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Sample records for psychometric neurochemical genetic

  1. Chronic Stress and Neuropathology: Neurochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2005-01-01

    ... to selective breeding in the rat. Genetic differences in stress responsiveness in replicate line 1 were associated with differences in anxiety-like behavior, body weight gain and voluntary intake of sweet solutions and ethanol...

  2. Early-onset behavioral and neurochemical deficits in the genetic mouse model of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Elena; Oddi, Diego; Ventura, Rossella; Colamartino, Marco; Valzania, Alessandro; D'Amato, Francesca Romana; Bruinenberg, Vibeke; van der Zee, Eddy; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Pascucci, Tiziana

    2017-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most common human inborn errors of metabolism, caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, leading to high phenylalanine and low tyrosine levels in blood and brain causing profound cognitive disability, if untreated. Since 1960, population is screened for hyperphenylalaninemia shortly after birth and submitted to early treatment in order to prevent the major manifestations of the disease. However, the dietetic regimen (phenylalanine free diet) is difficult to maintain, and despite the recommendation to a strict and lifelong compliance, up to 60% of adolescents partially or totally abandons the treatment. The development and the study of new treatments continue to be sought, taking advantage of preclinical models, the most used of which is the PAHenu2 (BTBR ENU2), the genetic murine model of PKU. To date, adult behavioral and neurochemical alterations have been mainly investigated in ENU2 mice, whereas there are no clear indications about the onset of these deficiencies. Here we investigated and report, for the first time, a comprehensive behavioral and neurochemical assay of the developing ENU2 mice. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ENU2 mice are significantly smaller than WT until pnd 24, present a significant delay in the acquisition of tested developmental reflexes, impaired communicative, motor and social skills, and have early reduced biogenic amine levels in several brain areas. Our results extend the understanding of behavioral and cerebral abnormalities in PKU mice, providing instruments to an early preclinical evaluation of the effects of new treatments.

  3. Specific genetic deficiencies of the A and B isoenzymes of monoamine oxidase are characterized by distinct neurochemical and clinical phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J. W.; Eisenhofer, G.; Abeling, N. G.; Berger, W.; Murphy, D. L.; Konings, C. H.; Wagemakers, L. M.; Kopin, I. J.; Karoum, F.; van Gennip, A. H.; Brunner, H. G.

    1996-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) exists as two isoenzymes and plays a central role in the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters. In this study we compared the neurochemical phenotypes of previously described subjects with genetically determined selective lack of MAO-A or a lack of both MAO-A and MAO-B

  4. Genes, Culture and Conservatism-A Psychometric-Genetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Inga; Jonker, Wilfried; van den Berg, Stéphanie M

    2016-07-01

    The Wilson-Patterson conservatism scale was psychometrically evaluated using homogeneity analysis and item response theory models. Results showed that this scale actually measures two different aspects in people: on the one hand people vary in their agreement with either conservative or liberal catch-phrases and on the other hand people vary in their use of the "?" response category of the scale. A 9-item subscale was constructed, consisting of items that seemed to measure liberalism, and this subscale was subsequently used in a biometric analysis including genotype-environment interaction, correcting for non-homogeneous measurement error. Biometric results showed significant genetic and shared environmental influences, and significant genotype-environment interaction effects, suggesting that individuals with a genetic predisposition for conservatism show more non-shared variance but less shared variance than individuals with a genetic predisposition for liberalism.

  5. Psychometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.; Molenaar, D.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Psychometrics is a scientific discipline concerned with the construction of measurement models for psychological data. In these models, a theoretical construct (e.g., intelligence) is systematically coordinated with observables (e.g., IQ scores). This is often done through latent variable models,

  6. Can genetics help psychometrics? Improving dimensionality assessment through genetic factor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franić, Sanja; Dolan, Conor V; Borsboom, Denny; Hudziak, James J; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-09-01

    In the present article, we discuss the role that quantitative genetic methodology may play in assessing and understanding the dimensionality of psychological (psychometric) instruments. Specifically, we study the relationship between the observed covariance structures, on the one hand, and the underlying genetic and environmental influences giving rise to such structures, on the other. We note that this relationship may be such that it hampers obtaining a clear estimate of dimensionality using standard tools for dimensionality assessment alone. One situation in which dimensionality assessment may be impeded is that in which genetic and environmental influences, of which the observed covariance structure is a function, differ from each other in structure and dimensionality. We demonstrate that in such situations settling dimensionality issues may be problematic, and propose using quantitative genetic modeling to uncover the (possibly different) dimensionalities of the underlying genetic and environmental structures. We illustrate using simulations and an empirical example on childhood internalizing problems.

  7. Genes, culture and conservatism : A psychometric-genetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwabe, I.; Jonker, Wilfried; Van Den Berg, Stéphanie M.

    2016-01-01

    The Wilson-Patterson conservatism scale was psychometrically evaluated using homogeneity analysis and item response theory models. Results showed that this scale actually measures two different aspects in people: on the one hand people vary in their agreement with either conservative or liberal

  8. Genes, Culture and Conservatism - A Psychometric-Genetic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwabe, Inga; Jonker, Willem; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine

    2016-01-01

    The Wilson−Patterson conservatism scale was psychometrically evaluated using homogeneity analysis and item response theory models. Results showed that this scale actually measures two different aspects in people: on the one hand people vary in their agreement with either conservative or liberal

  9. Nature, nurture, and item response theory: a psychometric approach to behaviour genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwabe, Inga

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation discusses a number of psychometric issues that require special attention in the analysis of genetically-informative data, such as data on twins. These include heterogeneous measurement error, scaling and scale transformation, and harmonization of phenotypes. It is shown how

  10. Doença dos tiques: aspectos genéticos e neuroquímicos atuais Genetic and neurochemical factors in tic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES PITÁGORAS DE MATTOS

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Após breve revisão dos dados históricos, do conceito, do quadro clínico e dos critérios para o diagnóstico, analisamos os principais aspectos genéticos e neuroquímicos atuais dos tiques e da síndrome de Gilles de La Tourette. Dados epidemiológicos sugerem que todo tique seja de natureza orgânica, a maioria de origem genética, e que obedecem a transmissão autossômica dominante com penetrância aproximada de 100%. Ressaltamos, ainda, os recentes estudos imuno-histoquímicos, particularmente os que se referem aos sistemas dopaminérgico, noradrenérgico e serotoninérgico, que modulam a atividade dos circuitos córtico-estriato-talâmico-cortical, envolvidos na gênese dos tiques e dos transtornos obsessivos-compulsivos.We review historical, conceptual, clinical and diagnostic criteria as well as present genetic and neurochemical factors of tic disorders. Epidemiologic data sugest that tic is an organic disease with autosomal dominant transmission. We emphasize imunohistochemical studies particularly related to the dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. These modulate the activity of the cortico-striato-thalamocortical circuits implicated in both Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  11. Quantitative autoradiography of neurochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, T.C.; Biegon, A.; Bleisch, W.V.

    1982-01-01

    Several new methods have been developed that apply quantitative autoradiography to neurochemistry. These methods are derived from the 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) technique of Sokoloff (1), which uses quantitative autoradiography to measure the rate of glucose utilization in brain structures. The new methods allow the measurement of the rate of cerbral protein synthesis and the levels of particular neurotransmitter receptors by quantitative autoradiography. As with the 2DG method, the new techniques can measure molecular levels in micron-sized brain structures; and can be used in conjunction with computerized systems of image processing. It is possible that many neurochemical measurements could be made by computerized analysis of quantitative autoradiograms

  12. Neurochemical aspects of childhood autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Minderaa (Ruud)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe topic of this thesis is neurochemical aspects of infantile autism. The experimental work is centered around the most robust and consistant neurochemical finding in child psychiatry, namely that group mean whole blood serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) values are

  13. Beliefs in genetic determinism and attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research: psychometric scale properties, construct associations, demographic correlates, and cross-cultural comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Furnham, Adrian

    2007-12-01

    Using two new scales, this study examined beliefs in genetic determinism and attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research in student samples from Austria, Malaysia, Romania, and the United Kingdom. For both constructs, effects of culture were detectable, whereas those related to key demographics were either small and inconsistent across samples (political orientation and religiosity) or zero (sex and age). Judged from factorial dimensionality and internal consistency, the psychometric properties of both scales were satisfactory. Belief in genetic determinism had lower prevalence and corresponded only modestly to positive attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research which had higher prevalence. The correlations of both constructs with a preference of inequality among social groups (social dominance orientation) were modest and inconsistent across samples. Both scales appear appropriate for cross-cultural applications, in particular for research into lay theories and public perceptions regarding genetic vs environmental effects on human behavior, mental disorders, and behavioral and psychiatric genetic research related to these.

  14. Suicide: Neurochemical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritabrata Banerjee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the devastating effect of suicide on numerous lives, there is still a dearthof knowledge concerning its neurochemical aspects. There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and Nerve growth factor (NGF are involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression through binding and activating their cognate receptors trk B and trk A respectively. The present study was performed to examine whether the expression profiles of BDNF and/or trk B as well as NGF and/or trk A were altered in postmortem brain in subjects who commitsuicide and whether these alterations were associated with specific psychopathologic conditions. These studies were performed in hippocampus obtained 21 suicide subjects and 19 non-psychiatric control subjects. The protein and mRNA levels of BDNF, trk B and NGF, trk A were determined with Sandwich ELISA, Western Blot and RT PCR respectively. Given the importance of BDNFand NGF along with their cognate receptors in mediating physiological functions, including cell survival and synaptic plasticity, our findings of reduced expression of BDNF, Trk B and NGF, Trk A in both protein and mRNA levels of postmortem brain in suicide subjects suggest that these molecules may play an important role in the pathophysiological aspects of suicidal behavior.

  15. Unrequited: neurochemical enhancement of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Rebecca

    2015-07-01

    I raise several concerns with Earp and colleagues' analysis of enhancement through neurochemical modulation of love as a key issue in contemporary neuroethics. These include: (i) strengthening their deflation of medicalization concerns by showing how the objection that love should be left outside of the scope of medicine would directly undermine the goal of medicine; (ii) developing stronger analysis of the social and political concerns relevant to neurochemical modulation of love, by exploring and suggesting possible counters to ways in which 'wellbeing' may be used as a tool of oppression; (iii) providing reasons to support a broad need for ecological investigation of, and indeed ecological education concerning, neurotechnology; (iv) suggesting ways in which philosophy, and the humanities more broadly, remain directly relevant to responding effectively to issues in contemporary neuroethics.

  16. Behavioral metabolomics analysis identifies novel neurochemical signatures in methamphetamine sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Daniel E.; McClay, Joseph L.; Vunck, Sarah A.; Batman, Angela M.; Vann, Robert E.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Souza, Renan P.; Crowley, James J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.; Beardsley, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral sensitization has been widely studied in animal models and is theorized to reflect neural modifications associated with human psychostimulant addiction. While the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is known to play a role, the neurochemical mechanisms underlying behavioral sensitization remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we conducted the first metabolomics analysis to globally characterize neurochemical differences associated with behavioral sensitization. Methamphetamine-induced sensitization measures were generated by statistically modeling longitudinal activity data for eight inbred strains of mice. Subsequent to behavioral testing, nontargeted liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling was performed on 48 brain samples, yielding 301 metabolite levels per sample after quality control. Association testing between metabolite levels and three primary dimensions of behavioral sensitization (total distance, stereotypy and margin time) showed four robust, significant associations at a stringent metabolome-wide significance threshold (false discovery rate < 0.05). Results implicated homocarnosine, a dipeptide of GABA and histidine, in total distance sensitization, GABA metabolite 4-guanidinobutanoate and pantothenate in stereotypy sensitization, and myo-inositol in margin time sensitization. Secondary analyses indicated that these associations were independent of concurrent methamphetamine levels and, with the exception of the myo-inositol association, suggest a mechanism whereby strain-based genetic variation produces specific baseline neurochemical differences that substantially influence the magnitude of MA-induced sensitization. These findings demonstrate the utility of mouse metabolomics for identifying novel biomarkers, and developing more comprehensive neurochemical models, of psychostimulant sensitization. PMID:24034544

  17. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  18. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  19. A new measurement for the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory: psychometric criteria and genetic validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eReuter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST represents one of the most influential biologically-based personality theories describing individual differences in approach and avoidance tendencies. The most prominent self-report inventory to measure individual differences in approach and avoidance behavior to date is the BIS/BAS scale by Carver & White (1994. As Gray & McNaughton (2000 revised the RST after its initial formulation in the 1970/80s, and given the Carver & White measure is based on the initial conceptualization of RST, there is a growing need for self-report inventories measuring individual differences in the revised behavioral inhibition system (BIS, behavioral activation system (BAS and the fight, flight, freezing system (FFFS. Therefore, in this paper we present a new questionnaire measuring individual differences in the revised constructs of the BIS, BAS and FFFS in N = 1814 participants (German sample. An English translated version of the new measure is also presented and tested in N = 299 English language participants. A large number of German participants (N = 1090 also filled in the BIS/BAS scales by Carver & White (1994 and the correlations between these measures are presented. Finally, this same subgroup of participants provided buccal swaps for the investigation of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a gene. Here, a functional genetic polymorphism (rs11174811 on the AVPR1a gene was shown to be associated with individual differences in both the revised BIS and classic BIS dimensions.

  20. Neurochemical alterations associated with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Karakoc, Tevfik; Mermi, Osman; Gurkan Gurok, M; Yildirim, Hanefi

    2015-01-01

    In neuroimaging on borderline personality disorder, prior studies focused on the hippocampus and amygdala, as mentioned above. However, no study investigated whether there were neurochemical changes in the patients with borderline personality disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate neurochemical change of patients diagnosed with borderline disorder and hypothesized that neurochemicals would change in the hippocampus region of these patients. Seventeen patients and the same number of healthy control subjects were analyzed by using a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa Imaging System. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline compounds (CHO), and creatine (CRE) values of hippocampal region were measured. The mean NAA/CRE ratio in the hippocampus region was significantly reduced in the patients with borderline personality disorder compared to that of healthy control subjects, In addition, NAA/CHO ratio of the patients with borderline personality disorder was also significantly reduced when compared to that of healthy subjects. There was no difference in the ratio of CHO/CRE. In summary, we present evidence for reduced NAA in the patients with borderline personality disorder. © 2015, The Author(s).

  1. A neurochemical map of the developing amphioxus nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candiani Simona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphioxus, representing the most basal group of living chordates, is the best available proxy for the last invertebrate ancestor of the chordates. Although the central nervous system (CNS of amphioxus comprises only about 20,000 neurons (as compared to billions in vertebrates, the developmental genetics and neuroanatomy of amphioxus are strikingly vertebrate-like. In the present study, we mapped the distribution of amphioxus CNS cells producing distinctive neurochemicals. To this end, we cloned genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and/or transporters of the most common neurotransmitters and assayed their developmental expression in the embryo and early larva. Results By single and double in situ hybridization experiments, we identified glutamatergic, GABAergic/glycinergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neurons in developing amphioxus. In addition to characterizing the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the developing amphioxus CNS, we observed that cholinergic and GABAergic/glycinergic neurons are segmentally arranged in the hindbrain, whereas serotonergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons are restricted to specific regions of the cerebral vesicle and the hindbrain. We were further able to identify discrete groups of GABAergic and glutamatergic interneurons and cholinergic motoneurons at the level of the primary motor center (PMC, the major integrative center of sensory and motor stimuli of the amphioxus nerve cord. Conclusions In this study, we assessed neuronal differentiation in the developing amphioxus nervous system and compiled the first neurochemical map of the amphioxus CNS. This map is a first step towards a full characterization of the neurotransmitter signature of previously described nerve cell types in the amphioxus CNS, such as motoneurons and interneurons.

  2. Neurochemical enhancement of conscious error awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Nandam, L Sanjay; O'Connell, Redmond G; Wagner, Joe; Strudwick, Mark; Nathan, Pradeep J; Mattingley, Jason B; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2012-02-22

    How the brain monitors ongoing behavior for performance errors is a central question of cognitive neuroscience. Diminished awareness of performance errors limits the extent to which humans engage in corrective behavior and has been linked to loss of insight in a number of psychiatric syndromes (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction). These conditions share alterations in monoamine signaling that may influence the neural mechanisms underlying error processing, but our understanding of the neurochemical drivers of these processes is limited. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design of the influence of methylphenidate, atomoxetine, and citalopram on error awareness in 27 healthy participants. The error awareness task, a go/no-go response inhibition paradigm, was administered to assess the influence of monoaminergic agents on performance errors during fMRI data acquisition. A single dose of methylphenidate, but not atomoxetine or citalopram, significantly improved the ability of healthy volunteers to consciously detect performance errors. Furthermore, this behavioral effect was associated with a strengthening of activation differences in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and inferior parietal lobe during the methylphenidate condition for errors made with versus without awareness. Our results have implications for the understanding of the neurochemical underpinnings of performance monitoring and for the pharmacological treatment of a range of disparate clinical conditions that are marked by poor awareness of errors.

  3. Neuroprotective and neurochemical properties of mint extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Víctor; Martín, Sara; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar

    2010-01-01

    (A) receptor). Mentha x piperita and Mentha aquatica produced significant (p oxidative stress. All the plants exhibited antioxidant and MAO-A inhibitory activities, M. x piperita being the most active. M. aquatica showed the highest affinity to the GABA......Mints are aromatic plants with a tradition as medicinal remedies and culinary herbs. With the aim of investigating potential central nervous system (CNS) activities of traditional medicinal plants, four species and one hybrid of the genus Mentha (M. aquatica, M. longifolia, M. pulegium, M....... suaveolens and M. x piperita) were selected. Methanolic extracts of the plants were tested for protective effects against hydrogen-peroxide-induced toxicity in PC12 cells, antioxidant activity (by ABTS and X/XO methods) and neurochemical properties (MAO-A inhibition, AChE inhibition and affinity to the GABA...

  4. SOME NEUROCHEMICAL DISTURBANCES IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Markelov

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe data presented in this manuscript suggest a pivotal role of the central nervous system (CNS in the regulation of immune status. We describe here that some neurochemical disturbances may provoke development of various diseases including multiple sclerosis. Some theoretic and practical backgrounds, how to improve the multiple sclerosis sufferers and patients with other autoimmune disorders, are also given.RESUMENLos datos que presentamos en este manuscrito, sugieren un papel guia del sistema nervioso central (SNC en la regulación del estado inmune. Describimos aquí que varias alteraciones neuroquímicas pueden provocar el desarrollo de varias enfermedades, incluyendo esclerosis múltiple. También se comenta acerca del trasfondo teórico y práctico, y cómo mejorar a víctimas y pacientes con esclerosis múltiple y otras alteraciones autoinmunes.

  5. Caffeine tolerance: behavioral, electrophysiological and neurochemical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, D.T.; Khan, S.; Forde, J.; Hirsh, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of tolerance to the stimulatory action of caffeine upon mesencephalic reticular neurons and upon spontaneous locomotor activity was evaluated in rats after two weeks of chronic exposure to low doses of caffeine (5-10 mg/kg/day via their drinking water). These doses are achievable through dietary intake of caffeine-containing beverages in man. Concomitant measurement of [ 3 H]-CHA binding in the mesencephalic reticular formation was also carried out in order to explore the neurochemical basis of the development of tolerance. Caffeine, 2.5 mg/kg i.v., markedly increased the firing rate of reticular neurons in caffeine naive rats but failed to modify the neuronal activity in a group exposed chronically to low doses of caffeine. In addition, in spontaneous locomotor activity studies, the data show a distinct shift to the right of the caffeine dose-response curve in caffeine pretreated rats. These results clearly indicate that tolerance develops to the stimulatory action of caffeine upon the reticular formation at the single neuronal activity level as well as upon spontaneous locomotor activity. Furthermore, in chronically caffeine exposed rats, an increase in the number of binding sites for [ 3 H]-CHA was observed in reticular formation membranes without any change in receptor affinity. 28 references, 4 figures

  6. Carbon Nanofiber Electrode Array for Neurochemical Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica E.

    2017-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report using vertically aligned CNF as neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in a smart deep brain stimulation (DBS) device. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable smart therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.

  7. Neurochemical mechanisms underlying responses to psychostimulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Hitzemann, R.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This study employed positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate biochemical and metabolic characteristics of the brain of individuals which could put them at risk for drug addiction. It takes advantage of the normal variability between individuals in response to psychoactive drugs to investigate relation between mental state, brain neurochemistry and metabolism and the behavioral response to drugs. We discuss its use to assess if there is an association between mental state and dompaminergic reactivity in response to the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate (MP). Changes in synaptic dopamine induced by MP were evaluated with PET and [11C]raclopride, a D{sub 2} receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous dopamine. Methylpphenidate significantly decreased striatal [11C]raclopride binding. The study showed a correlation between the magnitude of the dopamine-induced changes by methylphenidate, and the mental state of the subjects. Subjects reporting high levels of anxiety and restlessness at baseline had larger changes in MP-induced dopamine changes than those that did not. Further investigations on the relation between an individual`s response to a drug and his/her mental state and personality as well as his neurochemical brain composition may enable to understand better differences in drug addiction vulnerability.

  8. Neuroanatomical and Neurochemical Basis of Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Yazici

    2010-08-01

    tis paradigm, the tendency to prefer small immediate rewards over larger, more delayed reinforcers is measured. İmpulsive choice is defined by a greater tendency to value or choose smaller, more immediate reinforcers. Impulsivity is a multi-faceted behaviour. This behaviour may be studied by subdividing it into different processes neuroanatomically and neurochemically. Neuroanatomical data support the suggestion that behavioral disinhibition (impulsive action / motoric impulsivity and delay-discounting (impulsive choice / decision making differ in the degree to which various components of frontostriatal loops are implicated in their regulation. The dorsal prefrontal cortex does not appear to be involved in mediating impulsive choice, yet does have some role in regulating inhibitory processes. In contrast, there appears to be a pronounced role for the orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala in controlling impulsive choice. Other structures, however, such as the nucleus accumbens and subthalamic nucleus may be common to both circuits. From the neurochemical perspective, dopamine system and dopamine- 2 (D2 receptors in particular, seems to be closely involved in making impulsive choice. When the noradrenaline system does not function optimally, it might contribute to increased impulsivity. Serotonin might act upon prefrontal cortex to decrease impulsive choices. Interactions between the serotonin and the dopamine systems are important in the regulation of impulsive behaviour. It is possible that various receptor subtypes of the serotonin system may exert differing and even contrasting effects on impulsive behaviour. Although it is very informative to study neurotransmitter systems separately, it should be kept in mind that there are very intimate interactions between the neurotransmitter systems mentioned above. Based on the fact that impulsivity is regulated through multiple neurotransmitters and even more receptors, one may suggest that pharmacotherapy of

  9. Chronic Stress and Neuropathology: Neurochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2005-01-01

    The work that constitutes this Final Addendum Report derived from the hypothesis that individual differences in stress reactivity derived from selective breeding generalize to a behavioral phenotype...

  10. Neurochemical characterization of the tree shrew dorsal striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHEW W RICE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington's, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorders and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei, which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry, and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum.

  11. Multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects thalamic neurochemical metabolic changes in patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania E. Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The multi-voxel 1H-MRS can provide an insight to the neurochemical metabolic changes occurring in both thalami in patients with MDD. Increased severity of depression is significantly related to these thalamic neurochemical changes.

  12. Neurochemical Correlates of Autistic Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Review of neurochemical investigations in autistic disorder revealed that a wide array of transmitter systems have been studied, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, oxytocin, endogenous opioids, cortisol, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These studies have been complicated by the fact that autism is a very…

  13. R in Psychometrics and Psychometrics in R

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuw, Jan de

    2006-01-01

    In psychometrics, and in the closely related fields of quantititative methods for the social and educational sciences, R is not yet used very often. Traditional mainframe packages such as SAS and SPSS are still dominant at the user-level, Stata has made inroads at the teaching level, and Matlab is quite prominent at the research level. In this paper we define the most visible techniques in the psychometrics area, we give an overview of what is available in R, and we discuss what is m...

  14. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSmith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular (VOR and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa’s ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC, it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarises and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics.

  15. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa's ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics.

  16. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum: Neurochemical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Lahoz, Juan; Gironell, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    The pathophysiology and the exact anatomy of essential tremor (ET) is not well known. One of the pillars that support the cerebellum as the main anatomical locus in ET is neurochemistry. This review examines the link between neurochemical abnormalities found in ET and cerebellum. The review is based on published data about neurochemical abnormalities described in ET both in human and in animal studies. We try to link those findings with cerebellum. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neurotransmitter involved in the pathophysiology of ET. There are several studies about GABA that clearly points to a main role of the cerebellum. There are few data about other neurochemical abnormalities in ET. These include studies with noradrenaline, glutamate, adenosine, proteins, and T-type calcium channels. One single study reveals high levels of noradrenaline in the cerebellar cortex. Another study about serotonin neurotransmitter results negative for cerebellum involvement. Finally, studies on T-type calcium channels yield positive results linking the rhythmicity of ET and cerebellum. Neurochemistry supports the cerebellum as the main anatomical locus in ET. The main neurotransmitter involved is GABA, and the GABA hypothesis remains the most robust pathophysiological theory of ET to date. However, this hypothesis does not rule out other mechanisms and may be seen as the main scaffold to support findings in other systems. We clearly need to perform more studies about neurochemistry in ET to better understand the relations among the diverse systems implied in ET. This is mandatory to develop more effective pharmacological therapies.

  17. Bayesian psychometric scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Gerardus J.A.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Irwing, P.; Booth, T.; Hughes, D.

    2015-01-01

    In educational and psychological studies, psychometric methods are involved in the measurement of constructs, and in constructing and validating measurement instruments. Assessment results are typically used to measure student proficiency levels and test characteristics. Recently, Bayesian item

  18. Neurochemical binding profiles of novel indole and benzofuran MDMA analogues.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimshoni, JA; Winkler, I; Golan, E; Nutt, D

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in numerous clinical trials. In the present study, we have characterized the neurochemical binding profiles of three MDMA-benzofuran analogues (1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-propan-2-amine, 5-APB; 1-(benzofuran-6-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 6-MAPB; 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 5-MAPB) and one MDMA-indole analogue (1-(1H-indol-5-yl)-2-methylamino-propan-1-...

  19. Metabolomics reveals distinct neurochemical profiles associated with stress resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke N. Dulka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute social defeat represents a naturalistic form of conditioned fear and is an excellent model in which to investigate the biological basis of stress resilience. While there is growing interest in identifying biomarkers of stress resilience, until recently, it has not been feasible to associate levels of large numbers of neurochemicals and metabolites to stress-related phenotypes. The objective of the present study was to use an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify known and unknown neurochemicals in select brain regions that distinguish susceptible and resistant individuals in two rodent models of acute social defeat. In the first experiment, male mice were first phenotyped as resistant or susceptible. Then, mice were subjected to acute social defeat, and tissues were immediately collected from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, basolateral/central amygdala (BLA/CeA, nucleus accumbens (NAc, and dorsal hippocampus (dHPC. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS was used for the detection of water-soluble neurochemicals. In the second experiment, male Syrian hamsters were paired in daily agonistic encounters for 2 weeks, during which they formed stable dominant-subordinate relationships. Then, 24 h after the last dominance encounter, animals were exposed to acute social defeat stress. Immediately after social defeat, tissue was collected from the vmPFC, BLA/CeA, NAc, and dHPC for analysis using UPLC-HRMS. Although no single biomarker characterized stress-related phenotypes in both species, commonalities were found. For instance, in both model systems, animals resistant to social defeat stress also show increased concentration of molecules to protect against oxidative stress in the NAc and vmPFC. Additionally, in both mice and hamsters, unidentified spectral features were preliminarily annotated as potential targets for future experiments. Overall, these findings

  20. Covertly active and progressing neurochemical abnormalities in suppressed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A; Jugé, Lauriane; Gates, Thomas; Tobia, Michael; Moffat, Kirsten; Brew, Bruce J; Rae, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    To assess whether HIV-related brain injury is progressive in persons with suppressed HIV infection. Seventy-three HIV+ virally suppressed men and 35 HIV- men, screened for psychiatric and alcohol/drug use disorders, underwent neuropsychological evaluation and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) at baseline and after and 23 ± 5 months. 1 H-MRS included brain regions known to be vulnerable to HIV and aging: frontal white matter (FWM), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and caudate area (CA). Major brain metabolites such as creatine (Cr: marker of cellular energy), N -acetyl aspartate (NAA: marker of neuronal integrity), choline (marker of cellular membrane turnover), glutamate/glutamine (excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitter), and myo -Inositol (mI: marker of neuroinflammation) were calculated with reference to water signal. Neurocognitive decline was corrected for practice effect and baseline HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) status. Across the study period, 44% had intact cognition, 42% stable HAND (including the single case that improved), 10% progressing HAND, and 4% incident HAND. When analyzing the neurochemical data per neurocognitive trajectories, we found decreasing PCC Cr in all subgroups compared with controls ( p < 0.002). In addition, relative to the HIV- group, stable HAND showed decreasing FWM Cr, incident HAND showed steep FWM Cr reduction, whereas progressing HAND had a sharply decreasing PCC NAA and reduced but stable CA NAA. When analyzing the neurochemical data at the group level (HIV+ vs HIV- groups), we found stable abnormal metabolite concentrations over the study period: decreased FWM and PCC Cr (both p < 0.001), decreased PCC NAA and CA NAA (both p < 0.05) and PCC mI increase ( p < 0.05). HIV duration and historical HAND had modest effects on metabolite changes. Our study reveals covertly active or progressing HIV-related brain injury in the majority of this virally suppressed cohort, reflecting ongoing

  1. Psychometric Research in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frederick B.

    This review of psychometric research in reading analyzes the factors which seem related to reading comprehension skills. Experimental analysis of reading comprehension by L. E. Thorndike revealed two major components: knowledge of word meanings and verbal reasoning abilities. Subsequent analysis of experimental studies of reading comprehension…

  2. Thiamine Deficiency Induced Neurochemical, Neuroanatomical, and Neuropsychological Alterations: A Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nardone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS. Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans.

  3. A note on contemporary psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoratou, Silia; Pickles, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Psychometrics provide the mathematical underpinnings for psychological assessment. From the late 19th century, a plethora of methodological research achievements equipped researchers and clinicians with efficient tools whose practical value becomes more evident in the era of the internet and big data. Nowadays, powerful probabilistic models exist for most types of data and research questions. As the usability of the psychometric scales is better comprehended, there is an increased interest in applied research outcomes. Paradoxically, while the interest in applications for psychometric scales increases, publishing research on the development and/or evaluation of those scales per se, is not welcomed by many relevant journals. This special issue in psychometrics is therefore a great opportunity to briefly review the main ideas and methods used in psychometrics, and to discuss the challenges in contemporary applied psychometrics.

  4. Comparison of Different Matrices as Potential Quality Control Samples for Neurochemical Dementia Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelental, Natalia; Brandner, Sebastian; Kofanova, Olga; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Andreasson, Ulf; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Mroczko, Barbara; Gabryelewicz, Tomasz; Teunissen, Charlotte; Mollenhauer, Brit; Parnetti, Lucilla; Chiasserini, Davide; Molinuevo, Jose Luis; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Verbeek, Marcel M.; Andreasen, Niels; Brosseron, Frederic; Bahl, Justyna M. C.; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Hausner, Lucrezia; Froelich, Lutz; Labonte, Anne; Poirier, Judes; Miller, Anne-Marie; Zilka, Norbert; Kovacech, Branislav; Urbani, Andrea; Suardi, Silvia; Oliveira, Catarina; Baldeiras, Ines; Dubois, Bruno; Rot, Uros; Lehmann, Sylvain; Skinningsrud, Anders; Betsou, Fay; Wiltfang, Jens; Gkatzima, Olymbia; Winblad, Bengt; Buchfelder, Michael; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lewczuk, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assay-vendor independent quality control (QC) samples for neurochemical dementia diagnostics (NDD) biomarkers are so far commercially unavailable. This requires that NDD laboratories prepare their own QC samples, for example by pooling leftover cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples.

  5. Future of Psychometrics: Ask What Psychometrics Can Do for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    I address two issues that were inspired by my work on the Dutch Committee on Tests and Testing (COTAN). The first issue is the understanding of problems test constructors and researchers using tests have of psychometric knowledge. I argue that this understanding is important for a field, like psychometrics, for which the dissemination of…

  6. Wireless Amperometric Neurochemical Monitoring Using an Integrated Telemetry Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roham, Masoud; Halpern, Jeffrey M.; Martin, Heidi B.; Chiel, Hillel J.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated circuit for wireless real-time monitoring of neurochemical activity in the nervous system is described. The chip is capable of conducting high-resolution amperometric measurements in four settings of the input current. The chip architecture includes a first-order ΔΣ modulator (ΔΣM) and a frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) operating near 433 MHz. It is fabricated using the AMI 0.5 μm double-poly triple-metal n-well CMOS process, and requires only one off-chip component for operation. Measured dc current resolutions of ~250 fA, ~1.5 pA, ~4.5 pA, and ~17 pA were achieved for input currents in the range of ±5, ±37, ±150, and ±600 nA, respectively. The chip has been interfaced with a diamond-coated, quartz-insulated, microneedle, tungsten electrode, and successfully recorded dopamine concentration levels as low as 0.5 μM wirelessly over a transmission distance of ~0.5 m in flow injection analysis experiments. PMID:18990633

  7. Neurochemical Effects of Chronic Administration of Calcitriol in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite accumulating data showing the various neurological actions of vitamin D (VD, its effects on brain neurochemistry are still far from fully understood. To further investigate the neurochemical influence of VD, we assessed neurotransmitter systems in the brain of rats following 6-week calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D administration (50 ng/kg/day or 100 ng/kg/day. Both the two doses of calcitriol enhanced VDR protein level without affecting serum calcium and phosphate status. Rats treated with calcitriol, especially with the higher dose, exhibited elevated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA status. Correspondingly, the mRNA expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD 67 was increased. 100 ng/kg of calcitriol administration also increased glutamate and glutamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, but did not alter glutamine synthetase (GS expression. Additionally, calcitriol treatment promoted tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 expression without changing dopamine and serotonin status. However, the concentrations of the metabolites of dopamine and serotonin were increased and the drug use also resulted in a significant rise of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA expression, which might be responsible to maintain the homeostasis of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Collectively, the present study firstly showed the effects of calcitriol in the major neurotransmitter systems, providing new evidence for the role of VD in brain function.

  8. In vivo neurochemical characterization of clothianidin induced striatal dopamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, L R F; Oliveira, I M; Durán, R; Alfonso, M

    2012-12-16

    Clothianidin (CLO) is a neonicotinoid insecticide with selective action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The aim of this study was to determine the neurochemical basis for CLO-induced striatal dopamine release using the microdialysis technique in freely moving and conscious rats. Intrastriatal administration of CLO (3.5mM), produced an increase in both spontaneous (2462 ± 627% with respect to basal values) and KCl-evoked (4672 ± 706% with respect to basal values) dopamine release. This effect was attenuated in Ca(2+)-free medium, and was prevented in reserpine pre-treated animals or in presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). To investigate the involvement of dopamine transporter (DAT), the effect of CLO was observed in presence of nomifensine. The coadministration of CLO and nomifensine produced an additive effect on striatal dopamine release. The results suggest that the effect of CLO on striatal dopamine release is predominantly mediated by an exocytotic mechanism, Ca(2+), vesicular and TTX-dependent and not by a mechanism mediated by dopamine transporter. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Neurochemical imaging of Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, K.A.; Minoshima, S.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    A wide variety of neurochemical and functional imaging approaches have been applied to the study of progressive dementias, particularly Alzheimer's disease (Ad) and related disorders. Despite considerable progress in the past decade, the cause((s) of most cases of Ad remain undetermined and preventive or protective therapies are lacking. Specifically-designed imaging procedures have permitted the testing of pathophysiological hypotheses of the etiology and progression of Ad, and have yielded important insights in several areas including the potential roles of cerebral cortical cholinergic lesions, cellular inflammation, and losses of cortical synapses. From the perspective of clinical diagnosis, PET glucose metabolism imaging with use of ( 18 F)2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality yet identified. The overall performance of PET FDG is favorable for routine clinical evaluation of suspected Ad, and will likely gain increasing utilization in the near future. Assessments of glucose metabolism and other, specific aspects of neurochemistry in Ad will provide direct measures of therapeutic drug actions and may permit distinction of symptomatic versus disease-modifying therapies as they are developed and introduced in clinical trials

  10. Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

  11. Wireless amperometric neurochemical monitoring using an integrated telemetry circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roham, Masoud; Halpern, Jeffrey M; Martin, Heidi B; Chiel, Hillel J; Mohseni, Pedram

    2008-11-01

    An integrated circuit for wireless real-time monitoring of neurochemical activity in the nervous system is described. The chip is capable of conducting high-resolution amperometric measurements in four settings of the input current. The chip architecture includes a first-order Delta Sigma modulator (Delta Sigma M) and a frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) operating near 433 MHz. It is fabricated using the AMI 0.5 microm double-poly triple-metal n-well CMOS process, and requires only one off-chip component for operation. Measured dc current resolutions of approximately 250 fA, approximately 1.5 pA, approximately 4.5 pA, and approximately 17 pA were achieved for input currents in the range of +/-5, +/-37, +/-150, and +/-600 nA, respectively. The chip has been interfaced with a diamond-coated, quartz-insulated, microneedle, tungsten electrode, and successfully recorded dopamine concentration levels as low as 0.5 microM wirelessly over a transmission distance of approximately 0.5 m in flow injection analysis experiments.

  12. Molecular and neurochemical substrates of the audiogenic seizure strains: The GASH:Sal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Martín, Ana I; Aroca-Aguilar, J Daniel; Sánchez-Sánchez, Francisco; Muñoz, Luis J; López, Dolores E; Escribano, Julio; de Cabo, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Animal models of audiogenic epilepsy are useful tools to understand the mechanisms underlying human reflex epilepsies. There is accumulating evidence regarding behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, and genetic substrates of audiogenic seizure strains, but there are still aspects concerning their neurochemical basis that remain to be elucidated. Previous studies have shown the involved of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in audiogenic seizures. The aim of our research was to clarify the role of the GABAergic system in the generation of epileptic seizures in the genetic audiogenic seizure-prone hamster (GASH:Sal) strain. We studied the K + /Cl - cotransporter KCC2 and β2-GABAA-type receptor (GABAAR) and β3-GABAAR subunit expressions in the GASH:Sal both at rest and after repeated sound-induced seizures in different brain regions using the Western blot technique. We also sequenced the coding region for the KCC2 gene both in wild- type and GASH:Sal hamsters. Lower expression of KCC2 protein was found in GASH:Sal when compared with controls at rest in several brain areas: hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, pons-medulla, and mesencephalon. Repeated induction of seizures caused a decrease in KCC2 protein content in the inferior colliculus and hippocampus and an increase in the pons-medulla. When compared to controls, the basal β 2 -GABA A R subunit in the GASH:Sal was overexpressed in the inferior colliculus, rest of the mesencephalon, and cerebellum, whereas basal β 3 subunit levels were lower in the inferior colliculus and rest of the mesencephalon. Repeated seizures increased β2 both in the inferior colliculus and in the hypothalamus and β 3 in the hypothalamus. No differences in the KCC2 gene-coding region were found between GASH:Sal and wild-type hamsters. These data indicate that GABAergic system functioning is impaired in the GASH:Sal strain, and repeated seizures seem to aggravate this dysfunction. These results have potential clinical

  13. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalm, Marie, E-mail: marie.kalm@neuro.gu.se [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Abel, Edvard [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wasling, Pontus [Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hietala, Max Albert [Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars [Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Elam, Mikael [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Blennow, Kaj [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); Björk-Eriksson, Thomas [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Zetterberg, Henrik [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments.

  14. Neurochemical binding profiles of novel indole and benzofuran MDMA analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob A; Winkler, Ilan; Golan, Ezekiel; Nutt, David

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in numerous clinical trials. In the present study, we have characterized the neurochemical binding profiles of three MDMA-benzofuran analogues (1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-propan-2-amine, 5-APB; 1-(benzofuran-6-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 6-MAPB; 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 5-MAPB) and one MDMA-indole analogue (1-(1H-indol-5-yl)-2-methylamino-propan-1-ol, 5-IT). These compounds were screened as potential second-generation anti-PTSD drugs, against a battery of human and non-human receptors, transporters, and enzymes, and their potencies as 5-HT 2 receptor agonist and monoamine uptake inhibitors determined. All MDMA analogues displayed high binding affinities for 5-HT 2a,b,c and NE α2 receptors, as well as significant 5-HT, DA, and NE uptake inhibition. 5-APB revealed significant agonist activity at the 5-HT 2a,b,c receptors, while 6-MAPB, 5-MAPB, and 5-IT exhibited significant agonist activity at the 5-HT 2c receptor. There was a lack of correlation between the results of functional uptake and the monoamine transporter binding assay. MDMA analogues emerged as potent and selective monoamine oxidase A inhibitors. Based on 6-MAPB favorable pharmacological profile, it was further subjected to IC 50 determination for monoamine transporters. Overall, all MDMA analogues displayed higher monoamine receptor/transporter binding affinities and agonist activity at the 5-HT 2a,c receptors as compared to MDMA.

  15. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalm, Marie; Abel, Edvard; Wasling, Pontus; Nyman, Jan; Hietala, Max Albert; Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars; Elam, Mikael; Blennow, Kaj; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments

  16. Altered Neurochemical Ingredient of Hippocampus in Patients with Bipolar Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Atmaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In a number of investigations, hippocampal neurochemicals were evaluated in the patients with bipolar disorder who were on their first episode or euthymic periods. However, we did not meet any investigation in which only patients with bipolar depression were examined. As a consequence, the objective of the present study was to examine both sides of hippocampus of patients with bipolar disorder in depressive episode and healthy controls using 1H-MRS. Methods. Thirteen patients with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder, most recent episode depressed, were recruited from the Department of Psychiatry at Firat University School of Medicine. We also studied 13 healthy comparison subjects who were without any DSM-IV Axis I disorders recruited from the hospital staff. The patients and controls underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS of their hippocampus. NAA, CHO, and CRE values were measured. Results. No significant effect of diagnosis was observed for NAA/CRE ratio. For the NAA/CHO ratio, the ANCOVA with age, gender, and whole brain volume as covariates revealed that the patients with bipolar depression had significantly lower ratio compared to healthy control subjects for right and for left side. As for the CHO/CRE ratio, the difference was statistically significant for right side, with an effect diagnosis of F = 4.763, P = 0.038, and was very nearly significant for left side, with an effect diagnosis of F = 3.732, P = 0.064. Conclusions. We found that the patients with bipolar depression had lower NAA/CHO and higher CHO/CRE ratios compared to those of healthy control subjects. The findings of the present study also suggest that there may be a degenerative process concerning the hippocampus morphology in the patients with bipolar depression.

  17. Caffeine triggers behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardais, A P; Borges, M F; Rocha, A S; Sallaberry, C; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2014-06-13

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide but concerns arise about the growing intake of caffeine-containing drinks by adolescents since the effects of caffeine on cognitive functions and neurochemical aspects of late brain maturation during adolescence are poorly known. We now studied the behavioral impact in adolescent male rats of regular caffeine intake at low (0.1mg/mL), moderate (0.3mg/mL) and moderate/high (1.0mg/mL) doses only during their active period (from 7:00 P.M. to 7:00 A.M.). All tested doses of caffeine were devoid of effects on locomotor activity, but triggered anxiogenic effects. Caffeine (0.3 and 1mg/mL) improved the performance in the object recognition task, but the higher dose of caffeine (1.0mg/mL) decreased the habituation to an open-field arena, suggesting impaired non-associative memory. All tested doses of caffeine decreased the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein and synaptosomal-associated protein-25, but failed to modify neuron-specific nuclear protein immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Caffeine (0.3-1mg/mL) increased the density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and proBDNF density as well as adenosine A1 receptor density in the hippocampus, whereas the higher dose of caffeine (1mg/mL) increased the density of proBDNF and BDNF and decreased A1 receptor density in the cerebral cortex. These findings document an impact of caffeine consumption in adolescent rats with a dual impact on anxiety and recognition memory, associated with changes in BDNF levels and decreases of astrocytic and nerve terminal markers without overt neuronal damage in hippocampal and cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of electroconvulsive seizures on depression-related behavior, memory and neurochemical changes in Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeremanteng, C; MacKay, J C; James, J S; Kent, P; Cayer, C; Anisman, H; Merali, Z

    2014-10-03

    Investigations in healthy outbred rat strains have shown a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the antidepressant and memory side effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, or ECS in animals). The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is used as a genetic model of depression yet no studies to date have directly compared the impact of ECS on the WKY strain to its healthy outbred control (Wistar). The objective of this study is to examine behavioral (antidepressant and retrograde memory) and neurochemical (BDNF and HPA axis) changes immediately (1day) and at a longer delay (7days) after repeated ECS (5 daily administrations) in WKY and Wistar rats. Male Wistar and WKY rats received 5days of repeated ECS or sham treatment and were assessed 1 and 7days later for 1) depression-like behavior and mobility; 2) retrograde memory; and 3) brain BDNF protein, brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and plasma corticosterone levels. Both strains showed the expected antidepressant response and retrograde memory impairments at 1day following ECS, which were sustained at 7days. In addition, at 1day after ECS, Wistar and WKY rats showed similar elevations in brain BDNF and extra-hypothalamic CRF and no change in plasma corticosterone. At 7days after ECS, Wistar rats showed sustained elevations of brain BDNF and CRF, whereas WKY rats showed a normalization of brain BDNF, despite sustained elevations of brain CRF. The model of 5 daily ECS was effective at eliciting behavioral and neurochemical changes in both strains. A temporal association was observed between brain CRF levels, but not BDNF, and measures of antidepressant effectiveness of ECS and retrograde memory impairments suggesting that extra-hypothalamic CRF may be a potential important contributor to these behavioral effects after repeated ECS/ECT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. WINCS Harmoni: Closed-loop dynamic neurochemical control of therapeutic interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kendall H.; Lujan, J. Luis; Trevathan, James K.; Ross, Erika K.; Bartoletta, John J.; Park, Hyung Ook; Paek, Seungleal Brian; Nicolai, Evan N.; Lee, Jannifer H.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Kimble, Christopher J.; Blaha, Charles D.; Bennet, Kevin E.

    2017-04-01

    There has been significant progress in understanding the role of neurotransmitters in normal and pathologic brain function. However, preclinical trials aimed at improving therapeutic interventions do not take advantage of real-time in vivo neurochemical changes in dynamic brain processes such as disease progression and response to pharmacologic, cognitive, behavioral, and neuromodulation therapies. This is due in part to a lack of flexible research tools that allow in vivo measurement of the dynamic changes in brain chemistry. Here, we present a research platform, WINCS Harmoni, which can measure in vivo neurochemical activity simultaneously across multiple anatomical targets to study normal and pathologic brain function. In addition, WINCS Harmoni can provide real-time neurochemical feedback for closed-loop control of neurochemical levels via its synchronized stimulation and neurochemical sensing capabilities. We demonstrate these and other key features of this platform in non-human primate, swine, and rodent models of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Ultimately, systems like the one described here will improve our understanding of the dynamics of brain physiology in the context of neurologic disease and therapeutic interventions, which may lead to the development of precision medicine and personalized therapies for optimal therapeutic efficacy.

  20. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  1. Personality and neurochemicals in the human brain: A preliminary study using 1H MRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiyong; PENG Danling; JIN Zhen; LIU Hongyan; YANG Jie

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the neuro-biological bases of introversion-extraversion personality traits, the concentra- tion of four neurochemicals (Cho, mI, α-Glx and NAA) in anterior cigulate gyrus between normal extroverts and introverts were examined using non-invasive 1H MRS technique. Our study revealed that introverts have significantly higher level of α-Glx, Cho and mI in the anterior cingulate gyrus than extroverts. This result provides new evidence that the anterior cingulate gyrus is related to personality traits partly in support of Eysenck's supposition that introverts have higher arousal level than extroverts. Moreover, this result offers neurochemical data for psychobiological theories of personality.

  2. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  3. Conducting Simulation Studies in Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…

  4. Neurochemical and Behavioral Features in Genetic Absence Epilepsy and in Acutely Induced Absence Seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazyan, A.S.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    The absence epilepsy typical electroencephalographic pattern of sharp spikes and slow waves (SWDs) is considered to be due to an interaction of an initiation site in the cortex and a resonant circuit in the thalamus. The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cationic Ih pacemaker

  5. Epistasis between neurochemical gene polymorphisms and risk for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado, Ricardo; Bellgrove, Mark A; Manconi, Francesca; Gill, Michael; Hawi, Ziarah

    2011-01-01

    A number of genes with function related to synaptic neurochemistry have been genetically associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, susceptibility to the development of common psychiatric disorders by single variants acting alone, can so far only explain a small proportion of the heritability of the phenotype. It has been postulated that the unexplained ‘dark heritability' may at least in part be due to epistatic effects, which may account for the small observed marginal associations, and the difficulties with replication of positive findings. We undertook a comprehensive exploration of pair-wise interactions between genetic variants in 24 candidate genic regions involved in monoaminergic catabolism, anabolism, release, re-uptake and signal transmission in a sample of 177 parent-affected child trios using a case-only design and a case–pseudocontrol design using conditional logistic regression. Marker-pairs thresholded on interaction odds ratio (OR) and P-value are presented. We detected a number of interaction ORs >4.0, including an interesting correlation between markers in the ADRA1B and DBH genes in affected individuals, and several further interesting but smaller effects. These effects are no larger than you would expect by chance under the assumption of independence of all pair-wise relations; however, independence is unlikely. Furthermore, the size of these effects is of interest and attempts to replicate these results in other samples are anticipated. PMID:21368917

  6. Neurochemical phenotype of cytoglobin‑expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2014-01-01

    in a subpopulation of brain neurons. Recently, it has been shown that stress upregulates Cygb expression in the brain and the majority of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive neurons, an enzyme that produces NO, co-express Cygb. However, there are more neurons expressing Cygb than nNOS, thus a large number...... of Cygb neurons remain uncharacterized by the neurochemical content. The aim of the present study was to provide an additional and more detailed neurochemical phenotype of Cygb-expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus. The rat hippocampus was chosen due to the abundance of Cygb, as well as this limbic...... structure being an important target in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Using triple immunohistochemistry, it was demonstrated that nearly all the parvalbumin- and heme oxygenase 1-positive neurons co-express Cygb and to a large extent, these neuron populations are distinct from the population...

  7. Differential Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction on the Regional Neurochemical Profile of the Developing Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski-Hall, Anne M; Alexander, Michelle; Tkáč, Ivan; Öz, Gülin; Rao, Raghavendra

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) infants are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental deficits that suggest the hippocampus and cerebral cortex may be particularly vulnerable. Evaluate regional neurochemical profiles in IUGR and normally grown (NG) 7-day old rat pups using in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 9.4 T. IUGR was induced via bilateral uterine artery ligation at gestational day 19 in pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams. MR spectra were obtained from the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum at P7 in IUGR (N = 12) and NG (N = 13) rats. In the cortex, IUGR resulted in lower concentrations of phosphocreatine, glutathione, taurine, total choline, total creatine (P regions. Persistent neurochemical changes may lead to cortex-based long-term neurodevelopmental deficits in human IUGR infants.

  8. Recent Advances in Mass Spectrometry for the Identification of Neuro-chemicals and their Metabolites in Biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2013-07-01

    Recently, mass spectrometric related techniques have been widely applied for the identification and quantification of neurochemicals and their metabolites in biofluids. This article presents an overview of mass spectrometric techniques applied in the detection of neurological substances and their metabolites from biological samples. In addition, the advances of chromatographic methods (LC, GC and CE) coupled with mass spectrometric techniques for analysis of neurochemicals in pharmaceutical and biological samples are also discussed.

  9. Neurochemical dynamics of acute orofacial pain in the human trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Nuno M P; Hock, Andreas; Wyss, Michael; Ettlin, Dominik A; Brügger, Mike

    2017-11-15

    The trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex is the first central relay structure mediating orofacial somatosensory and nociceptive perception. Animal studies suggest a substantial involvement of neurochemical alterations at such basal CNS levels in acute and chronic pain processing. Translating this animal based knowledge to humans is challenging. Human related examining of brainstem functions are challenged by MR related peculiarities as well as applicability aspects of experimentally standardized paradigms. Based on our experience with an MR compatible human orofacial pain model, the aims of the present study were twofold: 1) from a technical perspective, the evaluation of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T regarding measurement accuracy of neurochemical profiles in this small brainstem nuclear complex and 2) the examination of possible neurochemical alterations induced by an experimental orofacial pain model. Data from 13 healthy volunteers aged 19-46 years were analyzed and revealed high quality spectra with significant reductions in total N-acetylaspartate (N-acetylaspartate + N-acetylaspartylglutamate) (-3.7%, p = 0.009) and GABA (-10.88%, p = 0.041) during the pain condition. These results might reflect contributions of N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate in neuronal activity-dependent physiologic processes and/or excitatory neurotransmission, whereas changes in GABA might indicate towards a reduction in tonic GABAergic functioning during nociceptive signaling. Summarized, the present study indicates the applicability of 1 H-MRS to obtain neurochemical dynamics within the human trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex. Further developments are needed to pave the way towards bridging important animal based knowledge with human research to understand the neurochemistry of orofacial nociception and pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Age-related changes of neurochemically different subpopulations of cardiac spinal afferent neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guić, Maja Marinović; Runtić, Branka; Košta, Vana; Aljinović, Jure; Grković, Ivica

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of aging on cardiac spinal afferent neurons in the rat. A patch loaded with retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was applied to all chambers of the rat heart. Morphological and neurochemical characteristics of labeled cardiac spinal afferent neurons were assessed in young (2 months) and old (2 years) rats using markers for likely unmyelinated (isolectin B4; IB4) and myelinated (neurofilament 200; N52) neurons. The number of cardiac spinal afferent neurons decreased in senescence to 15% of that found in young rats (1604 vs. 248). The size of neuronal soma as well as proportion of IB4+ neurons increased significantly, whereas the proportion of N52+ neurons decreased significantly in senescence. Unlike somatic spinal afferents, neurochemically different populations of cardiac spinal afferent neurons experience morphological and neurochemical changes related to aging. A major decrease in total number of cardiac spinal afferent neurons occurs in senescence. The proportion of N52+ neurons decreased in senescence, but it seems that nociceptive innervation is preserved due to increased proportion and size of IB4+ unmyelinated neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of gram-negative bacterial growth by neurochemical containing banana (Musa x paradisiaca) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, M

    1997-09-15

    Bananas contain large quantities of neurochemicals. Extracts from the peel and pulp of bananas in increasing stages of ripening were prepared and evaluated for their ability to modulate the growth of non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria. Extracts from the peel, and to a much lesser degree the pulp, increased the growth of Gram-negative bacterial strains Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter cloacae and Salmonella typhimurium, as well as two non-pathogenic E. coli strains, in direct relation to the content of norepinephrine and dopamine, but not serotonin. The growth of Gram-positive bacteria was not altered by any of the extracts. Supplementation of vehicle and pulp cultures with norepinephrine or dopamine yielded growth equivalent to peel cultures. Total organic analysis of extracts further demonstrated that the differential effects of peel and pulp on bacterial growth was not nutritionally based, but due to norepinephrine and dopamine. These results suggest that neurochemicals contained within foodstuffs may influence the growth of pathogenic and indigenous bacteria through direct neurochemical-bacterial interactions.

  12. Pupillometry as a glimpse into the neurochemical basis of human memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffing, Russell Cohen; Seitz, Aaron R

    2015-04-01

    Neurochemical systems are well studied in animal learning; however, ethical issues limit methodologies to explore these systems in humans. Pupillometry provides a glimpse into the brain's neurochemical systems, where pupil dynamics in monkeys have been linked with locus coeruleus (LC) activity, which releases norepinephrine (NE) throughout the brain. Here, we use pupil dynamics as a surrogate measure of neurochemical activity to explore the hypothesis that NE is involved in modulating memory encoding. We examine this using a task-irrelevant learning paradigm in which learning is boosted for stimuli temporally paired with task targets. We show that participants better recognize images that are paired with task targets than distractors and, in correspondence, that pupil size changes more for target-paired than distractor-paired images. To further investigate the hypothesis that NE nonspecifically guides learning for stimuli that are present with its release, a second procedure was used that employed an unexpected sound to activate the LC-NE system and induce pupil-size changes; results indicated a corresponding increase in memorization of images paired with the unexpected sounds. Together, these results suggest a relationship between the LC-NE system, pupil-size changes, and human memory encoding.

  13. Neurochemical changes underpinning the development of adjunct therapies in recovery after stroke: A role for GABA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Ainslie; Levenstein, Jacob M; Hinson, Emily L; Stagg, Charlotte J

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability, with around three-quarters of stroke survivors experiencing motor problems. Intensive physiotherapy is currently the most effective treatment for post-stroke motor deficits, but much recent research has been targeted at increasing the effects of the intervention by pairing it with a wide variety of adjunct therapies, all of which aim to increase cortical plasticity, and thereby hope to maximize functional outcome. Here, we review the literature describing neurochemical changes underlying plasticity induction following stroke. We discuss methods of assessing neurochemicals in humans, and how these measurements change post-stroke. Motor learning in healthy individuals has been suggested as a model for stroke plasticity, and we discuss the support for this model, and what evidence it provides for neurochemical changes. One converging hypothesis from animal, healthy and stroke studies is the importance of the regulation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA for the induction of cortical plasticity. We discuss the evidence supporting this hypothesis, before finally summarizing the literature surrounding the use of adjunct therapies such as non-invasive brain stimulation and SSRIs in post-stroke motor recovery, both of which have been show to influence the GABAergic system.

  14. A diamond-based electrode for detection of neurochemicals in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E. Bennet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS, a surgical technique to treat certain neurologic and psychiatric conditions, relies on pre-determined stimulation parameters in an open-loop configuration. The major advancement in DBS devices is a closed-loop system that uses neurophysiologic feedback to dynamically adjust stimulation frequency and amplitude. Stimulation-driven neurochemical release can be measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV, but existing FSCV electrodes rely on carbon fiber, which degrades quickly during use and is therefore unsuitable for chronic neurochemical recording. To address this issue, we developed durable, synthetic boron-doped diamond-based electrodes capable of measuring neurochemical release in humans. Compared to carbon fiber electrodes, they were more than two orders-of-magnitude more physically-robust and demonstrated longevity in vitro without deterioration. Applied for the first time in humans, diamond electrode recordings from thalamic targets in patients (n=4 undergoing DBS for tremor produced signals consistent with adenosine release at a sensitivity comparable to carbon fiber electrodes.

  15. Nicotine and endogenous opioids: neurochemical and pharmacological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiconstantinou, Maria; Neff, Norton H

    2011-06-01

    Although the mesolimbic dopamine hypothesis is the most influential theory of nicotine reward and reinforcement, there has been a consensus that other neurotransmitter systems contribute to the addictive properties of nicotine as well. In this regard, the brain opioidergic system is of interest. Striatum is rich in opioid peptides and opioid receptors, and striatal opioidergic neurons are engaged in a bidirectional communication with midbrain dopaminergic neurons, closely regulating each other's activity. Enkephalins and dynorphins exert opposing actions on dopaminergic neurons, increasing and decreasing dopamine release respectively, and are components of circuits promoting positive or negative motivational and affective states. Moreover, dopamine controls the synthesis of striatal enkephalins and dynorphins. Evidence suggests that opioidergic function is altered after nicotine and endogenous opioids are involved in nicotine's behavioral effects. 1) The synthesis and release of β-endorphin, met-enkephalin and dynorphin in brain, especially nucleus accumbens (NAc), are altered after acute or chronic nicotine treatment and during nicotine withdrawal. 2) Although opioid receptor binding and mRNA do not appear to change in the striatum during nicotine withdrawal, the activity of κ-opioid (KOPr) and δ-opioid (DOPr) receptors is attenuated in NAc. 3) The nicotine withdrawal syndrome reminisces that of opiates, and naloxone precipitates some of its somatic, motivational, and affective signs. 4) Genetic and pharmacological studies indicate that μ-opioid (MOPr) receptors are mainly involved in nicotine reward, while DOPrs contribute to the emotional and KOPrs to the aversive responses of nicotine. 5) Finally, MOPrs and enkephalin, but not β-endorphin or dynorphin, are necessary for the physical manifestations of nicotine withdrawal. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier

  16. Generalized Network Psychometrics : Combining Network and Latent Variable Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epskamp, S.; Rhemtulla, M.; Borsboom, D.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the network model as a formal psychometric model, conceptualizing the covariance between psychometric indicators as resulting from pairwise interactions between observable variables in a network structure. This contrasts with standard psychometric models, in which the covariance between

  17. Testing Psychometrics of Healthcare Empowerment Questionnaires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testing Psychometrics of Healthcare Empowerment Questionnaires (HCEQ) among Iranian ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... translation and backtranslation procedures, pilot testing, and getting views of expert panel.

  18. Psychometrics in action, science as practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jacob

    2017-07-27

    Practitioners in health sciences education and assessment regularly use a range of psychometric techniques to analyse data, evaluate models, and make crucial progression decisions regarding student learning. However, a recent editorial entitled "Is Psychometrics Science?" highlighted some core epistemological and practical problems in psychometrics, and brought its legitimacy into question. This paper attempts to address these issues by applying some key ideas from history and philosophy of science (HPS) discourse. I present some of the conceptual developments in HPS that have bearing on the psychometrics debate. Next, by shifting the focus onto what constitutes the practice of science, I discuss psychometrics in action. Some incorrectly conceptualize science as an assemblage of truths, rather than an assemblage of tools and goals. Psychometrics, however, seems to be an assemblage of methods and techniques. Psychometrics in action represents a range of practices using specific tools in specific contexts. This does not render the practice of psychometrics meaningless or futile. Engaging in debates about whether or not we should regard psychometrics as 'scientific' is, however, a fruitless enterprise. The key question and focus should be whether, on what grounds, and in what contexts, the existing methods and techniques used by psychometricians can be justified or criticized.

  19. Large-scale neurochemical metabolomics analysis identifies multiple compounds associated with methamphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Joseph L; Adkins, Daniel E; Vunck, Sarah A; Batman, Angela M; Vann, Robert E; Clark, Shaunna L; Beardsley, Patrick M; van den Oord, Edwin J C G

    2013-04-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is an illegal stimulant drug of abuse with serious negative health consequences. The neurochemical effects of MA have been partially characterized, with a traditional focus on classical neurotransmitter systems. However, these directions have not yet led to novel drug treatments for MA abuse or toxicity. As an alternative approach, we describe here the first application of metabolomics to investigate the neurochemical consequences of MA exposure in the rodent brain. We examined single exposures at 3 mg/kg and repeated exposures at 3 mg/kg over 5 days in eight common inbred mouse strains. Brain tissue samples were assayed using high-throughput gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, yielding quantitative data on >300 unique metabolites. Association testing and false discovery rate control yielded several metabolome-wide significant associations with acute MA exposure, including compounds such as lactate ( p = 4.4 × 10 -5 , q = 0.013), tryptophan ( p = 7.0 × 10 -4 , q = 0.035) and 2-hydroxyglutarate ( p = 1.1 × 10 -4 , q = 0.022). Secondary analyses of MA-induced increase in locomotor activity showed associations with energy metabolites such as succinate ( p = 3.8 × 10 -7 ). Associations specific to repeated (5 day) MA exposure included phosphocholine ( p = 4.0 × 10 -4 , q = 0.087) and ergothioneine ( p = 3.0 × 10 -4 , q = 0.087). Our data appear to confirm and extend existing models of MA action in the brain, whereby an initial increase in energy metabolism, coupled with an increase in behavioral locomotion, gives way to disruption of mitochondria and phospholipid pathways and increased endogenous antioxidant response. Our study demonstrates the power of comprehensive MS-based metabolomics to identify drug-induced changes to brain metabolism and to develop neurochemical models of drug effects.

  20. A neurochemical closed-loop controller for deep brain stimulation: toward individualized smart neuromodulation therapies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jonas Grahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS.Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a smart neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and

  1. Mercury Vapour Long-Lasting Exposure: Lymphocyte Muscarinic Receptors as Neurochemical Markers of Accidental Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Roda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic poisoning may result in home setting after mercury (Hg vapours inhalation from damaged devices. We report a chronic, nonoccupational Hg poisoning due to 10-year indoor exposure to mercury spillage. Case Report. A 72-year-old man with polyneuropathy of suspected toxic origin. At hospitalization, toxicological clinical evaluations confirmed the altered neurological picture documented across the last decade. Periodic blood and urine Hg levels (BHg, UHg monitoring were performed from admission (t0, until 1 year later (t2, paralleled by blood neurochemical markers assessment, that is, lymphocytes muscarinic receptors (l-MRs. At t0: BHg and UHg were 27 and 1.4 microg/L, respectively (normal values: BHg 1–4.5; UHg 0.1–4.5, associated with l-MRs increase, 185.82 femtomoL/million lymphocytes (normal range: 8.0–16.0. At t1 (two days after DMSA-mobilization test, BHg weak reduction, paralleled by UHg 3.7-fold increase, was measured together with further l-MRs enhancement (205.43 femtomoL/million lymphocytes. At t2 (eight months after two cycles of DMSA chelating therapy ending, gradual improving of clinical manifestations was accompanied by progressive decrease of BHg and UHg (4.0 and 2.8 microg/L, resp. and peripheral l-MRs neurochemical marker (24.89 femtomoL/million lymphocytes. Conclusion. l-MRs modulatory effect supports their use as peripheral neurochemical marker in Hg poisoning diagnosis and chelation therapy monitoring.

  2. Effect of chronic psychogenic stress on some behavioral and neurochemical characteristics of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, N.D.; Rozhanets, V.V.; Val'dman, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the behavioral, somatic, and certain neurochemical parameters in rats under conditions of unavoidable chronic stress, according to Hecht et al. in a situation of possible avoidance, with the same total number of aversive stimuli. Specific binding of tritium-flunitrazepam and tritium-dihydroalprenolol was studied. The dissociatin constant and the maximal concentration of ligand-receptor complexes were determined in Scatchard plots by means of an HP-33E computer. The protein concentration in the samples was determined by Peterson's method

  3. Loosening Psychometric Constraints on Educational Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    In response to an argument by Baird, Andrich, Hopfenbeck and Stobart (2017), Michael Kane states that there needs to be a better fit between educational assessment and learning theory. In line with this goal, Kane will examine how psychometric constraints might be loosened by relaxing some psychometric "rules" in some assessment…

  4. Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Schizophrenia? A Balanced Neurochemical Framework for Both Adverse and Therapeutic Effects of Cannabis Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissa M. Coulston

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have found that cannabinoids may improve neuropsychological performance, ameliorate negative symptoms, and have antipsychotic properties for a subgroup of the schizophrenia population. These findings are in contrast to the longstanding history of adverse consequences of cannabis use, predominantly on the positive symptoms, and a balanced neurochemical basis for these opposing views is lacking. This paper details a review of the neurobiological substrates of schizophrenia and the neurochemical effects of cannabis use in the normal population, in both cortical (in particular prefrontal and subcortical brain regions. The aim of this paper is to provide a holistic neurochemical framework in which to understand how cannabinoids may impair, or indeed, serve to ameliorate the positive and negative symptoms as well as cognitive impairment. Directions in which future research can proceed to resolve the discrepancies are briefly discussed.

  5. Neurochemical metabolites in prefrontal cortex in patients with mild/moderate levels in first-episode depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozeri-Varma G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gülfizar Sözeri-Varma,1 Nalan Kalkan-Oğuzhanoglu,1 Muharrem Efe,1 Yilmaz Kiroglu,2 Taçlan Duman11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, TurkeyBackground: Previous studies have determined the neurochemical metabolite abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD. The results of studies are inconsistent. Severity of depression may relate to neurochemical metabolic changes. The aim of this study is to investigate neurochemical metabolite levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC of patients with mild/moderate MDD.Methods: Twenty-one patients with mild MDD, 18 patients with moderate MDD, and 16 matched control subjects participated in the study. Patients had had their first episode. They had not taken treatment. The severity of depression was assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline-containing compounds (Cho, and creatine-containing compounds (Cr were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS at 1.5 T, with an 8-cm3 single voxel placed in the right PFC.Results: The moderate MDD patients had lower NAA/Cr levels than the control group. No differences were found in neurochemical metabolite levels between the mild MDD and control groups. No correlation was found between the patients’ neurochemical metabolite levels and HAM-D scores.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that NAA/Cr levels are low in moderate-level MDD in the PFC. Neurochemical metabolite levels did not change in mild depressive disorder. Our results suggest that the severity of depression may affect neuronal function and viability. Studies are needed to confirm this finding, including studies on severely depressive patients.Keywords: major depressive disorder, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline

  6. Separate neurochemical classes of sympathetic postganglionic neurons project to the left ventricle of the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R J; Grkovic, I; Allen, A M; Anderson, C R

    2006-04-01

    The sympathetic innervation of the rat heart was investigated by retrograde neuronal tracing and multiple label immunohistochemistry. Injections of Fast Blue made into the left ventricular wall labelled sympathetic neurons that were located along the medial border of both the left and right stellate ganglia. Cardiac projecting sympathetic postganglionic neurons could be grouped into one of four neurochemical populations, characterised by their content of calbindin and/or neuropeptide Y (NPY). The subpopulations of neurons contained immunoreactivity to both calbindin and NPY, immunoreactivity to calbindin only, immunoreactivity to NPY only and no immunoreactivity to calbindin or NPY. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons were also labelled in vitro with rhodamine dextran applied to the cut end of a cardiac nerve. The same neurochemical subpopulations of sympathetic neurons were identified by using this technique but in different proportions to those labelled from the left ventricle. Preganglionic terminals that were immunoreactive for another calcium-binding protein, calretinin, preferentially surrounded retrogradely labelled neurons that were immunoreactive for both calbindin and NPY. The separate sympathetic pathways projecting to the rat heart may control different cardiac functions.

  7. Behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological changes in an early spontaneous mouse model of nigrostriatal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgadò, Paola; Viaggi, Cristina; Pinna, Annalisa; Marrone, Cristina; Vaglini, Francesca; Pontis, Silvia; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Morelli, Micaela; Corsini, Giovanni Umberto

    2011-08-01

    In idiopathic Parkinson's disease, clinical symptoms do not emerge until consistent neurodegeneration has occurred. The late appearance of symptoms implies the existence of a relatively long preclinical period during which several disease-induced neurochemical changes take place to mask the existence of the disease and delay its clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to examine the neurochemical, neurophysiological, and behavioral changes induced by the loss of nigrostriatal innervation in the En1+/-;En2-/- mouse, in the 10 months following degeneration, compared to En2 null mutant mice. Behavioral analysis (Pole-test, Beam-walking test, and Inverted grid test) and field potential recordings in the striatum indicated that loss of ~70% of nigrostriatal neurons produced no significant functional effects until 8 months of age, when En1+/-;En2-/- animals started to show frank motor deficits and electrophysiological alterations in corticostriatal plasticity. Similarly, alterations in dopamine homeostasis, dopamine turnover, and dopamine innervation were observed in aged animals compared to young En1+/-;En2-/- mice. These data suggests that in En1+/-;En2-/- mice nigrostriatal degeneration in the substantia nigra is functionally compensated.

  8. A High-Performance Application Specific Integrated Circuit for Electrical and Neurochemical Traumatic Brain Injury Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagkalos, Ilias; Rogers, Michelle L; Boutelle, Martyn G; Drakakis, Emmanuel M

    2018-05-22

    This paper presents the first application specific integrated chip (ASIC) for the monitoring of patients who have suffered a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). By monitoring the neurophysiological (ECoG) and neurochemical (glucose, lactate and potassium) signals of the injured human brain tissue, it is possible to detect spreading depolarisations, which have been shown to be associated with poor TBI patient outcome. This paper describes the testing of a new 7.5 mm 2 ASIC fabricated in the commercially available AMS 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The ASIC has been designed to meet the demands of processing the injured brain tissue's ECoG signals, recorded by means of depth or brain surface electrodes, and neurochemical signals, recorded using microdialysis coupled to microfluidics-based electrochemical biosensors. The potentiostats use switchedcapacitor charge integration to record currents with 100 fA resolution, and allow automatic gain changing to track the falling sensitivity of a biosensor. This work supports the idea of a "behind the ear" wireless microplatform modality, which could enable the monitoring of currently non-monitored mobile TBI patients for the onset of secondary brain injury. ©2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Psychometrics behind Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-03-01

    The paper provides a survey of 18 years' progress that my colleagues, students (both former and current) and I made in a prominent research area in Psychometrics-Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). We start with a historical review of the establishment of a large sample foundation for CAT. It is worth noting that the asymptotic results were derived under the framework of Martingale Theory, a very theoretical perspective of Probability Theory, which may seem unrelated to educational and psychological testing. In addition, we address a number of issues that emerged from large scale implementation and show that how theoretical works can be helpful to solve the problems. Finally, we propose that CAT technology can be very useful to support individualized instruction on a mass scale. We show that even paper and pencil based tests can be made adaptive to support classroom teaching.

  10. Twelve tips for assessment psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Lee; Roberts, Martin; Zahra, Daniel; Burr, Steven

    2016-01-01

    It is incumbent on medical schools to show, both to regulatory bodies and to the public at large, that their graduating students are "fit for purpose" as tomorrow's doctors. Since students graduate by virtue of passing assessments, it is vital that schools quality assure their assessment procedures, standards, and outcomes. An important part of this quality assurance process is the appropriate use of psychometric analyses. This begins with development of an empowering, evidence-based culture in which assessment validity can be demonstrated. Preparation prior to an assessment requires the establishment of appropriate rules, test blueprinting and standard setting. When an assessment has been completed, the reporting of test results should consider reliability, assessor, demographic, and long-term analyses across multiple levels, in an integrated way to ensure the information conveyed to all stakeholders is meaningful.

  11. THE MODERN RACISM SCALE: PSYCHOMETRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL CÁRDENAS

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An adaption of McConahay, Harder and Batts’ (1981 moderm racism scale is presented for Chilean population andits psychometric properties, (reliability and validity are studied, along with its relationship with other relevantpsychosocial variables in studies on prejudice and ethnic discrimination (authoritarianism, religiousness, politicalposition, etc., as well as with other forms of prejudice (gender stereotypes and homophobia. The sample consistedof 120 participants, students of psychology, resident in the city of Antofagasta (a geographical zone with a highnumber of Latin-American inmigrants. Our findings show that the scale seems to be a reliable instrument to measurethe prejudice towards Bolivian immigrants in our social environment. Likewise, important differences among thesubjects are detected with high and low scores in the psychosocial variables used.

  12. Individual differences in the effects of chronic stress on memory: behavioral and neurochemical correlates of resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, B M; Veverka, K K; Dhillon, E S; Urban, J H; Lucas, L R

    2013-08-29

    Chronic stress has been shown to impair memory, however, the extent to which memory can be impaired is often variable across individuals. Predisposed differences in particular traits, such as anxiety, may reveal underlying neurobiological mechanisms that could be driving individual differences in sensitivity to stress and, thus, stress resiliency. Such pre-morbid characteristics may serve as early indicators of susceptibility to stress. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and enkephalin (ENK) are neurochemical messengers of interest implicated in modulating anxiety and motivation circuitry; however, little is known about how these neuropeptides interact with stress resiliency and memory. In this experiment, adult male rats were appetitively trained to locate sugar rewards in a motivation-based spatial memory task before undergoing repeated immobilization stress and then being tested for memory retention. Anxiety-related behaviors, among other characteristics, were monitored longitudinally. Results indicated that stressed animals which showed little to no impairments in memory post-stress (i.e., the more stress-resilient individuals) exhibited lower anxiety levels prior to stress when compared to stressed animals that showed large deficits in memory (i.e., the more stress-susceptible individuals). Interestingly, all stressed animals, regardless of memory change, showed reduced body weight gain as well as thymic involution, suggesting that the effects of stress on metabolism and the immune system were dissociated from the effects of stress on higher cognition, and that stress resiliency seems to be domain-specific rather than a global characteristic within an individual. Neurochemical analyses revealed that NPY in the hypothalamus and amygdala and ENK in the nucleus accumbens were modulated differentially between stress-resilient and stress-susceptible individuals, with elevated expression of these neuropeptides fostering anxiolytic and pro-motivation function, thus driving

  13. Effects of Gladiolus dalenii on the Stress-Induced Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Reproductive Changes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fotsing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gladiolus dalenii is a plant commonly used in many regions of Cameroon as a cure for various diseases like headaches, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. Recent studies have revealed that the aqueous extract of G. dalenii (AEGD exhibited antidepressant-like properties in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the AEGD could protect from the stress-induced behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive changes in rats. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of the AEGD on behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive characteristics, using female rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress. The chronic immobilization stress (3 h per day for 28 days was applied to induce female reproductive and behavioral impairments in rats. The immobilization stress was provoked in rats by putting them separately inside cylindrical restrainers with ventilated doors at ambient temperature. The plant extract was given to rats orally everyday during 28 days, 5 min before induction of stress. On a daily basis, a vaginal smear was made to assess the duration of the different phases of the estrous cycle and at the end of the 28 days of chronic immobilization stress, the rat’s behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze. They were sacrificed by cervical disruption. The organs were weighed, the ovary histology done, and the biochemical parameters assessed. The findings of this research revealed that G. dalenii increased the entries and the time of open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze. Evaluation of the biochemical parameters levels indicated that there was a significant reduction in the corticosterone, progesterone, and prolactin levels in the G. dalenii aqueous extract treated rats compared to stressed rats whereas the levels of serotonin, triglycerides, adrenaline, cholesterol, glucose estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were significantly increased in the stressed rats treated with, G. dalenii

  14. Convulsant activity and neurochemical alterations induced by a fraction obtained from fruit Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae: Geraniales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolino, Ruither O G; Beleboni, Renê O; Pizzo, Andrea B; Vecchio, Flavio Del; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Santos, Wagner F Dos; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2005-06-01

    We obtained a neurotoxic fraction (AcTx) from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and studied its effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission systems. AcTx had no effect on GABA/glutamate uptake or release, or on glutamate binding. However, it specifically inhibited GABA binding in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=0.89muM). Video-electroencephalogram recordings demonstrated that following cortical administration of AcTx, animals showed behavioral changes, including tonic-clonic seizures, evolving into status epilepticus, accompanied by cortical epileptiform activity. Chemical characterization of AcTx showed that this compound is a nonproteic molecule with a molecular weight less than 500, differing from oxalic acid. This neurotoxic fraction of star fruit may be considered a new tool for neurochemical and neuroethological research.

  15. Neurochemical Changes after Acute Binge Toluene Inhalation in Adolescent and Adult Rats: A High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; McMechan, Andrew P.; Irtenkauf, Susan; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalant abuse in young people is a growing public health concern. We reported previously that acute toluene intoxication in young rats, using a pattern of exposures that approximate abuse patterns of inhalant use in humans, significantly altered neurochemical measures in select brain regions. In this study, adolescent and young adult rats were exposed similarly to an acute (2 × 15 min), high dose (8000 − 12000 ppm) of toluene and high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS 1H-MRS) was used to assess neurochemical profiles of tissue samples from a number of brain regions collected immediately following solvent exposure. The current investigation focused on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds, creatine, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine. Contrary to our predictions, no significant alterations were found in levels of NAA, choline, creatine, glutamate, or glutamine in adolescent animals. In contrast to these minimal effects in adolescents, binge toluene exposure altered several neurochemical parameters in young adult rats, including decreased levels of choline and GABA in the frontal cortex and striatum and lowered glutamine and NAA levels in the frontal cortex. One of the more robust findings was a wide-ranging increase in lactate after toluene exposure in adult animals, an effect not observed in adolescents. These age-dependent effects of toluene are distinct from those reported previously in juvenile rats and suggest a developmental difference in vulnerability to the effects of inhalants. Specifically, the results suggest that the neurochemical response to toluene in adolescents is attenuated compared to adults, and imply an association between these neurochemical differences and age-influenced differences in solvent abuse in humans. PMID:19628036

  16. Previous Ketamine Produces an Enduring Blockade of Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects of Uncontrollable Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzani, Samuel D.; Tilden, Scott; Christianson, John P.; Kubala, Kenneth H.; Bartholomay, Kristi; Sperr, Katherine; Ciancio, Nicholas; Watkins, Linda R.; Maier, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent interest in the antidepressant and anti-stress effects of subanesthetic doses of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, has identified mechanisms whereby ketamine reverses the effect of stress, but little is known regarding the prophylactic effect ketamine might have on future stressors. Here we investigate the prophylactic effect of ketamine against neurochemical and behavioral changes that follow inescapable, uncontrollable tail shocks (ISs) in Sprague Dawley rats. IS induces increased anxiety, which is dependent on activation of serotonergic (5-HT) dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) neurons that project to the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Ketamine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) administered 2 h, 1 week, or 2 weeks before IS prevented the increased extracellular levels of 5-HT in the BLA typically produced by IS. In addition, ketamine administered at these time points blocked the decreased juvenile social investigation produced by IS. Microinjection of ketamine into the prelimbic (PL) region of the medial prefrontal cortex duplicated the effects of systemic ketamine, and, conversely, systemic ketamine effects were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of the PL. Although IS does not activate DRN-projecting neurons from the PL, IS did so after ketamine, suggesting that the prophylactic effect of ketamine is a result of altered functioning of this projection. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The reported data show that systemic ketamine, given up to 2 weeks before a stressor, blunts behavioral and neurochemical effects of the stressor. The study also advances understanding of the mechanisms involved and suggests that ketamine acts at the prelimbic cortex to sensitize neurons that project to and inhibit the DRN. PMID:26740657

  17. Individual differences in the forced swimming test and neurochemical kinetics in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira-Cordero, Andrey; Mora-Gallegos, Andrea; Cuenca-Berger, Patricia; Fornaguera-Trías, Jaime

    2014-04-10

    Individual differences in the forced swimming test (FST) could be associated with differential temporal dynamics of gene expression and neurotransmitter activity. We tested juvenile male rats in the FST and classified the animals into those with low and high immobility according to the amount of immobility time recorded in FST. These groups and a control group which did not undergo the FST were sacrificed either 1, 6 or 24 h after the test. We analyzed the expression of the CRF, CRFR1, BDNF and TrkB in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens as well as norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA and glutamine in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens. Animals with low immobility showed significant reductions of BDNF expression across time points in both the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens when compared with non-swim control. Moreover, rats with high immobility only showed a significant decrease of BDNF expression in the prefrontal cortex 6h after the FST. Regarding neurotransmitters, only accumbal dopamine turnover and hippocampal glutamate content showed an effect of individual differences (i.e. animals with low and high immobility), whereas nearly all parameters showed significant differences across time points. Correlational analyses suggest that immobility in the FST, probably reflecting despair, is related to prefrontal cortical BDNF and to the kinetics observed in several other neurochemical parameters. Taken together, our results suggest that individual differences observed in depression-like behavior can be associated not only with changes in the concentrations of key neurochemical factors but also with differential time courses of such factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The gyri of the octopus vertical lobe have distinct neurochemical identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Ragsdale, Clifton W

    2015-06-15

    The cephalopod vertical lobe is the largest learning and memory structure known in invertebrate nervous systems. It is part of the visual learning circuit of the central brain, which also includes the superior frontal and subvertical lobes. Despite the well-established functional importance of this system, little is known about neuropil organization of these structures and there is to date no evidence that the five longitudinal gyri of the vertical lobe, perhaps the most distinctive morphological feature of the octopus brain, differ in their connections or molecular identities. We studied the histochemical organization of these structures in hatchling and adult Octopus bimaculoides brains with immunostaining for serotonin, octopus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (oGNRH), and octopressin-neurophysin (OP-NP). Our major finding is that the five lobules forming the vertical lobe gyri have distinct neurochemical signatures. This is most prominent in the hatchling brain, where the median and mediolateral lobules are enriched in OP-NP fibers, the lateral lobule is marked by oGNRH innervation, and serotonin immunostaining heavily labels the median and lateral lobules. A major source of input to the vertical lobe is the superior frontal lobe, which is dominated by a neuropil of interweaving fiber bundles. We have found that this neuropil also has an intrinsic neurochemical organization: it is partitioned into territories alternately enriched or impoverished in oGNRH-containing fascicles. Our findings establish that the constituent lobes of the octopus superior frontal-vertical system have an intricate internal anatomy, one likely to reflect the presence of functional subsystems within cephalopod learning circuitry. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Chronic choline supplementation improves cognitive and motor performance via modulating oxidative and neurochemical status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Saiqa; Haider, Saida; Ahmad, Saara; Madiha, Syeda; Parveen, Tahira

    2017-08-01

    Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes. Two groups, control and choline, received tap water and choline bitartrate, respectively at the dose equivalent to adequate intake for five weeks. Food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Behavioral analysis comprising assessment of cognitive performance (by novel object recognition, passive avoidance and Morris Water Maze test) and locomotor performance (by Open field, Kondziela's inverted screen and beam walking test) were performed. Following testing, rats were decapitated and brain samples were collected for estimation of acetylcholine, redox profile and monoamine measurements. The results showed that chronic choline administration significantly improves cognitive and locomotor performance accompanied by a reduction in oxidative stress, enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission and monoamine levels in the brain of healthy adult rats. Hence, chronic choline intake was found to improve behavioral, oxidative and neurochemical outcomes in the normal population, so it can be suggested that choline tablets can be used as a safe and effective supplement for improving the neurological health of normal individuals and that they might also be beneficial in preventing cognitive and motor disorders later in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in neurochemicals within the ventrolateral medullary respiratory column in awake goats after carotid body denervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Justin Robert; Neumueller, Suzanne; Muere, Clarissa; Olesiak, Samantha; Pan, Lawrence; Hodges, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    A current and major unanswered question is why the highly sensitive central CO2/H+ chemoreceptors do not prevent hypoventilation-induced hypercapnia following carotid body denervation (CBD). Because perturbations involving the carotid bodies affect central neuromodulator and/or neurotransmitter levels within the respiratory network, we tested the hypothesis that after CBD there is an increase in inhibitory and/or a decrease in excitatory neurochemicals within the ventrolateral medullary column (VMC) in awake goats. Microtubules for chronic use were implanted bilaterally in the VMC within or near the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC) through which mock cerebrospinal fluid (mCSF) was dialyzed. Effluent mCSF was collected and analyzed for neurochemical content. The goats hypoventilated (peak +22.3 ± 3.4 mmHg PaCO2) and exhibited a reduced CO2 chemoreflex (nadir, 34.8 ± 7.4% of control ΔV̇E/ΔPaCO2) after CBD with significant but limited recovery over 30 days post-CBD. After CBD, GABA and glycine were above pre-CBD levels (266 ± 29% and 189 ± 25% of pre-CBD; P 0.05) different from control after CBD. Analyses of brainstem tissues collected 30 days after CBD exhibited 1) a midline raphe-specific reduction (P < 0.05) in the percentage of tryptophan hydroxylase–expressing neurons, and 2) a reduction (P < 0.05) in serotonin transporter density in five medullary respiratory nuclei. We conclude that after CBD, an increase in inhibitory neurotransmitters and a decrease in excitatory neuromodulation within the VMC/preBötC likely contribute to the hypoventilation and attenuated ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex. PMID:23869058

  1. Rapid sensing of l-leucine by human and murine hypothalamic neurons: Neurochemical and mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeley, Nicholas; Kirwan, Peter; Darwish, Tamana; Arnaud, Marion; Evans, Mark L; Merkle, Florian T; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M; Blouet, Clemence

    2018-04-01

    Dietary proteins are sensed by hypothalamic neurons and strongly influence multiple aspects of metabolic health, including appetite, weight gain, and adiposity. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which hypothalamic neural circuits controlling behavior and metabolism sense protein availability. The aim of this study is to characterize how neurons from the mediobasal hypothalamus respond to a signal of protein availability: the amino acid l-leucine. We used primary cultures of post-weaning murine mediobasal hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and calcium imaging to characterize rapid neuronal responses to physiological changes in extracellular l-Leucine concentration. A neurochemically diverse subset of both mouse and human hypothalamic neurons responded rapidly to l-leucine. Consistent with l-leucine's anorexigenic role, we found that 25% of mouse MBH POMC neurons were activated by l-leucine. 10% of MBH NPY neurons were inhibited by l-leucine, and leucine rapidly reduced AGRP secretion, providing a mechanism for the rapid leucine-induced inhibition of foraging behavior in rodents. Surprisingly, none of the candidate mechanisms previously implicated in hypothalamic leucine sensing (K ATP channels, mTORC1 signaling, amino-acid decarboxylation) were involved in the acute activity changes produced by l-leucine. Instead, our data indicate that leucine-induced neuronal activation involves a plasma membrane Ca 2+ channel, whereas leucine-induced neuronal inhibition is mediated by inhibition of a store-operated Ca 2+ current. A subset of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus rapidly respond to physiological changes in extracellular leucine concentration. Leucine can produce both increases and decreases in neuronal Ca 2+ concentrations in a neurochemically-diverse group of neurons, including some POMC and NPY/AGRP neurons. Our data reveal that leucine can signal through novel mechanisms to rapidly

  2. The Psychometric Toolbox: An Excel Package for Use in Measurement and Psychometrics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Masip-Cabrera, Antoni; Navarro-González, David; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2017-01-01

    The Psychometric Toolbox (PT) is a user-friendly, non-commercial package mainly intended to be used for instructional purposes in introductory courses of educational and psychological measurement, psychometrics and statistics. The PT package is organized in six separate modules or sub-programs: Data preprocessor (descriptive analyses and data…

  3. Review of the Psychometric Evidence of the Perceived Stress Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hyun Lee, RN, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Overall, the PSS is an easy-to-use questionnaire with established acceptable psychometric properties. However, future studies should evaluate these psychometric properties in greater depth, and validate the scale using diverse populations.

  4. Vanillin Attenuated Behavioural Impairments, Neurochemical Deficts, Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Against Rotenone Induced Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanalakshmi, Chinnasamy; Janakiraman, Udaiyappan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Kalandar, Ameer; Khan, Mohammed Abdul Sattar; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2016-08-01

    Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), a pleasant smelling organic aromatic compound, is widely used as a flavoring additive in food, beverage, cosmetic and drug industries. It is reported to cross the blood brain barrier and also displayed antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of vanillin against rotenone induced in in vitro model of PD. The present experiment was aimed to analyze the neuroprotective effect of vanillin on the motor and non-motor deficits, neurochemical variables, oxidative, anti-oxidative indices and the expression of apoptotic markers against rotenone induced rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rotenone treatment exhibited motor and non-motor impairments, neurochemical deficits, oxidative stress and apoptosis, whereas oral administration of vanillin attenuated the above-said indices. However further studies are needed to explore the mitochondrial protective and anti-inflammatory properties of vanillin, as these processes play a vital role in the cause and progression of PD.

  5. Psychometric properties of the Cumulated Ambulation Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferriero, Giorgio; Kristensen, Morten T; Invernizzi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the geriatric population, independent mobility is a key factor in determining readiness for discharge following acute hospitalization. The Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) is a potentially valuable score that allows day-to-day measurements of basic mobility. The CAS was developed...... and validated in older patients with hip fracture as an early postoperative predictor of short-term outcome, but it is also used to assess geriatric in-patients with acute medical illness. Despite the fast- accumulating literature on the CAS, to date no systematic review synthesizing its psychometric properties....... Of 49 studies identified, 17 examined the psychometric properties of the CAS. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Most papers dealt with patients after hip fracture surgery, and only 4 studies assessed the CAS psychometric characteristics also in geriatric in-patients with acute medical illness. Two versions of CAS...

  6. The Interpersonal Relationship Inventory: continued psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, V P; Hirsch, A M; Nelson, C A

    1994-01-01

    For norm-referenced measures to be useful in social-behavioral research, investigators who develop measures face several psychometric challenges, including: (a) adequate domain specification; (b) adequate initial evidence of reliability and validity; and (c) ongoing evidence of psychometric quality. The Interpersonal Relationship Inventory (IPRI) was developed in response to gaps in measurement of social relationships, and contributed scales for reciprocity and conflict to a measure of social support. For the IPRI, the first two points were addressed during the period of instrument development. The measure now has been in use for 4 years. This article reports evidence addressing the third challenge: ongoing evidence of psychometric quality. Findings from 19 studies using the IPRI provide compelling evidence for internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the scales.

  7. Neurochemical, morphologic, and laminar characterization of cortical projection neurons in the cingulate motor areas of the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Hof, P. R.; Young, W. G.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The primate cingulate gyrus contains multiple cortical areas that can be distinguished by several neurochemical features, including the distribution of neurofilament protein-enriched pyramidal neurons. In addition, connectivity and functional properties indicate that there are multiple motor areas in the cortex lining the cingulate sulcus. These motor areas were targeted for analysis of potential interactions among regional specialization, connectivity, and cellular characteristics such as neurochemical profile and morphology. Specifically, intracortical injections of retrogradely transported dyes and intracellular injection were combined with immunocytochemistry to investigate neurons projecting from the cingulate motor areas to the putative forelimb region of the primary motor cortex, area M1. Two separate groups of neurons projecting to area M1 emanated from the cingulate sulcus, one anterior and one posterior, both of which furnished commissural and ipsilateral connections with area M1. The primary difference between the two populations was laminar origin, with the anterior projection originating largely in deep layers, and the posterior projection taking origin equally in superficial and deep layers. With regard to cellular morphology, the anterior projection exhibited more morphologic diversity than the posterior projection. Commissural projections from both anterior and posterior fields originated largely in layer VI. Neurofilament protein distribution was a reliable tool for localizing the two projections and for discriminating between them. Comparable proportions of the two sets of projection neurons contained neurofilament protein, although the density and distribution of the total population of neurofilament protein-enriched neurons was very different in the two subareas of origin. Within a projection, the participating neurons exhibited a high degree of morphologic heterogeneity, and no correlation was observed between somatodendritic morphology and

  8. Investigation of spatial trends and neurochemical impacts of mercury in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkiewicz, Jennifer [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 S. Observatory St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Scheuhammer, Anton; Crump, Doug; Jagla, Magdalena [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.ed [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 S. Observatory St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) but it is unknown whether they are exposed at levels of neurological concern. Here we studied brain tissues from gulls at five Great Lakes colonies and one non-Great Lakes colony during spring of 2001 and 2003. Total brain Hg concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.0 {mu}g/g (dry weight) with a mean of 0.54 {mu}g/g. Gulls from Scotch Bonnet Island, on the easternmost edge of the Great Lakes, had significantly higher brain Hg than other colonies. No association was found between brain Hg concentration and [3H]-ligand binding to neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate, muscarinic cholinergic, nicotinic cholinergic) or nicotinic receptor {alpha}-7 relative mRNA expression as previously documented in other wildlife. In conclusion, spatial trends in Hg contamination exist in herring gulls across the Great Lakes basin, and herring gulls accumulate brain Hg but not at levels associated with sub-clinical neurochemical alterations. - Spatial trends in brain mercury exist in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes though levels are not associated with neurochemical biomarkers.

  9. Neuroprotective potential of curcumin in combination with piperine against 6-hydroxy dopamine induced motor deficit and neurochemical alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shamsher; Kumar, Puneet

    2017-02-01

    6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) is a neurotoxin which on intranigral administration produces severe nigrostriatal damage with motor and cognitive deficit in animals. Curcumin (CMN) in combination with bioenhancer piperine (PP) in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonian rats was used to investigate the antioxidant, neuromodulatory and neuroprotective mechanisms. Hemi-Parkinson's rat model was developed with intranigral infusion of 6-OHDA (8 μg/2 μl, once, unilaterally), treatment with CMN (25 and 50 mg/kg) and combination of PP (2.5 mg/kg) with CMN (25 mg/kg) was given daily for 21 days starting from the 7th day after 6-OHDA infusion. The behavioral (locomotor, grip strength, and narrow beam walk) parameters were studied on weekly basis. On 22nd day, isolated brain preparations were subjected to biochemical (lipid peroxidation, glutathione, and nitrite), neuroinflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF- α), and neurochemical (DA, NE, 5- HT, GABA, Glutamate, DOPAC, HVA, and 5-HIAA) analysis. Oral administration of CMN had significantly prevented behavioral, neuroinflammatory, and neurochemical changes and preserved the antioxidant potential of the nigrostriatum in rats treated with 6-OHDA. In the present study, PP and CMN had afforded a better neuroprotective effect compared to alone treatment on behavior, biochemical, neuroinflammatory, and neurochemical parameters in rats.

  10. Piperine Augments the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurobehavioral and Neurochemical Deficits in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Kwatra, Mohit; Singh, Tavleen; Pant, Rajat; Kushwah, Pawan; Sharma, Yogita; Saroha, Babita; Datusalia, Ashok Kumar; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of curcumin alone and in combination with piperine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits in the mice hippocampus. Mice were treated with curcumin (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days followed by LPS (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Animals exhibited anxiety and depressive-like phenotype after 3 and 24 h of LPS exposure, respectively. LPS administration increased the oxido-nitrosative stress as evident by elevated levels of malondialdehyde, nitrite, and depletion of glutathione level in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we found raised level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Pretreatment with curcumin alleviated LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits. Furthermore, co-administration of curcumin with piperine significantly potentiated the neuroprotective effect of curcumin. These results demonstrate that piperine enhanced the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits.

  11. Investigation of spatial trends and neurochemical impacts of mercury in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Scheuhammer, Anton; Crump, Doug; Jagla, Magdalena; Basu, Niladri

    2010-01-01

    Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) but it is unknown whether they are exposed at levels of neurological concern. Here we studied brain tissues from gulls at five Great Lakes colonies and one non-Great Lakes colony during spring of 2001 and 2003. Total brain Hg concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.0 μg/g (dry weight) with a mean of 0.54 μg/g. Gulls from Scotch Bonnet Island, on the easternmost edge of the Great Lakes, had significantly higher brain Hg than other colonies. No association was found between brain Hg concentration and [3H]-ligand binding to neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate, muscarinic cholinergic, nicotinic cholinergic) or nicotinic receptor α-7 relative mRNA expression as previously documented in other wildlife. In conclusion, spatial trends in Hg contamination exist in herring gulls across the Great Lakes basin, and herring gulls accumulate brain Hg but not at levels associated with sub-clinical neurochemical alterations. - Spatial trends in brain mercury exist in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes though levels are not associated with neurochemical biomarkers.

  12. Subchronic steroid administration induces long lasting changes in neurochemical and behavioral response to cocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailanto, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Aino; Seppälä, Timo

    2011-11-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), such as nandrolone, is not only a problem in the world of sports but is associated with the polydrug use of non-athletes. Among other adverse effects, AAS abuse has been associated with long term or even persistent psychiatric problems. We have previously found that nandrolone decanoate treatment could produce prolonged changes in rats' brain reward circuits associated to drug dependence. The aim in this study was to evaluate whether AAS-induced neurochemical and behavioral changes are reversible. The increases in extracellular dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) concentration, as well as stereotyped behavior and locomotor activity (LMA) evoked by cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with nandrolone. The recovery period, which was needed for the DA system to return back to the basic level, was fairly long compared to the dosing period of the steroid. In the 5-HT system, the time that system needed to return back to the basal level, was even longer than in the DA system. The attenuation was still seen though there were no detectable traces of nandrolone in the blood samples. Given that accumbal outflow of DA and 5-HT, as well as LMA and stereotyped behavior are all related to reward of stimulant drugs, this study suggests that nandrolone decanoate has significant, long-lasting but reversible effects on the rewarding properties of cocaine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ¹H MRS characterization of neurochemical profiles in orthotopic mouse models of human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, Keith M; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Banerjee, Abhishek; Soesbe, Todd C; Spence, Jeffrey S; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Maher, Elizabeth A; Bachoo, Robert M; Choi, Changho

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor, is resistant to currently available treatments. The development of mouse models of human GBM has provided a tool for studying mechanisms involved in tumor initiation and growth as well as a platform for preclinical investigation of new drugs. In this study we used (1) H MR spectroscopy to study the neurochemical profile of a human orthotopic tumor (HOT) mouse model of human GBM. The goal of this study was to evaluate differences in metabolite concentrations in the GBM HOT mice when compared with normal mouse brain in order to determine if MRS could reliably differentiate tumor from normal brain. A TE =19 ms PRESS sequence at 9.4 T was used for measuring metabolite levels in 12 GBM mice and 8 healthy mice. Levels for 12 metabolites and for lipids/macromolecules at 0.9 ppm and at 1.3 ppm were reliably detected in all mouse spectra. The tumors had significantly lower concentrations of total creatine, GABA, glutamate, total N-acetylaspartate, aspartate, lipids/macromolecules at 0.9 ppm, and lipids/macromolecules at 1.3 ppm than did the brains of normal mice. The concentrations of glycine and lactate, however, were significantly higher in tumors than in normal brain. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Neurochemical changes in the pericalcarine cortex in congenital blindness attributable to bilateral anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Emir, Uzay E; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-09-01

    Congenital blindness leads to large-scale functional and structural reorganization in the occipital cortex, but relatively little is known about the neurochemical changes underlying this cross-modal plasticity. To investigate the effect of complete and early visual deafferentation on the concentration of metabolites in the pericalcarine cortex, (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in 14 sighted subjects and 5 subjects with bilateral anophthalmia, a condition in which both eyes fail to develop. In the pericalcarine cortex, where primary visual cortex is normally located, the proportion of gray matter was significantly greater, and levels of choline, glutamate, glutamine, myo-inositol, and total creatine were elevated in anophthalmic relative to sighted subjects. Anophthalmia had no effect on the structure or neurochemistry of a sensorimotor cortex control region. More gray matter, combined with high levels of choline and myo-inositol, resembles the profile of the cortex at birth and suggests that the lack of visual input from the eyes might have delayed or arrested the maturation of this cortical region. High levels of choline and glutamate/glutamine are consistent with enhanced excitatory circuits in the anophthalmic occipital cortex, which could reflect a shift toward enhanced plasticity or sensitivity that could in turn mediate or unmask cross-modal responses. Finally, it is possible that the change in function of the occipital cortex results in biochemical profiles that resemble those of auditory, language, or somatosensory cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. [Motivation and Emotional States: Structural Systemic, Neurochemical, Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The structural, systemic, neurochemical, molecular and cellular mechanisms of organization and coding motivation and emotional states are describe. The GABA and glutamatergic synaptic systems of basal ganglia form a neural network and participate in the implementation of voluntary behavior. Neuropeptides, neurohormones and paracrine neuromodulators involved in the organization of motivation and emotional states, integrated with synaptic systems, controlled by neural networks and organizing goal-directed behavior. Structural centers for united and integrated of information in voluntary and goal-directed behavior are globus pallidus. Substantia nigra pars reticulata switches the information from corticobasal networks to thalamocortical networks, induces global dopaminergic (DA) signal and organize interaction of mesolimbic and nigostriatnoy DA systems controlled by prefrontal and motor cortex. Together with the motor cortex, substantia nigra displays information in the brainstem and spinal cord to implementation of behavior. Motivation states are formed in the interaction of neurohormonal and neuropeptide systems by monoaminergic systems of brain. Emotional states are formed by monoaminergic systems of the mid-brain, where the leading role belongs to the mesolimbic DA system. The emotional and motivation state of the encoded specific epigenetic molecular and chemical pattern of neuron.

  16. Diphenyl ditelluride impairs short-term memory and alters neurochemical parameters in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if maternal exposure to 0.03 mg/kg of diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2 during the first 14 days of lactational period in Wistar rats alters recognition memory and neurochemical parameters in young rats. Object recognition memory task, evaluation of synaptosomal [3H]glutamate uptake and release as well as cerebral Na+/K+ATPase activity were evaluated in 4 week-old rats. There were no significant specific overt signs of maternal intoxication. The body weight gain of rats was similar among groups. (PhTe)2-exposed group showed a significantly lower time exploring the novel object when compared to the performance of the control group in short-term memory (STM) test. In addition, (PhTe)2 significantly inhibited synaptosomal [3H]glutamate uptake and cerebral Na+/K+ATPase activity in animals. The synaptosomal [3H]glutamate release was similar between (PhTe)2 and control groups. In conclusion, the present study establishes that young rats presented cognitive impairment after exposure to (PhTe)2 via maternal milk, demonstrated by the performance of animals in object recognition memory task. The possible mechanism involved in (PhTe)2 action in memory of recognition might involve inhibition of cerebral Na+/K+ATPase activity and synaptosomal [3H]glutamate uptake.

  17. Neurochemical metabolomics reveals disruption to sphingolipid metabolism following chronic haloperidol administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Joseph L.; Vunck, Sarah A.; Batman, Angela M.; Crowley, James J.; Vann, Robert E.; Beardsley, Patrick M.; van den Oord, Edwin J.

    2015-01-01

    Haloperidol is an effective antipsychotic drug for treatment of schizophrenia, but prolonged use can lead to debilitating side effects. To better understand the effects of long-term administration, we measured global metabolic changes in mouse brain following 3 mg/kg/day haloperidol for 28 days. These conditions lead to movement-related side effects in mice akin to those observed in patients after prolonged use. Brain tissue was collected following microwave tissue fixation to arrest metabolism and extracted metabolites were assessed using both liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (MS). Over 300 unique compounds were identified across MS platforms. Haloperidol was found to be present in all test samples and not in controls, indicating experimental validity. Twenty-one compounds differed significantly between test and control groups at the p haloperidol-treated mice (p = 0.004), a marker previously associated with demyelination. This study further demonstrates the utility of murine neurochemical metabolomics as a method to advance understanding of CNS drug effects. PMID:25850894

  18. Effects of melatonin on aluminium-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, M S; Feriani, A; Saoudi, M; Badraoui, R; Bouoni, Z; Nciri, R; Murat, J C; Elfeki, A

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of melatonin (Mel) against aluminium-induced neurodegenerative changes in aging Wistar rats (24-28months old). Herein, aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (50mg/kg BW/day) was administered by gavage, and melatonin (Mel) was co-administered to a group of Al-treated rats by an intra-peritoneal injection at a daily dose of 10mg/kg BW for four months. The findings revealed that aluminium administration induced a significant decrease in body weight associated with marked mortality for the old group of rats, which was more pronounced in old Al-treated rats. Behavioural alterations were assessed by 'open fields', 'elevated plus maze' and 'Radial 8-arms maze' tests. The results demonstrated that Mel co-administration alleviated neurobehavioral changes in both old and old Al-treated rats. Melatonin was noted to play a good neuroprotective role, reducing lipid peroxidation (TBARs), and enhancing enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GPx) activities in the brain organs of old control and old Al-treated rats. Mel treatment also reversed the decrease of AChE activity in the brain tissues, which was confirmed by histological sections. Overall, the results showed that Mel administration can induce beneficial effects for the treatment of Al-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biochemical and neurochemical effects in rats following Iow-level chronic moniliformin mycotoxin treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Y.M.; Abdel-Kader, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the biochemical and neurochemical effects of moniliformin mycotoxins in rats. Moniliformin was extracted from fusarium oxysporum and injected intraperitoneally to male albino rats at a dose level 225 magaa g/kg (1/220 LD 5 0) daily for three weeks. The results. The results revealed a decrease in body weight of treated animals, in addition to alteration in the weights of some selected organs. A significant increase of serum ALT, AST and ALP were observed, indicating changes in liver function. Kidney function of treated rats as determined by alteration creatinine and blood urea also was affected. On the other hand the data obtained revealed a dramatic decrease in brain acetylcholinesterase activity. In addition, moniliformin exhibited alteration in the total content of catecholamines, dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonine (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), free inorganic phosphate (Pi) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat brain of treated animals. Also, profound decline in serum testosterone level was observed. No pathological changes were detected. Hormonal assays were performed using radioimmunoassay techniques

  20. Neurochemical abnormalities in brains of renal failure patients treated by repeated hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, T L; Yong, V W; Kish, S J; Ito, M; Foulks, J G; Godolphin, W J; Sweeney, V P

    1985-10-01

    We examined autopsied brain from 10 patients with end-stage renal failure who had undergone repeated hemodialysis. Eight had classic symptoms, and two had suggestive symptoms of dialysis encephalopathy. Findings were compared with those in autopsied brain from control adults who had never been hemodialyzed. Mean gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents were significantly reduced in frontal and occipital cortex, cerebellar cortex, dentate nucleus, caudate nucleus, and medial-dorsal thalamus of the hemodialyzed patients, the reduction being greater than 40% in cerebral cortex and thalamus. Choline acetyltransferase activity was reduced by 25-35% in three cortical regions in the hemodialyzed patients. These two abnormalities were observed in the brain of each hemodialyzed patient, regardless of whether or not the patient died with unequivocal dialysis encephalopathy. Pyridoxal phosphate contents were substantially reduced in brains of the hemodialyzed patients, but metabolites of noradrenaline, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) were present in normal amounts. Aluminum levels were abnormally high in frontal cortical gray matter in the hemodialyzed patients. Although this study does not clarify the role played by aluminum toxicity in the pathogenesis of dialysis encephalopathy, the abnormalities we found suggest the need for further neurochemical investigations in this disorder.

  1. The psychological and neurochemical mechanisms of drug memory reconsolidation: implications for the treatment of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Amy L; Everitt, Barry J

    2010-06-01

    Memory reconsolidation is the process by which memories, destabilised at retrieval, require restabilisation to persist in the brain. It has been demonstrated that even old, well-established memories require reconsolidation following retrieval; therefore, memory reconsolidation could potentially be exploited to disrupt, or even erase, aberrant memories that underlie psychiatric disorders, thereby providing a novel therapeutic target. Drug addiction is one such disorder; it is both chronic and relapsing, and one prominent risk factor for a relapse episode is the presentation of environmental cues that have previously been associated with drugs of abuse. This 'cue-induced relapse' can be accounted for in psychological terms by reinforcing memories of the pavlovian association between the cue and the drug, which can thus influence behaviour through at least three psychologically and neurobiologically dissociable mechanisms: conditioned reinforcement, conditioned approach and conditioned motivation. As each of these psychological processes could contribute to the resumption of drug-seeking following abstinence, it is important to develop treatments that can reduce drug-seeking re-established via influences on each or all of these pavlovian processes, in order to minimise the risk of a subsequent relapse. Investigation of the memory reconsolidation mechanisms of the memories underlying conditioned reinforcement, conditioned approach and conditioned motivation indicate that they depend upon different neurochemical systems, including the glutamatergic and adrenergic systems within limbic corticostriatal circuitry. We also discuss here the subsequent translation to the clinic of this preclinical work.

  2. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  3. Psychometric properties of Sternberg love scale | Askarpour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The aim of study was to evaluate the psychometric indices Sternberg love scale on married men and women in Iranian society. Methods: The study type is correlation (factor analysis). In this research factor analysis was used that is an exploratory and confirmatory technique to study the structure of a set of data, ...

  4. Psychometric Analyses of the Birthday Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sun

    2016-01-01

    The present research focuses on the psychometric properties of the Birthday Party measure for ages 3-5. The Birthday Party was developed to provide a reliable, valid, and engaging measure of early mathematical content--Number and Operation, Shape, Space, and Pattern--that can be given in either a short or a long form to English and Spanish…

  5. Emotional Considerations in Spasmodic Dysphonia: Psychometric Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannito, Michael P.

    1991-01-01

    This study examined emotional characteristics of 18 female spasmodic dysphonic subjects in comparison to matched normal controls across psychometric measures of depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. Statistically significant differences were noted between groups for all measures and over half of the dysphonic subjects exhibited clinically…

  6. What Is Embodiment? A Psychometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R.; Schuur, Friederike; Kammers, Marjolein P. M.; Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    What is it like to have a body? The present study takes a psychometric approach to this question. We collected structured introspective reports of the rubber hand illusion, to systematically investigate the structure of bodily self-consciousness. Participants observed a rubber hand that was stroked either synchronously or asynchronously with their…

  7. A psychometric appraisal of the DREEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammond Sean M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM. Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89, subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming's indices shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the

  8. A psychometric appraisal of the DREEM

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hammond, Sean M

    2012-01-12

    Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM). Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89), subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming\\'s indices) shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the device in future

  9. Neurochemical Metabolomics Reveals Disruption to Sphingolipid Metabolism Following Chronic Haloperidol Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Joseph L; Vunck, Sarah A; Batman, Angela M; Crowley, James J; Vann, Robert E; Beardsley, Patrick M; van den Oord, Edwin J

    2015-09-01

    Haloperidol is an effective antipsychotic drug for treatment of schizophrenia, but prolonged use can lead to debilitating side effects. To better understand the effects of long-term administration, we measured global metabolic changes in mouse brain following 3 mg/kg/day haloperidol for 28 days. These conditions lead to movement-related side effects in mice akin to those observed in patients after prolonged use. Brain tissue was collected following microwave tissue fixation to arrest metabolism and extracted metabolites were assessed using both liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (MS). Over 300 unique compounds were identified across MS platforms. Haloperidol was found to be present in all test samples and not in controls, indicating experimental validity. Twenty-one compounds differed significantly between test and control groups at the p < 0.05 level. Top compounds were robust to analytical method, also being identified via partial least squares discriminant analysis. Four compounds (sphinganine, N-acetylornithine, leucine and adenosine diphosphate) survived correction for multiple testing in a non-parametric analysis using false discovery rate threshold < 0.1. Pathway analysis of nominally significant compounds (p < 0.05) revealed significant findings for sphingolipid metabolism (p = 0.015) and protein biosynthesis (p = 0.024). Altered sphingolipid metabolism is suggestive of disruptions to myelin. This interpretation is supported by our observation of elevated N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate in the haloperidol-treated mice (p = 0.004), a marker previously associated with demyelination. This study further demonstrates the utility of murine neurochemical metabolomics as a method to advance understanding of CNS drug effects.

  10. Individual behavioral and neurochemical markers of unadapted decision-making processes in healthy inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaras, Elsa; Callebert, Jacques; Chennaoui, Mounir; Rabat, Arnaud; Granon, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of decision-making processes is the inter-individual variability between healthy subjects. These behavioral patterns could constitute risk factors for the development of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, finding predictive markers of safe or risky decision-making is an important challenge for psychiatry research. We set up a mouse gambling task (MGT)-adapted from the human Iowa gambling task with uncertain contingencies between response and outcome that furthermore enables the emergence of inter-individual differences. Mice (n = 54) were further individually characterized for locomotive, emotional and cognitive behavior. Individual basal rates of monoamines and brain activation after the MGT were assessed in brain regions related to reward, emotion or cognition. In a large healthy mice population, 44 % showed a balanced strategy with limited risk-taking and flexible choices, 29 % showed a safe but rigid strategy, while 27 % adopted risky behavior. Risky mice took also more risks in other apparatus behavioral devices and were less sensitive to reward. No difference existed between groups regarding anxiety, working memory, locomotion and impulsivity. Safe/rigid mice exhibited a hypoactivation of prefrontal subareas, a high level of serotonin in the orbitofrontal cortex combined with a low level of dopamine in the putamen that predicted the emergence of rigid behavior. By contrast, high levels of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenalin in the hippocampus predicted the emergence of more exploratory and risky behaviors. The coping of C57bl/6J mice in MGT enables the determination of extreme patterns of choices either safe/rigid or risky/flexible, related to specific neurochemical and behavioral markers.

  11. Enrichment of MCI and early Alzheimer's disease treatment trials using neurochemical and imaging candidate biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hampel, H

    2012-02-01

    In the earliest clinical stages of Alzheimer\\'s Disease (AD), when symptoms are mild, clinical diagnosis will still be difficult. AD related molecular mechanisms precede symptoms. Biological markers can serve as early diagnostic indicators, as markers of preclinical pathological change, e.g. underlying mechanisms of action (MoA). Hypothesis based candidates are derived from structural and functional neuroimaging as well as from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. Unbiased exploratory approaches e.g. proteome analysis or rater independent fully automated imaging post-processing methods yield novel candidates. Recent progress in the validation of core feasible imaging and neurochemical biomarkers for functions such as early detection, classification, progression and prediction of AD is summarized. Single core feasible biomarkers can already be used to enrich populations at risk for AD and may be further enhanced using distinct combinations. Some biomarkers are currently in the process of implementation as primary or secondary outcome variables into regulatory guideline documents, e.g. regarding phase II in drug development programs as outcome measures in proof of concept or dose finding studies. There are specific biomarkers available depending on the hypothesized mechanism of action of a medicinal product, e.g. impact on the amyloidogenic cascade or on tauhyperphosphorylation. Ongoing large-scale international controlled multi-center trials will provide further validation of selected core feasible imaging and CSF biomarker candidates as outcome measures in early AD for use in phase III clinical efficacy trials. There is a need of rigorous co-development of biological trait- and statemarker candidates facilitated through planned synergistic collaboration between academic, industrial and regulatory partners.

  12. Biochanin-A ameliorates behavioural and neurochemical derangements in cognitive-deficit mice for the betterment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, S M; Joshi, H; Chheda, T K

    2014-04-01

    Biochanin-A (BCA), a potent phytoconstituent, has been previously used as an antitumour, a dopaminergic neuron protective agent, an antioxidant, an anticholinergic and on other pharmacological activities including neuroprotection. The present study was aimed to evaluate the behavioural and neurochemical evidence of BCA in cognitive-deficit mice in scopolamine challenged and natural aged-induced amnesia models in young and aged mice, respectively. BCA has exhibited decrease in the transfer latency and increase in step through latency significantly (p 0.05), BCA 10 mg kg(-1) (p betterment of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Rapid recovery and altered neurochemical dependence of locomotor central pattern generation following lumbar neonatal spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züchner, Mark; Kondratskaya, Elena; Sylte, Camilla B; Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-15

    Spinal compression injury targeted to the neonatal upper lumbar spinal cord, the region of highest hindlimb locomotor rhythmogenicity, leads to an initial paralysis of the hindlimbs. Behavioural recovery is evident within a few days and approaches normal function within about 3 weeks. Fictive locomotion in the isolated injured spinal cord cannot be elicited by a neurochemical cocktail containing NMDA, dopamine and serotonin 1 day post-injury, but can 3 days post-injury as readily as in the uninjured spinal cord. Low frequency coordinated rhythmic activity can be elicited in the isolated uninjured spinal cord by NMDA + dopamine (without serotonin), but not in the isolated injured spinal cord. In both the injured and uninjured spinal cord, eliciting bona fide fictive locomotion requires the additional presence of serotonin. Following incomplete compression injury in the thoracic spinal cord of neonatal mice 1 day after birth (P1), we previously reported that virtually normal hindlimb locomotor function is recovered within about 3 weeks despite substantial permanent thoracic tissue loss. Here, we asked whether similar recovery occurs following lumbar injury that impacts more directly on the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG). As in thoracic injuries, lumbar injuries caused about 90% neuronal loss at the injury site and increased serotonergic innervation below the injury. Motor recovery was slower after lumbar than thoracic injury, but virtually normal function was attained by P25 in both cases. Locomotor CPG status was tested by eliciting fictive locomotion in isolated spinal cords using a widely used neurochemical cocktail (NMDA, dopamine, serotonin). No fictive locomotion could be elicited 1 day post-injury, but could within 3 days post-injury as readily as in age-matched uninjured control spinal cords. Burst patterning and coordination were largely similar in injured and control spinal cords but there were differences. Notably, in both groups there

  14. The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire: a psychometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the pre......The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim...... 0.30 for the 12 and the 22 item scales. All five Mental Vulnerability scales had positively skewed score distributions which were associated significantly with both SCL-90-R symptom scores and NEO-PI-R personality scales (primarily Neuroticism and Extraversion). Coefficient alpha was highest...

  15. The Alliance Negotiation Scale: A psychometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M; Safran, Jeremy D; Muran, J Christopher

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the working alliance concept (Bordin, 1979). The ANS was also intended to improve upon existing measures such as the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1986, 1989) and its short form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989) by expanding the emphasis on negative therapy process. The present study investigates the psychometric validity of the ANS test scores and interpretation-including confirming its original factor structure and evaluating its internal consistency and construct validity. Construct validity was examined through the ANS' convergence and divergence with several existing scales that measure theoretically related constructs. The results bolster and extend previous findings about the psychometric integrity of the ANS, and begin to illuminate the relationship between negotiation and other important variables in psychotherapy research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Nonparametric tests for equality of psychometric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Núñez-Antón, Vicente

    2017-12-07

    Many empirical studies measure psychometric functions (curves describing how observers' performance varies with stimulus magnitude) because these functions capture the effects of experimental conditions. To assess these effects, parametric curves are often fitted to the data and comparisons are carried out by testing for equality of mean parameter estimates across conditions. This approach is parametric and, thus, vulnerable to violations of the implied assumptions. Furthermore, testing for equality of means of parameters may be misleading: Psychometric functions may vary meaningfully across conditions on an observer-by-observer basis with no effect on the mean values of the estimated parameters. Alternative approaches to assess equality of psychometric functions per se are thus needed. This paper compares three nonparametric tests that are applicable in all situations of interest: The existing generalized Mantel-Haenszel test, a generalization of the Berry-Mielke test that was developed here, and a split variant of the generalized Mantel-Haenszel test also developed here. Their statistical properties (accuracy and power) are studied via simulation and the results show that all tests are indistinguishable as to accuracy but they differ non-uniformly as to power. Empirical use of the tests is illustrated via analyses of published data sets and practical recommendations are given. The computer code in MATLAB and R to conduct these tests is available as Electronic Supplemental Material.

  17. Pharmacological, neurochemical, and behavioral profile of JB-788, a new 5-HT1A agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, M; Morisset, S; Cloix, J F; Bizot, J C; Guerin, M; Beneteau, V; Guillaumet, G; Hevor, T K

    2010-09-01

    A novel pyridine derivative, 8-{4-[(6-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-[1,4]dioxino[2,3-b]pyridine-3-ylmethyl)-amino]-butyl}-8-aza-spiro[4.5]decane-7,9-dione hydrochloride, termed JB-788, was designed to selectively target 5-HT(1A) receptors. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of JB-788 was characterized in vitro using radioligands binding tests and in vivo using neurochemical and behavioural experiments. JB-788 bound tightly to human 5-HT(1A) receptor expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells with a K(i) value of 0.8 nM. Its binding affinity is in the same range as that observed for the (+/-)8-OH-DPAT, a reference 5HT(1A) agonist compound. Notably, JB-788 only bound weakly to 5-HT(1B) or 5-HT(2A) receptors and moreover the drug displayed only weak or indetectable binding to muscarinic, alpha(2), beta(1) and beta(2) adrenergic receptors, or dopaminergic D(1) receptors. JB-788 was found to display substantial binding affinity for dopaminergic D(2) receptors and, to a lesser extend to alpha(1) adrenoreceptors. JB-788 dose-dependently decreased forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation in HEK cells expressing human 5-HT(1A), thus acting as a potent 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (E(max.) 75%, EC(50) 3.5 nM). JB-788 did not exhibit any D(2) receptor agonism but progressively inhibited the effects of quinpirole, a D(2) receptor agonist, in the cAMP accumulation test with a K(i) value of 250 nM. JB-788 induced a weak change in cAMP levels in mouse brain but, like some antipsychotics, transiently increased glycogen contents in various brain regions. Behavioral effects were investigated in mice using the elevated plus-maze. JB-788 was found to increase the time duration spent by animals in anxiogenic situations. Locomotor hyperactivity induced by methamphetamine in mouse, a model of antipsychotic activity, was dose-dependently inhibited by JB-788. Altogether, these results suggest that JB-788 displays pharmacological properties, which could be of interest in the area

  18. Attenuation of neurobehavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in animal model of cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease by fermented soybean nanonutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Pathak, Shruti; Kumar, Vikas; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2018-02-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of nanonutraceuticals (NN) for attenuation of neurobehavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease. Solid-state fermentation of soybean with Bacillus subtilis was performed to produce different metabolites (nattokinase, daidzin, genistin and glycitin and menaquinone-7). Intoxication of rats with colchicine caused impairment in learning and memory which was demonstrated in neurobehavioral paradigms (Morris water maze and passive avoidance) linked with decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). NN treatment led to a significant increase in TLT in the retention trials as compared to acquisition trial TLT suggesting an improved learning and memory in rats. Further, treatment of NN caused an increase in the activity of AChE (42%), accompanied with a reduced activity of glutathione (42%), superoxide dismutase (43%) and catalase (41%). It also decreased the level of lipid peroxidation (28%) and protein carbonyl contents (30%) in hippocampus as compared to those treated with colchicine alone, suggesting a possible neuroprotective efficacy of NN. Interestingly, in silico studies also demonstrated an effective amyloid-β and BACE-1 inhibition activity. These findings clearly indicated that NN reversed colchicine-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations through potent antioxidant activity and could possibly impart beneficial effects in cognitive defects associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Voxel Scale Complex Networks of Functional Connectivity in the Rat Brain: Neurochemical State Dependence of Global and Local Topological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Schwarz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis of functional imaging data reveals emergent features of the brain as a function of its topological properties. However, the brain is not a homogeneous network, and the dependence of functional connectivity parameters on neuroanatomical substrate and parcellation scale is a key issue. Moreover, the extent to which these topological properties depend on underlying neurochemical changes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated both global statistical properties and the local, voxel-scale distribution of connectivity parameters of the rat brain. Different neurotransmitter systems were stimulated by pharmacological challenge (d-amphetamine, fluoxetine, and nicotine to discriminate between stimulus-specific functional connectivity and more general features of the rat brain architecture. Although global connectivity parameters were similar, mapping of local connectivity parameters at high spatial resolution revealed strong neuroanatomical dependence of functional connectivity in the rat brain, with clear differentiation between the neocortex and older brain regions. Localized foci of high functional connectivity independent of drug challenge were found in the sensorimotor cortices, consistent with the high neuronal connectivity in these regions. Conversely, the topological properties and node roles in subcortical regions varied with neurochemical state and were dependent on the specific dynamics of the different functional processes elicited.

  20. Neurochemical properties of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to rostral ventromedial medulla in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bin eYin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG modulates nociception via a descending pathway that relays in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM and terminates in the spinal cord. Previous behavioral pharmacology and electrophysiological evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays an important role in descending pain modulation, likely through the PAG-RVM pathway. However, there still lacks detailed information on the distribution of BDNF, activation of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM in the condition of pain, and neurochemical properties of these neurons within the PAG. Through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and immunofluorescent staining, the homogenous distributions of BDNF mRNA and protein were observed in the four subregions of PAG. Both neurons and astrocytes expressed BDNF, but not microglias. By combining retrograde tracing methods and formalin pain model, there were more BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM being activated in the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG than other subregions of PAG. The neurochemical properties of BDNF-containing projection neurons in the vlPAG were investigated. BDNF-containing projection neurons expressed auto receptor Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB in addition to serotonin (5-HT, neurotensin (NT, substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, and parvalbumin (PV but not tyrosine decarboxylase (TH. It is speculated that BDNF released from projection neurons in the vlPAG might participate in the descending pain modulation through enhancing the presynaptic release of other neuroactive substances (NSs in the RVM.

  1. Psychometric testing and Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. van der Merwe

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a cumulative report on the findings of various exploratory research that were done with regard to the practice of psychometric testing in the Eastern Cape. Recent and ongoing developments in the South African labour legislation, and especially the implications of the Employment Equity Act, highlight once again the importance of the validation of all instruments to be used for human assessment and selection purposes. Information was gathered to establish which psychometric tests are used, and for what purposes, in industry today. Biographical information on each organisation is supplied, including the number of employees. The role of psychometric testing in the selection procedure is discussed. The different tests used, as well as the test users, are also indicated. The findings of other, related research, as well as comments, recommendations and shortcomings, are discussed. Opsomming Hierdie is ‘n kumulatiewe verslag wat die resultate verstrek van verskeie verkennende ondersoeke wat gedoen is na die aanwending van psigometriese toetsing in die Oos-Kaap. Onlangse en voortdurende ontwikkelinge in die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidswetgewing, en veral die implikasies van die Wet op Gelyke Indiensneming, beklemtoon weer eens die belangrikheid van die validering van enige instrumente wat gebruik word vir evaluerings- en keuringsdoeleindes van individue. Inligting is ingewin om te bepaal watter psigometriese toetse, sowel as vir watter doel, vandag in die bedryf gebruik word. Biografiese inligting oor die onderskeie organisasies, insluitende hul aantal werknemers, word verstrek. Die rol van psigometriese toetsing in die keuringsproses word bespreek. Die verskillende toetse wat deur die organisasies gebruik word, sowel as die toetsge-bruikers, word ook aangedui. Die bevindinge van ander, relevante navorsing, sowel as opmerkings, aanbevelings en tekortkominge word bespreek.

  2. Investigating Psychometric Isomorphism for Traditional and Performance-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Derek M.; Levy, Roy; Mehta, Vandhana

    2018-01-01

    A common practice in educational assessment is to construct multiple forms of an assessment that consists of tasks with similar psychometric properties. This study utilizes a Bayesian multilevel item response model and descriptive graphical representations to evaluate the psychometric similarity of variations of the same task. These approaches for…

  3. Psychometric Evaluation and Discussions of English Language Learners' Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Daeryong; Taherbhai, Husein; Frantz, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The importance of listening in the context of English language acquisition is gaining acceptance, but its unique attributes in language performance, while substantively and qualitatively justifiable, are generally not psychometrically defined. This article psychometrically supports listening as a distinct domain among the three other domains of…

  4. Four theorems on the psychometric function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Keith A; Solomon, Joshua A

    2013-01-01

    In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, Δx. This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull "slope" parameter, β, can be approximated by β(Noise) x β(Transducer), where β(Noise) is the β of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and β(Transducer) depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for β(Noise) and β(Transducer), from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when d' ∝ (Δx)(b), β ≈ β(Noise) x b. We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4-0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull β reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of β for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is stimulus

  5. Four theorems on the psychometric function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A May

    Full Text Available In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, Δx. This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull "slope" parameter, β, can be approximated by β(Noise x β(Transducer, where β(Noise is the β of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and β(Transducer depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for β(Noise and β(Transducer, from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when d' ∝ (Δx(b, β ≈ β(Noise x b. We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4-0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull β reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of β for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is

  6. Biometrics and Psychometrics: Origins, Commonalities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gower

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the common origins of biometrics and psychometrics at the beginning of the twentieth century, the paper compares and contrasts subsequent developments, informed by the author's 35 years at Rothamsted Experimental Station followed by a period with the data theory group in Leiden and thereafter. Although the methods used by biometricians and psychometricians have much in common, there are important differences arising from the different fields of study. Similar differences arise wherever data are generated and may be regarded as a major driving force in the development of statistical ideas.

  7. 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Bolt, Daniel; Ark, L; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS) builds on the Psychometric Society's mission to share quantitative methods relevant to psychology. The chapters of this volume present cutting-edge work in the field. Topics include studies of item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Additional psychometric topics relate to structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis, among others. The papers in this volume will be especially useful for researchers in the social sciences who use quantitative methods. Prior knowledge of statistical methods is recommended. The 78th annual meeting took place in Arnhem, The Netherlands between July 22nd and 26th, 2013. The previous volume to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting is New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 201...

  8. Manifesto: towards a clinically-oriented psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Chen, Ling Y

    2017-04-26

    New technologies to collect patient - reported outcomes have substantially solved the challenge of integrating a questionnaire in a busy clinical practice. At Memorial Sloan Kettering, we have been collecting patient reported outcomes electronically for many years. Our experience confirms the predicted benefits of obtaining patient reported outcomes but has also raised serious concerns about whether instruments developed for the research setting are appropriate for routine clinical use. We summarize four principles for a clinically - relevant psychometrics. First, minimize patient burden: the use of a large number of items for a single domain may be of interest for research but additional items have little clinical utility. Secondly, use simplified language: patients who do not have good language skills are typically excluded from research studies but will nonetheless present in clinical practice. Third, avoid dumb questions: many questionnaire items are inappropriate when applied to a more general population. Fourth, what works for the group may not work for the individual: group level statistics used to validate survey instruments can obscure problems when applied to a subgroup of patients. There is a need for a clinically-oriented psychometrics to help design, test, and evaluate questionnaires that would be used in routine practice. Developing statistical methods to optimize questionnaires will be highly challenging but needed to bring the potential of patient reported outcomes into widespread clinical use.

  9. The Psychometrics of the Mini-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Brubaker, Michael D; Nedelec, Joseph L

    2017-01-01

    Many published studies have employed the Mini-K to measure a single fast-slow life history dimension. However, the internal structure of the Mini-K has not been determined and it is not clear that a single higher order K-factor fits the data. It is also not clear that the Mini-K is measurement invariant across groups such as the sexes. To establish the construct validity of K as well as the broader usefulness of applying life history theory to humans, it is crucial that these psychometric issues are addressed as a part of measure validation efforts. Here we report on three studies that used latent variable modeling and data drawn from two college student samples ( ns = 361 and 300) to elucidate the psychometrics of the Mini-K. We found that (a) the Mini-K had a six dimensional first-order structure, (b) the K-factor provided a parsimonious explanation of the associations among the lower order factors at no significant cost to fit, (c) the Mini-K measured the same K-factor across the sexes, (d) K-factor means did not have the same meaning across the sexes and thus the first-order factors should be used in studies of mean sex differences, and finally, (e) the K-factor was only associated with environment and aspects of mating competition in females. Implications and future directions for life history research are discussed.

  10. Development of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Kimble, Christopher J; Covey, Daniel P; Blaha, Charles D; Agnesi, Filippo; Mohseni, Pedram; Whitlock, Sidney; Johnson, David M; Horne, April; Bennet, Kevin E; Lee, Kendall H; Garris, Paul A

    2009-10-01

    Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of specific central neuronal systems contributes to the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of targeted regions may therefore advance functional neurosurgery by, among other goals, providing a strategy for investigation of mechanisms, identification of new candidate neurotransmitters, and chemically guided placement of the stimulating electrode. The authors report the development of a device called the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring during functional neurosurgery. This device supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially and chemically resolved neurotransmitter measurements in the brain. The FSCV study consisted of a triangle wave scanned between -0.4 and 1 V at a rate of 300 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages were compared with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single carbon fiber (r = 2.5 mum) into a glass capillary and pulling the capillary to a microscopic tip by using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (that is, the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by approximately 100 microm. The neurotransmitter dopamine was selected as the analyte for most trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow injection and noise analysis, and in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring dopamine release in the striatum following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Direct comparisons were made to a conventional hardwired system. The WINCS, designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, consisted of 4 modules: 1) front-end analog circuit for FSCV (that is, current-to-voltage transducer); 2

  11. Chronic MDMA induces neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adolescent and young adult rats: Down-regulation of apoptotic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; García-Fuster, M Julia

    2015-07-01

    While hippocampus is a brain region particularly susceptible to the effects of MDMA, the cellular and molecular changes induced by MDMA are still to be fully elucidated, being the dosage regimen, the species and the developmental stage under study great variables. This study compared the effects of one and four days of MDMA administration following a binge paradigm (3×5 mg/kg, i.p., every 2 h) on inducing hippocampal neurochemical changes in adolescent (PND 37) and young adult (PND 58) rats. The results showed that chronic MDMA caused hippocampal protein deficits in adolescent and young adult rats at different levels: (1) impaired serotonergic (5-HT2A and 5-HT2C post-synaptic receptors) and GABAergic (GAD2 enzyme) signaling, and (2) decreased structural cytoskeletal neurofilament proteins (NF-H, NF-M and NF-L). Interestingly, these effects were not accompanied by an increase in apoptotic markers. In fact, chronic MDMA inhibited proteins of the apoptotic pathway (i.e., pro-apoptotic FADD, Bax and cytochrome c) leading to an inhibition of cell death markers (i.e., p-JNK1/2, cleavage of PARP-1) and suggesting regulatory mechanisms in response to the neurochemical changes caused by the drug. The data, together with the observed lack of GFAP activation, support the view that chronic MDMA effects, regardless of the rat developmental age, extends beyond neurotransmitter systems to impair other hippocampal structural cell markers. Interestingly, inhibitory changes in proteins from the apoptotic pathway might be taking place to overcome the protein deficits caused by MDMA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  13. Neuro-chemical activation of brain reward meso-limbic circuitry is associated with relapse prevention and drug hunger: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Gold, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    It is no surprise that it has taken over four decades to confirm and extend the crucial role of dopamine and related genes and gene deficits in the etiology of risk for drug dependence. Hundreds of studies, enabled by neuroscience neuroimaging and genetic advances, have been reported. While dopamine theories have been reported, confirmed, replicated and replicated again, changes have been slow to move from the bench to the bedside. Unlike penicillin used to target certain infections, addiction requires the consent, motivation and enthusiastic participation of the patient. Clearly, current treatment has not caught up with advances in the science. In-patient and out-patient treatment still relies on detoxification, abstinence and 12 step programs. Addiction is a chronic and relapsing disease. Addiction treatment can be reported as cures at 3 or 6 weeks, only to be clearly failures at 1 or 5 years. The logical standard of care should focus on detoxifying, stabilizing and returning the patient to the pre-loss of control or pre-addiction neurochemical state. Pre-clinical and clinical data on neurochemistry and neurogenetics of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) as it relates to both relapse and drug hunger has been reviewed. We are proposing herein that efforts to physiologically integrate known neural mechanisms with other psychotherapeutic treatment options to combat relapse should be encouraged. It is well known that after prolonged abstinence, recovered addicts are particularly vulnerable to relapse. Individuals who use their drug of choice after abstinence experience a powerful euphoria that can quickly precipitate a full-blown relapse. While a biological explanation for this conundrum has remained elusive, we hypothesize that this clinically observed "supersensitivity" might be the result of pre-morbid or state genetic hypodopaminergic polymorphisms. We are proposing that recent studies have indicated that genetic, personality and environmental factors are predictors of

  14. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety...... psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life....

  15. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS: psychometric properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Méndez

    Full Text Available This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS, which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82 and temporal stability (r = 0.83 of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  16. Psychometric properties of the Danish MCMI-I translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, E L; Simonsen, E

    1990-01-01

    A translation of the MCMI-I has been in use in Denmark for some years. An untested assumption in the interpretation of the pattern of test results is that the psychometric characteristics of the Danish and American versions are similar. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric...... properties of the questionnaire by using traditional psychometric analysis techniques on the results of a sample consisting of 423 patients and 179 normal controls. Coefficient alpha was calculated for the 20 clinical subscales of the test and the Danish results were strikingly similar to the original...... coefficients reported by Millon. Furthermore, factor analysis of the subscales showed a factor structure very similar to American findings, and it is concluded that the psychometric properties of the Danish MCMI are not significantly different from the original....

  17. 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Bolt, Daniel; Wang, Wen-Chung; Douglas, Jeffrey; Chow, Sy-Miin

    2015-01-01

    These research articles from the 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS) cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis. These methods will appeal, in particular, to researchers in the social sciences. The 79th annual meeting took place in Madison, WI between July 21nd and 25th, 2014. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting are New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 2013) and Quantitative Psychology Research: The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society  (Springer, 2015).

  18. The Psychometric Anatomy of Two Unidimensional Workload Scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, Edward

    2004-01-01

    .... The more specific intent is to encourage reevaluation from a structured psychometric viewpoint. The end goal is to facilitate a uniformly higher standard of measurement quality in unidimensional scaling having complex scale step descriptors...

  19. An antisymmetric psychometric function on a logarithmic scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    This very brief report introduces a psychometric function, very suitable for psychophysical data that displays Weber-like behaviour, because it is antisymmetric on a logarithmic scale. © 2011 a Pion publication.

  20. 80th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Bolt, Daniel; Wang, Wen-Chung; Douglas, Jeffrey; Wiberg, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The research articles in this volume cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis. These methods will appeal, in particular, to researchers in the social sciences. The 80th annual meeting took place in Beijing, China, between the 12th and 16th of July, 2014. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting are New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 2013), Quantitative Psychology Research: The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (Springer, 2015), and Quantitative Psychology Research: The 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Wisconsin, USA, 2014 (Springer, 2015).

  1. 81st Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Wiberg, Marie; Culpepper, Steven; Douglas, Jeffrey; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2017-01-01

    This proceedings volume compiles and expands on selected and peer reviewed presentations given at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS), organized by the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and held in Asheville, North Carolina, July 11th to 17th, 2016. IMPS is one of the largest international meetings focusing on quantitative measurement in psychology, education, and the social sciences, both in terms of participants and number of presentations. The meeting built on the Psychometric Society's mission to share quantitative methods relevant to psychology, addressing a diverse set of psychometric topics including item response theory, factor analysis, structural equation modeling, time series analysis, mediation analysis, cognitive diagnostic models, and multi-level models. Selected presenters were invited to revise and expand their contributions and to have them peer reviewed and published in this proceedings volume. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society�...

  2. A psychometric validation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Bjarne; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, Nete

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS).......The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS)....

  3. Time perspective in hereditary cancer: psychometric properties of a short form of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a community and clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Claire E; Homewood, Judi; Taylor, Alan; Mahmut, Mehmet; Meiser, Bettina

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a 25-item short form of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a community sample (N = 276) and in individuals with a strong family history of cancer, considering genetic testing for cancer risk (N = 338). In the community sample, individuals with high past-negative or present-fatalistic scores had higher levels of distress, as measured by depression, anxiety, and aggression. Similarly, in the patient sample, past-negative time perspective was positively correlated with distress, uncertainty, and postdecision regret when making a decision about genetic testing. Past-negative-oriented individuals were also more likely to be undecided about, or against, genetic testing. Hedonism was associated with being less likely to read the educational materials they received at their clinic, and fatalism was associated with having lower knowledge levels about genetic testing. The assessment of time perspective in individuals at increased risk of cancer can provide valuable clinical insights. However, further investigation of the psychometric properties of the short form of this scale is warranted, as it did not meet the currently accepted criteria for psychometric validation studies.

  4. Transplacental exposure to AZT induces adverse neurochemical and behavioral effects in a mouse model: protection by L-acetylcarnitine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Zuena

    Full Text Available Maternal-fetal HIV-1 transmission can be prevented by administration of AZT, alone or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to pregnant HIV-1-infected women and their newborns. In spite of the benefits deriving from this life-saving prophylactic therapy, there is still considerable uncertainty on the potential long-term adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs on exposed children. Clinical and experimental studies have consistently shown the occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress following prenatal treatment with antiretroviral drugs, and clinical evidence suggests that the developing brain is one of the targets of the toxic action of these compounds possibly resulting in behavioral problems. We intended to verify the effects on brain and behavior of mice exposed during gestation to AZT, the backbone of antiretroviral therapy during human pregnancy. We hypothesized that glutamate, a neurotransmitter involved in excitotoxicity and behavioral plasticity, could be one of the major actors in AZT-induced neurochemical and behavioral alterations. We also assessed the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of L-acetylcarnitine, a compound that improves mitochondrial function and is successfully used to treat antiretroviral-induced polyneuropathy in HIV-1 patients. We found that transplacental exposure to AZT given per os to pregnant mice from day 10 of pregnancy to delivery impaired in the adult offspring spatial learning and memory, enhanced corticosterone release in response to acute stress, increased brain oxidative stress also at birth and markedly reduced expression of mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes and GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors in the hippocampus. Notably, administration during the entire pregnancy of L-acetylcarnitine was effective in preventing/ameliorating the neurochemical, neuroendocrine and behavioral adverse effects induced by AZT in the offspring. The present preclinical findings provide a

  5. Role of Neurochemicals in the Interaction between the Microbiota and the Immune and the Nervous System of the Host Organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleskin, Alexander V; Shenderov, Boris A; Rogovsky, Vladimir S

    2017-09-01

    This work is concerned with the role of evolutionary conserved substances, neurotransmitters, and neurohormones, within the complex framework of the microbial consortium-immune system-nervous system axis in the human or animal organism. Although the operation of each of these systems per se is relatively well understood, their combined effects on the host organism still await further research. Drawing on recent research on host-produced and microbial low-molecular-weight neurochemicals such as biogenic amines, amino acids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), we suggest that these mediators form a part of a universal neurochemical "language." It mediates the whole gamut of harmonious and disharmonious interactions between (a) the intestinal microbial consortium, (b) local and systemic immune cells, and (c) the central and peripheral nervous system. Importantly, the ongoing microbiota-host interactivity is bidirectional. We present evidence that a large number of microbially produced low-molecular-weight compounds are identical or homologous to mediators that are synthesized by immune or nervous cells and, therefore, can bind to the corresponding host receptors. In addition, microbial cells specifically respond to host-produced neuromediators/neurohormones because they have adapted to them during the course of many millions of years of microbiota-host coevolution. We emphasize that the terms "microbiota" and "microbial consortium" are to be used in the broadest sense, so as to include, apart from bacteria, also eukaryotic microorganisms. These are exemplified by the mycobiota whose role in the microbial consortium-immune system-nervous system axis researchers are only beginning to elucidate. In light of the above, it is imperative to reform the current strategies of using probiotic microorganisms and their metabolites for treating and preventing dysbiosis-related diseases. The review demonstrates, in the example of novel probiotics (psychobiotics), that many target

  6. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker responses in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kathrine Eggers; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate...... if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO...... regions, whereas GS activity was positively correlated with PFASs primarily in occipital lobe. Results from the present study support the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in polar bears from East Greenland have exceeded the threshold limits for neurochemical alterations. It is not known whether...

  7. Behavioral and neurochemical responses to 8-OH-DPAT in restrained and unrestrained animals treated with lithium carbonate in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, H.; Haleem, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has been suggested for mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Its ability to increase the gray matter and provision of protection against neuronal death makes it tempting to be marketed as brain food. Moreover it also ameliorates the effects of stress on brain dendrites; however lithium has a narrow therapeutic range. Brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission may mediate the actions of lithium. Preclinical studies have shown that single restraint stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. The present study was designed to investigate a potential role of Lithium in attenuation of stress induced behavioral and neurochemical deficits in rats. Moreover the study also monitored the esponsiveness of pre and post synaptic serotonin 1 A receptor following restraint and administration of lithium carbonate. Pre stress behavioral activities were monitored after 15 and 30 days of consumption of 0.1% lithium carbonate in drinking water while post stress were monitored on day 31. Pre and post synaptic 5-HT -1 A responsiveness was monitored by injecting 0.25mg/ml/kg of 8-OH-DPAT. Although lithium produced hypo activity but attenuated stress induced behavioral deficits. Whole brain neurochemical analysis revealed that its administration increased tryptophan, 5-HT and 5-Hydroindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). 8-OH-DPAT elicited hyperactivity and fore paw treading were enhanced in lithium treated rats. Lithium induced pre synaptic changes together with the super sensitivity of post synaptic receptors may be able to produce antidepressant effect. (author)

  8. Protective effect of gallic acid in experimental model of ketamine-induced psychosis: possible behaviour, biochemical, neurochemical and cellular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monu; Jindal, Deepak Kumar; Dhingra, Mamta Sachdeva; Kumar, Anil; Parle, Milind; Dhingra, Sameer

    2018-04-01

    Gallic acid has been reported to possess a number of psychopharmacological activities. These activities are attributed to the antioxidant potential due to the presence of phenolic moeity. The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of gallic acid in an experimental model of ketamine-induced psychosis in mice. Ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce stereotyped psychotic behavioural symptoms in mice. Behavioural studies (locomotor activity, stereotype behaviour, immobility duration and memory retention) were carried out to investigate the protective of gallic acid on ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms, followed by biochemical and neurochemical changes and cellular alterations in the brain. Chronic treatment with gallic acid for 15 consecutive days significantly attenuated stereotyped behavioural symptoms in mice. Biochemical estimations revealed that gallic acid reduced the lipid peroxidation and restored the total brain proteins. Furthermore, gallic acid remarkably reduced the dopamine levels, AChE activity and inflammatory surge (serum TNF-α), and increased the levels of GABA and increased glutathione in mice. The study revealed that gallic acid could ameliorate psychotic symptoms and biochemical changes in mice, indicating protective effects in psychosis.

  9. Impact of oral supplementation of Glutamate and GABA on memory performance and neurochemical profile in hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Saiqa; Ahmad, Saara; Madiha, Syeda; Khaliq, Saima; Shahzad, Sidrah; Batool, Zehra; Haider, Saida

    2017-05-01

    Glutamate (GLU) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) are essential amino acids (AA) for brain function serving as excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter respectively. Their tablets are available in market for improving gut function and muscle performance. Despite of having a major role during memory formation and processing, effects of these tablets on brain functioning like learning and memory have not been investigated. Therefore, present study is aimed to investigate the effects of orally supplemented GLU and GABA on learning and memory performance and further to monitor related effects of these orally supplemented GLU and GABA on brain levels of these AA. Three groups of rats were supplemented orally with drinking water (control group) or suspension of tablets of GABA and Glutamate, respectively for four weeks. Cognitive performance was determined using behavioral tests (Novel object recognition test, Morris water maze, Passive avoidance test) measuring recognition, spatial reference and aversive memory. Levels of GLU, GABA and acetylcholine (ACh) were estimated in rat hippocampus. Results showed that chronic oral administration of GLU and GABA tablets has a significant impact on brain function and can alter GLU and GABA content in rat hippocampus. Compared to GABA, GLU supplementation specifically enhances memory performance via increasing ACh. Thus, GLU can be suggested as a useful supplement for improving learning and memory performance and neurochemical status of brain and in future could be effective in the treatment of neurological disorders affecting learning and memory performance.

  10. Algorithmic psychometrics and the scalable subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Luke

    2018-04-01

    Recent public controversies, ranging from the 2014 Facebook 'emotional contagion' study to psychographic data profiling by Cambridge Analytica in the 2016 American presidential election, Brexit referendum and elsewhere, signal watershed moments in which the intersecting trajectories of psychology and computer science have become matters of public concern. The entangled history of these two fields grounds the application of applied psychological techniques to digital technologies, and an investment in applying calculability to human subjectivity. Today, a quantifiable psychological subject position has been translated, via 'big data' sets and algorithmic analysis, into a model subject amenable to classification through digital media platforms. I term this position the 'scalable subject', arguing it has been shaped and made legible by algorithmic psychometrics - a broad set of affordances in digital platforms shaped by psychology and the behavioral sciences. In describing the contours of this 'scalable subject', this paper highlights the urgent need for renewed attention from STS scholars on the psy sciences, and on a computational politics attentive to psychology, emotional expression, and sociality via digital media.

  11. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users.

  12. A neurochemical basis for an epigenetic vision of psychiatric disorders (1994-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Alessandro; Grayson, Dennis R

    2011-10-01

    In 1996, Dr. Costa was invited by Prof. Boris Astrachan, Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Illinois at Chicago, to direct the research of the "Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, at the University of Illinois at Chicago." He was asked to develop a seminal research program on psychiatric disorders. Viewed in retrospect, Dr. Costa met and surpassed the challenge, as was usual for him. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms whereby nurture (epigenetic factors) and nature (genetic factors) interact to cause major psychiatric disorders was at the center of Dr. Costa's mission for the last 15 years of his research at the Psychiatric Institute. The challenge for Dr. Costa and his colleagues (Auta, Caruncho, Davis, Grayson, Guidotti, Impagnatiello, Kiedrowski, Larson, Manev, Pappas, Pesold, Pinna, Sharma, Smalheiser, Sugaya, Tueting, Veldic [1-111]) had always been to find new ways to prevent and treat psychiatric disorders with pharmacological agents that failed to have major unwanted side effects. In this list, we have quoted the first authors of the papers pertaining to the field of research highlighted in the title. As you know, Dr. Costa was an eclectic scientist and in his 15 years of studies at UIC, he touched many other aspects of neuroscience research that are not discussed in this overview. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurochemical and behavioral characterization of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 heterozygous mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. González

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD is a severe neuropsychiatric condition affecting 1–3% of the worldwide population. OCD has a strong genetic component, and the SLC1A1 gene that encodes neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 is a strong candidate for this disorder. To evaluate the impact of reduced EAAT3 expression in vivo, we studied male EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type littermate mice using a battery of behavioral paradigms relevant to anxiety (open field test, elevated plus maze and compulsivity (marble burying, as well as locomotor activity induced by amphetamine. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we also determined tissue neurotransmitter levels in cortex, striatum and thalamus—brain areas that are relevant to OCD. Results Compared to wild-type littermates, EAAT3 heterozygous male mice have unaltered baseline anxiety-like, compulsive-like behavior and locomotor activity. Administration of acute amphetamine (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally increased locomotion with no differences across genotypes. Tissue levels of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin did not vary between EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type mice. Conclusions Our results indicate that reduced EAAT3 expression does not impact neurotransmitter content in the corticostriatal circuit nor alter anxiety or compulsive-like behaviors.

  14. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-03-15

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showing direct effects of food allergic immune responses on social behaviour is very limited. In the present study, we show that a food allergic reaction to cow's milk protein, induced shortly after weaning, reduced social behaviour and increased repetitive behaviour in mice. This food allergic reaction increased levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the number of 5-HT positive cells, and decreased levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the intestine. Behavioural changes in food allergic mice were accompanied by reduced dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, neuronal activation (c-Fos expression) was increased in the prefrontal cortex and reduced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus after exposure to a social target. We hypothesize that an intestinal allergic response regulates complex, but critical, neuroimmune interactions, thereby affecting brain circuits involved in social interaction, repetitive behaviour and cognition. Together with a genetic predisposition and multiple environmental factors, these effects of allergic immune activation may exacerbate behavioural abnormalities in patients with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltychev, Mikhail; Mattie, Ryan; McCormick, Zachary; Bärlund, Esa; Laimi, Katri

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in a large cross-sectional cohort of individuals with chronic low back pain by defining its internal consistency, construct structure and validity, and its ability to differentiate between different degrees of functional limitation. A total of 837 consecutive outpatient patients with low back pain were studied. The internal consistency of ODI was assessed by Cronbach's α, construct structure by exploratory factor analysis, construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis, and discrimination was determined by item response theory analysis. The ODI showed good internal consistency (α=0.85). Explanatory factor analysis showed that ODI is a unidimensional test measuring functional level and nothing else. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the standardized regression weights of all ODI items were relatively high, varying from 0.5 to 0.7. The item response theory analysis suggested that eight out of 10 ODI items have a close to perfect ability to measure functional limitations in accordance with the actual severity of disability experienced by the respondents. Discrimination of all the items was high to perfect (1.08-2.01). The test characteristic and test information curves showed that the discriminative ability of the ODI is superior at higher levels of disability. The present data showed that the ODI is an internally consistent, unidimensional scale with overall excellent construct validity and ability to discriminate the severity of functional disability. The analysis suggests that the ODI may better distinguish between the relative degrees of function at above-average disability levels.

  16. A psychometric approach to supervisory competency assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vorster

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using a psychometric approach for assessing supervisory competencies relevant to the mining and refining environment. The competency questionnaire was developed using supervisory roles and registered supervisory unit standards from the United Kingdom (UK, as no registered unit standards exist in South Africa. Twenty-four supervisors from three departments (Production, Engineering and Laboratory were evaluated by 125 raters; besides by themselves, also by their managers, peers, customers and their sub-ordinates. Based on difference scores derived from the Importance and Performance scales, a single factor was extracted with an internal reliability of 0,965. No statistical significant differences were obtained (ANOVA’s, t-test and F-statistics between groups based on biographical variables or between rater groups. The findings and their implications are further discussed. Opsomming Die primêre doel van die studie was om die moontlikheid vir die gebruik van ’n psigometriese benadering tot toesighouerbevoegdheidsbeoordeling, te evalueer. Die bevoegdheidsvraelys is ontwikkel deur gebruik te maak van toesighouersrolle en geregistreerde toesighouerseenheidstandaarde van die Verenigde Koningkryk, as gevolg van ‘n gebrek aan bestaande eenheidstandaarde in Suid-Afrika. Vier-en-twintig toesighouers van drie departemente (Produksie, Ingenieurswese en Laboratorium is deur 125 beoordelaars geëvalueer; buiten deur hulself, ook deur hul bestuurders, kollegas, kliënte en hul ondergeskiktes. ’n Enkele faktor, met ’n betroubaarheid van 0,965, gebaseer op die verskiltellings van die Prestasie- en Belangrikheidskaal, is onttrek. Geen beduidende verskille (ANOVA’s, t-toetse en F-statistiek kon tussen groepe gebaseer op biografiese veranderlikes en die onderskeie beoordelaarsgroepe gevind word nie. Hierdie bevindinge en die implikasies daarvan word verder bespreek.

  17. 'Omic' genetic technologies for herbal medicines in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; Ng, Chee Hong; Schweitzer, Isaac

    2012-04-01

    The field of genetics, which includes the use of 'omic' technologies, is an evolving area of science that has emerging application in phytotherapy. Omic studies include pharmacogenomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Herbal medicines, as monotherapies, or complex formulations such as traditional Chinese herbal prescriptions, may benefit from omic studies, and this new field may be termed 'herbomics'. Applying herbomics in the field of psychiatry may provide answers about which herbal interventions may be effective for individuals, which genetic processes are triggered, and the subsequent neurochemical pathways of activity. The use of proteomic technology can explore the differing epigenetic effects on neurochemical gene expression between individual herbs, isolated constituents and complex formulae. The possibilities of side effects or insufficient response to the herb can also be assessed via pharmacogenomic analysis of polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 liver enzymes or P-glycoprotein. While another novel application of omic technology is for the validation of the concept of synergy in individual herbal extracts and prescriptive formulations. Chronic administration of psychotropic herbal medicines may discover important effects on chromatin remodelling via modification of histone and DNA methylation. This paper focuses on the emerging field of herbomics, and is to our knowledge the first publication to explore this in the area of psychiatry. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Smoking habit and psychometric scores: a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waal-Manning, H J; de Hamel, F A

    1978-09-13

    During the Milton health survey subjects completed a psychometric inventory consisting of the 48 questions of the Middlesex Hospital questionnaire (MHQ) and 26 from the hostility and direction of hostility questionnaire (HDHQ) designed to examine nine psychological dimensions. The 1209 subjects were classified into smoking categories and the scores for each psychometric trait were calculated. Women scored higher than men and heavy smokers scored higher than "never smokers". The psychometric traits and the scores of the four smoking categories after correcting for age and Quetelet's index showed statistically significant differences by analysis of variance in respect of somatic anxiety and depression for both men and women; and free-floating anxiety, phobic anxiety, hysteria, acting out hostility, self criticism and guilt in women. For somatic anxiety the increase in score almost exactly paralleled the increasing quantity of tobacco consumed.

  19. Sex differences in abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenka, M F; Suyama, J A; Bauer, C T; Banks, M L; Negus, S S

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a substrate for dopamine (DA), norepinephrine and serotonin (5HT) transporters that produces greater pharmacological effects on certain endpoints in females than males in both clinical and rodent preclinical studies. To evaluate potential for sex differences in abuse-related MDMA effects, the present study compared MDMA effects on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and on in vivo microdialysis measurements of DA or 5HT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats. For ICSS studies, electrodes were implanted in the medial forebrain bundle and rats trained to press for electrical stimulation over a range of frequencies (56-158Hz, 0.05 log increments) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule, and the potency (0.32-3.2mg/kg, 10min pretreatment) and time course (3.2. mg/kg, 10-180min pretreatment) of MDMA effects were determined. For in vivo microdialysis, rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannulae targeting the NAc, and the time course of MDMA effects (1.0-3.2mg/kg, 0-180min) on DA and 5HT was determined. MDMA produced qualitatively similar effects in both sexes on ICSS (both increases in low ICSS rates maintained by low brain-stimulation frequencies and decreases in high ICSS rates maintained by high brain-stimulation frequencies) and microdialysis (increases in both DA and 5HT). The duration and peak levels of both abuse-related ICSS facilitation and increases in NAc DA were longer in females. MDMA was also more potent to increase 5HT in females. These results provide evidence for heightened sensitivity of females to abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of MDMA in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators modify the abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berro, Laís F; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Howell, Leonard L

    2017-09-01

    GABA A receptor positive allosteric modulators (GABA A receptor modulators) are commonly used for the treatment of insomnia. Nevertheless, the effects of these compounds on psychostimulant-induced sleep impairment are poorly understood. Because GABA A receptor modulators have been shown to decrease the abuse-related effects of psychostimulants, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of temazepam (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg) and eszopiclone (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg), two GABA A receptor modulators, on the behavioral neuropharmacology of methamphetamine in adult rhesus macaques (n = 5). Sleep-like measures and general daytime activity were evaluated with Actiwatch monitors. Methamphetamine self-administration (0.03 mg/kg/inf) was evaluated during morning sessions. Methamphetamine-induced dopamine overflow was assessed through in vivo microdialysis targeting the nucleus accumbens. Nighttime treatment with either temazepam or eszopiclone was ineffective in improving sleep-like measures disrupted by methamphetamine self-administration. Acute pretreatment with a low dose of temazepam before self-administration sessions increased methamphetamine self-administration without affecting normal daytime home-cage activity. At a high dose, acute temazepam pretreatment decreased methamphetamine self-administration and attenuated methamphetamine-induced increases in dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, without decreasing general daytime activity. Acute eszopiclone treatment exerted no effects on methamphetamine intake or drug-induced increases in dopamine. Our study suggests that treatments based on GABA A receptor modulators are not effective for the treatment of sleep disruption in the context of psychostimulant use. In addition, distinct GABA A receptor modulators differentially modulated the abuse-related effects of methamphetamine, with acute treatment with the high efficacy GABA A receptor modulator temazepam decreasing the behavioral and neurochemical effects

  1. Neurochemical and Neuroanatomical Plasticity Following Memory Training and Yoga Interventions in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation, in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS. Senior participants (age ≥ 55 years with MCI were randomized to the MET or yogic meditation interventions. For both interventions, participants completed either MET training or Kundalini yoga for 60-min sessions over 12 weeks, with 12-min daily homework assignments. Gray matter volume and metabolite concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and bilateral hippocampus were measured by structural MRI and 1H-MRS at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Metabolites measured included glutamate-glutamine (Glx, choline-containing compounds (Cho, including glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, and N-acetyl aspartate and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate (NAA-NAAG. In total, 11 participants completed MET and 14 completed yogic meditation for this study. Structural MRI analysis showed an interaction between time and group in dACC, indicating a trend towards increased gray matter volume after the MET intervention. 1H-MRS analysis showed an interaction between time and group in choline-containing compounds in bilateral hippocampus, induced by significant decreases after the MET intervention. Though preliminary, our results suggest that memory training induces structural and neurochemical plasticity in seniors with mild cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to determine whether mind-body interventions like yoga yield similar neuroplastic changes.

  2. A detailed analysis of open-field habituation and behavioral and neurochemical antidepressant-like effects in postweaning enriched rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Juan C; Padilla, Michael; Fornaguera, Jaime

    2009-01-30

    Our previous work has shown that male Sprague-Dawley rats reared in social isolation, standard housing and environmental enrichment differ in their spontaneous open-field activity and in some neurobehavioral depressive-like parameters. Here, we extended this evidence by using a shorter postweaning rearing period (1 month) and including additional evaluations. First, in order to obtain a better characterization of the exploratory strategies among rearing conditions we analyzed in detail the spontaneous activity at the first minute and during the 10-min session. Second, we asked whether the changes in open-field activity were related with basal anxiety levels in the elevated plus-maze. Third, behavior in the forced-swimming test was analyzed and afterward, the tissue levels of hippocampal norepinephrine and serotonin were assessed. The possible relationship between neurotransmitters and forced-swimming behavior were explored through correlation analyses. We found that rearing conditions (i) differed on locomotor habituation and on sensory-motor exploration at the first minute and during the 10-min session without modifying the plus-maze behavior; (ii) affected differentially the grooming time, its sequential components, and the relationship between grooming and locomotor parameters; (iii) modified forced-swimming behavior and the hippocampal concentration of norepinephrine, serotonin, and its turnover; and (iv) produced different correlation patterns between both neurotransmitters and forced-swimming behaviors. Overall, environmental enrichment accelerated open-field habituation and led to behavioral and neurochemical antidepressant-like effects. In contract, isolation rearing strongly impaired habituation and simple information processing, but showed marginal effects on depressive-like behavior and on hippocampal neurochemistry. The current results suggest that differential rearing is not only a useful procedure to study behavioral plasticity or rigidity in response

  3. Neurochemical and Neuroanatomical Plasticity Following Memory Training and Yoga Interventions in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyu; Leaver, Amber M; Siddarth, Prabha; Paholpak, Pattharee; Ercoli, Linda; St Cyr, Natalie M; Eyre, Harris A; Narr, Katherine L; Khalsa, Dharma S; Lavretsky, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Senior participants (age ≥55 years) with MCI were randomized to the MET or yogic meditation interventions. For both interventions, participants completed either MET training or Kundalini Yoga (KY) for 60-min sessions over 12 weeks, with 12-min daily homework assignments. Gray matter volume and metabolite concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and bilateral hippocampus were measured by structural MRI and 1 H-MRS at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Metabolites measured included glutamate-glutamine (Glx), choline-containing compounds (Cho, including glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and N-acetyl aspartate and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate (NAA-NAAG). In total, 11 participants completed MET and 14 completed yogic meditation for this study. Structural MRI analysis showed an interaction between time and group in dACC, indicating a trend towards increased gray matter volume after the MET intervention. 1 H-MRS analysis showed an interaction between time and group in choline-containing compounds in bilateral hippocampus, induced by significant decreases after the MET intervention. Though preliminary, our results suggest that memory training induces structural and neurochemical plasticity in seniors with MCI. Further research is needed to determine whether mind-body interventions like yoga yield similar neuroplastic changes.

  4. Neurochemical differences in learning and memory paradigms among rats supplemented with anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets and exposed to acute doses of 56Fe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Bielinski, Donna F.; Kelly, Megan E.; Miller, Marshall G.; Thanthaeng, Nopporn; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to "accelerated aging." One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as 56Fe, within 24-48 h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning. Importantly, we observed that specific brain regions failed to upregulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in response to this insult. To further examine these endogenous response mechanisms, we have supplemented young rats with diets rich in BB, which are known to contain high amounts of antioxidant-phytochemicals, prior to irradiation. Exposure to 56Fe caused significant neurochemical changes in hippocampus and frontal cortex, the two critical regions of the brain involved in cognitive function. BB supplementation significantly attenuated protein carbonylation, which was significantly increased by exposure to 56Fe in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, BB supplementation significantly reduced radiation-induced elevations in NADPH-oxidoreductase-2 (NOX2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall results indicate that 56Fe particles may induce their toxic effects on hippocampus and frontal cortex by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overload, which can cause alterations in the neuronal environment, eventually leading to hippocampal neuronal death and subsequent impairment of cognitive function. Blueberry supplementation provides an effective preventative measure to reduce the ROS load on the CNS in an event of acute HZE exposure.

  5. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  6. Normalization of the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To construct normal values for the tests of the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) and evaluate the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) among Turkish patients with liver cirrhosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-five healthy subjects and sixty patients with liver ...

  7. Psychometric Profile of an Experimental Emergent Literacy Screener for Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailet, Laura L.; Zettler-Greeley, Cynthia; Lewis, Kandia

    2018-01-01

    Home literacy activities influence children's emergent literacy progress and readiness for reading instruction. To help parents fulfill this opportunity, we developed a new Emergent Literacy Screener (ELS) and conducted 2 studies of its psychometric properties with independent prekindergarten samples. For Study 1 (n = 812, M[subscript age] = 54.4…

  8. Computational Psychometrics for the Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Stephen T.; von Davier, Alina A.; Peterschmidt, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD) and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses. PMID:29238314

  9. Counselor Competence, Performance Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Using Psychometric Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…

  10. Development and Initial Psychometrics of Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahram; Park, Eun Hye; Byeon, Eunji; Lee, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire, designed to assess the specific behaviors of supervisors, which can be observed by supervisees during supervision sessions. Factor structure, construct and concurrent validity, and internal consistency reliability of the…

  11. The Drug Effects Questionnaire: Psychometric Support across Three Drug Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E.; de Wit, Harriet; King, Andrea C.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Rueger, Sandra Y.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ) is widely used in studies of acute subjective response (SR) to a variety of substances, but the format of the DEQ varies widely across studies, and details of its psychometric properties are lacking. Thus, the field would benefit from demonstrating the reliability and validity of the DEQ for use across multiple substances. Objective The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of several variations of DEQ items, which assessed the extent to which participants (1) feel any substance effect(s), (2) feel high, (3) like the effects, (4) dislike the effects, and (5) want more of the substance using 100mm Visual Analog Scales. Methods DEQ data from three placebo-controlled studies were analyzed to examine SR to amphetamine, nicotine, and alcohol. We evaluated the internal structure of the DEQ for use with each substance as well as relationships between scale items, measures of similar constructs, and substance-related behaviors. Results Results provided preliminary psychometric support for items assessing each DEQ construct (FEEL, HIGH, DISLIKE, LIKE, and MORE). Conclusions Based on the study results, we identify several common limitations of extant variants of the DEQ and recommend an improved version of the measure. The simplicity and brevity of the DEQ combined with its promising psychometric properties support its use in future SR research across a variety of substances. PMID:23271193

  12. Linguistic Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of Tamil Version ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oral health has an impact on quality of life hence for research purpose validation of a Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index would enable it to be used as a valuable tool among Tamil speaking population. Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess the psychometric properties of translated Tamil ...

  13. Computational Psychometrics for the Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. Polyak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale in Polio Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Helena; Franchignoni, Franco; Puzic, Natasa; Giordano, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate by means of classical test theory and Rasch analysis the scaling characteristics and psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in polio survivors. A questionnaire, consisting of five general questions (sex, age, age at time of acute polio, sequelae of polio, and new symptoms), the FSS,…

  15. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Homophobic Bullying Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…

  16. On the Psychometric Study of Human Life History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Sanning, Blair K; Lai, Mark H C; Copping, Lee T; Hardesty, Patrick H; Kruger, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS), provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a) use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b) confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c) establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested-there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.

  17. Evaluating Psychometric Characteristics of Detection Protocol of Malingering Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsia Thaghva

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion According to the results, the detection protocol of malingering stuttering is of good internal consistency and concurrent validity. However, considering that the sample population was not large in the present study, it can be said that this study is a preliminary evaluation to find the psychometric features of the instruments, with the aim of laying the groundwork for further studies.

  18. Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…

  19. The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R. Lindsey; Keller, Melody L.; Piacentini, John; Bergman, Andrea J.

    2008-01-01

    Research on selective mutism (SM) has been limited by the absence of standardized, psychometrically sound assessment measures. The purpose of our investigation was to present two studies that examined the factor structure and initial reliability and validity of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), a 17-item parent report measure of failure to…

  20. Improving the psychometric properties of the Mooney problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to examine the psychometric characteristics of Mooney Problem Checklist (MPCL) items using the Rasch measurement model framework in the context of polytechnics. The MPCL with eleven dimensions was administered to 252 respondents who were selected from seven polytechnic institutions in Malaysia ...

  1. Psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) in Nairobi public secondary school children, Kenya. Method: Concurrent self-administration of the MASC and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) to students in Nairobi public secondary schools. Results: The MASC ...

  2. Psychometric Assessment and Reporting Practices: Incongruence between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaney, Kathleen L.; Tkatchouk, Masha; Gabriel, Stephanie M.; Maraun, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the current study is twofold: (a) to investigate the rates at which researchers assess and report on the psychometric properties of the measures they use in their research and (b) to examine whether or not researchers appear to be generally employing sound/unsound rationales when it comes to how they conduct test evaluations. Based on a…

  3. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L.; Sullivan, Philip J.; Gabriel, David A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale (SPES) developed by Gammage, Hall, and Martin Ginis (2004). University students (196 men and 269 women) completed the SPES and measures of social physique anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and physical activity. Participants also completed the SPES a…

  4. Psychometric Characteristics of a Vocational Preference Inventory Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Rodney L.; Schurman, Susan J.

    1982-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a revised version of Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory were assessed using federal government employees. Factor analyses, interscale correlations, measures of internal consistency, and criterion group profiles are presented. Evidence was supportive of the validity of the revised form. (Author/BW)

  5. The Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire (SSQ): Psychometrics, validation and norms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the psychometric properties (reliability and factor structure) and validity (relationship with various self-report measures and SPEM dysfunction) of the SSQ or Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire, a 108-item inventory for the measurement of 12 prodromal or schizotypic symptoms

  6. On the Psychometric Study of Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS, provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested—there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.

  7. Disruptive Finance : Using Psychometrics to Overcome Collateral Constraints in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Alibhai, Salman; Buehren, Niklas; Coleman, Rachel; Goldstein, Markus; Strobbe, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    This case study tells the story of the evolution of psychometric credit scoring as an innovative solution in a World Bank operation, from its humble beginnings as a small pilot in Ethiopia, to the current movement to replicate its use for similar challenges in countries across the continent in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, and beyond. Fintech is commonly defined as an industry composed ...

  8. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  9. Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version Perceived Stress Scale in Two Occupational Settings In Malaysia. ... Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for the social sciences version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Analysis yielded two factor structure of the Malay version ...

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of the Malay Satisfaction with Life Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is one of the most widely used scales for the measurement of subjective well-being across the globe, but no satisfactory version exists for use among Malay-speaking populations. The present study reports on the translation of a new Malay SWLS and examines its psychometric properties in a community sample of…

  11. A Psychometric Evaluation of Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carrie H.; Betz, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric evaluation of Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised (SWVI-R), an instrument comprised of 12 scales measuring the relative importance placed on the following work-related value dimensions: Achievement, Coworkers, Creativity, Income, Independence, Lifestyle, Mental Challenge, Prestige, Security, Supervision,…

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Teachers' Attitude toward Inclusion Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Jeremy J.; Ewing, Donna L.; Boyle, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the psychometric properties of a questionnaire measure that updates and extends Larrivee and Cook's (1979) Opinions Relative to Mainstreaming Scale in terms of structure, terminology, and language. The revised scale was tested using a sample of 106 teachers based in inclusive mainstream schools. Using Principal Component…

  13. Linguistic Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of Tamil Version ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of a Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index would enable it to be used as a valuable ... psychometric properties, so that it can be used as an efficient tool in identifying the impact of oral ... affects a person physically and psychologically thereby .... questions 3, 5, and 7 were negatively rephrased and choices.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Preschool Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Marks, David J.; Policaro, Katia L.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Preschool Revision (APQ-PR) were explored in a sample of hyperactive-inattentive preschool children (N = 47) and nonimpaired controls (N = 113). A subset of parents completed the questionnaire on 2 occasions, approximately 1 year apart. Factor analysis revealed a 3-factor solution,…

  15. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  16. Developing and psychometric of an instrument for reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Due to the socio-cultural characteristics of Iranian adult men and lack of standardized questionnaires to assess their reproductive health associated with sexually transmitted diseases and HIV / AIDS, this study is done with the goal of development and psychometrics of a valid relevant instrument. Method: A ...

  17. Psychometric Properties of Maze Tasks in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Tammy D.; Barth, Amy E.; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Maze tasks have appealing properties as progress-monitoring tools, but there is a need for a thorough examination of the psychometric properties of Maze tasks among middle school students. We evaluated form effects, reliability, validity, and practice effects of Maze among students in Grades 6 through 8. We administered the same (familiar) and…

  18. Computational Psychometrics for the Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Stephen T; von Davier, Alina A; Peterschmidt, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD) and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses.

  19. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System-based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J; Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Kimble, Christopher J; Sieck, Gary C; Bennet, Kevin E; Garris, Paul A; Blaha, Charles D; Lee, Kendall H

    2009-10-01

    WINCS, which is designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, successfully measured dopamine, glutamate, and adenosine, both in vitro and in vivo. The WINCS detected striatal dopamine release at the implanted CFM during DBS of the MFB. The DBS-evoked adenosine release in the rat thalamus and MCS-evoked glutamate release in the pig cortex were also successfully measured. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated signals comparable to a commercial hardwired electrochemical system for FPA. By incorporating FPA, the chemical repertoire of WINCS-measurable neurotransmitters is expanded to include glutamate and other nonelectroactive species for which the evolving field of enzyme-linked biosensors exists. Because many neurotransmitters are not electrochemically active, FPA in combination with enzyme-linked microelectrodes represents a powerful intraoperative tool for rapid and selective neurochemical sampling in important anatomical targets during functional neurosurgery.

  20. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System–based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Sieck, Gary C.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2009-01-01

    model, the pig. Results The WINCS, which is designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, successfully measured dopamine, glutamate, and adenosine, both in vitro and in vivo. The WINCS detected striatal dopamine release at the implanted CFM during DBS of the MFB. The DBS-evoked adenosine release in the rat thalamus and MCS-evoked glutamate release in the pig cortex were also successfully measured. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated signals comparable to a commercial hardwired electrochemical system for FPA. Conclusions By incorporating FPA, the chemical repertoire of WINCS-measurable neurotransmitters is expanded to include glutamate and other nonelectroactive species for which the evolving field of enzyme-linked biosensors exists. Because many neurotransmitters are not electrochemically active, FPA in combination with enzyme-linked microelectrodes represents a powerful intraoperative tool for rapid and selective neurochemical sampling in important anatomical targets during functional neurosurgery. PMID:19425899

  1. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  2. Genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the number of genetic tests performed more than tripled, and public concern about genetic privacy emerged. The majority of states and the U.S. government have passed regulations protecting genetic information. However, research has shown that concerns about genetic privacy are disproportionate to known instances of information misuse. Beliefs in genetic determinacy explain some of the heightened concern about genetic privacy. Discussion of the debate over genetic testing within families illustrates the most recent response to genetic privacy concerns.

  3. Dysregulation of Brain Reward Systems in Eating Disorders: Neurochemical Information from Animal Models of Binge Eating, Bulimia Nervosa, and Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M.; Bocarsly, Miriam E.

    2012-01-01

    Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie the causes or consequences of aberrant eating behaviors. This review focuses on neurochemical evidence of reward-related brain dysfunctions obtained through animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa. The findings suggest that alterations in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh) and opioid systems in reward-related brain areas occur in response to binge eating of palatable foods. Moreover, animal models of bulimia nervosa suggest that while bingeing on palatable food releases DA, purging attenuates the release of ACh that might otherwise signal satiety. Animal models of anorexia nervosa suggest that restricted access to food enhances the reinforcing effects of DA when the animal does eat. The activity-based anorexia model suggests alterations in mesolimbic DA and serotonin occur as a result of starvation coupled with excessive wheel running. These findings with animal models complement data obtained through neuroimaging and pharmacotherapy studies of clinical populations. Finally, information on the neurochemical consequences of the behaviors associated with these eating disorders will be useful in understanding these complex disorders and may inform future therapeutic approaches, as discussed here. PMID:22138162

  4. Dysregulation of brain reward systems in eating disorders: neurochemical information from animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E

    2012-07-01

    Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie the causes or consequences of aberrant eating behaviors. This review focuses on neurochemical evidence of reward-related brain dysfunctions obtained through animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa. The findings suggest that alterations in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh) and opioid systems in reward-related brain areas occur in response to binge eating of palatable foods. Moreover, animal models of bulimia nervosa suggest that while bingeing on palatable food releases DA, purging attenuates the release of ACh that might otherwise signal satiety. Animal models of anorexia nervosa suggest that restricted access to food enhances the reinforcing effects of DA when the animal does eat. The activity-based anorexia model suggests alterations in mesolimbic DA and serotonin occur as a result of restricted eating coupled with excessive wheel running. These findings with animal models complement data obtained through neuroimaging and pharmacotherapy studies of clinical populations. Information on the neurochemical consequences of the behaviors associated with these eating disorders will be useful in understanding these complex disorders and may inform future therapeutic approaches, as discussed here. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central Control of Food Intake'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A psychometric evaluation of the digital logic concept inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

    2014-10-01

    Concept inventories hold tremendous promise for promoting the rigorous evaluation of teaching methods that might remedy common student misconceptions and promote deep learning. The measurements from concept inventories can be trusted only if the concept inventories are evaluated both by expert feedback and statistical scrutiny (psychometric evaluation). Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory provide two psychometric frameworks for evaluating the quality of assessment tools. We discuss how these theories can be applied to assessment tools generally and then apply them to the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI). We demonstrate that the DLCI is sufficiently reliable for research purposes when used in its entirety and as a post-course assessment of students' conceptual understanding of digital logic. The DLCI can also discriminate between students across a wide range of ability levels, providing the most information about weaker students' ability levels.

  6. QuickEval: a web application for psychometric scaling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ngo, Khai; Storvik, Jehans J.; Dokkeberg, Christopher A.; Farup, Ivar; Pedersen, Marius

    2015-01-01

    QuickEval is a web application for carrying out psychometric scaling experiments. It offers the possibility of running controlled experiments in a laboratory, or large scale experiment over the web for people all over the world. It is a unique one of a kind web application, and it is a software needed in the image quality field. It is also, to the best of knowledge, the first software that supports the three most common scaling methods; paired comparison, rank order, and category judgement. It is also the first software to support rank order. Hopefully, a side effect of this newly created software is that it will lower the threshold to perform psychometric experiments, improve the quality of the experiments being carried out, make it easier to reproduce experiments, and increase research on image quality both in academia and industry. The web application is available at www.colourlab.no/quickeval.

  7. Clinimetrics and clinical psychometrics: macro- and micro-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Elena; Bech, Per

    2012-01-01

    Clinimetrics was introduced three decades ago to specify the domain of clinical markers in clinical medicine (indexes or rating scales). In this perspective, clinical validity is the platform for selecting the various indexes or rating scales (macro-analysis). Psychometric validation of these indexes or rating scales is the measuring aspect (micro-analysis). Clinical judgment analysis by experienced psychiatrists is included in the macro-analysis and the item response theory models are especially preferred in the micro-analysis when using the total score as a sufficient statistic. Clinical assessment tools covering severity of illness scales, prognostic measures, issues of co-morbidity, longitudinal assessments, recovery, stressors, lifestyle, psychological well-being, and illness behavior have been identified. The constructive dialogue in clinimetrics between clinical judgment and psychometric validation procedures is outlined for generating developments of clinical practice in psychiatry. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Motor assessment instruments and psychometric procedures: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmella de Medeiros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It was our objective to identify the psychometric elements to an epistemological reflection through a systematic review of cross-cultural validation procedures of TGMD-2 batteries, MABC-2 and KTK. Searches were carried out by two evaluators independently without year and language restrictions in six databases: Web of Science, Science Direct, Lilacs, Scopus, Pubmed and The ScientificElectronic Library Online - SciELO. The key words used were: "MABC", "TGMD" and "KTK" all of them combined with the word "validity". There was a total of 734 articles, of which, after the exclusion criteria, remained only 11 studies. It was found that there are differences between the authors in relation to the psychometric factors taken into account in cross-cultural validation. So that there was a lack of unanimity of the validation criteria of all studies in this field.

  9. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S

    2015-01-01

    . Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory.......We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non...

  10. Psychometric properties of the Thai Spiritual Well-Being Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiviboontham, Suchira; Phinitkhajorndech, Noppawan; Hanucharurnkul, Somchit; Noipiang, Thaniya

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the modified Thai Spiritual Well-Being Scale in patients with advanced cancer. This cross-sectional study was employed to investigate psychometric properties. Some 196 participants from three tertiary hospitals in Bangkok and suburban Thailand were asked to complete a Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ), The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Validity was determined by known-group, concurrent, and constructs validity. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency by Cronbach's α coefficients. Three factors were extracted: so-called existential well-being, religious well-being, and peacefulness accounted for 71.44% of total variance. The Cronbach's α coefficients for total SWB, EWB, RWB, and peacefulness were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively. These findings indicate that the Thai SWBS is a valid and reliable instrument, and it presented one more factor than the original version.

  11. Psychometric properties of a pictorial scale measuring correct condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Wang, Bo

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the psychometric properties of a pictorial scale of correct condom use (PSCCU) using data from female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The psychometric properties assessed in this study include construct validity by correlations and known-group validation. The study sample included 396 FSWs in Guangxi, China. The results demonstrate adequate validity of the PSCCU among the study population. FSWs with a higher level of education scored significantly higher on the PSCCU than those with a lower level of education. FSWs who self-reported appropriate condom use with stable partners scored significantly higher on PSCCU than their counterparts. The PSCCU should provide HIV/STI prevention researchers and practitioners with a valid alternative assessment tool among high-risk populations, especially in resource-limited settings.

  12. My Vocational Situation (MVS): Case Example and Psychometric Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, Kristian P; Pedersen, Jessica; Miliotto, Alexandra; Petersen, Brett; Robbins, Samantha; Garcia, Ana; Hoisington, Molly Ansel; The, Kimberly J; Smiley, Jill; Janikowski, Timothy

    This case report provides an overview of the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the My Vocational Situation (MVS) instrument. The accompanying hypothetical case description illustrates how clinicians could use the MVS to evaluate vocational preferences and outcomes and how the MVS can be used to inform treatment planning and rehabilitation decision making. The information contained in this report is intended to familiarize clinicians with the administration and scoring of the MVS, the psychometric information necessary to interpret results obtained from the MVS, and how the results could be used to provide comprehensive, patient-centered care. It is important to note that the information provided represents only a sample of the available research literature on the MVS. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  13. Measuring Orthorexia Nervosa: Psychometric Limitations of the ORTO-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, María; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Perpiñá, Conxa

    2017-09-20

    Orthorexia nervosa has recently been defined as excessive preoccupation with healthy eating, causing significant nutritional deficiencies and social and personal impairments. The ORTO-15 is the most widely used instrument to evaluate orthorexia nervosa, although previous studies obtained inconsistent results about its psychometric properties, and there are no data on the Spanish version. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation of the ORTO-15. In order to cross-validate the results, two independent samples were used (Sample 1: n = 807, 74.1% women; Sample 2: n = 242, 63.2% women). The results did not support the original recoding and reversal of the items; thus, the original scores were maintained. The analysis of the internal structure showed that the best interpretable solution was unidimensional, and due to low loadings, four items were removed. The internal consistency (α = .74) and temporal stability (r = .92; p orthorexia nervosa.

  14. Psychometric evaluation of the Social Interaction Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Alison R; Carleton, R Nicholas; Weeks, Justin W

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the psychometric properties of a novel measure of social anxiety symptoms, the Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS), as a stand-alone item set, using an undergraduate sample (N=512). The 14-item SIPS has three subscales assessing Social Interaction Anxiety, Fear of Overt Evaluation, and Fear of Attracting Attention. Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the three-factor structure for the SIPS originally reported by Carleton et al. All SIPS scores demonstrated good internal consistency. The convergent validity of the SIPS was supported by strong and positive correlations between all SIPS scores and measures of social anxiety and fear of evaluation; the finding that the relationships between all SIPS scores and a social anxiety measure were stronger than relationships between all SIPS scores and measures of other constructs supported the discriminant validity of the SIPS. Results suggest that the SIPS possesses excellent psychometric properties.

  15. Analysis of the Psychometric Properties of a Parental Alienation Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Inez Cunha Gomide

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of forensic evaluation scales is fundamental. This study's purpose was to explore the psychometric properties of a parental alienation scale. Forensic technicians completed 193 scales concerning parents involved in a lawsuit: 48 families with at least one parent indicated as the alienator (group A and 48 families with no parental alienation claim (group B. The scale consisted of five categories and 69 items: denying access to the child; derogatory comparisons; emotional manipulation; behavior of parent and child during assessment. The results show Cronbach's alpha = .965 and split-half = .745; KMO = .884 and Bartlett's sphericity test ( p < .001. Concurrent criterion validity applied to data showed that the scale is able to distinguish between the alienator and target parent. The results showed significant and consistent standards in the instrument's psychometric characteristics.

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the shortened resilience scale among Alzheimer's caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the shortened Resilience Scale (15-item version RS15) among a sample of Alzheimer's caregivers. Self-reported data were collected from 229 participants at 2 Alzheimer's caregiver conferences. RS15 principal axis factoring indicated a single-dimensional solution with all items loaded. Reliability was strong. Convergent validity for the RS15 was suggested through its correlations with stress, family support, and friend support. Odds ratios showed significant likelihoods of high resilience given low stress and high social support. The results confirmed the RS15 to be a psychometrically sound measure that can be used to appraise the efficacy of adaptability among Alzheimer's caregivers.

  17. The Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire: Development and psychometric properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Caselli, G; Fernie, B; Canfora, F; Mascolo, C; Ferrari, A; Antonioni, M; Giustina, L; Donato, G; Marcotriggiani, A; Bertani, A; Altieri, A; Pellegrini, E; Spada, MM

    2018-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about gambling. We conducted three studies with one community (n = 165) and two clinical (n = 110; n = 87) samples to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire and examined its capacity to prospectively predict severity of gambling. Findings sup...

  18. Modern psychometrics for assessing achievement goal orientation: a Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Krista R; Winne, Philip H; Edwards, Ordene V

    2009-09-01

    A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire (AGQ, Elliot & McGregor, 2001) and the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS, Midgley et al., 2000) to provide an in-depth analysis of the two most popular instruments in educational psychology. For Study 1, 217 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty-four were male and 181 were female (two did not respond). Participants completed the AGQ in the context of their educational psychology class. For Study 2, 126 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty were male and 95 were female (one did not respond). Participants completed the PALS in the context of their educational psychology class. Traditional psychometric assessments of the AGQ and PALS replicated previous studies. For both, reliability estimates ranged from good to very good for raw subscale scores and fit for the models of goal orientations were good. Based on traditional psychometrics, the AGQ and PALS are valid and reliable indicators of achievement goals. Rasch analyses revealed that estimates of reliability for items were very good but respondent ability estimates varied from poor to good for both the AGQ and PALS. These findings indicate that items validly and reliably reflect a group's aggregate goal orientation, but using either instrument to characterize an individual's goal orientation is hazardous.

  19. Psychometric characteristics of The Self-Perception Profile for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Dolenc

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Slovene version of the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985). Results on a sample of 480 students showed that the Slovene version of the questionnaire had construct validity and reliability comparable of those found in the original version. Although the scale represents a useful instrument to ascertain self-concept in school settings, it requires further examination and some improvements of its metri...

  20. Psychometric characteristics of The Self-Perception Profile for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Slovene version of the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985. Results on a sample of 480 students showed that the Slovene version of the questionnaire had construct validity and reliability comparable of those found in the original version. Although the scale represents a useful instrument to ascertain self-concept in school settings, it requires further examination and some improvements of its metric characteristics.

  1. Psychometric Assessment of Stereoscopic Head-Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2015 - Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF STEREOSCOPIC HEAD- MOUNTED DISPLAYS...to render an immersive three-dimensional constructive environment. The purpose of this effort was to quantify the impact of aircrew vision on an...simulated tasks requiring precise depth discrimination. This work will provide an example validation method for future stereoscopic virtual immersive

  2. Psychometric properties and clinical usefulness of the Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianin, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Outcome measures with good reliability, validity, responsiveness, and low burden of administration are clinically useful. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most commonly used outcome measures for individuals with low back pain. Psychometric properties of the ODI will determine the questionnaire's suitability as a useful clinical tool. A literature search of relevant databases on psychometric evaluation of the ODI was performed. The search was done using the key words disability evaluation, and low back pain, and questionnaires, and reproducibility of results, and the term Oswestry. Inclusion criterion was direct reference regarding psychometric property, interpretability, and burden being included in the abstract. Eight articles met the inclusion criterion. The ODI shows good construct validity; internal consistency is rated as acceptable; test-retest reliability and responsiveness have been shown to be high; and burden of administration is low. The ODI is a valid, reliable, and responsive condition-specific assessment tool that is suited for use in clinical practice. It is easy to administer and score, objectifies clients' complaints, and monitors effects of therapy.

  3. A Psychometric Review of Measures Assessing Discrimination Against Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G; Bishop, C J; Morrison, Melanie A; Parker-Taneo, Kandice

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination against sexual minorities is widespread and has deleterious consequences on victims' psychological and physical wellbeing. However, a review of the psychometric properties of instruments measuring lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) discrimination has not been conducted. The results of this review, which involved evaluating 162 articles, reveal that most have suboptimal psychometric properties. Specifically, myriad scales possess questionable content validity as (1) items are not created in collaboration with sexual minorities; (2) measures possess a small number of items and, thus, may not sufficiently represent the domain of interest; and (3) scales are "adapted" from measures designed to examine race- and gender-based discrimination. Additional limitations include (1) summed scores are computed, often in the absence of scale score reliability metrics; (2) summed scores operate from the questionable assumption that diverse forms of discrimination are necessarily interrelated; (3) the dimensionality of instruments presumed to consist of subscales is seldom tested; (4) tests of criterion-related validity are routinely omitted; and (5) formal tests of measures' construct validity are seldom provided, necessitating that one infer validity based on the results obtained. The absence of "gold standard" measures, the attendant difficulty in formulating a coherent picture of this body of research, and suggestions for psychometric improvements are noted.

  4. Disruptive behavior scale for adolescents (DISBA): development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, Mahmood; Fakhri, Ahmad; Vali, Esmaeel; Vali, Farzaneh; Veiga, Feliciano H; Stein, L A R; Araban, Marzieh

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that if disruptive behavior is left unidentified and untreated, a significant proportion of these problems will persist and may develop into problems linked with delinquency, substance abuse, and violence. Research is needed to develop valid and reliable measures of disruptive behavior to assist recognition and impact of treatments on disruptive behavior. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a scale for disruptive behavior in adolescents. Six hundred high school students (50% girls), ages ranged 15-18 years old, selected through multi stage random sampling. Psychometrics of the disruptive behavior scale for adolescents (DISBA) (Persian version) was assessed through content validity, explanatory factor analysis (EFA) using Varimax rotation and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The reliability of this scale was assessed via internal consistency and test-retest reliability. EFA revealed four factors accounting for 59% of observed variance. The final 29-item scale contained four factors: (1) aggressive school behavior, (2) classroom defiant behavior, (3) unimportance of school, and (4) defiance to school authorities. Furthermore, CFA produced a sufficient Goodness of Fit Index > 0.90. Test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities were acceptable at 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. The findings from this study suggest that the Iranian version of DISBA questionnaire has content validity. Further studies are needed to evaluate stronger psychometric properties for DISBA.

  5. Assessment of Minimal HE (with emphasis on computerized psychometric tests)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Matthew R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with a high risk of development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, impaired quality of life and driving accidents. The detection of MHE requires specialized testing since it cannot by definition, be diagnosed on standard clinical examination. Psychometric (paper-pencil or computerized or a combination) and neuro-physiological techniques are often used to test for MHE. Paper-pencil psychometric batteries like the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) have been validated in several countries but do not have US normative values. Computerized tests such as the inhibitory control test (ICT), cognitive drug research system and Scan test have proven useful to diagnose MHE and predict outcomes. The specificity and sensitivity of these tests are similar to the recommended gold standards. Neuro-physiological tests such as the EEG and its interpretations, evoked potentials and Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) also provide useful information. The diagnosis of MHE is an important issue for clinicians and patients alike and the testing strategies depend on the normative data available, patient comfort and local expertise. PMID:22321464

  6. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Protocol for Advanced Psychometric Assessment of Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E.; Hayduk, Leslie; Hutchinson, Alison M.; Cranley, Lisa A.; Gierl, Mark; Cummings, Greta G.; Norton, Peter G.; Estabrooks, Carole A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose. In this paper, we present a protocol for advanced psychometric assessments of surveys based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. We use the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) as an exemplar survey to which this protocol can be applied. Methods. Data mapping, acceptability, reliability, and validity are addressed. Acceptability is assessed with missing data frequencies and the time required to complete the survey. Reliability is assessed with internal consistency coefficients and information functions. A unitary approach to validity consisting of accumulating evidence based on instrument content, response processes, internal structure, and relations to other variables is taken. We also address assessing performance of survey data when aggregated to higher levels (e.g., nursing unit). Discussion. In this paper we present a protocol for advanced psychometric assessment of survey data using the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) as an exemplar survey; application of the protocol to the ACT survey is underway. Psychometric assessment of any survey is essential to obtaining reliable and valid research findings. This protocol can be adapted for use with any nursing survey. PMID:23401759

  8. In vivo and In vitro neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River area of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arini, Adeline; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Berninger, Jason P.; Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Mills, Marc; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Basu, Niladri

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain potentially neuroactive chemicals though few methods are available to screen for the presence of such agents. Here, two parallel approaches (in vivo and in vitro) were used to assess WWTP exposure-related changes to neurochemistry. First, fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas) were caged for four days along a WWTP discharge zone into the Maumee River (Ohio, USA). Grab water samples were collected and extracts obtained for the detection of alkylphenols, bisphenol A (BPA) and steroid hormones. Second, the extracts were then used as a source of in vitro exposure to brain tissues from FHM and four additional species relevant to the Great Lakes ecosystem (rainbow trout (RT), river otter (RO), bald eagle (BE) and human (HU)). The ability of the wastewater (in vivo) or extracts (in vitro) to interact with enzymes (monoamine oxidase (MAO) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptors (dopamine (D2) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA)) involved in dopamine and glutamate-dependent neurotransmission were examined on brain homogenates. In vivo exposure of FHM led to significant decreases of NMDA receptor binding in females (24–42%), and increases of MAO activity in males (2.8- to 3.2-fold). In vitro, alkylphenol-targeted extracts significantly inhibited D2 (66% in FHM) and NMDA (24–54% in HU and RT) receptor binding, and induced MAO activity in RT, RO, and BE brains. Steroid hormone-targeted extracts inhibited GS activity in all species except FHM. BPA-targeted extracts caused a MAO inhibition in FHM, RT and BE brains. Using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, this study shows that WWTP effluents contain agents that can interact with neurochemicals important in reproduction and other neurological functions. Additional work is needed to better resolve in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (IVIVE) as well as cross-species differences. - Highlights: • We conducted in vivo and in vitro neurochemical

  9. Automated Test Assembly for Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Matthew; Kim, Wonsuk; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Much recent psychometric literature has focused on cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), a promising class of instruments used to measure the strengths and weaknesses of examinees. This article introduces a genetic algorithm to perform automated test assembly alongside CDMs. The algorithm is flexible in that it can be applied whether the goal is to…

  10. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish version of Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Mona; Morville, Anne-Le

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) scale assesses satisfaction within the domains of work, leisure, domestic tasks, and self-care. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the SDO when used with asylum seekers. Methods: The participants were...... and criterion and concurrent validity. The findings regarding discriminant validity were somewhat inconclusive. The Danish SDO may be regarded as psychometrically sound but further psychometric testing is needed. Key words: validity, reliability, health, Activity...

  11. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish version of Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Mona; Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) scale assesses satisfaction within the domains of work, leisure, domestic tasks, and self-care. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the SDO when used with asylum seekers. METHODS: The participants were...... and criterion and concurrent validity. The findings regarding discriminant validity were somewhat inconclusive. The Danish SDO may be regarded as psychometrically sound but further psychometric testing is needed....

  12. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker responses in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers Pedersen, Kathrine; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert; Greaves, Alana K; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a growing class of contaminants in the Arctic environment, and include the established perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFSAs and PFCAs of varying chain length have been reported to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptor density (dopamine-2 (D2), muscarinic cholinergic (mAChR) and gamma-butyric acid type A (GABA-A)) along with PFSA and PFCA concentrations. Average brain ∑PFSA concentration was 25ng/g ww where PFOS accounted for 91%. Average ∑PFCA concentration was 88ng/g ww where PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA combined accounted for 79%. The highest concentrations of PFASs were measured in brain stem, cerebellum and hippocampus. Correlative analyses were performed both across and within brain regions. Significant positive correlations were found between PFASs and MAO activity in occipital lobe (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.83, p=0.041, n=6) and across brain regions (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.47, p=0.001, ∑PFSA; rp=0.44, p>0.001; n=50). GABA-A receptor density was positively correlated with two PFASs across brain regions (PFOS; rp=0.33, p=0.02 and PFDoDA; rp=0.34, p=0.014; n=52). Significant negative correlations were found between mAChR density and PFASs in cerebellum (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=-0.95, p=0.013, n=5) and across brain regions (e.g.

  13. Chronic marijuana smoke exposure in the rhesus monkey. IV: Neurochemical effects and comparison to acute and chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S F; Newport, G D; Scallet, A C; Paule, M G; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W

    1991-11-01

    THC is the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana and is known to produce psychopharmacological effects in humans. These studies were designed to determine whether acute or chronic exposure to marijuana smoke or THC produces in vitro or in vivo neurochemical alterations in rat or monkey brain. For the in vitro study, THC was added (1-100 nM) to membranes prepared from different regions of the rat brain and muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) receptor binding was measured. For the acute in vivo study, rats were injected IP with vehicle, 1, 3, 10, or 30 mg THC/kg and sacrificed 2 h later. For the chronic study, rats were gavaged with vehicle or 10 or 20 mg THC/kg daily, 5 days/week for 90 days and sacrificed either 24 h or 2 months later. Rhesus monkeys were exposed to the smoke of a single 2.6% THC cigarette once a day, 2 or 7 days a week for 1 year. Approximately 7 months after the last exposure, animals were sacrificed by overdose with pentobarbital for neurochemical analyses. In vitro exposure to THC produced a dose-dependent inhibition of MCh receptor binding in several brain areas. This inhibition of MCh receptor binding, however, was also observed with two other nonpsychoactive derivatives of marijuana, cannabidiol and cannabinol. In the rat in vivo study, we found no significant changes in MCh or other neurotransmitter receptor binding in hippocampus, frontal cortex or caudate nucleus after acute or chronic exposure to THC. In the monkey brain, we found no alterations in the concentration of neurotransmitters in caudate nucleus, frontal cortex, hypothalamus or brain stem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meridith T Robins

    Full Text Available The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61 exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations.

  15. Modulatory effect of cilostazol on tramadol-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations in rats challenged across the forced swim despair test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha M. Gamil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain-associated depression is encountered clinically in some cases such as cancer, chronic neuropathy, and after operations. Tramadol is an opioid analgesic drug that may modulate monoaminergic neurotransmission by inhibition of noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake that may contribute to its antidepressant-like effects. Clinically, tramadol is used either alone or in combination with other NSAIDs in the treatment of cases associated with pain and depression, e.g. low back pain, spinal cord injury, and post-operative pain management. However, tramadol monotherapy as an antidepressant is impeded by severe adverse effects including seizures and serotonin syndrome. Interestingly, phosphodiesterase-III inhibitors demonstrated novel promising antidepressant effects. Among which, cilostazol was reported to attenuate depression in post-stroke cases, geriatrics and patients undergoing carotid artery stenting. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the possible antidepressant-like effects of tramadol and/or cilostazol on the behavioral level in experimental animals, and to examine the neurochemical and biochemical effects of tramadol, cilostazol and their combination in rats, in order to explore the probable mechanisms of action underlying their effects. To achieve our target, male albino mice and rats were randomly allocated into five groups and administered either vehicle for control, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o., tramadol HCl (20 mg/kg, p.o., cilostazol (100 mg/kg, p.o., or combination of both tramadol and cilostazol. At day 14, mice and rats were challenged in the tail suspension test and forced swim test, respectively. Rats were sacrificed and brains were isolated for determination of brain monoamines, MDA, NO, SOD, and TNF-α. The current results showed that concurrent administration of cilostazol to tramadol-treated animals modulated depression on the behavioral level, and showed ameliorative neurochemical and biochemical effects

  16. A Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism for Screening Medications to Treat Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L.; Hauser, Sheketha; Rodd, Zachary A.; Liang, Tiebing; Sari, Youssef; McClintick, Jeanette; Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present up-to-date pharmacological, genetic and behavioral findings from the alcohol-preferring P rat and summarize similar past work. Behaviorally, the focus will be on how the P rat meets criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism with a highlight on its use as an animal model of polysubstance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine and psychostimulants. Pharmacologically and genetically, the focus will be on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems that have received the most attention: cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotrophin releasing hormone, opioid, and neuropeptide Y. Herein we sought to place the P rat’s behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes, and to some extent its genotype, in the context of the clinical literature. After reviewing the findings thus far, this paper discusses future directions for expanding the use of this genetic animal model of alcoholism to identify molecular targets for treating drug addiction in general. PMID:27055615

  17. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulman Lindenberger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  18. How possible is the development of an operational psychometric method to assess the presence of the 5-HTTLPR s allele? Equivocal preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszik Andras

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The s allele of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene has been found to be associated with neuroticism-related traits, affective temperaments and response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment. The aim of the current study was to develop a psychometric tool that could at least partially substitute for laboratory testing and could predict the presence of the s allele. Methods The study included 138 women of Caucasian origin, mean 32.20 ± 1.02 years old. All subjects completed the Hungarian standardised version of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A instrument and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR using PCR. The statistical analysis included the calculation of the Index of Discrimination (D, Discriminant Function Analysis, creation of scales on the basis of the above and then item analysis and calculation of sensitivity and specificity. Results Four indices were eventually developed, but their psychometric properties were relatively poor and their joint application did not improve the outcome. Conclusions We could not create a scale that predicts the 5-HTTLPR genotype with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, therefore we could not substitute a psychometric scale for laboratory genetic testing in predicting genotype, and also possibly affective disorder characterisation and treatment.

  19. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eFalk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both, which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.

  20. [Genetic and neuroendocrine aspects in autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Norma; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; de la Chesnaye, Elsa; Guerra-Araiza, Christian

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was described in 1943 and is defined as a developmental disorder that affects social interaction and communication. It is usually identified in early stages of development from 18 months of age. Currently, autism is considered a neurological disorder with a spectrum covering cases of different degrees, which is associated with genetic factors, not genetic and environmental. Among the genetic factors, various syndromes have been described that are associated with this disorder. Also, the neurobiology of autism has been studied at the genetic, neurophysiological, neurochemical and neuropathological levels. Neuroimaging techniques have shown multiple structural abnormalities in these patients. There have also been changes in the serotonergic, GABAergic, catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems related to this disorder. This paper presents an update of the information presented in the genetic and neuroendocrine aspects of autism spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Way, Baldwin M; Jasinska, Agnes J

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.

  2. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  3. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are computational optimisation schemes with an ... The algorithms solve optimisation problems ..... Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimisation and Machine. Learning, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1989.

  4. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    artificial genetic system) string feature or ... called the genotype whereas it is called a structure in artificial genetic ... assigned a fitness value based on the cost function. Better ..... way it has produced complex, intelligent living organisms capable of ...

  5. About Genetic Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical care in many areas of medicine. Assisted Reproductive Technology/Infertility Genetics Cancer Genetics Cardiovascular Genetics Cystic Fibrosis Genetics Fetal Intervention and Therapy Genetics Hematology Genetics Metabolic Genetics ...

  6. Psychometrics of social cognitive measures for psychosis treatment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Charlie A; Lesser, Rebecca; Parente, Lori T; Fiszdon, Joanna M

    2018-03-01

    Social cognition represents an important treatment target, closely linked to everyday social function. While a number of social cognitive interventions have recently been developed, measures used to evaluate these treatments are only beginning to receive psychometric scrutiny. Study goals were to replicate recently-published psychometrics for several social cognitive measures, and to provide information for additional social cognitive measures not included in recent reports. Forty-eight outpatients with psychotic-spectrum disorders completed measures of emotion perception, theory of mind, and attributional bias on two occasions, one month apart. Measures were tested for distributional characteristics, test-retest reliability, utility as a repeated measure, and relationship to symptoms and functioning. For a subgroup of participants, information about sensitivity to social cognitive treatment was also available. We replicated aspects of prior work, including largely favorable psychometric characteristics for the Bell-Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and promising but weaker characteristics for The Awareness of Social Inferences Test subscales and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task. The Hinting Task had adequate test-retest statistics but a more pronounced ceiling effect. Ambiguous Intentions and Hostility Questionnaire data showed evidence of validity but were limited by inconsistency over time. Our results strongly support the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale for future evaluation as a social cognitive treatment outcome measure. Its scores were adequately distributed, consistent over time, related to symptoms and functioning, and sensitive to treatment effects. Other relatively novel assessments of attributional bias and theory of mind showed some promise, although more work is needed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A new psychometric questionnaire for reporting of somatosensory percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, L. H.; McLeod, R. S.; Kiss, Z. H. T.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. There have been remarkable advances over the past decade in neural prostheses to restore lost motor function. However, restoration of somatosensory feedback, which is essential for fine motor control and user acceptance, has lagged behind. With an increasing interest in using electrical stimulation to restore somatosensory sensations within the peripheral (PNS) and central nervous systems (CNS), it is critical to characterize the percepts evoked by electrical stimulation in a standardized manner with a validated psychometric questionnaire. This will allow comparison of results from applications at various nervous system levels in multiple settings. Approach. We compiled a summary of published reports of somatosensory percepts that were elicited by electrical stimulation in humans and used these to develop a new psychometric questionnaire. Results. This new questionnaire was able to characterize subjective evoked sensations with good test-retest reliability (Spearman’s correlation coefficients ranging 0.716  ⩽  ρ  ⩽  1.000, p  ⩽  0.005) in 13 subjects receiving stimulation through neural implants in both the CNS and PNS. Furthermore, the new questionnaire captured more descriptors (M  =  2.65, SD  =  0.91) that would have been missed by being categorized as ‘other sensations’, using a previous questionnaire (M  =  1.40, SD  =  0.77, t(12)  =  -10.24, p  psychometric questionnaire will aid in establishing consistency and standardization of reporting in future studies of somatosensory neural prostheses.

  8. Vitamin B12 deficiency: Characterization of psychometrics and MRI morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yen-Hsuan; Huang, Ching-Feng; Lo, Chung-Ping; Wang, Tzu-Lan; Tu, Min-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential for the integrity of the central nervous system. However, performances in different cognitive domains relevant to vitamin B12 deficiency remain to be detailed. To date, there have been limited studies that examined the relationships between cognitions and structural neuroimaging in a single cohort of low-vitamin B12 status. The present study aimed to depict psychometrics and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometrics among patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, and to examine their inter-relations. We compared 34 consecutive patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (serum level ≤ 250 pg/ml) to 34 demographically matched controls by their cognitive performances and morphometric indices of brain MRI. The correlations between psychometrics and morphometrics were analyzed. The vitamin B12 deficiency group had lower scores than the controls on total scores of Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) (both P psychometric and morphometric indices, pronounced correlations between bicaudate ratio and long-term memory, mental manipulation, orientation, language, and verbal fluency were noted (all P < 0.01). Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with a global cognition decline with language, orientation, and mental manipulation selectively impaired. Preferential atrophy in frontal regions is the main neuroimaging feature. Although the frontal ratio highlights the relevant atrophy among patients, the bicaudate ratio might be the best index on the basis of its strong association with global cognition and related cognitive domains, implying dysfunction of fronto-subcortical circuits as the fundamental pathogenesis related to vitamin B12 deficiency.

  9. Psychometric Evaluation of the Hospital Culture of Transitions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Mark; Bena, James; Albert, Nancy M; Pines, Jesse M

    2017-10-01

    Ineffective or inefficient transitions threaten patient safety, hinder communication, and worsen patient outcomes. The Hospital Culture of Transitions (H-CulT) survey was designed to assess a hospital's organizational culture related to within-hospital transitions in care involving patient movement. In this article, psychometric properties of the H-CulT survey were examined to assess and refine the hospital culture of transitions. A cross-sectional, multicenter, multidisciplinary correlational design and survey methods were used to examine the psychometric properties of the H-CulT survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to quantify the accuracy of the previously identified structure. Specifically, the analysis involved the principal axis factor method with an oblique rotation, based on a polychoric correlation matrix. A sample of 492 respondents from 13 diverse hospitals participated. Cronbach's alpha for the instrument was 0.88, indicating strong internal consistency. Seven subscales emerged and were labeled: Hospital Leadership, Unit Leadership, My Unit's Culture, Other Units' Culture, Busy Workload, Priority of Patient Care, and Use of Data. Correlations between subscales ranged from 0.07 to 0.52, providing evidence that the subscales did not measure the same construct. Subscale correlations with the total score were near or above 0.50 (p <0.001). Use of a factor-loading cutoff of 0.40 resulted in the elimination of 12 items because of weak associations with the topic. The H-CulT is a psychometrically sound and practical survey for assessing hospital culture related to patient flow during transitions in care. Survey results may prompt quality improvement interventions that enhance in-hospital transitions and improve staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction with care. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Examination of Psychometric Properties of Positive Functional Attitudes Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saide Umut ZEYBEK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the applicability of Coping Attitudes Scale: Measure of Positive Attitudes in Depression (CAS among Turkish young adult community sample and determine the psychometric properties (validity and reliability of this scale. This study was conducted with 419 students attending different departments in Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Education in the spring semester of academic year of 2015-2016. Positive Functional Attitudes Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Automatic Thoughts Scale, Positivity Scale and Developed Automatic Thoughts Scale.were used as data collection tools. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used for investigation of the psychometric properties of the PFAS. Also, criterion-related validity, test-retest validity, and internal consistency were used calculated. The CFA results showed that standardized item estimates of the CAS ranged between 0.45 and 0.47. Also the CFA results showed that the original factor structure of the PFAS confirmed on the Turkish sample. internal consistency was calculated using the total community sample’s PFAS score. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ort he total scale (.93 was high. Test-retest results of the subscales were 0.76. The findings showed that factor structures of the PFAS’ life perspective, personal accomplishment, positive future, self-worth, coping with problems had psychometric quality in Turkish version. As a result of the study, the Turkish version of PFAS has good validity and reliability for young adult community sample. [JCBPR 2017; 6(2.000: 59-66

  11. The quality improvement attitude survey: Development and preliminary psychometric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Pamela B

    2017-12-01

    To report the development of a tool to measure nurse's attitudes about quality improvement in their practice setting and to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Human factors such as nursing attitudes of complacency have been identified as root causes of sentinel events. Attitudes of nurses concerning use of Quality and Safety Education for nurse's competencies can be most challenging to teach and to change. No tool has been developed measuring attitudes of nurses concerning their role in quality improvement. A descriptive study design with preliminary psychometric evaluation was used to examine the preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Registered bedside clinical nurses comprised the sample for the study (n = 57). Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Cronbach's alpha reliability. Total score and individual item statistics were evaluated. Two open-ended items were used to collect statements about nurses' feelings regarding their experience in quality improvement efforts. Strong support for the internal consistency reliability and face validity of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale was found. Total scale scores were high indicating nurse participants valued Quality and Safety Education for Nurse competencies in practice. However, item-level statistics indicated nurses felt powerless when other nurses deviate from care standards. Additionally, the sample indicated they did not consistently report patient safety issues and did not have a feeling of value in efforts to improve care. Findings suggested organisational culture fosters nurses' reporting safety issues and feeling valued in efforts to improve care. Participants' narrative comments and item analysis revealed the need to generate new items for the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale focused on nurses' perception of their importance in quality and

  12. Seeking a Balance between the Statistical and Scientific Elements in Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I will review some aspects of psychometric projects that I have been involved in, emphasizing the nature of the work of the psychometricians involved, especially the balance between the statistical and scientific elements of that work. The intent is to seek to understand where psychometrics, as a discipline, has been and where it…

  13. Development and Psychometric Validation of the Family Outcomes Survey-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Raspa, Melissa; Olmsted, Murrey G.; Novak, Scott P.; Sam, Ann M.; Humphreys, Betsy P.; Nelson, Robin; Robinson, Nyle; Guillen, Chelsea

    2011-01-01

    Few psychometrically valid scales exist to assess family outcomes and the helpfulness of early intervention. This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Family Outcomes Survey-Revised. The revision was prompted by the need to (a) create a new format that would be easier for parents to understand, (b) revise and expand…

  14. Psychometrics and Its Discontents: An Historical Perspective on the Discourse of the Measurement Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Hamstra, Stanley J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychometrics has recently undergone extensive criticism within the medical education literature. The use of quantitative measurement using psychometric instruments such as response scales is thought to emphasize a narrow range of relevant learner skills and competencies. Recent reviews and commentaries suggest that a paradigm shift might be…

  15. A Psychometric Review of Norm-Referenced Tests Used to Assess Phonological Error Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Celia; Vigeland, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors provide a review of the psychometric properties of 6 norm-referenced tests designed to measure children's phonological error patterns. Three aspects of the tests' psychometric adequacy were evaluated: the normative sample, reliability, and validity. Method: The specific criteria used for determining the psychometric…

  16. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Collaborative Computer-Intensive Projects in an Undergraduate Psychometrics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchard, Kimberly A.; Pace, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate psychometrics classes often use computer-intensive active learning projects. However, little research has examined active learning or computer-intensive projects in psychometrics courses. We describe two computer-intensive collaborative learning projects used to teach the design and evaluation of psychological tests. Course…

  18. A biologically inspired psychometric function for accuracy of visual identification as a function of exposure duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

    , all of these having a temporal offset included, as well as the ex-Gaussian, and finally a new psychometric function, motivated from single-neuron studies by (Albrecht, Geisler, Frazor & Crane, 2002). The new psychometric function stands out by having a nonmonotonous hazard rate which is initially...

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in Older Primary Care Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gloster, Andrew T.; Rhoades, Howard M.; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2008-01-01

    The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important.

  20. Psychometric Properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L.; Locke, Dona E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) was designed to be psychometrically superior to its MMPI-2 counterpart. However, the test has yet to be extensively evaluated in diverse clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale in…

  1. Decay of Iconic Memory Traces Is Related to Psychometric Intelligence: A Fixed-Links Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several memory processes have been examined regarding their relation to psychometric intelligence with the exception of sensory memory. This study examined the relation between decay of iconic memory traces, measured with a partial-report task, and psychometric intelligence, assessed with the Berlin Intelligence Structure test, in 111…

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Franck; Rudi De Raedt; Catherine Barbez; Yves Rosseel

    2008-01-01

    Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as...

  3. Psychometric properties of Frustration Discomfort Scale in a Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Harrington, Neil

    2012-08-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties of the Frustration Discomfort Scale for Turkish college students. The Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS), Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to a sample of 171 (98 women, 73 men) Turkish college students. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis yielded fit index values demonstrating viability of the four-dimensional solution as in the original. Findings also revealed that, as predicted, the Discomfort Intolerance subscale of Turkish FDS was most strongly correlated with procrastination. Overall results provided evidence for the factor validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale for use in a Turkish population.

  4. Psychometrics of an internalized homophobia instrument for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, John L; Shidlo, Ariel; Zemon, Vance; Foley, Frederick W; Dorfman, David; Dahlman, Karen L; Hamid, Sahira

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Axial Gay Men's Inventory-Men's Short Version (MAGI-MSV) assesses internalized homophobia via 20 items and 3 dimensions. This study extended the psychometric examination of the MAGI-MSV. The instrument was administered to 228 ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay men seeking counseling in New York City (mean age = 35, age range = 16-70). Following principal axis factoring and parallel analyses, 4 factors emerged and 14 items were retained. The descriptive labels for factors included gay self-assurance and worth, public appearance of homosexuality, and impact of HIV/AIDS on homosexuality. The new, fourth factor was named maladaptive measures to eliminate homosexuality.

  5. Psychometric model for safety culture assessment in nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, C.S. do; Andrade, D.A.; Mesquita, R.N. de

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A psychometric model to evaluate ‘safety climate’ at nuclear research facilities. • The model presented evidences of good psychometric qualities. • The model was applied to nuclear research facilities in Brazil. • Some ‘safety culture’ weaknesses were detected in the assessed organization. • A potential tool to develop safety management programs in nuclear facilities. - Abstract: A safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants depends not only on technical performance, but also on the people and on the organization. Organizational factors have been recognized as the main causal mechanisms of accidents by research organizations through USA, Europe and Japan. Deficiencies related with these factors reveal weaknesses in the organization’s safety culture. A significant number of instruments to assess the safety culture based on psychometric models that evaluate safety climate through questionnaires, and which are based on reliability and validity evidences, have been published in health and ‘safety at work’ areas. However, there are few safety culture assessment instruments with these characteristics (reliability and validity) available on nuclear literature. Therefore, this work proposes an instrument to evaluate, with valid and reliable measures, the safety climate of nuclear research facilities. The instrument was developed based on methodological principles applied to research modeling and its psychometric properties were evaluated by a reliability analysis and validation of content, face and construct. The instrument was applied to an important nuclear research organization in Brazil. This organization comprises 4 research reactors and many nuclear laboratories. The survey results made possible a demographic characterization and the identification of some possible safety culture weaknesses and pointing out potential areas to be improved in the assessed organization. Good evidence of reliability with Cronbach's alpha

  6. Psychometric model for safety culture assessment in nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, C.S. do, E-mail: claudio.souza@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CTMSP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, D.A., E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mesquita, R.N. de, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A psychometric model to evaluate ‘safety climate’ at nuclear research facilities. • The model presented evidences of good psychometric qualities. • The model was applied to nuclear research facilities in Brazil. • Some ‘safety culture’ weaknesses were detected in the assessed organization. • A potential tool to develop safety management programs in nuclear facilities. - Abstract: A safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants depends not only on technical performance, but also on the people and on the organization. Organizational factors have been recognized as the main causal mechanisms of accidents by research organizations through USA, Europe and Japan. Deficiencies related with these factors reveal weaknesses in the organization’s safety culture. A significant number of instruments to assess the safety culture based on psychometric models that evaluate safety climate through questionnaires, and which are based on reliability and validity evidences, have been published in health and ‘safety at work’ areas. However, there are few safety culture assessment instruments with these characteristics (reliability and validity) available on nuclear literature. Therefore, this work proposes an instrument to evaluate, with valid and reliable measures, the safety climate of nuclear research facilities. The instrument was developed based on methodological principles applied to research modeling and its psychometric properties were evaluated by a reliability analysis and validation of content, face and construct. The instrument was applied to an important nuclear research organization in Brazil. This organization comprises 4 research reactors and many nuclear laboratories. The survey results made possible a demographic characterization and the identification of some possible safety culture weaknesses and pointing out potential areas to be improved in the assessed organization. Good evidence of reliability with Cronbach's alpha

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Franck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as high congruent validity. Overall, these findings support the usefulness of the Dutch RSES as a measure for global self-esteem.

  8. The Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire: Development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Gabriele; Fernie, Bruce; Canfora, Flaviano; Mascolo, Cristina; Ferrari, Andrea; Antonioni, Maria; Giustina, Lucia; Donato, Gilda; Marcotriggiani, Antonella; Bertani, Andrea; Altieri, Antonella; Pellegrini, Eliana; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2018-03-01

    Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about gambling. We conducted three studies with one community (n = 165) and two clinical (n = 110; n = 87) samples to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire and examined its capacity to prospectively predict severity of gambling. Findings supported a two factor solution consisting of positive and negative metacognitions about gambling. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity were acceptable. All the factors of the Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire correlated positively with gambling severity. Regression analyses showed that negative metacognitions about gambling were significantly associated to gambling severity over and above negative affect and gambling-specific cognitive distortions. Finally only gambling severity and negative metacognitions about gambling were significant prospective predictors of gambling severity as measured three months later. The Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and psychometric properties of the Inner Strength Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundman, Berit; Viglund, Kerstin; Aléx, Lena; Jonsén, Elisabeth; Norberg, Astrid; Fischer, Regina Santamäki; Strandberg, Gunilla; Nygren, Björn

    2011-10-01

    Four dimensions of inner strength were previously identified in a meta-theoretical analysis: firmness, creativity, connectedness, and flexibility. The aim of this study was to develop an Inner Strength Scale (ISS) based on those four dimensions and to evaluate its psychometric properties. An initial version of ISS was distributed for validation purpose with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the resilience scale, and the sense of Coherence Scale. A convenience sample of 391 adults, aged 19-90 years participated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used in the process of exploring, evaluating, and reducing the 63-item ISS to the 20-item ISS. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest were used to measure reliability. CFA showed satisfactory goodness-of-fit for the 20-item ISS. The analysis supported a fourfactor solution explaining 51% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha on the 20-item ISS was 0.86, and the test-retest showed stability over time (r=0.79). The ISS was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for capturing a multifaceted understanding of inner strength. Further tests of psychometric properties of the ISS will be performed in forthcoming studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transfer Learning for Collaborative Filtering Using a Psychometrics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a real e-commerce website, usually only a small number of users will give ratings to the items they purchased, and this can lead to the very sparse user-item rating data. The data sparsity issue will greatly limit the recommendation performance of most recommendation algorithms. However, a user may register accounts in many e-commerce websites. If such users’ historical purchasing data on these websites can be integrated, the recommendation performance could be improved. But it is difficult to align the users and items between these websites, and thus how to effectively borrow the users’ rating data of one website (source domain to help improve the recommendation performance of another website (target domain is very challenging. To this end, this paper extended the traditional one-dimensional psychometrics model to multidimension. The extended model can effectively capture users’ multiple interests. Based on this multidimensional psychometrics model, we further propose a novel transfer learning algorithm. It can effectively transfer users’ rating preferences from the source domain to the target domain. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the recommendation performance.

  11. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale: Development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about online gaming. We conducted two studies with samples of online gamers (n=225, n=348) to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale and examined its capacity to predict weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor solution: positive metacognitions about online gaming, negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming, and negative metacognitions about the dangers of online gaming. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity were acceptable. All the factors of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale correlated positively with weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Regression analyses showed that negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming and levels of Internet addiction were the only significant predictors of weekly online gaming hours, and that positive metacognitions about online gaming and negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming were the only significant predictors of Internet addiction. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The development and psychometric validation of the Ethical Awareness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Aimee; Ludlow, Larry; DeSanto-Madeya, Susan; Grace, Pamela

    2018-04-19

    To develop and psychometrically assess the Ethical Awareness Scale using Rasch measurement principles and a Rasch item response theory model. Critical care nurses must be equipped to provide good (ethical) patient care. This requires ethical awareness, which involves recognizing the ethical implications of all nursing actions. Ethical awareness is imperative in successfully addressing patient needs. Evidence suggests that the ethical import of everyday issues may often go unnoticed by nurses in practice. Assessing nurses' ethical awareness is a necessary first step in preparing nurses to identify and manage ethical issues in the highly dynamic critical care environment. A cross-sectional design was used in two phases of instrument development. Using Rasch principles, an item bank representing nursing actions was developed (33 items). Content validity testing was performed. Eighteen items were selected for face validity testing. Two rounds of operational testing were performed with critical care nurses in Boston between February-April 2017. A Rasch analysis suggests sufficient item invariance across samples and sufficient construct validity. The analysis further demonstrates a progression of items uniformly along a hierarchical continuum; items that match respondent ability levels; response categories that are sufficiently used; and adequate internal consistency. Mean ethical awareness scores were in the low/moderate range. The results suggest the Ethical Awareness Scale is a psychometrically sound, reliable and valid measure of ethical awareness in critical care nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Psychometric properties of the Plutchik's EPI test (Emotions Profile Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Trebovc

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Authors report a study on psychometric properties of Plutchik's test, called Emotions Profile Index (EPI. A new Slovene translation and adaptation of English version of the test, consisting of combinations (pairs of 12 words reflecting eight different emotional conditions, was prepared and compared to the old one. Both versions as well as the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ were administered on the sample of 239 participants. Different statistical analyses were performed examining psychometric features of both versions of EPI. Discriminative power was tested by cluster analysis and analysis of frequency distributions, reliability was studied via internal consistency index and correlation between the two versions, and validity was examined by correlating PIE dimensions with BFQ dimensions and subdimensions, by comparing profiles of groups on both versions of EPI and BFQ and by fitting the theoretical model proposed by Plutchik to the data. Discriminative power of EPI seems to be affected by avoiding (not choosing the socially desirable expressions in the test, parallel reliability seems to be susceptible to the use of different words (expressions in the new version of EPI having the same meaning as words in the old version. Dimensions expected to reflect similar constructs in BFQ and EPI do not correlate satisfactory. Data gathered with EPI cannot be fully explained with the model proposed by Plutchik's theory.

  14. Assessing organizational climate: psychometric properties of the CLIOR Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Muñiz, José; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Organizational climate is the set of perceptions shared by workers who occupy the same workplace. The main goal of this study is to develop a new organizational climate scale and to determine its psychometric properties. The sample consisted of 3,163 Health Service workers. A total of 88.7% of participants worked in hospitals, and 11.3% in primary care; 80% were women and 20% men, with a mean age of 51.9 years (SD= 6.28). The proposed scale consists of 50 Likert-type items, with an alpha coefficient of 0.97, and an essentially one-dimensional structure. The discrimination indexes of the items are greater than 0.40, and the items show no differential item functioning in relation to participants' sex. A short version of the scale was developed, made up of 15 items, with discrimination indexes higher than 0.40, an alpha coefficient of 0.94, and its structure was clearly one-dimensional. These results indicate that the new scale has adequate psychometric properties, allowing a reliable and valid assessment of organizational climate.

  15. Development and psychometric evaluation of the breast size satisfaction scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed

    2017-10-09

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate psychometrically an instrument named the Breast Size Satisfaction Scale (BSSS) to assess breast size satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach The present scale was developed using a set of 16 computer-generated 3D images of breasts to overcome some of the limitations of existing instruments. The images were presented to participants and they were asked to select the figure that most accurately depicted their actual breast size and the figure that most closely represented their ideal breast size. Breast size satisfaction was computed by subtracting the absolute value of the difference between ideal and actual perceived size from 16, such that higher values indicate greater breast size satisfaction. Findings Study 1 ( n=65 female undergraduate students) showed good test-retest reliability and study 2 ( n=1,000 Iranian women, aged 18 years and above) provided support for convergent validity using a nomological network approach. Originality/value The BSSS demonstrated good psychometric properties and thus can be used in future studies to assess breast size satisfaction among women.

  16. Swedish Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (SAAQ): a psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Tobias; Parling, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance are equivalent (with somewhat different connotations) concepts and refer to an unwillingness to remain in contact with particular private events. This concept is most often measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) and is strongly related to psychopathology and behavioral effectiveness. In this study, the preliminary psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the AAQ-II (Swedish Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-SAAQ) are presented. The study is done in two steps. In the first step, the 10-item version of the AAQ-II is investigated through principal component analysis (n = 147). Secondly, due to problems with the component structure, the instrument is reduced to a six-item version and its validity and internal consistency are investigated (n = 154). The six-item version shows good concurrent and convergent validity as well as satisfying internal consistency (α = .85). Furthermore, the Swedish six-item version of the AAQ-II showed one strong component. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory (r = .80; n = 228). In future research, predictive and external validity would be important to investigate in order to further ensure that the SAAQ is a useful measure for clinical research. In conclusion, the SAAQ has satisfactory psychometric properties, but more data need to be gathered to further explore the possibilities for the instruments in Swedish contexts.

  17. Questionnaire-based assessment of executive functioning: Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Pisoni, David B

    2018-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Learning, Executive, and Attention Functioning (LEAF) scale were investigated in an outpatient clinical pediatric sample. As a part of clinical testing, the LEAF scale, which broadly measures neuropsychological abilities related to executive functioning and learning, was administered to parents of 118 children and adolescents referred for psychological testing at a pediatric psychology clinic; 85 teachers also completed LEAF scales to assess reliability across different raters and settings. Scores on neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and academic achievement were abstracted from charts. Psychometric analyses of the LEAF scale demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, parent-teacher inter-rater reliability in the small to large effect size range, and test-retest reliability in the large effect size range, similar to values for other executive functioning checklists. Correlations between corresponding subscales on the LEAF and other behavior checklists were large, while most correlations with neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and achievement were significant but in the small to medium range. Results support the utility of the LEAF as a reliable and valid questionnaire-based assessment of delays and disturbances in executive functioning and learning. Applications and advantages of the LEAF and other questionnaire measures of executive functioning in clinical neuropsychology settings are discussed.

  18. The properties of self-report research measures: beyond psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Claire; Evans, Chris; Birch, Sarah; Warren, Fiona; Norton, Kingsley

    2002-06-01

    Self-report measures pertinent for personality disorder are widely used and many are available. Their relative merits are usually assessed on nomothetic psychometrics and acceptability to users is neglected. We report reactions of lay, patient and professional groups to the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-IV); Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III); the Borderline Syndrome Index (BSI); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ). These were sent to 148 professionals, ex-patients and lay people for comment. Thirty-six per cent were returned. Pattern-coding by three raters revealed problematic themes across all measures, including inappropriate length, vague items and language, cultural assumptions and slang, state-bias and response-set. Measures can be depressing and upsetting for some participants (both patients and non-patients), hence administration of measures should be sensitive. Treatment may make people more self-aware, which may compromise validity for outcome research. This evaluation raises issues and concerns, which are missed in traditional psychometric evaluation.

  19. The Perceived Personal Control (PPC) questionnaire as an outcome of genetic counseling: reliability and validity of the instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, E.M.A.; Pieterse, A.H.; Aalfs, C.M.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Dulmen, A.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The perceived personal control (PPC) questionnaire was developed by Berkenstadt and colleagues as an outcome measure for the evaluation of the process of genetic counseling. The present study aimed to further assess the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the instrument. Data were used

  20. SU-F-I-68: Longitudinal Neurochemical Changes On Rat Prefrontal Cortex of Single Prolonged Stress Model by Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S-I; Yoo, C-H; Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y; Woo, D-C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200–220g) were used. The SPS protocol was used in this study. Rats were restrained for 2h and then immediately forced to swim for 20min in water (20–24 Celsius). After a 15-min recuperation period, rats were exposed to ether (using a desiccator) until general anesthesia occurred (<5min). In vivo proton MRS was performed 30min before the SPS (Base), approximately 10min after the SPS (D+0), 3 (D+3) and 7 (D+7) days after SPS to investigate time-dependent changes on metabolites levels in the PFC. Acquisition of in vivo MRS spectra and MRI was conducted at the four time points using 9.4 T Agilent Scanner. Concentration of metabolites was quantified by LCModel. Results: Statistical significance was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD tests to assess the metabolite changes in the PFC. The SPS resulted in significant stress-induced differences for 7 days in glutamine (F(3,52)=6.750, P=0.001), choline-containing compounds (F(3,52)=16.442, P=0.000), glutamine/glutamate concentrations (F(3,52)=7.352, P=0.000). Conclusion: PTSD in human is associated with decreased neuronal activity in the PFC. In this study, SPS altered total choline, glutamine levels but not NAA levels in the PFC of the rats. Therefore, for the three stressors and quiescent period of seven days, SPS attenuated excitatory tone and membrane turnover but did not affect neural integrity in the PFC.

  1. The Gastric Ganglion of Octopus vulgaris: Preliminary Characterization of Gene- and Putative Neurochemical-Complexity, and the Effect of Aggregata octopiana Digestive Tract Infection on Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Baldascino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The gastric ganglion is the largest visceral ganglion in cephalopods. It is connected to the brain and is implicated in regulation of digestive tract functions. Here we have investigated the neurochemical complexity (through in silico gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry of the gastric ganglion in Octopus vulgaris and tested whether the expression of a selected number of genes was influenced by the magnitude of digestive tract parasitic infection by Aggregata octopiana. Novel evidence was obtained for putative peptide and non-peptide neurotransmitters in the gastric ganglion: cephalotocin, corticotrophin releasing factor, FMRFamide, gamma amino butyric acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, molluscan insulin-related peptide 3, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin–related peptide. Receptors for cholecystokininA and cholecystokininB, and orexin2 were also identified in this context for the first time. We report evidence for acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, octopamine, small cardioactive peptide related peptide, and receptors for cephalotocin and octopressin, confirming previous publications. The effects of Aggregata observed here extend those previously described by showing effects on the gastric ganglion; in animals with a higher level of infection, genes implicated in inflammation (NFκB, fascin, serpinB10 and the toll-like 3 receptor increased their relative expression, but TNF-α gene expression was lower as was expression of other genes implicated in oxidative stress (i.e., superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, and glutathione peroxidase. Elevated Aggregata levels in the octopuses corresponded to an increase in the expression of the cholecystokininA receptor and the small cardioactive peptide-related peptide. In contrast, we observed decreased relative expression of cephalotocin, dopamine β-hydroxylase, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin-related peptide genes. A discussion is provided on (i potential roles of the various molecules

  2. The Gastric Ganglion of Octopus vulgaris: Preliminary Characterization of Gene- and Putative Neurochemical-Complexity, and the Effect of Aggregata octopiana Digestive Tract Infection on Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldascino, Elena; Di Cristina, Giulia; Tedesco, Perla; Hobbs, Carl; Shaw, Tanya J.; Ponte, Giovanna; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2017-01-01

    The gastric ganglion is the largest visceral ganglion in cephalopods. It is connected to the brain and is implicated in regulation of digestive tract functions. Here we have investigated the neurochemical complexity (through in silico gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry) of the gastric ganglion in Octopus vulgaris and tested whether the expression of a selected number of genes was influenced by the magnitude of digestive tract parasitic infection by Aggregata octopiana. Novel evidence was obtained for putative peptide and non-peptide neurotransmitters in the gastric ganglion: cephalotocin, corticotrophin releasing factor, FMRFamide, gamma amino butyric acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, molluscan insulin-related peptide 3, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin–related peptide. Receptors for cholecystokininA and cholecystokininB, and orexin2 were also identified in this context for the first time. We report evidence for acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, octopamine, small cardioactive peptide related peptide, and receptors for cephalotocin and octopressin, confirming previous publications. The effects of Aggregata observed here extend those previously described by showing effects on the gastric ganglion; in animals with a higher level of infection, genes implicated in inflammation (NFκB, fascin, serpinB10 and the toll-like 3 receptor) increased their relative expression, but TNF-α gene expression was lower as was expression of other genes implicated in oxidative stress (i.e., superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, and glutathione peroxidase). Elevated Aggregata levels in the octopuses corresponded to an increase in the expression of the cholecystokininA receptor and the small cardioactive peptide-related peptide. In contrast, we observed decreased relative expression of cephalotocin, dopamine β-hydroxylase, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin-related peptide genes. A discussion is provided on (i) potential roles of the various molecules in food intake

  3. SU-F-I-68: Longitudinal Neurochemical Changes On Rat Prefrontal Cortex of Single Prolonged Stress Model by Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S-I; Yoo, C-H [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, D-C [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200–220g) were used. The SPS protocol was used in this study. Rats were restrained for 2h and then immediately forced to swim for 20min in water (20–24 Celsius). After a 15-min recuperation period, rats were exposed to ether (using a desiccator) until general anesthesia occurred (<5min). In vivo proton MRS was performed 30min before the SPS (Base), approximately 10min after the SPS (D+0), 3 (D+3) and 7 (D+7) days after SPS to investigate time-dependent changes on metabolites levels in the PFC. Acquisition of in vivo MRS spectra and MRI was conducted at the four time points using 9.4 T Agilent Scanner. Concentration of metabolites was quantified by LCModel. Results: Statistical significance was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD tests to assess the metabolite changes in the PFC. The SPS resulted in significant stress-induced differences for 7 days in glutamine (F(3,52)=6.750, P=0.001), choline-containing compounds (F(3,52)=16.442, P=0.000), glutamine/glutamate concentrations (F(3,52)=7.352, P=0.000). Conclusion: PTSD in human is associated with decreased neuronal activity in the PFC. In this study, SPS altered total choline, glutamine levels but not NAA levels in the PFC of the rats. Therefore, for the three stressors and quiescent period of seven days, SPS attenuated excitatory tone and membrane turnover but did not affect neural integrity in the PFC.

  4. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  5. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  6. Genetic Romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro

    2016-01-01

    inheritance as a way to unify populations within politically and geographically bounded areas. Thus, new genetics have contributed to the development of genetic romanticisms, whereby populations (human, plant, and animal) can be delineated and mobilized through scientific and medical practices to represent...

  7. Region-specific aging of the human brain as evidenced by neurochemical profiles measured noninvasively in the posterior cingulate cortex and the occipital lobe using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjańska, Małgorzata; McCarten, J Riley; Hodges, James; Hemmy, Laura S; Grant, Andrea; Deelchand, Dinesh K; Terpstra, Melissa

    2017-06-23

    The concentrations of fourteen neurochemicals associated with metabolism, neurotransmission, antioxidant capacity, and cellular structure were measured noninvasively from two distinct brain regions using 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Seventeen young adults (age 19-22years) and sixteen cognitively normal older adults (age 70-88years) were scanned. To increase sensitivity and specificity, 1 H magnetic resonance spectra were obtained at the ultra-high field of 7T and at ultra-short echo time. The concentrations of neurochemicals were determined using water as an internal reference and accounting for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid content of the volume of interest. In the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), the concentrations of neurochemicals associated with energy (i.e., creatine plus phosphocreatine), membrane turnover (i.e., choline containing compounds), and gliosis (i.e., myo-inositol) were higher in the older adults while the concentrations of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) and phosphorylethanolamine (PE) were lower. In the occipital cortex (OCC), the concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal viability, concentrations of the neurotransmitters Glu and NAAG, antioxidant ascorbate (Asc), and PE were lower in the older adults while the concentration of choline containing compounds was higher. Altogether, these findings shed light on how the human brain ages differently depending on region. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the Psychometric Quality of Social Skills Measures: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Speyer, Renée; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults. A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity. The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments.

  9. Evaluating the Psychometric Quality of Social Skills Measures: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults. Methods A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments. PMID:26151362

  10. Evaluating the Psychometric Quality of Social Skills Measures: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinie Cordier

    Full Text Available Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning.To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults.A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria.Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity.The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments.

  11. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of alpha lipoic acid associated with omega-3 in tardive dyskinesia induced by chronic haloperidol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Dayane Pessoa; Camboim, Thaisa Gracielle Martins; Silva, Ana Patrícia Magalhães; Silva, Caio da Fonseca; de Sousa, Rebeca Canuto; Barbosa, Mabson Delâno Alves; Oliveira, Lucidio Clebeson; Cavalcanti, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva; Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná

    2017-07-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is characterized by involuntary movements of the lower portion of the face being related to typical antipsychotic therapy. TD is associated with the oxidative imbalance in the basal ganglia. Lipoic acid (LA) and omega-3 (ω-3) are antioxidants acting as enzyme cofactors, regenerating antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of supplementation with LA (100 mg/kg) and ω-3 (1 g/kg) in the treatment of TD induced by chronic use of haloperidol (HAL) (1 mg/kg) in rats. Wistar male rats were used, weighing between 180-200 g. The animals were treated chronically (31 days) with LA alone or associated with HAL or ω-3. Motor behavior was assessed by open-field test, the catalepsy test, and evaluation of orofacial dyskinesia. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation and concentration of nitrite. LA and ω-3 alone or associated caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open-field test and decreased the permanence time on the bar in the catalepsy test and decreased the orofacial dyskinesia. LA and ω-3 showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels. Thus, the use of LA associated with ω-3 reduced the extrapyramidal effects produced by chronic use of HAL.

  12. Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Model of Parkinson’s Disease Induced by Unilateral Stereotaxic Injection of 6-Ohda in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Pessoa de Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg alone or associated with L-DOPA using an animal model of Parkinson’s disease induced by stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in rat striatum. Motor behavior was assessed by monitoring body rotations induced by apomorphine, open field test and cylinder test. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method, concentration of nitrite and evaluation of catalase activity. α-Lipoic acid decreased body rotations induced by apomorphine, as well as caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open field test and use of contralateral paw (in the opposite side of the lesion produced by 6-OHDA at cylinder test. α-lipoic acid showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels and interacting with antioxidant system by decreasing of endogenous catalase activity. Therefore, α-lipoic acid prevented the damage induced by 6-OHDA or by chronic use of L-DOPA in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that α-lipoic could be a new therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease prevention and treatment.

  13. In vivo and in vitro changes in neurochemical parameters related to mercury concentrations from specific brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Anke; Kwan, Michael; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been detected in polar bear brain tissue, but its biological effects are not well known. Relationships between Hg concentrations and neurochemical enzyme activities and receptor binding were assessed in the cerebellum, frontal lobes, and occipital lobes of 24 polar bears collected from Nunavik (Northern Quebec), Canada. The concentration-response relationship was further studied with in vitro experiments using pooled brain homogenate of 12 randomly chosen bears. In environmentally exposed brain samples, there was no correlative relationship between Hg concentration and cholinesterase (ChE) activity or muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) binding in any of the 3 brain regions. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the occipital lobe showed a negative correlative relationship with total Hg concentration. In vitro experiments, however, demonstrated that Hg (mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride) can inhibit ChE and MAO activities and muscarinic mAChR binding. These results show that Hg can alter neurobiochemical parameters but the current environmental Hg exposure level does have an effect on the neurochemistry of polar bears from northern Canada. © 2014 SETAC.

  14. Neurochemical pathways that converge on thalamic trigeminovascular neurons: potential substrate for modulation of migraine by sleep, food intake, stress and anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Noseda

    Full Text Available Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective and cognitive functions. Our overall goal is to define an anatomical framework for conceptualizing how a 'decision' is made on whether a trigeminovascular thalamic neuron fires, for how long, and at what frequency. To begin answering this question, we determine which neuropeptides/neurotransmitters are in a position to modulate thalamic trigeminovascular neurons. Using a combination of in-vivo single-unit recording, juxtacellular labeling with tetramethylrhodamine dextran (TMR and in-vitro immunohistochemistry, we found that thalamic trigeminovascular neurons were surrounded by high density of axons containing biomarkers of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin; moderate density of axons containing noradrenaline and histamine; low density of axons containing orexin and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH; but not axons containing CGRP, serotonin 1D receptor, oxytocin or vasopressin. In the context of migraine, the findings suggest that the transmission of headache-related nociceptive signals from the thalamus to the cortex may be modulated by opposing forces (i.e., facilitatory, inhibitory that are governed by continuous adjustments needed to keep physiological, behavioral, cognitive and emotional homeostasis.

  15. Reconsidering the psychometrics of quality of life assessment in light of response shift and appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Carolyn E

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasing evidence for response shift phenomena in quality of life (QOL assessment points to the necessity to reconsider both the measurement model and the application of psychometric analyses. The proposed psychometric model posits that the QOL true score is always contingent upon parameters of the appraisal process. This new model calls into question existing methods for establishing the reliability and validity of QOL assessment tools and suggests several new approaches for describing the psychometric properties of these scales. Recommendations for integrating the assessment of appraisal into QOL research and clinical practice are discussed.

  16. Reconsidering the psychometrics of quality of life assessment in light of response shift and appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Rapkin, Bruce D

    2004-01-01

    The increasing evidence for response shift phenomena in quality of life (QOL) assessment points to the necessity to reconsider both the measurement model and the application of psychometric analyses. The proposed psychometric model posits that the QOL true score is always contingent upon parameters of the appraisal process. This new model calls into question existing methods for establishing the reliability and validity of QOL assessment tools and suggests several new approaches for describing the psychometric properties of these scales. Recommendations for integrating the assessment of appraisal into QOL research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:15038830

  17. A psychometric assessment of the LPME scale for the South African skills development context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maelekanyo Christopher Tshilongamulenzhe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A thorough examination of psychometric properties of measurement scales is necessary to ensure that these scales comply with the existing scientific conventions. This article assesses the psychometric properties of the Learning Programme Management and Evaluation (LPME scale. A quantitative, non-experimental cross-sectional survey design was used. Data were collected from a sample of 652 respondents comprising skills development practitioners and learners/apprentices. Data were analyzed using Winsteps, SPSS and AMOS computer software. The findings show that the LPME scale meets the psychometric expectations and complies with the established scientific conventions in terms of validity, reliability, fit and unidimensionality.

  18. Computational Psychometrics in Communication and Implications in Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipresso, Pietro; Villani, Daniela; Repetto, Claudia; Bosone, Lucia; Balgera, Anna; Mauri, Maurizio; Villamira, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations emphasized the role of communication features on behavioral trust and reciprocity in economic decision making but no studies have been focused on the effect of communication on affective states in such a context. Thanks to advanced methods of computational psychometrics, in this study, affective states were deeply examined using simultaneous and synchronized recordings of gazes and psychophysiological signals in 28 female students during an investment game. Results showed that participants experienced different affective states according to the type of communication (personal versus impersonal). In particular, participants involved in personal communication felt more relaxed than participants involved in impersonal communication. Moreover, personal communication influenced reciprocity and participants' perceptions about trust and reciprocity. Findings were interpreted in the light of the Arousal/Valence Model and self-disclosure process.

  19. Normalization and psychometric properties of career skills confidence inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates normalization and psychometric properties of career skills confidence inventory. For this purpose, we use Betz’s questionnaire [Betz, N. E., Harmon, L., & Borgen, F. (1996. The relationships of self- efficacy for the Holland themes to gender, occupational group membership, and vocational interests. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 90-98.], which consists of 60 questions in three groups of self-awareness, exploration and planning. The study distributes the questionnaire among 600 randomly selected students and analyzes the feedback using Pearson correlation ratios. The results indicate that there are some positive and meaningful correlations between three component and career counseling. There are also positive and meaningful relationships among three components of self-awareness, exploration and planning.

  20. Development and psychometric evaluation of supportive leadership scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of 2 supportive leadership scales, the Charge Nurse Support Scale and the Unit Manager Support Scale, designed for long-term-care environments. These 6-item self-report scales were administered to 70 nursing staff and their internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, content validity, factor structure, and construct validity investigated. Content validity was established with the assistance of experts. Both scales were deemed reliable. As hypothesized, a significant relationship was found between the measure of how nursing staff related to residents and measures of charge nurses' supportive behaviours (r = .42, p = .05). Reliable and valid measures of supportive leadership could be developed for use in identifying the quality of support provided to staff in long-term-care environments.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Lifetime Assessment of Violent Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alan R; Russell, Tiffany D; Bailly, Matthew D

    2017-12-01

    The Lifetime Assessment of Violent Acts (LAVA) inventory provides estimates of the frequency, triggers, and consequences (including injuries to others) of historic acts of aggression. The LAVA also identifies the situational contexts in which prior violence was triggered and allows classifications based on past reactive, intimate partner, alcoholrelated, and/or weapon-related violence. Normative and psychometric data were provided from a college (N = 1,133) and general population (N = 545) sample. Around 15% of the general population sample recalled inflicting 5 or more injuries on others at some time in the past. LAVA scores were significantly higher for women than men (d = .45), and respondents from the general population were more aggressive than those in the college sample (d = .41). The potential benefits, applications, and limitations of this retrospective self-report inventory are discussed.

  2. METACOGNITION IN ENTREPRENEURS: PSYCHOMETRIC DIAGNOSTIC ASSOCIATED TO AGE AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Lima Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify elements that show the influence of the age and sex variables in the metacognitive level of professionals. Survey participants were 851 professionals registered in Bahia's Regional Administration Council who own their own businesses. Two validated psychometric instruments were used: Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI and the Metacognitive Activities Inventory (MCA-I. The hypothesis held that the respondent's age and sex influence their Metacognitive Profile. From the Structural Equation Modeling, the results indicate that the sex variable showed no significant relationship to the Metacognitive Profile. The implications of this study provide empirical conclusions that can aid entrepreneurs, companies, higher education institutions to understand the metacognitive aspects that influence the entrepreneur’s behavior more systematically. Empirically, these results contribute so that the participating drivers of this study, as they develop metacognitive aspects, acquire a competitive advantage in their entrepreneurial performance.

  3. The new Intragroup Conflict Scale: testing and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kathleen B

    2014-01-01

    The importance of healthy work environments has received attention. Health care organizations are plagued with conflict which is detrimental to work environments. Thus, conflict must be studied. The purpose of this article is to describe the testing of a measure of conflict. A survey was used to evaluate the psychometric properties. The sample consisted of 430 nurses at an academic medical center. Using principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation, a six-factor solution (30 items) that explained 74.3% of variance emerged. Coefficient alpha ranged from .95 to .81. Correlations with existing scales supported construct validity (r = -.32(-)-.58). The results are encouraging. Use of the scale may provide insight into the impact of conflict on patient, staff, and organizational outcomes.

  4. [Psychometric properties of the Activities Daily Life Scale (ADL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, L; Murcia, A; Belzeaux, R; Loundou, A; Azorin, J-M; Chabannes, J-M; Dassa, D; Naudin, J; Samuelian, J-C; Lancon, C

    2010-10-01

    Deficits in social functioning are an important core feature of mental health. Recently in France, the Activities Daily Life (ADL) scale has been proposed by the French authorities to assess social functioning for all hospitalized patients in a psychiatric ward. The perspective is to use this scale in the financing and organization of mental health services in France. The ADL scale is a 6-item (dressing/undressing, walking/mobility, eating/drinking, using toilets, behaviour, relationships/communication) heteroquestionnaire completed by a health care professional at the beginning of each hospitalization, assessing functioning of patients suffering from mental health diseases. However, limited consensus exists on this scale. The psychometric properties of the ADL scale have not been assessed. There is a pressing need for detailed examination of its performance. The aim of this study was to explore ADL psychometric properties in a sample of hospitalized patients in a psychiatric ward. We retrospectively analyzed data for all episodes of care delivered to hospitalized patients in a psychiatric ward in our French Public Hospital from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2008. The study involved retrospective review of administrative and medical databases. The following data were collected: age, gender, diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases - 10th version, ADL scale and Assessment of Social Self-Sufficiency scale (ASSS). The psychometric properties were examined using construct validity, reliability, external validity, reproducibility and sensitivity to change. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 15.0 and WINSTEP software. A total of 1066 patients completed the ADL scale. Among them, 49.7% were male, mean age was 36.5 ± 10.8, and 83.5% were single. Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (40.0%), mood disorders (27.9%) and mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use (12%) were the most common diagnoses. Factor

  5. Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fančovičová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-10-01

    Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.

  6. Psychometric evaluation of the HIV symptom distress scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Linda G.; Wang, Ming-Mei; Testa, Marcia A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to psychometrically validate the HIV Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), an instrument that can be used to measure overall HIV symptom distress or clinically relevant groups of HIV symptoms. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Collaborations in HIV Outcomes Research U.S. Cohort (CHORUS). Inclusion criteria required study participants (N=5,521) to have a valid baseline measure of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group Symptom Distress Module, with an SF-12 or SF-36 completed on the same day. Psychometric testing assessed unidimensionality, internal consistency and factor structure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Construct validity examined whether the new measure discriminates across clinical significance (CD4 and HIV viral load). Findings show that the SDS has high reliability (α=0.92), and SEM supports a correlated second-order factor model (physical and mental distress) with acceptable fit (GFI=0.88, AGFI=0.85, NFI=0.99, NNFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.06, [90% CI 0.06 – 0.06]; Satorra Bentler Scaled, C2 =3274.20; p=0.0). Construct validity shows significant differences across categories for HIV-1 viral load (p< 0.001) and CD4 (p< 0.001). Differences in mean SDS scores exist across gender (p< 0.001), race/ethnicity (p< 0.05) and educational attainment (p < 0.001). Hence, the HIV Symptom Distress Scale is a reliable and valid instrument, which measures overall HIV symptoms or clinically relevant groups of symptoms. PMID:22409246

  7. Screening Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse the Psychometric Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Mohamad Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and

  8. Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Harsh, John; Tompsett, Carolyn J; Redline, Susan

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19; 17.7 ± 0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness were obtained from adolescent reports, behavior from caretaker reports, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually based factor structure were similar for six of the eight proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was α = 0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: α = 0.60; behavioural arousal: α = 0.62; cognitive/emotional: α = 0.81; sleep environment: α = 0.61; sleep stability: α = 0.68; daytime sleep: α = 0.78. Sleep hygiene scores were associated positively with sleep duration (r = 0.16) and sleep efficiency (r = 0.12) and negatively with daytime sleepiness (r = -0.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviours provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Assessment of psychometric properties of a modified PHEEM questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, I K; Munasinghe, S R; Siriwardena, C; Olupeliyawa, A M; Karunathilake, I

    2008-12-01

    An effective tool in analysing the learning environment, customised to the Sri Lankan setting, is vital for the assessment and delivery of quality healthcare training of preregistration house officers. Such a tool should be reliable and valid. We assessed psychometric properties such as internal reliability and construct validity of a modified version of the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM). A modified PHEEM questionnaire customised to the Sri Lankan context was developed in accordance to the Sri Lanka Medical Council guidelines. The questionnaire was distributed to all interns at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo North Teaching Hospital and Wathupitiwala Base Hospital during a calendar year (n = 100, response rate = 86%). Internal reliability and construct validity of the inventory were assessed by using Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis respectively as statistical methods. PHEEM consists of 3 subscales: perceptions of autonomy, social support and teaching, which are factors perceived to be influencing the educational environment. This administration demonstrated high internal reliability as reflected by a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.84. Exploratory factor analysis identified 12 factors with eigenvalue >1. However, the first factor had an eigenvalue of 6.7 (accounting for 19.7% of variance), while the rest had eigenvalues internal reliability in assessing the educational environment of intern doctors in Sri Lanka. It is possible that the clinical educational environment is collectively represented as a single dimension. This may be due to the complex interplay between individual items in the questionnaire. Therefore the psychometric properties do not justify the interpretation of the educational environment through specified subscales.

  10. Elders Health Empowerment Scale: Spanish adaptation and psychometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrani Azcurra, Daniel Jorge Luis

    2014-01-01

    Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people. Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation. The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where "diabetes" was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with "health" terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors. The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson's Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively. HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users' unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder's outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs.

  11. Designing and Determining Psychometric Properties of the Elder Neglect Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majideh Heravi-Karimooi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to design and determine the psychometric properties of a checklist for assessing domestic elder neglect. Methods & Materials: This study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the meaning of domestic elder neglect explored using the qualitative method of phenomenology. In the second phase, a checklist was created, based on the results obtained in the first phase, in conjunction with the inductions from the expert panel. In the third and fourth phases, the psychometric properties including face validity, content validity, construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and Inter- rater reliability were measured. 110 elderly people participated in the this study. Results: The initial 26 item checklist designed using the results of first and second phases of study, reduced to 11 items and 2 factors including the health and care needs neglect, and neglect in providing healthy environment in the process of determining the face and content validity. Acceptable convergent validity was identified in the elder neglect checklist and care neglect scale of the domestic elder abuse questionnaire (r=0.862. The results of known groups' comparisons showed that this checklist could successfully discriminate between subgroups of elderly people in the index of re-hospitalization. The internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was 0.824. Inter- rater reliability of the checklist was 0.850. Conclusion: The elder neglect checklist with 11 items appears to be a promising tool, providing reliable and valid data helping to detect neglect among elders in different settings such as clinical settings, homes and research environments by health care providers and researchers.

  12. Evolutionary genetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maynard Smith, John

    1989-01-01

    .... It differs from other textbooks of population genetics in applying the basic theory to topics, such as social behaviour, molecular evolution, reiterated DNA, and sex, which are the main subjects...

  13. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  14. Arthropod Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalde, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on arthropod genetics that involves phenotype and genotype identification of the creature and the construction process. Includes a list of required materials and directions to build a model arthropod. (YDS)

  15. Desktop Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Soren H; Ajetunmobi, Ayokunmi; Brody, Leigh; Humphryes-Kirilov, Neil; Perello, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Desktop Genetics is a bioinformatics company building a gene-editing platform for personalized medicine. The company works with scientists around the world to design and execute state-of-the-art clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) experiments. Desktop Genetics feeds the lessons learned about experimental intent, single-guide RNA design and data from international genomics projects into a novel CRISPR artificial intelligence system. We believe that machine learni...

  16. Psychometric validation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) subscales for depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bille, J; Møller, S B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The psychometric validity of many subscales of the 90-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the "Hamilton-subscales" for depression (SCL-D16), anxiety (SCL-A14), their 6......-item core-measures (SCL-D6 and SCL-A6), the anxiety symptom scale (SCL-ASS8) and the interpersonal sensitivity scale (IPS5). METHODS: The psychometric properties of the SCL-D16, SCL-A14, SCL-D6, SCL-A6, SCL-ASS8, and the IPS5 were evaluated based on SCL-90 ratings from 850 day patients from a Danish...... SCL-90 subscales were identified. Using these scales it is possible to perform a psychometrically valid evaluation of psychiatric patients regarding the severity of depression (HAM-D6), specific anxiety (SCL-ASS8) and interpersonal sensitivity (IPS5)....

  17. Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, V.; Ouwens, M.A.; Braeken, J.; Danner, U.N.; van Elburg, A.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.; Breurkens, A.; van Strien, T.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Eating Disorder Inventory–3 (EDI-3) were tested in eating disordered patients (N = 514) using confirmatory factor analyses, variance decomposition, reliabilities, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Factorial validity

  18. Are current psychometric tools suitable for measuring outcomes of diabetes education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigenmann, C. A.; Colagiuri, R.; Skinner, T. C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To critically appraise the suitability, validity, reliability, feasibility and sensitivity to change of available psychometric tools for measuring the education outcomes identified in the (Australian) National Consensus on Outcomes and Indicators for Diabetes Patient Education. Methods Poten...

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Kazdin, Alan E.; Knorth, Erik J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Expectations concerning barriers to children's psychosocial care seem to be major drivers when seeking help, but validated questionnaires measuring expectations are not available. Therefore, this study examined the psychometric properties of the parent and adolescent versions of the Barriers to

  20. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish and Swedish Satisfaction with Life Scale in first episode psychosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochwälder, Jacek; Mattsson, Maria; Holmqvist, Ragnhild

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To psychometrically evaluate the Satisfaction with Life Scale in two cohorts of first-episode psychosis patients in the Danish National Schizophrenia Project and in the Swedish Parachute Project. METHOD: Four properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale were examined in the Danish cohort....... The dimensions were confirmed in the Swedish sample. CONCLUSION: The Satisfaction with Life Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties and seems valid and useful among first-episode psychosis patients....

  1. Psychometric properties of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchamp, Marla K; Schmidt, Catherine T; Pedersen, Mette M

    2014-01-01

    The choice of measure for use as a primary outcome in geriatric research is contingent upon the construct of interest and evidence for its psychometric properties. The Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) has been widely used to assess functional limitations and disability...... in studies with older adults. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current available evidence for the psychometric properties of the LLFDI....

  2. Original article The Symbiotic Bond Questionnaire – theoretical background and psychometric qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Lewandowska-Walter; Magdalena Błażek; Maria Kaźmierczak

    2015-01-01

    Background The article describes the Symbiotic Bond Questionnaire (SBQ) – the theoretical background as well as its psychometric characteristics and psychological correlates. The items were created on the basis of the definition of symbiotic personality (Johnson, 1994a). Participants and procedure For these initial survey development and cross-validation studies, the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SBQ were examined. To assess the SBQ’s reliability, the...

  3. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. Methods A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working

  4. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire in Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Carlos Alberto da Cruz; Barbosa, Elsa Natalina Mendes; Nogueira, Maria José Carvalho; Sampaio, Francisco Miguel Correia

    2017-10-01

    Translate, adapt the language, and assess the psychometric properties of the Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire (MVQ) in a Portuguese population sample of young adults. A psychometric validation study was performed. The sample comprised 166 undergraduate students. Factor analysis was applied to extract three indicators. The MVQ showed divergent validity with the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (p Mental Health Inventory including five items (p mental vulnerability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Psychometric properties of patient-reported outcome measures for hip arthroscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Joanne L; Collins, Natalie J; Roos, Ewa M.

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are considered the gold standard when evaluating outcomes in a surgical population. While the psychometric properties of some PROs have been tested, the properties of newer PROs in patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery remain somewhat unknown.......Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are considered the gold standard when evaluating outcomes in a surgical population. While the psychometric properties of some PROs have been tested, the properties of newer PROs in patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery remain somewhat unknown....

  6. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working definition of social inclusion as an overarching

  7. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  8. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  9. Validation of online psychometric instruments for common mental health disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; van Oppen, Patricia; Smit, Johannes H

    2016-02-25

    Online questionnaires for measuring common mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders are increasingly used. The psychometrics of several pen-and-paper questionnaires have been re-examined for online use and new online instruments have been developed and tested for validity as well. This study aims to review and synthesise the literature on this subject and provide a framework for future research. We searched Medline and PsycINFO for psychometric studies on online instruments for common mental health disorders and extracted the psychometric data. Studies were coded and assessed for quality by independent raters. We included 56 studies on 62 online instruments. For common instruments such as the CES-D, MADRS-S and HADS there is mounting evidence for adequate psychometric properties. Further results are scattered over different instruments and different psychometric characteristics. Few studies included patient populations. We found at least one online measure for each of the included mental health disorders and symptoms. A small number of online questionnaires have been studied thoroughly. This study provides an overview of online instruments to refer to when choosing an instrument for assessing common mental health disorders online, and can structure future psychometric research.

  10. Distinct Neurochemical Adaptations Within the Nucleus Accumbens Produced by a History of Self-Administered vs Non-Contingently Administered Intravenous Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lominac, Kevin D; Sacramento, Arianne D; Szumlinski, Karen K; Kippin, Tod E

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychomotor stimulant yet the neurobiological consequences of methamphetamine self-administration remain under-characterized. Thus, we employed microdialysis in rats trained to self-administer intravenous (IV) infusions of methamphetamine (METH-SA) or saline (SAL) and a group of rats receiving non-contingent IV infusions of methamphetamine (METH-NC) at 1 or 21 days withdrawal to determine the dopamine and glutamate responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) to a 2 mg/kg methamphetamine intraperitoneal challenge. Furthermore, basal NAC extracellular glutamate content was assessed employing no net-flux procedures in these three groups at both time points. At both 1- and 21-day withdrawal points, methamphetamine elicited a rise in extracellular dopamine in SAL animals and this effect was sensitized in METH-NC rats. However, METH-SA animals showed a much greater sensitized dopamine response to the drug challenge compared with the other groups. Additionally, acute methamphetamine decreased extracellular glutamate in both SAL and METH-NC animals at both time-points. In contrast, METH-SA rats exhibited a modest and delayed rise in glutamate at 1-day withdrawal and this rise was sensitized at 21 days withdrawal. Finally, no net-flux microdialysis revealed elevated basal glutamate and increased extraction fraction at both withdrawal time-points in METH-SA rats. Although METH-NC rats exhibited no change in the glutamate extraction fraction, they exhibited a time-dependent elevation in basal glutamate levels. These data illustrate for the first time that a history of methamphetamine self-administration produces enduring changes in NAC neurotransmission and that non-pharmacological factors have a critical role in the expression of these methamphetamine-induced neurochemical adaptations. PMID:22030712

  11. Protective effect of Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and associated behavioural, biochemical and neurochemical changes in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, Mahendra; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Kulkarni, Shrinivas K

    2008-02-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a motor disorder of the orofacial region resulting from chronic neuroleptic treatment. A high incidence and irreversibility of this hyperkinetic disorder has been considered a major clinical issue in the treatment of schizophrenia. The molecular mechanism related to the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia is not completely known. Various animal studies have demonstrated an enhanced oxidative stress and increased glutamatergic transmission as well as inhibition in the glutamate uptake after the chronic administration of haloperidol. The present study investigated the effect of curcumin, an antioxidant, in haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia by using different behavioural (orofacial dyskinetic movements, stereotypy, locomotor activity, % retention), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione levels, antioxidant enzyme levels (SOD and catalase) and neurochemical (neurotransmitter levels) parameters. Chronic administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p. for 21 days) significantly increased vacuous chewing movements (VCM's), tongue protrusions, facial jerking in rats which was dose-dependently inhibited by curcumin. Chronic administration of haloperidol also resulted in increased dopamine receptor sensitivity as evident by increased locomotor activity and stereotypy and also decreased % retention time on elevated plus maze paradigm. Pretreatment with curcumin reversed these behavioral changes. Besides, haloperidol also induced oxidative damage in all major regions of brain which was attenuated by curcumin, especially in the subcortical region containing striatum. On chronic administration of haloperidol, there was a decrease in turnover of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in both cortical and subcortical regions which was again dose-dependently reversed by treatment with curcumin. The findings of the present study suggested for the involvement of free radicals in the development of neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia and

  12. The expression of Toll-like receptor 4, 7 and co-receptors in neurochemical sub-populations of rat trigeminal ganglion sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helley, M P; Abate, W; Jackson, S K; Bennett, J H; Thompson, S W N

    2015-12-03

    The recent discovery that mammalian nociceptors express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has raised the possibility that these cells directly detect and respond to pathogens with implications for either direct nociceptor activation or sensitization. A range of neuronal TLRs have been identified, however a detailed description regarding the distribution of expression of these receptors within sub-populations of sensory neurons is lacking. There is also some debate as to the composition of the TLR4 receptor complex on sensory neurons. Here we use a range of techniques to quantify the expression of TLR4, TLR7 and some associated molecules within neurochemically-identified sub-populations of trigeminal (TG) and dorsal root (DRG) ganglion sensory neurons. We also detail the pattern of expression and co-expression of two isoforms of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), a phospholipid remodeling enzyme previously shown to be involved in the lipopolysaccharide-dependent TLR4 response in monocytes, within sensory ganglia. Immunohistochemistry shows that both TLR4 and TLR7 preferentially co-localize with transient receptor potential vallinoid 1 (TRPV1) and purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 3 (P2X3), markers of nociceptor populations, within both TG and DRG. A gene expression profile shows that TG sensory neurons express a range of TLR-associated molecules. LPCAT1 is expressed by a proportion of both nociceptors and non-nociceptive neurons. LPCAT2 immunostaining is absent from neuronal profiles within both TG and DRG and is confined to non-neuronal cell types under naïve conditions. Together, our results show that nociceptors express the molecular machinery required to directly respond to pathogenic challenge independently from the innate immune system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant-Rich Fraction of Urtica dioica Mediated Rescue of Striatal Mito-Oxidative Damage in MPTP-Induced Behavioral, Cellular, and Neurochemical Alterations in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Rohit; Joshi, Bhuwan Chandra; Kalia, Ajudhiya Nath; Prakash, Atish

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) having a complex and multi-factorial neuropathology includes mainly the degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, which is a cumulative effect of depleted endogenous antioxidant enzymes, increased oxidative DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of a potent antioxidant from Urtica dioica in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of parkinsonism. MPTP was administered intranigrally for the induction of PD in male Wistar rats. Behavioral alterations were assessed in between the study period. Animals were sacrificed immediately after behavioral session, and different biochemical, cellular, and neurochemical parameters were measured. Intranigrally repeated administration of MPTP showed significant impairment of motor co-ordination and marked increase of mito-oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in rats. Intranigral MPTP significantly decreases the dopamine and its metabolites with impairment of dopaminergic cell density in rat brain. However, post-treatment with the potent antioxidant fraction of Urtica dioica Linn. (UD) (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) improved the motor function, mito-oxidative defense alteration significantly and dose dependently in MPTP-treated rats. In addition, the potent antioxidant fraction of UD attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-β) and restored the level of dopamine and its metabolites in MPTP-induced PD in rats. Moreover, minocycline (30 mg/kg) with lower dose of UD (20 mg/kg) had significantly potentiated the protective effect of minocycline as compared to its effect with other individual drug-treated groups. In conclusion, Urtica dioica protected the dopaminergic neurons probably by reducing mito-oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and cellular alteration along with enhanced neurotrophic potential. The above results revealed that the antioxidant rich

  14. The Group 2 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist LY379268 Rescues Neuronal, Neurochemical and Motor Abnormalities in R6/2 Huntington’s Disease Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, A.; Lafferty, D.C.; Wang, H.B.; Del Mar, N.; Deng, Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Excitotoxic injury to striatum by dysfunctional cortical input or aberrant glutamate uptake may contribute to Huntington’s Disease (HD) pathogenesis. Since corticostriatal terminals possess mGluR2/3 autoreceptors, whose activation dampens glutamate release, we tested the ability of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 to improve the phenotype in R6/2 HD mice with 120–125 CAG repeats. Daily subcutaneous injection of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of LY379268 (20mg/kg) had no evident adverse effects in WT mice, and diverse benefits in R6/2 mice, both in a cohort of mice tested behaviorally until the end of R6/2 lifespan and in a cohort sacrificed at 10 weeks of age for blinded histological analysis. MTD LY379268 yielded a significant 11% increase in R6/2 survival, an improvement on rotarod, normalization and/or improvement in locomotor parameters measured in open field (activity, speed, acceleration, endurance, and gait), a rescue of a 15–20% cortical and striatal neuron loss, normalization of SP striatal neuron neurochemistry, and to a lesser extent enkephalinergic striatal neuron neurochemistry. Deficits were greater in male than female R6/2 mice, and drug benefit tended to be greater in males. The improvements in SP striatal neurons, which facilitate movement, are consistent with the improved movement in LY379268-treated R6/2 mice. Our data indicate that mGluR2/3 agonists may be particularly useful for ameliorating the morphological, neurochemical and motor defects observed in HD. PMID:22472187

  15. Functional and neurochemical characterization of angiotensin type 1A receptor-expressing neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D A; Choong, Y-T; Connelly, A A; Bassi, J K; Hunter, N O; Thongsepee, N; Llewellyn-Smith, I J; Fong, A Y; McDougall, S J; Allen, A M

    2017-10-01

    Angiotensin II acts via two main receptors within the central nervous system, with the type 1A receptor (AT 1A R) most widely expressed in adult neurons. Activation of the AT 1 R in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the principal nucleus receiving central synapses of viscerosensory afferents, modulates cardiovascular reflexes. Expression of the AT 1 R occurs in high density within the NTS of most mammals, including humans, but the fundamental electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics of the AT 1A R-expressing NTS neurons are not known. To address this, we have used a transgenic mouse, in which the AT 1A R promoter drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Approximately one-third of AT 1A R-expressing neurons express the catecholamine-synthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and a subpopulation of these stained for the transcription factor paired-like homeobox 2b (Phox2b). A third group, comprising approximately two-thirds of the AT 1A R-expressing NTS neurons, showed Phox2b immunoreactivity alone. A fourth group in the ventral subnucleus expressed neither TH nor Phox2b. In whole cell recordings from slices in vitro, AT 1A R-GFP neurons exhibited voltage-activated potassium currents, including the transient outward current and the M-type potassium current. In two different mouse strains, both AT 1A R-GFP neurons and TH-GFP neurons showed similar AT 1A R-mediated depolarizing responses to superfusion with angiotensin II. These data provide a comprehensive description of AT 1A R-expressing neurons in the NTS and increase our understanding of the complex actions of this neuropeptide in the modulation of viscerosensory processing. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA: Development and Psychometric Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Ghanbari

    Full Text Available Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA.This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012-2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15-18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13 and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16. In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest and factor analysis were assessed.An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15-18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93. The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy.The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15-18 and can be used to evaluate

  17. Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heaton Lisa J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS, as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS. Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability, and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish

  18. Psychometric evaluation of the ostomy complication severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joyce; Bakas, Tamilyn; Ellett, Marsha; Sloan, Rebecca; Rawl, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new instrument to measure incidence and severity of ostomy complications early in the postoperative period. 71 participants were enrolled, most were men (52%), white (96%), and married or partnered (55%). The mean age of participants was 57 ± 15.09 years (mean ± SD). Fifty-two participants (84%) experienced at least 1 ostomy complication in the 60-day postoperative period. The research setting was 3 acute care settings within a large healthcare system in the Midwestern United States. We developed an evidence-based conceptual model to guide development and evaluation of a new instrument, the Pittman Ostomy Complication Severity Index (OCSI). The OCSI format includes Likert-like scale with 9 individual items scored 0 to 3 and a total score computed by summing the individual items. Higher scores indicate more severe ostomy complications. This study consisted of 2 phases: (1) an expert review, conducted to establish content validity; and (2) a prospective, longitudinal study design, to examine psychometric properties of the instrument. A convenience sample of 71 adult patients who underwent surgery to create a new fecal ostomy was recruited from 3 hospitals. Descriptive analyses, content validity indices, interrater reliability testing, and construct validity testing were employed. Common complications included leakage (60%), peristomal moisture-associated dermatitis (50%), stomal pain (42%), retraction (39%), and bleeding (32%). The OCSI demonstrated acceptable evidence of content validity index (CVI = 0.9) and interrater reliability for individual items (k = 0.71-1.0), as well as almost perfect agreement for total scores among raters (ICC = 0.991, P ≤ .001). Construct validity of the OCSI was supported by significant correlations among variables in the conceptual model (complications, risk factors, stoma care self-efficacy, and ostomy adjustment). OCSI demonstrated acceptable validity and

  19. The psychometric properties of a shortened corporate entrepreneurship assessment instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier Steyn

    2017-08-01

    Aim: The aim of this research was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a measure of entrepreneurial climate. Entrepreneurial climate was measured using a shortened version of the Hornsby, Kuratko and Zahra (2002 instrument, called the Corporate Entrepreneurship Assessment Instrument (CEAI. Making information on the psychometric properties of the instrument available directly relates to its utility. Setting: The setting was medium to large South African companies. A random sample of employees was drawn from 53 selected companies across South Africa, with 60 respondents per company (N = 3 180. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Several instruments were administered, including the shortened version of the CEAI. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test for reliability and several methods were used to test for validity. Correlation analysis was used to test for concurrent validity, convergent validity and divergent validity. Principle component factor analysis was used to test for factorial validity and a t-test to test for known-group validity. Results: The results showed that the reliability for the total score of the shortened version of the CEAI was acceptable at 0.758. The results also showed some evidence of concurrent validity, as well as homogeneity among the items. With regard to factorial validity, all items loaded in accordance with the subscales of the instrument. The measure was able to distinguish, as expected, between government organisations and private business entities, suggesting known-group validity. Convergent validity and divergent validity were also assessed. Interesting to note was that entrepreneurship climate correlates more with general employee attitude (e.g. employee engagement; R= 0.420, p < 0.001 and organisational commitment, R = 0.331, p < 0.001 than with self-reported innovation (R = 0.277, p < 0.001 and R = 0.267, p < 0.001. Contribution: This paper not only provided information on the reliability

  20. Genetic GIScience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey; Sabel, Clive E; Shi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The exposome, defined as the totality of an individual's exposures over the life course, is a seminal concept in the environmental health sciences. Although inherently geographic, the exposome as yet is unfamiliar to many geographers. This article proposes a place-based synthesis, genetic...... geographic information science (genetic GIScience), that is founded on the exposome, genome+, and behavome. It provides an improved understanding of human health in relation to biology (the genome+), environmental exposures (the exposome), and their social, societal, and behavioral determinants (the behavome......). Genetic GIScience poses three key needs: first, a mathematical foundation for emergent theory; second, process-based models that bridge biological and geographic scales; third, biologically plausible estimates of space?time disease lags. Compartmental models are a possible solution; this article develops...

  1. Desktop Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Soren H; Ajetunmobi, Ayokunmi; Brody, Leigh; Humphryes-Kirilov, Neil; Perello, Edward

    2016-11-01

    Desktop Genetics is a bioinformatics company building a gene-editing platform for personalized medicine. The company works with scientists around the world to design and execute state-of-the-art clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) experiments. Desktop Genetics feeds the lessons learned about experimental intent, single-guide RNA design and data from international genomics projects into a novel CRISPR artificial intelligence system. We believe that machine learning techniques can transform this information into a cognitive therapeutic development tool that will revolutionize medicine.

  2. A psychometric evaluation of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringblom, Jenny; Wåhlin, Ingrid; Proczkowska, Marie

    2018-04-01

    Emergence delirium and emergence agitation have been a subject of interest since the early 1960s. This behavior has been associated with increased risk of injury in children and dissatisfaction with anesthesia care in their parents. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale is a commonly used instrument for codifying and recording this behavior. The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale, focusing on the factor structure, in a sample of children recovering from anesthesia after surgery or diagnostic procedures. The reliability of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale was also tested. One hundred and twenty-two children younger than seven years were observed at postoperative care units during recovery from anesthesia. Two or 3 observers independently assessed the children using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale. The factor analysis clearly revealed a one-factor solution, which accounted for 82% of the variation in the data. Internal consistency, calculated with Cronbach's alpha, was good (0.96). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, which was used to assess interrater reliability for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale sum score, was 0.97 (P Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale for assessing emergence delirium in children recovering from anesthesia after surgery or diagnostic procedures. The kappa statistics for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale items essentially indicated good agreement between independent raters, supporting interrater reliability. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Developing and validating a psychometric scale for image quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraity, H.; England, A.; Hogg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Using AP pelvis as a catalyst, this paper explains how a psychometric scale for image quality assessment can be created using Bandura's theory for self-efficacy. Background: Establishing an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent upon the quality of the radiographic image. Image quality, as a construct (i.e. set of attributes that makes up the image quality), continues to play an essential role in the field of diagnostic radiography. The process of assessing image quality can be facilitated by using criteria, such as the European Commission (EC) guidelines for quality criteria as published in 1996. However, with the advent of new technology (Computed Radiography and Digital Radiography), some of the EC criteria may no longer be suitable for assessing the visual quality of a digital radiographic image. Moreover, a lack of validated visual image quality scales in the literature can also lead to significant variations in image quality evaluation. Creating and validating visual image quality scales, using a robust methodology, could reduce variability and improve the validity and reliability of perceptual image quality evaluations

  4. Psychometric analysis of simulated psychopathology during sick leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation from a categorical or diagnostic perspective, has turned into a more dimensional point of view, so it is possible to establish different “levels” of simulation. In order to analyse, from a psychometric perspective, the possible prediction of simulated behaviour based on common measures of general psychopathology, the objective of the current study was to analyse possible predictors of the Structured Symptomatic Simulation Inventory (SIMS scores considering as dependent variables the total SIMS score, the SIMS subscales scores, and the cut-off points usually suggested to discriminate between “no suspected simulation”/“suspected simulation”, which usually are 14 and 16. In terms of possible predictors, a set of variables were established: a categorical (sex, type of treatment - psychopharmacological, psychotherapeutic, combined-, type of work activity, being self-employed or not, presence-absence of a history of psychopathology (both familial and personal, presence or not of associated physical pathology, diagnosis -according to ICD-10- and the final proposal -return to work, sick leave extended, proposal of permanent work incapacity-; and b continuous (perceived stress -general and current, self-esteem, results of a screening questionnaire for personality disorders and scores on a symptoms questionnaire. In addition, a descriptive study of all variables was carried out and possible differences of genre were analysed.

  5. Herth hope index: psychometric testing of the Chinese version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Keung Sum; Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Lopez, Violeta

    2012-09-01

    This article is a report on psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the herth hope index. The availability of a valid and reliable instrument that accurately measures the level of hope in patients with heart failure is crucial before any hope-enhancing interventions can be appropriately planned and evaluated. There is no such instrument for Chinese people. A test-retest, within-subjects design was used. A purposive sample of 120 Hong Kong Chinese patients with heart failure between the ages of 60 and 80 years admitted to two medical wards was recruited during an 8-month period in 2009. Participants were asked to respond to the Chinese version of the herth hope index, Hamilton depression rating scale and Rosenberg's self-esteem scale. The internal consistency, content validity and construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Chinese version of the herth hope index were assessed. The newly translated scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good content validity and appropriate convergent and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analysis added further evidence of the construct validity of the scale. Results suggest that the newly translated scale can be used as a self-report assessment tool in assessing the level of hope in Hong Kong Chinese patients with heart failure. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Psychometric evaluation of the Work Readiness Questionnaire in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potkin, Steven G; Bugarski-Kirola, Dragana; Edgar, Chris J; Soliman, Sherif; Le Scouiller, Stephanie; Kunovac, Jelena; Miguel Velasco, Eugenio; Garibaldi, George M

    2016-04-01

    Unemployment can negatively impact quality of life among patients with schizophrenia. Employment status depends on ability, opportunity, education, and cultural influences. A clinician-rated scale of work readiness, independent of current work status, can be a valuable assessment tool. A series of studies were conducted to create and validate a Work Readiness Questionnaire (WoRQ) for clinicians to assess patient ability to engage in socially useful activity, independent of work availability. Content validity, test-retest and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity were evaluated in three separate studies. Content validity was supported. Cronbach's α was 0.91, in the excellent range. Clinicians endorsed WoRQ concepts, including treatment adherence, physical appearance, social competence, and symptom control. The final readiness decision showed good test-retest reliability and moderate inter-rater reliability. Work readiness was associated with higher function and lower levels of negative symptoms. Low positive and high negative predictive values confirmed the concept validity. The WoRQ has suitable psychometric properties for use in a clinical trial for patients with a broad range of symptom severity. The scale may be applicable to assess therapeutic interventions. It is not intended to assess eligibility for supported work interventions. The WoRQ is suitable for use in schizophrenia clinical trials to assess patient work functional potential.

  7. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Core Nurse Resource Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michelle R

    2010-11-01

    To examine the factor structure, internal consistency reliability and concurrent-related validity of the Core Nurse Resource Scale. A cross-sectional survey study design was used to obtain a sample of 149 nurses and nursing staff [Registered Nurse (RNs), Licensed Practical Nurse (LPNs) and Certified Nursing Assistant (CNAs)] working in long-term care facilities. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and bivariate correlations were used to evaluate validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a scale with 18 items on three factors, accounting for 52% of the variance in scores. Internal consistency reliability for the composite and Core Nurse Resource Scale factors ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. The Core Nurse Resource Scale composite scale and subscales correlated positively with a measure of work engagement (r=0.247-0.572). The initial psychometric evaluation of the Core Nurse Resource Scale demonstrates it is a sound measure. Further validity and reliability assessment will need to be explored and assessed among nurses and other nursing staff working in other practice settings. The intent of the Core Nurse Resource Scale is to evaluate the presence of physical, psychological and social resources of the nursing work environment, to identify workplaces at risk for disengaged (low work engagement) nursing staff and to provide useful diagnostic information to healthcare administrators interested in interventions to improve the nursing work environment. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Psychometric structure of the Chinese Multiethnic Adolescent Cultural Identity Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fa-Wen; Wang, Pei; Li, Li-Ju

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we used the Chinese Multiethnic Adolescent Cultural Identity Questionnaire (CMACIQ) and collected valid data from 1,036 participants to systematically examine the mental model of cultural identity in Chinese multiethnic adolescents. Exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed on the data to discover the factor structure and dimensions of cultural identity. The psychometric properties of the scale were rigorously validated in 2,744 new multiethnic participants from 5 native ethnic groups in Yunnan province in China. The results indicated that CMACIQ had reasonable metric properties and good fit indices. The hierarchical model of cultural identity consisted of 2 second-order factors, Ethnic Cultural Identity and Mainstream Cultural Identity in School. The first higher order factor was composed of preference for ethnic things, ethnic acceptance, religious belief, and ethnic convention, while the second comprised 2 first-order factors, Social Norms and Dominant Culture. The potential application and limitations of CMACIQ are discussed. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Psychometric properties of a scale to measure alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, E B; Arena, J G; Pallmeyer, T P

    1981-01-01

    Four studies were conducted on a sample of 230 undergraduates to determine the psychometric properties of a measure of alexithymia, the Schalling-Sifneos Scale. In the first study it was found that scores on the scale are approximately normally distributed for each sex with 8.2% of males and 1.8% of females in the alexithymia range. In the second study a factor analysis of the scale revealed three distinct factors: (1) 'difficulty in expression of feelings'; (2) 'the importance of feelings especially about people'; (3) 'day-dreaming or introspection'. In the second factor analytic study, scores from several standard psychological tests on the same subjects were introduced with the scale items. Two factors in this analysis were comprised almost entirely of the other test scores: a 'general psychological distress factor' and a 'concerns about physical symptoms factor'. The other two factors were similar to factors 1 and 2 above in terms of items. The Rathus Assertiveness Scale loaded positively on the equivalent of factor 1. In the lst study, it was shown that Schalling-Sifneos Scale score is relatively orthogonal to other psychological tests with the exception of a Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and thus is measuring something other than depression, anxiety, etc.

  10. Psychometric properties of the positivity scale - Brazilian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Callegaro Borsa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Positivity Scale (P-Scale. Participants were 730 subjects (65% women, aged from 17 to 70 years old (M = 31.0 years; SD = 11.43, from 21 Brazilian states. The sample was randomly split in two halves to cross-validate the results. With the first half of the sample (n1 = 365, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted. With the second half of the sample (n2 = 365, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA assessed the fit of the exploratory model. Convergent validity and group differences were also evaluated. The EFA and CFA presented a one-dimensional structure for the P-Scale. Moderate correlations were found between the P-Scale and mental-health, subjective happiness and life-satisfaction. The levels of positivity presented a low positive correlation with age, educational level and financial income. Slightly significant effects were found for occupational status and marital status. Positivity appears to be more closely related to personal dispositions than to sociodemographic aspects. Our results suggest that the P-Scale is a reliable measure with which to evaluate the levels of positivity in Brazil.

  11. Psychometric properties of the AUDIT among men in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Paige; Weobong, Benedict; Nadkarni, Abhijit

    2017-10-01

    The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is a 10-item screening questionnaire used to detect alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT has been validated in only two studies in India and although it has been previously used in Goa, India, it has yet to be validated in that setting. In this paper, we aim to report data on the validity of the AUDIT for the screening of AUDs among men in Goa, India. Concurrent and convergent validity of the AUDIT were assessed against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS) for alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and functional status respectively through the secondary analysis of data from a community cohort of men from Goa, India. The AUDIT showed high internal reliability and acceptable criterion validity with adequate psychometric properties for the detection of alcohol abuse and dependence. However, all of the optimal cut-off points from ROC analyses were lower than the WHO recommended for identification of risk of all AUDs, with a score of 6-12 detecting alcohol abuse and 13 and higher alcohol dependence. In order to optimize the utility of the AUDIT, a lowered cut-off point for alcohol abuse and dependence is recommended for Goa, India. Further validation studies for the AUDIT should be conducted for continued validation of the tool in other parts of India. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Psycho-informatics: Big Data shaping modern psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowetz, Alexander; Błaszkiewicz, Konrad; Montag, Christian; Switala, Christina; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2014-04-01

    For the first time in history, it is possible to study human behavior on great scale and in fine detail simultaneously. Online services and ubiquitous computational devices, such as smartphones and modern cars, record our everyday activity. The resulting Big Data offers unprecedented opportunities for tracking and analyzing behavior. This paper hypothesizes the applicability and impact of Big Data technologies in the context of psychometrics both for research and clinical applications. It first outlines the state of the art, including the severe shortcomings with respect to quality and quantity of the resulting data. It then presents a technological vision, comprised of (i) numerous data sources such as mobile devices and sensors, (ii) a central data store, and (iii) an analytical platform, employing techniques from data mining and machine learning. To further illustrate the dramatic benefits of the proposed methodologies, the paper then outlines two current projects, logging and analyzing smartphone usage. One such study attempts to thereby quantify severity of major depression dynamically; the other investigates (mobile) Internet Addiction. Finally, the paper addresses some of the ethical issues inherent to Big Data technologies. In summary, the proposed approach is about to induce the single biggest methodological shift since the beginning of psychology or psychiatry. The resulting range of applications will dramatically shape the daily routines of researches and medical practitioners alike. Indeed, transferring techniques from computer science to psychiatry and psychology is about to establish Psycho-Informatics, an entire research direction of its own. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T; Wei, Meifen; Zhao, Ran; Chuang, Chih-Chun; Li, Feihan

    2015-03-01

    The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale (CCLS), a measure of loss associated with crossing national boundaries, was developed across 2 samples of international students. With Sample 1 (N = 262), exploratory factor analyses were used to select the 14 CCLS items and to determine 3 factors: Belonging-Competency (α = .87), National Privileges (α = .68), and Access to Home Familiarity (α = .72). With Sample 2, confirmatory factor analyses (N = 256) cross-validated the 3-factor oblique model as well as a bifactor model. Cronbach alphas of CCLS subscale scores in Sample 2 ranged from .73 to .87. The validity of the CCLS scores was supported by its associations with related variables in the expected directions. Perceived cross-cultural losses were positively associated with negative affect, migration grief and loss, and discrimination and were negatively associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, general self-efficacy, and social connection with mainstream society. Moreover, the CCLS total and 2 subscale scores added significant incremental variance in predicting subjective well-being over and above related constructs. The results indicated measurement invariance and validity equivalency for the CCLS scores between men and women. The overall results from these 2 samples support CCLS as a psychometrically strong measure. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  14. The inventory of dyadic heterosexual preferences: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1996-04-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of an instrument that measures preferences for specific sexual behaviors of heterosexual men and women in a dyadic context. In Study 1, 74 statements of preference were reduced to 46 on the basis of reliability and range of responses. Factor analysis revealed that 27 of the 46 items loaded on 6 factors: Erotophilia, Use of Contraception, Conventionality, Use of Erotica, Use of Drugs/Alcohol, and Romanticism. In Study 2, factor analysis of fresh data from a second sample cross-validated these results. To establish construct validity of the revised 27-item Inventory of Dyadic Heterosexual Preferences (IDHP), relationships between each of its 6 scales and 6 criterion measures were examined. These analyses suggested that the last scale is more accurately characterized by the term Romantic Foreplay. We conclude that the IDHP measures 6 distinct domains of sexual preference with a brief, psychometrically sound instrument. Potential applications of the IDHP, suggestions for future research, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are discussed.

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis eKoukounari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks. When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions. Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy.

  16. Workplace nutrition knowledge questionnaire: psychometric validation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnin, Simone C; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Dutra, Eliane S; de Carvalho, Kênia M B; Ito, Marina K

    2016-11-01

    Workplace dietary intervention studies in low- and middle-income countries using psychometrically sound measures are scarce. This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NQ) and its utility in evaluating the changes in knowledge among participants of a Nutrition Education Program (NEP) conducted at the workplace. A NQ was tested for construct validity, internal consistency and discriminant validity. It was applied in a NEP conducted at six workplaces, in order to evaluate the effect of an interactive or a lecture-based education programme on nutrition knowledge. Four knowledge domains comprising twenty-three items were extracted in the final version of the NQ. Internal consistency of each domain was significant, with Kuder-Richardson formula values>0·60. These four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the discriminant validity test, both the Expert and Lay groups scored>0·52, but the Expert group scores were significantly higher than those of the Lay group in all domains. When the NQ was applied in the NEP, the overall questionnaire scores increased significantly because of the NEP intervention, in both groups (Pnutrition knowledge among participants of NEP at the workplace. According to the NQ, an interactive nutrition education had a higher impact on nutrition knowledge than a lecture programme.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Burnout Inventory for Referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Ferreira Brandão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Burnout Inventory for Referees (BIR in Portuguese in a sample of professional soccer referees and to explore the nomological validity of the inventory through concurrent validation. The analysis showed a factorial structure of burnout for the referees with one second order factor and three first order factors; physical and emotional exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. A cross-validation procedure showed that the factor structure was replicable, and the inventory demonstrated internal reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. In addition, the study assessed the concurrent validity of the inventory by examining the correlation between the scores of the Burnout Inventory for Referees and the scores of the Profile of Mood States (POMS. The subscales of burnout and total burnout were positively correlated with tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion and negatively with vigor, as expected. In conclusion, the Portuguese version of BIR presents good evidence of validity and reliability in the assessment of referees who may be at risk of suffering from burnout.

  18. Assessing the psychometric questioner for students rating teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razaghi Reza Sharif

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational institutions use different ways to evaluate their teachers. Asking students to rate their teachers is common practice. The purpose of this research was to examine the reliability of the instruments used to evaluate the instructors in a college of medicine. This cross-sectional descriptive research used questioners that evaluated instructors. The questioner was targeting different dimensions of instructors. Item analysis in addition to exploratory factor analysis was performed on 1040questioners answered by the students of the College of Medicine of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. SPSS software was used to perform the analysis. The psychometric properties of questionnaires including Cronbach alpha was determined. The result of exploratory factor analysis and item analysis indicated that three of the subscales of the questioner showed sufficient reliability to evaluate the instructors and two subscales needed further examination. This type of evaluations is necessary to ensure quality of instructors working in an institution as well as providing reliable feedback to the instructors. The result showed that while some subscales of the questioner seems to target the concept of interest; a re-evaluation of the instrument would be valuable to increase its reliability for the administrators in the colleges.

  19. Psychometric Personality Differences Between Candidates in Astronaut Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, Justin M; Pecena, Yvonne; Oubaid, Viktor; Maschke, Peter

    This paper investigates personality traits as potential factors for success in an astronaut selection by comparing personality profiles of unsuccessful and successful astronaut candidates in different phases of the ESA selection procedure. It is further addressed whether personality traits could predict an overall assessment rating at the end of the selection. In 2008/2009, ESA performed an astronaut selection with 902 candidates who were either psychologically recommended for mission training (N = 46) or failed in basic aptitude (N = 710) or Assessment Center and interview testing (N = 146). Candidates completed the Temperament Structure Scales (TSS) and the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R). Those candidates who failed in basic aptitude testing showed higher levels of Neuroticism (M = 49.8) than the candidates who passed that phase (M = 45.4 and M = 41.6). Additionally, candidates who failed in basic testing had lower levels of Agreeableness (M = 132.9) than recommended candidates (M = 138.1). TSS scales for Achievement (r = 0.19) and Vitality (r = 0.18) showed a significant correlation with the overall assessment rating given by a panel board after a final interview. Results indicate that a personality profile similar to Helmreich's "Right Stuff" is beneficial in astronaut selection. Influences of test anxiety on performance are discussed. Mittelstädt JM, Pecena Y, Oubaid V, Maschke P. Psychometric personality differences between candidates in astronaut selection. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(11):933-939.

  20. Psychometric properties of Conversion Disorder Scale- Revised (CDS) for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Tazvin; Nasir, Attikah; Sarfraz, Naema; Ijaz, Shirmeen

    2017-05-01

    To revise conversion disorder scale and to establish the psychometric properties of the revised scale. This case-control study was conducted from February to June, 2014, at the Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised schoolchildren and children with conversion disorder. In order to generate items for revised version of conversion disorder scale, seven practising mental health professionals were consulted. A list of 42 items was finalised for expert ratings. After empirical validation, a scale of 40 items was administered on the participants and factor analysis was conducted. Of the240 participants, 120(50%) were schoolchildren (controls group) and 120(50%)were children with conversion disorder (clinical group).The results of factor analysis revealed five factors (swallowing and speech symptoms, motor symptoms, sensory symptoms, weakness and fatigue, and mixed symptoms) and retention of all 40 items of revised version of conversion disorder scale. Concurrent validity of the revised scale was found to be 0.81 which was significantly high. Similarly, discriminant validity of the scale was also high as both clinical and control groups had significant difference (pconversion disorder scale was 76% sensitive to predicting conversion disorder while specificity showed that the scale was 73% accurate in specifying participants of the control group. The revised version of conversion disorder scale was a reliable and valid tool to be used for screening of children with conversion disorder.

  1. [The psychometric properties of the Proverb-Metaphor Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajer, Katarzyna; Karakuła, Hanna; Grzywa, Anna; Parnas, Josef; Perzyńska, Aneta; Zaborska, Anna; Pawezka, Justyna; Sekunda, Agnieszka; Piszczek, Rafał; Skórska, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    Abstract thinking belongs to intellectual abilities of the highest level of the evolutionary development, thanks to which operations such a classification, systematisation and comparison are possible. An analysis of the psychometric properties of the Proverb-Metaphor Test (TPM) which has been used in the German speaking countries since 2001. The TPM was subject to the process of translation--retranslation--travesty in order to be adapted to clinical conditions in Poland. 60 patients of the Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Lublin with diagnosed paranoid schizophrenia (according to ICD-10 criteria). PANSS and TPM was carried out amongst 15 patients at the beginning of the hospitalisation (the first stage of the research) and among all persons during the remission of syndromes (the second stage). The WAIS-R (PL) was used in the second stage. 1. The TPM is a reliable instrument, of high criteria propriety. 2. The evaluated test is a relatively homogeneous research tool. 3. The TPM is, thanks to its simple construction and the short carrying out time, a practical method of abstract thinking evaluation. 4. The TPM may be a useful instrument enabling long term prognosis.

  2. [Psychometric assessment of a brief Modern Racism Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi C

    2016-06-01

    Objective To find the internal consistency of the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) among medical students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods A total of 352 medical students, mean age=20.0 years (SD=1.9) reported their attitudes towards Afro-Colombians; 59.4 % were women. Students completed the 10-item version of MRS. Cronbach alpha and McDonald omega were calculated. Exploratory factor analyses were done to propose a brief version of the MRS. Results The 10-item version showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.48 and a McDonald omega of 0.15. The short version, the Brief Modern Racism Scale (BMRS) (items 1, 4, 5, 7 and 8) presented a Cronbach alpha of 0.64 and McDonald omega of 0.65. The BMRS showed one salient factor responsible of 41.6 % of the total variance. Conclusions A Spanish-language short version of the MRS shows better psychometric performance than the original version. Further study is needed to corroborate these findings or make adjustments for Colombian cultural regions.

  3. Assessment of Affect Lability: Psychometric Properties of the ALS-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardi, Anna; Imperatori, Claudio; Amati, Italia; Balsamo, Michela; Innamorati, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Affect lability, an important aspect of emotion dysregulation, characterizes several psychiatric conditions. The short Affective Lability Scales (ALS-18) measures three aspects of changeability between euthymia and affect states (Anxiety/Depression, AD; Depression/Elation, DE; and Anger, Ang). The aim of our study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of an Italian version of the ALS-18 in a sample of adults recruited from the general population. The sample was composed of 494 adults (343 women and 151 men) aged 18 and higher (mean age = 31.73 years, SD = 12.6). All participants were administered a checklist assessing socio-demographic variables, the ALS-18 and measures of depression and difficulties in emotion regulation. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated adequate fit of the three-factor model (RMSEA = 0.061, 95% CI = 0.054/0.069; CFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.055), and the presence of a higher-order general factor. Internal consistency was satisfactory for all the lower-order dimensions and the general factor (ordinal α > 0.70). The ALS-18 was significantly associated with concurrent measures of depression and difficulties in emotion regulation. These findings indicate that the ALS-18 is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring affect lability, although discriminant validity of subdimensions scores could be problematic.

  4. New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the booklet. » more Chapter 1: How Genes Work Covers DNA, RNA, transcription, RNA splicing, translation, ribosomes, antibiotics, genetic diseases, gene chips. » more Chapter 2: RNA and DNA Revealed: New Roles, New Rules Covers microRNAs, RNAi, epigenetics, telomeres, mtDNA, recombinant DNA. » ...

  5. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    In 1948-1953 a large scale field survey was conducted to investigate the possible genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on over 70,000 pregnancy terminations in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indices of possible genetic effect including sex ratio, birth weight, frequency of malformation, stillbirth, neonatal death, deaths within 9 months and anthropometric measurements at 9 months of age for these children were investigated in relation to their parent's exposure status to the A-bomb. There were no detectable genetic effects in this sample, except for a slight change in sex ratio which was in the direction to be expected if exposure had induced sex-linked lethal mutations. However, continued study of the sex ratio, based upon birth certificates in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for 1954-1962, did not confirm the earlier trend. Mortality in these children of A-bomb survivors is being followed using a cohort of 54,000 subjects. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the children has been demonstrated up to 1972 (age 17 on the average). On the basis of the regression data, the minimal genetic doubling dose of this type of radiation for mutations resulting in death is estimated at 46 rem for the father and 125 rem for the mother. (auth.)

  6. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence of herita......Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence...... in a combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely...... polygenic component to susceptibility, and a unique level of personal melanoma risk influenced by multiple low-risk alleles and genetic modifiers. In addition to conferring a risk of cutaneous melanoma, some 'melanoma' predisposition genes have been linked to other cancers, with cancer clustering observed...

  7. Genetic Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  8. Genetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, M.; Alonso-Blanco, C.; Stam, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mendelian analysis of genetic variation, available as induced mutants or as natural variation, requires a number of steps that are described in this chapter. These include the determination of the number of genes involved in the observed trait's variation, the determination of dominance

  9. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.R.; Krontiris, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the authors review new findings concerning the molecular genetics of malignant melanoma in the context of other information obtained from clinical, epidemiologic, and cytogenetic studies in this malignancy. These new molecular approaches promise to provide a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of melanoma, thereby suggesting new methods for its treatment and prevention

  10. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  11. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.; Abrahamson, S.; Denniston, C.; Schull, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major classes of genetic diseases that would be increased as a result of an increased gonadal radiation exposure to a human population. The risk analysis takes on two major forms: the increase in genetic disease that would be observed in the immediate offspring of the exposed population, and the subsequent transmission of the newly induced mutations through future generations. The major classes of genetic disease will be induced at different frequencies, and will also impact differentially in terms of survivability and fertility on the affected individuals and their descendants. Some classes of disease will be expected to persist for only a few generations at most. Other types of genetic disease will persist through a longer period. The classes of genetic diseases studied are: dominant gene mutation, X-linked gene mutation, chromosome disorders and multifactorial disorders which involve the interaction of many mutant genes and environmental factors. For each of these classes we have derived the general equations of mutation induction for the male and female germ cells of critical importance in the mutation process. The frequency of induced mutations will be determined initially by the dose received, the type of radiation and, to some extent at high dose, by the manner in which the dose is received. We have used the modeling analyses to predict the outcomes for two nuclear power plant accident scenarios, the first in which the population receives a chronic dose of 0.1 Gy (10 rad) over a 50-year period, the second in which an equivalent population receives an acute dose of 2 Gy. In both cases the analyses are projected over a period of five generations

  12. A Targeted Review of the Neurobiology and Genetics of Behavioral Addictions: An Emerging Area of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioral addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity and family history/genetics findings for behavioral addictions involving gambling, internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioral addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and gray matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history/genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that those with behavioral addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic/family history findings in substance and non-substance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviors may constitute addictions. Findings to date are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania and sexual behavior. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered. PMID:23756286

  13. A targeted review of the neurobiology and genetics of behavioural addictions: an emerging area of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-05-01

    This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioural addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders, and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity, and family history and (or) genetic findings for behavioural addictions involving gambling, Internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania, and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioural addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and grey matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history and genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that people with behavioural addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic and family history findings in substance and nonsubstance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviours may constitute addictions. To date, findings are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania, and sexual behaviour. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered.

  14. Measuring genetic knowledge: a brief survey instrument for adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald-Butt, S M; Bodine, A; Fry, K M; Ash, J; Zaidi, A N; Garg, V; Gerhardt, C A; McBride, K L

    2016-02-01

    Basic knowledge of genetics is essential for understanding genetic testing and counseling. The lack of a written, English language, validated, published measure has limited our ability to evaluate genetic knowledge of patients and families. Here, we begin the psychometric analysis of a true/false genetic knowledge measure. The 18-item measure was completed by parents of children with congenital heart defects (CHD) (n = 465) and adolescents and young adults with CHD (age: 15-25, n = 196) with a mean total correct score of 12.6 [standard deviation (SD) = 3.5, range: 0-18]. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis, we determined that one to three correlated factors, or abilities, were captured by our measure. Through confirmatory factor analysis, we determined that the two factor model was the best fit. Although it was necessary to remove two items, the remaining items exhibited adequate psychometric properties in a multidimensional item response theory analysis. Scores for each factor were computed, and a sum-score conversion table was derived. We conclude that this genetic knowledge measure discriminates best at low knowledge levels and is therefore well suited to determine a minimum adequate amount of genetic knowledge. However, further reliability testing and validation in diverse research and clinical settings is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Psychometrics of Multiple Choice Questions with Non-Functioning Distracters: Implications to Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Kishore K; Al-Umran, Khalid Umran; AI-Sheikh, Mona H; Dkoli, B V; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The functionality of distracters in a multiple choice question plays a very important role. We examined the frequency and impact of functioning and non-functioning distracters on psychometric properties of 5-option items in clinical disciplines. We analyzed item statistics of 1115 multiple choice questions from 15 summative assessments of undergraduate medical students and classified the items into five groups by their number of non-functioning distracters. We analyzed the effect of varying degree of non-functionality ranging from 0 to 4, on test reliability, difficulty index, discrimination index and point biserial correlation. The non-functionality of distracters inversely affected the test reliability and quality of items in a predictable manner. The non-functioning distracters made the items easier and lowered the discrimination index significantly. Three non-functional distracters in a 5-option MCQ significantly affected all psychometric properties (p psychometrically as effective as 5-option items. Our study reveals that a multiple choice question with 3 functional options provides lower most limit of item format that has adequate psychometric property. The test containing items with less number of functioning options have significantly lower reliability. The distracter function analysis and revision of nonfunctioning distracters can serve as important methods to improve the psychometrics and reliability of assessment.

  16. Weight Bias: A Systematic Review of Characteristics and Psychometric Properties of Self-Report Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Emilie; Alberga, Angela; Russell-Mathew, Shelly; McLaren, Lindsay; von Ranson, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    People living with overweight and obesity often experience weight-based stigmatization. Investigations of the prevalence and correlates of weight bias and evaluation of weight bias reduction interventions depend upon psychometrically-sound measurement. Our paper is the first to comprehensively evaluate the psychometric properties, use of people-first language within items, and suitability for use with various populations of available self-report measures of weight bias. We searched five electronic databases to identify English-language self-report questionnaires of weight bias. We rated each questionnaire's psychometric properties based on initial validation reports and subsequent use, and examined item language. Our systematic review identified 40 original self-report questionnaires. Most questionnaires were brief, demonstrated adequate internal consistency, and tapped key cognitive and affective dimensions of weight bias such as stereotypes and blaming. Current psychometric evidence is incomplete for many questionnaires, particularly with regard to the properties of test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change as well as discriminant and structural validity. Most questionnaires were developed prior to debate surrounding terminology preferences, and do not employ people-first language in the items administered to participants. We provide information and recommendations for clinicians and researchers in selecting psychometrically sound measures of weight bias for various purposes and populations, and discuss future directions to improve measurement of this construct. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. Psychometric Properties of Questionnaires on Functional Health Status in Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Results. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. Conclusions. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature. PMID:24877095

  18. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or “social threats” across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not “social threats”) significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and “social threat” groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the “social threat” group. Collectively, our

  19. Treatment of trigeminal ganglion neurons in vitro with NGF, GDNF or BDNF: effects on neuronal survival, neurochemical properties and TRPV1-mediated neuropeptide secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan Amol M

    2005-01-01

    results illustrate that NGF, GDNF and BDNF differentially alter TG sensory neuron survival, neurochemical properties and TRPV1-mediated neuropeptide release in culture. In particular, our findings suggest that GDNF and NGF differentially modulate TRPV1-mediated neuropeptide secretion sensitivity, with NGF having a much greater effect on a per neuron basis than GDNF. These findings are discussed in relation to possible therapeutic roles for growth factors or their modulators in pathological pain states, especially as these relate to the trigeminal system.

  20. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Denniston, C.; Schull, W.

    1985-01-01

    Modeling analyses are used to predict the outcomes for two nuclear power plant accident scenarios, the first in which the population received a chronic dose of 0.1 Gy (10 rad) over a 50 year period, the second in which an equivalent population receives acute dose of 2 Gy. In both cases the analyses are projected over a period of five generations. The risk analysis takes on two major forms: the increase in genetic disease that would be observed in the immediate offspring of the exposed population, and the subsequent transmission of the newly induced mutations through future generations. The classes of genetic diseases studied are: dominant gene mutation, X-linked gene mutation, chromosome disorders and multifactorial disorders which involve the interaction of many mutant genes and environmental factors. 28 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  1. Psychometrics of the neonatal oral motor assessment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarem, Cori; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Neil, Jeffrey; Wallendorf, Michael; Inder, Terrie; Pineda, Roberta

    2013-12-01

    To establish the psychometrics of the Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS). In this prospective cohort study of 75 preterm infants (39 females, 36 males) born at or before 30 weeks gestation (mean gestational age 26.56 wks, SD 1.90, range 23-30 wks; mean birthweight 967.33 g, SD 288.54, range 480-2240), oral feeding was videotaped before discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The NOMAS was used to classify feeding as normal, disorganized, or dysfunctional. Neurobehavior was assessed at term equivalent, and infants underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Children returned for developmental testing at 2 years corrected age. Associations between NOMAS scores and (1) neurobehavior; (2) cerebral injury and metrics; and (3) developmental outcome were investigated using χ(2) -analyses, t-tests, and linear regression. For reliability, six certified NOMAS evaluators rated five randomly selected NOMAS recordings and re-scored them 2 weeks later in a second randomized order. Reliability was calculated with Cohen's kappa statistics. Dysfunctional NOMAS scores were associated with lower Dubowitz scores [t=-2.14; mean difference -2.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.157 to -4.49); p=0.036], higher stress on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (t=2.61; mean difference 0.073 [95% CI 0.017-0.129]; p=0.0110), and decreased transcerebellar diameter (t=-2.22; mean difference -2.04 [CI=-3.89 to -0.203]; p=0.03). No significant associations were found between NOMAS scores and 2-year outcome. Some concurrent validity was established with associations between NOMAS scores and measures of infant behavior and cerebral structure. The NOMAS did not show predictive validity in this study of preterm infants at high risk of developmental delay. Reliability was variable and suboptimal. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Urdu Version of Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Bukhsh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePatient education is a key element in the treatment of diabetes. Assessment of diabetes knowledge is important for optimum treatment. For the assessment of diabetes knowledge, validated tool is essential. None of such validated tool is available in Urdu language. Therefore, the aim of this study was to translate and examine the psychometric properties of the 24-item Urdu version of Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ among type 2 diabetes patients.MethodsStandard “forward–backward” process was used to translate DKQ into Urdu language. Later, it was validated on a convenience sample of 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, between July and September 2016. Internal consistency was assessed by reliability analysis, one-way analysis of variance was applied for known group validity and multivariate linear logistic regression was applied for identifying significant predictors for patients’ DKQ score.ResultsGood internal consistency was observed for DKQ (Cronbach’s α = 0.702. The mean HbA1c of the patients was 8.55% (±1.91. DKQ scores of patients’ with “good glycemic control” (14.22 ± 2.4 were observed significantly higher (P < 0.05 than patients with “poor glycemic control” (12.56 ± 2.75. Multiple linear regression revealed that patients’ HbA1c (OR −0.17, CI −1.111, −0.023 and patients’ education (OR 0.17, CI −0.032, 0.758 were significant predictors for DKQ sum score.ConclusionUrdu version of the DKQ is a valid and reliable instrument for adequate estimation of disease knowledge and its association with glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients in Pakistan.

  3. Psychometric evaluation of 3-set 4P questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, Eva; Fridlund, Bengt; Samuelson, Karin; Baigi, Amir; Ersson, Anders

    2013-02-01

    This is a further development of a specific questionnaire, the 3-set 4P, to be used for measuring former ICU patients' physical and psychosocial problems after intensive care and the need for follow-up. The aim was to psychometrically test and evaluate the 3-set 4P questionnaire in a larger population. The questionnaire consists of three sets: "physical", "psychosocial" and "follow-up". The questionnaires were sent by mail to all patients with more than 24-hour length of stay on four ICUs in Sweden. Construct validity was measured with exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation. This resulted in three factors for the "physical set", five factors for the "psychosocial set" and four factors for the "follow-up set" with strong factor loadings and a total explained variance of 62-77.5%. Thirteen questions in the SF-36 were used for concurrent validity showing Spearman's r(s) 0.3-0.6 in eight questions and less than 0.2 in five. Test-retest was used for stability reliability. In set follow-up the correlation was strong to moderate and in physical and psychosocial sets the correlations were moderate to fair. This may have been because the physical and psychosocial status changed rapidly during the test period. All three sets had good homogeneity. In conclusion, the 3-set 4P showed overall acceptable results, but it has to be further modified in different cultures before being considered a fully operational instrument for use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychometric properties of the Chinese Internet Gaming Disorder Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigerson, Leif; Li, Angel Y-L; Cheung, Mike W-L; Luk, Jeremy W; Cheng, Cecilia

    2017-11-01

    To develop a consensus on the definition and measurement of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), several recent studies have used the DSM-5's proposed criteria for IGD as the basis in scale construction. This study contributes to this emerging consensus by developing and validating a new Chinese Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (C-IGDS) based on the DSM-5 criteria. A representative sample of Hong Kong community adults (n=502, 50% men, mean age=37.1, age range=18-60) was recruited for a telephone survey with random digit dialing. Various statistical techniques were used to assess the psychometric properties of the C-IGDS. The C-IGDS had good reliability (Cronbach's α=0.91) and structural validity (CFA model fit: RMSEA=0.027, CFI=0.991, TLI=0.988) in our sample. Moderate to moderately strong correlations with depressive symptoms (r=0.617, pgaming hours (r=0.412, p<0.001) supported the criterion validity of the C-IGDS. In addition, the C-IGDS exhibited strict measurement invariance for sex and at least strong measurement invariance for age. In addition to providing the first Chinese scale for measuring IGD based on the DSM-5's proposed criteria, this study provides empirical support for the validity of these diagnostic criteria as the basis for a universal measure of IGD. Most important, this study is the first to reveal the criteria's measurement invariance, thereby indicating their suitability for use with diverse demographic groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychometric properties of the Greek Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontodimopoulos Nick

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Measurement of treatment satisfaction in diabetes is important as it has been shown to be associated with positive outcomes, reduced disease cost and better health. The aim of this study was to assess the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Greek version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ. Methods A sample of type II diabetes patients (N = 172 completed the DTSQ status version, the SF-36 health survey and also provided data regarding treatment method, clinical and socio-demographic status. Instrument structure, reliability (Cronbach's a and construct validity (convergent, discriminative, concurrent and known-groups were assessed. Results The DTSQ measurement properties were confirmed in the Greek version with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Scale reliability was high (Cronbach's a = 0.92. Item-scale internal consistency and discriminant validity were also good, exceeding the designated success criteria. Significant correlations were observed between DTSQ items/overall score and SF-36 scales/component scores, which were hypothesized to measure similar dimensions. Known groups' comparisons yielded consistent support of the construct validity of the instrument. Conclusions The instrument was well-accepted by the patients and its psychometric properties were similar to those reported in validation studies of other language versions. Further research, incorporating a longitudinal study design, is required for examining test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instrument, which were not addressed in this study. Overall, the present results confirm that the DTSQ status version is a reasonable choice for measuring diabetes treatment satisfaction in Greece.

  6. Psychometric properties of the Questionnaire for Secondary Traumatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Weitkamp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past several years, there has been a growing interest in the negative effects that providing therapy may have on therapists. Of special interest is a phenomenon called secondary traumatization, which can arise while working with traumatized clients. To develop a simple screening tool for secondary traumatization, a quantitative assessment instrument was constructed using a data-driven approach based on qualitative interviews with affected trauma therapists as well as experienced supervisors in trauma therapy. Objective: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the newly developed Questionnaire for Secondary Traumatization (FST acute and lifetime version and to determine the most appropriate scoring procedure. Method: To this end, three independent samples of psychotherapists (n=371, trauma therapists in training (n=80, and refugee counselors (n=197 filled out an online questionnaire battery. Data structure was analyzed using factor analyses, cluster analyses, and reliability analyses. Results: Factor analyses yielded a six-factor structure for both the acute and the lifetime version with only a small number of items loading on differing factors. Cluster analyses suggested a single scale structure of the questionnaire. The FST total score showed good internal consistencies across all three samples, while internal consistency of the six extracted factors was mixed. Conclusion: With the FST, a reliable screening instrument for acute and lifetime secondary traumatization is now available which is free of charge and yields a sum score for quick evaluation. The six-factor structure needs to be verified with confirmatory factor analyses.

  7. Psychometric analyses to improve the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijning, Janna E; van Rens, Ger; Knol, Dirk; van Nispen, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    In the past, rehabilitation centers for the visually impaired used unstructured or semistructured methods to assess rehabilitation needs of their patients. Recently, an extensive instrument, the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI), was developed to systematically investigate rehabilitation needs of visually impaired adults and to evaluate rehabilitation outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying factor structure and other psychometric properties to shorten and improve the D-AI. The D-AI was administered to 241 visually impaired persons who recently enrolled in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation center. The D-AI uses graded scores to assess the importance and difficulty of 65 rehabilitation goals. For high-priority goals (e.g., daily meal preparation), the difficulty of underlying tasks (e.g., read recipes, cut vegetables) was assessed. To reduce underlying task items (>950), descriptive statistics were investigated and factor analyses were performed for several goals. The internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability of the D-AI were investigated by calculating Cronbach α and Cohen (weighted) κ. Finally, consensus-based discussions were used to shorten and improve the D-AI. Except for one goal, factor analysis model parameters were at least reasonable. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory (range, 0.74 to 0.93). In total, 60% of the 65 goal importance items and 84.4% of the goal difficulty items showed moderate to almost perfect κ values (≥0.40). After consensus-based discussions, a new D-AI was produced, containing 48 goals and less than 500 tasks. The analyses were an important step in the validation process of the D-AI and to develop a more feasible assessment tool to investigate rehabilitation needs of visually impaired persons in a systematic way. The D-AI is currently implemented in all Dutch rehabilitation centers serving all visually impaired adults with various rehabilitation needs.

  8. Development and psychometric testing of the Supportive Supervisory Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S

    2010-06-01

    To describe the development and psychometric testing of the Supportive Supervisory Scale (SSS). The development of the items of the scale was based on Winnicott's relationship theory and on focus groups with 26 healthcare aides (HCAs) and 30 supervisors from six long-term care (LTC) facilities in Ontario, Canada. Content validity of the 15-item instrument was established by a panel of experts. Based on a secondary analysis of data collected from 222 HCAs in 10 LTC facilities in Ontario, Canada, the SSS was subjected to principal components analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with the theoretical conceptualization of the instrument. Factor I was labeled Respects Uniqueness and Factor II was labeled Being Reliable. Internal consistency of Factor I was .95, and that of Factor II was .91. Discriminant validity was also established. The focus groups revealed that "being available to staff" while "recognizing the HCA as an individual, and taking a moment to get to know them" was essential to feeling supported by their supervisor. The SSS is a reliable and valid measure of supervisory support of supervisors working in LTC facilities. At the core of supportive supervision is the supervisor's ability to develop and maintain positive relationships with each HCA. It is through respecting the uniqueness of each HCA and being reliable that supervisor-HCA relationships can flourish. Supportive leadership in LTC settings is a major contributor to HCAs' job satisfaction and retention and to quality of patient care. Therefore, a tool developed and tested to measure supervisors' supportive capacities in LTC is primal to evaluate the effectiveness of supervisors in these environments.

  9. Psychometric Evaluation of the Brachial Assessment Tool Part 1: Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Bridget; Williams, Gavin; Olver, John; Ferris, Scott; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate reproducibility (reliability and agreement) of the Brachial Assessment Tool (BrAT), a new patient-reported outcome measure for adults with traumatic brachial plexus injury (BPI). Prospective repeated-measure design. Outpatient clinics. Adults with confirmed traumatic BPI (N=43; age range, 19-82y). People with BPI completed the 31-item 4-response BrAT twice, 2 weeks apart. Results for the 3 subscales and summed score were compared at time 1 and time 2 to determine reliability, including systematic differences using paired t tests, test retest using intraclass correlation coefficient model 1,1 (ICC 1,1 ), and internal consistency using Cronbach α. Agreement parameters included standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change, and limits of agreement. BrAT. Test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC 1,1 =.90-.97). Internal consistency was high (Cronbach α=.90-.98). Measurement error was relatively low (standard error of measurement range, 3.1-8.8). A change of >4 for subscale 1, >6 for subscale 2, >4 for subscale 3, and >10 for the summed score is indicative of change over and above measurement error. Limits of agreement ranged from ±4.4 (subscale 3) to 11.61 (summed score). These findings support the use of the BrAT as a reproducible patient-reported outcome measure for adults with traumatic BPI with evidence of appropriate reliability and agreement for both individual and group comparisons. Further psychometric testing is required to establish the construct validity and responsiveness of the BrAT. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Erectile Performance Anxiety Index: scale development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telch, Michael J; Pujols, Yasisca

    2013-12-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a highly publicized and prevalent condition with marked adverse effects on men's social, emotional, and quality of life. Although several instruments have emerged for assessing erectile dysfunction and its impact on men's quality of life, none of the existing instruments provide a specific assessment of men's erectile performance anxiety. This article reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Erectile Performance Anxiety Index (EPAI)--a 10-item self-report scale designed to fill an important gap in the assessment of male erectile dysfunction. A total of 207 men ranging in age from 18 to 79 took part in the study. All subjects completed an online battery consisting of the EPAI, along with measures of related sexual functioning, social anxiety, state anxiety, and depressive symptoms. A small subset of study participants (N = 42) completed the EPAI a second time for determining test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was determined by Pearson's product-moment correlations. Internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Factor validity was evaluated by a maximum likelihood factor analysis with oblique rotation. Convergent and discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the strength of association between the EPAI and measures varying in their hypothesized shared variance with the construct of erectile performance anxiety. The EPAI demonstrated excellent internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha = 0.93 and excellent test-retest reliability (r = 0.85) over an average period of 3.5 weeks. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution that accounted for 63% of the total variance. Preliminary evidence supports the convergent and discriminant validity of the EPAI. Results support the use of the EPAI as a reliable, valid, and efficient instrument for the assessment of erectile performance anxiety. Potential research and clinical applications are discussed. © 2013 International

  11. The Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR): validation and psychometric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M; Friend, Ronald; Jones, Kim D; Ward, Rachel; Han, Bobby K; Ross, Rebecca L

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) is a commonly used instrument in the evaluation of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Over the last 18 years, since the publication of the original FIQ, several deficiencies have become apparent and the cumbersome scoring algorithm has been a barrier to widespread clinical use. The aim of this paper is to describe and validate a revised version of the FIQ: the FIQR. Methods The FIQR was developed in response to known deficiencies of the FIQ with the help of a patient focus group. The FIQR has the same 3 domains as the FIQ (that is, function, overall impact and symptoms). It differs from the FIQ in having modified function questions and the inclusion of questions on memory, tenderness, balance and environmental sensitivity. All questions are graded on a 0–10 numeric scale. The FIQR was administered online and the results were compared to the same patient's online responses to the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the original FIQ. Results The FIQR was completed online by 202 FM patients, 51 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (31 RA and 20 SLE), 11 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 213 healthy controls (HC). The mean total FIQR score was 56.6 ± 19.9 compared to a total FIQ score of 60.6 ± 17.8 (P FIQ were closely correlated (r = 0.88, P FIQ domains (r = 0.69 to 0.88, P FIQ that has good psychometric properties, can be completed in less than 2 minutes and is easy to score. It has scoring characteristics comparable to the original FIQ, making it possible to compare past FIQ results with future FIQR results. PMID:19664287

  12. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  13. Neurochemical phenotypes of cardiorespiratory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilowsky, Paul M

    2008-12-10

    Interactions between the cardiovascular and respiratory systems have been known for many years but the functional significance of the interactions is still widely debated. Here I discuss the possible role of metabotropic receptors in regulating cardiorespiratory neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. It is clear that, although much has been discovered, cardiorespiratory regulation is certainly one area that still has a long way to go before its secrets are fully divulged and their function in controlling circulatory and respiratory function is revealed.

  14. Neurochemical aftermath of amateur boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Hietala, M Albert; Jonsson, Michael; Andreasen, Niels; Styrud, Ewa; Karlsson, Ingvar; Edman, Ake; Popa, Cornel; Rasulzada, Abdullah; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Mehta, Pankaj D; Rosengren, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Wallin, Anders

    2006-09-01

    Little solid information is available on the possible risks for neuronal injury in amateur boxing. To determine whether amateur boxing and severity of hits are associated with elevated levels of biochemical markers for neuronal injury in cerebrospinal fluid. Longitudinal study. Referral center specializing in evaluation of neurodegenerative disorders. Fourteen amateur boxers (11 men and 3 women) and 10 healthy male nonathletic control subjects. The boxers underwent lumbar puncture 7 to 10 days and 3 months after a bout. The control subjects underwent LP once. Neurofilament light protein, total tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, phosphorylated tau, and beta-amyloid protein 1-40 (Abeta([1-40])) and 1-42 (Abeta([1-42])) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid were measured. Increased levels after a bout compared with after 3 months of rest from boxing were found for 2 markers for neuronal and axonal injury, neurofilament light protein (mean +/- SD, 845 +/- 1140 ng/L vs 208 +/- 108 ng/L; P = .008) and total tau (mean +/- SD, 449 +/- 176 ng/L vs 306 +/- 78 ng/L; P = .006), and for the astroglial injury marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (mean +/- SD, 541 +/- 199 ng/L vs 405 +/- 138 ng/L; P = .003). The increase was significantly higher among boxers who had received many hits (>15) or high-impact hits to the head compared with boxers who reported few hits. In the boxers, concentrations of neurofilament light protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein, but not total tau, were significantly elevated after a bout compared with the nonathletic control subjects. With the exception of neurofilament light protein, there were no significant differences between boxers after 3 months of rest from boxing and the nonathletic control subjects. Amateur boxing is associated with acute neuronal and astroglial injury. If verified in longitudinal studies with extensive follow-up regarding the clinical outcome, analyses of cerebrospinal fluid may provide a scientific basis for medical counseling of athletes after boxing or head injury.

  15. Screening Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in children: Outcomes from utilitarian versus specialist psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Aldridge, Victoria K; Martin, Clarissa I; Wilken, Markus; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the specificity and sensitivity of two commonly used psychometric methods to assess ARFID in children. To achieve this, a sample of 329 mothers and one father completed the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) and the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that both measures were able to successfully differentiate a known clinical sample from those of typically developing population. Although the BPFAS was more accurate at differentiating ARFID from the general population, the CFNS was acceptable and on some metrics better than its longer counterpart. The ability of a food neophobia scale to differentiate clinical and population samples, and detect gradation of food avoidance within the population sample, suggests that the multitude of psychometric measures available may be measuring similar constructs. Therefore, confidence can be expected in cross-site comparisons despite each using different psychometric measures of food avoidance in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test: evidence of psychometric adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATJA OCEPEK-WELIKSON

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available These analyses examine the psychometric properties of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test with Immediate Recall (FCSRT-IR. FCSRT-IR is a measure of memory under conditions that control attention and cognitive processing in order to obtain an assessment of memory unconfounded by normal agerelated changes in cognition. FCSRT-IR performance has been associated with preclinical and early dementia in several longitudinal epidemiological studies. Factor and item response theory analyses were applied to FCSRT-IR data from patients at a geriatric primary care center who had independently established clinical diagnoses. The results provide supporting evidence for the psychometric adequacy of the FCSR-IR in terms of reliability, essential (sufficient unidimensionality, information across the continuum of memory disability/ability, and classification accuracy. The psychometric adequacy of the FCSRT-IR adds further validity to its use as a case finding strategy for dementia.

  17. Quantitative Psychology : the 82nd Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Culpepper, Steven; Janssen, Rianne; González, Jorge; Molenaar, Dylan

    2018-01-01

    This proceedings book highlights the latest research and developments in psychometrics and statistics. Featuring contributions presented at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS), organized by the University of Zurich and held in Zurich, Switzerland from July 17 to 21, 2017, its 34 chapters address a diverse range of psychometric topics including item response theory, factor analysis, causal inference, Bayesian statistics, test equating, cognitive diagnostic models and multistage adaptive testing. The IMPS is one of the largest international meetings on quantitative measurement in psychology, education and the social sciences, attracting over 500 participants and 250 paper presentations from around the world every year. This book gathers the contributions of selected presenters, which were subsequently expanded and peer-reviewed.

  18. An evaluation of the HM prison service "thinking skills programme" using psychometric assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbett, Matthew J; Sellen, Joselyn L

    2014-04-01

    The most widely implemented offending behaviour programme in the United Kingdom was Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS), a cognitive-behavioural group intervention that aimed to develop participant's general cognitive skills. A new offending behaviour programme has been developed to replace ETS: the Thinking Skills Programme (TSP). This study reports an evaluation of the effectiveness of TSP using psychometric assessments. Phasing of the two programmes created an opportunity to compare the two programmes consecutively. Forty participants, 20 from each programme, completed a range of psychometric measures to examine cognition, attitudes, and thinking styles. Analysis of pre- and post-programme psychometric results indicated that participants of TSP demonstrated improvements on 14 of the 15 scales, 9 of which were statistically significant. Effect sizes between pre-post results were generally greater for TSP than ETS, demonstrating that TSP had a more positive impact on the thinking styles and attitudes of participants than the ETS programme.

  19. The Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form: Psychometric Properties and Association with Social Anxiety in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric characteristics and correlates of the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form (PSPS-JR). The PSPS-JR was designed for use with children and adolescents, but its psychometric properties and applications among early adolescents have not been investigated. The PSPS-JR has three subscales assessing the…

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale among Turkish University Students, Correctional Officers, and Elderly Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Mithat; Senol-Durak, Emre; Gencoz, Tulin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to extensively examine the psychometric properties of adapted version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in different Turkish samples. In order to test the psychometric properties of the SWLS three separate and independent samples are utilized in this study, namely university students (n = 547), correctional officers (n =…

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of the Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R)-A Measure of Symptom Distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbuckle, R.A.; Humphrey, L.; Vardeva, K.; Arondekar, B.; Scott, J.A.; Snoek, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the psychometric validity, reliability, responsiveness, and minimal important differences of the Diabetes Symptoms Checklist-Revised (DSC-R), a widely used patient-reported outcome measure of diabetes symptom distress. Research Design and Methods: Psychometric validity of the

  2. Expression profiling of a genetic animal model of depression reveals novel molecular pathways underlying depressive-like behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Blaveri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Flinders model is a validated genetic rat model of depression that exhibits a number of behavioural, neurochemical and pharmacological features consistent with those observed in human depression.In this study we have used genome-wide microarray expression profiling of the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex of Flinders Depression Sensitive (FSL and control Flinders Depression Resistant (FRL lines to understand molecular basis for the differences between the two lines. We profiled two independent cohorts of Flinders animals derived from the same colony six months apart, each cohort statistically powered to allow independent as well as combined analysis. Using this approach, we were able to validate using real-time-PCR a core set of gene expression differences that showed statistical significance in each of the temporally distinct cohorts, representing consistently maintained features of the model. Small but statistically significant increases were confirmed for cholinergic (chrm2, chrna7 and serotonergic receptors (Htr1a, Htr2a in FSL rats consistent with known neurochemical changes in the model. Much larger gene changes were validated in a number of novel genes as exemplified by TMEM176A, which showed 35-fold enrichment in the cortex and 30-fold enrichment in hippocampus of FRL animals relative to FSL.These data provide significant insights into the molecular differences underlying the Flinders model, and have potential relevance to broader depression research.

  3. Psychometric properties of carer-reported outcome measures in palliative care: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Charlotte TJ; Boulton, Mary; Adams, Astrid; Wee, Bee; Peters, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Informal carers face many challenges in caring for patients with palliative care needs. Selecting suitable valid and reliable outcome measures to determine the impact of caring and carers’ outcomes is a common problem. Aim: To identify outcome measures used for informal carers looking after patients with palliative care needs, and to evaluate the measures’ psychometric properties. Design: A systematic review was conducted. The studies identified were evaluated by independent reviewers (C.T.J.M., M.B., M.P.). Data regarding study characteristics and psychometric properties of the measures were extracted and evaluated. Good psychometric properties indicate a high-quality measure. Data sources: The search was conducted, unrestricted to publication year, in the following electronic databases: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts. Results: Our systematic search revealed 4505 potential relevant studies, of which 112 studies met the inclusion criteria using 38 carer measures for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Psychometric properties were reported in only 46% (n = 52) of the studies, in relation to 24 measures. Where psychometric data were reported, the focus was mainly on internal consistency (n = 45, 87%), construct validity (n = 27, 52%) and/or reliability (n = 14, 27%). Of these, 24 measures, only four (17%) had been formally validated in informal carers in palliative care. Conclusion: A broad range of outcome measures have been used for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Little formal psychometric testing has been undertaken. Furthermore, development and refinement of measures in this field is required. PMID:26407683

  4. Psychometric characteristics of health-related quality-of-life questionnaires in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Angelique A; Speyer, Renée; Heijnen, Bas J; Klijn-Zwijnenberg, Iris R

    2014-04-01

    Dysphagia can have severe consequences for the patient's health, influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Sound psychometric properties of HRQoL questionnaires are a precondition for assessing the impact of dysphagia, the focus of this study, resulting in recommendations for the appropriate use of these questionnaires in both clinical practice and research contexts. We performed a systematic review starting with a search for and retrieval of all full-text articles on the development of HRQoL questionnaires related to oropharyngeal dysphagia and/or their psychometric validation from the electronic databases PubMed and Embase published up to June 2011. Psychometric properties were judged according to quality criteria proposed for health status questionnaires. Eight questionnaires were included in this study. Four are aimed solely at HRQoL in oropharyngeal dysphagia: the deglutition handicap index (DHI), dysphagia handicap index (DHI'), M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), and SWAL-QOL, while the EDGQ, EORTC QLQ-STO 22, EORTC QLQ-OG 25 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 focus on other primary diseases resulting in dysphagia. The psychometric properties of the DHI, DHI', MDADI, and SWAL-QOL were evaluated. For appropriate applicability of HRQoL questionnaires, strong scores on the psychometric criteria face validity, criterion validity, and interpretability are prerequisites. The SWAL-QOL has the strongest ratings for these criteria, while the DHI' is the most easy to apply given its 25 items and the use of a uniform scoring format. For optimal use of HRQoL questionnaires in diverse settings, it is necessary to combine psychometric and utility approaches.

  5. A psychometric validation analysis of Eysenck’s Neuroticism and Extraversion Scales in a sample of first time depressed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    Eysenck and Eysenck identified the two-factor structure of personality, namely neuroticism and extraversion which has been widely used in clinical psychiatry, and generated much research on the psychometric properties of the scales. Using a classical psychometric approach the neuroticism...... and extraversion scales have shown robust psychometric properties. The present study used both classical psychometric and item response theory (IRT) analyses to evaluate the neuroticism and extraversion scales and improve scalability of the instrument neuroticism and extraversion. A first time depressed sample...... symptoms related to interpersonal sensitivity were identified. For the extraversion scale a shorter and psychometrically more robust version was identified together with a short introversion scale. Clinically discriminant validity was analysed using correlations. The correlation between depression (Ham...

  6. Psychometric properties of the NOMO 1.0 tested among adult powered-mobility users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Brandt, Åse; Anttila, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    (Participation Repertoire). PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate a range of psychometric properties of the NOMO 1.0 in a sample of adult powered mobility device (PMD) users. METHOD: Data collected from PMD users ( N = 248) in Denmark, Finland, and Norway as part of a larger study were analyzed using state...... scale and six components of the Frequency scale. IMPLICATIONS: The NOMO 1.0 should be used for research purposes and not for clinical practice. Better reliability should be established for the Need for Assistance and Ease/Difficulty scales prior to further psychometric testing to establish the validity...

  7. Demographic, behavioral, and psychometric characteristics of persons denied unescorted access on the basis of psychological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the demographic, behavioral, and psychometric characteristics of persons who were denied unescorted access authorization for protected areas and vital islands of nuclear power plants, in accordance with the relevant proposed rule of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Demographic characteristics examined include age, sex, occupation, education, marital status, and number of children. Behavioral characteristics examined include substance use/abuse/treatment and instances of antisocial behavior. Psychometric characteristics examined include elevations on basic MMPI clinical scales, elevations on special indices of psychosis and substance abuse, and endorsement of so-called critical items

  8. Assessment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (with emphasis on computerized psychometric tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Matthew R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2012-02-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with a high risk of development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, impaired quality of life, and driving accidents. The detection of MHE requires specialized testing because it cannot, by definition, be diagnosed on standard clinical examination. Psychometric and neurophysiologic techniques are often used to test for MHE. Paper-pencil psychometric batteries and computerized tests have proved useful in diagnosing MHE and predicting its outcomes. Neurophysiologic tests also provide useful information. The diagnosis of MHE is an important issue for clinicians and patients alike. Testing strategies depend on the normative data available, patient comfort, and local expertise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness: a study of psychometric properties in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2010-08-01

    The study analyzed psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 400 men and 453 women who had had a partner for the last 6 mo. or longer at the time of the study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested a two-factor solution with the factors Initiation and No shyness/Refusal. Internal consistency values for total scores were .87 and .83 for the factors, respectively. Convergent validity tests were also satisfactory. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the Spanish version of the scale has appropriate psychometric properties.

  10. Effects of common chronic medical conditions on psychometric tests used to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M M; Poulsen, L; Rasmussen, C K

    2016-01-01

    Many chronic medical conditions are accompanied by cognitive disturbances but these have only to a very limited extent been psychometrically quantified. An exception is liver cirrhosis where hepatic encephalopathy is an inherent risk and mild forms are diagnosed by psychometric tests. The preferred...... diagnostic test battery in cirrhosis is often the Continuous Reaction Time (CRT) and the Portosystemic Encephalopathy (PSE) tests but the effect on these of other medical conditions is not known. We aimed to examine the effects of common chronic (non-cirrhosis) medical conditions on the CRT and PSE tests. We...

  11. Modern psychometric approaches to analysis of scales for health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested in the development of new instruments for assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). For many new instruments, modern psychometric methods, such as item response theory (IRT) models, have been used, either as supplemental to classical....... The models include Rasch models (Rasch 1980; Fischer and Molenaar 1995), other IRT models (Samejima 1969; van der Linden and Hambleton 1997), and factor analytic models for categorical data (Muthén 1984). “Modern” psychometric methods have actually a rather long history within psychiatric research (both...

  12. Development and psychometric testing of a breast cancer patient-profiling questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorini A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra Gorini,1,2 Ketti Mazzocco,1,2 Sara Gandini,2 Elisabetta Munzone,2 Gordon McVie,2 Gabriella Pravettoni1,2 1Department of Health Science, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 2European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy Introduction: The advent of “personalized medicine” has been driven by technological advances in genomics. Concentration at the subcellular level of a patient's cancer cells has meant inevitably that the “person” has been overlooked. For this reason, we think there is an urgent need to develop a truly personalized approach focusing on each patient as an individual, assessing his/her unique mental dimensions and tailoring interventions to his/her individual needs and preferences. The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the ALGA-Breast Cancer (ALGA-BC, a new multidimensional questionnaire that assesses the breast cancer patient's physical and mental characteristics in order to provide physicians, prior to the consultation, with a patient's profile that is supposed to facilitate subsequent communication, interaction, and information delivery between the doctor and the patient. Methods: The specific validation processes used were: content and face validity, construct validity using factor analysis, reliability and internal consistency using test–retest reliability, and Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficient. The exploratory analysis included 100 primary breast cancer patients and 730 healthy subjects. Results: The exploratory factor analysis revealed eight key factors: global self-rated health, perceived physical health, anxiety, self-efficacy, cognitive closure, memory, body image, and sexual life. Test–retest reliability and internal consistency were good. Comparing patients with a sample of healthy subjects, we also observed a general ability of the ALGA-BC questionnaire to discriminate between the two. Conclusion: The ALGA-BC questionnaire with 29 items is a valid

  13. Specific Abilities May Increment Psychometric g for High Ability Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    tend to sort themselves into jobs that are commensurate with their ability level ( McCormick , DeNisi, & Staw, 1979; McCormick , Jeanneret, & Mecham...of Genetic Psychology, 153, 229-230. Specific abilities, g, & high ability populations 14 McCormick , E. J., DeNisi, A. S., & Shaw, J. B... McCormick , E. J., Jeanneret, P. R., & Mecham, R. C. (1972). A study of job characteristics and job dimensions as based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire

  14. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the nature and action of lethal and mutagenic lesions in DNA and the mechanisms by which these are produced in bacteria by ionizing radiation or by decay of radioisotopes incorporated in DNA. Studies of radioisotope decay provide the advantages that the original lesion is localized in the genetic material and the immediate physical and chemical changes that occur at decay are known. Specific types of DNA damage were related to characteristic decay properties of several radioisotopes. Incorporated 125 I, for example, induces a double-stranded break in DNA with almost every decay, but causes remarkably little damage of any other kind to the DNA. (U.S.)

  15. Psychometrics of the Emotional Intelligence Scale in Elite, Amateur, and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Robert; Laborde, Sylvain

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometrics properties of the Emotional Intelligence Scale and assess the measurement invariance across elite (n = 367), amateur (n = 629), and non-athletes (n = 550). In total, 1,546 participants from various sports completed the emotional intelligence scale. Several competing models were compared…

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES; J. W. Weeks, R. G. Heimberg, & T. L. Rodebaugh, 2008) was designed to assess fear of positive evaluation, a proposed cognitive component of social anxiety. Although previous findings on the psychometric properties of the FPES have been highly encouraging, only 1 previous study has examined the…

  17. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Short Form) in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixia; Lin, Wenwen; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form; YSQ-SF). The participants were 712 Chinese undergraduate students. The total sample was randomly divided into two sub-samples. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on questionnaire results…

  18. Psychometrical Assessment and Item Analysis of the General Health Questionnaire in Victims of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and…

  19. School Bonding in Early Adolescence: Psychometrics of the Brief Survey of School Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Weber, Judith L.; Moore, Page C.; Johnson, Danya; Williams, Ed R.; Ward, Wendy L.; Robbins, James M.; Phillips, B. Allyson

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive assessment of middle school student bonding is important for basic research and to evaluate interventions. In this study, the psychometric properties of three assessment tools found in the literature were examined individually and then combined to create a shorter survey. With minor modifications, the tools were found to be…

  20. Methods for Examining the Psychometric Quality of Subscores: A Review and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedman, Jonathan; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2015-01-01

    When subscores on a test are reported to the test taker, the appropriateness of reporting them depends on whether they provide useful information above what is provided by the total score. Subscores that fail to do so lack adequate psychometric quality and should not be reported. There are several methods for examining the quality of subscores,…

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of the Italian Adaptation of the Test of Inferential and Creative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, Palmira; Hell, Benedikt; Schuler, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the psychometric properties of the Italian adaptation of the "Analyse des Schlussfolgernden und Kreativen Denkens" (ASK; Test of Inferential and Creative Thinking) for measuring inferential and creative thinking. The study aimed to (a) supply evidence for the factorial structure of the instrument, (b) describe its…

  2. IQs Are Very Strong but Imperfect Indicators of Psychometric "g": Results from Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The most global score yielded by intelligence tests, IQs, are supported by substantial validity evidence and have historically been central to the identification of intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, and giftedness. This study examined the extent to which IQs measure the ability they target, psychometric "g." Data from…

  3. Psychometric Properties of the COPD-Specific Beliefs About Medicine Questionnaire in an Outpatient Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    a Danish respiratory outpatient clinic. The Rasch model was used to evaluate psychometric characteristics of the BMQ-COPD and to obtain necessity and concerns scales fulfilling criteria of unidimensionality and overall fit, and with all items showing individual item fit with no local dependencies...

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of the Student Authorship Questionnaire: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Joan; Guo, Xin; Larres, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This research provides new insights into the measurement of students' authorial identity and its potential for minimising the incidence of unintentional plagiarism by providing evidence about the psychometric properties of the Student Authorship Questionnaire (SAQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) are employed to…

  5. School bonding in early adolescents: Psychometrics of the brief survey of school bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comprehensive assessment of middle school student bonding is important for basic research and to evaluate interventions. Of over 30 tools reviewed, this study examined the psychometric properties of three that together assessed the four constructs identified by Hirschi as key elements. With some...

  6. An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of an Advising Survey for Medical and Professional Program Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Gonzalez, Liara M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument intended to measure faculty competence as it pertains to their role as advisors, particularly in medical and professional programs. A total of 166 students completed the Faculty Advisor's Skills and Behaviors Inventory (FASBI). The psychometric…

  7. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised in Singapore Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hoi Kwan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) in a sample of Singapore secondary students (N = 1,171). Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the AGQ-R in measuring the four achievements goals delineated in the 2 × 2 framework. Measurement invariance across ethnic groups was…

  8. An Examination of Research Collaboration in Psychometrics Utilizing Social Network Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCrecchio, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Co-authorship networks have been studied in many fields as a way to understand collaboration patterns. However, a comprehensive exploration of the psychometrics field has not been conducted. Also, few studies on co-author networks have included longitudinal analyses as well as data on the characteristics of authors in the network. Including both…

  9. Quantitative psychology : The 81st Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Asheville, North Carolina, 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ark, L.A.; Wiberg, M.; Culpepper, S.A.; Douglas, J.A.; Wang, W.-C.

    2017-01-01

    This proceedings volume compiles and expands on selected and peer reviewed presentations given at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS), organized by the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and held in Asheville, North Carolina, July 11th to 17th, 2016.IMPS is one of the

  10. The Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: Psychometric Equivalence of the Turkish Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksi, Füsun

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the short form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI-SF). The study group consists of a total of 526 university students (54% were female) whose ages range from 18 to 32. In the translational equivalence study made over a two-week interval, the FFNI-SF…

  11. Psychometric properties of the Russian version of the Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES-9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovakov, Andrey V.; Agadullina, Elena R.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Russian version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) by using a sample of 1783 employees of a large Russian organization. We conducted a series of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) tests of the factorial structure and the

  12. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Moretz, Melanie W.; David, Bieke; Armstrong, Thomas; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety (IPS-Anx). Principal components analysis of IPS-Anx items in Study 1 (n = 498) revealed a 2-factor structure consisting of Distal Fear and Contact Fear. However, CFA results in Study 2 (n = 567) suggest that a 1-factor…

  13. Modeling the Development of Vocational Competence: A Psychometric Model for Economic Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Viola Katharina; Winther, Esther; Festner, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the development of vocational competence through economic vocational educational training (VET) from a theoretical and psychometric perspective. Most assessment and competence models tend to adopt a state perspective toward assessments of competence and carve out different structures of competence for diverse vocational…

  14. Measuring the nursing work environment: translation and psychometric evaluation of the Essentials of Magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, B.J.M. de; Kaljouw, M.J.; Kramer, M.; Schmalenberg, C.; Achterberg, T. van

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Translate the Essentials of Magnetism II(c) (EOMII; Dutch Nurses' Association, Utrecht, The Netherlands) and assess its psychometric properties in a culture different from its origin. BACKGROUND: The EOMII, developed in the USA, measures the extent to which organizations/units provide healthy,

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Psychological Needs Satisfaction Frustration Scale (BPNFS) in Chilean University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, Milenko; Matos, Lennia; Díaz, Alejandro; Pérez, María Victoria; Vergara, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    This research work aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (BPNSFS)--autonomy, competence and relatedness--identified by the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000b), in a sample of 297 university students from different faculties and programs belonging to a Chilean…

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Riezebos, T.G.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 16-item Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). The SOWS measures withdrawal symptoms at the time of assessment. METHODS: The Dutch SOWS was repeatedly administered to a sample of 272 opioid-dependent inpatients of four

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz in Austrian Medical and Psychology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S.; Sonneck, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    Psychometric properties and demographic correlates of a German form of R. W. Hubbard and J. L. McIntosh's (1992) Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz (RFOS), an inventory for assessing overall knowledge about suicide, were investigated in a sample of 1,093 Austrian medical and psychology students. Internal consistency of the RFOS was weak, as were many…

  18. College Students' Perceptions of Professor/Instructor Bullying: Questionnaire Development and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraccini, Marisa E.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Rossi, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study developed and examined the psychometric properties of a newly formed measure designed to assess professor/instructor bullying, as well as teacher bullying occurring prior to college. Additionally, prevalence of instructor bullying and characteristics related to victims of instructor bullying were examined. Participants:…

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire (CGSQ) among Caregivers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rahul; Madhavan, S. Suresh; Smith, Michael J.; Tworek, Cindy; Patrick, Julie H.; Becker-Cottrill, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire (CGSQ) among caregivers of children with autism. The CGSQ was originally developed to assess burden experienced by parents of children and adolescents with serious emotional and behavioral disorders. Study data was collected from 304 primary…

  20. Psychometric test of the Team Climate Inventory-short version investigated in Dutch quality improvement teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.H. Strating (Mathilde); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: Although some studies have used the Team Climate Inventory within teams working in health care settings, none of these included quality improvement teams. The aim of our study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the 14-item version of the Team Climate

  1. Conceptualizing Sex Offender Denial from a Multifaceted Framework: Investigating the Psychometric Qualities of a New Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sandy; Daniels, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of a clinician-rated measure of sex offender denial. Convergent and discriminant validity for the measure was supported, and given its relationship to treatment attitudes, the measure demonstrated utility for assessing treatment change and readiness. (Contains 3 tables.)

  2. The extremity function index (EFI), a disability severity measure for neuromuscular diseases : psychometric evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Isaac; Wynia, Klaske; Drost, Gea; Almansa, Josué; Kuks, Joannes

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To adapt and to combine the self-report Upper Extremity Functional Index and Lower Extremity Function Scale, for the assessment of disability severity in patients with a neuromuscular disease and to examine its psychometric properties in order to make it suitable for indicating disease

  3. A Psychometric Analysis of the Child Behavior Checklist for Elementary School Children in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hendawi, Maha; Keller, Clayton; Cloninger, Lea

    2016-01-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist for children 6 to 18 (CBCL/6-18) is a widely used, standardized parent rating scale. However, few studies have tested the psychometric properties of this instrument in the Arab world despite the great need for such instruments to support the identification and education of children with emotional, behavioral, and…

  4. Quality of Life Assessment for Physical Activity and Health Promotion: Further Psychometrics and Comparison of Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.; Reifsteck, Erin J.; Adams, Melanie M.; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clear relationship between physical activity and quality of life, few sound, relevant quality of life measures exist. Gill and colleagues developed a 32-item quality of life survey, and provided initial psychometric evidence. This study further examined that quality of life survey in comparison with the widely used short form (SF-36)…

  5. The measurement of place attachment: validity and generalizability of a psychometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Jerry J. Vaske

    2003-01-01

    To enhance land managers’ ability to address deeper landscape meanings and place-specific symbolic values in natural resource decision making, this study evaluated the psychometric properties of a place attachment measure designed to capture the extent of emotions and feelings people have for places. Building on previous measurement efforts, this study examined the...

  6. A psychometric revision of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans using the Rasch model

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, S; Kim, Bryan S.K.; Wolfe, M M

    2005-01-01

    The 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P H. Yang, E C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch,1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European AmericanValues Scale for Asian Americans-Revised.

  7. Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised: Scale Development and Psychometric Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the scale development and psychometric characteristics of the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R). To develop this measure, 502 subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 91 parenting behaviors in terms of parenting behavior specificity (e.g., bonding, discipline), importance level, and appropriateness for…

  8. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale : Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinakova, Klara; Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Polackova Solcova, Iva; Husek, Vit; Kracmarova, Lucie Kluzova; Dubovska, Eva; Kalman, Michal; Puzova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Tavel, Peter

    The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the shortened version of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) in Czech adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 4217 adolescents participated in the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The internal consistency of the

  9. CRISP-Psychometric Assessment of Postdivorce Stress/Adjustment in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, David M.; Baum, Steven K.

    A new psychometric instrument for measuring the impact of divorce on elementary school age children was developed: the Child's Report of the Impact of Separation by Parents (CRISP). This structured projective test was specifically designed to assess children's postdivorce stress/adjustment. An initial version of the CRISP was administered to 99…

  10. Burnout bij fysiotherapeuten: Een psychometrische studie. / Burnout among physiotherapists: A psychometric study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, T.A.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Human Ss: 341 normal male and 103 normal female Dutch adults (aged 24-62 yrs) (physiotherapists). The Cronbach alpha coefficient was used, and principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Iranian Version of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Pakpour, PhD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The results provide evidence for good reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the PEDT. The questionnaire therefore represents a suitable tool for screening PE in Iranian men. Pakpour AH, Yekaninejad MS, Nikoobakht MR, Burri A, and Fridlund B. Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. Sex Med 2014;2:31–40.

  12. Psychometric Support for the Ownership in Exercise and Empowerment in Exercise Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Whitney G.; Fry, Mary D.

    2014-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the psychometric properties of two new scales developed to quantitatively measure participants' ownership in exercise classes and empowerment, with respect to exercise. These two outcome measures will compliment Achievement Goal Perspective Theory (AGPT) grounded research to better understand participants'…

  13. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Kathryn J.; Coggins, Truman E.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the "Theory of Mind Inventory" ("ToMI"). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report…

  14. Assessment set for evaluation of clinical outcomes in multiple sclerosis: psychometric properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řasová, K.; Martinková, Patrícia; Vyškovská, J.; Šedová, Michaela

    -, č. 3 (2012), s. 59-70 ISSN 1179-271X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) 1A8628 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : outcome assessment * reproducibility of results * psychometric properties * test–retest reliability * internal consistency Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines

  15. Disgust sensitivity and anxiety disorder symptoms : Psychometric properties of the disgust emotion scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; de Jong, Peter J.; Lohr, Jeffrey M.

    Recent research has implicated disgust sensitivity in the etiology of specific anxiety disorders. The Disgust Emotion Scale (DES) is a newly developed measure that was designed to improve the assessment of disgust sensitivity. The present study examines the psychometric properties of the DES.

  16. Was Pre-Modern Man a Child? The Quintessence of the Psychometric and Developmental Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W.

    2012-01-01

    The essay integrates the psychometric intelligence approach with the cognitive-developmental approach or the stage theory erected by Piaget and his disciples. The latter led to Piagetian Cross-Cultural Psychology and the accumulation of an immense body of data. It shows that different IQ levels are indicative of the peculiar stages of cognitive…

  17. The psychometric properties of a workplace boredom scale (DUBS) within the South African context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wyk, Sumarie M.; de Beer, Leon T.; Pienaar, Jaco; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Orientation: Boredom at work has been shown to be a concern for individuals and organisations. At the time of this research, no validated scale was available to measure and investigate workplace boredom within the South African context. Research purpose: To determine the psychometric properties of

  18. Psychometric validation of the POSIT for screening alcohol and other drugs risk consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Manuel; Golpe, Sandra; Braña, Teresa; Varela, Jesús; Rial, Antonio

    2018-04-15

    Early detection of alcohol and drug abuse among adolescents is decisive not only for rapid referral and intervention in cases of risk, but also as an indicator for use in the evaluation of prevention programs and public policies to reduce consumption. One of the most widely-used screening instruments in the world is the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) (Rahdert, 1991), whose substance use and abuse subscale (POSITUAS) is a brief tool of enormous applied potential. However, there is still no empirical validation study that would ensure its good psychometric performance in Spain. The aim of this paper is to analyse the psychometric properties of POSITUAS among Spanish adolescents. For this purpose, 569 students aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.71; SD = 1.79) were personally interviewed. The study sample was selected through two-stage sampling. The results obtained, using the Adolescent Diagnostic Interview (Winters & Henly, 1993) as the gold criterion, allow us to inform that the Spanish version of the POSITUAS has excellent psychometric behaviour, both at the level of internal consistency (a  = .82) as well as regards sensitivity (94.3%) and specificity (83.9%), with an area under the ROC curve of .953. Also, the realisation of a Confirmatory Factor Analysis allows for verifying the one-dimensional character of the scale. As a result, POSITUAS is made available to researchers and professionals in the field of addictive behaviours for use with a minimum of psychometric guarantees.

  19. Raven's Test Performance of Sub-Saharan Africans: Average Performance, Psychometric Properties, and the Flynn Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Carlson, Jerry S.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of published data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices. The specific goals were to estimate the average level of performance, to study the Flynn Effect in African samples, and to examine the psychometric meaning of Raven's test scores as measures of general intelligence.…

  20. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, B.R.; Gignac, G.; Manocha, R.; Stough, C.

    2005-01-01

    and discussed.There has been some debate recently over the scoring, reliability and factor structure of ability measures of emotional intelligence (EI). This study examined these three psychometric properties with the most recent ability test of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT V2.0; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso,…

  1. The Importance of the Assumption of Uncorrelated Errors in Psychometric Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Patelis, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    A critical discussion of the assumption of uncorrelated errors in classical psychometric theory and its applications is provided. It is pointed out that this assumption is essential for a number of fundamental results and underlies the concept of parallel tests, the Spearman-Brown's prophecy and the correction for attenuation formulas as well as…

  2. Psychometric Characteristics of the Duke Social Support Index in a Young Rural Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15-34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI, which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support, and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high…

  3. Development of a Psychometric Typology of Child Molesters: Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Beech, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Cluster analysis of psychometric data measuring offense-specific and socioadequacy problems from a sample of 437 untreated child molesters was carried out. This analysis identified three clusters: Cluster 1 contained men who reported low levels of self-esteem and intimacy and an inability to deal with negative emotions, Cluster 2 contained men who…

  4. Internet Administration of Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires Used in Couple Research: Assessing Psychometric Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L.; Barry, Robin A.; Lawrence, Erika; Dey, Jodi; Rolffs, Jaci

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet formats of key questionnaires used in couple research. Self-report questionnaires assessing interpersonal constructs (relationship satisfaction, communication/conflict management, partner support, emotional intimacy) and intrapersonal constructs (individual traits,…

  5. Stochastic and Historical Resonances of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William P., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Humphry's article, "The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics," offers fundamental clarifications of measurement concepts that Fisher hopes will find a wide audience. In particular, parameterizing discrimination while preserving statistical sufficiency will indeed provide greater flexibility in accounting "for the effects of empirical…

  6. Further Psychometric Properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated Version (TODS-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Roberti, Jonathan W.; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated (TODS-PR), a 15-item parent-rated instrument that assesses a range of common symptoms seen in childhood Tourette's Disorder (TD) patients including tics, obsessions, compulsions, inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, and emotional disturbances.…

  7. Psychometric Properties of Sexuality and the Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory (SMRAI) in University Student of Lima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sergio A.; Rimachi, Marlon

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyze the psychometric properties of "Sexuality and the Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory" (SMRAI) in a sample of 144 psychology college students 2nd to the 9th, of a private university in Lima, of which 44 were males (30.6%) and 100 female (69.4%), aged between 17 and 43 years (average: 21.9). The confirmatory…

  8. Psychometric Reanalysis of Happiness, Temperament, and Spirituality Scales with Children in Faith-Based Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation performed an investigation of the psychometric properties of six instruments used in the 2012 Happiness Project research study. The project revisited the 2010 study conducted by Holder, Coleman, and Wallace. Holder et al. (2010) investigated the relationships among variables relating to student happiness and spirituality while…

  9. Psychometric Evaluation of Two Appetite Questionnaires in Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, Christina; Strömberg, Anna; Sawatzky, Richard; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2015-12-01

    Decreased appetite in heart failure (HF) may lead to undernutrition which could negatively influence prognosis. Appetite is a complex clinical issue that is often best measured with the use of self-report instruments. However, there is a lack of self-rated appetite instruments. The Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) are validated instruments developed primarily for elderly people. Yet, the psychometric properties have not been evaluated in HF populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of CNAQ and SNAQ in patients with HF. A total of 186 outpatients with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classifications II-IV were included (median age 72 y; 70% men). Data were collected with the use of a questionnaire that included the CNAQ and SNAQ. The psychometric evaluation included data quality, factor structure, construct validity, known-group validity, and internal consistency. Unidimensionality was supported by means of parallel analysis and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). The CFA results indicated sufficient model fit. Both construct validity and known-group validity were supported. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, with ordinal coefficient alpha estimates of 0.82 for CNAQ and 0.77 for SNAQ. CNAQ and SNAQ demonstrated sound psychometric properties and can be used to measure appetite in patients with HF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Psychometric Evaluation of a Questionnaire to Measure Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Anke; Timmerman, Marieke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In many countries, there has been a development towards the inclusion of students with special educational needs in regular education. Over the past decade, this has resulted in an increased interest in attitudes towards this educational change of those directly involved. This current study aims at the development, psychometric evaluation, and…

  11. Translation of the Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale (MCSS) into Danish and a preliminary psychometric validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Gonge, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    for the translation of the MCSS from English into Danish and to present a preliminary psychometric validation of the Danish version of the scale. Methods included a formal translation/back-translation procedure and statistical analyses. The sample consisted of MCSS scores from 139 Danish mental health nursing staff...

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the Serbian Version of the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Veljko; Zuljevic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS). The research was carried out on a sample of 408 high school students (250 females, 158 males), with the mean age 16.6. The Serbian version of the MSLSS has demonstrated good psychometric…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Teacher-Reported Motor Skills Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Murrah, William M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Grissmer, David

    2015-01-01

    Children's early motor competence is associated with social development and academic achievement. However, few studies have examined teacher reports of children's motor skills. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a 19-item measure of children's teacher-reported motor skills in the classroom.…

  14. Cultural Adaptation and the Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Symptom Management Beliefs Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-E Yeom, PhD, RN

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: This study verified the psychometric properties of the K-SMBQ and provided evidence on the cultural relevance for the concept of ageist beliefs regarding symptom management in older Korean people. The development of nursing interventions to promote self-care of older people should be based on the consideration of negatively stereotyped and erroneous beliefs about health in old age.

  15. Measuring Gratitude in Youth: Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Adult Gratitude Scales in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Fan, Jinyan; Emmons, Robert A.; Bono, Giacomo; Huebner, E. Scott; Watkins, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Before the developmental trajectory, outcomes, and related interventions of gratitude can be accurately and confidently studied among the youth, researchers must ensure that they have psychometrically sound measures of gratitude that are suitable for this population. Thus, considering that no known scales were specifically designed to measure…

  16. Psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santiago, L.M.; Luz, L.L.; Mattos, I.M.; Gobbens, R.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the TFI, an instrument that identifies frailty in elderly individuals. We interviewed 219 individuals aged 60 or older, living in the community. Individuals were predominantly female (52.5%) and mean age was 70.5

  17. Psychometric Analysis of the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire in Taiwanese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ; Peterson et al. in "J Happiness Stud" 6(1):25-41, 2005) in Taiwanese students. The participants were 578 undergraduate students (M[subscript age] = 18.64, SD = 1.02) and completed the OHQ, satisfaction with life scale…

  18. Development and Psychometric Testing of the Dogs and WalkinG Survey (DAWGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A.; McDonough, Meghan H.; Edwards, Nancy E.; Lyle, Roseann M.; Troped, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Dog owners represent 40% of the population, a promising audience to increase population levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a new instrument to assess social-cognitive theory constructs related to dog walking. Method: Dog owners ("N" = 431) completed the…

  19. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maliňáková, K.; Kopčáková, J.; Kolarčik, P.; Madarasová Gecková, A.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Hušek, V.; Klůzová Kračmárová, L.; Dubovská, E.; Kalman, M.; Půžová, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; Tavel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 697-705 ISSN 0022-4197 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Shortened SWBS * Adolescents * Spirituality * Religiosity * Psychometric evaluation Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2016

  20. Factor Structure and Basic Psychometric Properties of the "Transition Assessment and Goal Generator"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Maeghan N.; Terry, Robert; Martin, James E.; McConnell, Amber E.; Willis, Donna M.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the theoretical factor structure fit and psychometric properties of the "Transition Assessment and Goal Generator" (TAGG). In the first study, 349 transition-aged students with disabilities, their special educators, and family members completed TAGG assessments, and using exploratory factor analysis (EFA)/confirmatory factor…