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Sample records for psychometric neurochemical genetic

  1. Neuroanatomical, genetic and neurochemical aspects of infantile autism

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    Gerhant, Aneta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infantile autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in communication, reciprocal social interaction and restricted repetitive behaviors or interests. Although the cause of these disorders is not yet known, studies strongly suggest a genetic basis with a complex mode of inheritance. The etiopathogenetic processes of autism are extremely complex, which is reflected in the varying course and its symptomatology. Trajectories of brain development and volumes of its structures are aberrant in autistic patients. It is suggested that disturbances in sertotoninergic, gabaergic, glutaminergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission can be responsible for symptoms of autism as well as can disturb the development of the young brain. The objective of this article is to present the results of reasearch on neuroanatomical, neurochemical and genetic aspects of autism.

  2. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of noradrenaline synthesis enhances the neurochemical, behavioural, and neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, David; Ferrucci, Michela; Busceti, Carla L.; Biagioni, Francesca; Lazzeri, Gloria; Liles, L. Cameron; Lenzi, Paola; Murri, Luigi; Paparelli, Antonio; Fornai, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) lesions of the locus coeruleus (LC), the major brain noradrenergic nucleus, exacerbate the damage to nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) terminals caused by the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH). However, because noradrenergic terminals contain other neuromodulators and the noradrenaline (NA) transporter, which may act as a neuroprotective buffer, it was unclear whether this enhancement of METH neurotoxicity was caused by the loss of noradrenergic innervation or the loss of NA itself. We addressed the specific role of NA by comparing the effects of METH in mice with noradrenergic lesions (DSP-4) and those with intact noradrenergic terminals but specifically lacking NA (genetic or acute pharmacological blockade of the NA biosynthetic enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase; DBH). We found that genetic deletion of DBH (DBH −/− mice) and acute treatment of wild-type mice with a DBH inhibitor (fusaric acid) recapitulated the effects of DSP-4 lesions on METH responses. All three methods of NA depletion enhanced striatal DA release, extracellular oxidative stress (as measured by in vivo microdialysis of DA and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid), and behavioural stereotypies following repeated METH administration. These effects accompanied a worsening of the striatal DA neuron terminal damage and ultrastructural changes to medium spiny neurons. We conclude that NA itself is neuroprotective and plays a fundamental role in the sensitivity of striatal DA terminals to the neurochemical, behavioural, and neurotoxic effects of METH. PMID:18042179

  3. Neurochemical Changes in the Mouse Hippocampus Underlying the Antidepressant Effect of Genetic Deletion of P2X7 Receptors.

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    Csölle, Cecilia; Baranyi, Mária; Zsilla, Gabriella; Kittel, Agnes; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Illes, Peter; Papp, Edit; Vizi, E Sylvester; Sperlágh, Beáta

    2013-01-01

    Recent investigations have revealed that the genetic deletion of P2X7 receptors (P2rx7) results in an antidepressant phenotype in mice. However, the link between the deficiency of P2rx7 and changes in behavior has not yet been explored. In the present study, we studied the effect of genetic deletion of P2rx7 on neurochemical changes in the hippocampus that might underlie the antidepressant phenotype. P2X7 receptor deficient mice (P2rx7-/-) displayed decreased immobility in the tail suspension test (TST) and an attenuated anhedonia response in the sucrose preference test (SPT) following bacterial endotoxin (LPS) challenge. The attenuated anhedonia was reproduced through systemic treatments with P2rx7 antagonists. The activation of P2rx7 resulted in the concentration-dependent release of [(3)H]glutamate in P2rx7+/+ but not P2rx7-/- mice, and the NR2B subunit mRNA and protein was upregulated in the hippocampus of P2rx7-/- mice. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression was higher in saline but not LPS-treated P2rx7-/- mice; the P2rx7 antagonist Brilliant blue G elevated and the P2rx7 agonist benzoylbenzoyl ATP (BzATP) reduced BDNF level. This effect was dependent on the activation of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors but not on Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1,5). An increased 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation was also observed in the dentate gyrus derived from P2rx7-/- mice. Basal level of 5-HT was increased, whereas the 5HIAA/5-HT ratio was lower in the hippocampus of P2rx7-/- mice, which accompanied the increased uptake of [(3)H]5-HT and an elevated number of [(3)H]citalopram binding sites. The LPS-induced elevation of 5-HT level was absent in P2rx7-/- mice. In conclusion there are several potential mechanisms for the antidepressant phenotype of P2rx7-/- mice, such as the absence of P2rx7-mediated glutamate release, elevated basal BDNF production, enhanced neurogenesis and increased 5-HT bioavailability in the hippocampus.

  4. Neurochemical Changes in the Mouse Hippocampus Underlying the Antidepressant Effect of Genetic Deletion of P2X7 Receptors.

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    Cecilia Csölle

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have revealed that the genetic deletion of P2X7 receptors (P2rx7 results in an antidepressant phenotype in mice. However, the link between the deficiency of P2rx7 and changes in behavior has not yet been explored. In the present study, we studied the effect of genetic deletion of P2rx7 on neurochemical changes in the hippocampus that might underlie the antidepressant phenotype. P2X7 receptor deficient mice (P2rx7-/- displayed decreased immobility in the tail suspension test (TST and an attenuated anhedonia response in the sucrose preference test (SPT following bacterial endotoxin (LPS challenge. The attenuated anhedonia was reproduced through systemic treatments with P2rx7 antagonists. The activation of P2rx7 resulted in the concentration-dependent release of [(3H]glutamate in P2rx7+/+ but not P2rx7-/- mice, and the NR2B subunit mRNA and protein was upregulated in the hippocampus of P2rx7-/- mice. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression was higher in saline but not LPS-treated P2rx7-/- mice; the P2rx7 antagonist Brilliant blue G elevated and the P2rx7 agonist benzoylbenzoyl ATP (BzATP reduced BDNF level. This effect was dependent on the activation of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors but not on Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1,5. An increased 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation was also observed in the dentate gyrus derived from P2rx7-/- mice. Basal level of 5-HT was increased, whereas the 5HIAA/5-HT ratio was lower in the hippocampus of P2rx7-/- mice, which accompanied the increased uptake of [(3H]5-HT and an elevated number of [(3H]citalopram binding sites. The LPS-induced elevation of 5-HT level was absent in P2rx7-/- mice. In conclusion there are several potential mechanisms for the antidepressant phenotype of P2rx7-/- mice, such as the absence of P2rx7-mediated glutamate release, elevated basal BDNF production, enhanced neurogenesis and increased 5-HT bioavailability in the hippocampus.

  5. Doença dos tiques: aspectos genéticos e neuroquímicos atuais Genetic and neurochemical factors in tic disorders

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    JAMES PITÁGORAS DE MATTOS

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Após breve revisão dos dados históricos, do conceito, do quadro clínico e dos critérios para o diagnóstico, analisamos os principais aspectos genéticos e neuroquímicos atuais dos tiques e da síndrome de Gilles de La Tourette. Dados epidemiológicos sugerem que todo tique seja de natureza orgânica, a maioria de origem genética, e que obedecem a transmissão autossômica dominante com penetrância aproximada de 100%. Ressaltamos, ainda, os recentes estudos imuno-histoquímicos, particularmente os que se referem aos sistemas dopaminérgico, noradrenérgico e serotoninérgico, que modulam a atividade dos circuitos córtico-estriato-talâmico-cortical, envolvidos na gênese dos tiques e dos transtornos obsessivos-compulsivos.We review historical, conceptual, clinical and diagnostic criteria as well as present genetic and neurochemical factors of tic disorders. Epidemiologic data sugest that tic is an organic disease with autosomal dominant transmission. We emphasize imunohistochemical studies particularly related to the dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. These modulate the activity of the cortico-striato-thalamocortical circuits implicated in both Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  6. Beliefs in genetic determinism and attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research: psychometric scale properties, construct associations, demographic correlates, and cross-cultural comparisons.

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    Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Furnham, Adrian

    2007-12-01

    Using two new scales, this study examined beliefs in genetic determinism and attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research in student samples from Austria, Malaysia, Romania, and the United Kingdom. For both constructs, effects of culture were detectable, whereas those related to key demographics were either small and inconsistent across samples (political orientation and religiosity) or zero (sex and age). Judged from factorial dimensionality and internal consistency, the psychometric properties of both scales were satisfactory. Belief in genetic determinism had lower prevalence and corresponded only modestly to positive attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research which had higher prevalence. The correlations of both constructs with a preference of inequality among social groups (social dominance orientation) were modest and inconsistent across samples. Both scales appear appropriate for cross-cultural applications, in particular for research into lay theories and public perceptions regarding genetic vs environmental effects on human behavior, mental disorders, and behavioral and psychiatric genetic research related to these.

  7. Suicide: Neurochemical Approaches

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    Ritabrata Banerjee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the devastating effect of suicide on numerous lives, there is still a dearthof knowledge concerning its neurochemical aspects. There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and Nerve growth factor (NGF are involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression through binding and activating their cognate receptors trk B and trk A respectively. The present study was performed to examine whether the expression profiles of BDNF and/or trk B as well as NGF and/or trk A were altered in postmortem brain in subjects who commitsuicide and whether these alterations were associated with specific psychopathologic conditions. These studies were performed in hippocampus obtained 21 suicide subjects and 19 non-psychiatric control subjects. The protein and mRNA levels of BDNF, trk B and NGF, trk A were determined with Sandwich ELISA, Western Blot and RT PCR respectively. Given the importance of BDNFand NGF along with their cognate receptors in mediating physiological functions, including cell survival and synaptic plasticity, our findings of reduced expression of BDNF, Trk B and NGF, Trk A in both protein and mRNA levels of postmortem brain in suicide subjects suggest that these molecules may play an important role in the pathophysiological aspects of suicidal behavior.

  8. Psychometric properties of the Icelandic NEO-FFI in a general population sample compared to a sample recruited for a study on the genetics of addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Jonsson, Fridrik H.; Hansdottir, Ingunn

    2014-01-01

    . We present results of psychometric testing of the Icelandic NEO-FFI in a population sample (N= 657) and a sample recruited for a study on addiction genetics (N= 3804). The Icelandic NEO-FFI demonstrated internal consistency and temporal stability. Factor analyses supported the five-factor structure...

  9. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence.

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    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  10. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

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    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  11. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  12. A new measurement for the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory: psychometric criteria and genetic validation

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    Martin eReuter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST represents one of the most influential biologically-based personality theories describing individual differences in approach and avoidance tendencies. The most prominent self-report inventory to measure individual differences in approach and avoidance behavior to date is the BIS/BAS scale by Carver & White (1994. As Gray & McNaughton (2000 revised the RST after its initial formulation in the 1970/80s, and given the Carver & White measure is based on the initial conceptualization of RST, there is a growing need for self-report inventories measuring individual differences in the revised behavioral inhibition system (BIS, behavioral activation system (BAS and the fight, flight, freezing system (FFFS. Therefore, in this paper we present a new questionnaire measuring individual differences in the revised constructs of the BIS, BAS and FFFS in N = 1814 participants (German sample. An English translated version of the new measure is also presented and tested in N = 299 English language participants. A large number of German participants (N = 1090 also filled in the BIS/BAS scales by Carver & White (1994 and the correlations between these measures are presented. Finally, this same subgroup of participants provided buccal swaps for the investigation of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a gene. Here, a functional genetic polymorphism (rs11174811 on the AVPR1a gene was shown to be associated with individual differences in both the revised BIS and classic BIS dimensions.

  13. A new measure for the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory: psychometric criteria and genetic validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Martin; Cooper, Andrew J; Smillie, Luke D; Markett, Sebastian; Montag, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Jeffrey Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) represents one of the most influential biologically-based personality theories describing individual differences in approach and avoidance tendencies. The most prominent self-report inventory to measure individual differences in approach and avoidance behavior to date is the BIS/BAS scale by Carver and White (1994). As Gray and McNaughton (2000) revised the RST after its initial formulation in the 1970/80s, and given the Carver and White measure is based on the initial conceptualization of RST, there is a growing need for self-report inventories measuring individual differences in the revised behavioral inhibition system (BIS), behavioral activation system (BAS) and the fight, flight, freezing system (FFFS). Therefore, in this paper we present a new questionnaire measuring individual differences in the revised constructs of the BIS, BAS and FFFS in N = 1814 participants (German sample). An English translated version of the new measure is also presented and tested in N = 299 English language participants. A large number of German participants (N = 1090) also filled in the BIS/BAS scales by Carver and White (1994) and the correlations between these measures are presented. Finally, this same subgroup of participants provided buccal swaps for the investigation of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) gene. Here, a functional genetic polymorphism (rs11174811) on the AVPR1a gene was shown to be associated with individual differences in both the revised BIS and classic BIS dimensions.

  14. Neurochemical oscillations in the basal ganglia.

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    Noori, Hamid Reza; Jäger, Willi

    2010-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to elucidate the neurochemical processes in the basal ganglia by mathematical modelling. The correlation between neurochemistry and electrophysiology has been used to construct a dynamical system based on the basal ganglia's network structure. Mathematical models were constructed for different physical scales to reformulate the neurochemical and electrophysiological behaviour from synapses up to multi-compartment systems. Transformation functions have been developed to transit between the different scales. We show through numerical simulations that this network produces oscillations in the electrical potentials as well as in neurotransmitter concentrations. In agreement with pharmacological experiments, a parameter sensitivity analysis reveals temporary changes in the neurochemical and electrophysiological systems after single exposure to antipsychotic drugs. This behaviour states the structural stability of the system. The correlation between the neurochemical dynamics and drug-induced behaviour provides the perspective for novel neurobiological hypotheses.

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Two Measures of Speed of Information Processing and Their Relation to Psychometric Intelligence: Evidence from the German Observational Study of Adult Twins.

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    Neubauer, Alioscha C.; Spinath, Frank M.; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Borkenau, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Administered 2 elementary cognitive task (ECT) tests and 2 psychometric intelligence tests to 169 monozygotic and 131 dizygotic pairs of twins in Germany. Reaction times correlated negatively with psychometric intelligence, and habitability estimates were substantial for both psychometric intelligence and reaction times on the ECTs. Multivariate…

  16. Simultaneous wireless electrophysiological and neurochemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Kartikeya; Mollazadeh, Mohsen; Thakor, Nitish; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2008-08-01

    Information processing and propagation in the central nervous system is mostly electrical in nature. At synapses, electrical signals cause the release of neurotransmitters like dopamine, glutamate etc., that are sensed by post-synaptic neurons resulting in signal propagation or inhibition. It can be very informative to monitor electrical and neurochemical signals simultaneously to understand the mechanisms underlying normal or abnormal brain function. We present an integrated system for the simultaneous wireless acquisition of neurophysiological and neurochemical activity. Applications of the system to neuroscience include monitoring EEG and glutamate in rat somatosensory cortex following global ischemia.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Icelandic NEO-FFI in a general population sample compared to a sample recruited for a study on the genetics of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Jonsson, Fridrik H; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Almarsdottir, Anna B; Heimisdottir, Maria; Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn; Runarsdottir, Valgerdur A; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E

    2014-02-01

    Personality traits are major determinants of social behavior influencing various diseases including addiction. Twin and family studies suggest personality and addiction to be under genetic influence. Identification of DNA susceptibility variants relies on valid and reliable phenotyping approaches. We present results of psychometric testing of the Icelandic NEO-FFI in a population sample (N=657) and a sample recruited for a study on addiction genetics (N=3,804). The Icelandic NEO-FFI demonstrated internal consistency and temporal stability. Factor analyses supported the five-factor structure. Icelandic norms were compared to American norms and language translations selected for geographical and cultural proximity to Iceland. Multiple discriminant function analysis using NEO-FFI trait scores and gender as independent variables predicted membership in recruitment groups for 47.3% of addiction study cases (N=3,804), with accurate predictions made for 69.5% of individuals with treated addiction and 43.3% of their first-degree relatives. Correlations between NEO-FFI scores and the discriminant function suggested a combination of high neuroticism, low conscientiousness and low agreeableness predicted membership in the Treated group.

  18. [Neurochemical mechanisms of sleep regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is a complex, global and reversible behavioral state of all mammals, that is homeostatically regulated. Generally it is also defined as a rapidly reversible state of immobility and reduced sensory responsiveness. Still, there is no definition that has succeded in satisfying all aspects of sleep. The failure to define sleep as a single behavior lies in several facts: (1) sleep is not a homogenous state, but continuum of number of mixed states; (2) the control mechanisms of sleep are manifested at all levels of biological organization--from genes and intracellular mechanisms to the networks of neuronal populations within the central nervous system that control movement, arousal, autonomic functions, behavior and cognition; (3) the activity and interactions of these neurochemically greatly heterogenous neuronal populations are dependent of two biological rhythms--the circadian rhythm of wake/sleep and periodic cycles of NREM/REM sleep as two main sleep states. There are several levels of sleep control. The brain forebrain areas serve to control neuropsychology of dreaming; thalamo-cortical system controls NREM sleep rhythms, EEG activation and deactivation; hippocampo-cortical system controls memory consolidation; hypothalamic nuclei are the sources of circadian rhythm and sleep onset control; the control of periodic NREM/REM cycling is within the pons. The wake promoting neuronal populations are within the brainstem, midbrain, hypothalamus and basal forebrain. The main pontine wake-promoting centers are the noradrenergic neurons of locus coeruleus, the serotonergic neurons of dorsal raphe nucleus and the cholinerigic neurons of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The reciprocal connections and interactions of these neurons, and their opposite discharge pattern activity from wake to NREM and REM sleep have been the background of reciprocal interaction hypothesis of REM sleep generation. The wake-promoting neurons at the

  19. SOME NEUROCHEMICAL DISTURBANCES IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

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    Vladimir V. Markelov

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe data presented in this manuscript suggest a pivotal role of the central nervous system (CNS in the regulation of immune status. We describe here that some neurochemical disturbances may provoke development of various diseases including multiple sclerosis. Some theoretic and practical backgrounds, how to improve the multiple sclerosis sufferers and patients with other autoimmune disorders, are also given.RESUMENLos datos que presentamos en este manuscrito, sugieren un papel guia del sistema nervioso central (SNC en la regulación del estado inmune. Describimos aquí que varias alteraciones neuroquímicas pueden provocar el desarrollo de varias enfermedades, incluyendo esclerosis múltiple. También se comenta acerca del trasfondo teórico y práctico, y cómo mejorar a víctimas y pacientes con esclerosis múltiple y otras alteraciones autoinmunes.

  20. Nutrigenomic targeting of carbohydrate craving behavior: can we manage obesity and aberrant craving behaviors with neurochemical pathway manipulation by Immunological Compatible Substances (nutrients) using a Genetic Positioning System (GPS) Map?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, B William; Chen, Amanda L C; Chen, Thomas J H; Waite, Roger L; Braverman, Eric R; Kerner, Mallory; Braverman, Dasha; Rhoades, Patrick; Prihoda, Thomas J; Palomo, Tomas; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Reinking, Jeffrey; Blum, Seth H; DiNubile, Nicholas A; Liu, H H; Blum, Kenneth

    2009-09-01

    Genetic mediated physiological processes that rely on both pharmacological and nutritional principles hold great promise for the successful therapeutic targeting of reduced carbohydrate craving, body-friendly fat loss, healthy body recomposition, and overall wellness. By integrating an assembly of scientific knowledge on inheritable characteristics and environmental mediators of gene expression, we review the relationship of genes, hormones, neurotransmitters, and nutrients as they correct unwanted weight gain coupled with unhappiness. In contrast to a simple one-locus, one-mechanism focus on pharmaceuticals alone, we hypothesize that the use of nutrigenomic treatment targeting multi-physiological neurological, immunological, and metabolic pathways will enable clinicians to intercede in the process of lipogenesis by promoting lipolysis while attenuating aberrant glucose cravings. In turn, this approach will enhance wellness in a safe and predictable manner through the use of a Genetic Positioning System (GPS) Map. The GPS Map, while presently incomplete, ultimately will serve not only as a blueprint for personalized medicine in the treatment of obesity, but also for the development of strategies for reducing many harmful addictive behaviors and promoting optimal health by using substances compatible with the body's immune system.

  1. Central Neurochemical Ultradian Variability in Depression

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    Ronald M. Salomon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is characterized by blunted behavior and neuroendocrine function that generally improve with antidepressant treatment. This study examined intrinsic variability in brain neurotransmitter function, since it may be a source of blunted behavior and neuroendocrine function in depression and a marker for the illness, and has not previously been analyzed using wavelet decomposition. To measure variability in monoamine metabolites, lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was collected in serial samples in depressed patients before and after treatment. We hypothesized that changes in variability would be observed after treatment. Mechanisms that control such variability may be critical to the pathophysiology of depression. Method: Time series data was obtained from serial ten-min sampling over a 24-hr period (N = 144 from thirteen depressed patients, with a repeat collection after 5 weeks of antidepressant (sertraline or bupropion treatment. Concentrations of tryptophan (TRP, the monoamine metabolites 5-HIAA (metabolite of serotonin and HVA (metabolite of dopamine, and the HVA:5HIAA ratio were transformed to examine power in slowly (160 min/cycle to rapidly (20 min/cycle occurring events. Power, the sum of the squares of the coefficients in each d (detail wavelet, reflects variability within a limited frequency bandwidth for that wavelet. Pre-treatment to post-treatment comparisons were conducted with repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Antidepressant treatment was associated with increased power in the d2 wavelet from the HVA (p = 0.03 and the HVA:5-HIAA ratio (p = 0.03 series. The d1 and d3 wavelets showed increased power following antidepressant treatment for the ratio series (d1, p = 0.01; d3, p = 0.05. Significant changes in power were not observed for the 5-HIAA data series. Power differences among analytes suggest that the findings are specific to each system. Conclusion: The wavelet transform analysis shows changes in neurochemical signal

  2. Neuroprotective and neurochemical properties of mint extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Víctor; Martín, Sara; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Carretero, Maria Emilia; Jäger, Anna K; Calvo, Maria Isabel

    2010-06-01

    Mints are aromatic plants with a tradition as medicinal remedies and culinary herbs. With the aim of investigating potential central nervous system (CNS) activities of traditional medicinal plants, four species and one hybrid of the genus Mentha (M. aquatica, M. longifolia, M. pulegium, M. suaveolens and M. x piperita) were selected. Methanolic extracts of the plants were tested for protective effects against hydrogen-peroxide-induced toxicity in PC12 cells, antioxidant activity (by ABTS and X/XO methods) and neurochemical properties (MAO-A inhibition, AChE inhibition and affinity to the GABA(A) receptor). Mentha x piperita and Mentha aquatica produced significant (p < 0.05) protection of the PC12 cells against oxidative stress. All the plants exhibited antioxidant and MAO-A inhibitory activities, M. x piperita being the most active. M. aquatica showed the highest affinity to the GABA(A)-receptor assay. Results demonstrate that mints might have effect on the CNS. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Neurochemical mechanisms underlying responses to psychostimulants

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    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Hitzemann, R.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This study employed positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate biochemical and metabolic characteristics of the brain of individuals which could put them at risk for drug addiction. It takes advantage of the normal variability between individuals in response to psychoactive drugs to investigate relation between mental state, brain neurochemistry and metabolism and the behavioral response to drugs. We discuss its use to assess if there is an association between mental state and dompaminergic reactivity in response to the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate (MP). Changes in synaptic dopamine induced by MP were evaluated with PET and [11C]raclopride, a D{sub 2} receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous dopamine. Methylpphenidate significantly decreased striatal [11C]raclopride binding. The study showed a correlation between the magnitude of the dopamine-induced changes by methylphenidate, and the mental state of the subjects. Subjects reporting high levels of anxiety and restlessness at baseline had larger changes in MP-induced dopamine changes than those that did not. Further investigations on the relation between an individual`s response to a drug and his/her mental state and personality as well as his neurochemical brain composition may enable to understand better differences in drug addiction vulnerability.

  4. Neuroanatomical and Neurochemical Basis of Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Yazici

    2010-08-01

    tis paradigm, the tendency to prefer small immediate rewards over larger, more delayed reinforcers is measured. İmpulsive choice is defined by a greater tendency to value or choose smaller, more immediate reinforcers. Impulsivity is a multi-faceted behaviour. This behaviour may be studied by subdividing it into different processes neuroanatomically and neurochemically. Neuroanatomical data support the suggestion that behavioral disinhibition (impulsive action / motoric impulsivity and delay-discounting (impulsive choice / decision making differ in the degree to which various components of frontostriatal loops are implicated in their regulation. The dorsal prefrontal cortex does not appear to be involved in mediating impulsive choice, yet does have some role in regulating inhibitory processes. In contrast, there appears to be a pronounced role for the orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala in controlling impulsive choice. Other structures, however, such as the nucleus accumbens and subthalamic nucleus may be common to both circuits. From the neurochemical perspective, dopamine system and dopamine- 2 (D2 receptors in particular, seems to be closely involved in making impulsive choice. When the noradrenaline system does not function optimally, it might contribute to increased impulsivity. Serotonin might act upon prefrontal cortex to decrease impulsive choices. Interactions between the serotonin and the dopamine systems are important in the regulation of impulsive behaviour. It is possible that various receptor subtypes of the serotonin system may exert differing and even contrasting effects on impulsive behaviour. Although it is very informative to study neurotransmitter systems separately, it should be kept in mind that there are very intimate interactions between the neurotransmitter systems mentioned above. Based on the fact that impulsivity is regulated through multiple neurotransmitters and even more receptors, one may suggest that pharmacotherapy of

  5. Bayesian psychometric scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, G.J.A.; Berg, van den S.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.; Irwing, P.; Booth, T.; Hughes, D.

    2015-01-01

    In educational and psychological studies, psychometric methods are involved in the measurement of constructs, and in constructing and validating measurement instruments. Assessment results are typically used to measure student proficiency levels and test characteristics. Recently, Bayesian item resp

  6. Bayesian psychometric scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Gerardus J.A.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Irwing, P.; Booth, T.; Hughes, D.

    2015-01-01

    In educational and psychological studies, psychometric methods are involved in the measurement of constructs, and in constructing and validating measurement instruments. Assessment results are typically used to measure student proficiency levels and test characteristics. Recently, Bayesian item

  7. Development of the Neurochemical Architecture of the Central Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Stephen Boyan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The central complex represents one of the most conspicuous neuroarchitectures to be found in the insect brain and regulates a wide repertoire of behaviors including locomotion, stridulation, spatial orientation and spatial memory. In this review, we show that in the grasshopper, a model insect system, the intricate wiring of the fan-shaped body begins early in embryogenesis when axons from the first progeny of four protocerebral stem cells (called W, X, Y, Z respectively in each brain hemisphere establish a set of tracts to the primary commissural system. Decussation of subsets of commissural neurons at stereotypic locations across the brain midline then establishes a columnar neuroarchitecture in the fan-shaped body which is completed during embryogenesis. Examination of the expression patterns of various neurochemicals in the central complex including neuropeptides, a neurotransmitter, and the gas nitric oxide, show that these appear progressively and in a substance-specific manner during embryogenesis. Each neuroactive substance is expressed by neurons located at stereotypic locations in a given central complex lineage, confirming that the stem cells are biochemically multipotent. The organization of axons expressing the various neurochemicals within the central complex is topologically related to the location, and hence birthdate, of the neurons within the lineages. The neurochemical expression patterns within the fan-shaped body are layered, and so reflect the temporal topology present in the lineages. This principle relates the neuroanatomical to the neurochemical architecture of the central complex and so may provide insights into the development of adaptive behaviors.

  8. Development of the Neurochemical Architecture of the Central Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, George S; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The central complex represents one of the most conspicuous neuroarchitectures to be found in the insect brain and regulates a wide repertoire of behaviors including locomotion, stridulation, spatial orientation and spatial memory. In this review article, we show that in the grasshopper, a model insect system, the intricate wiring of the fan-shaped body (FB) begins early in embryogenesis when axons from the first progeny of four protocerebral stem cells (called W, X, Y, Z, respectively) in each brain hemisphere establish a set of tracts to the primary commissural system. Decussation of subsets of commissural neurons at stereotypic locations across the brain midline then establishes a columnar neuroarchitecture in the FB which is completed during embryogenesis. Examination of the expression patterns of various neurochemicals in the central complex including neuropeptides, a neurotransmitter and the gas nitric oxide (NO), show that these appear progressively and in a substance-specific manner during embryogenesis. Each neuroactive substance is expressed by neurons located at stereotypic locations in a given central complex lineage, confirming that the stem cells are biochemically multipotent. The organization of axons expressing the various neurochemicals within the central complex is topologically related to the location, and hence birthdate, of the neurons within the lineages. The neurochemical expression patterns within the FB are layered, and so reflect the temporal topology present in the lineages. This principle relates the neuroanatomical to the neurochemical architecture of the central complex and so may provide insights into the development of adaptive behaviors.

  9. The neurochemical mobile with non-linear interaction matrix: an exploratory computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Z; Fieni, D; Tretter, F; Voit, E O

    2013-05-01

    Several years ago, the "neurochemical mobile" was introduced as a visual tool for explaining the different balances between neurotransmitters in the brain and their role in mental disorders. Here we complement this concept with a non-linear computational systems model representing the direct and indirect interactions between neurotransmitters, as they have been described in the "neurochemical interaction matrix." The model is constructed within the framework of biochemical systems theory, which facilitates the mapping of numerically ill-characterized systems into a mathematical and computational construct that permits a variety of analyses. Simulations show how short- and long-term perturbations in any of the neurotransmitters migrate through the entire system, thereby affecting the balances within the mobile. In cases of short-term alterations, transients are of particular interest, whereas long-term changes shed light on persistently altered, allostatic states, which in mental diseases and sleep disorders could be due to a combination of unfavorable factors, resulting from a specific genetic predisposition, epigenetic effects, disease, or the repeated use of drugs, such as opioids and amphetamines.

  10. Psychometric latent response models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, E.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, some psychometric models will be presented that belong to the larger class oflatent response models (LRMs). First, LRMs are introduced by means of an application in the field ofcomponential item response theory (Embretson, 1980, 1984). Second, a general definition of LRMs (not specifi

  11. Neurochemical measurements in the zebrafish brain

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren eJones; James eMcCutcheon; Andrew eYoung; William eNorton

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish is an ideal model organism for behavioural genetics and neuroscience. The high conservation of genes and neurotransmitter pathways between zebrafish and other vertebrates permits the translation of research between species. Zebrafish behaviour can be studied at both larval and adult stages and recent research has begun to establish zebrafish models for human disease. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical technique that permits the detection of neurotransmitte...

  12. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei

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    Paul eSmith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular (VOR and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa’s ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC, it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarises and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics.

  13. Future of Psychometrics: Ask What Psychometrics Can Do for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    I address two issues that were inspired by my work on the Dutch Committee on Tests and Testing (COTAN). The first issue is the understanding of problems test constructors and researchers using tests have of psychometric knowledge. I argue that this understanding is important for a field, like psychometrics, for which the dissemination of…

  14. Future of Psychometrics: Ask What Psychometrics Can Do for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    I address two issues that were inspired by my work on the Dutch Committee on Tests and Testing (COTAN). The first issue is the understanding of problems test constructors and researchers using tests have of psychometric knowledge. I argue that this understanding is important for a field, like psychometrics, for which the dissemination of…

  15. Strain dependent gene expression and neurochemical levels in the brain of zebrafish: focus on a few alcohol related targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y; Chatterjee, D; Gerlai, R

    2012-12-05

    The zebrafish is becoming increasingly popular in behavior genetics because it may allow one to conduct large scale mutation and drug screens facilitating the discovery of mechanisms of complex traits. Strain differences in adult zebrafish behavior have already been reported, which may have important implications in neurobehavioral genetics. For example, we have found the AB and SF strains to differ in their behavioral responses to both acute and chronic alcohol exposure. In the current study, we further characterize these strains using semi-quantitative RT-PCR to measure the expression of ten selected genes and HPLC to measure the levels of nine neurochemicals. We chose the target genes and neurochemicals based upon their potential involvement in alcohol and other drugs of abuse related mechanisms. We quantified the expression of the genes encoding D1-R, D2a-R, D4a-R dopamine receptors, GABA(A)-R, GABA(B)-R1, GAD1, MAO, NMDA-R (NR2D subunit), 5HT-R1bd and SLC6 a4a. We found the gene encoding D1 dopamine receptor over-expressed and the genes encoding GABA(B1) receptor and solute family carrier protein 6 (SLC6) 4a under-expressed in SF compared to AB. We also found the level of all (dopamine, DOPAC, Serotonin, GABA, Glutamate, Glycine, Aspartate, Taurine) but one (5HIAA) neurochemicals tested decreased in SF as compared to AB. These results, combined with previously identified behavioral differences between the AB and SF strains, demonstrate the importance of strain characterization in zebrafish. They now also allow formulation of working hypotheses about possible mechanisms underlying the differential effects of acute and chronic alcohol treatment on these two zebrafish strains.

  16. Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation: Results of the Initial Psychometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Amy E; Penn, David L; Green, Michael F; Harvey, Philip D

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of social cognition in treatment trials remains problematic due to poor and limited psychometric data for many tasks. As part of the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, the psychometric properties of 8 tasks were assessed. One hundred and seventy-nine stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 104 healthy controls completed the battery at baseline and a 2-4-week retest period at 2 sites. Tasks included the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task (BLERT), Penn Emotion Recognition Task (ER-40), Relationships Across Domains (RAD), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task (Eyes), The Awareness of Social Inferences Test (TASIT), Hinting Task, and Trustworthiness Task. Tasks were evaluated on: (i) test-retest reliability, (ii) utility as a repeated measure, (iii) relationship to functional outcome, (iv) practicality and tolerability, (v) sensitivity to group differences, and (vi) internal consistency. The BLERT and Hinting task showed the strongest psychometric properties across all evaluation criteria and are recommended for use in clinical trials. The ER-40, Eyes Task, and TASIT showed somewhat weaker psychometric properties and require further study. The AIHQ, RAD, and Trustworthiness Task showed poorer psychometric properties that suggest caution for their use in clinical trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  18. Thiamine Deficiency Induced Neurochemical, Neuroanatomical, and Neuropsychological Alterations: A Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nardone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS. Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans.

  19. Thiamine deficiency induced neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological alterations: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans.

  20. Modeling psychometric functions in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yssaad-Fesselier, Rosa; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2006-02-01

    We demonstrate some procedures in the statistical computing environment R for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters of a psychometric function by fitting a generalized nonlinear regression model to the data. A feature for fitting a linear model to the threshold (or other) parameters of several psychometric functions simultaneously provides a powerful tool for testing hypotheses about the data and, potentially, for reducing the number of parameters necessary to describe them. Finally, we illustrate procedures for treating one parameter as a random effect that would permit a simplified approach to modeling stimulus-independent variability due to factors such as lapses or interobserver differences. These tools will facilitate a more comprehensive and explicit approach to the modeling of psychometric data.

  1. Neurochemical substrates and neuroanatomical generators of the event-related P300

    OpenAIRE

    Frodl-Bauch, Thomas; Bottlender, Ronald; Hegerl, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    The present review focuses on the current knowledge of the neurochemical processes and neuronal structures involved in the generation of P300. The increasing knowledge in this area facilitates the physiological interpretation of P300 findings as well as the link between P300 research and other research findings in biological psychiatry. Concerning the question of neurochemical substrates, the glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic influences on P30...

  2. Eating disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: neurochemical and phenomenological commonalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarry, J L; Vaccarino, F J

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores a possible connection between neurochemistry and cognitions in eating disorders (ED). Cognitions play an important role in ED. However, a possible neurochemical origin of these cognitions has not been explored. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a disorder of thinking. Extensive neurochemical research conducted on this disorder indicates a connection between serotonin (5-HT) dysregulation and cognitions in OCD. This study used research done on OCD as a templat...

  3. Neurochemical Analysis of Primary Motor Cortex in Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda E. Popescu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1 in chronic low back pain (LBP is a relatively new concept. Decreased M1 excitability and an analgesic effect after M1 stimulation have been recently reported. However, the neurochemical changes underlying these functional M1 changes are unknown. The current study investigated whether neurochemicals specific to neurons and glial cells in both right and left M1 are altered. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA and myo-inositol (mI were measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 19 subjects with chronic LBP and 14 healthy controls. We also examined correlations among neurochemicals within and between M1 and relationships between neurochemical concentrations and clinical features of pain. Right M1 NAA was lower in subjects with LBP compared to controls (p = 0.008. Left M1 NAA and mI were not significantly different between LBP and control groups. Correlations between neurochemical concentrations across M1s were different between groups (p = 0.008. There were no significant correlations between M1 neurochemicals and pain characteristics. These findings provide preliminary evidence of neuronal depression and altered neuronal-glial interactions across M1 in chronic LBP.

  4. Recent neurochemical basis of inert gas narcosis and pressure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostain, J C; Balon, N

    2006-01-01

    Compressed air or a nitrogen-oxygen mixture produces from 0.3 MPa nitrogen narcosis. The traditional view was that anaesthesia or narcosis occurs when the volume of a hydrophobic site is caused to expand beyond a critical amount by the absorption of molecules of a narcotic gas. The observation of the pressure reversal effect on general anaesthesia has for a long time supported the lipid theory. However, recently, protein theories are in increasing consideration since results have been interpreted as evidence for a direct anaesthetic-protein interaction. The question is to know whether inert gases act by binding processes on proteins of neurotransmitter receptors. Compression with breathing mixtures where nitrogen is replaced by helium which has a low narcotic potency induces from 1 MPa, the high pressure nervous syndrome which is related to neurochemical disturbances including changes of the amino-acid and monoamine neurotransmissions. The use of narcotic gas (nitrogen or hydrogen) added to a helium-oxygen mixture, reduced some symptoms of the HPNS but also had some effects due to an additional effect of the narcotic potency of the gas. The researches performed at the level of basal ganglia of the rat brain and particularly the nigro-striatal pathway involved in the control of the motor, locomotor and cognitive functions, disrupted by narcosis or pressure, have indicated that GABAergic neurotransmission is implicated via GABAa receptors.

  5. A review of recent neurochemical data on inert gas narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostain, J C; Lavoute, C; Risso, J J; Vallée, N; Weiss, M

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen narcosis occurs in humans at around 0.4 MPa (4 ATA). Hydrogen narcosis occurs between 2.6 and 3.0 MPa. In rats, nitrogen disturbances occur from 1 MPa and a loss of righting reflex around 4 MPa. Neurochemical studies in striatum of rats with nitrogen at 3 MPa (75% of anesthesia threshold) with differential pulse voltammetry have demonstrated a decrease in dopamine (DA) release by neurons originated from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Such a decrease is found also with compressed argon, which is more narcotic than nitrogen and with the anesthetic gas nitrous oxide. Inversely, compressed helium with its very low narcotic potency induces DA increase. Microdialysis studies in the striatum have indicated that nitrogen also induces a decrease of glutamate concentration. Nitrogen pressure did not modify NMDA glutamate receptor activities in SNc or striatum but enhanced GABAA receptors activities in SNc. Repetitive exposures to nitrogen narcosis suppressed the DA decrease and induced an increase. This fact and the lack of improvement of motor disturbances did not support the hypothesis of a physiological adaptation. The desensitization of the GABAA receptors on DA cells during recurrent exposures and the parallel long-lasting decrease of glutamate coupled to the increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity suggest a nitrogen neurotoxicity or addiction induced by recurrent exposures. The differential changes produced by inert gases indifferent neurotransmitter receptors would support the binding protein theory.

  6. Neurochemical Effects of Chronic Administration of Calcitriol in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite accumulating data showing the various neurological actions of vitamin D (VD, its effects on brain neurochemistry are still far from fully understood. To further investigate the neurochemical influence of VD, we assessed neurotransmitter systems in the brain of rats following 6-week calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D administration (50 ng/kg/day or 100 ng/kg/day. Both the two doses of calcitriol enhanced VDR protein level without affecting serum calcium and phosphate status. Rats treated with calcitriol, especially with the higher dose, exhibited elevated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA status. Correspondingly, the mRNA expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD 67 was increased. 100 ng/kg of calcitriol administration also increased glutamate and glutamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, but did not alter glutamine synthetase (GS expression. Additionally, calcitriol treatment promoted tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 expression without changing dopamine and serotonin status. However, the concentrations of the metabolites of dopamine and serotonin were increased and the drug use also resulted in a significant rise of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA expression, which might be responsible to maintain the homeostasis of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Collectively, the present study firstly showed the effects of calcitriol in the major neurotransmitter systems, providing new evidence for the role of VD in brain function.

  7. Wireless Amperometric Neurochemical Monitoring Using an Integrated Telemetry Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roham, Masoud; Halpern, Jeffrey M.; Martin, Heidi B.; Chiel, Hillel J.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated circuit for wireless real-time monitoring of neurochemical activity in the nervous system is described. The chip is capable of conducting high-resolution amperometric measurements in four settings of the input current. The chip architecture includes a first-order ΔΣ modulator (ΔΣM) and a frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) operating near 433 MHz. It is fabricated using the AMI 0.5 μm double-poly triple-metal n-well CMOS process, and requires only one off-chip component for operation. Measured dc current resolutions of ~250 fA, ~1.5 pA, ~4.5 pA, and ~17 pA were achieved for input currents in the range of ±5, ±37, ±150, and ±600 nA, respectively. The chip has been interfaced with a diamond-coated, quartz-insulated, microneedle, tungsten electrode, and successfully recorded dopamine concentration levels as low as 0.5 μM wirelessly over a transmission distance of ~0.5 m in flow injection analysis experiments. PMID:18990633

  8. Conducting Simulation Studies in Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…

  9. Caffeine triggers behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardais, A P; Borges, M F; Rocha, A S; Sallaberry, C; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2014-06-13

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide but concerns arise about the growing intake of caffeine-containing drinks by adolescents since the effects of caffeine on cognitive functions and neurochemical aspects of late brain maturation during adolescence are poorly known. We now studied the behavioral impact in adolescent male rats of regular caffeine intake at low (0.1mg/mL), moderate (0.3mg/mL) and moderate/high (1.0mg/mL) doses only during their active period (from 7:00 P.M. to 7:00 A.M.). All tested doses of caffeine were devoid of effects on locomotor activity, but triggered anxiogenic effects. Caffeine (0.3 and 1mg/mL) improved the performance in the object recognition task, but the higher dose of caffeine (1.0mg/mL) decreased the habituation to an open-field arena, suggesting impaired non-associative memory. All tested doses of caffeine decreased the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein and synaptosomal-associated protein-25, but failed to modify neuron-specific nuclear protein immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Caffeine (0.3-1mg/mL) increased the density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and proBDNF density as well as adenosine A1 receptor density in the hippocampus, whereas the higher dose of caffeine (1mg/mL) increased the density of proBDNF and BDNF and decreased A1 receptor density in the cerebral cortex. These findings document an impact of caffeine consumption in adolescent rats with a dual impact on anxiety and recognition memory, associated with changes in BDNF levels and decreases of astrocytic and nerve terminal markers without overt neuronal damage in hippocampal and cortical regions.

  10. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalm, Marie, E-mail: marie.kalm@neuro.gu.se [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Abel, Edvard [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wasling, Pontus [Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hietala, Max Albert [Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars [Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Elam, Mikael [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Blennow, Kaj [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); Björk-Eriksson, Thomas [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Zetterberg, Henrik [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments.

  11. Neurochemical dementia diagnostics for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias: an ISO 15189 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waedt, Johanna; Kleinow, Martina; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lewczuk, Piotr

    2012-10-01

    Dementia is one of the most common causes of health problems in the elderly populations of Western industrialized countries. A combined analysis of cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics biomarkers (amyloid-β peptides, total tau and phosphorylated forms of tau) provides sensitivity and specificity in the range of 85% for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia. The alterations occur very early in the course of neurodegeneration, enabling medical follow-up of persons with increased risk of developing dementia. With a growing number of laboratories performing neurochemical dementia diagnostics routinely, it is important to standardize protocols and laboratory performance to enable comparisons of results and their interpretations. Together with the recently published expert guidelines for sample handling and preparation, as well as the interpretation (post-analytical) algorithms developed by experienced centers, ISO 15189 norm provides an extremely useful tool for standardization of neurochemical dementia diagnostics.

  12. Personality and neurochemicals in the human brain: A preliminary study using 1H MRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiyong; PENG Danling; JIN Zhen; LIU Hongyan; YANG Jie

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the neuro-biological bases of introversion-extraversion personality traits, the concentra- tion of four neurochemicals (Cho, mI, α-Glx and NAA) in anterior cigulate gyrus between normal extroverts and introverts were examined using non-invasive 1H MRS technique. Our study revealed that introverts have significantly higher level of α-Glx, Cho and mI in the anterior cingulate gyrus than extroverts. This result provides new evidence that the anterior cingulate gyrus is related to personality traits partly in support of Eysenck's supposition that introverts have higher arousal level than extroverts. Moreover, this result offers neurochemical data for psychobiological theories of personality.

  13. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  14. Loosening Psychometric Constraints on Educational Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    In response to an argument by Baird, Andrich, Hopfenbeck and Stobart (2017), Michael Kane states that there needs to be a better fit between educational assessment and learning theory. In line with this goal, Kane will examine how psychometric constraints might be loosened by relaxing some psychometric "rules" in some assessment…

  15. Psychometric Properties of IRT Proficiency Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Tong, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of item response theory proficiency estimates are considered in this paper. Proficiency estimators based on summed scores and pattern scores include non-Bayes maximum likelihood and test characteristic curve estimators and Bayesian estimators. The psychometric properties investigated include reliability, conditional…

  16. Current state and future directions of neurochemical biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Daniëlle; Kremer, Berry P H; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2007-01-01

    In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current state-of-the-art of neurochemical biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. Predominantly, these biomarkers comprise cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers directly related to the pathophysiology of this disorder (such as amyloid beta protein, tau protein). W

  17. Current state and future directions of neurochemical biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, D. de; Kremer, H.P.H.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current state-of-the-art of neurochemical biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. Predominantly, these biomarkers comprise cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers directly related to the pathophysiology of this disorder (such as amyloid beta protein, tau protein).

  18. Current state and future directions of neurochemical biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Daniëlle; Kremer, Berry P H; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2007-01-01

    In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current state-of-the-art of neurochemical biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. Predominantly, these biomarkers comprise cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers directly related to the pathophysiology of this disorder (such as amyloid beta protein, tau protein). W

  19. Distinct neurochemical profiles of spinocerebellar ataxias 1, 2, 6, and cerebellar multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Gülin; Iltis, Isabelle; Hutter, Diane; Thomas, William; Bushara, Khalaf O; Gomez, Christopher M

    2011-06-01

    Hereditary and sporadic neurodegenerative ataxias are movement disorders that affect the cerebellum. Robust and objective biomarkers are critical for treatment trials of ataxias. In addition, such biomarkers may help discriminate between ataxia subtypes because these diseases display substantial overlap in clinical presentation and conventional MRI. Profiles of 10-13 neurochemical concentrations obtained in vivo by high field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) can potentially provide ataxia-type specific biomarkers. We compared cerebellar and brainstem neurochemical profiles measured at 4 T from 26 patients with spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, N = 9; SCA2, N = 7; SCA6, N = 5) or cerebellar multiple system atrophy (MSA-C, N = 5) and 15 age-matched healthy controls. The Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) was used to assess disease severity. The patterns of neurochemical alterations relative to controls differed between ataxia types. Myo-inositol levels in the vermis, myo-inositol, total N-acetylaspartate, total creatine, glutamate, glutamine in the cerebellar hemispheres and myo-inositol, total N-acetylaspartate, glutamate in the pons were significantly different between patient groups (Bonferroni corrected p ataxia types. Studies with higher numbers of patients and other ataxias are warranted to further investigate the clinical utility of neurochemical levels as measured by high-field MRS as ataxia biomarkers.

  20. THE MODERN RACISM SCALE: PSYCHOMETRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL CÁRDENAS

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An adaption of McConahay, Harder and Batts’ (1981 moderm racism scale is presented for Chilean population andits psychometric properties, (reliability and validity are studied, along with its relationship with other relevantpsychosocial variables in studies on prejudice and ethnic discrimination (authoritarianism, religiousness, politicalposition, etc., as well as with other forms of prejudice (gender stereotypes and homophobia. The sample consistedof 120 participants, students of psychology, resident in the city of Antofagasta (a geographical zone with a highnumber of Latin-American inmigrants. Our findings show that the scale seems to be a reliable instrument to measurethe prejudice towards Bolivian immigrants in our social environment. Likewise, important differences among thesubjects are detected with high and low scores in the psychosocial variables used.

  1. Physical capability scale: psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Barbara; Boltz, Marie; Galik, Elizabeth; Wells, Chris

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric testing of the Basic Physical Capability Scale. The study was a secondary data analysis of combined data sets from three studies. Study participants included 93 older adults, recruited from 2 acute-care settings and 110 older adults living in long-term care facilities. Rasch analysis was used for the testing of the measurement model. There was some support for construct validity based on the fit of the items to the scale across both samples. In addition, there was support for hypothesis testing as physical function was significantly associated with physical capability. There was evidence for internal consistency (Alpha coefficients of .77-.83) and interrater reliability based on an intraclass correlation of .81. This study provided preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Basic Physical Capability Scale, and guidance for scale revisions and continued use.

  2. Psychometrics behind Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-03-01

    The paper provides a survey of 18 years' progress that my colleagues, students (both former and current) and I made in a prominent research area in Psychometrics-Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). We start with a historical review of the establishment of a large sample foundation for CAT. It is worth noting that the asymptotic results were derived under the framework of Martingale Theory, a very theoretical perspective of Probability Theory, which may seem unrelated to educational and psychological testing. In addition, we address a number of issues that emerged from large scale implementation and show that how theoretical works can be helpful to solve the problems. Finally, we propose that CAT technology can be very useful to support individualized instruction on a mass scale. We show that even paper and pencil based tests can be made adaptive to support classroom teaching.

  3. The neurobiology of social attachment: A comparative approach to behavioral, neuroanatomical, and neurochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly A; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin

    2008-11-01

    The formation and maintenance of social bonds in adulthood is an essential component of human health. However studies investigating the underlying neurobiology of such behaviors have been scarce. Microtine rodents offer a unique comparative animal model to explore the neural processes responsible for pair bonding and its associated behaviors. Studies using monogamous prairie voles and other related species have recently offered insight into the neuroanatomical, neurobiological, and neurochemical underpinnings of social attachment. In this review, we will discuss the utility of the microtine rodents in comparative studies by exploring their natural history and social behavior in the laboratory. We will then summarize the data implicating vasopressin, oxytocin, and dopamine in the regulation of pair bonding. Finally, we will discuss the ways in which these neurochemical systems may interact to mediate this complex behavior.

  4. Differential Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction on the Regional Neurochemical Profile of the Developing Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski-Hall, Anne M; Alexander, Michelle; Tkáč, Ivan; Öz, Gülin; Rao, Raghavendra

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) infants are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental deficits that suggest the hippocampus and cerebral cortex may be particularly vulnerable. Evaluate regional neurochemical profiles in IUGR and normally grown (NG) 7-day old rat pups using in vivo (1)H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 9.4 T. IUGR was induced via bilateral uterine artery ligation at gestational day 19 in pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams. MR spectra were obtained from the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum at P7 in IUGR (N = 12) and NG (N = 13) rats. In the cortex, IUGR resulted in lower concentrations of phosphocreatine, glutathione, taurine, total choline, total creatine (P regions. Persistent neurochemical changes may lead to cortex-based long-term neurodevelopmental deficits in human IUGR infants.

  5. Neurochemical phenotype of cytoglobin‑expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2014-01-01

    in a subpopulation of brain neurons. Recently, it has been shown that stress upregulates Cygb expression in the brain and the majority of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive neurons, an enzyme that produces NO, co-express Cygb. However, there are more neurons expressing Cygb than nNOS, thus a large number...... of Cygb neurons remain uncharacterized by the neurochemical content. The aim of the present study was to provide an additional and more detailed neurochemical phenotype of Cygb-expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus. The rat hippocampus was chosen due to the abundance of Cygb, as well as this limbic...... structure being an important target in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Using triple immunohistochemistry, it was demonstrated that nearly all the parvalbumin- and heme oxygenase 1-positive neurons co-express Cygb and to a large extent, these neuron populations are distinct from the population...

  6. Neurochemical dynamics of acute orofacial pain in the human trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Nuno M P; Hock, Andreas; Wyss, Michael; Ettlin, Dominik A; Brügger, Mike

    2017-09-04

    The trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex is the first central relay structure mediating orofacial somatosensory and nociceptive perception. Animal studies suggest a substantial involvement of neurochemical alterations at such basal CNS levels in acute and chronic pain processing. Translating this animal based knowledge to humans is challenging. Human related examining of brainstem functions are challenged by MR related peculiarities as well as applicability aspects of experimentally standardized paradigms. Based on our experience with an MR compatible human orofacial pain model, the aims of the present study were twofold: 1) from a technical perspective, the evaluation of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T regarding measurement accuracy of neurochemical profiles in this small brainstem nuclear complex and 2) the examination of possible neurochemical alterations induced by an experimental orofacial pain model. Data from 13 healthy volunteers aged 19-46 years were analyzed and revealed high quality spectra with significant reductions in total N-acetylaspartate (N-acetylaspartate + N-acetylaspartylglutamate) (-3.7%, p = 0.009) and GABA (-10.88%, p = 0.041) during the pain condition. These results might reflect contributions of N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate in neuronal activity-dependent physiologic processes and/or excitatory neurotransmission, whereas changes in GABA might indicate towards a reduction in tonic GABAergic functioning during nociceptive signaling. Summarized, the present study indicates the applicability of (1)H-MRS to obtain neurochemical dynamics within the human trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex. Further developments are needed to pave the way towards bridging important animal based knowledge with human research to understand the neurochemistry of orofacial nociception and pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The neurochemical profile quantified by in vivo(1)H NMR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    João M N Duarte; Lei, Hongxia; Mlynárik, Vladimír; Gruetter, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Proton NMR spectroscopy is emerging from translational and preclinical neuroscience research as an important tool for evidence based diagnosis and therapy monitoring. It provides biomarkers that offer fingerprints of neurological disorders even in cases where a lesion is not yet observed in MR images. The collection of molecules used as cerebral biomarkers that are detectable by (1)H NMR spectroscopy define the so-called "neurochemical profile". The non-invasive quality of this technique make...

  8. Birdsong "transcriptomics": neurochemical specializations of the oscine song system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter V Lovell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vocal learning is a rare and complex behavioral trait that serves as a basis for the acquisition of human spoken language. In songbirds, vocal learning and production depend on a set of specialized brain nuclei known as the song system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using high-throughput functional genomics we have identified approximately 200 novel molecular markers of adult zebra finch HVC, a key node of the song system. These markers clearly differentiate HVC from the general pallial region to which HVC belongs, and thus represent molecular specializations of this song nucleus. Bioinformatics analysis reveals that several major neuronal cell functions and specific biochemical pathways are the targets of transcriptional regulation in HVC, including: 1 cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions (e.g., cadherin/catenin-mediated adherens junctions, collagen-mediated focal adhesions, and semaphorin-neuropilin/plexin axon guidance pathways; 2 cell excitability (e.g., potassium channel subfamilies, cholinergic and serotonergic receptors, neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors; 3 signal transduction (e.g., calcium regulatory proteins, regulators of G-protein-related signaling; 4 cell proliferation/death, migration and differentiation (e.g., TGF-beta/BMP and p53 pathways; and 5 regulation of gene expression (candidate retinoid and steroid targets, modulators of chromatin/nucleolar organization. The overall direction of regulation suggest that processes related to cell stability are enhanced, whereas proliferation, growth and plasticity are largely suppressed in adult HVC, consistent with the observation that song in this songbird species is mostly stable in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study represents one of the most comprehensive molecular genetic characterizations of a brain nucleus involved in a complex learned behavior in a vertebrate. The data indicate numerous targets for pharmacological and genetic manipulations of

  9. Neurochemical phenotype of cytoglobin-expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb), a novel oxygen-binding protein, is expressed in the majority of tissues and has been proposed to function in nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in the vasculature and to have cytoprotective properties. However, the overall functions of Cygb remain elusive. Cygb is also expressed in a subpopulation of brain neurons. Recently, it has been shown that stress upregulates Cygb expression in the brain and the majority of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive neurons, an enzyme that produces NO, co-express Cygb. However, there are more neurons expressing Cygb than nNOS, thus a large number of Cygb neurons remain uncharacterized by the neurochemical content. The aim of the present study was to provide an additional and more detailed neurochemical phenotype of Cygb-expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus. The rat hippocampus was chosen due to the abundance of Cygb, as well as this limbic structure being an important target in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Using triple immunohistochemistry, it was demonstrated that nearly all the parvalbumin- and heme oxygenase 1-positive neurons co-express Cygb and to a large extent, these neuron populations are distinct from the population of Cygb neurons co-expressing nNOS. Furthermore, it was shown that the majority of neurons expressing somastostatin and vasoactive intestinal peptide also co-express Cygb and nNOS. Detailed information regarding the neurochemical phenotype of Cygb neurons in the hippocampus can be a valuable tool in determining the function of Cygb in the brain.

  10. A diamond-based electrode for detection of neurochemicals in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E. Bennet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS, a surgical technique to treat certain neurologic and psychiatric conditions, relies on pre-determined stimulation parameters in an open-loop configuration. The major advancement in DBS devices is a closed-loop system that uses neurophysiologic feedback to dynamically adjust stimulation frequency and amplitude. Stimulation-driven neurochemical release can be measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV, but existing FSCV electrodes rely on carbon fiber, which degrades quickly during use and is therefore unsuitable for chronic neurochemical recording. To address this issue, we developed durable, synthetic boron-doped diamond-based electrodes capable of measuring neurochemical release in humans. Compared to carbon fiber electrodes, they were more than two orders-of-magnitude more physically-robust and demonstrated longevity in vitro without deterioration. Applied for the first time in humans, diamond electrode recordings from thalamic targets in patients (n=4 undergoing DBS for tremor produced signals consistent with adenosine release at a sensitivity comparable to carbon fiber electrodes.

  11. Age-related neurochemical changes in the rhesus macaque inferior colliculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eEngle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss (ARHL is marked by audiometric hearing deficits that propagate along the auditory pathway. Neurochemical changes as a function of aging have also been identified in neurons along the auditory pathway in both rodents and carnivores, however, very little is known about how these neurochemicals change in the non-human primate. To examine how these compensatory neurochemical changes relate to normal aging and audiometric sensitivity along the auditory pathway, we collected auditory brainstem responses (ABRs and brain specimens from seven rhesus monkeys spanning in age from 15 to 35 years old, and examined the relationship between click evoked ABR thresholds and the ABR evoked pure tone average and changes in the number of parvalbumin and NADPH-diaphorase positive cells in the auditory midbrain. We found that the number of parvalbumin positive cells in the central nucleus and the surrounding cortex regions of the inferior colliculus were strongly correlated with advancing age and ABR pure tone average. We also found that the numbers of NADPHd positive cells in these same regions were not associated with normal aging or changes in the ABR thresholds. These findings suggest that the auditory midbrain undergoes an up-regulation of parvalbumin expressing neurons with aging that is related to changes in the processing of frequencies across the audiometric range.

  12. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESRICTION ON THE REGIONAL NEUROCHEMICAL PROFILE OF THE DEVELOPING RAT BRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski-Hall, Anne M.; Alexander, Michelle; Tkáč, Ivan; Öz, Gülin; Rao, Raghavendra

    2016-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) infants are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental deficits that suggest the hippocampus and cerebral cortex may be particularly vulnerable. Objective Evaluate regional neurochemical profiles in IUGR and normally grown (NG) 7-day old rat pups using in vivo 1H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 9.4T. Methods IUGR was induced via bilateral uterine artery ligation at gestational day 19 in pregnant Sprague Dawley dams. MR spectra were obtained from the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum at P7 in IUGR (N=12) and NG (N=13) rats. Results In the cortex, IUGR resulted in lower concentrations of phosphocreatine, glutathione, taurine, total choline, total creatine (P<0.01) and [glutamate]/[glutamine] ratio (P <0.05). Lower taurine concentrations were observed in the hippocampus (P<0.01) and striatum (P <0.05). Conclusion IUGR differentially affects the neurochemical profile of the P7 rat brain regions. Persistent neurochemical changes may lead to cortex-based long-term neurodevelopmental deficits in human IUGR infants. PMID:25972040

  13. The Psychometric Toolbox: An Excel Package for Use in Measurement and Psychometrics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Masip-Cabrera, Antoni; Navarro-González, David; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2017-01-01

    The Psychometric Toolbox (PT) is a user-friendly, non-commercial package mainly intended to be used for instructional purposes in introductory courses of educational and psychological measurement, psychometrics and statistics. The PT package is organized in six separate modules or sub-programs: Data preprocessor (descriptive analyses and data…

  14. Pathophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Charles C; Wallisch, William J; Homanics, Gregg E; Williams, John P

    2014-01-05

    Clinical research shows that postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is caused primarily by the use of inhalational anesthesia and opioid analgesics. PONV is also increased by several risk predictors, including a young age, female sex, lack of smoking, and a history of motion sickness. Genetic studies are beginning to shed light on the variability in patient experiences of PONV by assessing polymorphisms of gene targets known to play roles in emesis (serotonin type 3, 5-HT3; opioid; muscarinic; and dopamine type 2, D2, receptors) and the metabolism of antiemetic drugs (e.g., ondansetron). Significant numbers of clinical trials have produced valuable information on pharmacological targets important for controlling PONV (e.g., 5-HT3 and D2), leading to the current multi-modal approach to inhibit multiple sites in this complex neural system. Despite these significant advances, there is still a lack of fundamental knowledge of the mechanisms that drive the hindbrain central pattern generator (emesis) and forebrain pathways (nausea) that produce PONV, particularly the responses to inhalational anesthesia. This gap in knowledge has limited the development of novel effective therapies of PONV. The current review presents the state of knowledge on the biological mechanisms responsible for PONV, summarizing both preclinical and clinical evidence. Finally, potential ways to advance the research of PONV and more recent developments on the study of postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) are discussed.

  15. Review of the Psychometric Evidence of the Perceived Stress Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hyun Lee, RN, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Overall, the PSS is an easy-to-use questionnaire with established acceptable psychometric properties. However, future studies should evaluate these psychometric properties in greater depth, and validate the scale using diverse populations.

  16. Confessions, scapegoats and flying pigs: Psychometric testing and the law

    OpenAIRE

    Callie Theron

    2007-01-01

    The use of psychometric tests in personnel selection has been regarded with an extraordinary degree of suspicion and scepticism. This is especially true when selection occurs in respect of a diverse applicant group. Concern is expressed about the seemingly uncritical embracing of specific tenets related to the use of psychometric tests in personnel selection in the absence of any systematic coherent psychometric argument to justify these beliefs. The absence of such a supporting psychometric ...

  17. The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire: a psychometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the pre......The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim...... of the present study was both to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 22 and 12 item scales and of three new scales. The main study sample was a community sample comprising more than 6,000 men and women. In this sample the coefficients of homogeneity were all over 0.30 for the three new scales, but below...

  18. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of neurochemical changes in the atrophic hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shengxiang; Huang, Jia; Liu, Weilin; Jin, Hao; Li, Long; Zhang, Xiufeng; Nie, Binbin; Lin, Ruhui; Tao, Jing; Zhao, Shujun; Shan, Baoci; Chen, Lidian

    2017-09-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuropathological changes and progressive cognitive decline, which is associated with the volume loss and neurochemical alterations. However, the specific neurochemical alterations in cerebral regions that contribute to cognitive decline still remain unknown. In the present study, we measured cerebral morphological and neurochemical alterations using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in an AD model of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis indicated atrophy of the hippocampus, motor cortex, striatum, amygdaloid body, septal area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and accumbens nucleus in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Furthermore, the hippocampus was selected as a region of interest (ROI) to explore neurochemical metabolism. The results showed that the ratios of N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) and glutamate/creatine (Glu/Cr) were reduced, while myo-inositol/creatine (mIn/Cr) was increased in APP/PS1 transgenic mice compared to the wild type mice and accompanied by a decline in learning and memory. Taken together, the present study suggests that hippocampal atrophy and neurochemical changes in NAA, Glu and mIn may play a causative role in the cognitive decline associated with AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. psychotools - Infrastructure for Psychometric Modeling: Version 0.1-1

    OpenAIRE

    Zeileis, A.; Strobl, Carolin; Wickelmaier, F

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructure for psychometric modeling such as data classes (e.g., for paired comparisons) and basic model fitting functions (e.g., for Rasch and Bradley-Terry models). Intended especially as a common building block for fitting psychometric mixture models in package ‘‘psychomix’’ and psychometric tree models in package ‘‘psychotree’’. License: GPL-2

  20. Neurochemical and behavioural impact of C18 fatty acids in male mice postweaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Abe, Shin; Takenaga, Fumio

    2013-06-01

    Dietary components, particularly essential fatty acids, affect the expression and maintenance of normal physiological phenotypes. However, the influence of C18 fatty acids that are abundantly present in the normal diet is unclear. We focused on the behavioural and neurochemical effects of C18 fatty acids during postweaning development in male mice. An AIN-93G diet supplemented with 8% stearic acid (C18:0), 3% oleic acid (C18:1), 3% linoleic acid (C18:2) or 3% α-linolenic acid (C18:3) was provided from four weeks of age for eight weeks. At 12 weeks of age, novel exploratory behaviour and social interaction tests were carried out. One week after the last behavioural test, the brain of each mouse was removed. The frequency of social interactive behaviour was decreased by approximately 70% in the C18:0 group compared to the basal diet group, but there was no difference in cumulative time. The frequency of social interaction showed a positive correlation to cumulative time in mice fed with the experimental diets except for C18:0. Dietary C18 fatty acids following weaning had no impact on brain fatty acid composition except for the C18:3 diet. Furthermore, the neurochemical properties to be especially noted were that choline acetyltransferase activity was absolutely higher in C18:0 diet-fed mice than in the other groups, especially in the frontal cortex where it was 1.7-fold higher than in the basal diet-fed group. The present results reveal a significant possibility of neurochemical and behavioural effects of dietary fatty acids, and saturated fatty acids are of special importance during the postweaning period.

  1. A neurochemical closed-loop controller for deep brain stimulation: toward individualized smart neuromodulation therapies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jonas Grahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS.Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a smart neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and

  2. Mercury Vapour Long-Lasting Exposure: Lymphocyte Muscarinic Receptors as Neurochemical Markers of Accidental Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Roda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic poisoning may result in home setting after mercury (Hg vapours inhalation from damaged devices. We report a chronic, nonoccupational Hg poisoning due to 10-year indoor exposure to mercury spillage. Case Report. A 72-year-old man with polyneuropathy of suspected toxic origin. At hospitalization, toxicological clinical evaluations confirmed the altered neurological picture documented across the last decade. Periodic blood and urine Hg levels (BHg, UHg monitoring were performed from admission (t0, until 1 year later (t2, paralleled by blood neurochemical markers assessment, that is, lymphocytes muscarinic receptors (l-MRs. At t0: BHg and UHg were 27 and 1.4 microg/L, respectively (normal values: BHg 1–4.5; UHg 0.1–4.5, associated with l-MRs increase, 185.82 femtomoL/million lymphocytes (normal range: 8.0–16.0. At t1 (two days after DMSA-mobilization test, BHg weak reduction, paralleled by UHg 3.7-fold increase, was measured together with further l-MRs enhancement (205.43 femtomoL/million lymphocytes. At t2 (eight months after two cycles of DMSA chelating therapy ending, gradual improving of clinical manifestations was accompanied by progressive decrease of BHg and UHg (4.0 and 2.8 microg/L, resp. and peripheral l-MRs neurochemical marker (24.89 femtomoL/million lymphocytes. Conclusion. l-MRs modulatory effect supports their use as peripheral neurochemical marker in Hg poisoning diagnosis and chelation therapy monitoring.

  3. Mercury Vapour Long-Lasting Exposure: Lymphocyte Muscarinic Receptors as Neurochemical Markers of Accidental Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, E.; Vecchio, S.; Apostoli, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Chronic poisoning may result in home setting after mercury (Hg) vapours inhalation from damaged devices. We report a chronic, nonoccupational Hg poisoning due to 10-year indoor exposure to mercury spillage. Case Report. A 72-year-old man with polyneuropathy of suspected toxic origin. At hospitalization, toxicological clinical evaluations confirmed the altered neurological picture documented across the last decade. Periodic blood and urine Hg levels (BHg, UHg) monitoring were performed from admission (t0), until 1 year later (t2), paralleled by blood neurochemical markers assessment, that is, lymphocytes muscarinic receptors (l-MRs). At t0: BHg and UHg were 27 and 1.4 microg/L, respectively (normal values: BHg 1–4.5; UHg 0.1–4.5), associated with l-MRs increase, 185.82 femtomoL/million lymphocytes (normal range: 8.0–16.0). At t1 (two days after DMSA-mobilization test), BHg weak reduction, paralleled by UHg 3.7-fold increase, was measured together with further l-MRs enhancement (205.43 femtomoL/million lymphocytes). At t2 (eight months after two cycles of DMSA chelating therapy ending), gradual improving of clinical manifestations was accompanied by progressive decrease of BHg and UHg (4.0 and 2.8 microg/L, resp.) and peripheral l-MRs neurochemical marker (24.89 femtomoL/million lymphocytes). Conclusion. l-MRs modulatory effect supports their use as peripheral neurochemical marker in Hg poisoning diagnosis and chelation therapy monitoring. PMID:27872646

  4. The Psychometric Evaluation of Human Life Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copping, Lee T; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven; Richardson, George B

    2017-01-01

    A recent critique of Copping, Campbell, and Muncer raised several issues concerning the validity of psychometric assessment techniques in the study of life history (LH) strategies. In this reply, some of our key concerns about relying on aggregated psychometric measures are explained, and we raise questions generally regarding the use of higher order factor structures. Responses to some of the statistical issues raised by Figueredo et al. are also detailed. We stand by our original conclusions and call for more careful consideration of instruments used to evaluate hypotheses derived from LH theory.

  5. A new type of anticonvulsant, stiripentol. Pharmacological profile and neurochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, M; Huguet, F; Savattier, A; Bakri-Logeais, F; Narcisse, G

    1984-01-01

    4,4-Dimethyl-1-[3,4-(methylenedioxy)-phenyl]-1-penten-3-ol (stiripentol), selected from a series of alpha-ethylene alcohols, demonstrated anticonvulsant activity in studies in the rat and rabbit in which convulsions were induced electrically and chemically using pentetrazol, bicuculline and strychnine. Neurochemical studies showed that stiripentol in vitro did not act as a GABA receptor agonist, instead it inhibited the synaptosomal uptake of 3H-labelled GABA. Stiripentol has been shown elsewhere to inhibit GABA transaminase. These findings suggest that the anticonvulsant activity of stiripentol involves two aspects of the GABAergic mechanism in which the metabolic transamination and synaptosomal uptake of this neurotransmitter are inhibited.

  6. Self-powered electrochemical systems as neurochemical sensors: toward self-triggered in vivo analysis of brain chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2017-05-22

    Real-time in vivo analysis of neurochemical dynamics has great physiological and pathological implications for a full understanding of the brain. Self-powered electrochemical systems (SPESs) built on galvanic cell configurations bear the advantages of easy miniaturization for implantation and no interference to electric activities of neurons over traditional externally-powered electrochemical sensors for self-triggered in vivo analysis. However, this is still a new concept for in vivo neurochemical sensing with few implanted examples reported so far. This tutorial review summarizes the development of SPESs toward implantable applications from both principal and practical perspectives, ultimately aimed at providing a guide map to the future design of neurochemical sensors for in vivo analysis of brain chemistry.

  7. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  8. Psychometric Measurement Models and Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sese, Albert; Palmer, Alfonso L.; Montano, Juan J.

    2004-01-01

    The study of measurement models in psychometrics by means of dimensionality reduction techniques such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is a very common practice. In recent times, an upsurge of interest in the study of artificial neural networks apt to computing a principal component extraction has been observed. Despite this interest, the…

  9. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Bai, Yu; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ). The reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and temporal stability of the inventory were examined. Method: A university student sample ("n" = 878) and a working adult sample ("n" = 153) were recruited.…

  11. Psychometric Characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Information is presented on the psychometric characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, a measure of psychotropic drug effects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the checklist appeared very good. Interrater reliability was generally in the moderate range. In general, validity was established for most Aberrant Behavior…

  12. Emotional Considerations in Spasmodic Dysphonia: Psychometric Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannito, Michael P.

    1991-01-01

    This study examined emotional characteristics of 18 female spasmodic dysphonic subjects in comparison to matched normal controls across psychometric measures of depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. Statistically significant differences were noted between groups for all measures and over half of the dysphonic subjects exhibited clinically…

  13. What Is Embodiment? A Psychometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R.; Schuur, Friederike; Kammers, Marjolein P. M.; Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    What is it like to have a body? The present study takes a psychometric approach to this question. We collected structured introspective reports of the rubber hand illusion, to systematically investigate the structure of bodily self-consciousness. Participants observed a rubber hand that was stroked either synchronously or asynchronously with their…

  14. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2008-01-01

    [Avena, N.M., Rada, P., Hoebel B.G., 2007. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews XX(X), XXX-XXX]. The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. "Food addiction" seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed. "Bingeing," "withdrawal," "craving" and "cross-sensitization" are each given operational definitions and demonstrated behaviorally with sugar bingeing as the reinforcer. These behaviors are then related to neurochemical changes in the brain that also occur with addictive drugs. Neural adaptations include changes in dopamine and opioid receptor binding, enkephalin mRNA expression and dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens. The evidence supports the hypothesis that under certain circumstances rats can become sugar dependent. This may translate to some human conditions as suggested by the literature on eating disorders and obesity.

  15. REM sleep deprivation generates cognitive and neurochemical disruptions in the intranigral rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Ana Carolina D; Castro, Marcela Alexandra V; Jose, Elis Angela K; Delattre, Ana Márcia; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; Da Cunha, Claudio; Ferraz, Anete C; Lima, Marcelo M S

    2013-11-01

    The recently described intranigral rotenone model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in rodents provides an interesting model for studying mechanisms of toxin-induced dopaminergic neuronal injury. The relevance of this model remains unexplored with regard to sleep disorders that occur in PD. On this basis, the construction of a PD model depicting several behavioral and neurochemical alterations related to sleep would be helpful in understanding the association between PD and sleep regulation. We performed bilateral intranigral injections of rotenone (12 μg) on day 0 and the open-field test initially on day 20 after rotenone. Acquisition phase of the object-recognition test, executed also during day 20, was followed by an exact period of 24 hr of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD; day 21). In the subsequent day (22), the rats were re-exposed to the open-field test and to the object-recognition test (choice phase). After the last session of behavioral tests, the rat brains were immediately dissected, and their striata were collected for neurochemical purposes. We observed that a brief exposure to REMSD was able to impair drastically the object-recognition test, similarly to a nigrostriatal lesion promoted by intranigral rotenone. However, the combination of REMSD and rotenone surprisingly did not inflict memory impairment, concomitant with a moderate compensatory mechanism mediated by striatal dopamine release. In addition, we demonstrated the existence of changes in serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmissions within the striatum mostly as a function of REMSD and REMSD plus rotenone, respectively.

  16. Assessing principal component regression prediction of neurochemicals detected with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keithley, Richard B; Wightman, R Mark

    2011-06-07

    Principal component regression is a multivariate data analysis approach routinely used to predict neurochemical concentrations from in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry measurements. This mathematical procedure can rapidly be employed with present day computer programming languages. Here, we evaluate several methods that can be used to evaluate and improve multivariate concentration determination. The cyclic voltammetric representation of the calculated regression vector is shown to be a valuable tool in determining whether the calculated multivariate model is chemically appropriate. The use of Cook's distance successfully identified outliers contained within in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry training sets. This work also presents the first direct interpretation of a residual color plot and demonstrated the effect of peak shifts on predicted dopamine concentrations. Finally, separate analyses of smaller increments of a single continuous measurement could not be concatenated without substantial error in the predicted neurochemical concentrations due to electrode drift. Taken together, these tools allow for the construction of more robust multivariate calibration models and provide the first approach to assess the predictive ability of a procedure that is inherently impossible to validate because of the lack of in vivo standards.

  17. No neurochemical evidence of brain injury after blast overpressure by repeated explosions or firing heavy weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blennow, K; Jonsson, M; Andreasen, N; Rosengren, L; Wallin, A; Hellström, P A; Zetterberg, H

    2011-04-01

    Psychiatric and neurological symptoms are common among soldiers exposed to blast without suffering a direct head injury. It is not known whether such symptoms are direct consequences of blast overpressure. To examine if repeated detonating explosions or firing if of heavy weapons is associated with neurochemical evidence of brain damage. Three controlled experimental studies. In the first, army officers were exposed to repeated firing of a FH77B howitzer or a bazooka. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was taken post-exposure to measure biomarkers for brain damage. In the second, officers were exposed for up to 150 blasts by firing a bazooka, and in the third to 100 charges of detonating explosives of 180 dB. Serial serum samples were taken after exposure. Results were compared with a control group consisting of 19 unexposed age-matched healthy volunteers. The CSF biomarkers for neuronal/axonal damage (tau and neurofilament protein), glial cell injury (GFAP and S-100b), blood-brain barrier damage (CSF/serum albumin ratio) and hemorrhages (hemoglobin and bilirubin) and the serum GFAP and S-100b showed normal and stable levels in all exposed officers. Repeated exposure to high-impact blast does not result in any neurochemical evidence of brain damage. These findings are of importance for soldiers regularly exposed to high-impact blast when firing artillery shells or other types of heavy weapons. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Neurochemical coding of enteric neurons in adult and embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttebroek, Leen; Shepherd, Iain T; Harrisson, Fernand; Hubens, Guy; Blust, Ronny; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Van Nassauw, Luc

    2010-11-01

    Although the morphology and development of the zebrafish enteric nervous system have been extensively studied, the precise neurochemical coding of enteric neurons and their proportional enteric distribution are currently not known. By using immunohistochemistry, we determined the proportional expression and coexpression of neurochemical markers in the embryonic and adult zebrafish intestine. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) were observed only in nerve fibers, whereas other markers were also detected in neuronal cell bodies. Calretinin and calbindin had similar distributions. In embryos, all markers, except for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and TH, were present from 72 hours postfertilization. Nitrergic neurons, evenly distributed and remaining constant in time, constituted the major neuronal subpopulation. The neuronal proportions of the other markers increased during development and were characterized by regional differences. In the adult, all markers examined were expressed in the enteric nervous system. A large percentage of enteric neurons displayed calbindin and calretinin, and serotonin was the only marker showing significant distribution differences in the three intestinal regions. Colocalization studies showed that serotonin was not coexpressed with any of the other markers. At least five neuronal subpopulations were determined: a serotonergic, a nitrergic noncholinergic, two cholinergic nonnitrergic subpopulations along with one subpopulation expressing both ChAT and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Analysis of nerve fibers revealed that nitrergic neurons coexpress VIP and PACAP, and that nitrergic neurons innervate the tunica muscularis, whereas serotonergic and cholinergic nonnitrergic neurons innervate the lamina propria and the tunica muscularis.

  19. Ketamine modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and pro-inflammatory cytokines but not stressor induced neurochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Melanie; Razmjou, Sara; Prowse, Natalie; Dwyer, Zach; Litteljohn, Darcy; Pentz, Rowan; Anisman, Hymie; Hayley, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    Considerable recent attention has focused on the rapid antidepressant effects observed in treatment resistant patients produced by the NMDA receptor antagonist, ketamine. Surprisingly, the effects of ketamine in the context of stressor exposure, as well as the consequences of its chronic use are unclear. Thus, we assessed the impact of acute and repeated ketamine treatment together with acute [restraint or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] or chronic (unpredictable different psychogenic challenges) stressor exposure. Importantly, acute ketamine treatment did provoke an antidepressant-like effect in a forced swim test (FST) and this effect lasted for 8 days following repeated exposure to the drug. Although acute restraint and LPS individually provoked the expected elevation of plasma corticosterone and brain-region specific monoamine variations, ketamine had no influence on corticosterone and had, at best, sparse effects on the monoamine changes. Similarly, ketamine did not appreciably influence the stressor induced neurochemical and sucrose preference alterations, it did however, dose-dependently reverse the LPS induced elevation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Likewise, repeated ketamine administration increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis. These data indicate that repeated ketamine administration had greater behavioral consequences than acute treatment and that the drug might be imparting antidepressant effects through its effects on neuroplasticity and inflammatory processes rather than the typical neurochemical/hormonal factors affected by stressors. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Ionotropic glutamate receptors'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A psychometric appraisal of the DREEM

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hammond, Sean M

    2012-01-12

    Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM). Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89), subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming\\'s indices) shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the device in future

  1. A psychometric appraisal of the DREEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammond Sean M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM. Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89, subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming's indices shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the

  2. Psychometric properties of the adult resilience indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kotzé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Researchers need to assess the psychometric rigour of resilience measuring scales. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator (ARI.Motivation for the study: Researchers have not previously published the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator.Research design, approach and method: The authors used a cross-sectional quantitative research design. A sample of 789 young adults participated in the study. Cross-validation allowed the authors to confirm (using the validation sample the validity of the ARI structure they obtained during initial testing (using the calibration sample. They investigated two measurement models (the original factor structure and a one-dimensional factor structure.Main findings: The original factor structure presented the data and the proposed theory better than did the one-dimensional factor structure. The authors found acceptable goodness of fit for the ARI. More specifically, they found invariance (in terms of equal factor loadings,covariances and error variances in the calibration and validation samples. They also found acceptable reliability estimates for each of the eight sub-scales.Practical/managerial implications: The results can help researchers and practitioners interested in measuring resilience in adults to choose a resilience measure and to select an appropriate measure for their populations and contexts.Contribution/value-add: Previous research has clearly shown that reliable and valid resilience measures are necessary. It is also necessary to assess the psychometric properties of the currently available instruments and to publish the findings. This study has helped by examining the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator.

  3. Individual differences in the effects of chronic stress on memory: behavioral and neurochemical correlates of resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, B M; Veverka, K K; Dhillon, E S; Urban, J H; Lucas, L R

    2013-08-29

    Chronic stress has been shown to impair memory, however, the extent to which memory can be impaired is often variable across individuals. Predisposed differences in particular traits, such as anxiety, may reveal underlying neurobiological mechanisms that could be driving individual differences in sensitivity to stress and, thus, stress resiliency. Such pre-morbid characteristics may serve as early indicators of susceptibility to stress. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and enkephalin (ENK) are neurochemical messengers of interest implicated in modulating anxiety and motivation circuitry; however, little is known about how these neuropeptides interact with stress resiliency and memory. In this experiment, adult male rats were appetitively trained to locate sugar rewards in a motivation-based spatial memory task before undergoing repeated immobilization stress and then being tested for memory retention. Anxiety-related behaviors, among other characteristics, were monitored longitudinally. Results indicated that stressed animals which showed little to no impairments in memory post-stress (i.e., the more stress-resilient individuals) exhibited lower anxiety levels prior to stress when compared to stressed animals that showed large deficits in memory (i.e., the more stress-susceptible individuals). Interestingly, all stressed animals, regardless of memory change, showed reduced body weight gain as well as thymic involution, suggesting that the effects of stress on metabolism and the immune system were dissociated from the effects of stress on higher cognition, and that stress resiliency seems to be domain-specific rather than a global characteristic within an individual. Neurochemical analyses revealed that NPY in the hypothalamus and amygdala and ENK in the nucleus accumbens were modulated differentially between stress-resilient and stress-susceptible individuals, with elevated expression of these neuropeptides fostering anxiolytic and pro-motivation function, thus driving

  4. Effects of Gladiolus dalenii on the Stress-Induced Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Reproductive Changes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fotsing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gladiolus dalenii is a plant commonly used in many regions of Cameroon as a cure for various diseases like headaches, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. Recent studies have revealed that the aqueous extract of G. dalenii (AEGD exhibited antidepressant-like properties in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the AEGD could protect from the stress-induced behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive changes in rats. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of the AEGD on behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive characteristics, using female rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress. The chronic immobilization stress (3 h per day for 28 days was applied to induce female reproductive and behavioral impairments in rats. The immobilization stress was provoked in rats by putting them separately inside cylindrical restrainers with ventilated doors at ambient temperature. The plant extract was given to rats orally everyday during 28 days, 5 min before induction of stress. On a daily basis, a vaginal smear was made to assess the duration of the different phases of the estrous cycle and at the end of the 28 days of chronic immobilization stress, the rat’s behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze. They were sacrificed by cervical disruption. The organs were weighed, the ovary histology done, and the biochemical parameters assessed. The findings of this research revealed that G. dalenii increased the entries and the time of open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze. Evaluation of the biochemical parameters levels indicated that there was a significant reduction in the corticosterone, progesterone, and prolactin levels in the G. dalenii aqueous extract treated rats compared to stressed rats whereas the levels of serotonin, triglycerides, adrenaline, cholesterol, glucose estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were significantly increased in the stressed rats treated with, G. dalenii

  5. NEUROCHEMICAL LESIONING IN THE RAT-BRAIN WITH IONTOPHORETIC INJECTION OF THE 1-METHYL-4-PHENYLPYRIDINIUM ION (MPP+)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TERHORST, GJ; KNIGGE, MF; VANDERWAL, A

    1992-01-01

    Iontophoretic injections of the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) were made in the dopaminergic part of the substantia nigra to see whether this injection technique could be used for inducing localized neurochemical lesions in dopaminergic cell groups and to assess the effects of MPP+ on non-do

  6. Convulsant activity and neurochemical alterations induced by a fraction obtained from fruit Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae: Geraniales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolino, Ruither O G; Beleboni, Renê O; Pizzo, Andrea B; Vecchio, Flavio Del; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Santos, Wagner F Dos; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2005-06-01

    We obtained a neurotoxic fraction (AcTx) from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and studied its effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission systems. AcTx had no effect on GABA/glutamate uptake or release, or on glutamate binding. However, it specifically inhibited GABA binding in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=0.89muM). Video-electroencephalogram recordings demonstrated that following cortical administration of AcTx, animals showed behavioral changes, including tonic-clonic seizures, evolving into status epilepticus, accompanied by cortical epileptiform activity. Chemical characterization of AcTx showed that this compound is a nonproteic molecule with a molecular weight less than 500, differing from oxalic acid. This neurotoxic fraction of star fruit may be considered a new tool for neurochemical and neuroethological research.

  7. Neurochemical correlates of. gamma. -aminobutyrate (GABA) inhibition in cat visual cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcar, V.J.; Dreher, B. (Univ. of Sydney (Australia))

    1990-01-01

    High affinity binding of ({sup 3}H){gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to neuronal membranes from different parts of cat visual cortex was tested for sensitivity to GABA{sub A} agonists isoguvacine and THIP, GABA{sub A} antagonist SR95531 and GABA{sub B} agonist baclofen. Some of the GABA{sub A}-binding sites were found to have a very low affinity for THIP, suggesting the presence and, possibly, uneven distribution of non-synaptic GABA{sub A} receptors in cat visual cortex. There were no differences in K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of high affinity uptake of GABA and in the potency of K{sup +}-stimulated release of GABA, between primary and association cortices. Consequently, the present results indicate that despite the anatomical and physiological differences between the primary and association feline visual cortices the neurochemical characteristics of GABAergic inhibition are very similar in the two regions.

  8. Neurochemical deficits in the cerebellar vermis in child offspring of parents with bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet K; Spielman, Daniel; Libby, Allison; Adams, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Tenah; Howe, Meghan; Kelley, Ryan; Reiss, Allan; Chang, Kiki D

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to compare concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate, myo-inositol, and other neurometabolites in the cerebellar vermis of offspring at risk for bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls to examine whether changes in these neuronal metabolite concentrations occur in at-risk offspring prior to the onset of mania. Methods A total of 22 children and adolescents aged 9–17 years with a familial risk for bipolar I or II disorder [at-risk offspring with non-bipolar I disorder mood symptoms (AR)], and 25 healthy controls (HC) were examined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T to study metabolite concentrations in an 8-cc voxel in the cerebellar vermis. Results Decreased myo-inositol and choline concentrations in the vermis were seen in the AR group compared to HC (p children with certain neurochemical vulnerabilities may inform preventive and early intervention strategies prior to the onset of mania. PMID:21443573

  9. Neurochemical and electrical modulation of the Locus coeruleus: contribution to CO2 drive to breathe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora eDe Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Locus coeruleus (LC is a dorsal pontine region, situated bilaterally on the floor of the fourth ventricle. It is considered to be the major source of noradrenergic innervation in the brain. These neurons are highly sensitive to CO2 / pH, and chemical lesions of LC neurons largely attenuate the hypercapnic ventilatory response in unanesthetized adult rats. Developmental dysfunctions in these neurons are linked to pathological conditions such as Rett and sudden infant death syndromes, which can impair the control of the cardio-respiratory system. LC is densely innervated by fibers that contain glutamate, serotonin and ATP, and these neurotransmitters strongly affect LC activity, including central chemoreflexes. Aside from neurochemical modulation, LC neurons are also strongly electrically coupled, specifically through gap junctions, which play a role in the CO2 ventilatory response. This article reviews the available data on the role of chemical and electrical neuromodulation of the LC in the control of ventilation.

  10. The Relationship Satisfaction scale - psychometric properties

    OpenAIRE

    Espen Røysamb; Joar Vittersø; Kristian Tambs

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Relationship Satisfaction (RS) scale. Two population based samples were used: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, N=117,178) and The Quality of Life study (N=347). Convergent and discriminant validity was investigated in relation to the Quality of Marriage Index (QMI), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Relationship Satisfaction of partner, Big Five personality traits (IPIP50) and future relatio...

  11. Four Theorems on the Psychometric Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Keith A.; Solomon, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, . This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull “slope” parameter, , can be approximated by , where is the of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for and , from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when , . We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4–0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is stimulus-independent, it has lower kurtosis than a Gaussian. PMID:24124456

  12. The gyri of the octopus vertical lobe have distinct neurochemical identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Ragsdale, Clifton W

    2015-06-15

    The cephalopod vertical lobe is the largest learning and memory structure known in invertebrate nervous systems. It is part of the visual learning circuit of the central brain, which also includes the superior frontal and subvertical lobes. Despite the well-established functional importance of this system, little is known about neuropil organization of these structures and there is to date no evidence that the five longitudinal gyri of the vertical lobe, perhaps the most distinctive morphological feature of the octopus brain, differ in their connections or molecular identities. We studied the histochemical organization of these structures in hatchling and adult Octopus bimaculoides brains with immunostaining for serotonin, octopus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (oGNRH), and octopressin-neurophysin (OP-NP). Our major finding is that the five lobules forming the vertical lobe gyri have distinct neurochemical signatures. This is most prominent in the hatchling brain, where the median and mediolateral lobules are enriched in OP-NP fibers, the lateral lobule is marked by oGNRH innervation, and serotonin immunostaining heavily labels the median and lateral lobules. A major source of input to the vertical lobe is the superior frontal lobe, which is dominated by a neuropil of interweaving fiber bundles. We have found that this neuropil also has an intrinsic neurochemical organization: it is partitioned into territories alternately enriched or impoverished in oGNRH-containing fascicles. Our findings establish that the constituent lobes of the octopus superior frontal-vertical system have an intricate internal anatomy, one likely to reflect the presence of functional subsystems within cephalopod learning circuitry.

  13. HUMAN METHAMPHETAMINE PHARMACOKINETICS SIMULATED IN THE RAT: BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF A 72- HOUR BINGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S.; Melega, William P.; Lacan, Goran; McCunney, Stanley J.

    2009-01-01

    Bingeing is one pattern of high dose methamphetamine (METH) abuse which involves continuous drug taking over several days and can result in psychotic behaviors for which the brain pathology remains poorly-defined. A corresponding animal model of this type of METH exposure may provide novel insights into the neurochemical and behavioral sequelae associated with this condition. Accordingly, to simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of a human METH binge exposure in rats we used a computer-controlled, intravenous METH procedure (dynamic infusion) to overcome species differences in METH pharmacokinetics and to replicate the human 12-h plasma METH half-life. Animals were treated over 13 weeks with escalating METH doses, using dynamic infusion, and then exposed to a binge in which drug was administered every 3 h for 72h. Throughout the binge, behavioral effects included unabated intense oral stereotypies in the absence of locomotion and in the absence of sleep. Decrements in regional brain dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin levels, measured at 1 and 10 h after the last injection of the binge, had, with the exception of caudate-putamen dopamine and frontal cortex serotonin, recovered by 48 h. At 10 h after the last injection of the binge, [3H]ligand binding to dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters in caudate-putamen were reduced by 35% and 13%, respectively. In a separate METH binge treated cohort, post-binge behavioral alterations were apparent in an attenuated locomotor response to a METH challenge infusion at 24h after the last injection of the binge. Collectively, the changes we characterized during and following a METH binge suggest that for humans under similar exposure conditions, multiple time-dependent neurochemical deficits contribute to their behavioral profiles. PMID:19571794

  14. Human methamphetamine pharmacokinetics simulated in the rat: behavioral and neurochemical effects of a 72-h binge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S; Melega, William P; Lacan, Goran; McCunney, Stanley J

    2009-10-01

    Bingeing is one pattern of high-dose methamphetamine (METH) abuse, which involves continuous drug taking over several days and can result in psychotic behaviors for which the brain pathology remains poorly defined. A corresponding animal model of this type of METH exposure may provide novel insights into the neurochemical and behavioral sequelae associated with this condition. Accordingly, to simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of a human METH binge exposure in rats, we used a computer-controlled, intravenous METH procedure (dynamic infusion, DI) to overcome species differences in METH pharmacokinetics and to replicate the human 12-h plasma METH half-life. Animals were treated over 13 weeks with escalating METH doses, using DI, and then exposed to a binge in which drug was administered every 3 h for 72 h. Throughout the binge, behavioral effects included unabated intense oral stereotypies in the absence of locomotion and in the absence of sleep. Decrements in regional brain dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin levels, measured at 1 and 10 h after the last injection of the binge, had, with the exception of caudate-putamen dopamine and frontal cortex serotonin, recovered by 48 h. At 10 h after the last injection of the binge, [(3)H]ligand binding to dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters in caudate-putamen were reduced by 35 and 13%, respectively. In a separate METH binge-treated cohort, post-binge behavioral alterations were apparent in an attenuated locomotor response to a METH challenge infusion at 24 h after the last injection of the binge. Collectively, the changes we characterized during and after a METH binge suggest that for human beings under similar exposure conditions, multiple time-dependent neurochemical deficits contribute to their behavioral profiles.

  15. REM sleep deprivation reverses neurochemical and other depressive-like alterations induced by olfactory bulbectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Maira J; Pudell, Cláudia; Targa, Adriano D S; Rodrigues, Laís S; Noseda, Ana Carolina D; Fortes, Mariana H; Dos Santos, Patrícia; Da Cunha, Cláudio; Zanata, Sílvio M; Ferraz, Anete C; Lima, Marcelo M S

    2015-02-01

    There is compelling evidence that sleep deprivation (SD) is an effective strategy in promoting antidepressant effects in humans, whereas few studies were performed in relevant animal models of depression. Acute administration of antidepressants in humans and rats generates a quite similar effect, i.e., suppression of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Then, we decided to investigate the neurochemical alterations generated by a protocol of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REMSD) in the notably known animal model of depression induced by the bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX). REMSD triggered antidepressant mechanisms such as the increment of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), which were strongly correlated to the swimming time (r = 0.83; P < 0.0001) and hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) content (r = 0.66; P = 0.004). Moreover, there was a strong correlation between swimming time and hippocampal 5-HT levels (r = 0.70; P = 0.003), strengthen the notion of an antidepressant effect associated to REMSD in the OBX rats. In addition, REMSD robustly attenuated the hippocampal 5-HT deficiency produced by the OBX procedure. Regarding the rebound (REB) period, we observed the occurrence of a sustained antidepressant effect, indicated mainly by the swimming and climbing times which could be explained by the maintenance of the increased nigral BDNF expression. Hence, hippocampal 5-HT levels remained enhanced in the OBX group after this period. We suggested that the neurochemical complexity inflicted by the OBX model, counteracted by REMSD, is directly correlated to the nigral BDNF expression and hippocampal 5-HT levels. The present findings provide new information regarding the antidepressant mechanisms triggered by REMSD.

  16. Differential effects of endomorphin-1 and -2 on amphetamine sensitization: neurochemical and behavioral aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J C; Liang, K W; Huang, E Y

    2001-03-01

    Mu-opioid receptors are known to modulate mesolimbic dopaminergic activity in the ventral tegmental area via disinhibition of GABA-containing neurons. Recently, two novel tetrapeptides, endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2, were identified in the mammalian brain and reported to have high binding affinities toward mu-opioid receptors. To determine if endomorphins would modulate the development of amphetamine sensitization, we administered endomorphins locally into the rat brain followed by behavioral and neurochemical examinations. The results indicate that rats pretreated with endomorphin-1 or -2 (5 microg per side for 7 days) in the ventral tegmental area developed locomotor sensitization to the challenge injection of amphetamine (1 mg/kg). On the other hand, when endomorphins were given in the lateral ventricle (20 microg for 5 days) of amphetamine-sensitized rats (5 mg/kg x 14 days) during the withdrawal period (w5-w9), neither peptide had a modulatory effect on locomotor sensitization. Biochemical analyses revealed that treatment with endomorphins in the ventral tegmental area significantly increased the levels of glutamate in the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral and dorsal striatum to levels comparable to those observed in the amphetamine-sensitized rats. In the same animals, endomorphins also caused decreases in the levels of serotonin and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, in the medial prefrontal cortex. Interestingly, although there was no behavioral significance, endomorphin-1 treatment in the lateral ventricle of control and amphetamine-sensitized rats during withdrawal resulted in decreases of GABA, aspartate, dopamine, and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the ventral striatum. We conclude that endomorphins, by stimulating the mu-opioid receptors in the ventral tegmental area, could sensitize the behavioral response to amphetamine. The results also demonstrate that there are differential responses between endomorphin-1 and -2 on

  17. Behavioural and neurochemical comparison of chronic intermittent cathinone, mephedrone and MDMA administration to the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Sinead E; Macerola, Alice E; Swaby, Rabbi T R; Jayson, Rebecca; Korsah, Chantal; Pillidge, Katharine E; Wigmore, Peter M; Ebling, Francis J P; Richard Green, A; Fone, Kevin C F; King, Madeleine V

    2013-09-01

    The synthetic cathinone derivative, mephedrone, is a controlled substance across Europe. Its effects have been compared by users to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but little data exist on its pharmacological properties. This study compared the behavioural and neurochemical effects of mephedrone with cathinone and MDMA in rats. Young-adult male Lister hooded rats received i.p. cathinone (1 or 4 mg/kg), mephedrone (1, 4 or 10mg/kg) or MDMA (10mg/kg) on two consecutive days weekly for 3 weeks or as a single acute injection (for neurochemical analysis). Locomotor activity (LMA), novel object discrimination (NOD), conditioned emotional response (CER) and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI) were measured following intermittent drug administration. Dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their major metabolites were measured in striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus by high performance liquid chromatography 7 days after intermittent dosing and 2h after acute injection. Cathinone (1, 4 mg/kg), mephedrone (10mg/kg) and MDMA (10mg/kg) induced hyperactivity following the first and sixth injections and sensitization to cathinone and mephedrone occurred with chronic dosing. All drugs impaired NOD and mephedrone (10mg/kg) reduced freezing in response to contextual re-exposure during the CER retention trial. Acute MDMA reduced hippocampal 5-HT and 5-HIAA but the only significant effect on dopamine, 5-HT and their metabolites following chronic dosing was altered hippocampal 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), following mephedrone (4, 10mg/kg) and MDMA. At the doses examined, mephedrone, cathinone, and MDMA induced similar effects on behaviour and failed to induce neurotoxic damage when administered intermittently over 3 weeks.

  18. Behavioral and neurochemical changes in response to acute stressors: influence of previous chronic exposure to immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, O; Campmany, L; Gil, M; Armario, A

    1992-07-01

    The effect of daily (2 h) exposure to immobilization (IMO) for 15 days on the behavioral and neurochemical responses of adult male rats to acute stress caused by 2-h IMO or 2-h tail-shock was studied. The brain areas studied were frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain, and pons plus medulla. Chronic exposure to IMO did not alter noradrenaline (NA), 3-methoxy,4-hydroxyphenyletileneglycol-SO4 (MHPG-SO4), serotonin, or 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations in any brain area as measured approximately 20 h after the last exposure to IMO. Exposure to behavioral tests did not modify neurochemical variables except NA levels in the hypothalamus of nonchronically stressed (control) rats. Both exposure to 2-h IMO or 2-h shock significantly decreased NA levels in hypothalamus and midbrain of nonchronically stressed rats. These decreases in response to the two acute stressors were not observed in chronically stressed rats. However, MHPG-SO4 levels increased to the same extent in control and chronically stressed rats after exposure to the acute stressors. Likewise, increased 5-HIAA concentrations observed in response to acute stressors were similar in control and chronically stressed rats. The inhibition of activity (areas crossed and rearing) in the holeboard caused by acute IMO was less marked in rats previously exposed to the same stressor than in control rats, but the response to shock was similar. In the forced swim test, acute IMO decreased struggling in control rats but tended to increase it in chronically stressed rats. The response to shock followed the same pattern as that to IMO, although it was slight.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Individual differences in the forced swimming test and neurochemical kinetics in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira-Cordero, Andrey; Mora-Gallegos, Andrea; Cuenca-Berger, Patricia; Fornaguera-Trías, Jaime

    2014-04-10

    Individual differences in the forced swimming test (FST) could be associated with differential temporal dynamics of gene expression and neurotransmitter activity. We tested juvenile male rats in the FST and classified the animals into those with low and high immobility according to the amount of immobility time recorded in FST. These groups and a control group which did not undergo the FST were sacrificed either 1, 6 or 24 h after the test. We analyzed the expression of the CRF, CRFR1, BDNF and TrkB in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens as well as norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA and glutamine in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens. Animals with low immobility showed significant reductions of BDNF expression across time points in both the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens when compared with non-swim control. Moreover, rats with high immobility only showed a significant decrease of BDNF expression in the prefrontal cortex 6h after the FST. Regarding neurotransmitters, only accumbal dopamine turnover and hippocampal glutamate content showed an effect of individual differences (i.e. animals with low and high immobility), whereas nearly all parameters showed significant differences across time points. Correlational analyses suggest that immobility in the FST, probably reflecting despair, is related to prefrontal cortical BDNF and to the kinetics observed in several other neurochemical parameters. Taken together, our results suggest that individual differences observed in depression-like behavior can be associated not only with changes in the concentrations of key neurochemical factors but also with differential time courses of such factors.

  20. Repeated ketamine treatment induces sex-specific behavioral and neurochemical effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Connor; Sens, Jonathon; Mauch, Joseph; Pandit, Radhika; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M

    2016-10-01

    One of the most striking discoveries in the treatment of major depression was the finding that infusion of a single sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients. However, ketamine's antidepressant-like actions are transient and can only be sustained by repeated drug treatment. Despite the fact that women experience major depression at roughly twice the rate of men, research regarding the neurobiological antidepressant-relevant effects of ketamine has focused almost exclusively on the male sex. Importantly, knowledge regarding the sex-differentiated effects, the frequency and the dose on which repeated ketamine administration stops being beneficial, is limited. In the current study, we investigated the behavioral, neurochemical and synaptic molecular effects of repeated ketamine treatment (10mg/kg; 21days) in male and female C57BL/6J mice. We report that ketamine induced beneficial antidepressant-like effects in male mice, but induced both anxiety-like (i.e., decreased time spent in the center of the open field arena) and depressive-like effects (i.e., enhanced immobility duration in the forced swim test; FST) in their female counterparts. Moreover, repeated ketamine treatment induced sustained sex-differentiated neurochemical and molecular effects, as it enhanced hippocampal synapsin protein levels and serotonin turnover in males, but attenuated glutamate and aspartate levels in female mice. Taken together, our findings indicate that repeated ketamine treatment induces opposite behavioral effects in male and female mice, and thus, present data have far-reaching implications for the sex-oriented use of ketamine in both experimental and clinical research settings.

  1. The Alliance Negotiation Scale: A psychometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M; Safran, Jeremy D; Muran, J Christopher

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the working alliance concept (Bordin, 1979). The ANS was also intended to improve upon existing measures such as the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1986, 1989) and its short form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989) by expanding the emphasis on negative therapy process. The present study investigates the psychometric validity of the ANS test scores and interpretation-including confirming its original factor structure and evaluating its internal consistency and construct validity. Construct validity was examined through the ANS' convergence and divergence with several existing scales that measure theoretically related constructs. The results bolster and extend previous findings about the psychometric integrity of the ANS, and begin to illuminate the relationship between negotiation and other important variables in psychotherapy research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Psychometric Assessment of Stereoscopic Head-Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2015 - Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF STEREOSCOPIC HEAD- MOUNTED DISPLAYS...disparity. This paper details the psychometric validation of the stereoscopic rendering of a virtual environment using game-based simulation software...mounted display, near eye display, stereo display, stereo HMD, psychometric assessment, stereoscopic performance, eye-limited stereo vision. 16

  3. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S

    2015-01-01

    -taboo words. Second, we studied the test's psychometric properties in healthy adults. Finally, we investigated whether individuals diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) differed from healthy controls on seasonal changes in affective recall. Recall rates were internally consistent and reliable...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory....

  4. The Psychometrics of the European Portuguese Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Paulo A S; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Rocha, Maria José; Oliveira, João Tiago; Ferreira, Noémia; Gonçalves, Daniel Maffasioli; Rózsa, Sándor

    2017-01-01

    Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality integrates contributions from behavioral genetics, neurobiology, and psychology in the description of the human personality. The temperament and character inventory (TCI) is its assessment instrument. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the TCI has shown good psychometric properties. However, Portuguese spoken in Brazil presents marked and substantial differences to that spoken in Portugal, and no study has yet described the psychometrics of the European Portuguese version. The objective of this study was thus to describe the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese adult version of the TCI (the temperament and character inventory-revised (TCI-R)). This study involved 1400 Portuguese adult participants. The factorial structure of the European Portuguese version was tested using four methods: exploratory factor analysis, orthogonal procrustes rotation analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and exploratory structural equation modeling. The integration of data coming from these methods suggested that the Portuguese version of the TCI-R presented good structural validity (as revealed by the emergence of the temperament and character structures predicted by theory) and high levels of congruence between the American and the Portuguese versions. An improvement in the goodness of fit of the models for the Portuguese population was achieved by using exploratory structural equation modeling over confirmatory factor analysis. Although some facets registered questionable consistency, all dimensions had acceptable to good consistency (all ≥ .79). These results confirm the validity of the Portuguese TCI-R and its adequacy for use in European Portuguese samples.

  5. Care Dependency Scale - psychometric testing of the Polish version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Muszalik, Marta; Kedziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Kornatowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The importance of this study lies in the availability of psychometrically sound assessment instruments, which are of critical importance for the study of patient's care dependency and the provision of care to these patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychometric properties of the Ca

  6. Psychometric Characteristics of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    The Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) is widely used to identify "developmentally immature" children for placement in extra-year, transition programs in spite of a problematic absence of psychometric evidence and research support. In this study of psychometric characteristics of the GSRST, teacher ratings of classroom performance and…

  7. Psychometric Evaluation and Discussions of English Language Learners' Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Daeryong; Taherbhai, Husein; Frantz, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The importance of listening in the context of English language acquisition is gaining acceptance, but its unique attributes in language performance, while substantively and qualitatively justifiable, are generally not psychometrically defined. This article psychometrically supports listening as a distinct domain among the three other domains of…

  8. Psychometric testing and Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. van der Merwe

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a cumulative report on the findings of various exploratory research that were done with regard to the practice of psychometric testing in the Eastern Cape. Recent and ongoing developments in the South African labour legislation, and especially the implications of the Employment Equity Act, highlight once again the importance of the validation of all instruments to be used for human assessment and selection purposes. Information was gathered to establish which psychometric tests are used, and for what purposes, in industry today. Biographical information on each organisation is supplied, including the number of employees. The role of psychometric testing in the selection procedure is discussed. The different tests used, as well as the test users, are also indicated. The findings of other, related research, as well as comments, recommendations and shortcomings, are discussed. Opsomming Hierdie is ‘n kumulatiewe verslag wat die resultate verstrek van verskeie verkennende ondersoeke wat gedoen is na die aanwending van psigometriese toetsing in die Oos-Kaap. Onlangse en voortdurende ontwikkelinge in die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidswetgewing, en veral die implikasies van die Wet op Gelyke Indiensneming, beklemtoon weer eens die belangrikheid van die validering van enige instrumente wat gebruik word vir evaluerings- en keuringsdoeleindes van individue. Inligting is ingewin om te bepaal watter psigometriese toetse, sowel as vir watter doel, vandag in die bedryf gebruik word. Biografiese inligting oor die onderskeie organisasies, insluitende hul aantal werknemers, word verstrek. Die rol van psigometriese toetsing in die keuringsproses word bespreek. Die verskillende toetse wat deur die organisasies gebruik word, sowel as die toetsge-bruikers, word ook aangedui. Die bevindinge van ander, relevante navorsing, sowel as opmerkings, aanbevelings en tekortkominge word bespreek.

  9. Vanillin Attenuated Behavioural Impairments, Neurochemical Deficts, Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Against Rotenone Induced Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanalakshmi, Chinnasamy; Janakiraman, Udaiyappan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Kalandar, Ameer; Khan, Mohammed Abdul Sattar; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2016-08-01

    Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), a pleasant smelling organic aromatic compound, is widely used as a flavoring additive in food, beverage, cosmetic and drug industries. It is reported to cross the blood brain barrier and also displayed antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of vanillin against rotenone induced in in vitro model of PD. The present experiment was aimed to analyze the neuroprotective effect of vanillin on the motor and non-motor deficits, neurochemical variables, oxidative, anti-oxidative indices and the expression of apoptotic markers against rotenone induced rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rotenone treatment exhibited motor and non-motor impairments, neurochemical deficits, oxidative stress and apoptosis, whereas oral administration of vanillin attenuated the above-said indices. However further studies are needed to explore the mitochondrial protective and anti-inflammatory properties of vanillin, as these processes play a vital role in the cause and progression of PD.

  10. Four theorems on the psychometric function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A May

    Full Text Available In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, Δx. This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull "slope" parameter, β, can be approximated by β(Noise x β(Transducer, where β(Noise is the β of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and β(Transducer depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for β(Noise and β(Transducer, from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when d' ∝ (Δx(b, β ≈ β(Noise x b. We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4-0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull β reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of β for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is

  11. Neurochemical features of endomorphin-2-containing neurons in the submucosal plexus of the rat colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Ping; Zhang, Ting; Gao, Chang-Jun; Kou, Zhen-Zhen; Jiao, Xu-Wen; Zhang, Lian-Xiang; Wu, Zhen-Yu; He, Zhong-Yi; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the distribution and neurochemical phenotype of endomorphin-2 (EM-2)-containing neurons in the submucosal plexus of the rat colon. METHODS: The mid-colons between the right and left flexures were removed from rats, and transferred into Kreb’s solution. For whole-mount preparations, the mucosal, outer longitudinal muscle and inner circular muscle layers of the tissues were separated from the submucosal layer attached to the submucosal plexus. The whole-mount preparations from each rat mid-colon were mounted onto seven gelatin-coated glass slides, and processed for immunofluorescence histochemical double-staining of EM-2 with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). After staining, all the fluorescence-labeled sections were observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. To estimate the extent of the co-localization of EM-2 with CGRP, ChAT, NOS, NSE, SP and VIP, ganglia, which have a clear boundary and neuronal cell outline, were randomly selected from each specimen for this analysis. RESULTS: In the submucosal plexus of the mid-colon, many EM-2-immunoreactive (IR) and NSE-IR neuronal cell bodies were found in the submucosal plexus of the rat mid-colon. Approximately 6 ± 4.2 EM-2-IR neurons aggregated within each ganglion and a few EM-2-IR neurons were also found outside the ganglia. The EM-2-IR neurons were also immunopositive for ChAT, SP, VIP or NOS. EM-2-IR nerve fibers coursed near ChAT-IR neurons, and some of these fibers were even distributed around ChAT-IR neuronal cell bodies. Some EM-2-IR neuronal cell bodies were surrounded by SP-IR nerve fibers, but many long processes connecting adjacent ganglia were negative for EM-2 immunostaining. Long VIP-IR processes with many branches coursed through the ganglia and surrounded the EM-2-IR neurons. The percentages of the EM-2-IR neurons

  12. 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Bolt, Daniel; Ark, L; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS) builds on the Psychometric Society's mission to share quantitative methods relevant to psychology. The chapters of this volume present cutting-edge work in the field. Topics include studies of item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Additional psychometric topics relate to structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis, among others. The papers in this volume will be especially useful for researchers in the social sciences who use quantitative methods. Prior knowledge of statistical methods is recommended. The 78th annual meeting took place in Arnhem, The Netherlands between July 22nd and 26th, 2013. The previous volume to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting is New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 201...

  13. Confessions, scapegoats and flying pigs: Psychometric testing and the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie Theron

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of psychometric tests in personnel selection has been regarded with an extraordinary degree of suspicion and scepticism. This is especially true when selection occurs in respect of a diverse applicant group. Concern is expressed about the seemingly uncritical embracing of specific tenets related to the use of psychometric tests in personnel selection in the absence of any systematic coherent psychometric argument to justify these beliefs. The absence of such a supporting psychometric rationale seems unfortunate in as far as it probably would inhibit the independent critical evaluation of the psychometric merits of these generally accepted beliefs. Specific beliefs related to selection fairness, measurement bias and adverse impact are critically examined.

  14. Neurochemical, morphologic, and laminar characterization of cortical projection neurons in the cingulate motor areas of the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Hof, P. R.; Young, W. G.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The primate cingulate gyrus contains multiple cortical areas that can be distinguished by several neurochemical features, including the distribution of neurofilament protein-enriched pyramidal neurons. In addition, connectivity and functional properties indicate that there are multiple motor areas in the cortex lining the cingulate sulcus. These motor areas were targeted for analysis of potential interactions among regional specialization, connectivity, and cellular characteristics such as neurochemical profile and morphology. Specifically, intracortical injections of retrogradely transported dyes and intracellular injection were combined with immunocytochemistry to investigate neurons projecting from the cingulate motor areas to the putative forelimb region of the primary motor cortex, area M1. Two separate groups of neurons projecting to area M1 emanated from the cingulate sulcus, one anterior and one posterior, both of which furnished commissural and ipsilateral connections with area M1. The primary difference between the two populations was laminar origin, with the anterior projection originating largely in deep layers, and the posterior projection taking origin equally in superficial and deep layers. With regard to cellular morphology, the anterior projection exhibited more morphologic diversity than the posterior projection. Commissural projections from both anterior and posterior fields originated largely in layer VI. Neurofilament protein distribution was a reliable tool for localizing the two projections and for discriminating between them. Comparable proportions of the two sets of projection neurons contained neurofilament protein, although the density and distribution of the total population of neurofilament protein-enriched neurons was very different in the two subareas of origin. Within a projection, the participating neurons exhibited a high degree of morphologic heterogeneity, and no correlation was observed between somatodendritic morphology and

  15. Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Schizophrenia? A Balanced Neurochemical Framework for Both Adverse and Therapeutic Effects of Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    Coulston, Carissa M.; Michael Perdices; Henderson, Antony F.; Malhi, Gin S

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have found that cannabinoids may improve neuropsychological performance, ameliorate negative symptoms, and have antipsychotic properties for a subgroup of the schizophrenia population. These findings are in contrast to the longstanding history of adverse consequences of cannabis use, predominantly on the positive symptoms, and a balanced neurochemical basis for these opposing views is lacking. This paper details a review of the neurobiological substrates of schizophrenia and th...

  16. Expanding neurochemical investigations with multi-modal recording: simultaneous fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, iontophoresis, and patch clamp measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, D C; McKinney, C J; Manis, P B; Wightman, R M

    2016-08-02

    Multi-modal recording describes the simultaneous collection of information across distinct domains. Compared to isolated measurements, such studies can more easily determine relationships between varieties of phenomena. This is useful for neurochemical investigations which examine cellular activity in response to changes in the local chemical environment. In this study, we demonstrate a method to perform simultaneous patch clamp measurements with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) using optically isolated instrumentation. A model circuit simulating concurrent measurements was used to predict the electrical interference between instruments. No significant impact was anticipated between methods, and predictions were largely confirmed experimentally. One exception was due to capacitive coupling of the FSCV potential waveform into the patch clamp amplifier. However, capacitive transients measured in whole-cell current clamp recordings were well below the level of biological signals, which allowed the activity of cells to be easily determined. Next, the activity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) was examined in the presence of an FSCV electrode to determine how the exogenous potential impacted nearby cells. The activities of both resting and active MSNs were unaffected by the FSCV waveform. Additionally, application of an iontophoretic current, used to locally deliver drugs and other neurochemicals, did not affect neighboring cells. Finally, MSN activity was monitored during iontophoretic delivery of glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter. Membrane depolarization and cell firing were observed concurrently with chemical changes around the cell resulting from delivery. In all, we show how combined electrophysiological and electrochemical measurements can relate information between domains and increase the power of neurochemical investigations.

  17. The Psychometrics of the Mini-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Brubaker, Michael D; Nedelec, Joseph L

    2017-01-01

    Many published studies have employed the Mini-K to measure a single fast-slow life history dimension. However, the internal structure of the Mini-K has not been determined and it is not clear that a single higher order K-factor fits the data. It is also not clear that the Mini-K is measurement invariant across groups such as the sexes. To establish the construct validity of K as well as the broader usefulness of applying life history theory to humans, it is crucial that these psychometric issues are addressed as a part of measure validation efforts. Here we report on three studies that used latent variable modeling and data drawn from two college student samples ( ns = 361 and 300) to elucidate the psychometrics of the Mini-K. We found that (a) the Mini-K had a six dimensional first-order structure, (b) the K-factor provided a parsimonious explanation of the associations among the lower order factors at no significant cost to fit, (c) the Mini-K measured the same K-factor across the sexes, (d) K-factor means did not have the same meaning across the sexes and thus the first-order factors should be used in studies of mean sex differences, and finally, (e) the K-factor was only associated with environment and aspects of mating competition in females. Implications and future directions for life history research are discussed.

  18. Psicometria Psicometría Psychometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Pasquali

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A psicometria fundamenta-se na teoria da medida em ciências para explicar o sentido que têm as respostas dadas pelos sujeitos a uma série de tarefas e propor técnicas de medida dos processos mentais. Neste artigo são apresentados os conceitos e modelos da psicometria moderna e discutidos os parâmetros de validade e precisão dos testes.La Psicometría se fundamenta en la teoría de la medida en las ciencias buscando explicar el sentido en las respuestas de los que fueron sujetos a una serie de tareas, además de proponerse técnicas de medida de sus procesos mentales. En este artículo son presentados los conceptos y modelos de psicometría moderna, así como son discutidos los parámetros de validez y precisión de los testes.Psychometrics has foundations on the theory of measurement in Sciences and is aimed at explaining the meaning of responses provided by subjects submitted to a series of tasks, and proposing techniques for the measurement of mental processes. This article presents concepts and models of modern psychometrics and discusses the validity and reliability parameters of the applied tests.

  19. ETIOLOGY, TRIGGERS AND NEUROCHEMICAL CIRCUITS ASSOCIATED WITH UNEXPECTED, EXPECTED, AND LABORATORY-INDUCED PANIC ATTACKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip L.; Federici, Lauren M.; Shekhar, Anantha

    2014-01-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is a severe anxiety disorder that is characterized by recurrent panic attacks (PA), which can be unexpected (uPA, i.e., no clear identifiable trigger) or expected (ePA). Panic typically involves an abrupt feeling of catastrophic fear or distress accompanied by physiological symptoms such as palpitations, racing heart, thermal sensations, and sweating. Recurrent uPA and ePA can also lead to agoraphobia, where subjects with PD avoid situations that were associated with PA. Here we will review recent developments in our understanding of PD, which includes discussions on: symptoms and signs associated with uPA and ePAs; Diagnosis of PD and the new DSM-V; biological etiology such as heritability and gene x environment and gene x hormonal development interactions; comparisons between laboratory and naturally occurring uPAs and ePAs; neurochemical systems that are associated with clinical PAs (e.g. gene associations; targets for triggering or treating PAs), adaptive fear and panic response concepts in the context of new NIH RDoc approach; and finally strengths and weaknesses of translational animal models of adaptive and pathological panic states. PMID:25130976

  20. Striate cortex in dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets: neurochemical compartmentalization and geniculate input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Samuel G

    2002-09-02

    The superficial layers of primate striate cortex (V1) contain a regular pattern of dense staining for cytochrome oxidase (CO) reactivity ("blobs") that receive direct input from the koniocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus. It has been suggested that the blob regions are dedicated to processing color information. Here, the neurochemical compartmentalization of blobs and their input from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) was measured in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) identified as having either dichromatic or trichromatic color vision. In all animals, layer III of V1 showed a patchy distribution of CO. The spatial density of CO blobs (mean, 4.6 blobs/mm(2); range, 3.9-5.5), blob diameter, and the proportion of cortical area within blobs was not significantly different in dichromats and trichromats. The LGN input was studied by injecting retrograde tracer into V1. The koniocellular layers of the LGN contribute 11% of all relay cells, and form the only geniculate input to upper layer III of V1. Only half of all relay cells in the KC layers express calbindin. There is no obvious difference between dichromats and trichromats in the pattern of the geniculate projection to V1. It is concluded that the trichromatic phenotype is not associated with changes in the gross anatomy, neurochemistry, or organization of the geniculate afferents to the superficial layers of V1.

  1. No neurochemical evidence for brain injury caused by heading in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Jonsson, Michael; Rasulzada, Abdullah; Popa, Cornel; Styrud, Ewa; Hietala, Max Albert; Rosengren, Lars; Wallin, Anders; Blennow, Kaj

    2007-09-01

    The possible injurious effect to the brain of heading in soccer is a matter of discussion. To determine whether standardised headings in soccer are associated with increased levels of biochemical markers for neuronal injury in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. 23 male amateur soccer players took part in a heading training session involving heading a ball kicked from a distance of 30 m at least 10 m forward. Ten players performed 10 and 13 players performed 20 approved headings. The players underwent lumbar puncture and serum sampling 7-10 days after the headings. The study also included 10 healthy male non-athletic control subjects. CSF was analysed for neurofilament light protein, total tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, S-100B and albumin concentrations. Serum was analysed for S-100B and albumin. None of the biomarker levels were abnormal and there were no significant differences between any of the three groups, except for a slightly increased CSF S-100B concentration in controls compared with headers. Biomarker levels did not correlate with the number of headings performed. Repeated low-severity head impacts due to heading in soccer are not associated with any neurochemical signs of injury to the brain.

  2. Effects of melatonin on aluminium-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, M S; Feriani, A; Saoudi, M; Badraoui, R; Bouoni, Z; Nciri, R; Murat, J C; Elfeki, A

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of melatonin (Mel) against aluminium-induced neurodegenerative changes in aging Wistar rats (24-28months old). Herein, aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (50mg/kg BW/day) was administered by gavage, and melatonin (Mel) was co-administered to a group of Al-treated rats by an intra-peritoneal injection at a daily dose of 10mg/kg BW for four months. The findings revealed that aluminium administration induced a significant decrease in body weight associated with marked mortality for the old group of rats, which was more pronounced in old Al-treated rats. Behavioural alterations were assessed by 'open fields', 'elevated plus maze' and 'Radial 8-arms maze' tests. The results demonstrated that Mel co-administration alleviated neurobehavioral changes in both old and old Al-treated rats. Melatonin was noted to play a good neuroprotective role, reducing lipid peroxidation (TBARs), and enhancing enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GPx) activities in the brain organs of old control and old Al-treated rats. Mel treatment also reversed the decrease of AChE activity in the brain tissues, which was confirmed by histological sections. Overall, the results showed that Mel administration can induce beneficial effects for the treatment of Al-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin as a Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Neurochemical and Behavioral Characterization in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelli, Katherine Garcia; Rosário, Barbara Dos Anjos; Camarini, Rosana; Hernandes, Marina Sorrentino; Britto, Luiz Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Streptozotocin has been widely used to mimic some aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, especially in mice, several characteristics involved in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced AD pathology are not well known. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate temporally the expression of AD-related proteins, such as amyloid-β (Aβ), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), synapsin, axonal neurofilaments, and phosphorylated Tau in the hippocampus following intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of STZ in adult mice. We also analyzed the impact of STZ on short- and long-term memory by novel object recognition test. Male mice were injected with STZ or citrate buffer, and AD-related proteins were evaluated by immunoblotting assays in the hippocampus at 7, 14, or 21 days after injection. No differences between the groups were found at 7 days. The majority of AD markers evaluated were found altered at 14 days, i.e., the STZ group showed increased amyloid-β protein and neurofilament expression, increased phosphorylation of Tau protein, and decreased synapsin expression levels compared to controls. Except for synapsin, all of these neurochemical changes were transient and did not last up to 21 days of STZ injection. Moreover, both short-term and long-term memory deficits were demonstrated after STZ treatment at 14 and 21 days after STZ treatment.

  4. Origins and neurochemical complexity of preganglionic neurons supplying the superior cervical ganglion in the domestic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juranek, Judyta K; Wojtkiewicz, Joanna A

    2015-02-01

    The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is a center of sympathetic innervation of all head and neck organs. SCG sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) were found in the nucleus intermediolateralis pars principalis (IMLpp), the nucleus intermediolateralis pars funicularis (IMLpf), the nucleus intercalatus spinalis (IC), and the nucleus intercalatus spinalis pars paraependymalis (ICpe). Despite its importance, little is known of SCG innervation and chemical coding in the laboratory pig, a model that is physiologically and anatomically representative of humans. Here in our study, we established the distribution and chemical coding of Fast Blue (FB) retrogradely labelled SPN innervating porcine SCG. After unilateral injection of FB retrograde tracer into the left SCG, labeled neurons were found solely on the ipsilateral side with approximately 98% located in Th1-Th3 segments and predominantly distributed in the IMLpp and IMLpf. Neurochemical analysis revealed that approximately 80% of SPN were positive both to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and were surrounded by a plethora of opioidergic and peptiergic nerve terminals. The results of our study provide a detailed description of the porcine preganglionic neuroarchitecture of neurons controlling the SCG, setting the stage for further studies concerning SPN plasticity under experimental/pathological conditions.

  5. Neurochemical biomarkers in the diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeckl, Patrick; Steinacker, Petra; Feneberg, Emily; Otto, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a spectrum of rare neurodegenerative diseases with overlapping symptoms and neuropathology. It includes the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), the semantic and non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA and nfvPPA), FTD with motor neuron disease (FTD-MND), progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal syndrome. The diagnosis of the FTLD spectrum of diseases is based on clinical symptoms which hampers the differentiation of the diseases among each other and with other disorders that show a similar clinical appearance resulting in a high rate of misdiagnoses. This highlights the need for objective and selective measures in the diagnostic criteria and there is extensive research on neurochemical biomarkers in FTLD as one option to address this unmet clinical need. Here, we review the advances in CSF biomarker research in FTLD in the last 2 years with regard to the validation of previously suggested and identification of new biomarker candidates for the differential diagnosis of FTLD. New biomarkers for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are urgently needed to support differential diagnosis within the disease spectrum and with related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we review the advances in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker research in FTLD and provide a list of promising candidate markers.

  6. The role of the endocannabinoid system in eating disorders: neurochemical and behavioural preclinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherma, Maria; Fattore, Liana; Castelli, Maria Paola; Fratta, Walter; Fadda, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has long been known as a modulator of several physiological functions, among which the homeostatic and hedonic aspects of eating. CB1 receptors are widely expressed in brain regions that control food intake, reward and energy balance. Animal and human studies indicate that CB1 receptor agonists possess orexigenic effects enhancing appetite and increasing the rewarding value of food. Conversely, CB1 antagonists have been shown to inhibit the intake of food. Eating disorders include a range of chronic and disabling related pathological illnesses that are characterized by aberrant patterns of feeding behaviour and weight regulation, and by abnormal attitudes and perceptions toward body shape image. The psychological and biological factors underlying eating disorders are complex and not yet completely understood. However in the last decades, converging evidence have led to hypothesise a link between defects in the endocannabinoid system and eating disorders, including obesity. Here we review the neurochemical and behavioural preclinical evidence supporting the role of the endocannabinoid system in eating disorders to offer the reader an update regarding the state of the art. Despite the recent withdrawal from the market of rimonabant for treating obesity and overweight individuals with metabolic complications due to its psychiatric side effects, preclinical findings support the rationale for the clinical development of drug which modulate the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of eating disorders.

  7. Negotiating the neurochemical self: anti-depressant consumption in women's recovery from depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Simone

    2009-07-01

    Anti-depressant treatment can be viewed as an exercise of biopower that is articulated through policies and practices aimed at the reduction of depression, population healthcare costs and effects on labour force productivity. Drawing upon a feminist governmentality perspective, this article examines the discourses that shaped women's experiences of anti-depressant medication in an Australian qualitative study on recovery from depression. The majority of women had been prescribed anti-depressants to treat a chemical imbalance in the brain, manage symptoms and restore normal functioning. One-third of participants identified anti-depressants as helpful in their recovery, while two-thirds were either highly ambivalent about, or critical of, medication as a solution to depression. Thirty-one women who identified the ;positive' benefits of anti-depressants actively constituted themselves as biomedical consumers seeking to redress a chemical imbalance. The problem of depression, the emergence of molecular science and the push for pharmacological solutions are contributing to the discursive formation of new subject positions - such as the neurochemically deficient self. Three themes were identified in relation to medication use, namely restoring normality, signifying recovery success and control/uncertainty. Anti-depressant medication offered women a normalized pathway to successful recovery that stood in stark contrast to the biologically deficient and morally failing self. These women's stories importantly reveal the gender relations and paradoxes arising from biopolitical technologies that shape selfhood for women in advanced liberal societies.

  8. 18-Methoxycoronaridine acts in the medial habenula to attenuate behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggan, Branden L; McCallum, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    Systemic 18-methoxycoronaridine, an alpha3beta4 nicotinic antagonist, slows the rate of induction of behavioral sensitization to nicotine (Glick et al., 1996; 2011). The primary mechanism of action of 18-MC is believed to be the inhibition of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which are densely expressed in the medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus (Pace et al., 2004; Glick et al., 2012). Recently, these habenular nicotinic receptors and their multiple roles in nicotine aversion and withdrawal have been increasingly emphasized (Antolin-Fontes et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the effects of 18-MC on both behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to nicotine. Daily systemic administration of 18-MC slowed the rate of induction of behavioral sensitization to nicotine but failed to block the expression of a sensitized locomotor response when absent. In contrast, in nicotine sensitized animals, systemic 18-MC significantly reduced the expression of behavioral sensitization. Results from intra-habenular administration of 18-MC paralleled these findings in that the expression of behavioral sensitization was also reduced in sensitized animals. Consistent with its effects on behavioral sensitization, intra-MHb treatment with 18-MC completely abolished sensitized dopamine responses in the nucleus accumbens in nicotine sensitized animals. These results show that α3β4 nicotinic receptors in the MHb contribute to nicotine sensitization, a phenomenon associated with drug craving and relapse.

  9. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS): psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Xavier; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Llavona, Luis M; García-Fernández, José M

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS), which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82) and temporal stability (r = 0.83) of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  10. Psychometric analysis of common mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Mental disorders often go undetected in primary care, for persons awarded disability pension, and in sick-leave certificates. No validity tests of instruments for detection and measurement of mental disorders have been performed in long-term sickness absence (LSA). This is the aim...... of the present study for Common Mental Disorders - Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: It is validity tested in a well-defined Danish population comprising all persons on continuous sickness absence just exceeding eight weeks. CMD-SQ is composed of SCL-SOM (somatization), Whiteley-7 (illness worry...... of SC-ANX4, SCL-DEP6, and SCL-8, called SCL-8AD, showed the best and excellent psychometric and screening statistics. CONCLUSIONS: SCL-8AD, a sub-scale of CMD-SQ, is a promising candidate for screening and measurement of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence....

  11. [Psychometric instruments for the diagnosis of tinnitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, C; Zirke, N; Haupt, H; Szczepek, A; Olze, H; Mazurek, B

    2012-08-01

    Tinnitus is a very complex phenomenon with various mechanisms of origin. Multimodal and interdisciplinary treatment is the most effective form of treatment for patients with chronic tinnitus. In order to assess existing comorbidity in tinnitus patients as well as to treat the patients individually, a comprehensive and differentiated diagnosis is needed. Since standardized guidelines for the use of relevant instruments in the diagnosis of tinnitus have been lacking hitherto, we present here psychometric questionnaires which have already been used effectively in the research, diagnosis and therapy of tinnitus in the present article. The questionnaires measure the severity of tinnitus, depression and anxiety, the perceived stress, personal resources as well as the quality of life of patients.

  12. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS: psychometric properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Méndez

    Full Text Available This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS, which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82 and temporal stability (r = 0.83 of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  13. The claustrophobia scale: a psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, Lars-Göran

    2007-05-01

    This article presents a psychometric evaluation of the Claustrophobia Scale (CS), consisting of one subscale for measuring anxiety (20 items, 0-4) and one for avoidance (18 items, 0-2). Participants were 87 claustrophobic patients and 200 normal controls randomly selected from the community. The results show that CS has excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, concurrent and discriminant validity. The patients and controls differ significantly on the total scores of anxiety and avoidance, as well as on each individual item scores. The CS was also found to be sensitive to change after cognitive behavioral treatment. Preliminary factor analyses yielded two factors for each subscale; "Being in small enclosed spaces" and "Other people present", accounting for large proportions of the variance. The CS is useful both as a state, and as an outcome self-report measure of claustrophobia.

  14. Neurochemical alterations in lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris) brains in association with brevetoxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Adams, Douglas H; Flewelling, Leanne J; Basu, Niladri

    2010-09-01

    Brevetoxins are persistent, bioaccumulative, lipophilic polyether neurotoxins synthesized by Karenia brevis, a harmful algal bloom (HAB) dinoflagellate. Although some marine organisms accumulate potentially harmful levels of brevetoxins, little is known about neurotoxic effects in wild populations. Here, tissue (i.e., liver, kidney, muscle, intestine, gill, brain) brevetoxin levels (as ng PbTx-3 eq/g) and four neurochemical biomarkers (monoamine oxidase, MAO; cholinesterase, ChE; muscarinic cholinergic receptor, mAChR; N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor, NMDAR) were compared between eleven lemon sharks collected during a K. brevis bloom and eighteen lemon sharks not exposed to a bloom (controls) in a case-control manner. Brevetoxin levels in tissues were significantly higher in HAB-exposed sharks when compared to controls, and tissue levels (e.g., 277-3112 ng/g in livers, 429-2833 ng/g in gills) in HAB-exposed sharks were comparable to levels detected in a shark (e.g., 1223 ng/g in liver, 930 ng/g in gill) that died presumably of toxin exposure. Further, there were significant correlations between brain brevetoxin levels and ChE activity (r=-0.41; pmercury, methylmercury, selenium). Overall, these results in tissues from free-ranging lemon sharks indicate that ecologically relevant exposures to brevetoxins may cause significant changes in brain neurochemistry. As disruptions to neurochemistry precede structural and functional damage to the nervous system, these results suggest that relevant exposures to HABs may be causing sub-clinical effects in lemon sharks and raise further questions about the ecological and physiological impacts of HABs on marine biota.

  15. Neurochemical phenotype of Reelin immunoreactive cells in the Piriform cortex layer II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector eCarceller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTReelin, a glycoprotein expressed by Cajal-Retzius neurons throughout the marginal layer of developing neocortex, has been extensively shown to play an important role during brain development, guiding neuronal migration and detachment from radial glia. During the adult life, however, many studies have associated Reelin expression to enhanced neuronal plasticity. Although its mechanism of action in the adult brain remains mostly unknown, Reelin is expressed mainly by a subset of mature interneurons. Here, we confirm the described phenotype of this subpopulation in the adult neocortex. We show that these mature interneurons, although being in close proximity, lack PSA-NCAM expression, a molecule expressed by a subpopulation of mature interneurons, related to brain development and involved in neuronal plasticity of the adult brain as well. However, in the layer II of Piriform cortex there is a high density of cells expressing Reelin whose neurochemical phenotype and connectivity has not been described before. Interestingly, in close proximity to these Reelin expressing cells there is a numerous subpopulation of immature neurons expressing PSA-NCAM and DCX in this layer of the Piriform cortex. Here we show that Reelin cells express the neuronal marker NeuN, but however the majority of neurons lack markers of mature excitatory or inhibitory neurons. A detail analysis of its morphology indicates these that some of these cells might correspond to semilunar neurons. Interestingly, we found that the majority of these cells express TBR-1 a transcription factor found not only in post-mitotic neurons that differentiate to glutamatergic excitatory neurons but also in Cajal-Retzius cells. We suggest that the function of these Reelin expressing cells might be similar to that of the Cajal-Retzius cells during development, having a role in the maintenance of the immature phenotype of the PSA-NCAM/DCX neurons through its receptors ApoER2 and VLDL in the

  16. Enrichment of MCI and early Alzheimer's disease treatment trials using neurochemical and imaging candidate biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hampel, H

    2012-02-01

    In the earliest clinical stages of Alzheimer\\'s Disease (AD), when symptoms are mild, clinical diagnosis will still be difficult. AD related molecular mechanisms precede symptoms. Biological markers can serve as early diagnostic indicators, as markers of preclinical pathological change, e.g. underlying mechanisms of action (MoA). Hypothesis based candidates are derived from structural and functional neuroimaging as well as from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. Unbiased exploratory approaches e.g. proteome analysis or rater independent fully automated imaging post-processing methods yield novel candidates. Recent progress in the validation of core feasible imaging and neurochemical biomarkers for functions such as early detection, classification, progression and prediction of AD is summarized. Single core feasible biomarkers can already be used to enrich populations at risk for AD and may be further enhanced using distinct combinations. Some biomarkers are currently in the process of implementation as primary or secondary outcome variables into regulatory guideline documents, e.g. regarding phase II in drug development programs as outcome measures in proof of concept or dose finding studies. There are specific biomarkers available depending on the hypothesized mechanism of action of a medicinal product, e.g. impact on the amyloidogenic cascade or on tauhyperphosphorylation. Ongoing large-scale international controlled multi-center trials will provide further validation of selected core feasible imaging and CSF biomarker candidates as outcome measures in early AD for use in phase III clinical efficacy trials. There is a need of rigorous co-development of biological trait- and statemarker candidates facilitated through planned synergistic collaboration between academic, industrial and regulatory partners.

  17. Neurochemical phenotypes of endomorphin-2-containing neurons in vagal nodose neurons of the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Le; Chen, Tao; Wang, Ya-Yun; Li, Yun-Qing

    2009-12-01

    It has been shown that endomorphin-2-like immunoreactive (EM2-LI) neurons in dorsal root ganglion play important roles in regulating somatic information transmission. Although EM2-ergic neurons have been found in nodose ganglion (NG) which is mainly involved in transmitting visceral information into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the neurochemical phenotypes of EM2-ergic neurons have not yet been investigated. In the present study, immunofluorescent histochemical staining showed that 43.5% of the NG neurons contained EM2 and these neurons were small to medium in size. 15.2%, 27.8%, 74.4% and 25.2% of the EM2-LI NG neurons expressed substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), respectively. In addition, about 90.8% of EM2-LI NG neurons also contained mu-opioid receptor (MOR). EM2/MOR and EM2/SP double-labeled peripheral axons were observed in the vagal trunk. Anterograde tracing combined with immunofluorescent staining showed EM2/MOR and EM2/SP double-labeled vagal afferents in the NTS. EM2/MOR/SP and EM2/MOR/CGRP triple-labeled neurons and axons were observed in the NG. Importantly, at the ultrastructrual level, post-embedding electron microscopy revealed that EM2-LI and SP-LI gold particles coexisted in the same large dense-cored synaptic vesicles in the pre-synaptic button, while MOR-LI gold particles existed on both pre- and post-synaptic membranes in the NTS. These results suggest that EM2 in axon terminals of NG neurons might be involved in visceral information transmission and homeostatic control through modulating the release of other neurotransmitters (such as SP, CGRP, NO, VIP) via pre-synaptic MOR and through post-synaptic mechanisms in the NTS.

  18. Stereochemistry of mephedrone neuropharmacology: enantiomer-specific behavioural and neurochemical effects in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Ryan A; Baumann, Michael H; Partilla, John S; Bonano, Julie S; Vouga, Alexandre; Tallarida, Christopher S; Velvadapu, Venkata; Smith, Garry R; Peet, M Melissa; Reitz, Allen B; Negus, S Stevens; Rawls, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Synthetic cathinones, commonly referred to as ‘bath salts’, are a group of amphetamine-like drugs gaining popularity worldwide. 4-Methylmethcathinone (mephedrone, MEPH) is the most commonly abused synthetic cathinone in the UK, and exerts its effects by acting as a substrate-type releaser at monoamine transporters. Similar to other cathinone-related compounds, MEPH has a chiral centre and exists stably as two enantiomers: R-mephedrone (R-MEPH) and S-mephedrone (S-MEPH). Experimental Approach Here, we provide the first investigation into the neurochemical and behavioural effects of R-MEPH and S-MEPH. We analysed both enantiomers in rat brain synaptosome neurotransmitter release assays and also investigated their effects on locomotor activity (e.g. ambulatory activity and repetitive movements), behavioural sensitization and reward. Key Results Both enantiomers displayed similar potency as substrates (i.e. releasers) at dopamine transporters, but R-MEPH was much less potent than S-MEPH as a substrate at 5-HT transporters. Locomotor activity was evaluated in acute and repeated administration paradigms, with R-MEPH producing greater repetitive movements than S-MEPH across multiple doses. After repeated drug exposure, only R-MEPH produced sensitization of repetitive movements. R-MEPH produced a conditioned place preference whereas S-MEPH did not. Lastly, R-MEPH and S-MEPH produced biphasic profiles in an assay of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), but R-MEPH produced greater ICSS facilitation than S-MEPH. Conclusions and Implications Our data are the first to demonstrate stereospecific effects of MEPH enantiomers and suggest that the predominant dopaminergic actions of R-MEPH (i.e. the lack of serotonergic actions) render this stereoisomer more stimulant-like when compared with S-MEPH. This hypothesis warrants further study. PMID:25255824

  19. Neurochemical characterization of neurons expressing melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 in the mouse hypothalamus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Melissa J. S.; Pissios, Pavlos; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2013-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that acts via MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) in the mouse. It promotes positive energy balance thus mice lacking MCH or MCHR1 are lean, hyperactive, and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Identifying the cellular targets of MCH is an important step to understanding the mechanisms underlying MCH actions. We generated the Mchr1-cre mouse that expressed cre recombinase driven by the MCHR1 promoter and crossed it with a tdTomato reporter mouse. The resulting Mchr1-cre/tdTomato progeny expressed easily detectable tdTomato fluorescence in MCHR1 neurons, which were found throughout the olfactory system, striatum, and hypothalamus. To chemically identify MCH-targeted cell populations that play a role in energy balance, MCHR1 hypothalamic neurons were characterized by colabeling select hypothalamic neuropeptides with tdTomato fluorescence. TdTomato fluorescence colocalized with dynorphin, oxytocin, vasopressin, enkephalin, thyrothropin-releasing hormone, and corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus. In the lateral hypothalamus, neurotensin but neither orexin nor MCH neurons expressed tdTomato. In the arcuate nucleus, both Neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin cells expressed tdTomato. We further demonstrated that some of these arcuate neurons were also targets of leptin action. Interestingly, MCHR1 was expressed in the vast majority of leptin-sensitive proopiomelanocortin neurons, highlighting their importance for the orexigenic actions of MCH. Taken together, this study supports the use of the Mchr1-cre mouse for outlining the neuroanatomical distribution and neurochemical phenotype of MCHR1 neurons. PMID:23605441

  20. Short term cadmium administration dose dependently elicits immediate biochemical, neurochemical and neurobehavioral dysfunction in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Anis, Lubna; Batool, Zehra; Sajid, Irfan; Naqvi, Fizza; Khaliq, Saima; Ahmed, Shoaib

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium is a toxic environmental and industrial pollutant. Cadmium toxicity has been reported to produce biochemical and behavioral dysfunction that may cause adverse effects on several organs including the central nervous system. The present study was designed to investigate the neurotoxic effects of Cadmium Chloride (CdCl2) at three different doses by using different behavioral models. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were also monitored following acute intraperitoneal injection of cadmium. Twenty four adult locally bred Albino Wistar rats were divided into control and 3 test groups (n = 6). Control rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline (0.9% NaCl) and test groups were injected with CdCl2 (1 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg) dissolved in physiological solution. Behavioral activities of rats were monitored after 1 h of cadmium injection. Locomotor activity and depression-like symptoms were measured by Open Field Test (OFT) and Forced Swimming Test (FST) respectively. Anxiety like behavior was monitored using Light-dark Transition (LDT) test and memory functions of rats were assessed by Morris Water Maze test (MWM). In the present study acute cadmium administration dose dependently increased anxiety in rats as compared to control rats. A significant increase in depression-like symptoms was also exhibited by cadmium treated rats. These behavioral dysfunctions may be attributed to the decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and simultaneously increased brain lipid peroxidation (LPO). Moreover learning and memory assessed by MWM showed dose dependent impairment in memory function in cadmium treated rats as compared to control rats. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also decreased in brains of cadmium administered rats. It is suggested in this study that behavioral, biochemical and neurochemical dysfunctions caused by acute cadmium administration occur in a dose dependent manner.

  1. Sex-dependent neurochemical effects of environmental enrichment in the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessinis, D P; Dalla, C; Kokras, N; Pitychoutis, P M; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z

    2013-12-19

    Sex differences in the visual system have been reported in aspects of human vision, such as color perception, peripheral vision and even in the activation of the primary visual cortex. Similarly sex differences have been identified in the visual system of laboratory animals such as monkeys and rats. On the other hand, environmental enrichment (EE) has long been known to affect visual tissues. Taking into consideration the variation in the experimental approaches concerning EE and the sex differences in the visual system, we investigated in male and female rats the serotonergic and dopaminergic effects of EE in the retina and the visual cortex at different time points (i.e. P0-25, P0-P90 and P90-P150). Early EE in adulthood increased the serotonergic activity of the male visual cortex and the female retina (P0-P90). In addition early enrichment (P0-P90) increased dopaminergic activity in the female retina and in the visual cortex of both sexes. Late enrichment increased the serotonergic activity in the retina and visual cortex of both sexes (P90-P150), but increased the dopaminergic activity in the visual cortex only in male animals. In the present study we expose marked sex differences in the neurochemistry of visual tissues and we demonstrate for the first time that EE can in fact modify the serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the retina and visual cortex. Overall, the present study underpins the sex-dependent neurochemical status of the visual system and provides insights into the different mechanisms underlying visual processing in the two sexes.

  2. 81st Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Wiberg, Marie; Culpepper, Steven; Douglas, Jeffrey; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2017-01-01

    This proceedings volume compiles and expands on selected and peer reviewed presentations given at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS), organized by the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and held in Asheville, North Carolina, July 11th to 17th, 2016. IMPS is one of the largest international meetings focusing on quantitative measurement in psychology, education, and the social sciences, both in terms of participants and number of presentations. The meeting built on the Psychometric Society's mission to share quantitative methods relevant to psychology, addressing a diverse set of psychometric topics including item response theory, factor analysis, structural equation modeling, time series analysis, mediation analysis, cognitive diagnostic models, and multi-level models. Selected presenters were invited to revise and expand their contributions and to have them peer reviewed and published in this proceedings volume. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society�...

  3. 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Bolt, Daniel; Wang, Wen-Chung; Douglas, Jeffrey; Chow, Sy-Miin

    2015-01-01

    These research articles from the 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS) cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis. These methods will appeal, in particular, to researchers in the social sciences. The 79th annual meeting took place in Madison, WI between July 21nd and 25th, 2014. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting are New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 2013) and Quantitative Psychology Research: The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society  (Springer, 2015).

  4. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety......, antidepressive, antimanic, and antipsychotic), of clinically unwanted effects of these drugs, and the patients' own subjective perception of the balance between wanted and unwanted effects are analysed using rating scales assessed by modern psychometric tests (item response theory models) RESULTS: Symptom rating...... scales fulfilling the item response theory models have been shown to be psychometrically valid outcome scales as their total scores are sufficient statistics for demonstrating dose-response relationship within the various classes of antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic or antipsychotic drugs. The total...

  5. 80th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Bolt, Daniel; Wang, Wen-Chung; Douglas, Jeffrey; Wiberg, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The research articles in this volume cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis. These methods will appeal, in particular, to researchers in the social sciences. The 80th annual meeting took place in Beijing, China, between the 12th and 16th of July, 2014. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting are New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 2013), Quantitative Psychology Research: The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (Springer, 2015), and Quantitative Psychology Research: The 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Wisconsin, USA, 2014 (Springer, 2015).

  6. Translational neurochemical research in acute human brain injury: the current status and potential future for cerebral microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillered, Lars; Vespa, Paul M; Hovda, David A

    2005-01-01

    Microdialysis (MD) was introduced as an intracerebral sampling method for clinical neurosurgery by Hillered et al. and Meyerson et al. in 1990. Since then MD has been embraced as a research tool to measure the neurochemistry of acute human brain injury and epilepsy. In general investigators have focused their attention to relative chemical changes during neurointensive care, operative procedures, and epileptic seizure activity. This initial excitement surrounding this technology has subsided over the years due to concerns about the amount of tissue sampled and the complicated issues related to quantification. The interpretation of mild to moderate MD fluctuations in general remains an issue relating to dynamic changes of the architecture and size of the interstitial space, blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and analytical imprecision, calling for additional validation studies and new methods to control for in vivo recovery variations. Consequently, the use of this methodology to influence clinical decisions regarding the care of patients has been restricted to a few institutions. Clinical studies have provided ample evidence that intracerebral MD monitoring is useful for the detection of overt adverse neurochemical conditions involving hypoxia/ischemia and seizure activity in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), traumatic brain injury (TBI), thromboembolic stroke, and epilepsy. There is some data strongly suggesting that MD changes precede the onset of secondary neurological deterioration following SAH, hemispheric stroke, and surges of increased ICP in fulminant hepatic failure. These promising investigations have relied on MD-markers for disturbed glucose metabolism (glucose, lactate, and pyruvate) and amino acids. Others have focused on trying to capture other important neurochemical events, such as excitotoxicity, cell membrane degradation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) formation, cellular edema, and BBB dysfunction. However, these other

  7. A psychometric validation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Bjarne; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, Nete

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS).......The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS)....

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Brief Autism Mealtime Behaviors Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Brief Autism Mealtime Behaviors Inventory (BAMBI). In a sample of 273 well-characterized children with ASD, we explored the factor structure of the BAMBI, determined the internal consistency of a newly derived factor structure and provide an empirically derived cut-off for the BAMBI total score. The new psychometrically identified structure consists of 4 factors: 1) Food Selectivity, 2) Disruptive Mealtime Behaviors, ...

  9. Psychometric functions for detection and discrimination with and without flankers

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Miguel A.; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío; Woods, Russell L.; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies reported that flanking stimuli broaden the psychometric function and lower detection thresholds. We measured psychometric functions for detection and discrimination with and without flankers to investigate whether these effects occur throughout the contrast continuum. Our results confirm that lower detection thresholds with flankers are accompanied by broader psychometric functions. Psychometric functions for discrimination reveal that discrimination thresholds with and without flankers are similar across standard levels, and that the broadening of psychometric functions with flankers disappears as standard contrast increases, to the point that psychometric functions at high standard levels are virtually identical with or without flankers. Threshold-versus-contrast (TvC) curves with flankers only differ from TvC curves without flankers in occasional shallower dippers and lower branches on the left of the dipper, but they run virtually superimposed at high standard levels. We discuss differences between our results and other results in the literature, and how they are likely attributed to the differential vulnerability of alternative psychophysical procedures to the effects of presentation order. We show that different models of flanker facilitation can fit the data equally well, which stresses that succeeding at fitting a model does not validate it in any sense. PMID:21264745

  10. Neurochemical mechanisms and pharmacologic strategies in managing nausea and vomiting related to cyclic vomiting syndrome and other gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashashati, Mohammad; McCallum, Richard W

    2014-01-05

    Nausea and vomiting are common gastrointestinal complaints which could be triggered by stimuli in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. They may be considered as defense mechanisms when threatening toxins/agents enter the gastrointestinal tract or there is excessive retention of gastrointestinal contents due to obstruction. The pathophysiology of nausea and vomiting is complex and much still remains unknown. Therefore, treatments are restricted or ineffective in many cases. Nausea and vomiting with functional etiologies including cyclic vomiting syndrome are challenging in gastroenterology. In this article, we review potential pathways, neurochemical transmitters, and their receptors which are possibly involved in the pathophysiology of nausea and vomiting including the entity cyclic vomiting syndrome.

  11. Pharmacological, neurochemical, and behavioral profile of JB-788, a new 5-HT1A agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, M; Morisset, S; Cloix, J F; Bizot, J C; Guerin, M; Beneteau, V; Guillaumet, G; Hevor, T K

    2010-09-01

    A novel pyridine derivative, 8-{4-[(6-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-[1,4]dioxino[2,3-b]pyridine-3-ylmethyl)-amino]-butyl}-8-aza-spiro[4.5]decane-7,9-dione hydrochloride, termed JB-788, was designed to selectively target 5-HT(1A) receptors. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of JB-788 was characterized in vitro using radioligands binding tests and in vivo using neurochemical and behavioural experiments. JB-788 bound tightly to human 5-HT(1A) receptor expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells with a K(i) value of 0.8 nM. Its binding affinity is in the same range as that observed for the (+/-)8-OH-DPAT, a reference 5HT(1A) agonist compound. Notably, JB-788 only bound weakly to 5-HT(1B) or 5-HT(2A) receptors and moreover the drug displayed only weak or indetectable binding to muscarinic, alpha(2), beta(1) and beta(2) adrenergic receptors, or dopaminergic D(1) receptors. JB-788 was found to display substantial binding affinity for dopaminergic D(2) receptors and, to a lesser extend to alpha(1) adrenoreceptors. JB-788 dose-dependently decreased forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation in HEK cells expressing human 5-HT(1A), thus acting as a potent 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (E(max.) 75%, EC(50) 3.5 nM). JB-788 did not exhibit any D(2) receptor agonism but progressively inhibited the effects of quinpirole, a D(2) receptor agonist, in the cAMP accumulation test with a K(i) value of 250 nM. JB-788 induced a weak change in cAMP levels in mouse brain but, like some antipsychotics, transiently increased glycogen contents in various brain regions. Behavioral effects were investigated in mice using the elevated plus-maze. JB-788 was found to increase the time duration spent by animals in anxiogenic situations. Locomotor hyperactivity induced by methamphetamine in mouse, a model of antipsychotic activity, was dose-dependently inhibited by JB-788. Altogether, these results suggest that JB-788 displays pharmacological properties, which could be of interest in the area

  12. Neurochemical Phenotype of Reelin Immunoreactive Cells in the Piriform Cortex Layer II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceller, Hector; Rovira-Esteban, Laura; Nacher, Juan; Castrén, Eero; Guirado, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Reelin, a glycoprotein expressed by Cajal-Retzius neurons throughout the marginal layer of developing neocortex, has been extensively shown to play an important role during brain development, guiding neuronal migration and detachment from radial glia. During the adult life, however, many studies have associated Reelin expression to enhanced neuronal plasticity. Although its mechanism of action in the adult brain remains mostly unknown, Reelin is expressed mainly by a subset of mature interneurons. Here, we confirm the described phenotype of this subpopulation in the adult neocortex. We show that these mature interneurons, although being in close proximity, lack polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) expression, a molecule expressed by a subpopulation of mature interneurons, related to brain development and involved in neuronal plasticity of the adult brain as well. However, in the layer II of Piriform cortex there is a high density of cells expressing Reelin whose neurochemical phenotype and connectivity has not been described before. Interestingly, in close proximity to these Reelin expressing cells there is a numerous subpopulation of immature neurons expressing PSA-NCAM and doublecortin (DCX) in this layer of the Piriform cortex. Here, we show that Reelin cells express the neuronal marker Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN), but however the majority of neurons lack markers of mature excitatory or inhibitory neurons. A detail analysis of its morphology indicates these that some of these cells might correspond to semilunar neurons. Interestingly, we found that the majority of these cells express T-box brain 1 (TBR-1) a transcription factor found not only in post-mitotic neurons that differentiate to glutamatergic excitatory neurons but also in Cajal-Retzius cells. We suggest that the function of these Reelin expressing cells might be similar to that of the Cajal-Retzius cells during development, having a role in the maintenance of the immature phenotype of the

  13. Developmental and neurochemical features of cholinergic neurons in the murine cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becchetti Andrea

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence and role of intrinsic cholinergic cells in the cerebral cortex is controversial, because of their variable localization and morphology in different mammalian species. We have applied choline acetyltransferase (ChAT immunocytochemistry to study the distribution of cholinergic neurons in the murine cerebral cortex, in the adult and during postnatal development. For more precise neurochemical identification of these neurons, the possible colocalization of ChAT with different markers of cortical neuronal populations has been analyzed by confocal microscopy. This method was also used to verify the relationship between cholinergic cells and cortical microvessels. Results ChAT positive cells appeared at the end of the first postnatal week. Their density dramatically increased at the beginning of the second postnatal week, during which it remained higher than in perinatal and adult stages. In the adult neocortex, cholinergic neurons were particularly expressed in the somatosensory area, although their density was also significant in visual and auditory areas. ChAT positive cells tended to be scarce in other regions. They were mainly localized in the supragranular layers and displayed a fusiform/bipolar morphology. The colocalization of ChAT with pyramidal neuron markers was negligible. On the other hand, more than half of the cholinergic neurons contained calretinin, but none of them expressed parvalbumin or calbindin. However, only a fraction of the ChAT positive cells during development and very few in adulthood turned out to be GABAergic, as judged from expression of GABA and its biosynthetic enzymes GAD67/65. Consistently, ChAT showed no localization with interneurons expressing green fluorescent protein under control of the GAD67 promoter in the adult neocortex. Finally, the cortical cholinergic cells often showed close association with the microvessel walls, as identified with the gliovascular marker aquaporin 4

  14. Voxel Scale Complex Networks of Functional Connectivity in the Rat Brain: Neurochemical State Dependence of Global and Local Topological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Schwarz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis of functional imaging data reveals emergent features of the brain as a function of its topological properties. However, the brain is not a homogeneous network, and the dependence of functional connectivity parameters on neuroanatomical substrate and parcellation scale is a key issue. Moreover, the extent to which these topological properties depend on underlying neurochemical changes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated both global statistical properties and the local, voxel-scale distribution of connectivity parameters of the rat brain. Different neurotransmitter systems were stimulated by pharmacological challenge (d-amphetamine, fluoxetine, and nicotine to discriminate between stimulus-specific functional connectivity and more general features of the rat brain architecture. Although global connectivity parameters were similar, mapping of local connectivity parameters at high spatial resolution revealed strong neuroanatomical dependence of functional connectivity in the rat brain, with clear differentiation between the neocortex and older brain regions. Localized foci of high functional connectivity independent of drug challenge were found in the sensorimotor cortices, consistent with the high neuronal connectivity in these regions. Conversely, the topological properties and node roles in subcortical regions varied with neurochemical state and were dependent on the specific dynamics of the different functional processes elicited.

  15. Neurochemical properties of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to rostral ventromedial medulla in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bin eYin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG modulates nociception via a descending pathway that relays in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM and terminates in the spinal cord. Previous behavioral pharmacology and electrophysiological evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays an important role in descending pain modulation, likely through the PAG-RVM pathway. However, there still lacks detailed information on the distribution of BDNF, activation of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM in the condition of pain, and neurochemical properties of these neurons within the PAG. Through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and immunofluorescent staining, the homogenous distributions of BDNF mRNA and protein were observed in the four subregions of PAG. Both neurons and astrocytes expressed BDNF, but not microglias. By combining retrograde tracing methods and formalin pain model, there were more BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM being activated in the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG than other subregions of PAG. The neurochemical properties of BDNF-containing projection neurons in the vlPAG were investigated. BDNF-containing projection neurons expressed auto receptor Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB in addition to serotonin (5-HT, neurotensin (NT, substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, and parvalbumin (PV but not tyrosine decarboxylase (TH. It is speculated that BDNF released from projection neurons in the vlPAG might participate in the descending pain modulation through enhancing the presynaptic release of other neuroactive substances (NSs in the RVM.

  16. Theory of Mind and psychometric schizotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Diane Carol; Pflum, Madeline Johnson

    2011-07-30

    The extent to which Theory of Mind impairments are a trait associated with schizotypy is unclear. To date, findings have been mixed. We compared two groups of psychometrically identified schizotypes, namely, those characterized by positive schizotypy (perceptual aberrations and magical ideation; n=36) and those characterized by negative schizotypy (social anhedonia; n=30) to a low schizotypy comparison group (n=68) in terms of their Theory of Mind performance. Theory of Mind was assessed in two ways: a composite Hinting Task and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. The groups were also compared in terms of their self-reported levels of referential thinking. Our results indicate that individuals characterized by positive schizotypy show Theory of Mind deficits, as measured by the Hinting Task. The three groups did not differ in terms of the Eyes Test. Referential thinking was significantly associated with the Eyes Test but not the Hinting Task. Overall these findings suggest that different aspects of schizotypy are associated differentially with Theory of Mind deficits. The results also provide further rationale for the inclusion of multiple tasks when attempting to study multifaceted constructs such as Theory of Mind. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Robert S; Johnsen, Svein Åge Kjøs; Brasher, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) is used in ergonomics research to measure behavioural problems associated with attentiveness and memory in everyday life. CFQ scores have been related to constructs such as accident proneness and outcomes such as human error and psychological strain. The two-year test-retest reliability of the CFQ is reported together with the findings of factor analyses of CFQ data from 535 respondents. Evidence for the predictive and criterion validity and internal reliability of the CFQ is provided. Psychological strain was measured concurrently with CFQ on both testing occasions, two years apart. The test-retest reliability of the summated CFQ score was found to be 0.71, while for the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) strain measure it was 0.32.The relative variance stability was five times greater for the CFQ than the GHQ, indicating that scores on these questionnaires are not covariates. The use of the CFQ as a measure of cognitive control capacity is also discussed. Ergonomists have long been interested in human error and the role of high work demands due to poor equipment design and excessive workload. The CFQ measures attentiveness in daily life and is shown to have excellent psychometric properties that make it suitable for use in both laboratory and field studies as a trait measure of attentiveness in daily life.

  18. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltychev, Mikhail; Mattie, Ryan; McCormick, Zachary; Bärlund, Esa; Laimi, Katri

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in a large cross-sectional cohort of individuals with chronic low back pain by defining its internal consistency, construct structure and validity, and its ability to differentiate between different degrees of functional limitation. A total of 837 consecutive outpatient patients with low back pain were studied. The internal consistency of ODI was assessed by Cronbach's α, construct structure by exploratory factor analysis, construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis, and discrimination was determined by item response theory analysis. The ODI showed good internal consistency (α=0.85). Explanatory factor analysis showed that ODI is a unidimensional test measuring functional level and nothing else. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the standardized regression weights of all ODI items were relatively high, varying from 0.5 to 0.7. The item response theory analysis suggested that eight out of 10 ODI items have a close to perfect ability to measure functional limitations in accordance with the actual severity of disability experienced by the respondents. Discrimination of all the items was high to perfect (1.08-2.01). The test characteristic and test information curves showed that the discriminative ability of the ODI is superior at higher levels of disability. The present data showed that the ODI is an internally consistent, unidimensional scale with overall excellent construct validity and ability to discriminate the severity of functional disability. The analysis suggests that the ODI may better distinguish between the relative degrees of function at above-average disability levels.

  20. QUEST+: A general multidimensional Bayesian adaptive psychometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B

    2017-03-01

    QUEST+ is a Bayesian adaptive psychometric testing method that allows an arbitrary number of stimulus dimensions, psychometric function parameters, and trial outcomes. It is a generalization and extension of the original QUEST procedure and incorporates many subsequent developments in the area of parametric adaptive testing. With a single procedure, it is possible to implement a wide variety of experimental designs, including conventional threshold measurement; measurement of psychometric function parameters, such as slope and lapse; estimation of the contrast sensitivity function; measurement of increment threshold functions; measurement of noise-masking functions; Thurstone scale estimation using pair comparisons; and categorical ratings on linear and circular stimulus dimensions. QUEST+ provides a general method to accelerate data collection in many areas of cognitive and perceptual science.

  1. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings.

  2. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Military Suicide Attitudes Questionnaire (MSAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Military Suicide Attitudes Questionnaire (MSAQ) by Marcus VanSickle...MEDICAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE PROGRAM Title of Dissertation: "Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Military Suicide Attitudes...hereby certifies that the use of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: "Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Military

  3. Psychometric properties of the Spanish Burnout Inventory among staff nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Monte, P R; Manzano-García, G

    2015-12-01

    The burnout syndrome contributes to the deterioration in the quality of personal life as well as lower quality practice in healthcare personnel. Researchers have been concerned about the psychometric limitations of some previous questionnaires designed to evaluate burnout. The Spanish Burnout Inventory was developed to address the problems associated with other instruments, but it has not yet been validated in staff nurses. This study provides evidence that the Spanish Burnout Inventory has adequate psychometric properties to estimate burnout in staff nurses. The Spanish Burnout Inventory offers a theoretical proposal to explain the different components of burnout. The Spanish Burnout Inventory provides researchers and practitioners with an expanded conceptualization of the burnout syndrome, which can facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of nursing professionals. Researchers have been concerned about the psychometric limitations of the some previous questionnaires designed to evaluate burnout. To address these problems associated with previous instruments, the Spanish Burnout Inventory (SBI) was developed. The instrument has not yet been validated in staff nurses. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SBI. The sample consisted of 720 staff nurses from two Spanish general hospitals. The instrument is composed of 20 items distributed in four dimensions: Enthusiasm towards the job (five items), Psychological exhaustion (four items), Indolence (six items) and Guilt (five items). Data were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. To assess the factorial validity of the SBI, four alternative models were tested. Results show that the four-factor model of the SBI has adequate psychometric properties for the study of burnout in staff nurses. This model fitted the data better than the alternative models. The study provides evidence of the adequate psychometric properties of a measure to evaluate burnout in nursing professionals. The

  4. Development of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Covey, Daniel P.; Blaha, Charles D.; Agnesi, Filippo; Mohseni, Pedram; Whitlock, Sidney; Johnson, David M.; Horne, April; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.; Garris, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Object Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of specific central neuronal systems contributes to the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of targeted regions may therefore advance functional neurosurgery by, among other goals, providing a strategy for investigation of mechanisms, identification of new candidate neurotransmitters, and chemically guided placement of the stimulating electrode. The authors report the development of a device called the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring during functional neurosurgery. This device supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially and chemically resolved neurotransmitter measurements in the brain. Methods The FSCV study consisted of a triangle wave scanned between −0.4 and 1 V at a rate of 300 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages were compared with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single carbon fiber (r = 2.5 μm) into a glass capillary and pulling the capillary to a microscopic tip by using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (that is, the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by ~ 100 μm. The neurotransmitter dopamine was selected as the analyte for most trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow injection and noise analysis, and in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring dopamine release in the striatum following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Direct comparisons were made to a conventional hardwired system. Results The WINCS, designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, consisted of 4 modules: 1) front-end analog circuit for FSCV (that is, current-to-voltage transducer

  5. Rhythm and blues. Neurochemical, neuropharmacological and neuropsychological implications of a hypothesis of circadian rhythm dysfunction in the affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, D

    1987-01-01

    Current views on the organisation and functions of the circadian rhythm system are outlined. Evidence is presented supportive of the notion that the pathophysiology of the affective disorders involves a disruption of circadian rhythms and that the primary locus of action of agents effective in the affective disorders is on the circadian rhythm system. Potential disruptions of this system are enumerated. Such a hypothesis, it is argued, might potentially unite the disparate neurochemical and neuroendocrinological findings emerging in both depression and mania. There are in addition neuropsychological and nosological implications of such a framework, which may help bridge the divide between molecular and behavioural approaches to research on the affective disorders which are outlined.

  6. Projections and neurochemical coding of motor neurones to the circular and longitudinal muscle of the guinea pig gastric corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, K; Reiche, D; Schemann, M

    2000-07-01

    The present study identified projection and neurochemical coding patterns of intrinsic circular (CMN) and longitudinal muscle motor neurones (LMN) in the guinea pig stomach by using the retrograde tracer DiI (1,1'-didodecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocya-nine perchlorate) in combination with the immunohistochemical demonstration of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), enkephalin (ENK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and substance P (SP). Populations of LMN and CMN had similar neurochemical coding and a clear polarity of projection. Taking all DiI-labeled cell bodies as 100%, ascending pathways exhibited the coding ChAT/- (CMN:14.7%/LMN: 18.3%), ChAT/ENK (15.7%/10.1%), ChAT/SP/+/-ENK (19.2%/16.4%), or ChAT/NPY (4.4%/7.6%); descending pathways had the coding NOS/- (13.8%/16.9%), NOS/NPY (9.9%/17%), NOS/ENK (4.4%/1.2%) or NOS/NPY/ENK (13.0%/5.5%). The relative contributions of these populations were not different between CMN and LMN. However, target-specific projection patterns were revealed: most LMN (82%) had longitudinal whereas most CMN (58%) had circumferential projection preferences. The results indicate that gastric circular and longitudinal muscle layers are innervated by ascending excitatory and descending inhibitory pathways in the myenteric plexus. The projection patterns of CMN and LMN were different and followed the orientation of the muscle layers. It is suggested that the specific muscle motor pathways in the gastric myenteric plexus coordinate the reflex-mediated phasic and tonic activity of gastric muscle layers.

  7. Elevated mercury exposure and neurochemical alterations in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from a site with historical mercury contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Yates, David; Ardapple, Pedro; Evers, David C; Schmerfeld, John; Basu, Niladri

    2012-05-01

    Despite evidence of persistent methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in the South River (Virginia, USA) ecosystem, there is little information concerning MeHg-associated neurological impacts in resident wildlife. Here we determined mercury (Hg) concentrations in tissues of insectivorous little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) collected from a reference site and a MeHg-contaminated site in the South River ecosystem. We also explored whether neurochemical biomarkers (monoamine oxidase, MAO; acetylcholinesterase, ChE; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, mAChR; N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, NMDAR) previously shown to be altered by MeHg in other wildlife were associated with brain Hg levels in these bats. Concentrations of Hg (total and MeHg) in tissues were significantly higher (10-40 fold difference) in South River bats when compared to reference sites. Mean tissue mercury levels (71.9 ppm dw in liver, 7.14 ppm dw in brain, 132 ppm fw in fur) in the South River bats exceed (sub)-clinical thresholds in mammals. When compared to the South River bats, animals from the reference site showed a greater ability to demethylate MeHg in brain (33.1% of total Hg was MeHg vs. 65.5%) and liver (8.9% of total Hg was MeHg vs. 50.8%) thus suggesting differences in their ability to detoxify and eliminate Hg. In terms of Hg-associated neurochemical biomarker responses, interesting biphasic responses were observed with an inflection point between 1 and 5 ppm dw in the brain. In the reference bats Hg-associated decreases in MAO (r = -0.61; p South River.

  8. Biofuel cell-based self-powered biogenerators for online continuous monitoring of neurochemicals in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hanjun; Yu, Ping; Lu, Xulin; Lin, Yuqing; Ohsaka, Takeo; Mao, Lanqun

    2013-01-07

    This study demonstrates a new electrochemical method for continuous neurochemical sensing with a biofuel cell-based self-powered biogenerator as the detector for the analysis of microdialysate continuously sampled from rat brain, with glucose as an example analyte. To assemble a glucose/O(2) biofuel cell that can be used as a self-powered biogenerator for glucose sensing, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was used as the bioanodic catalyst for the oxidation of glucose with methylene green (MG) adsorbed onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as the electrocatalyst for the oxidation of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Laccase crosslinked onto SWNTs was used as the biocathodic catalyst for the O(2) reduction. To enable the bioanode and biocathode to work efficiently in their individually favorable solutions and to eliminate the interference between the glucose bioanode and O(2) biocathode, the biofuel cell-based biogenerator was built in a co-laminar microfluidic chip so that the bioanodic and biocathodic streams could be independently optimized to provide conditions favorable for each of the bioelectrodes. By using a home-made portable voltmeter to output the voltage generated on an external resistor, the biogenerator was used for glucose sensing based on a galvanic cell mechanism. In vitro experiments demonstrate that, under the optimized conditions, the voltage generated on an external resistor shows a linear relationship with the logarithmic glucose concentration within a concentration range of 0.2 mM to 1.0 mM. Moreover, the biogenerator exhibits a high stability and a good selectivity for glucose sensing. The validity of the biofuel cell-based self-powered biogenerator for continuous neurochemical sensing was illustrated by online continuous monitoring of striatum glucose in rat brain through the combination of in vivo microdialysis. This study offers a new and technically simple platform for continuously monitoring physiologically important

  9. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  10. Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

    2011-01-01

    In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

  11. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Cultural Receptivity in Fostering Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Tanya M.; Orme, John G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The psychometric properties of a new measure of foster parents' openness toward participating in activities that promote children's cultural development are evaluated. The measure is titled the Cultural Receptivity in Fostering Scale (CRFS). Method: Data from 304 foster mothers who completed the CRFS and a battery of measures on…

  12. The Negative Stereotyping of Single Persons Scale: Initial Psychometric Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignotti, Monica; Abell, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The current study presents an initial psychometric analysis of a three-dimensional scale designed to measure stereotyping of people who are single, defined as not currently legally married. Methods: Following expert review, proposed scale items are administered to 178 graduate and undergraduate students. Reliability analysis and…

  13. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Homophobic Bullying Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…

  14. Counselor Competence, Performance Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Using Psychometric Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…

  15. An international psychometric testing of the Care Dependency Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Brown, L.; Havens, B.; Romeren, T.I.; Zanotti, R.; Dassen, T.; van den Heuvel, W.

    2000-01-01

    In an international study, psychometric properties of the Care Dependency Scale (CDS) were examined by analysing data gathered in Dutch, Canadian, Italian and Norwegian nursing homes. For that purpose, from these countries a convenience sample was developed consisting of 525 patients with dementia.

  16. Psychometric Testing of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Shirley C.; Blum, Cynthia Ann; Parcells, Dax Andrew

    2010-01-01

    School nurses may be the first health professionals to assess the onset of facial paralysis/muscle weakness in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool (GFMWT) developed by Gordon. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase 1, 4 content experts…

  17. Necessity for a comprehensive psychometric policy within an organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Veldsman

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychometric testing is an important, valuable, widespread and legally protected activity in South Africa. Within the ambit of the organizational context a psychometric policy is required to guide and direct this activity. The purpose of this article is to show how the need for such a policy within an organization can be fulfilled. The article proceeds as follows: firstly, the positioning of a psychometric policy within the overall human resource management of an organization is discussed; secondly, a definition of the term 'psychometric policy' and the aims thereof are given; thirdly, a suggested content for such a policy is outlined; fourthly a method of generating this policy is proposed; and lastly, the role of the psychologist in this regard is indicated.  Opsomming Psigometriese toetsing is 'n belangrike, waardevolle, algemene en wetlik beskermde aktiwiteit in Suid-Afrika. Binne organisatoriese verband word 'n psigometriese beleid benodig om hierdie aktiwiteit te lei en rig. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om aan te toon hoe die behoefte aan sodanige beleid in 'n organisasie vervul kan word. Die artikel verloop soos volg: eerstens, word die plasing van 'n psigometriese beleid binne die algemene menslike hulpbronbestuur van die organisasie bespreek; tweedens, word 'n definisie van die begrip "psigometriese beleid" en die doelwitte daarvan gegee; derdens, word 'n voorgestelde inhoud vir sodanige beleid aan die orde gestel; uierdens, word 'n metode aangedui waarvolgens hierdie beleid daargestel kan word; en laastens, word die rol van die sielkundige in hierdie area aangedui.

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Teachers' Attitude toward Inclusion Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Jeremy J.; Ewing, Donna L.; Boyle, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the psychometric properties of a questionnaire measure that updates and extends Larrivee and Cook's (1979) Opinions Relative to Mainstreaming Scale in terms of structure, terminology, and language. The revised scale was tested using a sample of 106 teachers based in inclusive mainstream schools. Using Principal Component…

  19. The Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale: Psychometric Properties in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gregory M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Essex, Marilyn J.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Silva, Susan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Curry, John F.; Feeny, Norah C.; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Reinecke, Mark A.; Rosenberg, David R.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of 422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency ([alpha] = 0.93) and correlated significantly with self-report and interview-based measures of…

  20. A quantitative confidence signal detection model: 1. Fitting psychometric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yongwoo; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2016-04-01

    Perceptual thresholds are commonly assayed in the laboratory and clinic. When precision and accuracy are required, thresholds are quantified by fitting a psychometric function to forced-choice data. The primary shortcoming of this approach is that it typically requires 100 trials or more to yield accurate (i.e., small bias) and precise (i.e., small variance) psychometric parameter estimates. We show that confidence probability judgments combined with a model of confidence can yield psychometric parameter estimates that are markedly more precise and/or markedly more efficient than conventional methods. Specifically, both human data and simulations show that including confidence probability judgments for just 20 trials can yield psychometric parameter estimates that match the precision of those obtained from 100 trials using conventional analyses. Such an efficiency advantage would be especially beneficial for tasks (e.g., taste, smell, and vestibular assays) that require more than a few seconds for each trial, but this potential benefit could accrue for many other tasks. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF BRADBURN AFFECT BALANCE SCALE AMONG ELDERLY PERSONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KEMPEN, GIJM

    Some psychometric properties of the Affect Balance Scale have been tested on a random sample of 354 elderly people in the Netherlands. Internal reliability estimates were comparable with prior ones, and the 8-wk. test-retest reliability is reasonable for these 5-item measures.

  2. Counselor Competence, Performance Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Using Psychometric Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…

  3. Psychometric properties of the Danish Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Teasdale, Thomas William; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief behavioural five factor instrument developed to assess emotional and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties for parent and teacher ratings in the Danish...

  4. On the Psychometric Study of Human Life History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Sanning, Blair K; Lai, Mark H C; Copping, Lee T; Hardesty, Patrick H; Kruger, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS), provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a) use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b) confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c) establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested-there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.

  5. Development and Initial Psychometrics of Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahram; Park, Eun Hye; Byeon, Eunji; Lee, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire, designed to assess the specific behaviors of supervisors, which can be observed by supervisees during supervision sessions. Factor structure, construct and concurrent validity, and internal consistency reliability of the…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T. Y.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity scale (CBA). Methods: The CBA was administered in a sample of 275 Chinese parents experiencing economic disadvantage. Results: The CBA was found to be internally consistent. Consistent with the conceptual framework, factor…

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Brief Autism Mealtime Behaviors Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMand, Alexandra; Johnson, Cynthia; Foldes, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Brief Autism Mealtime Behaviors Inventory (BAMBI). In a sample of 273 well-characterized children with ASD, we explored the factor structure of the BAMBI, determined the internal consistency of a newly derived factor structure and provide an empirically derived cut-off for…

  8. Rasch Analysis for Psychometric Improvement of Science Attitude Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Fan, Xitao

    2017-01-01

    Students' attitude towards science (SAS) is often a subject of investigation in science education research. Survey of rating scale is commonly used in the study of SAS. The present study illustrates how Rasch analysis can be used to provide psychometric information of SAS rating scales. The analyses were conducted on a 20-item SAS scale used in an…

  9. The Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS): Some Psychometric Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerkerk, G.J.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Garretsen, H.F.L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to develop a short, easily administered, psychometrically sound, and valid instrument to assess the severity of compulsive Internet use. A set of criteria was determined based on the addiction literature. Next, the internal consistency and convergent validity were determined,

  10. The Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire (SSQ): Psychometrics, validation and norms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, van D.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the psychometric properties (reliability and factor structure) and validity (relationship with various self-report measures and SPEM dysfunction) of the SSQ or Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire, a 108-item inventory for the measurement of 12 prodromal or schizotypic

  11. Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…

  12. Psychometrics and Assessment of an Empathy Distance Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Research has indicated declining empathy within specific professions and social structures. Few psychometric instruments have addressed empathy within the context of psychological distance/relatedness to other individuals and even to other species, relationships that can be important contributors to psychological well-being and health. We…

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Simplified Chinese Version of Flourishing Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Wang, Zhizhang; Liu, Tianyuan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Flourishing Scale (FS) was developed to measure psychological well-being from the eudaimonic perspective, highlighting the flourishing of human functioning. This article evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the simplified Chinese version of FS among a Chinese community population. Method: A total of 433 participants from…

  14. Psychometric Properties of Measures of Team Diversity with Likert Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lifang; Marcoulides, George A.; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Certain diversity among team members is beneficial to the growth of an organization. Multiple measures have been proposed to quantify diversity, although little is known about their psychometric properties. This article proposes several methods to evaluate the unidimensionality and reliability of three measures of diversity. To approximate the…

  15. Prognostic Validity of Clinical and Psychometric Variables in Psychogeriatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appell, Julian; Kazarian, Shahe S.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated prognostic validity of clinical and psychometric variables in psychogeriatric inpatients. Divided elderly patients into three outcome groups: nondischarged (n=29), discharged-readmitted (n=38), and discharged-nonreadmitted (n=67). Discriminant analysis of data yielded two predictive functions, which appeared to represent physical status…

  16. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  17. Psychometric properties of Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaires : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, Michiel F.; Dijkstra, Arie; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter

    Background: Theoretically, acceptance of chronic pain (CP) is an important determinant in the functional status and well-being of patients with CP. Several questionnaires that aim to measure acceptance of CP have been developed. An overview of the psychometric properties of these questionnaires is

  18. The Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS): Some Psychometric Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerkerk, G.J.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Garretsen, H.F.L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to develop a short, easily administered, psychometrically sound, and valid instrument to assess the severity of compulsive Internet use. A set of criteria was determined based on the addiction literature. Next, the internal consistency and convergent validity were determined,

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale in Polio Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Helena; Franchignoni, Franco; Puzic, Natasa; Giordano, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate by means of classical test theory and Rasch analysis the scaling characteristics and psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in polio survivors. A questionnaire, consisting of five general questions (sex, age, age at time of acute polio, sequelae of polio, and new symptoms), the FSS,…

  20. Psychometric Properties of the HOME Inventory Using Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Johan; Kottorp, Anders; Jergeby, Ulla; Gustafsson, Carina; Sonnander, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to explore psychometric properties of two versions of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory in a Swedish social service sample. Method: Social workers employed at 22 Swedish child protections agencies participated in the data collection. Both classic test theory approaches and…

  1. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Measure of Intuitive Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Intuitive eating is characterized by eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues and is associated with psychological well-being. This study reports on the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) with data collected in 4 studies from 1,260 college…

  2. Clinical Teaching Effectiveness Instrument: Development and Psychometric Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, H. Liesel; Hewson, Mariana

    This report describes the development and psychometric qualities of a new instrument to assess clinical teaching effectiveness in medical education. The strength of the instrument is seen to lie in the qualitative development process involving iterative checking with key stakeholders; its high reliability, validity, and feasibility; and its ease…

  3. Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting…

  4. Psychometric Characteristics of the Professor-Student Rapport Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca G.; Wilson, Janie H.; Pugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Professor-Student Rapport Scale, the first scale to measure professor-student rapport. The scale was found to have adequate test-retest and internal-consistency reliability. In addition to these findings, measures used to determine convergent validity included the Working…

  5. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  6. The drug effects questionnaire: psychometric support across three drug types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; de Wit, Harriet; King, Andrea C; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Rueger, Sandra Y; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2013-05-01

    The Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ) is widely used in studies of acute subjective response (SR) to a variety of substances, but the format of the DEQ varies widely across studies, and details of its psychometric properties are lacking. Thus, the field would benefit from demonstrating the reliability and validity of the DEQ for use across multiple substances. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of several variations of DEQ items, which assessed the extent to which participants (1) feel any substance effect(s), (2) feel high, (3) like the effects, (4) dislike the effects, and (5) want more of the substance using 100-mm visual analog scales. DEQ data from three placebo-controlled studies were analyzed to examine SR to amphetamine, nicotine, and alcohol. We evaluated the internal structure of the DEQ for use with each substance as well as relationships between scale items, measures of similar constructs, and substance-related behaviors. Results provided preliminary psychometric support for items assessing each DEQ construct (feel, high, dislike, like, and more). Based on the study results, we identify several common limitations of extant variants of the DEQ and recommend an improved version of the measure. The simplicity and brevity of the DEQ combined with its promising psychometric properties support its use in future SR research across a variety of substances.

  7. The Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire (SSQ): Psychometrics, validation and norms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, van D.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the psychometric properties (reliability and factor structure) and validity (relationship with various self-report measures and SPEM dysfunction) of the SSQ or Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire, a 108-item inventory for the measurement of 12 prodromal or schizotypic sym

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of the Malay Satisfaction with Life Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is one of the most widely used scales for the measurement of subjective well-being across the globe, but no satisfactory version exists for use among Malay-speaking populations. The present study reports on the translation of a new Malay SWLS and examines its psychometric properties in a community sample of…

  9. Psychometric Analysis of the Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscher, Yaacov; Connor, Carol McDonald; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometrics of the "Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation-Screening Test" (DELV-S) test using confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory, and differential item functioning (DIF). Responses from 1,764 students in kindergarten through second grade were used in the study, with results indicating…

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T. Y.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity scale (CBA). Methods: The CBA was administered in a sample of 275 Chinese parents experiencing economic disadvantage. Results: The CBA was found to be internally consistent. Consistent with the conceptual framework, factor…

  11. A Psychometric Evaluation of Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carrie H.; Betz, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric evaluation of Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised (SWVI-R), an instrument comprised of 12 scales measuring the relative importance placed on the following work-related value dimensions: Achievement, Coworkers, Creativity, Income, Independence, Lifestyle, Mental Challenge, Prestige, Security, Supervision,…

  12. Psychometric Properties of the "Drug and Alcohol Survey".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others

    Results obtained from scaling the "Drug and Alcohol Survey" (DAS), a questionnaire that assesses the drug involvement of secondary school students are documented. The scales are evaluated in terms of their psychometric properties, their compatability with a change model, and their utility as outcome measures of substance abuse prevention…

  13. Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 10-item version of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) is ... [1-6]. There is a need to investigate the psychometric properties of the Malay version of ... 2015, IP: 41.135.175.131] || Click here to download free Android application for this journal ...

  14. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  15. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker Responses in east Greenland polar Bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kathrine Eggers; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate...... if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO...... regions, whereas GS activity was positively correlated with PFASs primarily in occipital lobe. Results from the present study support the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in polar bears from East Greenland have exceeded the threshold limits for neurochemical alterations. It is not known whether...

  16. Functional Circuitry Effect of Ventral Tegmental Area Deep Brain Stimulation: Imaging and Neurochemical Evidence of Mesocortical and Mesolimbic Pathway Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settell, Megan L.; Testini, Paola; Cho, Shinho; Lee, Jannifer H.; Blaha, Charles D.; Jo, Hang J.; Lee, Kendall H.; Min, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Background: The ventral tegmental area (VTA), containing mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons, is implicated in processes involving reward, addiction, reinforcement, and learning, which are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Electrical stimulation of the VTA or the medial forebrain bundle and its projection target the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is reported to improve depressive symptoms in patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive-like symptoms in animal models of depression. Here we sought to determine the neuromodulatory effects of VTA deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a normal large animal model (swine) by combining neurochemical measurements with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Animals (n = 8 swine) were implanted with a unilateral DBS electrode targeting the VTA. During stimulation (130 Hz frequency, 0.25 ms pulse width, and 3 V amplitude), fMRI was performed. Following fMRI, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in combination with carbon fiber microelectrodes was performed to quantify VTA-DBS-evoked dopamine release in the ipsilateral NAc. In a subset of swine, the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) percent change evoked by stimulation was performed at increasing voltages (1, 2, and 3 V). Results: A significant increase in VTA-DBS-evoked BOLD signal was found in the following regions: the ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate, insula, premotor cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, and striatum. A decrease in the BOLD signal was also observed in the contralateral parahippocampal cortex, dorsolateral and anterior prefrontal cortex, insula, inferior temporal gyrus, and primary somatosensory cortex (Bonferroni-corrected positively correlated with stimulation amplitude. Conclusions: In this study, the modulation of the neural circuitry associated with VTA-DBS was characterized in a large animal. Our findings suggest that VTA

  17. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Genetics Archive Regulation of Genetic Tests Genetic Discrimination Overview Many Americans fear that participating in research ... I) and employment (Title II). Read more Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws ...

  18. Psychometric evaluation of the Writing-To-Learn Attitude Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lee A

    2004-10-01

    The Writing-To-Learn Attitude Survey (WTLAS) was developed to measure the effects of using writing-to-learn activities in the classroom, but adequate psychometric data have not been reported for the measure. Using the pretest scores from 149 basic and RN-to-BSN nursing students enrolled in a Nursing Management and Leadership course, the reliability and validity of the WTLAS were evaluated. The initial 30-item measure demonstrated acceptable reliability, but the item intercorrelations suggested revision of the subscales was appropriate. After exploratory factor analyses, the WTLAS was revised to 21 items and consists of two factors: Apprehensions about Writing Abilities and Perceived Benefits of Writing-To-Learn Activities. Both subscales possess acceptable internal consistency reliability and conceptually sound, significant correlations with a separate measure of writing apprehension. The revised WTLAS appears to have adequate psychometric properties for further use in the evaluation of students' perceptions of writing-to-learn activities.

  19. Testing psychometric properties of the 30-item general health questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; He, Hong-Gu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) given conflicting findings in the literature. A cross-sectional, nonexperimental research was used with a convenience sample of 271 American female health care professionals. Data were collected by using self-reported questionnaires. A series of exploratory factor analyses (EFAs), confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), and structural equation modeling (SEM) were performed to examine underlying dimensions of the GHQ-30. Results from EFAs and CFAs revealed the three-factor composition (positive affect, anxiety, and depressed mood). All factor loadings were statistically significant, and one pair of error variance was allowed to be correlated. All factors contained questionnaire items with acceptable face validity and demonstrated good internal consistency reliability. Results from SEM further confirmed underlying constructs of the scale. To our knowledge, this is the first study that extensively tested the psychometric properties of the GHQ-30, taking both statistical and substantive issues into consideration.

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Service-Learning in Nursing Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickitas, Donna M; Fealy, Gerard M; De Natale, Mary L

    The aim was to develop an instrument to assess undergraduate nursing students' experience of service-learning to reveal benefits and identify service-learning as a professional value that leads to civic and social responsibility. Service-learning is a teaching and learning approach that integrates academic learning with experiential community-centered foci. It provides structured opportunities for reflection on broader social and cultural dimensions of health. There is no valid and reliable instrument to measure service-learning experience of nursing students. A psychometric evaluation was conducted through item analysis, validity, and reliability. Face validity agreement was 80 percent; the content validity index was adjusted until 1 was achieved for each item. Two factors explained 58.64 percent of the total variance. Cronbach's α was .940 for the skills subscale and .932 for the personal insight subscale. The inventory demonstrated strong psychometric properties. Future research should focus on replication on diverse populations.

  1. QuickEval: a web application for psychometric scaling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ngo, Khai; Storvik, Jehans J.; Dokkeberg, Christopher A.; Farup, Ivar; Pedersen, Marius

    2015-01-01

    QuickEval is a web application for carrying out psychometric scaling experiments. It offers the possibility of running controlled experiments in a laboratory, or large scale experiment over the web for people all over the world. It is a unique one of a kind web application, and it is a software needed in the image quality field. It is also, to the best of knowledge, the first software that supports the three most common scaling methods; paired comparison, rank order, and category judgement. It is also the first software to support rank order. Hopefully, a side effect of this newly created software is that it will lower the threshold to perform psychometric experiments, improve the quality of the experiments being carried out, make it easier to reproduce experiments, and increase research on image quality both in academia and industry. The web application is available at www.colourlab.no/quickeval.

  2. A psychometric evaluation of the digital logic concept inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

    2014-10-01

    Concept inventories hold tremendous promise for promoting the rigorous evaluation of teaching methods that might remedy common student misconceptions and promote deep learning. The measurements from concept inventories can be trusted only if the concept inventories are evaluated both by expert feedback and statistical scrutiny (psychometric evaluation). Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory provide two psychometric frameworks for evaluating the quality of assessment tools. We discuss how these theories can be applied to assessment tools generally and then apply them to the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI). We demonstrate that the DLCI is sufficiently reliable for research purposes when used in its entirety and as a post-course assessment of students' conceptual understanding of digital logic. The DLCI can also discriminate between students across a wide range of ability levels, providing the most information about weaker students' ability levels.

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Nurses' Environmental Awareness Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Elizabeth; Corbett, Cynthia F; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Postma, Julie; Butterfield, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Nurses are committed to practice in an environmentally safe and healthy manner. However, nursing practice contributes significant negative impacts to the natural environment. We analyzed the psychometric properties of the Nurses Environmental Awareness Tool (NEAT), composed of 6 subscales, measuring awareness of environmental impacts and their health risks and ecological behaviors at work and home. The NEAT was given to 689 nurses via online survey software. Exploratory factor analyses and Cronbach's alpha were examined for each of the 6 subscales. The 6 subscales resulted in one-factor models with items demonstrating adequate reliability (α > .67). The NEAT is a psychometrically sound scale to measure nurses' awareness and behavior related to environmental impacts of nursing practice.

  4. Psychometric Properties and Structures of Passionate and Companionate Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Karandashev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After many decades of romantic relationship research, there is a new focus on a multidimensional model of love. This empirical study examines the multidimensionality and psychometrics of Passionate and Companionate love, based on an extensive study of 413 participants using Multidimensional Love Scale (MLS. A new statistical approach employed in this study explores the typology and structure of love. The statistical approach included the combination of Two-Step Cluster Analysis of cases and Principle Component Analysis of dimensions while using centered variable scores. The results reveal a typology of love based on its multidimensional structure. Further analysis revealed two main types of love: Passionate and Companionate, both containing several factors allowing for interpretation of their multidimensional structures. The MLS subscales and detailed psychometric analysis measuring specific love dimensions are incorporated to allow further research in other studies.

  5. The psychometric testing of the Nursing Teamwork Survey in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragadóttir, Helga; Kalisch, Beatrice J; Smáradóttir, Sigríður Bríet; Jónsdóttir, Heiður Hrund

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Nursing Teamwork Survey-Icelandic (NTS-Icelandic), which was translated from US English to Icelandic. The Nursing Teamwork Survey, with 33 items, measures overall teamwork and five factors of teamwork: trust, team orientation, backup, shared mental models, and team leadership. The psychometric testing of the NTS-Icelandic was carried out on data from a pilot study and a national study. The sample for a pilot study included 123 nursing staff from five units, and the sample for a national study included 925 nursing staff from 27 inpatient units. The overall test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient in the pilot study was 0.693 (lower bound = 0.498, upper bound = 0.821) (p teamwork. The NTS-Icelandic tested valid and reliable in this study. Study findings support further use of the Nursing Teamwork Survey internationally.

  6. Development and psychometric testing of the nursing culture assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerly, Susan M; Yap, Tracey L; Hemmings, Annette; Beckett, Gulbahar; Schafer, John C; Borchers, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    A valid and reliable nursing culture assessment tool aimed at capturing general aspects of nursing culture is needed for use in health care settings to assess and then reshape indicated troubled areas of the nursing culture. This article summarizes the Nursing Culture Assessment Tool's (NCAT) development and reports on a cross-sectional, exploratory investigation of its psychometric properties. The research aims were to test the tool's psychometric properties; discover its dimensionality; and refine the item structure to best represent the construct of nursing culture, an occupational subset of organizational culture. Empirical construct validity was tested using a sample of licensed nurses and nursing assistants (n = 340). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and logistical regression yielded a 6-factor, 19-item solution. Evidence supports the tool's validity for assessing nursing culture as a basis for shaping the culture into one that supports change, thereby accelerating, improving, and advancing nursing best practices and care outcomes.

  7. Family Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Management: Psychometric Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcewen, Marylyn M; Pasvogel, Alice; Murdaugh, Carolyn L

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) self-management among Hispanic adults occurs in a family context. Self-efficacy (SE) affects T2DM self-management behaviors; however, no instruments are available to measure family diabetes self-efficacy. The study's purpose was to test the psychometric properties of the Family Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Scale (FSE). Family members (n = 113) of adults with T2DM participated. Psychometric analysis included internal consistency reliability and concurrent and construct validity. Internal consistency reliability was .86. Items loaded on 2 factors, Family SE for Supporting Healthy Behaviors and Family SE for Supporting General Health, accounting for 71% of the variance. FSE correlated significantly with 3 diabetes-related instruments. The FSE is a reliable and valid instrument. Further testing is needed in diverse populations and geographic areas.

  8. Psychometric properties of the STAT for early autism screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wendy L; Coonrod, Elaine E; Turner, Lauren M; Pozdol, Stacie L

    2004-12-01

    The STAT is an interactive screening measure for autism that assesses behaviors in the areas of play, communication, and imitation skills. In Study 1, signal detection procedures were employed to identify a cutoff score for the STAT using developmentally matched groups of 2-year-old children with autism and with nonspectrum disorders. The resulting cutoff yielded high sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for the development sample as well as for an independent validation sample. Study 2 examined psychometric properties of the STAT and revealed acceptable levels of interrater agreement, test-retest reliability, and agreement between STAT risk category and ADOS-G classification. The STAT demonstrates strong psychometric properties and shows promising utility as a Level 2 screening measure for autism.

  9. The Dutch Claustrophobia Questionnaire: psychometric properties and predictive validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Diest, Ilse; Smits, Dirk; Decremer, Davina; Maes, Lori; Claes, Laurence

    2010-10-01

    Fear of suffocation and fear of restriction are thought to underlie claustrophobia and can be assessed with the Claustrophobia Questionnaire (CLQ; Radomsky et al., 2001). A first study tested the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the CLQ. Students (N=363) completed a Dutch translation of the CLQ and a set of other questionnaires assessing other specific fears, anxiety or depression. Results confirmed the two-factor structure and showed that the Dutch version of the CLQ has good psychometric properties. A second study tested the predictive validity of the Dutch CLQ. Participants (N=23) were exposed each to nine claustrophobic situations with elements of suffocation, restriction or both. The Dutch CLQ was found to be a significant predictor of fear and respiratory reactivity during claustrophobic exposure. It can be concluded that the Dutch version of the CLQ is a reliable and valid instrument to assess claustrophobic fear. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of the Psychometric Properties of a Parental Alienation Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Inez Cunha Gomide

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of forensic evaluation scales is fundamental. This study's purpose was to explore the psychometric properties of a parental alienation scale. Forensic technicians completed 193 scales concerning parents involved in a lawsuit: 48 families with at least one parent indicated as the alienator (group A and 48 families with no parental alienation claim (group B. The scale consisted of five categories and 69 items: denying access to the child; derogatory comparisons; emotional manipulation; behavior of parent and child during assessment. The results show Cronbach's alpha = .965 and split-half = .745; KMO = .884 and Bartlett's sphericity test ( p < .001. Concurrent criterion validity applied to data showed that the scale is able to distinguish between the alienator and target parent. The results showed significant and consistent standards in the instrument's psychometric characteristics.

  11. Measuring Orthorexia Nervosa: Psychometric Limitations of the ORTO-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, María; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Perpiñá, Conxa

    2017-09-20

    Orthorexia nervosa has recently been defined as excessive preoccupation with healthy eating, causing significant nutritional deficiencies and social and personal impairments. The ORTO-15 is the most widely used instrument to evaluate orthorexia nervosa, although previous studies obtained inconsistent results about its psychometric properties, and there are no data on the Spanish version. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation of the ORTO-15. In order to cross-validate the results, two independent samples were used (Sample 1: n = 807, 74.1% women; Sample 2: n = 242, 63.2% women). The results did not support the original recoding and reversal of the items; thus, the original scores were maintained. The analysis of the internal structure showed that the best interpretable solution was unidimensional, and due to low loadings, four items were removed. The internal consistency (α = .74) and temporal stability (r = .92; p orthorexia nervosa.

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Acculturation Scale for Hispanics

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Sarah D; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Fox, Rina S.; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Brief Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (BASH), a four-item, language-based measure of acculturation. Participants in the study were 435 Hispanic Americans from a large metropolitan area with English or Spanish language preference. Internal consistency reliability was strong in both language-preference groups. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the structural validity of the measure. A unidimensional factor s...

  13. Risk perception of festival audience: an application of psychometric paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Ahi, Julide Ceren

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived risk level indicated by audiences for six contemporary hazards in an open door music festival, seeing as it is an overlooked issue in the literature. In order to measure the risk perceptions of participants The Psychometric Paradigm Model was utilized together with the perceived controllability arguments of Optimism Bias Theory. The data was collected from 230 participants of Landstreff 2013 Stavanger through online survey in coope...

  14. Risk Perception and Terrorism: Applying the Psychometric Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkin, Clinton M.

    2006-01-01

    This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (July 2006), v.2 no.2 While expert risk analyses are based on calculations of probability and damage, public estimates of risk are more often based on qualitative factors. It is important to understand how the public, not just homeland security experts, perceive and react to the threat of terrorism. Risk perception research in general, and the psychometric paradigm in particular, offer a basis for empirically examining attitudes toward pot...

  15. Psychometric properties of 2-minute walk test: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Tamis W

    2014-09-01

    To systematically review the psychometric evidence on the 2-minute walk test (2MWT). Electronic searches of databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and DARE were done until February 2014 using a combination of subject headings and free texts. Studies were included if psychometric properties of the 2MWT were (1) evaluated; (2) written as full reports; and (3) published in English language peer-reviewed journals. A modified consensus-based standard for the selection of health measurement instruments checklist was used to rate the methodological quality of the included studies. A quality assessment for statistical outcomes was used to assess the measurement properties of the 2MWT. Best-evidence synthesis was collated from 25 studies of 14 patient groups. Only 1 study was found that examined the 2MWT in the pediatric population. The testing procedures of the 2MWT varied across the included studies. Reliability, validity (construct and criterion), and responsiveness of the 2MWT also varied across different patient groups. Moderate to strong evidence was found for reliability, convergent validity, discriminative validity, and responsiveness of the 2MWT in frail elderly patients. Moderate to strong evidence for reliability, convergent validity, and responsiveness was found in adults with lower limb amputations. Moderate to strong evidence for validity (convergent and discriminative) was found in adults who received rehabilitation after hip fractures or cardiac surgery. Limited evidence for the psychometric properties of the 2MWT was found in other population groups because of methodological flaws. There is inadequate breadth and depth of psychometric evidence of the 2MWT for clinical and research purposes-specifically, minimal clinically important changes and responsiveness. More good-quality studies are needed, especially in the pediatric population. Consensus on standardized testing procedures of

  16. Modern psychometrics for assessing achievement goal orientation: a Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Krista R; Winne, Philip H; Edwards, Ordene V

    2009-09-01

    A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire (AGQ, Elliot & McGregor, 2001) and the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS, Midgley et al., 2000) to provide an in-depth analysis of the two most popular instruments in educational psychology. For Study 1, 217 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty-four were male and 181 were female (two did not respond). Participants completed the AGQ in the context of their educational psychology class. For Study 2, 126 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty were male and 95 were female (one did not respond). Participants completed the PALS in the context of their educational psychology class. Traditional psychometric assessments of the AGQ and PALS replicated previous studies. For both, reliability estimates ranged from good to very good for raw subscale scores and fit for the models of goal orientations were good. Based on traditional psychometrics, the AGQ and PALS are valid and reliable indicators of achievement goals. Rasch analyses revealed that estimates of reliability for items were very good but respondent ability estimates varied from poor to good for both the AGQ and PALS. These findings indicate that items validly and reliably reflect a group's aggregate goal orientation, but using either instrument to characterize an individual's goal orientation is hazardous.

  17. Neurochemical characterization of a neuroprotective compound from Parawixia bistriata spider venom that inhibits synaptosomal uptake of GABA and glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleboni, Renê Oliveira; Guizzo, Renato; Fontana, Andréia Cristina Karklin; Pizzo, Andrea Baldocchi; Carolino, Ruither Oliveira Gomes; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim; Dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    The major contribution of this work is the isolation of a neuroprotective compound referred to as 2-amino-5-ureidopentanamide (FrPbAII) (M(r) = 174) from Parawixia bistriata spider venom and an investigation of its mode of action. FrPbAII inhibits synaptosomal GABA uptake in a dose-dependent manner and probably does not act on Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) channels, GABA(B) receptors, or gamma-aminobutyrate:alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase enzyme; therefore, it is not directly dependent on these structures for its action. Direct increase of GABA release and reverse transport are also ruled out as mechanisms of FrPbAII activities as well as unspecific actions on pore membrane formation. Moreover, FrPbAII is selective for GABA and glycine transporters, having slight or no effect on monoamines or glutamate transporters. According to our experimental glaucoma data in rat retina, FrPbAII is able to cross the blood-retina barrier and promote effective protection of retinal layers submitted to ischemic conditions. These studies are of relevance by providing a better understanding of neurochemical mechanisms involved in brain function and for possible development of new neuropharmacological and therapeutic tools.

  18. Miniaturized ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection: Investigation of system performance for neurochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schoors, Jolien; Maes, Katrien; Van Wanseele, Yannick; Broeckhoven, Ken; Van Eeckhaut, Ann

    2016-01-04

    The interest in implementation of miniaturized ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) in neurochemical research is growing because of the need for faster, more selective and more sensitive neurotransmitter analyses. The instrument performance of a tailor designed microbore UHPLC system coupled to electrochemical detection (ECD) is investigated, focusing on the quantitative monoamine determination in in vivo microdialysis samples. The use of a microbore column (1.0mm I.D.) requires miniaturization of the entire instrument, though a balance between extra-column band broadening and injection volume must be considered. This is accomplished through the user defined Performance Optimizing Injection Sequence, whereby 5 μL sample is injected on the column with a measured extra-column variance of 4.5-9.0 μL(2) and only 7 μL sample uptake. Different sub-2 μm and superficially porous particle stationary phases are compared by means of the kinetic plot approach. Peak efficiencies of about 16000-35000 theoretical plates are obtained for the Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column within 13 min analysis time. Furthermore, the coupling to ECD is shown suitable for microbore UHPLC analysis thanks to the miniaturized flow cell design, sufficiently fast data acquisition and mathematical data filtering. Ultimately, injection of in vivo samples demonstrates the applicability of the system for microdialysis analysis.

  19. Benefits of agomelatine in behavioral, neurochemical and blood brain barrier alterations in prenatal valproic acid induced autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, B M; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2015-12-01

    Valproic acid administration during gestational period causes behavior and biochemical deficits similar to those observed in humans with autism spectrum disorder. Although worldwide prevalence of autism spectrum disorder has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the social impairment are very limited. The present study has been structured to investigate the therapeutic potential of melatonin receptor agonist, agomelatine in prenatal valproic acid (Pre-VPA) induced autism spectrum disorder in animals. Pre-VPA has produced reduction in social interaction (three chamber social behavior apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complex I, II, IV). Furthermore, Pre-VPA has increased locomotor activity (actophotometer), anxiety, brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, and catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium levels and blood brain barrier leakage in animals. Treatment with agomelatine has significantly attenuated Pre-VPA induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, agomelatine also attenuated Pre-VPA induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium levels and blood brain barrier leakage. It is concluded that, Pre-VPA has induced autism spectrum disorder, which was attenuated by agomelatine. Agomelatine has shown ameliorative effect on behavioral, neurochemical and blood brain barrier alteration in Pre-VPA exposed animals. Thus melatonin receptor agonists may provide beneficial therapeutic strategy for managing autism spectrum disorder.

  20. Amelioration of diabetes-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes by melatonin and nicotinamide: implication of oxidative stress-PARP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Datusalia, Ashok Kumar; Khandwe, Shriya; Sharma, Shyam Sunder

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes associated hyperglycemia results in generation of reactive oxygen species which induces oxidative stress and initiate massive DNA damage leading to overactivation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In this study, we have elucidated the involvement of oxidative stress-PARP pathway using pharmacological interventions (melatonin, as an anti-oxidant and nicotinamide, as a PARP inhibitor) in diabetes-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical alterations. Sprague-Dawley rats were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Behavioral and cognitive deficits were assessed after 8weeks of diabetes induction using a functional observation battery, passive avoidance and rotarod test. Acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly decreased in hippocampus of diabetic rats as compared to control rats. Diabetic animals showed significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and reduction in NAD levels in hippocampus. Glutamate and GABA levels were also altered in hippocampus of the diabetic animals. Two week treatment with melatonin (3 and 10mg/kg) and nicotinamide (300 and 1000mg/kg) alone and in combination significantly improved the neurobehavioral parameters which were altered in diabetes. Neurotransmitter (glutamate and GABA) levels were improved by these interventions. Our results emphasize that simultaneous inhibition of oxidative stress-PARP overactivation cascade can be beneficial in treatment of diabetes associated CNS changes.

  1. Interaction between handling induced stress and anxiolytic effects of ethanol in zebrafish: A behavioral and neurochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Fulcher, Niveen; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Stress is often considered an important factor in the development of alcohol addiction. In rodents, various types of stressors have been shown to potentiate the effects of alcohol on behavioral responses, and to increase consumption of this substance. However, few have investigated the interaction between stress and alcohol in zebrafish. In the current study we present a repeated handling stress paradigm we developed for zebrafish, and examine whether stress alters alcohol induced behavioral and neurochemical responses. Our results show that repeated handling of zebrafish conducted for 2 consecutive days is sufficient to increase anxiety-like behavioral responses quantified 24h post-stressor. Repeatedly handled zebrafish also exhibited a reduction in the levels of serotonin's metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (quantified by high precision liquid chromatography) compared to unhandled controls. A 60-min acute exposure to 1% ethanol was found to significantly increase locomotor activity and decrease anxiety-like behavioral responses in stressed zebrafish but not in controls. Furthermore, unhandled control zebrafish exhibited a significant increase in whole-brain dopamine levels following exposure to ethanol but the increase was not observed in repeatedly handled fish. Our findings suggest that ethanol induced locomotor activity and anxiolysis is potentiated by handling stress and may be partially mediated by changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic activity. Overall, we demonstrate the validity of our repeated handling stressor paradigm for zebrafish, which can be used to investigate the interaction between stress and ethanol.

  2. Distinct synaptic and neurochemical changes to the granule cell-CA3 projection in Bassoon mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eDieni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Proper synaptic function depends on a finely-tuned balance between events such as protein synthesis and structural organization. In particular, the functional loss of just one synaptic-related protein can have a profound impact on overall neuronal network function. To this end, we used a mutant mouse model harboring a mutated form of the presynaptic scaffolding protein Bassoon (Bsn, which is phenotypically characterized by: (i spontaneous generalized epileptic seizure activity, representing a chronically-imbalanced neuronal network, and (ii a dramatic increase in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein concentration, a key player in synaptic plasticity. Detailed morphological and neurochemical analyses revealed that the increased BDNF levels are associated with: I. modified neuropeptide distribution, II. perturbed expression of selected markers of synaptic activation or plasticity, III. subtle changes to microglial structure, and IV. morphological alterations to the mossy fiber synapse. These findings emphasize the important contribution of Bassoon protein to normal hippocampal function, and further characterize the Bsn mutant as a useful model for studying the effects of chronic changes to network activity.

  3. A Psychometric Review of Measures Assessing Discrimination Against Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G; Bishop, C J; Morrison, Melanie A; Parker-Taneo, Kandice

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination against sexual minorities is widespread and has deleterious consequences on victims' psychological and physical wellbeing. However, a review of the psychometric properties of instruments measuring lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) discrimination has not been conducted. The results of this review, which involved evaluating 162 articles, reveal that most have suboptimal psychometric properties. Specifically, myriad scales possess questionable content validity as (1) items are not created in collaboration with sexual minorities; (2) measures possess a small number of items and, thus, may not sufficiently represent the domain of interest; and (3) scales are "adapted" from measures designed to examine race- and gender-based discrimination. Additional limitations include (1) summed scores are computed, often in the absence of scale score reliability metrics; (2) summed scores operate from the questionable assumption that diverse forms of discrimination are necessarily interrelated; (3) the dimensionality of instruments presumed to consist of subscales is seldom tested; (4) tests of criterion-related validity are routinely omitted; and (5) formal tests of measures' construct validity are seldom provided, necessitating that one infer validity based on the results obtained. The absence of "gold standard" measures, the attendant difficulty in formulating a coherent picture of this body of research, and suggestions for psychometric improvements are noted.

  4. Do item-writing flaws reduce examinations psychometric quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, João; Silva, Artur; Guimarães, Bruno; Povo, Ana; Coelho, Elisabete; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Lourinho, Isabel; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Severo, Milton

    2016-08-11

    The psychometric characteristics of multiple-choice questions (MCQ) changed when taking into account their anatomical sites and the presence of item-writing flaws (IWF). The aim is to understand the impact of the anatomical sites and the presence of IWF in the psychometric qualities of the MCQ. 800 Clinical Anatomy MCQ from eight examinations were classified as standard or flawed items and according to one of the eight anatomical sites. An item was classified as flawed if it violated at least one of the principles of item writing. The difficulty and discrimination indices of each item were obtained. 55.8 % of the MCQ were flawed items. The anatomical site of the items explained 6.2 and 3.2 % of the difficulty and discrimination parameters and the IWF explained 2.8 and 0.8 %, respectively. The impact of the IWF was heterogeneous, the Writing the Stem and Writing the Choices categories had a negative impact (higher difficulty and lower discrimination) while the other categories did not have any impact. The anatomical site effect was higher than IWF effect in the psychometric characteristics of the examination. When constructing MCQ, the focus should be in the topic/area of the items and only after in the presence of IWF.

  5. Psychometric properties of the Arab Heritage Activity Card Sort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Razan; Holm, Margo B

    2013-03-01

    The Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable assessment tool that was created to assess Participation. It has been translated to several languages and adapted to different international cultures. The most recent version of this tool is the Arabic Heritage Activity Card Sort (A-ACS). The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Arabic version in Jordanian adults. Forty three Jordanian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 62 healthy adults were recruited to test the psychometric properties of the tool. The A-ACS correlated moderately with the participation index of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p Heritage of the Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable tool for Arabic-speaking occupational therapists to use when assessing participation in Jordanian patients with MS or healthy adults. Limitations of this study include using only one diagnostic group from Jordan and examining only the Recovery and Community Versions of the tool. Future studies are needed to examine further psychometric properties for patients with different diagnoses and from different countries in the Arabic region for all three versions of the A-ACS.

  6. Observers can voluntarily shift their psychometric functions without losing sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael; Dillenburger, Barbara; Raphael, Sabine; Solomon, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    Psychometric sensory discrimination functions are usually modeled by cumulative Gaussian functions with just two parameters, their central tendency (μ) and their slope (1/σ). These correspond to Fechner's "constant" and "variable" errors, respectively. Fechner pointed out that even the constant error could vary over space and time and could masquerade as variable error. We wondered whether observers could deliberately introduce a constant error into their performance without loss of precision. In three-dot vernier and bisection tasks with the method of single stimuli, observers were instructed to favour one of the two responses when unsure of their answer. The slope of the resulting psychometric function was not significantly changed, despite a significant change in central tendency. Similar results were obtained when altered feedback was used to induce bias. We inferred that observers can adopt artificial response criteria without any significant increase in criterion fluctuation. These findings have implications for some studies that have measured perceptual "illusions" by shifts in the psychometric functions of sophisticated observers.

  7. A plea for new psychometric models in educational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwirth, Lambert W T; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2006-04-01

    To describe the weaknesses of the current psychometric approach to assessment as a scientific model. The current psychometric model has played a major role in improving the quality of assessment of medical competence. It is becoming increasingly difficult, however, to apply this model to modern assessment methods. The central assumption in the current model is that medical competence can be subdivided into separate measurable stable and generic traits. This assumption has several far-reaching implications. Perhaps the most important is that it requires a numerical and reductionist approach, and that aspects such as fairness, defensibility and credibility are by necessity mainly translated into reliability and construct validity. These approaches are more and more difficult to align with modern assessment approaches such as mini-CEX, 360-degree feedback and portfolios. This paper describes some of the weaknesses of the psychometric model and aims to open a discussion on a conceptually different statistical approach to quality of assessment. We hope that the discussion opened by this paper will lead to the development of a conceptually different statistical approach to quality of assessment. A probabilistic or Bayesian approach would be worth exploring.

  8. Adaptation and psychometric analysis of the Gilliam Asperger’ Disorder Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gloria Fernández Baeza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gilliam Asperger’s Disorder Scale (GADS is a norm-referenced assessment designed to help professionals in Asperger Syndrome (AS diagnosis. This scale is used to evaluate subjects between 3 and 22 years old and it can be completed by anyone who has regular contact with a subject with AS. The only known psychometric studies with positive results are those of the normative sample. Thus this research attempts to explain whether GADS retains the psychometric properties of the normative sample when applied to the Chilean population with AS. To this purpose it was selected a probabilistic intentional sample compose of 36 subjects in the pilot phase and 111 subjects in the final phase. The subscales obtained a Cronbach’s alpha between 0,73 and 0,87, while the global scored 0,92. It was carried out an exploratory factor analysis, thought which it was obtained a factor solution of 8 in the final phase. The results obtained allow to conclude that GADS has adequate psychometric properties, which means GADS is a valid and reliable instrument to be applied to Chilean population.

  9. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Version 4 (ANAM4): Examination of Select Psychometric Properties and Administration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0021 TITLE: Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Version 4 (ANAM4): Examination of Select Psychometric ...NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0021 Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Version 4 (ANAM4): Examination of Select Psychometric Properties and...testing scenarios. The primary objective of this project is to examine select psychometric and administration properties of the ANAM4. Four studies were

  10. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish version of Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Mona; Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) scale assesses satisfaction within the domains of work, leisure, domestic tasks, and self-care. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the SDO when used with asylum seekers. METHODS: The participants were...... and criterion and concurrent validity. The findings regarding discriminant validity were somewhat inconclusive. The Danish SDO may be regarded as psychometrically sound but further psychometric testing is needed....

  11. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish version of Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Mona; Morville, Anne-Le

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) scale assesses satisfaction within the domains of work, leisure, domestic tasks, and self-care. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the SDO when used with asylum seekers. Methods: The participants were...... and criterion and concurrent validity. The findings regarding discriminant validity were somewhat inconclusive. The Danish SDO may be regarded as psychometrically sound but further psychometric testing is needed. Key words: validity, reliability, health, Activity...

  12. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-03-15

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showing direct effects of food allergic immune responses on social behaviour is very limited. In the present study, we show that a food allergic reaction to cow's milk protein, induced shortly after weaning, reduced social behaviour and increased repetitive behaviour in mice. This food allergic reaction increased levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the number of 5-HT positive cells, and decreased levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the intestine. Behavioural changes in food allergic mice were accompanied by reduced dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, neuronal activation (c-Fos expression) was increased in the prefrontal cortex and reduced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus after exposure to a social target. We hypothesize that an intestinal allergic response regulates complex, but critical, neuroimmune interactions, thereby affecting brain circuits involved in social interaction, repetitive behaviour and cognition. Together with a genetic predisposition and multiple environmental factors, these effects of allergic immune activation may exacerbate behavioural abnormalities in patients with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural and neurochemical correlates of individual differences in gamma frequency oscillations in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Siân E; Muthukumarawswamy, Suresh D; John Evans, C; Shaw, Alexander; Brealy, Jennifer; Davis, Brittany; McNamara, Grainne; Perry, Gavin; Singh, Krish D

    2015-10-01

    Neuronal oscillations in the gamma frequency range play an important role in stimulus processing in the brain. The frequency of these oscillations can vary widely between participants and is strongly genetically determined, but the cause of this variability is not understood. Previous studies have reported correlations between individual differences in gamma frequency and the concentration of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), as well as with age and primary visual cortex (V1) area and thickness. This study assessed the relationships between all of these variables in the same group of participants. There were no significant correlations between gamma frequency and GABA+ concentration, V1 area or V1 thickness, although the relationship with GABA+/Cr approached significance. Considering age as a covariate further reduced the strength of all correlations and, in an additional dataset with a larger age range, gamma frequency was strongly inversely correlated with age but not V1 thickness or area, suggesting that age modulates gamma frequency via an additional, as yet unknown, mechanism. Consistent with other recent studies, these findings do not demonstrate a clear relationship between gamma frequency and GABA+ concentration. Further investigation of additional variables and the interactions between them will be necessary in order to more accurately determine predictors of the frequency of gamma oscillations. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  14. Effects of common chronic medical conditions on psychometric tests used to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M M; Poulsen, L; Rasmussen, C K

    2016-01-01

    Many chronic medical conditions are accompanied by cognitive disturbances but these have only to a very limited extent been psychometrically quantified. An exception is liver cirrhosis where hepatic encephalopathy is an inherent risk and mild forms are diagnosed by psychometric tests. The preferred....../15, p psychometrically measurable cognitive deficits, whereas those with ESRF or DMII had not. This adds to the understanding of the clinical consequences of chronic heart- and lung disease, and implies...... that the psychometric tests should be interpreted with great caution in cirrhosis patients with heart- or lung comorbidity....

  15. New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > The New Genetics The New Genetics Living Laboratories Classroom Poster Order a Free Copy ... Piece to a Century-Old Evolutionary Puzzle Computing Genetics Model Organisms RNA Interference The New Genetics is ...

  16. How possible is the development of an operational psychometric method to assess the presence of the 5-HTTLPR s allele? Equivocal preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszik Andras

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The s allele of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene has been found to be associated with neuroticism-related traits, affective temperaments and response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment. The aim of the current study was to develop a psychometric tool that could at least partially substitute for laboratory testing and could predict the presence of the s allele. Methods The study included 138 women of Caucasian origin, mean 32.20 ± 1.02 years old. All subjects completed the Hungarian standardised version of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A instrument and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR using PCR. The statistical analysis included the calculation of the Index of Discrimination (D, Discriminant Function Analysis, creation of scales on the basis of the above and then item analysis and calculation of sensitivity and specificity. Results Four indices were eventually developed, but their psychometric properties were relatively poor and their joint application did not improve the outcome. Conclusions We could not create a scale that predicts the 5-HTTLPR genotype with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, therefore we could not substitute a psychometric scale for laboratory genetic testing in predicting genotype, and also possibly affective disorder characterisation and treatment.

  17. ELEVATED LEVELS OF KYNURENIC ACID DURING GESTATION PRODUCE NEUROCHEMICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL, AND COGNITIVE DEFICITS IN ADULTHOOD: IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Michelle L.; Bortz, David M.; Pocivavsek, Ana; Fredericks, Peter J.; Jørgensen, Christinna V.; Vunck, Sarah A.; Leuner, Benedetta; Schwarcz, Robert; Bruno, John P.

    2016-01-01

    The levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous negative modulator of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs), are elevated in the brains of patients with schizophrenia (SZ). We reported that increases of brain KYNA in rats, through dietary exposure to its precursor kynurenine from embryonic day (ED)15 to postnatal day (PD) 21, result in neurochemical and cognitive deficits in adulthood. The present experiments focused on the effects of prenatal exposure to elevated kynurenine on measures of prefrontal excitability known to be impaired in SZ. Pregnant dams were fed a mash containing kynurenine (100 mg/day; progeny = EKYNs) from ED15 until ED22. Controls were fed an unadulterated mash (progeny = ECONs). The dietary loading procedure elevated maternal and fetal plasma kynurenine (2223% and 693% above controls, respectively) and increased fetal KYNA (forebrain; 500% above controls) on ED21. Elevations in forebrain KYNA disappeared after termination of the loading (PD2), but KYNA levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were unexpectedly increased again when measured in adults (PD56-80; 75% above controls). We also observed changes in several markers of prefrontal excitability, including expression of the α7nAChR (22% and 17% reductions at PD2 and PD56-80), expression of mGluR2 (31% and 24% reductions at ED21 and PD56-80), dendritic spine density (11–14% decrease at PD56-80), subsensitive mesolimbic stimulation of glutamate release in PFC, and reversal/extra-dimensional shift deficits in the prefrontally-mediated set-shifting task. These results highlight the deleterious impact of elevated KYNA levels during sensitive periods of early development, which model the pathophysiological and cognitive deficits seen in SZ. PMID:25446576

  18. The human cuneate nucleus contains discrete subregions whose neurochemical features match those of the relay nuclei for nociceptive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fiacco, Marina; Quartu, Marina; Serra, Maria Pina; Boi, Marianna; Demontis, Roberto; Poddighe, Laura; Picci, Cristina; Melis, Tiziana

    2014-11-01

    The present paper is aimed at defining distinctive subdivisions of the human cuneate nucleus (Cu), evident from prenatal to old life, whose occurrence has never been clearly formalized in the human brain, or described in other species so far. It extends our early observations on the presence of gray matter areas that host strong substance P (SP) immunoreactivity in the territory of the human Cu and adjacent cuneate fascicle. Here we provide a three-dimensional reconstruction of the Cu fields rich in SP and further identify those areas by means of their immunoreactivity to the neuropeptides SP, calcitonin gene-related peptide, methionine- and leucine-enkephalin, peptide histidine-isoleucine, somatostatin and galanin, to the trophins glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and to the neuroplasticity proteins polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule and growth-associated protein-43. The presence, density and distribution of immunoreactivity for each of these molecules closely resemble those occurring in the superficial layers of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5C). Myelin and Nissl stainings suggest that those Cu subregions and the Sp5C superficial layers share a similar histological aspect. This work establishes the existence of definite subregions, localized within the Cu territory, that bear the neurochemical and histological features of sensory nuclei committed to the neurotransmission of protopathic stimuli, including pain. These findings appear of particular interest when considering that functional, preclinical and clinical studies show that the dorsal column nuclei, classical relay station of fine somatic tactile and proprioceptive sensory stimuli, are also involved in pain neurotransmission.

  19. Maternal exposure to diphenhydramine during the fetal period in rats: effects on physical and neurobehavioral development and on neurochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A P; Schwarz, A; Spinosa, H S; Florio, J C; Bernardi, M M

    2004-01-01

    Previous research from our laboratory suggested that the administration of antihistaminics (H(1) receptor antagonists) to pregnant Wistar rats throughout pregnancy altered brain sexual differentiation and dopaminergic physiology of the offspring. In the present study, we assessed the effects of 20 mg/kg diphenhydramine (DPH) administration to pregnant rats during the fetal period of pregnancy [Gestation Days (GDs) 16-21], a critical period for brain sexual differentiation and central nervous system (CNS) maturation. Maternal body weight and water and food consumption were measured during pregnancy and offspring physical and behavioral development were evaluated during lactation. Offspring open-field behavior was assessed at 21 and 100 days of age. After the final open-field test, male and female sexual behavior, stereotypy following an apomorphine challenge, striatal content of dopamine (DA), the dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA), serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were assessed. There were no significant treatment-related changes in maternal reproductive parameters, but DPH treatment decreased maternal body weight gain during the treatment period. Offspring physical parameters were not altered in the treated group, and no significant treatment-related changes were found in female open-field measures, sexual behavior or in striatal neurochemical measurements. However, delayed testis descent and altered patterns of sexual behavior occurred in male offspring accompanied by increased striatal DA, decreased striatal DOPAC as well as reduced DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios. Taken together, these data suggest that exposure to DPH during the fetal period of rat development altered postnatal CNS maturation and sexual development of male offspring via changes in striatal bioamine systems.

  20. Neurochemical and Neuroanatomical Plasticity Following Memory Training and Yoga Interventions in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyu; Leaver, Amber M; Siddarth, Prabha; Paholpak, Pattharee; Ercoli, Linda; St Cyr, Natalie M; Eyre, Harris A; Narr, Katherine L; Khalsa, Dharma S; Lavretsky, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Senior participants (age ≥55 years) with MCI were randomized to the MET or yogic meditation interventions. For both interventions, participants completed either MET training or Kundalini Yoga (KY) for 60-min sessions over 12 weeks, with 12-min daily homework assignments. Gray matter volume and metabolite concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and bilateral hippocampus were measured by structural MRI and (1)H-MRS at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Metabolites measured included glutamate-glutamine (Glx), choline-containing compounds (Cho, including glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and N-acetyl aspartate and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate (NAA-NAAG). In total, 11 participants completed MET and 14 completed yogic meditation for this study. Structural MRI analysis showed an interaction between time and group in dACC, indicating a trend towards increased gray matter volume after the MET intervention. (1)H-MRS analysis showed an interaction between time and group in choline-containing compounds in bilateral hippocampus, induced by significant decreases after the MET intervention. Though preliminary, our results suggest that memory training induces structural and neurochemical plasticity in seniors with MCI. Further research is needed to determine whether mind-body interventions like yoga yield similar neuroplastic changes.

  1. Neurochemical and Neuroanatomical Plasticity Following Memory Training and Yoga Interventions in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation, in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS. Senior participants (age ≥ 55 years with MCI were randomized to the MET or yogic meditation interventions. For both interventions, participants completed either MET training or Kundalini yoga for 60-min sessions over 12 weeks, with 12-min daily homework assignments. Gray matter volume and metabolite concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and bilateral hippocampus were measured by structural MRI and 1H-MRS at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Metabolites measured included glutamate-glutamine (Glx, choline-containing compounds (Cho, including glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, and N-acetyl aspartate and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate (NAA-NAAG. In total, 11 participants completed MET and 14 completed yogic meditation for this study. Structural MRI analysis showed an interaction between time and group in dACC, indicating a trend towards increased gray matter volume after the MET intervention. 1H-MRS analysis showed an interaction between time and group in choline-containing compounds in bilateral hippocampus, induced by significant decreases after the MET intervention. Though preliminary, our results suggest that memory training induces structural and neurochemical plasticity in seniors with mild cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to determine whether mind-body interventions like yoga yield similar neuroplastic changes.

  2. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on regulation of thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically related developmental processes in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez de Ku, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to the toxic chemical polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induces hypothyroidism and retarded growth. Neonatal rats made hypothyroid by chemical or surgical means experience retarded growth and subnormal activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) This study compared thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically-related processes altered by hypothyroidism induced by other means, with PCB-induced hypothyroidism: (1) titers of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); (2) titers of hormones that regulate growth [growth hormone (GH), insulin-growth like factor-I (IGF-1), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS)]; or (3) brain ChAT activity. Whether PCB-induced growth retardation and other alterations are secondary to accompanying hypothyroidism rather than or in addition to a direct effect of PCB was also examined. Pregnant rats were fed chow containing 0 (controls), 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm PCB (entering offspring through placenta and milk) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Neonates exposed to PCB displayed many alterations similar to those made hypothyroid by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating T[sub 4] levels and ChAT activity, and no change in hypothalamic GHRH and SS concentrations. Differences included a paradoxical increase in circulating GH levels, and no significant alteration of circulation IGF-1 and TSH levels and pituitary GH and TSH levels (although trends were in the expected direction). Thus, PCB-induced hypothyroidism may partially cause altered skeletal growth, circulating GH and TSH concentrations, and ChAT activity. Both T[sub 4] and T[sub 3] injections returned circulating TSH and GH levels and pituitary TSH content toward control levels; T[sub 3] restored skeletal, but not overall growth; and T[sub 4] elevated ChAT activity.

  3. Role of GIRK channels on the noradrenergic transmission in vivo: an electrophysiological and neurochemical study on GIRK2 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecilla, María; Fernández-Aedo, Irrintzi; Arrue, Aurora; Zumarraga, Mercedes; Ugedo, Luisa

    2013-06-01

    Dysfunctional noradrenergic transmission is related to several neuropsychiatric conditions, such as depression. Nowadays, the role of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK)2 subunit containing GIRK channels controlling neuronal intrinsic excitability in vitro is well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of GIRK2 subunit mutation on the central noradrenergic transmission in vivo. For that purpose, single-unit extracellular activity of locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons and brain monoamine levels using the HPLC technique were measured in wild-type and GIRK2 mutant mice. Girk2 gene mutation induced significant differences among genotypes regarding burst activity of LC neurons. In fact, the proportion of neurons displaying burst firing was increased in GIRK2 heterozygous mice as compared to that recorded from wild-type mice. Furthermore, this augmentation was even greater in the homozygous genotype. However, neither the basal firing rate nor the coefficient of variation of LC neurons was different among genotypes. Noradrenaline and serotonin basal levels were altered in the dorsal raphe nucleus from GIRK2 heterozygous and homozygous mice, respectively. Furthermore, noradrenaline levels were increased in LC projecting areas such as the hippocampus and amygdale from homozygous mice, although not in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, potency of clonidine and morphine inhibiting LC activity was reduced in GIRK2 mutant mice, although the efficacy remained unchanged. Altogether, the present study supports the role of GIRK2 subunit-containing GIRK channels on the maintenance of tonic noradrenergic activity in vivo. Electric and neurochemical consequences derived from an altered GIRK2-dependent signalling could facilitate the understanding of the neurobiological basis of pathologies related to a dysfunctional monoaminergic transmission.

  4. Responsiveness of 5-HT2C receptors in repeatedly diazepam-injected rats: a behavioral and neurochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asma; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2008-01-01

    The role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT)2C receptors in anxiety and the anxiolytic effects of drugs is well documented. In view of the withdrawal anxiety associated with repeated diazepam intake, the present study concerns the efficacy of 5-HT2C receptors in rats treated with diazepam. Results show that diazepam injections at a dose of 2 mg/kg daily for two weeks increased weekly food intake and growth rate. Anxiolytic effects of the drug monitored in a light/dark activity box were not significant after single administration. One week and two weeks of administration elicited anxiolytic effects, which were smaller after two weeks of administration as compared to one week, suggesting the development of tolerance to the anxiolytic profile of diazepam. Moreover, three days' withdrawal from repeated administration elicited anxiogenic behavior in the light/dark activity box. The behavioral and neurochemical effects of 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (m-CPP) (3 mg/kg), a 5-HT2C agonist, were monitored following withdrawal (three days) from two weeks of diazepam administration. Results showed that hypophagic as well as anxiogenic-like effects of m-CPP were not different from repeated saline or repeated diazepam-injected animals. Administration of m-CPP increased 5-HT metabolism in repeated saline as well as repeated diazepam-injected animals. However, m-CPP-induced increases in 5-HT metabolism were greater in repeated diazepam-injected animals. Results are discussed in the context of the role of 5-HT2C receptors in the precipitation of withdrawal anxiety.

  5. In vivo and In vitro neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River area of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arini, Adeline; Cavallin, Jenna E; Berninger, Jason P; Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Mills, Marc; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Basu, Niladri

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain potentially neuroactive chemicals though few methods are available to screen for the presence of such agents. Here, two parallel approaches (in vivo and in vitro) were used to assess WWTP exposure-related changes to neurochemistry. First, fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas) were caged for four days along a WWTP discharge zone into the Maumee River (Ohio, USA). Grab water samples were collected and extracts obtained for the detection of alkylphenols, bisphenol A (BPA) and steroid hormones. Second, the extracts were then used as a source of in vitro exposure to brain tissues from FHM and four additional species relevant to the Great Lakes ecosystem (rainbow trout (RT), river otter (RO), bald eagle (BE) and human (HU)). The ability of the wastewater (in vivo) or extracts (in vitro) to interact with enzymes (monoamine oxidase (MAO) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptors (dopamine (D2) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA)) involved in dopamine and glutamate-dependent neurotransmission were examined on brain homogenates. In vivo exposure of FHM led to significant decreases of NMDA receptor binding in females (24-42%), and increases of MAO activity in males (2.8- to 3.2-fold). In vitro, alkylphenol-targeted extracts significantly inhibited D2 (66% in FHM) and NMDA (24-54% in HU and RT) receptor binding, and induced MAO activity in RT, RO, and BE brains. Steroid hormone-targeted extracts inhibited GS activity in all species except FHM. BPA-targeted extracts caused a MAO inhibition in FHM, RT and BE brains. Using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, this study shows that WWTP effluents contain agents that can interact with neurochemicals important in reproduction and other neurological functions. Additional work is needed to better resolve in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (IVIVE) as well as cross-species differences.

  6. Neurochemical and Neuroanatomical Plasticity Following Memory Training and Yoga Interventions in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyu; Leaver, Amber M.; Siddarth, Prabha; Paholpak, Pattharee; Ercoli, Linda; St. Cyr, Natalie M.; Eyre, Harris A.; Narr, Katherine L.; Khalsa, Dharma S.; Lavretsky, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Senior participants (age ≥55 years) with MCI were randomized to the MET or yogic meditation interventions. For both interventions, participants completed either MET training or Kundalini Yoga (KY) for 60-min sessions over 12 weeks, with 12-min daily homework assignments. Gray matter volume and metabolite concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and bilateral hippocampus were measured by structural MRI and 1H-MRS at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Metabolites measured included glutamate-glutamine (Glx), choline-containing compounds (Cho, including glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and N-acetyl aspartate and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate (NAA-NAAG). In total, 11 participants completed MET and 14 completed yogic meditation for this study. Structural MRI analysis showed an interaction between time and group in dACC, indicating a trend towards increased gray matter volume after the MET intervention. 1H-MRS analysis showed an interaction between time and group in choline-containing compounds in bilateral hippocampus, induced by significant decreases after the MET intervention. Though preliminary, our results suggest that memory training induces structural and neurochemical plasticity in seniors with MCI. Further research is needed to determine whether mind-body interventions like yoga yield similar neuroplastic changes. PMID:27917121

  7. The P-glycoprotein inhibitor cyclosporin A differentially influences behavioural and neurochemical responses to the antidepressant escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Fionn E; O'Connor, Richard M; Clarke, Gerard; Donovan, Maria D; Dinan, Timothy G; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F

    2014-03-15

    Recent studies have raised the possibility that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition may represent a putative augmentation strategy for treatment with certain antidepressants. Indeed, we have previously shown that administration of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil increased the brain distribution and behavioural effects of the antidepressant escitalopram. The aim of the current study was to investigate if similar effects occur with another P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA). CsA pre-treatment exacerbated the severity of behaviours in an escitalopram-induced mouse model of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction associated with serotonergic drugs. P-gp inhibition by CsA enhanced the brain distribution of escitalopram by 70-80%. Serotonin (5-HT) turnover in the prefrontal cortex was reduced by escitalopram, and this effect was augmented by CsA. However, CsA pre-treatment did not augment the effect of escitalopram in the tail suspension test (TST) of antidepressant-like activity. Microdialysis experiments revealed that pre-treatment with CsA failed to augment, but blunted, the increase in extracellular 5-HT in response to escitalopram administration. This blunting effect may contribute to the lack of augmentation in the TST. Taken together, the present studies demonstrate that co-administration of CsA and escitalopram produces differential effects depending on the behavioural and neurochemical assays employed. Thus, the results highlight the need for further studies involving more selective pharmacological tools to specifically evaluate the impact of P-gp inhibition on behavioural responses to antidepressants which are subject to efflux by P-gp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Using genetic programming to discover nonlinear variable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Chris; Buchanan, Lori; Sanderson, Michael; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Phillips, Leah

    2003-05-01

    Psychology has to deal with many interacting variables. The analyses usually used to uncover such relationships have many constraints that limit their utility. We briefly discuss these and describe recent work that uses genetic programming to evolve equations to combine variables in nonlinear ways in a number of different domains. We focus on four studies of interactions from lexical access experiments and psychometric problems. In all cases, genetic programming described nonlinear combinations of items in a manner that was subsequently independently verified. We discuss the general implications of genetic programming and related computational methods for multivariate problems in psychology.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L.; Locke, Dona E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) was designed to be psychometrically superior to its MMPI-2 counterpart. However, the test has yet to be extensively evaluated in diverse clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale in…

  10. Psychometric properties of two questionnaires in the context of total wrist arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeckstyns, Michel E H; Merser, Søren

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patient-rated outcome measures are frequently used to assess the results of total wrist arthroplasty, but their psychometric properties have not yet been evaluated in this group of patients. The purpose of our study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Danish Quick...

  11. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  12. Development and Psychometric Validation of the Family Outcomes Survey-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Raspa, Melissa; Olmsted, Murrey G.; Novak, Scott P.; Sam, Ann M.; Humphreys, Betsy P.; Nelson, Robin; Robinson, Nyle; Guillen, Chelsea

    2011-01-01

    Few psychometrically valid scales exist to assess family outcomes and the helpfulness of early intervention. This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Family Outcomes Survey-Revised. The revision was prompted by the need to (a) create a new format that would be easier for parents to understand, (b) revise and expand…

  13. A Psychometric Review of Norm-Referenced Tests Used to Assess Phonological Error Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Celia; Vigeland, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors provide a review of the psychometric properties of 6 norm-referenced tests designed to measure children's phonological error patterns. Three aspects of the tests' psychometric adequacy were evaluated: the normative sample, reliability, and validity. Method: The specific criteria used for determining the psychometric…

  14. A Creation Narrative for the Psychometric Society and Psychometrika: In the Beginning There Was Paul Horst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Willem; Hubert, Lawrence

    2016-12-01

    A review is provided for the creation of the Psychometric Society in 1935, and the establishment of its journal, Psychometrika, in 1936. This document is part of the 80th anniversary celebration for Psychometrika's founding, held during the annual meeting of the Psychometric Society in July of 2016 in Asheville, NC.

  15. Psychometrics and Its Discontents: An Historical Perspective on the Discourse of the Measurement Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Hamstra, Stanley J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychometrics has recently undergone extensive criticism within the medical education literature. The use of quantitative measurement using psychometric instruments such as response scales is thought to emphasize a narrow range of relevant learner skills and competencies. Recent reviews and commentaries suggest that a paradigm shift might be…

  16. The quality improvement attitude survey: Development and preliminary psychometric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Pamela B

    2017-08-22

    To report the development of a tool to measure nurse's attitudes about quality improvement in their practice setting and to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Human factors such as nursing attitudes of complacency have been identified as root causes of sentinel events. Attitudes of nurses concerning use of Quality and Safety Education for nurse's competencies can be most challenging to teach and to change. No tool has been developed measuring attitudes of nurses concerning their role in quality improvement. A descriptive study design with preliminary psychometric evaluation was used to examine the preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Registered bedside clinical nurses comprised the sample for the study (n = 57). Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Cronbach's alpha reliability. Total score and individual item statistics were evaluated. Two open-ended items were used to collect statements about nurses' feelings regarding their experience in quality improvement efforts. Strong support for the internal consistency reliability and face validity of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale was found. Total scale scores were high indicating nurse participants valued Quality and Safety Education for Nurse competencies in practice. However, item-level statistics indicated nurses felt powerless when other nurses deviate from care standards. Additionally, the sample indicated they did not consistently report patient safety issues and did not have a feeling of value in efforts to improve care. Findings suggested organisational culture fosters nurses' reporting safety issues and feeling valued in efforts to improve care. Participants' narrative comments and item analysis revealed the need to generate new items for the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale focused on nurses' perception of their importance in quality and

  17. Anatomical and psychometric relationships of behavioral neglect in daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Marc; Allart, Etienne; Bernati, Thérèse; Saj, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    Spatial neglect has been related to both cortical (predominantly at the temporal-parietal junction) and subcortical (predominantly of the superior longitudinal fasciculus) lesions. The objectives of this observational study were to specify the anatomical relationships of behavioral neglect in activities of daily living (N-ADLs), and the anatomical and psychometric relationships of N-ADLs on one hand and components of neglect (peripersonal neglect and personal neglect) and anosognosia on the other. Forty five patients were analyzed for behavioral difficulties in daily living (on the Catherine Bergego scale) and the main components of neglect (using conventional clinical assessments) during the first months post right hemisphere stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify brain areas within which lesions explained the severity of bias in each assessment (non-parametric permutation test; p<0.01, one tailed). N-ADLs was associated with lesions centered on the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus and extending to the temporo-parietal junction, temporo-occipital junction and subcortical white matter (including the superior longitudinal fasciculus). Peripersonal neglect resulted from extended cortical lesions centered on the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal gyrus, with subcortical extension. Personal neglect resulted predominantly from lesions centered on the somatosensory cortex and at a lesser degree on the superior temporal sulcus. Anosognosia resulted from lesions of the posterior inferior temporal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. In anatomic terms, N-ADLs was strongly related to peripersonal neglect, and those relationships were also shown by the psychometric analysis. In conclusions, superior temporal gyrus and superior longitudinal fasciculus lesions have a pivotal role in N-ADLs. N-ADLs is principally related (anatomically and psychometrically) to peripersonal neglect, and at a lesser degree to anosognosia and

  18. Psychometrics of an internalized homophobia instrument for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, John L; Shidlo, Ariel; Zemon, Vance; Foley, Frederick W; Dorfman, David; Dahlman, Karen L; Hamid, Sahira

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Axial Gay Men's Inventory-Men's Short Version (MAGI-MSV) assesses internalized homophobia via 20 items and 3 dimensions. This study extended the psychometric examination of the MAGI-MSV. The instrument was administered to 228 ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay men seeking counseling in New York City (mean age = 35, age range = 16-70). Following principal axis factoring and parallel analyses, 4 factors emerged and 14 items were retained. The descriptive labels for factors included gay self-assurance and worth, public appearance of homosexuality, and impact of HIV/AIDS on homosexuality. The new, fourth factor was named maladaptive measures to eliminate homosexuality.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Franck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as high congruent validity. Overall, these findings support the usefulness of the Dutch RSES as a measure for global self-esteem.

  20. The development and psychometric testing of the horizontal violence scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Joy; Newman, David

    2014-12-01

    Inappropriate behaviors of healthcare workers can threaten the delivery of safe, quality care. The purpose of this research was to develop a research instrument specific to the construct of horizontal violence and conduct foundational psychometric testing of the newly developed instrument. The overall findings on the fit indices suggest that this model does adequately measure the underlying construct of horizontal violence. The instrument can be used as a way to determine the existence and extent of horizontal violence in practice settings and used to augment the study of the work environment, particularly in relation to healthy work environments.

  1. Psychometric Testing of the Method of Generations’ Mentality Type Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada I. Pishchik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the mentality phenomenon in psychology and states the lack of clear, definite positions, concerning mentality, presents author's concept of mentality system, including nuclear and peripheral elements. On this basis, the initial survey, helping to develop the method of mentality measurement was conducted. The article presents author's method of generations’ mentality type measurement, carries out psychometric testing of method paragraphs. The paragraphs were tested on reliability-stability, reliability-conformity, factorial, convergent, constructive and empirical validities. The data of method testing on different samples are cited

  2. Psychometric model for safety culture assessment in nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, C.S. do, E-mail: claudio.souza@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CTMSP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, D.A., E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mesquita, R.N. de, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A psychometric model to evaluate ‘safety climate’ at nuclear research facilities. • The model presented evidences of good psychometric qualities. • The model was applied to nuclear research facilities in Brazil. • Some ‘safety culture’ weaknesses were detected in the assessed organization. • A potential tool to develop safety management programs in nuclear facilities. - Abstract: A safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants depends not only on technical performance, but also on the people and on the organization. Organizational factors have been recognized as the main causal mechanisms of accidents by research organizations through USA, Europe and Japan. Deficiencies related with these factors reveal weaknesses in the organization’s safety culture. A significant number of instruments to assess the safety culture based on psychometric models that evaluate safety climate through questionnaires, and which are based on reliability and validity evidences, have been published in health and ‘safety at work’ areas. However, there are few safety culture assessment instruments with these characteristics (reliability and validity) available on nuclear literature. Therefore, this work proposes an instrument to evaluate, with valid and reliable measures, the safety climate of nuclear research facilities. The instrument was developed based on methodological principles applied to research modeling and its psychometric properties were evaluated by a reliability analysis and validation of content, face and construct. The instrument was applied to an important nuclear research organization in Brazil. This organization comprises 4 research reactors and many nuclear laboratories. The survey results made possible a demographic characterization and the identification of some possible safety culture weaknesses and pointing out potential areas to be improved in the assessed organization. Good evidence of reliability with Cronbach's alpha

  3. Modern psychometric approaches to analysis of scales for health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested in the development of new instruments for assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). For many new instruments, modern psychometric methods, such as item response theory (IRT) models, have been used, either as supplemental to classical...... psychometric testing or as the primary methodological approach. We will use the term modern psychometric methods to refer to psychometric methods for multi-item scales that (1) examine the contribution of each item to the measurement properties of the overall scale and (2) recognize that items are categorical....... The models include Rasch models (Rasch 1980; Fischer and Molenaar 1995), other IRT models (Samejima 1969; van der Linden and Hambleton 1997), and factor analytic models for categorical data (Muthén 1984). “Modern” psychometric methods have actually a rather long history within psychiatric research (both...

  4. Beliefs about research and social work practice: a systematic psychometric review of scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Virgil L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the author in this systematic psychometric review includes: providing social work researchers, educators, and administrators with a summary of descriptive psychometric information pertaining to scales which measure social workers' beliefs about research and social work practice, evaluating chronological changes in psychometric/statistical methodology, and summarizing the role current and future scale development efforts have in improving the use of evidence-based social work practice. Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, electronic databases and reference lists of included studies were reviewed and coded for methodological and psychometric properties. Seventeen studies satisfied inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eleven unique scales measuring social worker beliefs regarding research and social work practice were identified. The majority of scales and subscales had Cronbach's alphas that exceeded .70. Most of the scales had evidence of content, factorial, construct, and/or criterion validity. Strategies for improving psychometric research and implications for evidence-based social work practice are discussed.

  5. Psychometrics and its discontents: an historical perspective on the discourse of the measurement tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2016-08-01

    Psychometrics has recently undergone extensive criticism within the medical education literature. The use of quantitative measurement using psychometric instruments such as response scales is thought to emphasize a narrow range of relevant learner skills and competencies. Recent reviews and commentaries suggest that a paradigm shift might be presently underway. We argue for caution, in that the psychometrics approach and the quantitative account of competencies that it reflects is based on a rich discussion regarding measurement and scaling that led to the establishment of this paradigm. Rather than reflecting a homogeneous discipline focused on core competencies devoid of consideration of context, the psychometric community has a history of discourse and debate within the field, with an acknowledgement that the techniques and instruments developed within psychometrics are heuristics that must be used pragmatically.

  6. Neurochemical differences in learning and memory paradigms among rats supplemented with anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets and exposed to acute doses of 56Fe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Bielinski, Donna F.; Kelly, Megan E.; Miller, Marshall G.; Thanthaeng, Nopporn; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to ;accelerated aging.; One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as 56Fe, within 24-48 h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning. Importantly, we observed that specific brain regions failed to upregulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in response to this insult. To further examine these endogenous response mechanisms, we have supplemented young rats with diets rich in BB, which are known to contain high amounts of antioxidant-phytochemicals, prior to irradiation. Exposure to 56Fe caused significant neurochemical changes in hippocampus and frontal cortex, the two critical regions of the brain involved in cognitive function. BB supplementation significantly attenuated protein carbonylation, which was significantly increased by exposure to 56Fe in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, BB supplementation significantly reduced radiation-induced elevations in NADPH-oxidoreductase-2 (NOX2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall results indicate that 56Fe particles may induce their toxic effects on hippocampus and frontal cortex by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overload, which can cause alterations in the neuronal environment, eventually leading to hippocampal neuronal death and subsequent impairment of cognitive function. Blueberry supplementation provides an effective preventative measure to reduce the ROS load on the CNS in an event of acute HZE exposure.

  7. Automated Test Assembly for Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Matthew; Kim, Wonsuk; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Much recent psychometric literature has focused on cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), a promising class of instruments used to measure the strengths and weaknesses of examinees. This article introduces a genetic algorithm to perform automated test assembly alongside CDMs. The algorithm is flexible in that it can be applied whether the goal is to…

  8. The genetic basis of problem behavior in 5-year-old dutch twin pairs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Different instruments can be used in the assessment of psychopathology in young children. In the present study the psychometric properties of a subset of items of the Devereux Child Behavior (DCB) rating scale were evaluated and the contribution of genetic and environmental influences to the

  9. Automated Test Assembly for Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Matthew; Kim, Wonsuk; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Much recent psychometric literature has focused on cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), a promising class of instruments used to measure the strengths and weaknesses of examinees. This article introduces a genetic algorithm to perform automated test assembly alongside CDMs. The algorithm is flexible in that it can be applied whether the goal is to…

  10. Nurse Competence Scale--psychometric testing in a Norwegian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Nordström, Gun

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to test the construct validity of the Nurse Competence Scale. The Nurse Competence Scale has been used in hospital settings for various purposes in several countries. Despite this, confirmatory factor analyses are scarcely reported. The present study is based on re-analyses of data from 2007 (i.e. psychometric testing) and 593 newly graduated nurses working in various contexts were included. Confirmatory as well as exploratory factor analyses (Principal Component Analysis) were carried out. The original 7-factor model of the Nurse Competence Scale (73 items) was not confirmed. The exploratory factor analyses resulted in a Norwegian Nurse Competence Scale consisting of 46 items in the following competence categories: Planning and delivery of care, Teaching functions, Professional leadership, Research utilization and nursing values and Professional awareness. The results underline the needs for psychometric testing of an instrument after translation processes. The instrument is suitable for describing and comparing nurse competence for various reasons. It may also be helpful in creating competence development programs at an individual as well as at an organizational level. Further studies with a broader sample are recommended.

  11. Exploring the "psychometric paradigm": comparisons between aggregate and individual analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marris, C; Langford, I; Saunderson, T; O'Riordan, T

    1997-06-01

    The "psychometric paradigm" developed by Slovic, Fischhoff, and Lichtenstein was a landmark in research about public attitudes toward risks. One problem with work, however, was that (at least initially) it did not attempt to distinguish between individuals or groups of people, except "experts" vs. "lay people." This paradigm produced a "cognitive map" of hazards, and the assumption seemed to be that the characteristics identified were inherent attributes of risk. This paper examines the validity of this assumption. A questionnaire survey similar to those designed by Slovic et al. was conducted, but the data were analyzed at both the aggregate level, using mean scores, and at the level of individuals (N = 131 Norwich residents). The results reported here demonstrate that (1) individuals vary in their perception of the same risk issue; (2) individuals vary in their rating of the same risks characteristics on the same risk issue; and (3) some of the strong intercorrelations observed between risk characteristics at the aggregate level are not supported when the same data are analysed at the level of individuals. Despite these findings, the relationship between risk characteristics and risk perceptions inferred by the psychometric paradigm did hold true at the level of individuals, for most--but not all--of the characteristics. In particular, the relationship between "lack of knowledge to those exposed" and risk perceptions appears to be a complex one, a finding which has important implications for risk communication strategies.

  12. Weight bias internalization scale: psychometric properties and population norms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hilbert

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Internalizing the pervasive weight bias commonly directed towards individuals with overweight and obesity, co-occurs with increased psychopathology and impaired quality of life. This study sought to establish population norms and psychometric properties of the most widely used self-report questionnaire, the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS, in a representative community sample. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a survey of the German population, N = 1158 individuals with overweight and obesity were assessed with the WBIS and self-report measures for convergent validation. RESULTS: Item analysis revealed favorable item-total correlation of all but one WBIS item. With this item removed, item homogeneity and internal consistency were excellent. The one-factor structure of the WBIS was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was shown through significant associations with measures of depressive and somatoform symptoms. The WBIS contributed to the explanation of variance in depressive and somatoform symptoms over and above body mass index. Higher WBIS scores were found in women than in men, in individuals with obesity than in individuals with overweight, and in those with lower education or income than those with higher education or income. Sex-specific norms were provided. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed good psychometric properties of the WBIS after removal of one item. Future research is warranted on further indicators of reliability and validity, for example, retest reliability, sensitivity to change, and prognostic validity.

  13. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale: Development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about online gaming. We conducted two studies with samples of online gamers (n=225, n=348) to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale and examined its capacity to predict weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor solution: positive metacognitions about online gaming, negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming, and negative metacognitions about the dangers of online gaming. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity were acceptable. All the factors of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale correlated positively with weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Regression analyses showed that negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming and levels of Internet addiction were the only significant predictors of weekly online gaming hours, and that positive metacognitions about online gaming and negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming were the only significant predictors of Internet addiction. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Questionnaire-based assessment of executive functioning: Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Pisoni, David B

    2016-11-14

    The psychometric properties of the Learning, Executive, and Attention Functioning (LEAF) scale were investigated in an outpatient clinical pediatric sample. As a part of clinical testing, the LEAF scale, which broadly measures neuropsychological abilities related to executive functioning and learning, was administered to parents of 118 children and adolescents referred for psychological testing at a pediatric psychology clinic; 85 teachers also completed LEAF scales to assess reliability across different raters and settings. Scores on neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and academic achievement were abstracted from charts. Psychometric analyses of the LEAF scale demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, parent-teacher inter-rater reliability in the small to large effect size range, and test-retest reliability in the large effect size range, similar to values for other executive functioning checklists. Correlations between corresponding subscales on the LEAF and other behavior checklists were large, while most correlations with neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and achievement were significant but in the small to medium range. Results support the utility of the LEAF as a reliable and valid questionnaire-based assessment of delays and disturbances in executive functioning and learning. Applications and advantages of the LEAF and other questionnaire measures of executive functioning in clinical neuropsychology settings are discussed.

  15. The psychometric refinement of the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkins, James

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI) and then recommend revisions. The MCI was administered to a sample of 303 undergraduate engineering students enrolled in a materials engineering course taught by an instructor unrelated to this study. The MCI demonstrated adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha was .73) and strong discriminatory power (Ferguson's delta was 0.96). A pretest MCI was given only two days into the course and was able to predict the final course grade (r = .30, p fit by the empirical data [chi-squared (194) = 196.03, p = .426; and root mean square error approximation (RMSEA) was .007; and comparative fit index (CFI) was .996]. The Cronbach's alpha of the refined-MCI was 0.75, suggesting 'good' reliability. The six factors could only be interpreted by an integration of cognitive processes with content. Those six factors were labeled: (1) compare and contrast ductile and brittle material, (2) analyze structure and how it changes due to defects arising from stretching, (3) understand and analyze the structure and properties of glass, (4) analyze structure and how it changes due to defects arising from bending, (5) understand and analyze the structure and properties of metals, and (6) synthesize and apply graphs and proportions with relation to various materials engineering concepts. Results related to the psychometrics of the refined version of the Materials Concept Inventory are promising, but based on this study's results, further revision may be required.

  16. Transfer Learning for Collaborative Filtering Using a Psychometrics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a real e-commerce website, usually only a small number of users will give ratings to the items they purchased, and this can lead to the very sparse user-item rating data. The data sparsity issue will greatly limit the recommendation performance of most recommendation algorithms. However, a user may register accounts in many e-commerce websites. If such users’ historical purchasing data on these websites can be integrated, the recommendation performance could be improved. But it is difficult to align the users and items between these websites, and thus how to effectively borrow the users’ rating data of one website (source domain to help improve the recommendation performance of another website (target domain is very challenging. To this end, this paper extended the traditional one-dimensional psychometrics model to multidimension. The extended model can effectively capture users’ multiple interests. Based on this multidimensional psychometrics model, we further propose a novel transfer learning algorithm. It can effectively transfer users’ rating preferences from the source domain to the target domain. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the recommendation performance.

  17. The Greek Nurses' job satisfaction scale: development and psychometric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumtzoglou, Anastasius

    2010-01-01

    The growing literature relating to job satisfaction among nurses concludes that more research is required to understand the organizational, professional, and personal variables that improve nurse satisfaction and retention. This study developed and psychometrically tested a nurse satisfaction questionnaire, suitable for the nurses' working conditions in Greece. A cross-sectional survey, in Greek, was conducted in three public hospitals. Two-hundred and twenty-five Greek nurses evaluated the psychometric properties of the Greek Nurses' Job Satisfaction Scale (GNJSS). The 18-item questionnaire showed a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.907) and revealed four factors that are consistent with the predetermined subscales and the conceptual base of the GNJSS. The factors, which explain 62.420% of variance, are associated with interaction and recognition, leadership style and organizational policies, self-growth and responsibility, and remuneration and work itself. Although it would be useful to carry out further analyses to assess time-based properties of reliability, the GNJSS questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument to assess nurses' job satisfaction.

  18. Further psychometric analysis of the Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Mirela A; Geffken, Gary R; Jacob, Marni L; Goodman, Wayne K; Storch, Eric A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FOCI [Storch, E. A., Stigge-Kaufman, D., Bagner, D., Merlo, L. J., Shapira, N. A., Geffken, G. R., et al. (2007). Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: development, reliability, and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 851-859]). Participants were 89 adults with OCD presenting for treatment at a specialty clinic. A trained clinician administered the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and patients completed the FOCI, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, and State Trait Anxiety Inventory at baseline and following 14 weekly or daily cognitive behavioral therapy sessions. The internal consistency of FOCI Symptom Checklist and Severity Scale were good, and the concurrent and divergent validity of the FOCI Symptom Checklist and Severity Scale was supported through its associations with clinician-rated OCD symptom severity, and self-reported OCD, depressive, and anxiety measures. In addition, sensitivity to cognitive-behavioral treatment effects was shown as the Severity Scale scores were significantly lower following treatment compared to baseline. These findings not only replicate Storch et al. [Storch, E. A., Stigge-Kaufman, D., Bagner, D., Merlo, L. J., Shapira, N. A., Geffken, G. R., et al. (2007). Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: development, reliability, and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 851-859] but also add unique construct validity data in support of the psychometrics of the FOCI.

  19. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised: psychometric replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Dallas A; Cohen, Alex S; Matthews, Russell A; Dinzeo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The psychometric screening and detection of schizotypy through the use of concise self-report assessment instruments such as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised (SPQ-BR; Cohen, Matthews, Najolia, & Brown, 2010) enables an expeditious identification of individuals at putatively elevated risk to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Using 2 large, culturally diverse, independent samples, this study expanded the psychometric evaluation of this instrument by presenting a series of confirmatory factor analyses; reviewing internal consistency reliabilities; and evaluating the construct validity of the scale by way of examining group differences in SPQ-BR scores between individuals with and without self-reported family histories of schizophrenia. The results indicate a 2-tier factor solution of the measure and indicate strong internal reliability for the scale. Findings regarding construct validity of the SPQ-BR are more variable with the Cognitive-Perceptual Deficits superordinate factor receiving the strongest evidentiary support. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  1. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets Fact Sheets En Español: Mapeo Genético Genetic Mapping What is genetic mapping? How do researchers create ... genetic map? What are genetic markers? What is genetic mapping? Among the main goals of the Human Genome ...

  2. Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic counseling provides information and support to people who have, or may be at risk for, genetic disorders. A ... meets with you to discuss genetic risks. The counseling may be for yourself or a family member. ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hyperekplexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Owen MJ, Tijssen MA, van den Maagdenberg AM, Smart TG, Supplisson S, Harvey RJ. Mutations in the gene ... of the glycine receptor alpha1 subunit affect cell surface integration and stability. J Neurochem. 2009 Nov;111( ...

  4. Species, sex and individual differences in the vasotocin/vasopressin system: relationship to neurochemical signaling in the social behavior neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, H Elliott

    2015-01-01

    Arginine-vasotocin (AVT)/arginine vasopressin (AVP) are members of the AVP/oxytocin (OT) superfamily of peptides that are involved in the regulation of social behavior, social cognition and emotion. Comparative studies have revealed that AVT/AVP and their receptors are found throughout the "social behavior neural network (SBNN)" and display the properties expected from a signaling system that controls social behavior (i.e., species, sex and individual differences and modulation by gonadal hormones and social factors). Neurochemical signaling within the SBNN likely involves a complex combination of synaptic mechanisms that co-release multiple chemical signals (e.g., classical neurotransmitters and AVT/AVP as well as other peptides) and non-synaptic mechanisms (i.e., volume transmission). Crosstalk between AVP/OT peptides and receptors within the SBNN is likely. A better understanding of the functional properties of neurochemical signaling in the SBNN will allow for a more refined examination of the relationships between this peptide system and species, sex and individual differences in sociality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways: a revolving neurochemical axis for therapeutic intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, John J

    2005-11-01

    Excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS) is mediated by the release of glutamate from presynaptic terminals onto postsynaptic channels gated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA (AMPA and KA) receptors. Extracellular signals control diverse neuronal functions and are responsible for mediating activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength and neuronal survival. Influx of extracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](e)) through the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is required for neuronal activity to change the strength of many synapses. At the molecular level, the NMDAR interacts with signaling modules, which, like the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, transduce excitatory signals across neurons. Recent burgeoning evidence points to the fact that MAPKs play a crucial role in regulating the neurochemistry of NMDARs, their physiologic and biochemical/biophysical properties, and their potential role in pathophysiology. It is the purpose of this review to discuss: (i) the MAPKs and their role in a plethora of cellular functions; (ii) the role of MAPKs in regulating the biochemistry and physiology of NMDA receptors; (iii) the kinetics of MAPK-NMDA interactions and their biologic and neurochemical properties; (iv) how cellular signaling pathways, related cofactors and intracellular conditions affect NMDA-MAPK interactions and (v) the role of NMDA-MAPK pathways in pathophysiology and the evolution of disease conditions. Given the versatility of the NMDA-MAPK interactions, the NMDA-MAPK axis will likely form a neurochemical target for therapeutic interventions.

  6. Dysregulation of brain reward systems in eating disorders: neurochemical information from animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E

    2012-07-01

    Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie the causes or consequences of aberrant eating behaviors. This review focuses on neurochemical evidence of reward-related brain dysfunctions obtained through animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa. The findings suggest that alterations in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh) and opioid systems in reward-related brain areas occur in response to binge eating of palatable foods. Moreover, animal models of bulimia nervosa suggest that while bingeing on palatable food releases DA, purging attenuates the release of ACh that might otherwise signal satiety. Animal models of anorexia nervosa suggest that restricted access to food enhances the reinforcing effects of DA when the animal does eat. The activity-based anorexia model suggests alterations in mesolimbic DA and serotonin occur as a result of restricted eating coupled with excessive wheel running. These findings with animal models complement data obtained through neuroimaging and pharmacotherapy studies of clinical populations. Information on the neurochemical consequences of the behaviors associated with these eating disorders will be useful in understanding these complex disorders and may inform future therapeutic approaches, as discussed here. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central Control of Food Intake'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the Psychometric Quality of Social Skills Measures: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Speyer, Renée; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults. A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity. The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments.

  8. [Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexism Detection (ASD) scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Patricia; Cuadrado, Isabel; Ramos, Esther

    2007-08-01

    In this article, it is assumed that gender violence, or violence against women, has mainly a sociocultural basis. A scale (Adolescent Sexism Detection; ASD) to detect sexism in adolescents was developed and its psychometric properties were analysed. 245 adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age participated in the study. As a result of the factor analyses carried out, the hostile and benevolent dimensions of sexism were clearly differentiated. Convergent validity of the scale was confirmed by its high correlations with the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). Participants scored higher in benevolent than in hostile sexism, an effect even stronger in female participants. These findings suggest that the ASD scale is a valid instrument to measure sexism among adolescents. The main findings of this study are compared to those obtained in other studies using the ASI. The potential of this scale to appropriately detect sexism among adolescents is discussed.

  9. The Health and Functioning ICF-60: development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutelyan, V A; Chatterji, S; Baturin, A K; Pogozheva, A V; Kishko, O N; Akolzina, S E

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of the Health and Functioning ICF-60 (HF-ICF-60) measure, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) 'International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: ICF' (2001). The aims of the present study were to test psychometric properties of the HF-ICF-60, developed as a measure that would be responsive to change in functioning through changes in health and nutritional status, as a prospective measure to monitor health and nutritional status of populations and to explore the relationship of the HF-ICF-60 with quality of life measures such as the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment in relation to non-communicable diseases. The HF-ICF-60 measure consists of 60 items selected from the ICF by an expert panel, which included 18 items that cover Body Functions, 21 items that cover Activities and Participation, rated on five-point scales, and 21 items that cover Environmental Factors (seven items cover Individual Environmental Factors and 14 items cover Societal Environmental Factors), rated on nine-point scales. The HF-ICF-60 measure was administered to the Russian nationally representative sample within the Russian National Population Quality of Life, Health and Nutrition Survey, in 2004 (n = 9807) and 2005 (n = 9560), as part of the two waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS). The statistical analyses were carried out with the use of both classical and modern psychometric methods, such as factor analysis, and based on Item Response Theory, respectively. The HF-ICF-60 questionnaire is a new measure derived directly from the ICF and covers the ICF components as follows: Body Functions, Activities and Participation, and Environmental Factors (Individual Environmental Factors and Societal Environmental Factors). The results from the factor analyses (both Exploratory Factor Analyses and Confirmatory Factor Analyses) show good support for the

  10. Psychology students evaluation of projective and psychometric techniques. Some comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maganto Mateo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to know Psychology students of the Basque Country’ evaluation of assessment instruments regarding these criteria: learning difficulties, utility for their professional practice. A sudents sample attending the fifth course, with similar acedemic curriculum was studied. Results show that students are interested in psychometric as well as in projective techniques; they consider that both techniques will be highly useful in their professional practice. They are also awared thay they need to adquire a deeper knowledge on them. In order to achieve that aim, they requiere more class hours devoted to the study of both types of techniques, specially the projective ones due to the high difficulty they involve. 

  11. Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Alternative Items for Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Mary Anne; Muckle, Timothy

    Alternative items were added as scored items to the National Certification Examination for Nurse Anesthetists (NCE) in 2010. A common concern related to the new items has been their measurement attributes. This study was undertaken to evaluate the psychometric impact of adding these items to the examination. Candidates had a significantly higher ability estimate in alternative items than in multiple choice questions and 6.7 percent of test candidates performed significantly differently in alternative item formats. The ability estimates of multiple choice questions correlated at r = .58. The alternative items took significantly longer time to answer than standard multiple choice questions and discriminated to a higher degree than MCQs. The alternative items exhibited unidimensionality to the same degree as MCQs and the BIC confirmed the Rasch model as acceptable for scoring. The new item types were found to have acceptable attributes for inclusion in the certification program.

  12. Psychometric properties of the rating scale sports organizations EPOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nuviala Nuviala

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of user satisfaction and consumers of services is a necessity for those responsible for them. There’s a variety of instruments that assess the perceived quality but are criticized for several reasons: concepts, procedures, lack of specificity... EPOD is a scale with 29 items integrated in four dimensions, direct practical application which had been previously validated. However, nobody had checked the psychometric properties of the instrument. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine them. The sample was 463 users of sports services who were given the instrument. The results show good internal and external validity, while it has a high reliability. Therefore, EPOD becomes a tool to assess the perceived quality of service provided by the sports organizations in a valid, reliable, simple and brief way, considering the different dimensions that make up the provision of sports services.

  13. Computational Psychometrics in Communication and Implications in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipresso, Pietro; Villani, Daniela; Repetto, Claudia; Bosone, Lucia; Balgera, Anna; Mauri, Maurizio; Villamira, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations emphasized the role of communication features on behavioral trust and reciprocity in economic decision making but no studies have been focused on the effect of communication on affective states in such a context. Thanks to advanced methods of computational psychometrics, in this study, affective states were deeply examined using simultaneous and synchronized recordings of gazes and psychophysiological signals in 28 female students during an investment game. Results showed that participants experienced different affective states according to the type of communication (personal versus impersonal). In particular, participants involved in personal communication felt more relaxed than participants involved in impersonal communication. Moreover, personal communication influenced reciprocity and participants' perceptions about trust and reciprocity. Findings were interpreted in the light of the Arousal/Valence Model and self-disclosure process. PMID:26339285

  14. Computational Psychometrics in Communication and Implications in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Cipresso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations emphasized the role of communication features on behavioral trust and reciprocity in economic decision making but no studies have been focused on the effect of communication on affective states in such a context. Thanks to advanced methods of computational psychometrics, in this study, affective states were deeply examined using simultaneous and synchronized recordings of gazes and psychophysiological signals in 28 female students during an investment game. Results showed that participants experienced different affective states according to the type of communication (personal versus impersonal. In particular, participants involved in personal communication felt more relaxed than participants involved in impersonal communication. Moreover, personal communication influenced reciprocity and participants’ perceptions about trust and reciprocity. Findings were interpreted in the light of the Arousal/Valence Model and self-disclosure process.

  15. Psychometric properties of the index of relocation adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2014-06-01

    More and more American older adults are relocating to retirement communities, and they experience challenges in adjusting to new surroundings that may increase their depression and mortality. An instrument not previously tested in the United States, the Index of Relocation Adjustment (IRA), may help in early identification of poor relocation adjustment. This study examined the psychometric properties of the IRA using secondary data from a convenience sample of 104 older adults who relocated to 6 retirement communities in Northeast Ohio. Cronbach's alpha was .86. The IRA was correlated with measures of positive cognitions (r = .48, p controllability (r = -.62, p IRA is potentially useful as a screening measure for early detection of poor adjustment among relocated older adults.

  16. Psychometric Studies of the Learning Strategies Scale for University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evely Boruchovitch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the psychometric properties of a learning strategies scale for university students. The scale was composed of 49 Likert scale items related to cognitive and metacognitive strategies. It was applied in a sample of 1,490 university students. The factor analysis revealed that 35 items had acceptable loadings and identified a three factor structure: Factor 1 - Cognitive and Metacognitive Self-regulation, Factor 2 - Internal Resource and Context regulation, and Factor 3 - Social regulation. Its internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and was .87 for the total scale, .86 for Factor 1, .71 for Factor 2 and .65 for Factor 3. The total variance explained was 26.6%. Further studies are suggested based on confirmatory factor analyses, so that the scale can be better utilized in psychoeducational evaluation.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire (NWFQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fania R Gärtner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire (NWFQ is a 50-item self-report questionnaire specifically developed for nurses and allied health professionals. Its seven subscales measure impairments in the work functioning due to common mental disorders. Aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the NWFQ, by assessing reproducibility and construct validity. METHODS: The questionnaire was administered to 314 nurses and allied health professionals with a re-test in 112 subjects. Reproducibility was assessed by the intraclass correlations coefficients (ICC and the standard error of measurement (SEM. For construct validity, correlations were calculated with a general work functioning scale, the Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS (convergent validity and with a physical functioning scale (divergent validity. For discriminative validity, a Mann Whitney U test was performed testing for significant differences between subjects with mental health complaints and without. RESULTS: All subscales showed good reliability (ICC: 0.72-0.86, except for one (ICC = 0.16. Convergent validity was good in six subscales, correlations ranged from 0.38-0.62. However, in one subscale the correlation with the EWPS was too low (0.22. Divergent validity was good in all subscales based on correlations ranged from (-0.06-(-0.23. Discriminative validity was good in all subscales, based on significant differences between subjects with and without mental health complaints (p<0.001-p = 0.003. CONCLUSION: The NWFQ demonstrates good psychometric properties, for six of the seven subscales. Subscale "impaired decision making" needs improvement before further use.

  18. Psychometric evaluation of the HIV symptom distress scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Linda G.; Wang, Ming-Mei; Testa, Marcia A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to psychometrically validate the HIV Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), an instrument that can be used to measure overall HIV symptom distress or clinically relevant groups of HIV symptoms. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Collaborations in HIV Outcomes Research U.S. Cohort (CHORUS). Inclusion criteria required study participants (N=5,521) to have a valid baseline measure of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group Symptom Distress Module, with an SF-12 or SF-36 completed on the same day. Psychometric testing assessed unidimensionality, internal consistency and factor structure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Construct validity examined whether the new measure discriminates across clinical significance (CD4 and HIV viral load). Findings show that the SDS has high reliability (α=0.92), and SEM supports a correlated second-order factor model (physical and mental distress) with acceptable fit (GFI=0.88, AGFI=0.85, NFI=0.99, NNFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.06, [90% CI 0.06 – 0.06]; Satorra Bentler Scaled, C2 =3274.20; p=0.0). Construct validity shows significant differences across categories for HIV-1 viral load (p< 0.001) and CD4 (p< 0.001). Differences in mean SDS scores exist across gender (p< 0.001), race/ethnicity (p< 0.05) and educational attainment (p < 0.001). Hence, the HIV Symptom Distress Scale is a reliable and valid instrument, which measures overall HIV symptoms or clinically relevant groups of symptoms. PMID:22409246

  19. The assessment of safe nursing care: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashvand, Farnoosh; Ebadi, Abbas; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Salsali, Mahvash; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Griffiths, Pauline; Sieloff, Christina

    2017-01-01

    To develop an instrument for the assessment of safe nursing care (ASNC) within the Iranian context and psychometrically evaluate its reliability and validity. There is a need for a valid and reliable instrument to assess how nurses employ the components of safe nursing care in clinical practice in non-Western countries. This methodological study was conducted in two phases: (1) a qualitative phase of instrument development, and (2) a quantitative phase of psychometric evaluation of the assessment of safe nursing care (ASNC). The instrument's content validity was assessed by experts in the field of safe nursing care. The reliability of this instrument was examined using internal consistency reliability and intra-rater reliability analysis. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted to establish the instrument's initial construct validity. The instrument developed was a questionnaire with 32 items. The Cronbach's alpha of the scale was 0.92, and Intra-class Correlation Coefficient for intra-rater reliability was 0.78. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a four-factor solution: (1) evaluation of nursing skills, (2) assessing the patient's psychological needs, (3) assessing the patient's physical need, and (4) Assessing nurses' teamwork. The four factors accounted for 63.54% of the observed variance. The ASNC can be applied to a wide variety of settings because of the broad range of methods utilised to generate items and domains, its comprehensive consideration of the principles of safe care, and its initial reliability and validity. The ASNC can help nurse managers assess whether clinical nurses are prepared to apply their safe care skills in clinical practice. It can also be used by clinical nurses to assess their own and peers' practice to detect potential areas for improvement in nursing care and help nurse managers with planning appropriate quality improvement programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Harsh, John; Tompsett, Carolyn J; Redline, Susan

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19; 17.7 ± 0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness were obtained from adolescent reports, behavior from caretaker reports, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually based factor structure were similar for six of the eight proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was α = 0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: α = 0.60; behavioural arousal: α = 0.62; cognitive/emotional: α = 0.81; sleep environment: α = 0.61; sleep stability: α = 0.68; daytime sleep: α = 0.78. Sleep hygiene scores were associated positively with sleep duration (r = 0.16) and sleep efficiency (r = 0.12) and negatively with daytime sleepiness (r = -0.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviours provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Psychometric Development of the Research and Knowledge Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lauren R.; Ojukwu, Elizabeth; Person, Sharina D.; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many research participants are misinformed about research terms, procedures, and goals; however, no validated instruments exist to assess individual’s comprehension of health-related research information. We propose research literacy as a concept that incorporates understanding about the purpose and nature of research. Objectives: We developed the Research and Knowledge Scale (RaKS) to measure research literacy in a culturally, literacy-sensitive manner. We describe its development and psychometric properties. Research Design: Qualitative methods were used to assess perspectives of research participants and researchers. Literature and informed consent reviews were conducted to develop initial items. These data were used to develop initial domains and items of the RaKS, and expert panel reviews and cognitive pretesting were done to refine the scale. We conducted psychometric analyses to evaluate the scale. Subjects: The cross-sectional survey was administered to a purposive community-based sample (n=430) using a Web-based data collection system and paper. Measures: We did classic theory testing on individual items and assessed test-retest reliability and Kuder-Richardson-20 for internal consistency. We conducted exploratory factor analysis and analysis of variance to assess differences in mean research literacy scores in sociodemographic subgroups. Results: The RaKS is comprised of 16 items, with a Kuder-Richardson-20 estimate of 0.81 and test-retest reliability 0.84. There were differences in mean scale scores by race/ethnicity, age, education, income, and health literacy (all P<0.01). Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the RaKS. This scale can be used to measure research participants’ understanding about health-related research processes and identify areas to improve informed decision-making about research participation. PMID:27579914

  2. Evaluating the psychometric properties of the Jacelon Attributed Dignity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Choi, Jeungok

    2014-09-01

    To develop and psychometrically test the Jacelon Attributed Dignity Scale (JADS). The JADS was designed to measure self-perceived attributed dignity in community-dwelling older adults. Attributed dignity was conceived of as a state characteristic of the self. The JADS is a short, positively scored, norm-referenced, evaluation index designed to measure self-perceived attributed dignity during the last week. Instrument development and testing including psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure, temporal stability and construct validity. Using a quota sample, 289 older adults (65-99 years old) were recruited from senior centres in western New England to complete the JADS, demographic information, the Self-Esteem Scale and the Social Desirability Scale during 2010-2011. Descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, construct validity and temporal stability were evaluated. The resulting positively scored 18-item scale has four factors with high internal consistency for each factor and the entire scale. Construct validity was established by examining correlations with instruments that measured self-esteem and social desirability. Attributed dignity is a unique concept that is stable over time. The JADS is an 18-item Likert-scaled instrument designed to measure attributed dignity. Attributed dignity is a concept with four factors and is defined as a cognitive component of the self-connoting self-value, perceived value from others, self in relation to others and behaving with respect. The importance of attributed dignity for older adults in relation to health, function, independence, quality of life and successful ageing can now be evaluated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Psychometric evaluation of the Differentiation of Self Inventory for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauth, Donna G; Skowron, Elizabeth A

    2004-01-01

    Evidence of psychometric support is needed for use of the Differentiation of Self Inventory with adolescents as a clinical assessment instrument to evaluate psychotherapeutic progress and outcomes, and for its use as a research instrument to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions on the basis of Bowen family systems theory. To examine the reliability and validity of the 46-item, self-report Differentiation of Self Inventory (DSI) for use with adolescents. An ex post facto research design was used to determine the psychometric properties of the DSI for adolescents, and to test theoretically grounded hypotheses drawn from Bowen theory that linked differentiation of self with chronic anxiety and symptom development. The DSI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Symptom Pattern Scale were administered to an ethnically diverse sample of 363 adolescents 14 to 19 years of age. The DSI full scale demonstrated good internal consistency reliability, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of.84. Factor analysis yielded a six-factor structure, representing the multidimensionality of the DSI items among adolescents. As hypothesized, differentiation of self mediated the relation between chronic anxiety and symptom development (p <.001), indicating that greater differentiation of self predicted fewer symptoms over and above chronic anxiety, and lending support to the construct validity of the DSI in adolescent populations. The results of this study support the use of the DSI with adolescents. Future longitudinal studies are needed for definitive causal conclusions regarding the role that differentiation of self plays as a mediator between the relation of chronic anxiety and symptom development.

  4. Intrinsic Motivation Predicting Performance Satisfaction in Athletes: Further Psychometric Evaluations of the Sport Motivation Scale-6

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan Blecharz; Karolina Horodyska; Karolina Zarychta; Aleksandra Adamiec; Aleksandra Luszczynska

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated psychometric properties of the Sport Motivation Scale-6 (SMS-6), assessing intrinsic regulation, four extrinsic regulation constructs, and amotivation among athletes competing at a regional and national level...

  5. The assessment of disability with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Conceptual framework and psychometric properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, G.I J M; Miedema, I; Ormel, J.; Molenaar, W.

    1996-01-01

    The conceptual framework, psychometric properties, descriptive statistics, and the rules for administration and scoring of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (CARS) for assessing disability in the area of ADL (Activities of Daily Living including mobility) as well as IADL (Instrumental

  6. A call for policy guidance on psychometric testing in doping control in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petróczi, Andrea; Backhouse, Susan H.; Barkoukis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    confounds self-reported psychometric test results. Further, the cognitive complexity surrounding test performance means that the response-time based measures and the lie detector tests for revealing concealed life-events (e.g., doping use) are prone to produce false or non-interpretable outcomes in field...... settings. Differences in social-cognitive characteristics of doping behaviour that are tested at group level (doping users vs. non-users) cannot be extrapolated to individuals; nor these psychometric measures used for individual diagnostics. In this paper, we present a position statement calling for policy...... guidance on appropriate use of psychometric assessments in the pursuit of clean sport. We argue that both self-reported and response-time based psychometric tests for doping have been designed, tested and validated to explore how athletes feel and think about doping in order to develop a better...

  7. Psychometric validation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) subscales for depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bille, J; Møller, S B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The psychometric validity of many subscales of the 90-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the "Hamilton-subscales" for depression (SCL-D16), anxiety (SCL-A14), their 6......-item core-measures (SCL-D6 and SCL-A6), the anxiety symptom scale (SCL-ASS8) and the interpersonal sensitivity scale (IPS5). METHODS: The psychometric properties of the SCL-D16, SCL-A14, SCL-D6, SCL-A6, SCL-ASS8, and the IPS5 were evaluated based on SCL-90 ratings from 850 day patients from a Danish...... SCL-90 subscales were identified. Using these scales it is possible to perform a psychometrically valid evaluation of psychiatric patients regarding the severity of depression (HAM-D6), specific anxiety (SCL-ASS8) and interpersonal sensitivity (IPS5)....

  8. A biologically inspired psychometric function for accuracy of visual identification as a function of exposure duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

    The psychometric function of letter identification is typically described as a function of stimulus intensity. However, the effect of stimulus exposure duration on letter identification remains poorly described. This is surprising because the effect of exposure duration has played a central role......-Z) was presented at the centre of the screen. Exposure duration was varied from 5 to 210 milliseconds. The letter was followed by a pattern mask. Three subjects each completed 54,080 trials in a 26-Alternative Forced Choice procedure. We compared the exponential, the gamma and the Weibull psychometric functions......, all of these having a temporal offset included, as well as the ex-Gaussian, and finally a new psychometric function, motivated from single-neuron studies by (Albrecht, Geisler, Frazor & Crane, 2002). The new psychometric function stands out by having a nonmonotonous hazard rate which is initially...

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Kazdin, Alan E.; Knorth, Erik J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Expectations concerning barriers to children's psychosocial care seem to be major drivers when seeking help, but validated questionnaires measuring expectations are not available. Therefore, this study examined the psychometric properties of the parent and adolescent versions of the Barriers to

  10. Psychometric Characteristics of the UCLA Loneliness Scale: A Study with Iranian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza

    1982-01-01

    The psychometric characteristics of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale in Iranian groups correlated significantly with measures of other conceptually-related variables such as depression, anxiety, and neuroticism. Factorial structure supported the multidimensionality of the scale. (Author/PN)

  11. Psychometric Characteristics of the UCLA Loneliness Scale: A Study with Iranian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza

    1982-01-01

    The psychometric characteristics of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale in Iranian groups correlated significantly with measures of other conceptually-related variables such as depression, anxiety, and neuroticism. Factorial structure supported the multidimensionality of the scale. (Author/PN)

  12. Psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" in Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R; Olivares Faúndez, Víctor E

    2011-05-01

    While the most commonly employed burnout measure has been the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), researchers have been troubled by some of the psychometric limitations of this instrument. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" (SBI). The psychometric properties were analysed with data from a sample of 277 Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people. The psychometric properties of the SBI were examined through the following analyses: confirmatory factor analysis, reliability Cronbach's alpha, and concurrent validity with the MBI. The hypothesized four factor model obtained an adequate data fit for the sample (chi2(164) = 285.32, p burnout in the Chilean cultural context.

  13. Psychometric properties of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchamp, Marla K; Schmidt, Catherine T; Pedersen, Mette M

    2014-01-01

    The choice of measure for use as a primary outcome in geriatric research is contingent upon the construct of interest and evidence for its psychometric properties. The Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) has been widely used to assess functional limitations and disability...... in studies with older adults. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current available evidence for the psychometric properties of the LLFDI....

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Modified Danish Version of the Caregiver Impact Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Godballe, Christian; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Otitis media in children may have a considerable impact on caregiver quality of life. The disease-specific Caregiver Impact Questionnaire is designed to assess caregiver quality of life in relation to child otitis media. Assessment of the psychometric properties of this instrument...... is limited. This study assesses the psychometric properties of this instrument including validity, reproducibility, responsiveness, and interpretability. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal validation study. SETTING: Secondary care units. METHODS: Analyses were based on data from 435 families. Validity was assessed...

  15. Psychometric properties of patient-reported outcome measures for hip arthroscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Joanne L; Collins, Natalie J; Roos, Ewa M.

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are considered the gold standard when evaluating outcomes in a surgical population. While the psychometric properties of some PROs have been tested, the properties of newer PROs in patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery remain somewhat unknown.......Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are considered the gold standard when evaluating outcomes in a surgical population. While the psychometric properties of some PROs have been tested, the properties of newer PROs in patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery remain somewhat unknown....

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish and Swedish Satisfaction with Life Scale in first episode psychosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochwälder, Jacek; Mattsson, Maria; Holmqvist, Ragnhild

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To psychometrically evaluate the Satisfaction with Life Scale in two cohorts of first-episode psychosis patients in the Danish National Schizophrenia Project and in the Swedish Parachute Project. METHOD: Four properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale were examined in the Danish cohort....... The dimensions were confirmed in the Swedish sample. CONCLUSION: The Satisfaction with Life Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties and seems valid and useful among first-episode psychosis patients....

  17. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working definition of social inclusion as an overarching

  18. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. Methods A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working

  19. EQ-5D rated by proxy in institutionalized older adults with dementia: Psychometric pros and cons

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Redondo, A.; Rodríguez-Blázquez, C.; Ayala, A; Martinez-Martin, P; Forjaz, M.J.; On behalf of Spanish Research Group on Quality of Life and Ageing

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Measurement of health-related quality of life in people with dementia is a challenge, because of their special characteristics and the difficulties that this term entails itself. The present study aimed at assessing the psychometric properties of the EQ-5D rated by a familiar or a professional caregiver of institutionalized older adults with dementia. Methods: We analyzed the EQ-5D psychometric properties from 525 questionnaires rated by proxy, in a sample of institutionalize...

  20. Development and psychometric testing of the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS).

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlsson Bodil; Bengtsson Mariette; Ulander Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. Methods The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, it...

  1. Development and psychometric testing of the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Mariette; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ulander, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. Methods: The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, item-redu...

  2. Portfolios, the Pied Piper of Teacher Certification Assessments: Legal and Psychometric Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Judy R. Wilkerson; William Steve Lang

    2003-01-01

    Since about 90% of schools, colleges, and departments of education are currently using portfolios of one form or another as decision-making tools for standards-based decisions regarding certification or licensure (as well as NCATE accreditation), it is appropriate to explore the legal and psychometric aspects of this assessment device. The authors demonstrate that portfolios being used in a high-stakes context are technically testing devices and therefore need to meet psychometric standards o...

  3. Validation of online psychometric instruments for common mental health disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; van Oppen, Patricia; Smit, Johannes H

    2016-02-25

    Online questionnaires for measuring common mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders are increasingly used. The psychometrics of several pen-and-paper questionnaires have been re-examined for online use and new online instruments have been developed and tested for validity as well. This study aims to review and synthesise the literature on this subject and provide a framework for future research. We searched Medline and PsycINFO for psychometric studies on online instruments for common mental health disorders and extracted the psychometric data. Studies were coded and assessed for quality by independent raters. We included 56 studies on 62 online instruments. For common instruments such as the CES-D, MADRS-S and HADS there is mounting evidence for adequate psychometric properties. Further results are scattered over different instruments and different psychometric characteristics. Few studies included patient populations. We found at least one online measure for each of the included mental health disorders and symptoms. A small number of online questionnaires have been studied thoroughly. This study provides an overview of online instruments to refer to when choosing an instrument for assessing common mental health disorders online, and can structure future psychometric research.

  4. Social competence in pediatric brain tumor survivors: evaluating the psychometric properties of assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fiona; Barrera, Maru

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to identify and describe the instruments that have been used to measure social competence in pediatric brain tumor patients and to summarize the psychometric properties of the most common instruments used to measure social competence in pediatric brain tumor patients. The following psychometric properties were assessed: (a) construct validity; (b) internal consistency reliability; (c) test retest and inter-rater reliability; and (d) responsiveness. Measures were evaluated based on published criteria for psychometric suitability. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the current review. Based on review of these studies, the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) yielded the most comprehensive data on psychometric properties. Psychometric properties for the SSRS were considered to be adequate in a pediatric brain tumor population. Specifically, the SSRS meets criteria for construct validity, internal consistency and responsiveness. Other commonly used measures included the CBCL/YSR, the PedsQL4.0 and the Revised Class Play each with sufficient psychometric properties. The SSRS is an appropriate tool to measure social competence in pediatric brain tumor patients. Data for inter-rater reliability and responsiveness in this population is still lacking.

  5. Psychometric properties of self-report concussion scales and checklists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Tamara C Valovich; Leach, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Alla S, Sullivan SJ, Hale L, McCrory P. Self-report scales/checklists for the measurement of concussion symptoms: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43 (suppl 1):i3-i12. Which self-report symptom scales or checklists are psychometrically sound for clinical use to assess sport-related concussion? Articles available in full text, published from the establishment of each database through December 2008, were identified from PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and AMED. Search terms included brain concussion, signs or symptoms, and athletic injuries, in combination with the AND Boolean operator, and were limited to studies published in English. The authors also hand searched the reference lists of retrieved articles. Additional searches of books, conference proceedings, theses, and Web sites of commercial scales were done to provide additional information about the psychometric properties and development for those scales when needed in articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Articles were included if they identified all the items on the scale and the article was either an original research report describing the use of scales in the evaluation of concussion symptoms or a review article that discussed the use or development of concussion symptom scales. Only articles published in English and available in full text were included. From each study, the following information was extracted by the primary author using a standardized protocol: study design, publication year, participant characteristics, reliability of the scale, and details of the scale or checklist, including name, number of items, time of measurement, format, mode of report, data analysis, scoring, and psychometric properties. A quality assessment of included studies was done using 16 items from the Downs and Black checklist1 and assessed reporting, internal validity, and external validity. The initial database search identified 421 articles. After 131 duplicate

  6. Applying Time-sharing technique in a multimodal compact low-power CMOS neurochip for simultaneous neurochemical and action potential recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poustinchi, Mohammad; Stacey, R Greg; Musallam, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Brain is an electrochemical system and recent studies suggest simultaneous measurement of interrelated brain's electrical and neurochemical activity may lead to better understanding of brain function in addition to developing optimal neural prosthetics. By exploiting opamp Time-sharing technique to minimized power dissipation and silicon area, we have fabricated a power efficient implantable CMOS microsystem for simultaneous measurement of Action Potential (AP) and neurotransmitter concentration. Both AP-recording and neurotransmitter sensing subsystems share a single 653 nW amplifier which senses picoscale to microscale current that corresponds to micromolar neurotransmitter concentration and microscale AP voltage. This microsystem is fabricated in CMOS 0.18 μm technology and tested using recorded signals from dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) area of a macaque monkey in our lab.

  7. Neurochemical modulation involved in the beneficial effect of liraglutide, GLP-1 agonist on PTZ kindling epilepsy-induced comorbidities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshal, Prashant; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which occurs due to excessive firing of excitatory neurons in specific region of brain and associated with cognitive impairment and depression. GLP-1 has been reported to maintain hyperexcitability of neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of liraglutide, GLP-1 analogue in PTZ kindling epilepsy-induced comorbidities and neurochemical alteration in mice. Male albino mice were administered PTZ (35 mg/kg) on every alternate day up to 29th days and challenge test was performed on 33rd day. From 1st day liraglutide (75 and 150 µg/kg) and diazepam (3 mg/kg) were administered up to 33rd day, 30 min prior to PTZ treatment. On 30th day animals were trained on elevated plus maze and passive shock avoidance paradigm and retention was recorded on 31st and 33rd day. On 32nd day tail suspension test was performed. Animals were sacrificed on 34th day for biochemical (LPO, GSH, and nitrite) and neurotransmitters (GABA, glutamate, DA, NE, 5-HT and their metabolites) estimation. Chronic treatment with PTZ developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures, reduced cognitive skills, increased oxidative stress and alteration in the level of neurotransmitters. Pre-treatment with liraglutide (75 and 150 μg/kg) significantly prevented the seizure severity, restored behavioural activity, oxidative defence enzymes, and altered level of neurochemicals in mice brain. The protective effect of liraglutide is attributed to restoration of altered level of GABA, glutamate, DA, NE, and 5-HT by the up-regulation of GLP-1Rs in mice brain.

  8. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Meridith T; Lu, Julie; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61) exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations.

  9. Behavioral, neurochemical and pharmaco-EEG profiles of the psychedelic drug 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páleníček, Tomáš; Fujáková, Michaela; Brunovský, Martin; Horáček, Jiří; Gorman, Ingmar; Balíková, Marie; Rambousek, Lukáš; Syslová, Kamila; Kačer, Petr; Zach, Petr; Bubeníková-Valešová, Věra; Tylš, Filip; Kubešová, Anna; Puskarčíková, Jana; Höschl, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical and pharmaco-EEG profiles of a new synthetic drug 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) in rats were examined. Locomotor effects, prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle reaction (ASR), dopamine and its metabolite levels in nucleus accumbens (NAc), EEG power spectra and coherence in freely moving rats were analysed. Amphetamine was used as a reference compound. 2C-B had a biphasic effect on locomotion with initial inhibitory followed by excitatory effect; amphetamine induced only hyperlocomotion. Both drugs induced deficits in the PPI; however they had opposite effects on ASR. 2C-B increased dopamine but decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the NAc. Low doses of 2C-B induced a decrease in EEG power spectra and coherence. On the contrary, high dose of 2C-B 50 mg/kg had a temporally biphasic effect with an initial decrease followed by an increase in EEG power; decrease as well as increase in EEG coherence was observed. Amphetamine mainly induced an increase in EEG power and coherence in theta and alpha bands. Increases in the theta and alpha power and coherence in 2C-B and amphetamine were temporally linked to an increase in locomotor activity and DA levels in NAc. 2C-B is a centrally active compound similar to other hallucinogens, entactogens and stimulants. Increased dopamine and decreased DOPAC in the NAc may reflect its psychotomimetic and addictive potential and monoaminoxidase inhibition. Alterations in brain functional connectivity reflected the behavioral and neurochemical changes produced by the drug; a correlation between EEG changes and locomotor behavior was observed.

  10. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meridith T Robins

    Full Text Available The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61 exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations.

  11. Modulatory effect of cilostazol on tramadol-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations in rats challenged across the forced swim despair test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha M. Gamil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain-associated depression is encountered clinically in some cases such as cancer, chronic neuropathy, and after operations. Tramadol is an opioid analgesic drug that may modulate monoaminergic neurotransmission by inhibition of noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake that may contribute to its antidepressant-like effects. Clinically, tramadol is used either alone or in combination with other NSAIDs in the treatment of cases associated with pain and depression, e.g. low back pain, spinal cord injury, and post-operative pain management. However, tramadol monotherapy as an antidepressant is impeded by severe adverse effects including seizures and serotonin syndrome. Interestingly, phosphodiesterase-III inhibitors demonstrated novel promising antidepressant effects. Among which, cilostazol was reported to attenuate depression in post-stroke cases, geriatrics and patients undergoing carotid artery stenting. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the possible antidepressant-like effects of tramadol and/or cilostazol on the behavioral level in experimental animals, and to examine the neurochemical and biochemical effects of tramadol, cilostazol and their combination in rats, in order to explore the probable mechanisms of action underlying their effects. To achieve our target, male albino mice and rats were randomly allocated into five groups and administered either vehicle for control, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o., tramadol HCl (20 mg/kg, p.o., cilostazol (100 mg/kg, p.o., or combination of both tramadol and cilostazol. At day 14, mice and rats were challenged in the tail suspension test and forced swim test, respectively. Rats were sacrificed and brains were isolated for determination of brain monoamines, MDA, NO, SOD, and TNF-α. The current results showed that concurrent administration of cilostazol to tramadol-treated animals modulated depression on the behavioral level, and showed ameliorative neurochemical and biochemical effects

  12. Neurochemical and electrophysiological deficits in the ventral hippocampus and selective behavioral alterations caused by high-fat diet in female C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, S; Keralapurath, M M; Lin, Z; Wagner, J J; de La Serre, C B; Harn, D A; Filipov, N M

    2015-06-25

    Mounting experimental evidence, predominantly from male rodents, demonstrates that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and ensuing obesity are detrimental to the brain. To shed additional light on the neurological consequences of HFD consumption in female rodents and to determine the relatively early impact of HFD in the likely continuum of neurological dysfunction in the context of chronic HFD intake, this study investigated effects of HFD feeding for up to 12weeks on selected behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological parameters in adult female C57BL/6 mice; particular focus was placed on the ventral hippocampus (vHIP). Selected locomotor, emotional and cognitive functions were evaluated using behavioral tests after 5weeks on HFD or control (low-fat diet) diets. One week later, mice were sacrificed and brain regional neurochemical (monoamine) analysis was performed. Behaviorally naïve mice were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 5-6weeks at which time synaptic plasticity was determined in ex vivo slices from the vHIP. HFD-fed female mice exhibited increased: (i) locomotor activity in the open field testing, (ii) mean turn time on the pole test, (iii) swimming time in the forced swim test, and (iv) number of marbles buried in the marble burying test. In contrast, the novel object recognition memory was unaffected. Mice on HFD also had decreased norepinephrine and dopamine turnover, respectively, in the prefrontal cortex and the vHIP. HFD consumption for a total of 11-12weeks altered vHIP synaptic plasticity, evidenced by significant reductions in the paired-pulse ratio and long-term potentiation (LTP) magnitude. In summary, in female mice, HFD intake for several weeks induced multiple behavioral alterations of mainly anxiety-like nature and impaired monoamine pathways in a brain region-specific manner, suggesting that in the female, certain behavioral domains (anxiety) and associated brain regions, i.e., the vHIP, are preferentially

  13. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulman Lindenberger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  14. Age-Related Decline in Brain Resources Modulates Genetic Effects on Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Ulman; Nagel, Irene E.; Chicherio, Christian; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Bäckman, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging. Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008), who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed. (150 of 150 words) PMID:19225597

  15. Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heaton Lisa J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS, as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS. Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability, and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish

  16. Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA: Development and Psychometric Properties.

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    Shahla Ghanbari

    Full Text Available Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA.This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012-2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15-18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13 and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16. In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest and factor analysis were assessed.An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15-18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93. The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy.The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15-18 and can be used to evaluate

  17. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  18. Genetic modification and genetic determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-06-26

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  19. Psychometric properties of virtual reality vignette performance measures: a novel approach for assessing adolescents' social competency skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschall, Mallie J; Fishbein, Diana H; Hubal, Robert C; Eldreth, Diana

    This study examined the psychometric properties of performance measures for three novel, interactive virtual reality vignette exercises developed to assess social competency skills of at-risk adolescents...

  20. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  1. Genetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  2. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  3. Multilevel psychometric properties of the AHRQ hospital survey on patient safety culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was designed to assess staff views on patient safety culture in hospital settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the multilevel psychometric properties of the survey. Methods Survey data from 331 U.S. hospitals with 2,267 hospital units and 50,513 respondents were analyzed to examine the psychometric properties of the survey's items and composites. Item factor loadings, intraclass correlations (ICCs), design effects, internal consistency reliabilities, and multilevel confirmatory factor analyses (MCFA) were examined as well as intercorrelations among the survey's composites. Results Psychometric analyses confirmed the multilevel nature of the data at the individual, unit and hospital levels of analysis. Results provided overall evidence supporting the 12 dimensions and 42 items included in the AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture as having acceptable psychometric properties at all levels of analysis, with a few exceptions. The Staffing composite fell slightly below cutoffs in a number of areas, but is conceptually important given its impact on patient safety. In addition, one hospital-level model fit indicator for the Supervisor/Manager Expectations & Actions Promoting Patient Safety composite was low (CFI = .82), but all other psychometrics for this scale were good. Average dimension intercorrelations were moderate at .42 at the individual level, .50 at the unit level, and .56 at the hospital level. Conclusions Psychometric analyses conducted on a very large database of hospitals provided overall support for the patient safety culture dimensions and items included in the AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The survey's items and dimensions overall are psychometrically sound at the individual, unit, and hospital levels of analysis and can be used by researchers and hospitals interested in assessing patient safety culture

  4. Psychometric properties of the Interaction on Supervised Classes Scale (ISCS

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    Adrián Pastor-Barceló

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research focuses on the construction and validation of a scale designed to assess the quality of the supervised classes: Interaction on Supervised Classes Scale (ISCS. Design/methodology/approach: This is a descriptive correlational study. For the construction of the scale three phases were performed in which different experts assessed the adequacy of the items. Finally, the psychometric properties of the final version were studied in a sample of 314 consumers (69.1% women aged between 18 and 77 with an average of 39.33 years (SD=12.25. Findings: The scale presents adequate validity and reliability, being a useful tool for measuring the interaction in Supervised Classes. Research limitations/implications: The sampling, non-probabilistic or convenience, have taken the sample of a unique sports facility and the small sample size. Practical implications: The ISCS allows managers to receive better feedback, allowing them to obtain deeper insight into the quality and satisfaction of the service. According to its results, the managers may implement different strategies to improve quality in a key service within sports centers. Originality/value: For the first time the interaction between customers and between customers and employees is evaluated both inside and outside the center, a topic that had not yet been studied in the scientific literature. The scale can be applied to any type of directed activity, and will allow a greater understanding of the quality of service.

  5. Workplace nutrition knowledge questionnaire: psychometric validation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnin, Simone C; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Dutra, Eliane S; de Carvalho, Kênia M B; Ito, Marina K

    2016-11-01

    Workplace dietary intervention studies in low- and middle-income countries using psychometrically sound measures are scarce. This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NQ) and its utility in evaluating the changes in knowledge among participants of a Nutrition Education Program (NEP) conducted at the workplace. A NQ was tested for construct validity, internal consistency and discriminant validity. It was applied in a NEP conducted at six workplaces, in order to evaluate the effect of an interactive or a lecture-based education programme on nutrition knowledge. Four knowledge domains comprising twenty-three items were extracted in the final version of the NQ. Internal consistency of each domain was significant, with Kuder-Richardson formula values>0·60. These four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the discriminant validity test, both the Expert and Lay groups scored>0·52, but the Expert group scores were significantly higher than those of the Lay group in all domains. When the NQ was applied in the NEP, the overall questionnaire scores increased significantly because of the NEP intervention, in both groups (Pnutrition knowledge among participants of NEP at the workplace. According to the NQ, an interactive nutrition education had a higher impact on nutrition knowledge than a lecture programme.

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale

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    Artemis eKoukounari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks. When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions. Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy.

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Iranian Version of Modified RHAQWRA Questionnaire

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    Roghaieh Rahmani Bilandi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to examin the psychometric characteristics of the Persian version of Reproductive Health Assessment Questionnaire for Women of Reproductive Age (RHAQWRA.Materials and methods: This study was a cross sectional study. We selected 150 women aged 18- 45 years based on convenience sampling method who lived in the Quake-hit areas  in eastern part of Iran in 2013. Some previously recognized and established instructions were undertaken in translating and adapting the RHAQWRA questionnaire culturally. We sought help and feedback from teenagers and experts in the fields of midwifery, sociology, and epidemiology to establish the face and content validity of the questionnaire. To examine the test-retest reliability indices of all the items, we used Kappa and McNemar tests.Results: The Content Validity Index (CVI and Content Validity Ratio (CVR scores for RHAQWRA were above 0.70. Results from Kappa and McNemar tests indicated a high degree of test-retest reliability. In order to evaluate the construct validity, known- group comparison (women with and without unwanted pregnancy was used. The internal consistency reliability indexes for the subscales obtained through Cronbach’s alpha were between 0.68 and 0.87.Conclusion: The findings suggest that the Iranian version of RHAQWRA is a valid and reliable questionnaire which can be used for measuring reproductive health needs during disasters.

  8. Measuring nurse managers' boundary spanning: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Mami

    2016-05-01

    To test the psychometric properties of a boundary spanning measure by nurse managers. The health-care environment requires hospital units to coordinate efforts autonomously across their boundaries and to manage relationships with other professionals, units and departments. Boundary spanning has become increasingly important for first-line nurse managers as unit gatekeepers; however, the available measures are limited. The 30-item instrument was developed from a literature review. Survey participants were 4918 nurses at 231 hospital units. Statistical analyses of construct validity and internal consistency were performed. Furthermore, the correlation between nurses' scores on the Nurse Managers Boundary Spanning Scale and nurses' evaluations of their managers were examined. Three factors and 26 items were derived from factor analyses: connecting and mediating, informing and feedback utilisation, and resource acquisition. Cronbach's subscales' alpha coefficients were above 0.9. Correlation analysis indicated that the Nurse Managers Boundary Spanning Scale score correlated with nurses' positive perceptions of their managers. This study demonstrates tentative support for the validity and reliability of the Nurse Managers Boundary Spanning Scale. Although further study is needed, the Nurse Managers Boundary Spanning Scale shows possibilities as a new measurement of nursing leadership. This study underscores measures to build on nurse managers' roles by building on the limited research available. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Psychometrics in aging and dementia: advances in geropsychological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, W D; Fleischmann, U M

    1985-12-01

    Description, explanation and prediction of changes occurring in old age, which are based on intervention, are outlined as a basic goal in gerontological research. Appropriate psychological assessment techniques are necessary to reach this goal. The Nuremberg Gerontopsychological Inventory (NAI) is introduced as a set of psychological measurements which enable reliable, valid and sensitive evaluation of intervention-induced changes in old age. Four independent assessment levels, i.e. standardized performance tests, observer-ratings, self-ratings and a personality rating are the core components of this inventory. All assessment techniques are adapted for elderly subjects. Standard scores are available for the age range 55-90 years. Interrelations between the applied independent assessment levels are reported and taken to link different aspects of intervention-induced changes. Measuring psychological performance thus gains practical significance, e.g. in terms of activities-of-daily-living. From 14 independent studies the drug sensitivity of the applied measurements is shown. Finally, some recommendations for future psychometrical research are given.

  10. Psychometric properties of the Mayo Elbow Performance Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Derya

    2015-06-01

    To translate and culturally adapt the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), a widely used instrument for evaluating disability associated with elbow injuries, into Turkish (MEPS-T) and to determine psychometric properties of the translated version. The MEPS was translated into Turkish using published methodological guidelines. The measurement properties of the MEPS-T (construct validity and floor and ceiling effects) were tested in 91 patients with elbow pathology. The reproducibility of the MEPS-T was tested in 59 patients over 7-14 days. The responsiveness of the MEPS-T was tested in a subgroup of 46 patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis and who received conservative treatment for 6 weeks. The interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to estimate the test-retest reliability. The construct validity was analyzed with the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36). Effect size (ES) was used to assess the responsiveness. The distribution of floor and ceiling effects was determined. The MEPS-T showed very good test-retest reliability (ICC 0.89). The correlation coefficients between the MEPS-T and DASH and VAS were -0.61 and -0.53, respectively (p elbow disease.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Turkish form of Codependency Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ançel, Gülsüm; Kabakçi, Elif

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Codependency Assessment Tool (CODAT) developed by C. Hughes Hammer, D. S. Martsolf, and R. A. Zeller (1998a, 1998b) for Turkish students and investigated the relationship of codependency with attachment styles and family problems. After the translation of the CODAT, Beck Depression Inventory, Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, and Family Problems of Young Adulthood Evaluation Scale, each was administrated to Turkish female nurse students (n = 400). Factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha values were then computed. Five-factor solution revealed a similar factor structure for the Turkish version of CODAT compared with that of the original tool. Five factors explained 48.38% of the variance. All of the items (with one exception) loaded on their original factors. Cronbach's alpha values for factors ranged between .62 and .78. For the total score, Cronbach's alpha was found to be .75. After statistically controlling for the effects of depressive symptoms, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to investigate if the attachment styles and family problems would change depending on codependency levels. For ANCOVAs, CODAT scores were treated at three levels. Students with higher CODAT scores had more attachment-related anxiety and reported more family problems after controlling for the effects of depressive symptoms. Our research results support the internal consistency and validity of the Turkish version of CODAT.

  12. The application of personal computers in psychometric testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    l. S. Shaw

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available Personal computers in psychometric testing represent an efficient, inexpensive, user-friendly, and reliable tool for research and training. They offer a number of substantial advantages for both test subjects and test directors. Personal computer-aided testing programs provide for the instruction of test subjects, the presentation of test patterns, the automatic evaluation of results, automatic data collection and statistical processing. Test results can be saved, compared with standard values, and printed out in various formats. User-friendly programming reduces the test directors' work to a minimum and relieve them from routine tasks. Flexibility and low cost are further advantages. Opsomming Die gebruik van persoonlike rekenaars vir .psigometriese toetse word as doeltreffende, goedkoop, gebruikerriendelike en betroubare werktuie vir navorsing en opieiding beskou. Hulle bled 'n aantal belangrike voordele aan vir toetslinge asook toetsleiers. Persoonlike rekenaarondersteunde toetsprogramme behels die voorligting van toetslinge, die vertoning van toetspatrone, die outomatiese evaluering van toetsresultate, outomatiese dataversameling asook statistiese dataverwerking. Toetsresultate kan gestoor, met standaardwaardes vergelyk en in verskeie formate uitgedruk word. Die toetsleier se werkbelading word deur middel van gebruikervriendelike programmering tot 'n minimum verminder en hy word ook van routine take bevry. Verdere voordele soos buigsaamheid en lae koste word ook beklemtoon.

  13. Psychometric properties of the Burnout Inventory for Referees

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    Maria Regina Ferreira Brandão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Burnout Inventory for Referees (BIR in Portuguese in a sample of professional soccer referees and to explore the nomological validity of the inventory through concurrent validation. The analysis showed a factorial structure of burnout for the referees with one second order factor and three first order factors; physical and emotional exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. A cross-validation procedure showed that the factor structure was replicable, and the inventory demonstrated internal reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. In addition, the study assessed the concurrent validity of the inventory by examining the correlation between the scores of the Burnout Inventory for Referees and the scores of the Profile of Mood States (POMS. The subscales of burnout and total burnout were positively correlated with tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion and negatively with vigor, as expected. In conclusion, the Portuguese version of BIR presents good evidence of validity and reliability in the assessment of referees who may be at risk of suffering from burnout.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Modified Tonic Immobility Scale

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    Arturo Bados

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tonic Immobility Scale has been only studied in abuse and/or sexual assault survivors, but tonic immobility (TI also occurs after other types of traumatic events. Consequently, we modified the scale for this purpose and studied its factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent, divergent and discriminant validity in 392 university students, most of whom had suffered one or more traumatic events of various kinds. The Fear subscale of the Modified Tonic Immobility Scale (MTIS showed very low internal consistency, and must be eliminated or reformulated. Discrimination indices of items 5 and 8 were very low, and tríese items must be reformulated or removed. After removing the five previous items, the shortened version of the MTIS had a one-factor structure, although model fit was not completely satisfactory. This scale showed acceptable levels of reliability, convergent validity with post-traumatic symptomatology, divergent validity with measures of depression and anxiety, and discriminant validity differentiating between groups that had and had not experienced traumatic events. The psychometric properties of the shortened version of the MTIS should be studied further. It may also be advisable to add new items of TI in order to establish whether this is a construct with more than one dimension.

  15. Vista: A Software for Teaching Statistics and Psychometrics

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    Valero-Mora, Pedro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, teaching statistics is almost undisputedly always done using some sort of software for carrying out the computations. Indeed, the range of choices available for that purpose is wide and with a lot of variety. The present work describes the capabilities of one of the systems currently available for teaching of statistics: ViSta, the Visual Statistics System. As ViSta’s developers, we wish to point out the following features as specially appealing for using it at the classroom: a price and availability, it is free and can be downloaded on-line; b flexibility, it is an open system, extensible and adaptable for different users and needs; c simplicity, it has a simple and intuitive user interface that facilitates the management, transformation and data analysis; and d its graphical power, as it implements visualization methods that allow carrying out demonstrations of concepts and data analysis techniques. These capabilities are illustrated using a specific application to the teaching of psychometrics. The limitations and perspectives of development of the system are finally discussed.

  16. The Desire Thinking Questionnaire: development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Gabriele; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2011-11-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. Recent research has highlighted the role of desire thinking in the maintenance of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders. The goal of this research project was to develop the first self-report measure of desire thinking. In Study 1 we constructed the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and conducted a preliminary factor analysis which identified two factors. The first factor concerned the perseveration of verbal thoughts about desire-related content and experience and was named 'Verbal Perseveration'. The second factor concerned the tendency to prefigure images about desire-related content and experience and was named 'Imaginal Prefiguration'. In Study 2 we performed a confirmatory factor analysis which provided support for this two factor solution, with both factors achieving adequate internal consistency. Divergent validity was also established through correlation analyses. In Study 3 the temporal stability of the DTQ was examined and confirmed. Finally, in Study 4, the predictive validity of the DTQ in a sample of alcohol abusers was investigated. The DTQ was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as divergent and predictive validity. This self-report measure may aid future research into desire thinking and craving, as well as facilitate assessment and case formulation within the context of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders.

  17. The Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Preschool Activity Card Sort

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    Somaya H. Malkawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS is an interview-based assessment tool to measure participation of preschool children with age range from 3 to 6 years. Objective of Study. The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the recently translated Arabic PACS (A-PACS. Methods. One hundred fifty-one Jordanian parents participated in the study representing different geographical areas. Children were almost equally distributed between males and females and into three age groups. Construct and concurrent validity were examined as well as the internal consistency of the scale and the test-retest reliability. Findings. The A-PACS was able to differentiate between the participation level of young and old children in the domains of education, community mobility, and low demand leisure of the A-PACS giving evidence to its construct validity and it significantly correlated with some aspects of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS giving evidence to its concurrent validity. The A-PACS showed excellent overall internal consistency (α=.859 for all domains and good test-retest reliability (r=.976, p<.001. Conclusion. The A-PACS can be considered as a valid and reliable tool to measure participation of preschool children with normal development from Arabic cultures. Future studies should focus on the validity of the A-PACS for use with children with disabilities.

  18. The Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Preschool Activity Card Sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Dahab, Sana M. N.; Amro, Ahmad F.; Almasri, Nihad A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS) is an interview-based assessment tool to measure participation of preschool children with age range from 3 to 6 years. Objective of Study The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the recently translated Arabic PACS (A-PACS). Methods One hundred fifty-one Jordanian parents participated in the study representing different geographical areas. Children were almost equally distributed between males and females and into three age groups. Construct and concurrent validity were examined as well as the internal consistency of the scale and the test-retest reliability. Findings The A-PACS was able to differentiate between the participation level of young and old children in the domains of education, community mobility, and low demand leisure of the A-PACS giving evidence to its construct validity and it significantly correlated with some aspects of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) giving evidence to its concurrent validity. The A-PACS showed excellent overall internal consistency (α = .859) for all domains and good test-retest reliability (r = .976, p < .001). Conclusion The A-PACS can be considered as a valid and reliable tool to measure participation of preschool children with normal development from Arabic cultures. Future studies should focus on the validity of the A-PACS for use with children with disabilities.

  19. Psychometric equivalence of recorded spondaic words as test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, R C; Matthies, M L; Meyer, T A; Griffiths, S K

    1998-06-01

    In the determination of the speech-reception threshold (SRT), spondaic words are assumed to be homogeneous with respect to intelligibility; and the assumption of equal intelligibility requires that the words be comparable for all signal levels. Previous attempts to assess the equal intelligibility assumption using word thresholds as the sole criterion are not an adequate basis for specifying the equality of intelligibility. In the present study, the recorded spondaic words (Tillman recording) were analyzed in an attempt to create a more homogeneous set of spondaic words for future laboratory work. To achieve this goal, the data reported by Young, Dudley, and Gunter (1982) and data collected in our laboratory were fitted to a logistic function (psychometric function) from which a 50% point (threshold) and slope were obtained. To specify their acoustical parameters, the recorded spondaic words were digitized and the RMS level and duration of each syllable and word were calculated. None of the RMS or duration measures were correlated with word thresholds, so no attempt was made to equate level or duration. On the other hand, when the threshold of each word was adjusted to equal the mean threshold of the set (n = 36), the dispersion among word thresholds and slopes was greatly reduced. Further, we recommend that small sets of "equally intelligible" spondaic words not be used for clinical testing because set size is a strong factor in determining threshold for spondees (Meyer & Bilger, 1997; Punch & Howard, 1985).

  20. Psychometric development of the hypersexual behavior consequences scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rory C; Garos, Sheila; Fong, Timothy

    2012-09-01

    Background and aims The past decade has seen an increased interest in understanding hypersexual behavior and its associated features. Beyond the obvious risks for sexually transmitted infections, there is a paucity of literature examining specific challenges encountered by hypersexual individuals. This study investigated and developed a new scale, the Hypersexual Behavior Consequences Scale (HBCS), to assess the various consequences reported among hypersexual patients. Methods Participants were drawn from a sample of patients recruited in a DSM-5 Field Trial for Hypersexual Disorder (HD). Participants completed the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, a structured diagnostic interview to assess for psychopathology and HD, and self-report measures of personality, life satisfaction, and the initial item pool for the HBCS. Results Factor analysis reduced the HBCS items to a single factor solution which showed high internal consistency and stability over time. Higher HBCS scores were positively correlated with higher levels of emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness and lower levels of satisfaction with life and happiness. HBCS scores among the hypersexual patients were significantly higher than non-hypersexual patients. Conclusions The HBCS possesses good psychometric properties and appears to capture various consequences associated with the DSM-5 proposed criteria for HD. The HBCS can be used to aid clinicians and researchers in identifying consequences associated with hypersexual behavior. The HBCS may also prove a useful tool to guide treatment interventions aimed at reducing the negative impact of hypersexuality in patient populations.

  1. The Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Psychometric Validity of Individual Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Rorschach, 1921/1942 ), theorists, researchers, and practitioners have been debating the nature of the task, its conceptual foundation, and most important its psychometric properties. The validity of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1974 , 2003; Exner & Weiner, 1995 ) has been supported by several meta-analyses that used different types of nontest external criterion for validating individual variables. In a recent meta-analysis, Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel ( 2013 ) found coefficients ranging from modest to excellent for most of the selected CS variables, with 13 of them reported as showing "little to no support." This article focuses on these variables. Although endorsing Mihura et al.'s mainly validating findings, we also suggest that the evidence presented for the little or no validity of these 13 variables is not quite compelling enough to warrant changing their definition or coding, or removing them from the system. We point to some issues concerning the description and interpretation of these variables and the appropriateness of the external criteria used for exploring their validity, and suggest considering these issues in further CS research. Implications of Mihura et al.'s meta-analysis for clinical and forensic practice are discussed.

  2. Psychometric properties of Conversion Disorder Scale- Revised (CDS) for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Tazvin; Nasir, Attikah; Sarfraz, Naema; Ijaz, Shirmeen

    2017-05-01

    To revise conversion disorder scale and to establish the psychometric properties of the revised scale. This case-control study was conducted from February to June, 2014, at the Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised schoolchildren and children with conversion disorder. In order to generate items for revised version of conversion disorder scale, seven practising mental health professionals were consulted. A list of 42 items was finalised for expert ratings. After empirical validation, a scale of 40 items was administered on the participants and factor analysis was conducted. Of the240 participants, 120(50%) were schoolchildren (controls group) and 120(50%)were children with conversion disorder (clinical group).The results of factor analysis revealed five factors (swallowing and speech symptoms, motor symptoms, sensory symptoms, weakness and fatigue, and mixed symptoms) and retention of all 40 items of revised version of conversion disorder scale. Concurrent validity of the revised scale was found to be 0.81 which was significantly high. Similarly, discriminant validity of the scale was also high as both clinical and control groups had significant difference (pconversion disorder scale was 76% sensitive to predicting conversion disorder while specificity showed that the scale was 73% accurate in specifying participants of the control group. The revised version of conversion disorder scale was a reliable and valid tool to be used for screening of children with conversion disorder.

  3. Psychometric properties of the positivity scale - Brazilian version

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    Juliane Callegaro Borsa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Positivity Scale (P-Scale. Participants were 730 subjects (65% women, aged from 17 to 70 years old (M = 31.0 years; SD = 11.43, from 21 Brazilian states. The sample was randomly split in two halves to cross-validate the results. With the first half of the sample (n1 = 365, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted. With the second half of the sample (n2 = 365, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA assessed the fit of the exploratory model. Convergent validity and group differences were also evaluated. The EFA and CFA presented a one-dimensional structure for the P-Scale. Moderate correlations were found between the P-Scale and mental-health, subjective happiness and life-satisfaction. The levels of positivity presented a low positive correlation with age, educational level and financial income. Slightly significant effects were found for occupational status and marital status. Positivity appears to be more closely related to personal dispositions than to sociodemographic aspects. Our results suggest that the P-Scale is a reliable measure with which to evaluate the levels of positivity in Brazil.

  4. Psycho-informatics: Big Data shaping modern psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowetz, Alexander; Błaszkiewicz, Konrad; Montag, Christian; Switala, Christina; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2014-04-01

    For the first time in history, it is possible to study human behavior on great scale and in fine detail simultaneously. Online services and ubiquitous computational devices, such as smartphones and modern cars, record our everyday activity. The resulting Big Data offers unprecedented opportunities for tracking and analyzing behavior. This paper hypothesizes the applicability and impact of Big Data technologies in the context of psychometrics both for research and clinical applications. It first outlines the state of the art, including the severe shortcomings with respect to quality and quantity of the resulting data. It then presents a technological vision, comprised of (i) numerous data sources such as mobile devices and sensors, (ii) a central data store, and (iii) an analytical platform, employing techniques from data mining and machine learning. To further illustrate the dramatic benefits of the proposed methodologies, the paper then outlines two current projects, logging and analyzing smartphone usage. One such study attempts to thereby quantify severity of major depression dynamically; the other investigates (mobile) Internet Addiction. Finally, the paper addresses some of the ethical issues inherent to Big Data technologies. In summary, the proposed approach is about to induce the single biggest methodological shift since the beginning of psychology or psychiatry. The resulting range of applications will dramatically shape the daily routines of researches and medical practitioners alike. Indeed, transferring techniques from computer science to psychiatry and psychology is about to establish Psycho-Informatics, an entire research direction of its own.

  5. Psychometric assessment of the craving to tan questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bonar, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians suggest that excessive tanning may be a behavioral addiction. Given the significance of craving in substance use, craving may be a useful construct to assess in those who tan. We designed this study to assess the psychometric properties of an alcohol craving measure adapted to measure past-week craving to tan. Undergraduate students (n = 421) who reported past-month tanning completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed demographics, tanning-related characteristics, and psychopathology, in addition to the Craving to Tan Questionnaire (CTQ). Analyses provided support for a single factor CTQ with good internal consistency, construct validity and convergent validity. CTQ scores were significantly higher among problematic versus non-problematic and dependent versus non-dependent tanners. CTQ scores were also associated with several tanning-related characteristics, such money spent on tanning in a typical month, frequency of tanning, and frequency of tanning-related problems. Additional analyses found that past-week craving to tan was significantly associated with greater obsessive compulsive and body dysmorphic symptoms. It may be useful in clinical settings to identify those experiencing problems with tanning and in research to further clarify the conceptualization of addiction-like tanning. However, the CTQ needs further evaluation.

  6. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    OpenAIRE

    Vorhaus Daniel B; Resnik David B

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound....

  7. Psychometric Properties of Questionnaires on Functional Health Status in Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Results. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. Conclusions. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature. PMID:24877095

  8. Systematic review of the psychometric properties of balance measures for cerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winser, Stanley J; Smith, Catherine M; Hale, Leigh A; Claydon, Leica S; Whitney, Susan L; Mehta, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    To review systematically the psychometric properties of balance measures for use in people with cerebellar ataxia. Medline, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science and EMBASE were searched between 1946 and April 2014. Two reviewers independently searched data sources. Cerebellar-specific and generic measures of balance were considered. Included studies tested psychometric properties of balance measures in people with cerebellar ataxia of any cause. Quality of reported studies was rated using the Consensus Based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. Twenty-one articles across which 16 measures had been tested were included for review. Using the COSMIN, quality of methodology in studies investigating psychometric properties of generic balance measures (n=10) was rated predominantly as 'poor'. Furthermore, responsiveness has not been tested for any generic measures in this population. The quality of studies investigating psychometric properties of balance sub-components of the cerebellar-specific measures (n=6) ranged from 'poor' to 'excellent'; however, Minimally Clinically Important Difference has not been determined for these cerebellar-specific measures. The Posture and Gait (PG) sub-component of the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) demonstrates the most robust psychometric properties with acceptable clinical utility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Psychometric properties of questionnaires on functional health status in oropharyngeal dysphagia: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature.

  10. Psychometric testing of the Italian and French versions of the Care Dependency Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Simeon Joel; Vangelooven, Christa; Borter, Natalie; Schnyder, Daniel; Hahn, Sabine

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test psychometrically the Italian and French versions of the Care Dependency Scale. The Care Dependency Scale assesses changes in patients' level of care dependency including important functional and mental dimensions. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Italian version is still ongoing. The French version has to date not been validated. Nationwide cross-sectional point prevalence study. Data were extracted from the national, annual prevalence survey of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers and inpatient falls in Swiss acute care hospitals in 2011. A total of 799 Italian and 1068 French-speaking patients were included in the analysis. For the evaluation, the psychometric properties were tested for each language both separately and conjointly. The scales revealed high internal consistency. Factor analysis presented a one-factor solution for both versions separately as well as combined. Comparison of internal structure revealed an excellent degree of equivalence between the versions. Highly significant Spearman correlations between the Care Dependency Scale and the Braden Scale sum scores indicated satisfactory criterion validity. Both the Italian and the French versions of the Care Dependency Scale showed satisfactory psychometric properties and a high level of equivalence. Further psychometric testing, using modern test theory approaches, is required. However, the scale is recommended as a valid instrument for further use in Italian and French. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Psychometrical indicators of the Russian-language version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale

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    Serguei Petrovich Yelshansky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Satisfaction with life is one of the basic concepts of positive psychology. Unsa-tisfied with the life person is unlikely to feel happy or to experience any positive feeling. The article presents the results of research on psychometric indicators of the Russian version of the scale of satisfaction with life. The number of points of the scale shows the level of life satisfaction. The subjects of the study were psychometric indicators of Russian language version of the scale – reliability, validity, internal consistency.Methodology. We used standard psychometric procedures for checking these parameters. Assessment of the retest reliability of the test and its validity (by analyzing correlations with contrasted and similar parameters, as well as an analysis of several indicators of internal consistency have been done.Results. In the study, the authors developed an original Russian-language version of the test; new data on its psychometric indicators have been received. The results of psychometric studies have found high retest reliability of the Russian version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale, its good internal consistency, confirmed its validity.Practical implications. Presented original translation of the scale can be used in work with Russian-speaking examinees in scientific psychological research, and in the work of psychologists-practitioners and psychotherapists focused on positive psychology and methods of development of personal potential.

  12. Etiology of infantile autism: a review of recent advances in genetic and neurobiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, G; Srivastava, L; Walker, C D

    1999-01-01

    The etiology of autism is complex, and in most cases the underlying pathologic mechanisms are unknown. Autism is a hetereogeneous disorder, diagnosed subjectively on the basis of a large number of criteria. Recent research has investigated genetics, in utero insults and brain function as well as neurochemical and immunological factors. On the basis of family and twin studies, there appears to be a genetic basis for a wide "autistic syndrome." About a quarter of cases of autism are associated with genetic disorders such as fragile X syndrome or with infectious diseases such as congenital rubella. Genetic studies have shown an association between autism markers of brain development such as 3 markers of the c-Harvey-ros oncogene and the homeobox gene EN2. In some cases, autism is associated with insults early in gestation, including thalidomide embryopathy. Autism may arise from abnormal central nervous system functioning, since most autistic patients have indications of brain dysfunction, and about half of them have abnormal electroencephalograms. Similarly, the pattern of evoked response potentials and conduction time is altered in autistic children. There is substantial evidence from neuroimaging studies that dysfunctions in the cerebellum and possibly the temporal lobe and association cortex occur in autistic symptoms. Neurochemical studies have investigated the role of serotonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine, since levels of these neurotransmitters are altered in autism, although other hypotheses implicate overactive brain opioid systems and changes in oxytocin neurotransmission. Autoimmunity may also play a role; antibodies against myelin basic protein are often found in children with autism, who also have increased eosinophil and basophil response to IgE-mediated reactions. In summary, the prevailing view is that autism is caused by a pathophysiologic process arising from the interaction of an early environmental insult and a genetic predisposition. PMID

  13. [Psychometric approach of metacognition: Pilot study in clinical population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visinet, A; Soumet-Leman, C; Baptista, A; Bungener, C; Jouvent, R

    2017-04-01

    Metacognition describes the process of thinking about one's own thought processes. This concept was introduced by Flavell in 1979 and has since been widely developed in the cognitive approach to mood and anxiety disorders. As it happens, many recent studies have underlined the links between metacognition and anxio-depressive symptoms, pointing out the interest of assessing its various dimensions. The short form of the Metacognitions Questionnaire is a brief multidimensional measure of a range of metacognitive processes and metacognitive beliefs about worry and cognition relevant to the vulnerability to and the maintenance of emotional disorders. The aim of this study was twofold: firstly to adapt and validate a French version of the short form of the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30) and to assess its psychometric properties in a clinical sample, and secondly to investigate metacognitive predictors of anxiety and depression in this sample. The sample included 55 clinical participants (24 men, 31 women, mean age=51.33±14.62) with DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorders (major depression, bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder). Instrument reliability (internal consistency), construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis), and convergent validity were measured. The total score and the five subscale scores were also compared with previous results in non-clinical samples. Reliability analyses indicated that the French version of the MCQ-30 possessed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.84), and confirmatory factor analysis supported the MCQ's original five-factor structure. Correlation with measurements of depression, anxiety and pathological worry demonstrated convergent validity (r=0.62, Pmetacognition, in relation to the anxio-depressive symptomatology and the subsequent management of patients. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Irish Management Standards Indicator Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, S; Kerr, R; Murray, P

    2016-12-01

    Work Positive is Ireland's national policy initiative to control work-related stress. Since the introduction of the UK Health and Safety Executive's Management Standards (MS) in 2004, a number of studies have been undertaken to assess the potential adaptation of the MS framework within Ireland. To investigate the dimensionality, reliability and validity of the Irish version of the MS Indicator Tool (ROI-MSIT). Between February 2011 and June 2014, we collected data from a wide range of public and private sector organizations that used the ROI-MSIT. In addition to the ROI-MSIT, respondents completed the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to determine whether the ROI-MSIT maintained the structure of the UK instrument. The internal consistency of the ROI-MSIT was also assessed to determine its reliability, while its criterion-related validity was explored through correlation analysis with the WHO-5. Data were collected from 7377 participants. The factor structure of the ROI-MSIT consisted of six factors; the Demands, Control, Peer Support, Relationships and Role factors were equivalent to the original UK factors. Like the Italian version, a principal factor emerged that combined the Manager Support and Change domains. Cronbach's alpha scores ranged from 0.75 to 0.91. Finally, the ROI-MSIT's subscales and WHO-5 were positively correlated (r = 0.42-0.59, P psychometric evaluation of the ROI-MSIT is recommended. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Development and psychometric testing of the Ascent to Competence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Michelle A; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Pitt, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the development and psychometric testing of the Ascent to Competence Scale, an instrument designed to measure nursing students' perceptions of the quality of their clinical placement experience. The key purpose of clinical placements is to facilitate students' learning and progress toward the attainment of competence. The attainment of competence requires personal commitment and active involvement of students; support and guidance of clinical and academic staff; and clinical environments that are welcoming and inclusive of students. The items for the Ascent to Competence Scale were identified following a critical review of the literature. Content and face validity were established by an expert panel. During 2010 the instrument was tested with third year nursing students (n=88) from one Australian university. Exploratory factor analysis with promax oblique rotation was used to determine construct validity and Cronbach's coefficient alpha determined the scale's internal consistency reliability. The final scale demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (alpha 0.98). Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-component structure termed "Being welcomed"; "Belongingness" and "Learning and competence". Each subscale demonstrated high internal consistency: 0.89; 0.96; and 0.95 respectively. The Ascent to Competence Scale provides a fresh perspective on clinical placements as it allows for the relationship between belongingness, learning and competence to be explored. The scale was reliable and valid for this cohort. Further research in different contexts would be valuable in extending upon this work. The Ascent to Competence Scale profiled in this paper will be of benefit to both educational and healthcare institutions. The use of a quantified yardstick, such as the Ascent to Competence Scale, is important in evaluating the efficacy of programs, placements and partnerships between higher education and health services. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd

  16. A nurses' alarm fatigue questionnaire: development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabizadeh, Camellia; Yousefinya, Amirhossein; Zand, Farid; Rakhshan, Mahnaz; Fararooei, Mohammad

    2016-11-15

    Alarm fatigue can adversely affect nurses' efficiency and concentration on their tasks, which is a threat to patients' safety. The purpose of the present study was to develop and test the psychometric accuracy of an alarm fatigue questionnaire for nurses. This study was conducted in two stages: in stage one, in order to establish the different aspects of the concept of alarm fatigue, the researchers reviewed the available literature-articles and books-on alarm fatigue, and then consulted several experts in a meeting to define alarm fatigue and develop statements for the questionnaire. In stage two, after the final draft had been approved, the validity of the instrument was measured using the two methods of face validity (the quantitative and qualitative approaches) and content validity (the qualitative and quantitative approaches). Test-retest, Cronbach's alpha, and Principal Component Analysis were used for item reduction and reliability analysis. Based on the results of stage one, the researchers extracted 30 statements based on a 5-point Likert scale. In stage two, after the face and content validity of the questionnaire had been established, 19 statements were left in the instrument. Based on factor loadings of the items and "alpha if item deleted" and after the second round of consultation with the expert panel, six items were removed from the scale. The test of the reliability of nurses' alarm fatigue questionnaire based on the internal homogeneity and retest methods yielded the following results: test-retest correlation coefficient = 0.99; Guttman split-half correlation coefficient = 0.79; Cronbach's alpha = 0.91. Regarding the importance of recognizing alarm fatigue in nurses, there is need for an instrument to measure the phenomenon. The results of the study show that the developed questionnaire is valid and reliable enough for measuring alarm fatigue in nurses.

  17. Development and psychometric testing of the Supportive Supervisory Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S

    2010-06-01

    To describe the development and psychometric testing of the Supportive Supervisory Scale (SSS). The development of the items of the scale was based on Winnicott's relationship theory and on focus groups with 26 healthcare aides (HCAs) and 30 supervisors from six long-term care (LTC) facilities in Ontario, Canada. Content validity of the 15-item instrument was established by a panel of experts. Based on a secondary analysis of data collected from 222 HCAs in 10 LTC facilities in Ontario, Canada, the SSS was subjected to principal components analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with the theoretical conceptualization of the instrument. Factor I was labeled Respects Uniqueness and Factor II was labeled Being Reliable. Internal consistency of Factor I was .95, and that of Factor II was .91. Discriminant validity was also established. The focus groups revealed that "being available to staff" while "recognizing the HCA as an individual, and taking a moment to get to know them" was essential to feeling supported by their supervisor. The SSS is a reliable and valid measure of supervisory support of supervisors working in LTC facilities. At the core of supportive supervision is the supervisor's ability to develop and maintain positive relationships with each HCA. It is through respecting the uniqueness of each HCA and being reliable that supervisor-HCA relationships can flourish. Supportive leadership in LTC settings is a major contributor to HCAs' job satisfaction and retention and to quality of patient care. Therefore, a tool developed and tested to measure supervisors' supportive capacities in LTC is primal to evaluate the effectiveness of supervisors in these environments.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Questionnaire for Secondary Traumatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Weitkamp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past several years, there has been a growing interest in the negative effects that providing therapy may have on therapists. Of special interest is a phenomenon called secondary traumatization, which can arise while working with traumatized clients. To develop a simple screening tool for secondary traumatization, a quantitative assessment instrument was constructed using a data-driven approach based on qualitative interviews with affected trauma therapists as well as experienced supervisors in trauma therapy. Objective: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the newly developed Questionnaire for Secondary Traumatization (FST acute and lifetime version and to determine the most appropriate scoring procedure. Method: To this end, three independent samples of psychotherapists (n=371, trauma therapists in training (n=80, and refugee counselors (n=197 filled out an online questionnaire battery. Data structure was analyzed using factor analyses, cluster analyses, and reliability analyses. Results: Factor analyses yielded a six-factor structure for both the acute and the lifetime version with only a small number of items loading on differing factors. Cluster analyses suggested a single scale structure of the questionnaire. The FST total score showed good internal consistencies across all three samples, while internal consistency of the six extracted factors was mixed. Conclusion: With the FST, a reliable screening instrument for acute and lifetime secondary traumatization is now available which is free of charge and yields a sum score for quick evaluation. The six-factor structure needs to be verified with confirmatory factor analyses.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Greek Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontodimopoulos Nick

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Measurement of treatment satisfaction in diabetes is important as it has been shown to be associated with positive outcomes, reduced disease cost and better health. The aim of this study was to assess the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Greek version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ. Methods A sample of type II diabetes patients (N = 172 completed the DTSQ status version, the SF-36 health survey and also provided data regarding treatment method, clinical and socio-demographic status. Instrument structure, reliability (Cronbach's a and construct validity (convergent, discriminative, concurrent and known-groups were assessed. Results The DTSQ measurement properties were confirmed in the Greek version with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Scale reliability was high (Cronbach's a = 0.92. Item-scale internal consistency and discriminant validity were also good, exceeding the designated success criteria. Significant correlations were observed between DTSQ items/overall score and SF-36 scales/component scores, which were hypothesized to measure similar dimensions. Known groups' comparisons yielded consistent support of the construct validity of the instrument. Conclusions The instrument was well-accepted by the patients and its psychometric properties were similar to those reported in validation studies of other language versions. Further research, incorporating a longitudinal study design, is required for examining test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instrument, which were not addressed in this study. Overall, the present results confirm that the DTSQ status version is a reasonable choice for measuring diabetes treatment satisfaction in Greece.

  20. D-Catch instrument : development and psychometric testing of a measurement instrument for nursing documentation in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos M. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2010-01-01

    P>Title. D-Catch instrument: development and psychometric testing of a measurement instrument for nursing documentation in hospitals. Aim. This paper is a report of the development and testing of the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure the accuracy of nursing documentation in general

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale among Turkish University Students, Correctional Officers, and Elderly Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Mithat; Senol-Durak, Emre; Gencoz, Tulin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to extensively examine the psychometric properties of adapted version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in different Turkish samples. In order to test the psychometric properties of the SWLS three separate and independent samples are utilized in this study, namely university students (n = 547), correctional officers (n =…

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale among Turkish University Students, Correctional Officers, and Elderly Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Mithat; Senol-Durak, Emre; Gencoz, Tulin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to extensively examine the psychometric properties of adapted version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in different Turkish samples. In order to test the psychometric properties of the SWLS three separate and independent samples are utilized in this study, namely university students (n = 547), correctional officers (n =…

  3. Genetic barcodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz -Ulrich G

    2015-08-04

    Herein are described multicolor FISH probe sets termed "genetic barcodes" targeting several cancer or disease-related loci to assess gene rearrangements and copy number changes in tumor cells. Two, three or more different fluorophores are used to detect the genetic barcode sections thus permitting unique labeling and multilocus analysis in individual cell nuclei. Gene specific barcodes can be generated and combined to provide both numerical and structural genetic information for these and other pertinent disease associated genes.

  4. Screening Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in children: Outcomes from utilitarian versus specialist psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Aldridge, Victoria K; Martin, Clarissa I; Wilken, Markus; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the specificity and sensitivity of two commonly used psychometric methods to assess ARFID in children. To achieve this, a sample of 329 mothers and one father completed the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) and the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that both measures were able to successfully differentiate a known clinical sample from those of typically developing population. Although the BPFAS was more accurate at differentiating ARFID from the general population, the CFNS was acceptable and on some metrics better than its longer counterpart. The ability of a food neophobia scale to differentiate clinical and population samples, and detect gradation of food avoidance within the population sample, suggests that the multitude of psychometric measures available may be measuring similar constructs. Therefore, confidence can be expected in cross-site comparisons despite each using different psychometric measures of food avoidance in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The 'caring experience': Testing the psychometric properties of the Caring Efficacy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Carol; Courtney, Mary; Anderson, Debra; Hurst, Cameron

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to undertake rigorous psychometric testing of the Caring Efficacy Scale in a sample of Registered Nurses. A cross-sectional survey of 2000 registered nurses was undertaken. The Caring Efficacy Scale was utilized to inform the psychometric properties of the selected items of the Caring Efficacy Scale. Cronbach's Alpha identified reliability of the data. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were undertaken to validate the factors. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the development of two factors; Confidence to Care and Doubts and Concerns. The Caring Efficacy Scale has undergone rigorous psychometric testing, affording evidence of internal consistency and goodness-of-fit indices within satisfactory ranges. The Caring Efficacy Scale is valid for use in an Australian population of registered nurses. The scale can be used as a subscale or total score reflective of self-efficacy in nursing. This scale may assist nursing educators to predict levels of caring efficacy.

  6. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atari, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Tylka and Wood-Barcalow (2015b) developed the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) as a psychometrically robust measure that is conceptually consistent with recent findings on positive body image. The present study aimed to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the BAS-2 in Iran. Participants were 568 men and 525 women from seven universities in Tehran, Iran. Two exploratory factor analyses were performed on data from women and men separately. Similar to the original English version, the Persian BAS-2 had a one-factor solution. Persian BAS-2 scores had satisfactory convergent validity (indexed by significantly correlations with self-esteem and life satisfaction) and internal consistency. Men had significantly higher scores on BAS-2 compared to women. The present study suggests that the Persian BAS-2 has adequate psychometric properties to assess body appreciation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2014-01-01

    development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Methods: Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings......-retest reliability, adequate concurrent validity, and good construct validity. High factor loadings between the five MiDAS Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items, levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement ,and Enjoyment, were found. Conclusions: This study indicates that MiDAS has good psychometric properties...... despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other...

  8. Psychometric Field Study of Hereditary Angioedema Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Nieves; Remor, Eduardo; Pérez-Fernández, Elia

    2016-01-01

    was to perform a cross-cultural validation and psychometric study of the HAE-QoL in an international setting. METHODS: Cross-cultural adaptation of the Spanish HAE-QoL draft version and an international rating phase with experts were performed. The resultant version of the HAE-QoL, a clinical questionnaire......, and Short Form 36-item Health Survey Version 2.0 (SF-36v2) were pilot tested internationally. Item reduction was based on both descriptive and exploratory factor analysis. Psychometric properties were assessed. RESULTS: Cross-cultural adaptation of the HAE-QoL was performed in 18 countries. The draft...... and social functioning, concern about offspring, perceived control over illness, and mental health). Strong psychometric properties were observed (Cronbach's α 0.92; test-retest reliability 0.87). Convergent validity showed mild to moderate correlations with SF-36v2 physical and mental component summaries (0...

  9. An evaluation of the HM prison service "thinking skills programme" using psychometric assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbett, Matthew J; Sellen, Joselyn L

    2014-04-01

    The most widely implemented offending behaviour programme in the United Kingdom was Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS), a cognitive-behavioural group intervention that aimed to develop participant's general cognitive skills. A new offending behaviour programme has been developed to replace ETS: the Thinking Skills Programme (TSP). This study reports an evaluation of the effectiveness of TSP using psychometric assessments. Phasing of the two programmes created an opportunity to compare the two programmes consecutively. Forty participants, 20 from each programme, completed a range of psychometric measures to examine cognition, attitudes, and thinking styles. Analysis of pre- and post-programme psychometric results indicated that participants of TSP demonstrated improvements on 14 of the 15 scales, 9 of which were statistically significant. Effect sizes between pre-post results were generally greater for TSP than ETS, demonstrating that TSP had a more positive impact on the thinking styles and attitudes of participants than the ETS programme.

  10. The Functional Idiographic Assessment Template-Questionnaire (FIAT-Q): Initial Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Sabrina M; Callaghan, Glenn C; Bonow, Jordan T; Follette, William C

    2014-04-01

    The evidence based assessment (EBA) movement stresses the importance of psychological measures with strong psychometric properties and clinical utility. The Functional Idiographic Assessment Template system (FIAT; Callaghan, 2006) is a functional analytic behavioral approach to the assessment of interpersonal functioning for use with therapies like Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991). While research has begun to demonstrate the clinical utility of the FIAT, its psychometric properties have not been explored. The present study examines the Functional Idiographic Assessment Template-Questionnaire (FIAT-Q), a self-report measure contained in the FIAT. Two different approaches are used to explore the psychometric properties and structure of the FIAT-Q, and test-retest reliability is examined. These methods are discussed along with the use of the FIAT-Q as an alternative to nosological assessment of client behaviors.

  11. Psychometric and screening properties of the WHO-5 well-being index in adult outpatients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajós, Tibor R S; Pouwer, F; Skovlund, S E

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The 5-item World Health Organization well-being index is a commonly used measure of emotional well-being, but research on psychometric properties in outpatients with diabetes is scarce. We examined psychometric and screening properties for depression of this index in a large sample...... index cut-off of psychometrically sound...

  12. Psychometric properties of carer-reported outcome measures in palliative care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Charlotte T J; Boulton, Mary; Adams, Astrid; Wee, Bee; Peters, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Informal carers face many challenges in caring for patients with palliative care needs. Selecting suitable valid and reliable outcome measures to determine the impact of caring and carers' outcomes is a common problem. To identify outcome measures used for informal carers looking after patients with palliative care needs, and to evaluate the measures' psychometric properties. A systematic review was conducted. The studies identified were evaluated by independent reviewers (C.T.J.M., M.B., M.P.). Data regarding study characteristics and psychometric properties of the measures were extracted and evaluated. Good psychometric properties indicate a high-quality measure. The search was conducted, unrestricted to publication year, in the following electronic databases: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts. Our systematic search revealed 4505 potential relevant studies, of which 112 studies met the inclusion criteria using 38 carer measures for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Psychometric properties were reported in only 46% (n = 52) of the studies, in relation to 24 measures. Where psychometric data were reported, the focus was mainly on internal consistency (n = 45, 87%), construct validity (n = 27, 52%) and/or reliability (n = 14, 27%). Of these, 24 measures, only four (17%) had been formally validated in informal carers in palliative care. A broad range of outcome measures have been used for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Little formal psychometric testing has been undertaken. Furthermore, development and refinement of measures in this field is required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The psychometric properties of cancer multisymptom assessment instruments: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Aynur; Walsh, Declan; Kirkova, Jordanka

    2015-07-01

    Various instruments are used to assess both individual and multiple cancer symptoms. We evaluated the psychometric properties of cancer multisymptom assessment instruments. An Ovid MEDLINE search was done. All searches were limited to adults and in English. All instruments published from 2005 to 2014 (and with at least one validity test) were included. We excluded those who only reported content validity. Instruments were categorized by the three major types of symptom measurement scales employed as follows: visual analogue (VAS), verbal rating (VRS), and numerical rating (NRS) scales. They were then examined in two areas: (1) psychometric thoroughness (number of tests) and (2) psychometric strength of evidence (validity, reliability, generalizability). We also assigned an empirical global psychometric quality score (which combined the concepts of thoroughness and strength of evidence) to rank the instruments. We analyzed 57 instruments (17 original, 40 modifications). They varied in types of scales used, symptom dimensions measured, and time frames evaluated. Of the 57, 10 used VAS, 28 VRS, and 19 NRS. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), ESAS-Spanish, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI)-Russian, and MDASI-Taiwanese were the most comprehensively tested for validity and reliability. The ESAS, ESAS-Spanish, ASDS-2, Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS)-SF, POMS, SDS, MDASI (and some translations), and MDASI-Heart Failure all showed good validity and reliability. The MDASI appeared to be the best overall from a psychometric perspective. This was followed by the ESAS, ESAS-Spanish, POMS, SDS, and some MDASI translations. VRS-based instruments were most common. There was a wide range of psychometric rigor in validation. Consequently, meta-analysis was not possible. Most cancer multisymptom assessment instruments need further extensive validation

  14. Psychometric characteristics of health-related quality-of-life questionnaires in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Angelique A; Speyer, Renée; Heijnen, Bas J; Klijn-Zwijnenberg, Iris R

    2014-04-01

    Dysphagia can have severe consequences for the patient's health, influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Sound psychometric properties of HRQoL questionnaires are a precondition for assessing the impact of dysphagia, the focus of this study, resulting in recommendations for the appropriate use of these questionnaires in both clinical practice and research contexts. We performed a systematic review starting with a search for and retrieval of all full-text articles on the development of HRQoL questionnaires related to oropharyngeal dysphagia and/or their psychometric validation from the electronic databases PubMed and Embase published up to June 2011. Psychometric properties were judged according to quality criteria proposed for health status questionnaires. Eight questionnaires were included in this study. Four are aimed solely at HRQoL in oropharyngeal dysphagia: the deglutition handicap index (DHI), dysphagia handicap index (DHI'), M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), and SWAL-QOL, while the EDGQ, EORTC QLQ-STO 22, EORTC QLQ-OG 25 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 focus on other primary diseases resulting in dysphagia. The psychometric properties of the DHI, DHI', MDADI, and SWAL-QOL were evaluated. For appropriate applicability of HRQoL questionnaires, strong scores on the psychometric criteria face validity, criterion validity, and interpretability are prerequisites. The SWAL-QOL has the strongest ratings for these criteria, while the DHI' is the most easy to apply given its 25 items and the use of a uniform scoring format. For optimal use of HRQoL questionnaires in diverse settings, it is necessary to combine psychometric and utility approaches.

  15. Variations in the slope of the psychometric functions for speech intelligibility: a systematic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Alexandra; Akeroyd, Michael A

    2014-06-06

    Although many studies have looked at the effects of different listening conditions on the intelligibility of speech, their analyses have often concentrated on changes to a single value on the psychometric function, namely, the threshold. Far less commonly has the slope of the psychometric function, that is, the rate at which intelligibility changes with level, been considered. The slope of the function is crucial because it is the slope, rather than the threshold, that determines the improvement in intelligibility caused by any given improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by, for instance, a hearing aid. The aim of the current study was to systematically survey and reanalyze the psychometric function data available in the literature in an attempt to quantify the range of slope changes across studies and to identify listening conditions that affect the slope of the psychometric function. The data for 885 individual psychometric functions, taken from 139 different studies, were fitted with a common logistic equation from which the slope was calculated. Large variations in slope across studies were found, with slope values ranging from as shallow as 1% per dB to as steep as 44% per dB (median = 6.6% per dB), suggesting that the perceptual benefit offered by an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio depends greatly on listening environment. The type and number of maskers used were found to be major factors on the value of the slope of the psychometric function while other minor effects of target predictability, target corpus, and target/masker similarity were also found. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. A psychometric validation analysis of Eysenck’s Neuroticism and Extraversion Scales in a sample of first time depressed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    Eysenck and Eysenck identified the two-factor structure of personality, namely neuroticism and extraversion which has been widely used in clinical psychiatry, and generated much research on the psychometric properties of the scales. Using a classical psychometric approach the neuroticism...... and extraversion scales have shown robust psychometric properties. The present study used both classical psychometric and item response theory (IRT) analyses to evaluate the neuroticism and extraversion scales and improve scalability of the instrument neuroticism and extraversion. A first time depressed sample...... symptoms related to interpersonal sensitivity were identified. For the extraversion scale a shorter and psychometrically more robust version was identified together with a short introversion scale. Clinically discriminant validity was analysed using correlations. The correlation between depression (Ham...

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Teacher ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Bilenberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    , was used to test the psychometric properties of this scale in a sample of 566 Danish school children between 6 and 16 years of age. The results indicated that parents and teachers had different frames of reference when rating symptoms in the mADHD-RS. There was support for the unidimensionality...... of the three subscales when parent and teacher ratings were analyzed independently. Nonetheless, evidence for differential item functioning was found across gender and age for specific items within each of the subscales. The findings expand existing psychometric information about the mADHD-RS and support its...

  18. Psychometric properties of the painDETECT questionnaire in rhuematoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rifbjerg-Madsen, Signe; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2017-01-01

    that can identify underlying pain mechanisms are needed. The painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ) was originally designed to differentiate between pain phenotypes. The objectives were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PDQ in patients with inflammatory arthritis by applying Rasch analysis......) and classification consistency were calculated. RESULTS: The Rasch analysis revealed: (1) Acceptable psychometric rating scale properties; the frequency distribution peaked in category 0 except for item 5, threshold calibration >10 observations per category, no disorder in the category measures for all items, scale...

  19. Psychometric properties of the NOMO 1.0 tested among adult powered-mobility users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Brandt, Åse; Anttila, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    (Participation Repertoire). PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate a range of psychometric properties of the NOMO 1.0 in a sample of adult powered mobility device (PMD) users. METHOD: Data collected from PMD users ( N = 248) in Denmark, Finland, and Norway as part of a larger study were analyzed using state...... scale and six components of the Frequency scale. IMPLICATIONS: The NOMO 1.0 should be used for research purposes and not for clinical practice. Better reliability should be established for the Need for Assistance and Ease/Difficulty scales prior to further psychometric testing to establish the validity...

  20. Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness: a study of psychometric properties in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2010-08-01

    The study analyzed psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 400 men and 453 women who had had a partner for the last 6 mo. or longer at the time of the study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested a two-factor solution with the factors Initiation and No shyness/Refusal. Internal consistency values for total scores were .87 and .83 for the factors, respectively. Convergent validity tests were also satisfactory. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the Spanish version of the scale has appropriate psychometric properties.

  1. Psychometrical indicators of the Russian-language version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Serguei Petrovich Yelshansky; Aleksandr Fedorovich Anufriev; Zulfiya Faridovna Kamaletdinova; Oleg Evgenievich Saparin; Dmitrij Vladimirovich Semyonov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Satisfaction with life is one of the basic concepts of positive psychology. Unsa-tisfied with the life person is unlikely to feel happy or to experience any positive feeling. The article presents the results of research on psychometric indicators of the Russian version of the scale of satisfaction with life. The number of points of the scale shows the level of life satisfaction. The subjects of the study were psychometric indicators of Russian language version of the scale – reliabil...

  2. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  3. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  4. Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for certain types of genetic conditions (such as Down syndrome) in the baby if mother-to-be is 35 years of age or more, or is concerned at any age about her chances of having a child with a genetic condition To learn about the ...

  5. Genetic Romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro

    2016-01-01

    . This article compares and contrasts the work of two doctors in Finland, Elias Lönnrot and Reijo Norio, working over a century and a half apart, to examine the ways in which they have contributed to the formation of national identity and unity. The notion of genetic romanticism is introduced as a term...... to complement the notion of national romanticism that has been used to describe the ways in which nineteenth-century scholars sought to create and deploy common traditions for national-romantic purposes. Unlike national romanticism, however, strategies of genetic romanticism rely on the study of genetic...... inheritance as a way to unify populations within politically and geographically bounded areas. Thus, new genetics have contributed to the development of genetic romanticisms, whereby populations (human, plant, and animal) can be delineated and mobilized through scientific and medical practices to represent...

  6. Neuroprotective Effects of Sulphated Agaran from Marine Alga Gracilaria cornea in Rat 6-Hydroxydopamine Parkinson's Disease Model: Behavioural, Neurochemical and Transcriptional Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ricardo Basto; Frota, Annyta Fernandes; Sousa, Rayane Siqueira; Cezario, Nayara Araújo; Santos, Tarcizio Brito; Souza, Luziana Mara Frota; Coura, Chistiane Oliveira; Monteiro, Valdécio Silvano; Cristino Filho, Gerardo; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; da Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva; Aguiar, Lissiana Magna Vasconcelos; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disease associated with the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and behavioural alterations. Natural bioactive compounds may provide new therapeutic alternatives for neurodegenerative disorders, such as PD. The sulphated polysaccharides isolated from marine algae are heterogenic molecules that show different biological activities. The red marine alga Gracilaria cornea has a sulphated polysaccharide (SA-Gc) with structure and anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities reported in the literature. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of SA-Gc in rat model PD induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Firstly, we established the PD model in rats, induced by an intrastriatal injection (int.) of 6-OHDA, followed by a single administration of SA-Gc (15, 30 or 60 μg; int.). On the 14th day, behavioural tests were performed. After killing, brain areas were dissected and used for neurochemical and/or transcriptional analyses. The results showed that SA-Gc (60 μg, int.) promoted neuroprotective effects in vivo through reducing the oxidative/nitroactive stress and through alterations in the monoamine contents induced by 6-OHDA. Furthermore, SA-Gc modulated the transcription of neuroprotective and inflammatory genes, as well as returning behavioural activities and weight gain to normal conditions. Thus, this study reports the neuroprotective effects of SA-Gc against 6-OHDA in rats.

  7. Morphology, projection pattern, and neurochemical identity of Cajal's "centrifugal neurons": the cells of origin of the tectoventrogeniculate pathway in pigeon (Columba livia) and chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Zuniga, Tomas; Mpodozis, Jorge; Karten, Harvey J; Marín, Gonzalo; Hain, Sarah; Luksch, Harald

    2014-07-01

    The nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis (GLv) is a prominent retinal target in all amniotes. In birds, it is in receipt of a dense and topographically organized retinal projection. The GLv is also the target of substantial and topographically organized projections from the optic tectum and the visual wulst (hyperpallium). Tectal and retinal afferents terminate homotopically within the external GLv-neuropil. Efferents from the GLv follow a descending course through the tegmentum and can be traced into the medial pontine nucleus. At present, the cells of origin of the Tecto-GLv projection are only partially described. Here we characterized the laminar location, morphology, projection pattern, and neurochemical identity of these cells by means of neural tracer injections and intracellular fillings in slice preparations and extracellular tracer injections in vivo. The Tecto-GLv projection arises from a distinct subset of layer 10 bipolar neurons, whose apical dendrites show a complex transverse arborization at the level of layer 7. Axons of these bipolar cells arise from the apical dendrites and follow a course through the optic tract to finally form very fine and restricted terminal endings inside the GLv-neuropil. Double-label experiments showed that these bipolar cells were choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive. Our results strongly suggest that Tecto-GLv neurons form a pathway by which integrated tectal activity rapidly feeds back to the GLv and exerts a focal cholinergic modulation of incoming retinal inputs.

  8. Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Model of Parkinson's Disease Induced by Unilateral Stereotaxic Injection of 6-Ohda in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Dayane Pessoa; De Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Araújo, Paulo Victor Pontes; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo de Souza; Sousa Rodrigues, Francisca Taciana; Escudeiro, Sarah Souza; Lima, Nicole Brito Cortez; Patrocínio, Manoel Claúdio Azevedo; Aguiar, Lissiana Magna Vasconcelos; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg) alone or associated with L-DOPA using an animal model of Parkinson's disease induced by stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rat striatum. Motor behavior was assessed by monitoring body rotations induced by apomorphine, open field test and cylinder test. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method, concentration of nitrite and evaluation of catalase activity. α-Lipoic acid decreased body rotations induced by apomorphine, as well as caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open field test and use of contralateral paw (in the opposite side of the lesion produced by 6-OHDA) at cylinder test. α-lipoic acid showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels and interacting with antioxidant system by decreasing of endogenous catalase activity. Therefore, α-lipoic acid prevented the damage induced by 6-OHDA or by chronic use of L-DOPA in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that α-lipoic could be a new therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease prevention and treatment. PMID:24023579

  9. Neurochemical pathways that converge on thalamic trigeminovascular neurons: potential substrate for modulation of migraine by sleep, food intake, stress and anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Noseda

    Full Text Available Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective and cognitive functions. Our overall goal is to define an anatomical framework for conceptualizing how a 'decision' is made on whether a trigeminovascular thalamic neuron fires, for how long, and at what frequency. To begin answering this question, we determine which neuropeptides/neurotransmitters are in a position to modulate thalamic trigeminovascular neurons. Using a combination of in-vivo single-unit recording, juxtacellular labeling with tetramethylrhodamine dextran (TMR and in-vitro immunohistochemistry, we found that thalamic trigeminovascular neurons were surrounded by high density of axons containing biomarkers of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin; moderate density of axons containing noradrenaline and histamine; low density of axons containing orexin and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH; but not axons containing CGRP, serotonin 1D receptor, oxytocin or vasopressin. In the context of migraine, the findings suggest that the transmission of headache-related nociceptive signals from the thalamus to the cortex may be modulated by opposing forces (i.e., facilitatory, inhibitory that are governed by continuous adjustments needed to keep physiological, behavioral, cognitive and emotional homeostasis.

  10. Development and psychometric testing of a breast cancer patient-profiling questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorini A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra Gorini,1,2 Ketti Mazzocco,1,2 Sara Gandini,2 Elisabetta Munzone,2 Gordon McVie,2 Gabriella Pravettoni1,2 1Department of Health Science, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 2European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy Introduction: The advent of “personalized medicine” has been driven by technological advances in genomics. Concentration at the subcellular level of a patient's cancer cells has meant inevitably that the “person” has been overlooked. For this reason, we think there is an urgent need to develop a truly personalized approach focusing on each patient as an individual, assessing his/her unique mental dimensions and tailoring interventions to his/her individual needs and preferences. The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the ALGA-Breast Cancer (ALGA-BC, a new multidimensional questionnaire that assesses the breast cancer patient's physical and mental characteristics in order to provide physicians, prior to the consultation, with a patient's profile that is supposed to facilitate subsequent communication, interaction, and information delivery between the doctor and the patient. Methods: The specific validation processes used were: content and face validity, construct validity using factor analysis, reliability and internal consistency using test–retest reliability, and Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficient. The exploratory analysis included 100 primary breast cancer patients and 730 healthy subjects. Results: The exploratory factor analysis revealed eight key factors: global self-rated health, perceived physical health, anxiety, self-efficacy, cognitive closure, memory, body image, and sexual life. Test–retest reliability and internal consistency were good. Comparing patients with a sample of healthy subjects, we also observed a general ability of the ALGA-BC questionnaire to discriminate between the two. Conclusion: The ALGA-BC questionnaire with 29 items is a valid

  11. Psychometric properties of the Vertigo symptom scale – Short form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordahl Stein

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Vertigo symptom scale – short form (VSS-SF, a condition-specific measure of dizziness, following translation of the scale into Norwegian. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used to examine the factor structure, internal consistency and discriminative ability (sample I, n = 503. A cross-sectional pre-intervention design was used to examine the construct validity (sample II, n = 36 of the measure and a test-retest design was used to examine reliability (sub-sample of sample II, n = 28. Results The scree plot indicated a two factor structure accounting respectively for 41% and 12% of the variance prior to rotation. The factors were related to vertigo-balance (VSS-V and autonomic-anxiety (VSS-A. Twelve of the items loaded clearly on either of the two dimensions, while three items cross-loaded. Internal consistency of the VSS-SF was high (alpha = 0.90. Construct validity was indicated by correlation between path length registered by platform posturography and the VSS-V (r = 0.52, but not with the VSS-A. The ability to discriminate between dizzy and not dizzy patients was excellent for the VSS-SF and sub-dimension VSS-V (area under the curve 0.87 and 0.91, respectively, and acceptable for the sub-dimension VSS-A (area under the curve 0.77. High test-retest reliability was demonstrated (ICC VSS-SF: 0.88, VSS-V: 0.90, VSS-A: 0.90 and no systematic change was observed in the scores from test to retest after 2 days. Conclusion Using a Norwegian translated version of the VSS-SF, this is the first study to provide evidence of the construct validity of this instrument demonstrating a stable two factor structure of the scale, and the identified sub-dimensions of dizziness were related to vertigo-balance and autonomic-anxiety, respectively. Evidence regarding a physical construct underlying the vertigo-balance sub-scale was provided. Satisfactory internal

  12. Measuring patient engagement: Development and psychometric properties of the Patient Health Engagement (PHE Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guendalina eGraffigna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the rhetorical call for increasing patients’ engagement, policy makers recognize the urgency to have an evidence-based measure of patients’ engagement and capture its effect when planning and implementing initiatives aimed at sustaining the engagement of consumers in their health.In this paper, authors describe the Patient Health Engagement Scale (PHE-scale, a measure of patient engagement that is grounded in rigorous conceptualization and appropriate psychometric methods.The scale was developed based on our previous conceptualization of patient engagement (the PHE-model. In particular, the items of the PHE-scale were developed based on the findings from the literature review and from interviews with chronic patients. Initial psychometric analysis was performed to pilot test a preliminary version of the items. The items were then refined and administered to a national sample of chronic patients (N=382 to assess the measure’s psychometric performance. A final phase of test-retest reliability was performed.The analysis showed that the PHE Scale has good psychometric properties with good correlation with concurrent measures and solid reliability.Having a valid and reliable measure to assess patient engagement is the first step in understanding patient engagement and its role in health care quality, outcomes, and cost containment. The PHE Scale shows a promising clinical relevance, indicating that it can be used to tailor intervention and assess changes after patient engagement interventions.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire (CGSQ) among Caregivers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rahul; Madhavan, S. Suresh; Smith, Michael J.; Tworek, Cindy; Patrick, Julie H.; Becker-Cottrill, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire (CGSQ) among caregivers of children with autism. The CGSQ was originally developed to assess burden experienced by parents of children and adolescents with serious emotional and behavioral disorders. Study data was collected from 304 primary…

  14. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  15. International study on the psychometric attributes of the non-motor symptoms scale in Parkinson disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Martin, P.; Rodriguez-Blazquez, C.; Abe, K.; Bhattacharyya, K.B.; Bloem, B.R.; Carod-Artal, F.J.; Prakash, R.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Falup-Pecurariu, C.; Gallardo, M.; Mir, P.; Naidu, Y.; Nicoletti, A.; Sethi, K.; Tsuboi, Y.; Hilten, J.J. van; Visser, M. de; Zappia, M.; Chaudhuri, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) have a great impact on patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) is an instrument specifically designed for the comprehensive assessment of NMS in patients with PD. NMSS psychometric properties have been tested in this study. METHOD

  16. Psychometrical Assessment and Item Analysis of the General Health Questionnaire in Victims of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and…

  17. Motivations to Teach: Psychometric Perspectives across the First Semester of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Catherine; Dowson, Martin; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have investigated preservice teachers' motivations to teach. However, few studies have (a) used robust measurement methodologies to test the psychometric properties of instruments measuring motivations to teach, (b) attempted to measure changes over time in preservice teachers' motivations to teach, or (c) attempted to assess the…

  18. Satisfaction Ratings of QOLPAV: Psychometric Properties Based on the Graded Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2013-01-01

    A scale measuring quality of life (QOL) is important in adolescent research. Using the graded response model (GRM), this study evaluates the psychometric properties of the satisfaction ratings of the Quality of Life Profile Adolescent Version (QOLPAV). Data for 1,392 adolescents were used to check IRT assumptions such as unidimensionality and…

  19. Further Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderus, Martine; Oude Voshaar, Martijn A. H.; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2012-01-01

    The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) is a self-report measure designed to assess experiential avoidance as conceptualized in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The current study is the first to evaluate the psychometric properties of the AAQ-II in a large sample of adults (N = 376) with mild to moderate levels of depression…

  20. Psychometric properties of a sleep questionnaire for use in individuals with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.P.H.M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Braam, W.J.; Collin, P.; Smits, M.G.; Curfs, L.M.G

    2011-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of one part of the Sleep Questionnaire developed by Simonds and Parraga, 1982 J.F. Simonds and H. Parraga, Prevalence of sleep disorders and sleep behaviors in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21 (1982), pp. 383–

  1. Psychometric properties of a sleep questionnaire for use in individuals with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.P.H.M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Braam, W.J.; Collin, P.; Smits, M.G.; Curfs, L.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of one part of the Sleep Questionnaire developed by Simonds and Parraga, 1982 J.F. Simonds and H. Parraga, Prevalence of sleep disorders and sleep behaviors in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21 (1982), pp. 383–38

  2. Assessing Gifted Students' Beliefs about Intelligence with a Psychometrically Defensible Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunhee; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Ryoo, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The psychometric qualities of the six- and eight-item implicit theories of intelligence scales that Dweck suggested were compared using a confirmatory factor analysis with data from 239 gifted students (100 students in Grades 5-7, 139 students in Grades 8-11). The results indicate that the six-item scale fits the data better than the eight-item…

  3. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Moretz, Melanie W.; David, Bieke; Armstrong, Thomas; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety (IPS-Anx). Principal components analysis of IPS-Anx items in Study 1 (n = 498) revealed a 2-factor structure consisting of Distal Fear and Contact Fear. However, CFA results in Study 2 (n = 567) suggest that a 1-factor…

  4. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Price, Lawrence H.; Larson, Michael J.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2010-01-01

    The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom…

  5. One-week temporal stability of hyperactivity in preschoolers with ADHD during psychometric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Motohide; Healey, Dione M; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    To examine the usefulness of temporal measures of motor activity during psychometric assessment on two different assessment days, 1 week apart with a scope to help the early identification of hyperactivity. Actigraph measures at the ankle and the waist were compared on the first and the second days of psychometric assessment in a total of 169 children (93 children in ADHD group; 76 children in Non-ADHD group) aged 3 years and 4 years. There was a significant interaction effect between group and time on the activity level at the waist. Although the activity level of the waist in the children with ADHD did not significantly differ between Day 1 and Day 2, the activity level of the children without ADHD declined significantly from Day 1 to 2. A total of 70% of children were correctly classified into ADHD or Non-ADHD groups based only on Day 2 waist activity data. The temporal consistency of hyperactivity in young children with ADHD during psychometric assessment is confirmed, indicating that objective measures of motor activity at the waist over different days of psychometric assessment can provide additional information for the stability of hyperactivity. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. An independent psychometric evaluation of the PROMS measure of music perception skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunert, R.; Willems, R.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Profile of Music Perception Skills (PROMS) is a recently developed measure of perceptual music skills which has been shown to have promising psychometric properties. In this paper we extend the evaluation of its brief version to three kinds of validity using an individual difference approach. Th

  7. Cross-cultural psychometric testing of the Care Dependency Scale with data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A; Coleman, M; Tomas, C; Valimaki, M; Dassen, T

    2003-01-01

    Background. The importance of the present study lies in addressing whether it is justified to compare the care dependency status of older patients from different settings and cultures using the same instrument. Aim. The aim of this international study was to compare the psychometric properties of th

  8. Psychometric Testing of the Chinese Version of the Decisional Balance Scale (CDBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Shys; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Chen, W. William

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct psychometric testing on the Chinese version of the decisional balance scale (CDBS) with Taiwanese seventh, eighth, and ninth graders who were recruited from the Taipei metropolitan area. A random cluster sampling method was used with 554 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years. Factor analysis…

  9. The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G.; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the "Adult Reading History Questionnaire" (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's…

  10. A new look at the psychometric paradigm of perception of hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Kiers, Henk A.L.

    The psychometric paradigm has been the most influential model in the field of risk analysis. The "cognitive maps" of hazards produced by the paradigm seem to explain how laypeople perceive the various risks they face. Because most of the studies used aggregated data, analyzed using principal

  11. Psychometric Analysis of the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire in Taiwanese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ; Peterson et al. in "J Happiness Stud" 6(1):25-41, 2005) in Taiwanese students. The participants were 578 undergraduate students (M[subscript age] = 18.64, SD = 1.02) and completed the OHQ, satisfaction with life scale (Diener et…

  12. The Psychometric Properties of the Physical Education Lesson Attitude Scale for Preservice Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncu, Erman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Physical Education Attitude Scale for Preservice Classroom Teachers (PEAS-PCT). The study was conducted on 561 Turkish preservice classroom teachers at the end of the 2011-2012 Fall Semester. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to ascertain the…

  13. Stereotype Threat Vulnerability: A Psychometric Investigation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann V.; Cokley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale developed by Picho and Brown, which captures an individual's vulnerability to Stereotype Threat effects. Confirmatory factor analyses and group invariance tests conducted on a diverse sample of 516 college students revealed adequate reliability and…

  14. Psychometric Comparison of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koritsas, S.; Iacono, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) are frequently used to assess the learned function of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim was to explore and compare the psychometric properties of the MAS and the QABF. Method: Seventy adults with ID and…

  15. A tutorial on aphasia test development in any language: Key substantive and psychometric considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Maria V.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a limited number of aphasia language tests in the majority of the world's commonly spoken languages. Furthermore, few aphasia tests in languages other than English have been standardized and normed, and few have supportive psychometric data pertaining to reliability and validity. The lack of standardized assessment tools across many of the world's languages poses serious challenges to clinical practice and research in aphasia. Aims The current review addresses this lack of assessment tools by providing conceptual and statistical guidance for the development of aphasia assessment tools and establishment of their psychometric properties. Main Contribution A list of aphasia tests in the 20 most widely spoken languages is included. The pitfalls of translating an existing test into a new language versus creating a new test are outlined. Factors to consider in determining test content are discussed. Further, a description of test items corresponding to different language functions is provided, with special emphasis on implementing important controls in test design. Next, a broad review of principal psychometric properties relevant to aphasia tests is presented, with specific statistical guidance for establishing psychometric properties of standardized assessment tools. Conclusions This article may be used to help guide future work on developing, standardizing and validating aphasia language tests. The considerations discussed are also applicable to the development of standardized tests of other cognitive functions. PMID:23976813

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of the Student Authorship Questionnaire: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Joan; Guo, Xin; Larres, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This research provides new insights into the measurement of students' authorial identity and its potential for minimising the incidence of unintentional plagiarism by providing evidence about the psychometric properties of the Student Authorship Questionnaire (SAQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) are employed to…

  17. Comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, Kathryn; Zlomke, Kimberly; Shawler, Paul; Sullivan, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Many assessment measures have only been validated for one specific diagnostic population, which is costly and reduces the clinical utility of assessments. The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) is one popular measure designed to assess disruptive behavior problems in youth. The ECBI has sound psychometric properties in typically developing…

  18. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the interpersonal communication competence scale for aquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Søren Vester; Baker, Felicity A.; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    Primary objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of two adapted versions of the interpersonal communication competence scale (ICCS) that were applied to people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Construct validity was tested for both new scales and a factor extraction was performed...

  19. An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of an Advising Survey for Medical and Professional Program Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Gonzalez, Liara M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument intended to measure faculty competence as it pertains to their role as advisors, particularly in medical and professional programs. A total of 166 students completed the Faculty Advisor's Skills and Behaviors Inventory (FASBI). The psychometric…

  20. Psychometric testing of the Duke Activity Status Index in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiuzhen; Lee, Kyoung Suk; Frazier, Susan K; Lennie, Terry A; Moser, Debra K

    2015-06-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) experience difficulty performing activities of daily living. As impaired functional status is adversely associated with outcomes, it is important to accurately evaluate patient functional status. The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) is a 12-item, self-administered questionnaire to measure functional status. However, its psychometric properties have not been determined in patients with HF. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the DASI in patients with HF. We used data from 297 patients with a diagnosis of HF (age 61±11 years, 31% female) for psychometric testing. Internal consistency reliability of the DASI was high (Cronbach's alpha=0.86). Criterion-related validity was supported by significantly different DASI scores for each New York Heart Association classification. Construct validity was supported by significant correlation of DASI scores with health-related quality of life (r = -0.64), depressive symptoms (r = -0.44), and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (r = -0.14). Our data support the psychometric properties of the DASI as a measure of functional status in patients with HF. This instrument can be used to evaluate functional status and enhance health care provider understanding of functional status related to daily living from the patient perspective. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  1. The Influence of Temporal Resolution Power and Working Memory Capacity on Psychometric Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Stefan J.; Rammsayer, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    According to the temporal resolution power (TRP) hypothesis, higher TRP as reflected by better performance on psychophysical timing tasks accounts for faster speed of information processing and increased efficiency of information processing leading to better performance on tests of psychometric intelligence. An alternative explanation of…

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of the Italian Adaptation of the Test of Inferential and Creative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, Palmira; Hell, Benedikt; Schuler, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the psychometric properties of the Italian adaptation of the "Analyse des Schlussfolgernden und Kreativen Denkens" (ASK; Test of Inferential and Creative Thinking) for measuring inferential and creative thinking. The study aimed to (a) supply evidence for the factorial structure of the instrument, (b) describe its…

  3. Methods for Examining the Psychometric Quality of Subscores: A Review and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedman, Jonathan; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2015-01-01

    When subscores on a test are reported to the test taker, the appropriateness of reporting them depends on whether they provide useful information above what is provided by the total score. Subscores that fail to do so lack adequate psychometric quality and should not be reported. There are several methods for examining the quality of subscores,…

  4. Children's Somatization Inventory: Psychometric Properties of the Revised Form (CSI-24)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Joy E.; Garber, Judy; Lambert, Warren

    2009-01-01

    Objective To conduct a multimethod psychometric evaluation to refine the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) and to investigate its dimensionality. Method The CSI was administered to 876 pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain at their initial visit to a pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Tools from three psychometric models identified items that most effectively measured the construct of somatization and examined its dimensionality. Results Eleven statistically weak items were identified and removed, creating a 24-item CSI (CSI-24). The CSI-24 showed good psychometrics according to the three measurement models and correlated.99 with the original CSI. The CSI-24 has one dominant general factor but is not strictly unidimensional. Conclusions The CSI-24 is a reliable and psychometrically sound refinement of the original CSI. Findings are consistent with the view that somatization has a strong general factor that represents a continuum of symptom reporting, as well as minor components that represent specific symptom clusters in youth with chronic abdominal pain. PMID:18782857

  5. Measuring Physician Cognitive Load: Validity Evidence for a Physiologic and a Psychometric Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulewski, Adam; Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Howes, Daniel W.; Sivilotti, Marco L. A.; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2017-01-01

    In general, researchers attempt to quantify cognitive load using physiologic and psychometric measures. Although the construct measured by both of these metrics is thought to represent overall cognitive load, there is a paucity of studies that compares these techniques to one another. The authors compared data obtained from one physiologic tool…

  6. Modeling the Development of Vocational Competence: A Psychometric Model for Economic Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Viola Katharina; Winther, Esther; Festner, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the development of vocational competence through economic vocational educational training (VET) from a theoretical and psychometric perspective. Most assessment and competence models tend to adopt a state perspective toward assessments of competence and carve out different structures of competence for diverse vocational…

  7. Psychometric evaluation of a daily gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptom measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Reimer, Christine; Smith, Gary

    2017-01-01

    pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The psychometric properties of HRDQ were evaluated based on data from two clinical trials of patients with GORD with a partial response to PPIs, one from the UK and one from Denmark and Germany. RESULTS: The HRDQ had good internal consistency...

  8. Translation of the Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale (MCSS) into Danish and a preliminary psychometric validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Gonge, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    for the translation of the MCSS from English into Danish and to present a preliminary psychometric validation of the Danish version of the scale. Methods included a formal translation/back-translation procedure and statistical analyses. The sample consisted of MCSS scores from 139 Danish mental health nursing staff...

  9. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised in Singapore Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hoi Kwan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) in a sample of Singapore secondary students (N = 1,171). Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the AGQ-R in measuring the four achievements goals delineated in the 2 × 2 framework. Measurement invariance across ethnic groups was…

  10. Investigating Key Psychometric Properties of the French Version of the Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Robert; Sloat, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates key psychometric properties of the French Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment measure designed to systematically assess kindergarten children across five social and academic developmental domains: awareness of self and environment, social skills and behaviour, cognitive abilities, language and communication, and…

  11. A validation study of the psychometric properties of the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Bjerre; O'Neill, Lotte; Gormsen, Lise Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to adapt GRAS for use in a Danish setting and to investigate the psychometric properties of GRAS-DK. Methods We performed a cross-cultural adaptation of GRAS from Dutch to Danish. Next, we collected primary data online, performed a retest, analysed data descriptively, estimated...

  12. Psychometric analysis of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Danish patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Mathiasen, Kim; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), a measure of depressive symptoms, in a large Danish national cohort of patients with heart disease, implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), using item response theory. METHODS...

  13. Instrument translation and initial psychometric evaluation of the Danish Body Image Quality of Life Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Dixon, Jane

    2016-01-01

    translation, expert committee comparisons and cognitive interviewing, and (ii) empirical testing of the Danish version (BIQLI-DA) with subsequent psychometric evaluation. Hypothesised correlations to other measures, including body mass index (BMI), Medical Outcome Short Form-8 (SF-8), Patient Health...

  14. Measuring the Youth Bullying Experience: A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of Available Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Judith; Strout, Tania D.; DiFazio, Rachel L.; Walker, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a significant problem in schools and measuring this concept remains problematic. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the published self-report measures developed to assess youth bullying; (2) evaluate their psychometric properties and instrument characteristics; and (3) evaluate the quality of identified…

  15. Translation and psychometric evaluation of a Swedish version of the parental stressor scale PSS: NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Catrin; Jakobsson, Ulf; Lundqvist, Pia

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to translate the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS: NICU) into the Swedish language and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Swedish version. The PSS: NICU was translated into Swedish using the process of forward-backward translation. Thereafter, an internal panel of neonatal nurses (n = 10) assessed face and content validity and a panel of parents (n = 10) assessed content validity. A sample of 95 parents recruited from three different neonatal units completed the PSS: NICU and answered some open-ended questions in which they could comment on language and wording. There were eight new items in the PSS: NICU, compared with the very first version of the instrument. These had not been psychometrically tested previously. In this study, the subscales and total scale were analysed both with and without the new items to determine whether or not to use them. Psychometric properties including internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha (if item deleted) and corrected item total were evaluated. The result indicates that the Swedish version of PSS: NICU, both with and without the nonvalidated items, has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in clinical practice in NICUs in Sweden. In order to meet the psychological needs of parents, healthcare professionals need to identify risk factors in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit that contribute to stress amongst parents. The Swedish version of the PSS: NICU can be used for this purpose. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. IQs Are Very Strong but Imperfect Indicators of Psychometric "g": Results from Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The most global score yielded by intelligence tests, IQs, are supported by substantial validity evidence and have historically been central to the identification of intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, and giftedness. This study examined the extent to which IQs measure the ability they target, psychometric "g." Data from…

  17. Psychometric properties of the satisfaction with food-related Life Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale and its relation to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in southern Chile. Methods: A survey was applied to a sample of 316 persons in the principal cities of southern Chile distributed...

  18. Psychometric Challenges in Assessing English Language Learners and Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Suzanne; Leventhal, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses the psychometric challenges in assessing English language learners (ELLs) and students with disabilities (SWDs). The first section addresses some general considerations in the assessment of ELLs and SWDs, including the prevalence of ELLs and SWDs in the student population, federal and state legislation that requires the…

  19. Psychometric Evaluation of Two Appetite Questionnaires in Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, Christina; Strömberg, Anna; Sawatzky, Richard; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2015-12-01

    Decreased appetite in heart failure (HF) may lead to undernutrition which could negatively influence prognosis. Appetite is a complex clinical issue that is often best measured with the use of self-report instruments. However, there is a lack of self-rated appetite instruments. The Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) are validated instruments developed primarily for elderly people. Yet, the psychometric properties have not been evaluated in HF populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of CNAQ and SNAQ in patients with HF. A total of 186 outpatients with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classifications II-IV were included (median age 72 y; 70% men). Data were collected with the use of a questionnaire that included the CNAQ and SNAQ. The psychometric evaluation included data quality, factor structure, construct validity, known-group validity, and internal consistency. Unidimensionality was supported by means of parallel analysis and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). The CFA results indicated sufficient model fit. Both construct validity and known-group validity were supported. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, with ordinal coefficient alpha estimates of 0.82 for CNAQ and 0.77 for SNAQ. CNAQ and SNAQ demonstrated sound psychometric properties and can be used to measure appetite in patients with HF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychometric Properties of an Arabic Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Miriam Taouk; Lovibond, Peter; Laube, Roy; Megahead, Hamido A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of an Arabic-language version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Method: The items were translated, back translated, refined, and tested in an Australian immigrant sample (N = 220). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Arabic DASS discriminates between…