distribution. The simulated landslides are correspond to the uppermost part of actual landslide area, and the timing of the occurrence of landslides agree well with the actual landslides.

  11. A New Analytical Solution for Tide-Induced Groundwater Fluctuations in An Unconfined Aquifer with A Sloping Beach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Jun; SONG Zhi-yao; XIN Pei; SHEN Cheng-ji

    2011-01-01

    Deriving analytical solutions for tide-induced groundwater fluctuations in unconfined aquifers confronts two problems:(1) As the Boussinesq equation itself contains nonlinear terms,the “secular term” would be generated in derivation,thus making perturbation solution unable to be deduced to higher order; (2) for aquifers with sloping beaches,the perturbation parameter in existing analytical solution integrating the beach slope and hydrogeological property would be sometimes larger than 1.So the application of perturbation solutions is relatively limited.Furthermore,as the beach slope decreases,the error of analytical solution would gradually increase.Given that water table over-height would increase the aquifer thickness and speed up wave propagation,this paper integrates over-height into the perturbation parameter and adjusts boundary conditions to settle the problem of “secular term” and to derive a new high-order analytical solution for nonlinear Boussinesq equation in terms of sloping beaches.Results show that the new analytical solution is more reasonable,and the analytical accuracy is obviously improved in comparison with the existing analytical solution for a gentle slope.The new analytical solution provides a theoretical basis for analyzing the propagation characteristics (e.g.,wave length and over-height variation) of tide-induced groundwater wave in unconfined aquifers,particularly those with sloping beaches.

  12. Effect of seat and table top slope on the biomechanical stress sustained by the musculo-skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoui, Alain; Hassaïne, Myriam; Watier, Bruno; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of table and seat slope on the biomechanical stress sustained by the musculo-skeletal system. Angular position of the head and trunk, and surface electromyography of eleven postural muscles were recorded while seated under different conditions of seat slope (0°, 15° forward) and table slope (0°, 20° backward). The specific stress sustained by C7-T1 joint was estimated with isometric torque calculation. The results showed that the backward sloping table was associated with a reduction of neck flexion and neck extensors EMG, contrasting with a concurrent overactivity of the deltoideus. The forward sloping chair induced an anterior pelvic tilt, but also a higher activity of the knee (vasti) and ankle (soleus) extensors. It was concluded that sloping chairs and tables favor a more erect posture of the spine, but entails an undesirable overactivity of upper and lower limbs muscles to prevent the body from sliding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the sensitivity on a soil area-slope-grading relationship to changes in process parameters using a pedogenesis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welivitiya, W. D. Dimuth P.; Willgoose, Garry R.; Hancock, Greg R.; Cohen, Sagy

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalises the physical dependence of the relationship between contributing area, local slope, and the surface soil grading using a pedogenesis model and allows an exploration of soilscape self-organisation. A parametric study was carried out using different parent materials, erosion, and weathering mechanisms. These simulations confirmed the generality of the area-slope-d50 relationship. The relationship is also true for other statistics of soil grading (e.g. d10,d90) and robust for different depths within the profile. For small area-slope regimes (i.e. hillslopes with small areas and/or slopes) only the smallest particles can be mobilised by erosion and the area-slope-d50 relationship appears to reflect the erosion model and its Shield's Stress threshold. For higher area-slope regimes, total mobilization of the entire soil grading occurs and self-organisation reflects the relative entrainment of different size fractions. Occasionally the interaction between the in-profile weathering and surface erosion draws the bedrock to the surface and forms a bedrock outcrop. The study also shows the influence on different depth-dependent in-profile weathering functions in the formation of the equilibrium soil profile and the grading characteristics of the soil within the profile. We outline the potential of this new model and its ability to numerically explore soil and landscape properties.

  14. Soil properties in high-elevation ski slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippa, Gianluca; Freppaz, Michele; Letey, Stéphanie; Corti, Giuseppe; Cocco, Stefania; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    The development of winter sports determines an increasing impact on the high altitude ecosystems, as a consequence of increased participation and an increasing demand of high quality standards for skiable areas. The construction of a ski slope is associated with a certain impact on soil, which varies as a function of the degree of human-induced disturbance to the native substrata. In this work, we provide a description of the characteristics of alpine tundra ski-slope soils and their nutrient status, contrasted with undisturbed areas. The study site is located in the Monterosaski Resort, Aosta Valley, NW Italy (45°51' N; 7°48' E). We chose 5 sites along an altitudinal gradient between 2700 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Per each site, one plot was established on the ski slope, while a control plot was chosen under comparable topographic conditions a few meters apart. Soils were described and samples were collected and analysed for main chemical-physical properties. In addition an evaluation of N forms, organic matter fractionation and microbial biomass was carried out. Soil depth ranged between 10 to more than 70 cm, both on the ski slope and in the undisturbed areas. A true organo-mineral (A) horizon was firstly identified at 2500 m a.s.l., while a weathering horizon (Bw) was detected at 2400 m a.s.l.. However, a Bw horizon thick enough to be recognised as diagnostic for shifting soil classification order from Entisols to Inceptisols (USDA-Soil Taxonomy) was detected only below 2400 m a.s.l.. Lithic Cryorthents were predominant in the upper part of the sequence (above 2500 m a.s.l.), both in the ski slope and the undisturbed areas; Typic Cryorthents were identified between 2500 and 2400 m a.s.l., while Inceptisols were predominant between 2400 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Chemical-physical properties will be discussed focusing on the main differences between ski slope and undisturbed soils, as determined by the ski slope construction. Pedogenetic processes at high altitude are

  15. 3D Detection, Quantification and Correlation of Slope Failures with Geologic Structure in the Mont Blanc massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Mark; Dunning, Stuart; Lim, Michael; Woodward, John

    2016-04-01

    number of slope failures were detected beyond the threshold level of detection (LOD95%). Alignments of SfM-MVS data were generally of better quality across smoother surfaces, and single failures to a volume of approximately 0.03 m3 were detected. Our results demonstrate that SfM-MVS models can add key data on spatial patterns of slope behaviour when due care and consideration is given throughout the processing, alignment and change-detection phases. We highlight the importance of a well-distributed GCP network for data optimisation, and show that semi-automated discontinuity analyses using SfM-MVS data add significant value to traditional in-field site assessments, which are usually performed through labour-intensive approaches.

  16. The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

    2013-04-01

    , as expected, show that management didn't affect root mechanical properties, whereas root distribution within the soil profile did. In terms of additional root cohesion, values are higher in the managed stand, and lower in the abandoned one, at least in the first 50 cm of soil. In the abandoned stand, in fact, roots reach deeper layers of soil (100 cm) than the managed one (50 cm), mainly because of an unexpected greater soil depth. To assess the implication of such results in terms of slope stability, a simple infinite slope model was applied to the two conditions. The results showed that the abandoned stand is prone to instability also with a low level of saturation. On the contrary, by applying the additional root cohesion profile obtained in the managed stand to the steeper slopes, stability should be guaranteed, except in the case of total saturation. In conclusion, although more investigations are required especially to extend the number of stands, coppicing practice seem to be fundamental to prevent shallow landsliding in sweet chestnut forests over cohesionless slopes.

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of high-steep slope stability and optimal high-steep slope design by 3D physical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xing-ping; Shan, Peng-fei; Cai, Mei-feng; Ren, Fen-hua; Tan, Wen-hui

    2015-01-01

    High-steep slope stability and its optimal excavation design in Shuichang open pit iron mine were analyzed based on a large 3D physical simulation technique. An optimal excavation scheme with a relatively steeper slope angle was successfully implemented at the northwest wall between Nos. 4 and 5 exploration lines of Shuichang Iron Mine, taking into account the 3D scale effect. The physico-mechanical properties of rock materials were obtained by laboratory tests conducted on sample cores from exploration drilling directly from the iron mine. A porous rock-like composite material was formed for the model, and the mechanical parameters of the material were assessed experimentally; specifically, the effect of water on the sample was quantitatively determined. We adopted an experimental setup using stiff modular applied static loading to carry out a visual excavation of the slope at a random depth. The setup was equipped with acoustic emission (AE) sensors, and the experiments were monitored by crack optical acquirement, ground penetrating radar, and close-field photogrammetry to investigate the mechanisms of rock-mass destabilization in the high-steep slope. For the complex study area, the model results indicated a clear correlation between the model's destabilization resulting from slope excavation and the collected monitoring information. During the model simulation, the overall angle of the slope increased by 1-6 degrees in different sections. Dramatically, the modeled excavation scheme saved over 80 million tons of rock from extraction, generating enormous economic and ecological benefits.

  18. Influence of filling-drawdown cycles of the Three Gorges reservoir on deformation and failure behaviors of anaclinal rock slopes in the Wu Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da; Gu, Dong Ming

    2017-10-01

    The upper Wu Gorge on the Yangtze River has been the site of tens of reservoir-induced landslides since the filling of the Three Gorges reservoir in 2003. These landslides have been occurring in heavily fractured carbonate rock materials along the rim of the reservoir in the Wu Gorge. A detailed investigation was carried out to examine the influence of reservoir operations (filling and drawdown) on slope stabilities in the upper Wu Gorge. Field investigations reveal many collapses of various types occurred at the toe of the anaclinal rock slopes, owing to the long-term intensive river erosion caused by periodic fluctuation of the reservoir level. Analysis of data from deformation monitoring suggests that the temporal movement of the slopes shows seasonal fluctuations that correlate with reservoir levels and drawdown conditions, with induced slope acceleration peaking when reservoir levels are lowest. This may illustrate that the main mechanism is the reservoir drawdown, which induces an episodic seepage force in the highly permeable materials at the slope toes, and thus leads to the episodic rockslides. The coupled hydraulic-mechanical (HM) modeling of the G2 landslide, which occurred in 2008, shows that collapse initiated at the submerged slope toe, which then caused the upper slope to collapse in a rock topple-rock slide pattern. The results imply that preventing water erosion at the slope toe might be an effective way for landslide prevention in the study area.

  19. The role of feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics for lateral moraine slope configuration and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Jana; Corenblit, Dov; Dikau, Richard

    2015-04-01

    In proglacial areas, lateral moraines represent one of the most important sediment storages and dynamic areas. Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age is accelerated by climate change and believed to control simultaneous paraglacial adjustment and vegetation succession on lateral moraine slopes. Biogeomorphic research suggests strong feedbacks between geomorphic processes, landforms, vegetation and vegetation dynamics in these environments. However, for lateral moraine slopes, these feedbacks are only partly understood. In our study, we use and develop biogeomorphic concepts in a scale-based approach to understand the role of feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics for lateral moraine slope configuration and development. We illustrate our concepts with empirical evidences from on-going research in the Turtmann glacier forefield (Switzerland) and give first answers to the following questions: (i) Which plant species can influence geomorphic dynamics on lateral moraine slopes, and how? (ii) Under which conditions can feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics occur? (iii) Which are the main factors influencing lateral moraine slope configuration and development? On a small scale (i), we identify dwarf shrubs (e.g., Dryas octopetala L.) as an engineer species, which can influence geomorphic processes through their specifically adapted plant functional traits, e.g., the trapping of fine sediments in their high-cover mats. On a meso scale (ii), feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics can occur in a 'biogeomorphic feedback window' with moderate magnitude and frequency processes, e.g., debris slides, interrill erosion, or between lower frequency processes, e.g., debris flows and snow avalanches. Under these conditions, engineer species with high resistance can establish and change the dominant geomorphic processes from flow and sliding to bound solifluction. Our empirical data shows that on a large scale (iii), vegetation and

  20. Acidic Barren Slope Profiling using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) at Ayer Hitam area Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.; Haimi, D. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2016-04-01

    mapping data showed that this technique was appropriate to be applied in near-surface acidic barren slope assessment which can further compliment borehole data and other physical mapping data at a lower cost, higher speed, large data coverage and better environmental sustainability.