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Sample records for psychometric intelligence verbal

  1. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S

    2015-01-01

    -taboo words. Second, we studied the test's psychometric properties in healthy adults. Finally, we investigated whether individuals diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) differed from healthy controls on seasonal changes in affective recall. Recall rates were internally consistent and reliable...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory....

  2. Boys with Asperger's disorder, exceptional verbal intelligence, tics, and clumsiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, R; Gutman, R

    1997-10-01

    Five boys with both Asperger's disorder and Tourette syndrome, exceptional verbal intelligence, and clumsiness are reported. Each presented at early elementary school age with a prominent complaint of social difficulties with peers. History was notable for a flapping stereotypy and the neurological examination revealed motor and/or vocal tics and numerous motor soft signs. Highly specialized interests were characteristics. Language prosody and/or pragmatics was impaired. Despite exceptional verbal intelligence, the children were not, according to their teachers and parents, faring well either socially or academically. Motor difficulties, manifested psychometrically as a significant performance IQ disadvantage, interfered with school performance and social adjustment. Tics, although not noted by parents in the clinical history, compounded their social difficulties. Asperger's disorder in these highly verbal children overlaps with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) on account of the socioemotional difficulties and stereotypies seen in both. Asperger's disorder and Tourette syndrome overlap in these children on account of the tics. Finally, Asperger's disorder and the right-hemisphere-based learning disorders overlap on account of the visuoperceptual and attentional deficits that can occur in both.

  3. Verbal giftedness and sociopolitical intelligence: Terman revisited.

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    Hogan, R; Viernstein, M C; McGinn, P V; Bohannon, W; Daurio, S P

    1977-06-01

    This paper reports on a three-year study of sociopolitical intelligence-defined as the ability to formulate viable solutions to moral, social, and political problems-in adolescence. From an initial sample of 659 intellectually gifted 12- and 13-year-olds, 58 students with the highest SAT-V scores were selected for study. From a later sample of 506 equally gifted 13- and 14-year-olds, 120 students were selected using measures of verbal intelligence (DAT), social insight, and creative potential, as well as academic and nonacademic achievement. On the basis of a variety of personality and cognitive measures the students in both samples were found to be unusually mature and well adjusted but to vary considerably in sociopolitical intelligence. These results suggest in partial agreement with Terman's earlier findings concerning the gifted, that above a certain level of tested intelligence the critical determinants of effective, practical performance may be personality and biographical variables.

  4. The Effect of Verbal Intelligence on Knowledge of Lexicon

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    Masoumeh Parsa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of verbal intelligence on Iranian pre-intermediate students’ knowledge of lexicon. The participants comprised of 30 male and 30 female learners. A vocabulary test was administered to find out students’ vocabulary knowledge and also Wechsler intelligence test was administered for both groups of male and female to find out students’ verbal intelligence, of course the verbal part of intelligence was needed due to the topic of study. Analysis of the result revealed that the participants who had higher verbal intelligence also had higher marks in vocabulary test and the participants who had lower verbal intelligence had a lower mark in vocabulary test. Keywords: Multiple intelligences, VI (Linguistic Intelligence, Knowledge of lexicon

  5. General Intelligence, Visuospatial and Verbal Abilities in Korean Children.

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    Lynn, Richard; Song, Myung Ja

    1994-01-01

    Nine-year olds completed measures of general intelligence, visuospatial ability, and verbal fluency. Subjects were 107 Korean children and 115 British children. Found that Korean children scored higher on general intelligence and visuospatial ability and lower on verbal fluency than British children. (BC)

  6. Assessment of the Psychometric Properties of the New Version of Tehran- Stanford- Binet Intelligence Scale in Children with Dyslexia

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    Abas Mahvashe-Wernosfaderani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive abilities assessment, is considered to be one of the most complicated and controversial issues in psychological tests. In spite of great usage of new version of Tehran- Stanford- Binet intelligence scale in screening and diagnosis, they have not made so many endeavors to use this valid test in our country and little researches have been conducted to survey psychometric characteristics of mentioned scale. Given the above considerations, the aim of this study is to investigate Tehran-Stanford-Binet intelligence scale psychometric characteristics in dyslectic children. Materials and Methods: In this psychometric study with classical approach, the statistical society was all the students with dyslexia in the elementary schools of Tehran provinces in 1390. The sample size was equal with 120 students with dyslexia who were selected based on purposive sampling. The new version of Tehran-Stanford-Binet intelligence Scale which includes 10 subtests in verbal and nonverbal domains (fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual spatial processing and working memory and eight IQ was used for them. Findings highlight characteristics of this tool is its ability to calculate the combined scores connected to the reading skills. ROC curve methods, kronbach alpha and pearson correlation was used to analyze the data. Results: Result show that SB5 Test has a good reliability and diagnostic validity. It has 98% sensitivity and a desirable potential to identify student with dyslexia (72%. Conclusion: SB5 could be used as an identificationtoal test for dyslexia.

  7. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0

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    Palmer, B.R.; Gignac, G.; Manocha, R.; Stough, C.

    2005-01-01

    and discussed.There has been some debate recently over the scoring, reliability and factor structure of ability measures of emotional intelligence (EI). This study examined these three psychometric properties with the most recent ability test of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT V2.0; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso,…

  8. Effects of verbal ability and fluid intelligence on children's emotion understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Simona; Fiorilli, Caterina; Di Chiacchio, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the role of verbal ability and fluid intelligence on children's emotion understanding, testing the hypothesis that fluid intelligence predicts the development of emotion comprehension over and above age and verbal ability. One hundred and two children (48 girls) aged 3.6-6 years completed the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) that comprised external and mental components, the Coloured Progressive Matrices and the Test for Reception of Grammar. Regression analysis showed that fluid intelligence was not equally related to the external and mental components of the TEC (Pons & Harris, 2000). Specifically, the results indicated that the external component was related to age and verbal ability only, whereas recognition of mental emotional patterns required abstract reasoning skills more than age and verbal ability. It is concluded that the development of fluid intelligence has a significant role in the development of mental component of emotion comprehension. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Emotional intelligence: Part 1: the development of scales and psychometric testing.

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    Akerjordet, Kristin; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2009-03-01

    This article, the first in a series of four, describes the development of two scales for deductive and inductive measurement of emotional intelligence (EI), based on the literature and the identification of the psychometric properties of the scales. The data collection comprised two parts: (i) a literature search on the subject of emotional intelligence; and (ii) psychometric testing of the scales. The Emotional Intelligence Scale, comprising 23 items, and the Emotional Reactions and Thoughts Scale, containing 25 items, were tested on a sample of 250 postnatal mothers. The response rate was 80%. An explorative factor analysis was used to investigate the construct validity of the underlying dimensions of emotional intelligence and yielded a three-factor solution for the Emotional Intelligence Scale and a four-factor solution for the Emotional Reactions and Thoughts Scale. The internal consistency of the scales was satisfactory. How well the factor solutions fit in clinical practice remains to be validated.

  10. Self-assessed intelligence, personality, and psychometric intelligence: preliminary validation of a model with a selected student population

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    Maria A. Novikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, self-assessed intelligence (SAI is presented as a multidimensionalconstruct related both to personality and to psychometric intelligence. Onthe basis of data obtained from a Russian student sample (N = 496, the authorsvalidate a structural model in which SAI acts as a mediating variable between latentvariables of measured IQ and the trait of acceptance of uncertainty. Evidencefor signifi cant gender diff erences in SAI in favor of men is also given.

  11. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Two Measures of Speed of Information Processing and Their Relation to Psychometric Intelligence: Evidence from the German Observational Study of Adult Twins.

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    Neubauer, Alioscha C.; Spinath, Frank M.; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Borkenau, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Administered 2 elementary cognitive task (ECT) tests and 2 psychometric intelligence tests to 169 monozygotic and 131 dizygotic pairs of twins in Germany. Reaction times correlated negatively with psychometric intelligence, and habitability estimates were substantial for both psychometric intelligence and reaction times on the ECTs. Multivariate…

  12. Second-to-fourth digit ratio related to verbal and numerical intelligence and the big five

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxen, M.F.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2005-01-01

    Androgens influence individual differences in a predictable way: they "masculinise" people. The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D) is an index of prenatal androgen exposure. We related 213:413 to Verbal Intelligence, Numerical Intelligence and the Big Five personality

  13. Second-to-fourth digit ratio related to verbal and numerical intelligence and the big five

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxen, M.F.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2005-01-01

    Androgens influence individual differences in a predictable way: they "masculinise" people. The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D) is an index of prenatal androgen exposure. We related 213:413 to Verbal Intelligence, Numerical Intelligence and the Big Five personality dimensi

  14. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, P.W.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying involvemen

  15. Cognitive deficits in the elderly: interactive theories and a study of environmental effects on psychometric intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrari, R; Godino, A

    1997-08-01

    Problems related to psychometric measures of intelligence are discussed with regard to both the general characteristics and metric properties (validity, reliability and sensibility) of mental tests, and interindividual differences (cultural background, education, life contents and age-cohorts). Currently used standard intelligence tests explore the structure of intelligence only in part, so a distinction must be made between true actual intelligence, potential inheritance of intelligence, and psychometrical or scored intelligence. The correct use of intelligence testing, however, does provide some relevant and objective information regarding the evolution of cognitive structure during adulthood and in relationship to aging. Cognitive performance in the elderly follows a downward curve that is not explained as a result of aging on physiological responses (i.e., reaction time delay, signal-noise ratio in the CNS, degenerative loss of cortical cells, etc.). Biologically based theories of intelligence cannot explain the large individual differences in cognitive abilities observed in subjects who have very similar physical characteristics. Cognitive approaches to intelligence enable us to better understand the causal factors of the cognitive deficits in the elderly, and an interactive model permits us to fully integrate both the individual differences in cognitive abilities and the large consistency in performances. We compared the cognitive performances of two groups of elderly subjects, ranging in age from 65 to 97 years; we observed some statistically significant effects on cognitive deficit that could be explained as fully deriving from emotional and extra-cognitive responses to environmental changes.

  16. Assessing Gifted Students' Beliefs about Intelligence with a Psychometrically Defensible Scale

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    Park, Sunhee; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Ryoo, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The psychometric qualities of the six- and eight-item implicit theories of intelligence scales that Dweck suggested were compared using a confirmatory factor analysis with data from 239 gifted students (100 students in Grades 5-7, 139 students in Grades 8-11). The results indicate that the six-item scale fits the data better than the eight-item…

  17. The Influence of Temporal Resolution Power and Working Memory Capacity on Psychometric Intelligence

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    Troche, Stefan J.; Rammsayer, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    According to the temporal resolution power (TRP) hypothesis, higher TRP as reflected by better performance on psychophysical timing tasks accounts for faster speed of information processing and increased efficiency of information processing leading to better performance on tests of psychometric intelligence. An alternative explanation of…

  18. Psychometric Features of the General Aptitude Test-Verbal Part (GAT-V): A Large-Scale Assessment of High School Graduates in Saudi Arabia

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    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Shamrani, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric features of a General Aptitude Test-Verbal Part, which is used with assessments of high school graduates in Saudi Arabia. The data supported a bifactor model, with one general factor and three content domains (Analogy, Sentence Completion, and Reading Comprehension) as latent aspects of verbal aptitude.

  19. Psychometric Features of the General Aptitude Test-Verbal Part (GAT-V): A Large-Scale Assessment of High School Graduates in Saudi Arabia

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    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Shamrani, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric features of a General Aptitude Test-Verbal Part, which is used with assessments of high school graduates in Saudi Arabia. The data supported a bifactor model, with one general factor and three content domains (Analogy, Sentence Completion, and Reading Comprehension) as latent aspects of verbal aptitude.

  20. Mindwaves: Story of How a Girl Constructs Higher Order, Verbal Linguistic Intelligence in a Multiple Intelligences Classroom.

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    Fluellen, Jerry

    Howard Gardner and Jerome Bruner have given much to teachers who want to know how the minds of children grow. This story of a girl's construction of higher order, verbal linguistic intelligence is also theirs. Ideas they created have been cloned to fit a big city, public school classroom of African American 4th graders, each with a set of multiple…

  1. Non-Verbal Intelligence in Primary School Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

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    Davydova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of a cross-cultural study of non-verbal intelligence in primary school students. Significant differences with the effect size of 9% were found in non-verbal intelligence scores of 1057 students from Russia and Kyrgyzstan. The differences were also found for city and countryside residents (effect size of 10%. These results might be explained both by the features of educational systems and socio-economic development level in Russia and Kyrgyzstan.

  2. Variations in the slope of the psychometric functions for speech intelligibility: a systematic survey.

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    MacPherson, Alexandra; Akeroyd, Michael A

    2014-06-06

    Although many studies have looked at the effects of different listening conditions on the intelligibility of speech, their analyses have often concentrated on changes to a single value on the psychometric function, namely, the threshold. Far less commonly has the slope of the psychometric function, that is, the rate at which intelligibility changes with level, been considered. The slope of the function is crucial because it is the slope, rather than the threshold, that determines the improvement in intelligibility caused by any given improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by, for instance, a hearing aid. The aim of the current study was to systematically survey and reanalyze the psychometric function data available in the literature in an attempt to quantify the range of slope changes across studies and to identify listening conditions that affect the slope of the psychometric function. The data for 885 individual psychometric functions, taken from 139 different studies, were fitted with a common logistic equation from which the slope was calculated. Large variations in slope across studies were found, with slope values ranging from as shallow as 1% per dB to as steep as 44% per dB (median = 6.6% per dB), suggesting that the perceptual benefit offered by an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio depends greatly on listening environment. The type and number of maskers used were found to be major factors on the value of the slope of the psychometric function while other minor effects of target predictability, target corpus, and target/masker similarity were also found. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on the Impression of Irony Created by the Mismatch between Verbal and Nonverbal Cues.

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    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Emotional information is conveyed through verbal and nonverbal signals, with nonverbal cues often being considered the decisive factor in the judgment of others' emotional states. The aim of the present study was to examine how verbal and nonverbal cues are integrated by perceivers. More specifically, we tested whether the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information was perceived as an expression of irony. Moreover, we investigated the effects of emotional intelligence on the impression of irony. The findings revealed that the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information created the impression of irony. Furthermore, participants higher in emotional intelligence were faster at rating such stimuli as ironic expressions.

  4. Estimating verbal intelligence in unipolar depression: comparison of word definition and word recognition.

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    Suslow, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Depression is known to be associated with deficits in effortful processing and word fluency. Automatic processes, instead, appear largely intact in depressed patients. It was investigated whether active word definition could be a less appropriate method than passive word recognition as a measure of verbal intelligence in depression. The valid assessment of premorbid IQ is important for correct comparison with current cognitive efficiency of depressed individuals, since premorbid IQ serves as baseline or control parameter to estimate the extent and severity of acquired cognitive impairments, both in the clinical and the research context. Two vocabulary tests were administered to 90 patients (31 women) with unipolar depression and 30 control subjects (15 women): a word definition task [the vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R)] and a word recognition task [the Multiple choice vocabulary test (MWT)]. In the depressed sample, scores of the MWT tended to be higher than WAIS-R scores. For depressed women, the MWT score was significantly higher than the WAIS-R score. In the control sample, no differences between MWT and WAIS-R scores were observed. Our findings indicate that word definition tasks could underestimate verbal intelligence especially in depressed women. For depressed women, it could be more appropriate to administer word recognition than word definition as an estimate of premorbid or verbal intelligence.

  5. Intelligence for education: as described by Piaget and measured by psychometrics.

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    Shayer, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Two separate paths to the concept of intelligence are discussed: the psychometric path being concerned with the measurement of intelligence, involving the methodology of norm-referenced testing; the path followed by Piaget, and others, addresses from the start the related question of how intelligence can be described, and employs a criterion-referenced methodology. The achievements of psychometrics are briefly described, with an argument that they now remain important tools of what Kuhn called 'normal science'. The criterion-referenced approach of Piaget and others is described, with evidence from intervention studies that the Genevan descriptions of children-in-action have allowed the choice of contexts within which children can profitably be challenged to go further in their thinking. Hence, Genevan psychology is also now a part of the normal science with important uses, shown both in neo-Piagetian studies and further research stemming from Geneva. Discussion of the 'Flynn effect' sheds light on both paths, with problems still unresolved. The argument is then developed that the relevance of neuroscience needs to be discussed to try to decide in what ways it may provide useful insights into intelligence.

  6. [Evaluation of intelligence with non-verbal tests in aphasic patients].

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    Ceschin, J S; Melaragno Filho, R; Brauer, M J; Parente, M A

    1979-09-01

    Eight patients with cerebral vascular disease and aphasia were studied just after the stroke. The clinical, neuropsychiatric, EEG and neuro-radiological aspects were evaluated. The patients were submitted to the psychological and phonoaudiological studies. The authors correlated the neurological lesions to the structural alteration of the intelligence, to the praxic and estheognostic alterations and also to the language disturbances. The criterions adopted by the World Health Organization and the genetics classification of Jean Piaget were used for the intellectual level classification. The results suggest that the intelligence evaluated through Leither's non-verbal test is better preserved in some asphasics.

  7. Short-Term Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive Function

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    Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Chau, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have designed training methods that can be used to improve mental health and to test the efficacy of education programs. However, few studies have demonstrated broad transfer from such training to performance on untrained cognitive activities. Here we report the effects of two interactive computerized training programs developed for preschool children: one for music and one for visual art. After only 20 days of training, only children in the music group exhibited enhanced performance on a measure of verbal intelligence, with 90% of the sample showing this improvement. These improvements in verbal intelligence were positively correlated with changes in functional brain plasticity during an executive-function task. Our findings demonstrate that transfer of a high-level cognitive skill is possible in early childhood. PMID:21969312

  8. Short-term music training enhances verbal intelligence and executive function.

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    Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Cepeda, Nicholas J; Chau, Tom

    2011-11-01

    Researchers have designed training methods that can be used to improve mental health and to test the efficacy of education programs. However, few studies have demonstrated broad transfer from such training to performance on untrained cognitive activities. Here we report the effects of two interactive computerized training programs developed for preschool children: one for music and one for visual art. After only 20 days of training, only children in the music group exhibited enhanced performance on a measure of verbal intelligence, with 90% of the sample showing this improvement. These improvements in verbal intelligence were positively correlated with changes in functional brain plasticity during an executive-function task. Our findings demonstrate that transfer of a high-level cognitive skill is possible in early childhood.

  9. [Syntactic awareness: probable correlations with central coherence and non-verbal intelligence in autism].

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    Varanda, Cristina de Andrade; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate syntactic awareness, central coherence, non-verbal intelligence, social and communication development, interests and behavior of children with autistic spectrum disorders and to examine their probable correlations. Participants were ten subjects diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder, eight male and two female, with ages between 4 years e 9 months and 13 years and 4 months (mean age 9 years), who used oral language for communication. The following tests were used: Syntactic Awareness Test - Adapted (Prova de Consciência Sintática - Adaptada), Computerized jigsaw puzzles with picture and background and only with background; and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices - Special Scale. Subjects' parents answered the protocol Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R). The children with autism presented syntactic awareness performance similar to that of 6-year-old children with typical development. Sixty percent of the subjects showed non-verbal intelligence at a superior or average level. There were no correlations between the performances in syntactic awareness and the other tested variables. There was no relationship between the performance in syntactic awareness and the results related to central coherence, non-verbal intelligence and social interaction deficits, difficulties in communication and restrict patterns interests of subjects with autism. The results suggest that these children seem to follow the development pattern of typically developing 6-year-old children in syntactic awareness abilities, only delayed.

  10. Synthetic-Creative Intelligence and Psychometric Intelligence: Analysis of the Threshold Theory and Creative Process

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    Ferrando, Mercedes; Soto, Gloria; Prieto, Lola; Sáinz, Marta; Ferrándiz, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing body of research to uncover the relationship between creativity and intelligence. This relationship usually has been examined using traditional measures of intelligence and seldom using new approaches (i.e. Ferrando et al. 2005). In this work, creativity is measured by tools developed based on Sternberg's successful…

  11. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school.

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    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, Pauline W; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-08-01

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying involvement in early elementary school. The association was examined in a population-based sample of 1,377 children. At age 4 years we assessed problems in inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory and planning/organization, using a validated parental questionnaire (the BRIEF-P). Additionally, we determined child non-verbal IQ at age 6 years. Bullying involvement as a bully, victim or a bully-victim in grades 1-2 of elementary school (mean age 7.7 years) was measured using a peer-nomination procedure. Individual bullying scores were based on the ratings by multiple peers (on average 20 classmates). Analyses were adjusted for various child and maternal socio-demographic and psychosocial covariates. Child score for inhibition problems was associated with the risk of being a bully (OR per SD = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.09-1.66), victim (OR per SD = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.45) and a bully-victim (OR per SD = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.10-2.17). Children with higher non-verbal IQ were less likely to be victims (OR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.98-1.00) and bully-victims (OR = 95%CI: 0.93-0.98, respectively). In conclusion, our study showed that peer interactions may be to some extent influenced by children's executive function and non-verbal intelligence. Future studies should examine whether training executive function skills can reduce bullying involvement and improve the quality of peer relationships.

  12. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Intelligence Admission Essay Scale

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    Sharon A. Gutman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to describe the development and psychometric properties of the Emotional Intelligence Admission Essay scale. The authors developed an admission essay question and rating scale designed to provide information about applicants’ emotional intelligence (EI. Content validity, convergent validity, interrater reliability, and internal consistency were established. The scale was also examined to determine if it could discriminate between students with and without professional behavior problems in the academic and fieldwork settings. Content validity was found to be high by a panel of three experts in EI (content validity index = 1.0. Convergent validity with the Assessing Emotions Scale was moderate (r = .46, p < .02. Interrater reliability between two trained faculty raters was high (ICC = .91, p < .000. Internal consistency of the scale was high with a Cronbach’s alpha of .95. This version of the scale was not able to discriminate between students with and without professional behavior problems. The moderate to strong psychometric properties suggest that the EI Admission Essay Scale has the ability to provide information about applicants’ EI. The wording of the essay question must be modified to better instruct applicants to address interpersonal conflict.

  13. Reviving and Refining Psychodynamic Interpretation of the Wechsler Intelligence Tests: The Verbal Comprehension Subtests.

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    Bram, Anthony D

    2017-01-01

    The Wechsler intelligence tests (currently Wechsler, 2008 , 2014) have traditionally been part of the multimethod test battery favored by psychodynamically oriented assessors. In this tradition, assessors have used Wechsler data to make inferences about personality that transcend cognition. Recent trends in clinical psychology, however, have deemphasized this psychodynamic way of working. In this article, I make a conceptual and clinical case for reviving and refining a psychodynamic approach to inference making about personality using the Wechsler Verbal Comprehension subtests. Specifically, I (a) describe the psychological and environmental conditions sampled by the Wechsler tests, (b) discuss the Wechsler tests conceptually in terms of assessing vulnerability to breakdowns in adaptive defensive functioning, (c) review a general framework for inference making, and (d) offer considerations for and illustrate pragmatic application of the Verbal Comprehension subtests data to make inferences that help answer referral questions and have important treatment implications.

  14. Perceived emotional intelligence in nursing: psychometric properties of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale.

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    Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2014-04-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in the nursing context and to determine the relationships between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, alexithymia and death anxiety. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is one of the most widely used self-report measures for assessing perceived emotional intelligence. However, in the nursing context, no extensive analysis has been conducted to examine its psychometric properties. Cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1417 subjects participated in the study (1208 nursing students and 209 hospital nurses). The Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Death Anxiety Inventory were all applied to half of the sample (n = 707). A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out, and statistical analyses examined the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, as well as its relationship with relevant variables. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three dimensions of the original scale (Attention, Clarity and Repair). The instrument showed adequate internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational results indicated that nurses with high scores on emotional Attention experience more death anxiety, report greater difficulties identifying feelings and have less self-esteem. By contrast, nurses with high levels of emotional Clarity and Repair showed less death anxiety and higher levels of self-esteem. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is an effective, valid and reliable tool for measuring perceived emotional intelligence in the nursing context. Training programmes should seek to promote emotional abilities among nurses. Use of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in the nursing context would provide information about nurses' perceived abilities to interpret and manage emotions when interacting with patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The relationship between children‘s reading ability, verbal and fluid intelligence and measurements of eye movements during reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlovska M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify, which of the following two measures: verbal intelligence or measurements of eye movements, is better predictor of reading ability. In addition, the study also investigated the relationships between reading ability, fluid intelligence and measurements of eye movements. Participants of the study (N = 28; mean age = 8.80; SD = .41; 54% boys were assessed in reading with LMST-I Reading achievement test, verbal and fluid intelligence was measured using two scales – Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual reasoning – from Latvian edition of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC- IV, Latvian version, as well as eye tracking was made during reading. The results show that reading ability is better predicted by fixation duration and fixation count measurements of eye movements for 8-9 old children, whereas verbal ability in general does not predict reading ability. The better link with level of reading is provided by measurements of eye movements, but not so accurately reflected by verbal ability in appropriate age group, when the acquisition of reading ability still continues. No relationships among children‘s fluid intelligence, reading ability and measurements of eye movements were reported.

  16. A psychometric analysis of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew; Petrides, K V

    2010-09-01

    Trait emotional intelligence refers to a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. In 2 studies, we sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF; Petrides, 2009) using item response theory (IRT). Study 1 (N= 1,119, 455 men) showed that most items had good discrimination and threshold parameters and high item information values. At the global level, the TEIQue-SF showed very good precision across most of the latent trait range. Study 2 (N= 866, 432 men) used similar IRT techniques in a new sample based on the latest version of the TEIQue-SF (version 1.50). Results replicated Study 1, with the instrument showing good psychometric properties at the item and global level. Overall, the 2 studies suggest the TEIQue-SF can be recommended when a rapid assessment of trait emotional intelligence is required.

  17. Are verbal intelligence subtests and reading measures immune to non-credible effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, R John; Young, J Christopher; Roper, Brad L; Rach, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The validity of neuropsychological testing is reliant on examinees putting forth adequate effort, yet it has been asserted that verbal subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS) are insensitive to suboptimal effort in comparison to other commonly used neuropsychological measures. The current study examined performance differences on the entire WAIS-IV and WRAT-4 Reading, as well as the CVLT-II and several WMS-IV subtests, in 207 Veterans classified into Credible Effort (n = 146) and Non-credible Effort (n = 61) groups. Analyses revealed that the Non-credible Effort group performed significantly lower on all examined measures including verbal tests, with moderate to large effect sizes observed for most tests. Current findings thus indicate that WAIS-IV verbal subtests and reading ability measures, such as on the WRAT-4, are not insensitive to effects of non-credible effort. Consequently it is recommended that these tests not generally be used to estimate baseline intellectual functioning when found in the presence of non-credible effort. While there was broad performance suppression across all measures examined, results also showed a distinct continuum of test susceptibility with some measures being more or less sensitive to inadequate effort. Recommendations for future performance validity test development are presented.

  18. Emotional intelligence and mismatching expressive and verbal messages: a contribution to detection of deception.

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    Jerzy Wojciechowski

    Full Text Available Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI. However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception.

  19. Emotional Intelligence and Mismatching Expressive and Verbal Messages: A Contribution to Detection of Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Maciej; Matthews, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI). However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test) that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception. PMID:24658500

  20. Relationship of Non-Verbal Intelligence Materials as Catalyst for Academic Achievement and Peaceful Co-Existence among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, Aminu

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines students' performance in Non-verbal Intelligence tests relative academic achievement of some selected secondary school students. Two hypotheses were formulated with a view to generating data for the ease of analyses. Two non-verbal intelligent tests viz: Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and AH[subscript 4] Part II…

  1. Your Verbal Zone: An Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning Program in Support of Turkish Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esit, Omer

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) program on Turkish learners' vocabulary learning. Within the scope of this research, an ICALL application with a morphological analyser (Your Verbal Zone, YVZ) was developed and used in an English language preparatory class to measure its…

  2. [The general intelligence factor: psychometric study. Approach to the problem of mental deterioration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccatagliata, G; Albano, C; Torres, S; Cocito, L; Ivaldi, M

    1979-01-01

    The authors have measured the correlation coefficient between W.B. and P.M. scores in 80 normal subjects, comparable for age and school. A mutual relationship between the two tests, connected by the hypothetical general intelligence factor "g", was really demonstrated. Correlation coefficient was positive and significative between W.B. total scores, excepted verbal scores, and P.M., the highest one between subtests 8, 9 and P.M. The intra-tests correlation between W.B. total scores and each subtest score was also evaluated: between sub-tests 8, 9 and W.B. total scores the highest one again. A new qualitative interpretation of mental deterioration in clinical neurology and psychiatry is suggested on the base of these results.

  3. A comparative study of ERP correlates of psychometric and Piagetian intelligence measures in normal and hyperactive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaey, P; Cansino, S; Dugas, M; Renault, B

    1995-01-01

    Verbal and performance scores of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R 1981) and of a Piagetian battery, the Cognitive Development Scale for Children (EDC 1984), were obtained on 30 normal control and 19 hyperactive 6-8-year-old children. Amplitudes and latencies of a fronto-central P250 and of the parieto-occipital N250, P350 and P500 were measured concurrently in 4 categorization tasks derived from tests of the WISC-R and EDC batteries. Spearman correlations were computed between the intelligence and the ERP factor scores. Results showed that age-related and age-corrected Wechsler's scores were correlated with similar ERP changes (reduced amplitude, decreased latency). With regard to the amplitude changes, each type of intelligence was associated with a specific ERP pattern. The verbal scores were correlated with the P350 and the P500 amplitudes, and the performance scores with the frontal P250 and occipital N250 amplitudes. By contrast, Piagetian development and intelligence scores yielded ERP correlates in the opposite direction: P500 amplitude was negatively correlated with raw EDC scores, but positively with scaled EDC scores. In addition, Piagetian intelligence was not related to the general peak latency decrease with age. In hyperactive children, additional negative correlations were found between P250 amplitude and the subjects' verbal test scores. Correlations with some performance tests that were negative in normal controls, were positive in hyperactive children. In addition, latency-based correlations found in normal controls were lacking in hyperactive children. These findings provide strong evidence that intelligence comprises different components related to different subsets of cognitive processes, as indexed by different ERP waves. They also suggest that the development and intelligence do not always rely on the same changes, and that intelligence forms may not be referred to the same use of the same processes in hyperactive

  4. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test: Psychometric properties of the Serbian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaras-Dimitrijević Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of emotional intelligence (EI research has yielded two rather distinct ways of conceptualizing and measuring the construct, which also differ greatly in terms of their scientific value: mixed models of EI, although commercially successful, prove inadequate when subject to scientific scrutiny; by contrast, the Mayer and Salovey ability model of EI meets most of the proposed criteria for establishing a scientifically meaningful EI construct. Its current operationalization, the MSCEIT, has thus far been found to exhibit good reliability, as well as convergent-dicriminant and structural validity. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the test in a sample of 250 high school graduates. Our results show that the reliabilities of Serbian MSCEIT scores are equivalent to those reported for the American standardization sample; more specifically, reliability coefficients are high for the two Area scores and the Total score (r≥ .86. The Total EI score shows low to moderate correlations with standard measures of academic intelligence (r=.244 - .429; p<.01, and very low correlations with the Big Five personality traits (r<.25 - a pattern that is regarded optimal in establishing convergent-discriminant validity. The factor structure of the Serbian MSCEIT closely corresponds to that of the original test: the theoretically proposed 1-, 2- and 4-factor solutions all prove empirically sustainable; however, in the 2- and 4-factor solutions, the structure of certain EI branches diverges from that which is theoretically expected and incorporated in the scoring system. The obtained data certainly recommend the Serbian MSCEIT for standardization and practical use, in which case they should be supplemented with data regarding the test’s predictive validity. On a more basic level, our results suggest the possibility of assessing a scientifically meaningful EI construct, defined as the ability to reason with

  5. EEG alpha oscillations during the performance of verbal creativity tasks: differential effects of sex and verbal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Andreas; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2006-10-01

    Task-related power changes in the EEG alpha band were analyzed in 31 participants (17 males and 14 females) during performance of two verbal creativity tasks. Participants were confronted with verbal problems that are in need of explanation (insight problems) and utopian situations that will actually never happen. In both tasks they were instructed to generate as many but also as unusual, unique or original ideas as possible. To assess brain responses that come along with highly original ideas, individual responses were divided into more and less original ideas (within each participant). Creative problem solving was generally accompanied by lower levels of cortical arousal (i.e., increases in alpha power from a pre-stimulus reference to an activation interval). Additionally, more original (vs. less original) responses were associated with a stronger task-related alpha synchronization in posterior (particularly centroparietal) cortices. Task-related alpha power changes during creative problem solving were also moderated by verbal IQ and sex.

  6. Intelligent quotient estimation of mental retarded people from different psychometric instruments using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nuovo, Alessandro G; Di Nuovo, Santo; Buono, Serafino

    2012-02-01

    The estimation of a person's intelligence quotient (IQ) by means of psychometric tests is indispensable in the application of psychological assessment to several fields. When complex tests as the Wechsler scales, which are the most commonly used and universally recognized parameter for the diagnosis of degrees of retardation, are not applicable, it is necessary to use other psycho-diagnostic tools more suited for the subject's specific condition. But to ensure a homogeneous diagnosis it is necessary to reach a common metric, thus, the aim of our work is to build models able to estimate accurately and reliably the Wechsler IQ, starting from different psycho-diagnostic tools. Four different psychometric tests (Leiter international performance scale; coloured progressive matrices test; the mental development scale; psycho educational profile), along with the Wechsler scale, were administered to a group of 40 mentally retarded subjects, with various pathologies, and control persons. The obtained database is used to evaluate Wechsler IQ estimation models starting from the scores obtained in the other tests. Five modelling methods, two statistical and three from machine learning, that belong to the family of artificial neural networks (ANNs) are employed to build the estimator. Several error metrics for estimated IQ and for retardation level classification are defined to compare the performance of the various models with univariate and multivariate analyses. Eight empirical studies show that, after ten-fold cross-validation, best average estimation error is of 3.37 IQ points and mental retardation level classification error of 7.5%. Furthermore our experiments prove the superior performance of ANN methods over statistical regression ones, because in all cases considered ANN models show the lowest estimation error (from 0.12 to 0.9 IQ points) and the lowest classification error (from 2.5% to 10%). Since the estimation performance is better than the confidence interval of

  7. The role of adolescent nutrition and physical activity in the prediction of verbal intelligence during early adulthood: a genetically informed analysis of twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Beaver, Kevin M

    2015-01-05

    A large body of research has revealed that nutrition and physical activity influence brain functioning at various stages of the life course. Nevertheless, very few studies have explored whether diet and exercise influence verbal intelligence as youth transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Even fewer studies have explored the link between these health behaviors and verbal intelligence while accounting for genetic and environmental factors that are shared between siblings. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study uses a sample of same-sex twin pairs to test whether youth who engage in poorer fitness and nutritional practices are significantly more likely to exhibit reduced verbal intelligence during young adulthood. The results suggests that, independent of the effects of genetic and shared environmental factors, a number of nutritional and exercise factors during adolescence influence verbal intelligence during adulthood. Limitations are noted and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  8. The Role of Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Activity in the Prediction of Verbal Intelligence during Early Adulthood: A Genetically Informed Analysis of Twin Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan B. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research has revealed that nutrition and physical activity influence brain functioning at various stages of the life course. Nevertheless, very few studies have explored whether diet and exercise influence verbal intelligence as youth transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Even fewer studies have explored the link between these health behaviors and verbal intelligence while accounting for genetic and environmental factors that are shared between siblings. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study uses a sample of same-sex twin pairs to test whether youth who engage in poorer fitness and nutritional practices are significantly more likely to exhibit reduced verbal intelligence during young adulthood. The results suggests that, independent of the effects of genetic and shared environmental factors, a number of nutritional and exercise factors during adolescence influence verbal intelligence during adulthood. Limitations are noted and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  9. Construction and validation of the SON-R 5 1/2-17, the Snijders-Oomen non-verbal intelligence test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laros, Jacob Arie; Tellegen, Peter Johannes

    1991-01-01

    In this thesis the construction and validation of the SON-R 5,5-17 is described, the recent revision of the Snijders-Oomen non-verbal intelligence test. The SON-R is an individual test of (non-verbal) intelligence for children in the ages of 51/2 to 17 years. The test was published in 1989 with an e

  10. School effects on non-verbal intelligence and nutritional status in rural Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3rd to 7th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and 75.9% of the between-school differences in NI and BMI, respectively. Grade-specific HLM yielded higher between-school variation of NI (41%) and BMI (14.6%) for students in grade 3 compared to grades 4 to 7. School factors showed a differential pattern of associations with NI and BMI across grades. The distance to a health post and teacher’s teaching experience were the strongest predictors of NI (particularly in grades 4, 6 and 7); the presence of a preschool was linked to lower BMI in grades 4 to 6. Implications for improving access and quality of education in rural Zambia are discussed. PMID:27175053

  11. A measurement model of multiple intelligence profiles of management graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Heamalatha; Awang, Siti Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    In this study, developing a fit measurement model and identifying the best fitting items to represent Howard Gardner's nine intelligences namely, musical intelligence, bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence are the main interest in order to enhance the opportunities of the management graduates for employability. In order to develop a fit measurement model, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied. A psychometric test which is the Ability Test in Employment (ATIEm) was used as the instrument to measure the existence of nine types of intelligence of 137 University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) management graduates for job placement purposes. The initial measurement model contains nine unobserved variables and each unobserved variable is measured by ten observed variables. Finally, the modified measurement model deemed to improve the Normed chi-square (NC) = 1.331; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.940 and Root Mean Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049 was developed. The findings showed that the UTeM management graduates possessed all nine intelligences either high or low. Musical intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence contributed highest loadings on certain items. However, most of the intelligences such as bodily kinaesthetic intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence possessed by UTeM management graduates are just at the borderline.

  12. Moral Intelligence in the Context of Its Questionnaire Psychometric Properties Verification and of Chosen Demographic Variables in the Slovak Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Kaliská

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The interest in intelligence construct operationalization is reflected in construction upon new intelligence concepts analyzing it in a wider social context. This scientific study offers the theoretical and empirical analysis of a newly created construct of moral intelligence. Moral intelligence concept was founded in the Multiple Intelligence Theory of H. Gardner (1985, being followed by L. Kuckovsky, A. Dobrin, V. Di Norcia and others in historical-philosophical-evolution-theological context, by D. Lennick, F. Kiel, C. Veach and others in successful management context and by A. Hass, M. Borba, R. Coles, J. Bradshaw and others in school-counselling context. Subsequently moral intelligence is defined as an individual's ability to solve ethical problems ethically right. The application of ethical principles in successful business management formed a theoretical base for moral intelligence characterized by D. Lennick a F. Kiel (2008. They created also a self-report questionnaire Moral Competence Inventory (MCI to assess personal moral competences as a base of moral intelligence. The study provides the results of psychometrical properties (factor structure and reliability in the sense of inner consistency and test-retest result stability of the Slovak, the only available, questionnaire for moral intelligence assessment at a chosen adolescent research sample (N=209. It also analyses the differences in total moral intelligence level and two newly extracted factors (personal and social moral competences in relation to gender, age and religious believes referring to the fact the MCI authors presupposed that there is no relation between moral competences and demographic factors (gender, age, nationality or religion, 2005. The findings prove the significant differences in the overall level of moral intelligence (p≤0,01 and in factors of personal (Standing up for what is right (Courage, p≤0,01 and social (Helping others (Service, p≤0,01 and Actively

  13. Preliminary Psychometric Properties of the Verbal and Nonverbal Interaction Scale: An Observational Measure for Communication in Persons with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christine L; Newman, David; Hammar, Lena Marmstål

    2017-05-01

    Little attention has been given to sociable/unsociable communication in persons with dementia despite the importance of these behaviors in maintaining engagement in marital relationships. An observational measure of verbal and nonverbal communication in persons with dementia (Verbal and Nonverbal Interaction Scale-CR) who were engaged in conversations with spouses was tested for reliability and validity. Married persons with dementia were video-recorded at home conversing with spouses over 10 weeks (N = 118 recordings). Reliability [inter-coder (.92), test-retest (r =.61-.77), internal consistency (α =.65 -.79)] were adequate. Following an intervention, the Verbal and Nonverbal Interaction Scale-CR predicted improved communication over 10 weeks. The ratio of sociable to unsociable communication improved by 4.46 points per session [β = 4.46, t(10) = 1.96, p =.039]. VNVIS-CR is recommended to describe sociable and unsociable communication in persons with dementia as they engage in conversations with spouses.

  14. Semantic structure in schizophrenia as assessed by the category fluency test: effect of verbal intelligence and age of onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, C; Matsui, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Yamashita, I; Sumiyoshi, S; Kurachi, M

    2001-12-31

    It has been reported that long-term memory function, including the semantic structure of category, is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. The present study was performed to determine: (1) whether the deficit in semantic structure in schizophrenia is independent of cultural backgrounds, and (2) the effect of age of onset and verbal intelligence on the degradation of semantic structure in these patients. Fifty-seven Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 33 normal control subjects entered the study. The semantic structure was derived by Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis based on data from the ANIMAL category fluency test. The semantic structure was compared between: (1) schizophrenic patients as a whole vs. normal control subjects; (2) earlier onset (age of onset 7) vs. low Vocabulary score patient groups. Normal control subjects demonstrated the domestic/size dimension in semantic structure, while no such dimension was obtained in patients with schizophrenia. The subgroup comparisons revealed that the later onset or the high Vocabulary score group maintained a relatively intact semantic structure compared with the earlier onset or the low Vocabulary score group, respectively. These findings suggest that the deficit in semantic structure in patients with schizophrenia is commonly observed irrespective of cultural backgrounds, and that age of onset and the level of verbal intelligence are closely related to severity of degradation of the semantic structure in schizophrenia.

  15. Alternative Conceptions of Intelligence and Their Implications for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard K.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Three major views of intelligence are compared and evaluated: the psychometric, the Piagetian, and the information-processing. The educational implications of each view for training content knowledge and intellectual skills are considered. How each view would approach training students in solving verbal analogies is discussed. (Author/BS)

  16. Cognitive function during early abstinence from opioid dependence: a comparison to age, gender, and verbal intelligence matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kähkönen Seppo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with opioid dependence have cognitive deficits during abuse period in attention, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. After protracted abstinence consistent cognitive deficit has been found only in executive function. However, few studies have explored cognitive function during first weeks of abstinence. The purpose of this study was to study cognitive function of individuals with opioid dependence during early abstinence. It was hypothesized that cognitive deficits are pronounced immediately after peak withdrawal symptoms have passed and then partially recover. Methods Fifteen patients with opioid dependence and fifteen controls matched for, age, gender, and verbal intelligence were tested with a cognitive test battery When patients performed worse than controls correlations between cognitive performance and days of withdrawal, duration of opioid abuse, duration of any substance abuse, or opioid withdrawal symptom inventory score (Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale were analyzed. Results Early abstinent opioid dependent patients performed statistically significantly worse than controls in tests measuring complex working memory, executive function, and fluid intelligence. Their complex working memory and fluid intelligence performances correlated statistically significantly with days of withdrawal. Conclusion The results indicate a rather general neurocognitive deficit in higher order cognition. It is suggested that cognitive deficit during early abstinence from opioid dependence is related to withdrawal induced neural dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex and is partly transient.

  17. The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Extremera, Natalio; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This research examined evidence regarding the reliability and validity of scores on the Spanish version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Version 2.0 (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). In Study 1, we found a close convergence of the Spanish consensus scores and the general and expert consensus scores determined with Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, and Sitarenios (2003) data. The MSCEIT also demonstrated adequate evidence of reliability of test scores as estimated by internal consistency and test-retest correlation after 12 weeks. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 3-level higher factor model with 8 manifest variables (task scores), 4 first-level factors (corresponding to the 4-branch model of Mayer & Salovey [1997], with 2 tasks for each branch), 2 second-level factors (experiential and strategic areas, with 2 branches for each area), and 1 third-level factor (overall emotional intelligence [EI]), and multigroup analyses supported MSCEIT cross-gender invariance. Study 2 found evidence for the discriminant validity of scores on the MSCEIT subscales, which were differentially related to personality and self-reported EI. Study 3 provided evidence of the incremental validity of scores on the MSCEIT, which added significant variance to the prospective prediction of psychological well-being after controlling for personality traits. The psychometric properties of the Spanish MSCEIT are similar to those of the original English version, supporting its use for assessing emotional abilities in the Spanish population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. A Comparison of Measures for Assessing the Level and Nature of Intelligence in Verbal Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Kimberly E; Williams, Diane L; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Minshew, Nancy J

    2014-11-01

    Previous work has suggested that the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) are better suited for capturing the nature of intelligence for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than the Wechsler scales. The RPM measures 'fluid intelligence', an area for which it has been argued that persons with ASD have a relative strength. Given that measures of intelligence are used for establishing clinical diagnoses, for making educational decisions, and for group-matching in research studies, continued examination of this contention is warranted. In the current study, verbal children with ASD performed moderately better on the RPM than on the Wechsler scales; children without ASD received higher percentile scores on the Wechsler than on the RPM. Adults with and without ASD received higher percentile scores on the Wechsler than the RPM. Results suggest that the RPM and Wechsler scales measure different aspects of cognitive abilities in verbal individuals with ASD. For the verbal children and adults with ASD in the current study, the RPM and Wechsler scales have unique contributions that must be considered in context when establishing a baseline of cognitive function. The results of this investigation highlight the importance of thoughtfully selecting appropriate measures of intelligence consistent with clinical, educational, and research purposes, especially for verbal children and adults with ASD.

  19. Propriedades psicométricas apresentadas em manuais de testes de inteligência Psychometric parameters in intelligence test directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar quais os parâmetros psicométricos apresentados nos manuais de 19 instrumentos de avaliação da inteligência. Os elementos avaliados nos instrumentos foram: análise de itens, padronização, validade e precisão. Os resultados encontrados mostraram que, dos 19 testes avaliados, 89,5% apresentaram estudos de padronização, sendo que o procedimento mais utilizado na escolha dos sujeitos foi o não aleatório (62,2% dos testes. No que se refere à validade, a de construto foi a mais freqüente dentre os testes (94,7%. Observou-se que todos os instrumentos apresentaram verifica��ão da precisão, sendo o método de consistência interna o mais aplicado (78,9%. Conclui-se que, embora os autores concordem que todos os testes devam realizar estudos de verificação dos parâmetros psicométricos e devam possuir normas regionais, tal prática ainda não se encontra totalmente difundida na avaliação psicológica brasileira,This research aimed to verify the psychometric parameters presented in manuals of 19 intelligence tests. The psychometric properties included in the analysis were: item analysis, validity, reliability, and norms studies. The results indicated that 89.5% of the 19 tests presented norming studies. The procedure of sample selection was mostly non-random (62.2% of the tests. Construct validity was the most frequent method used among the studies (94.7%. All tests presented reliability studies, most of them using internal consistency coefficient (78.9%. It is concluded that although the authors agree that all tests need studies to verify psychometric parameters and studies to obtain regional norms this action isn’t divulged totally yet in the Brazilian psychological assessment.

  20. The Effects of Verbal and Nonverbal Contingent Reinforcement Upon the Intelligence Test Performance of Black Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheckart, George R.; Bass, Barry A.

    1976-01-01

    It appears that contingent reinforcement may have an effect upon the intelligence test performance of black adults as evidenced by the consistent trend of the IQ scores in the direction of the proposed hypothesis. However, the primary analysis of the data revealed no statistically significant differences among treatment groups. (Author)

  1. Dietary intake and micronutrient status of adolescents: effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on indices of status and performance in tests of verbal and non-verbal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southon, S; Wright, A J; Finglas, P M; Bailey, A L; Loughridge, J M; Walker, A D

    1994-06-01

    Relationships between micronutrient intake and status, and micronutrient status and performance in tests of intelligence were investigated in a group of adolescents (13-14 years old). Dietary intakes were assessed using a 7 d weighed dietary record method, coupled with the collection of duplicate diets. Vitamin and trace mineral intakes calculated using food composition tables were compared with those obtained by direct analysis of duplicate diets. Micronutrient status was judged via a range of biochemical indices measured in blood samples taken after a 12-15 h fast. Blood samples were taken both before and after a 16-week period of vitamin and trace mineral supplementation. Individual tests of verbal and nonverbal intelligence were also performed pre- and post-supplementation. The results of this study indicate that the use of food table data may lead to substantial over- or underestimation of the intake of several micronutrients. In general, the total calculated or analysed amount of a specific micronutrient consumed did not adequately predict status, as judged by a range of biochemical indices. There were significant changes in status measurements over the 16-week study period, irrespective of supplementation, and these changes were markedly influenced by the initial status of the subject. There was no effect of supplementation on performance in tests of intelligence. However, there was a significant association between plasma ascorbic acid and initial non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in the boys, and between whole blood glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) activity and non-verbal and verbal IQ in both sexes. These findings are discussed in relation to other recent studies of the influence of micronutrient supplementation on the psychological performance of children.

  2. Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Verbal Analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccas, Sonia; Moshinsky, Avital

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors affecting the difficulty of verbal analogies in a psychometric examination by characterizing 104 analogies using 5 defined attributes. Both knowledge and process attributes were found to contribute to the difficulty of verbal analogies assessed by 10 judges. (SLD)

  3. Emotional intelligence in older adults: psychometric properties of the TMMS-24 and relationship with psychological well-being and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhom, I; Gutierrez, M; Lucas-Molina, B; Meléndez, J C

    2017-08-01

    Aging is a process during which important changes occur in different areas of development and emotional intelligence plays an essential role. The objective of this study was twofold: first, to validate the TMMS-24 in an older population; and second, to examine the mediating role of life satisfaction in the relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological well-being. The sample consisted of 215 older adults (60.15% women) with a mean age of 69.56 (SD = 6.42), without cognitive impairment. Data on emotional intelligence, satisfaction with life, and psychological well-being were obtained through the TMMS-24, the SWLS, and Ryff's psychological well-being scales, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling were conducted. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-dimensional structure of the TMMS-24. The total scale showed an internal consistency of 0.90, ranging from 0.84 to 0.85 for the subscales. Structural equation modeling indicated that emotional intelligence exerted an influence on psychological well-being both directly and indirectly through life satisfaction. These findings show that the TMMS-24 has adequate psychometric properties for assessing emotional intelligence in elderly participants, and they indicate that emotional intelligence influences cognitive and affective judgments of life satisfaction, with these judgments of life satisfaction predicting psychological well-being.

  4. Psychometrics of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T; Wahi, Monika M; Goldin, Steven B

    2011-08-01

    A sample of 183 medical students completed the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT V2.0). Scores on the test were examined for evidence of reliability and factorial validity. Although Cronbach's alpha for the total scores was adequate (.79), many of the scales had low internal consistency (scale alphas ranged from .34 to .77; median = .48). Previous factor analyses of the MSCEIT are critiqued and the rationale for the current analysis is presented. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the MSCEIT item parcels are reported. Pictures and faces items formed separate factors rather than loading on a Perception factor. Emotional Management appeared as a factor, but items from Blends and Facilitation failed to load consistently on any factor, rendering factors for Emotional Understanding and Emotional Facilitation problematic.

  5. Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at validating the Polish version of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF. Our findings confirm the reliability and validity of the scale. With respect to reliability, internal consistency coefficients of the TEIQue-SF were comparable to those obtained using the original English version. The evidence of the validity of the TEIQue-SF came from the pattern of relations with the other self-report measure of EI, personality measures, as well as affective and social correlates. We demonstrated that the TEIQue-SF score correlated positively with scores on the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE (Jaworowska & Matczak, 2001. The TEIQue- SF score correlated negatively with Neuroticism and positively with Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. In addition, scores on the TEIQue-SF were related to dispositional affect, i.e., correlated positively with positive affectivity and negatively with negative affectivity. The TEIQue-SF score correlated positively with social competencies as measured with the Social Competencies Questionnaire (Matczak, 2001. We also found that trait EI, as measured with the TEIQue-SF, was positively related to the richness of one’s supportive social network and this relationship remained statistically significant even after controlling for Big Five variance. We also demonstrated that scoring on the TEIQue-SF was positively related to satisfaction with life and negatively related to perceived stress and these relationships remained significant, even after controlling for positive and negative affectivity. Taken together, these findings suggest that the Polish version of the TEIQue-SF is a reliable and valid measure that inherits the network of associations both from the original version of the TEIQue-SF and the full form of the Polish TEIQue (Wytykowska & Petrides, 2007.

  6. Psychometric Study of the Raven Progressive Matrices Tests in elementary students from Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Vásquez, Ana; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Escurra Mayaute, Luis M.; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Bulnes Bedón, Mario; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Quesada Murillo, María Rosario; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    It was made a psychometric study of Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices Test, which is a non verbal instrument that evaluates abilities related to make comparisons, thinking for analogy and spatial perceptions organization. It was designed mainly as a measure of factor "g" of Spearman or general intelligence, composed by two abilities, named educational and reproductive. The participants were 2496 students obtained at random considering all school districts (USE) of the city of Lima, Peru. Th...

  7. Addressing the Safety of Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems: Development and Validation of a Verbal Warning Utility Scale for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important application of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS, advances in intelligent transportation systems (ITS improve driving safety by informing drivers of hazards with warnings in advance. The evaluation of the warning effectiveness is an important issue in facilitating communication of ITS. The goal of the present study was to develop a scale to evaluate the warning utility, namely, the effectiveness of a warning in preventing accidents in general. A driving simulator study was conducted to validate the Verbal Warning Utility Scale (VWUS in a simulated driving environment. The reliability analysis indicated a good split-half reliability for the VWUS with a Spearman-Brown Coefficient of 0.873. The predictive validity of VWUS in measuring the effectiveness of the verbal warnings was verified by the significant prediction of safety benefits indicated by variables, including reduced kinetic energy and collision rate. Compared to conducting experimental studies, this scale provides a simpler way to evaluate overall utility of verbal warnings in communicating associated hazards in intelligent transportation systems. This scale can be further applied to improve the design of warnings of ITS in order to improve transportation safety. The applications of the scale in nonverbal warning situations and limitations of the current scale are also discussed.

  8. Toward a Brief Multidimensional Assessment of Emotional Intelligence: Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, James D. A.; Keefer, Kateryna V.; Wood, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Although several brief instruments are available for the emotional intelligence (EI) construct, their conceptual coverage tends to be quite limited. One notable exception is the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:S), which measures multiple EI dimensions in addition to a global EI index. Despite the unique advantage offered by…

  9. The Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez García, Manuel; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    This research examined evidence regarding the reliability and validity of scores on the Spanish version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Version 2.0 (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). In Study 1, we found a close convergence of the Spanish consensus scores and the general and expert consensus scores determined with Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, and Sitarenios (2003) data. The MSCEIT also demonstrated adequate evidence of reliability of test scores as estim...

  10. Genetic and environmental stability of intelligence in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franić, Sanja; Dolan, Conor V; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined the genetic and environmental contributions to the temporal stability of verbal, non-verbal and general intelligence across a developmental period spanning childhood and adolescence (5-18 years). Longitudinal twin data collected in four different studies on a total of 1,748 twins, comprising 4,641 measurement points in total, were analyzed using genetic adaptations of the simplex model. The heterogeneity in the type of instrument used to assess psychometric intelligence across the different subsamples and ages allowed us to address the auxiliary question of how to optimally utilize the existing longitudinal data in the context of gene-finding studies. The results were consistent across domains (verbal, non-verbal and general intelligence), and indicated that phenotypic stability was driven primarily by the high stability of additive genetic factors, that the stability of common environment was moderate, and that the unique environment contributed primarily to change. The cross-subscale stability was consistently low, indicating a small overlap between different domains of intelligence over time. The high stability of additive genetic factors justifies the use of a linear combination of scores across the different ages in the context of gene-finding studies.

  11. Adult Verbal Abstract Reasoning Assessment Instruments and their Clinimetric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Geoffrey; Piovesana, Adina

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review aims to identify, examine, and compare tests used to measure and assess verbal abstract reasoning (VAR). Seven tests were identified through a systematic search of electronic databases, neuropsychological textbooks, and online catalogs. Clinical utility, normative data, and psychometric properties (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity) of current test versions were evaluated using recent studies. A modified version of the CanChild Outcome Measures Rating Form, and structured quality assessment criteria were used in the evaluation process. The WAIS-IV Similarities subtest was ranked the highest, followed by the Shipley-2 Abstraction test and Gorham's Proverbs test. These three tests had sufficient validity to recommend their use, however some caution is advised for the latter two in terms of construct purity, and age of normative data, respectively. Other tests reviewed were the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System Proverbs subtest, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale fifth edition Verbal Analogies subtests, the Conceptual Level Analogy Test, and the Verbal Concept Attainment Test. For the majority of tests, construct validity was lacking while reliabilities were sufficient. Lack of sound psychometric evidence limits the range of options for the practitioner to choose a test with confidence to assess VAR. While there is merit in the clinical utility of the majority of assessment instruments evaluated in this review, caution is recommended before deciding to use a test that does not carry sufficient psychometric evidence to support its use. Further research is recommended to improve the library of tests available to clinicians and researchers.

  12. Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  13. Practical intelligence at work: relationship between aging and cognitive efficiency among managers in a bank environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonia-Willner, R

    1998-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine which better predicts performance among bank managers: tacit practical knowledge as assessed by the Tacit Knowledge Inventory for Managers (TKIM) or 2 psychometric measures of reasoning, the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (Raven's) and the Verbal Reasoning subtest of the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT). Two hundred bank managers (43 experts and 157 nonexperts), ages 24-59 years old, participated. Increased age was associated with lower performance in Raven's and the DAT but less so in the TKIM; best performing older managers on average had high levels of tacit knowledge, although they scored lower on psychometric reasoning measures; TKIM predicted managerial skill; DAT and Raven's did not. These results suggest that stabilization of some aspects of intelligence may occur in old age. Implications of the findings for the study of practical intelligence, expertise, and compensatory abilities are discussed.

  14. The Frontiers of Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The generally accepted theory of intelligence is developed mainly in the framework of the pragmatic critical philosophy. The discussed issues are psychometric and system theory of intelligence. However, the subject of this article are some of the more promising theories which, while remaining within the traditional scientific concepts, describe, in particular, emotional, creative, intrapersonal intelligence and wisdom. Of course, there are other ideas about intelligence. Among them, for examp...

  15. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  16. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  17. Improving measurement of attributional style in schizophrenia; A psychometric evaluation of the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Benjamin; Iwanski, Colin; Healey, Kristin M; Green, Michael F; Horan, William P; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Marder, Stephen R; Reise, Steve P; Penn, David L

    2017-06-01

    While attributional style is regarded as a core domain of social cognition, questions persist about the psychometric characteristics of measures used to assess it. One widely used assessment of attributional style is the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ). Two limitations of the AIHQ include (1) a possible restricted range resulting from too few and too homogenous item scenarios, and (2) use of rater scores that are cumbersome and time-consuming to score and have unknown incremental validity. The present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the AIHQ while concurrently testing changes aiming to improve the scale, in particular expansion of the number of self-report items and removal of the rater-scored items. One hundred sixty individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 58 healthy controls completed the full AIHQ along with measures of symptoms, functioning, and verbal intelligence. The AIHQ - particularly the self-reported blame score - demonstrated adequate internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and distinguished patients from controls. It also was significantly related to clinically-rated hostility and suspiciousness symptoms, and correlated with functional capacity even after controlling for verbal intelligence. Incremental validity analyses suggested that a higher number of self-report items strengthens relationships to outcomes in a manner that justifies this expansion, while rater-scored items had mixed results in providing additional information beyond self-report in the AIHQ. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  19. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  20. Imaging structural covariance in the development of intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khundrakpam, B.S.; Lewis, J.D.; Reid, A.T.; Karama, S.; Zhao, L.; Chouinard-Decorte, F.; Evans, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Verbal and non-verbal intelligence in children is highly correlated, and thus, it has been difficult to differentiate their neural substrates. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that verbal and non-verbal intelligence can be dissociated and focal cortical regions corresponding to each have been

  1. Sex differences in general intelligence: a psychometric investigation of group differences in mean and variability as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Savage-McGlynn, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Approved hardbound copy has subtitle "a psychometric investigation of group differences in mean and variability as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Plus" Researchers and the general public alike continue to debate ‘which is the smarter sex?’ Research to date suggests that males outperform females, females outperform males, while others find no differences in mean or variance. These inconsistent results are thought to occur for two reasons. First, studies rely on opport...

  2. Brief Report: Performance Pattern Differences between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder on Measures of Verbal Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayat, Maya; Kalb, Luther; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2011-01-01

    Performance patterns on verbal subtests from the WISC-IV were compared between a clinically-referred sample of children with either autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ASD demonstrated a statistically significant stepwise pattern where performance on Similarities was best, followed by…

  3. Measuring Emotional Intelligence in Early Adolescence with the MSCEIT-YV: Psychometric Properties and Relationship with Academic Performance and Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Susan E.; Brackett, Marc A.; Reyes, Maria R.; Mayer, John D.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) theory provides a framework to study the role of emotion skills in social, personal, and academic functioning. Reporting data validating the importance of EI among youth have been limited due to a dearth of measurement instruments. In two studies, the authors examined the reliability and validity of the…

  4. Intelligence as Trait—and State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sternberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We tend to think of intelligence as trait-like. However, with increasing use of psychoactive drugs that enhance performance on psychometric tests of intelligence, investigators need to think of intelligence also as having state-like properties. Questions of the ethics of such drug use will need to be faced in the field of high-stakes psychometric testing as they now are being faced in professional athletics.

  5. Parâmetros psicométricos: estudo comparativo entre testes de inteligência e de personalidade Psychometric parameters: comparative study between intelligence and personality tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A validade e a precisão de testes psicológicos vêm sendo bastante questionadas e discutidas atualmente. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a validade, a precisão e a existência de padronização brasileira em 43 testes psicológicos comercializados no Brasil, sendo 22 de inteligência e 21 de personalidade. Os testes foram comparados quanto ao período de publicação no Brasil. Os resultados indicaram que existe maior número de instrumentos publicados nas décadas de 1980 e 1990, que os testes de inteligência apresentam mais estudos de padronização, validade e precisão, embora não tenha havido diferença significante entre os grupos de testes (inteligência e personalidade. Novos estudos devem ser desenvolvidos com o intuito de promover os testes psicológicos e a área de avaliação psicológica, como um todo.Nowadays, the validity and the reliability of psychological tests are being very questioned and discussed. The current study aims to evaluate the validity, the reliability and the existence of Brazilian standardization in 43 psychological tests commercialized in Brazil, being 22 of intelligence and 21 of personality. The tests have been compared concearning the publication period in Brazil. The results have indicated that there is a bigger number of instruments published in the 1980´s and 1990´s, that the intelligence tests present more studies of standardization, validity and reliability, even though there hasn´t been significant difference among the groups tests (intelligence and personality. New studies must be developed aiming to promote the psychological tests and the area of psychological assessment, as a whole.

  6. Executive Functioning as a Mediator of the Relationship Between Premorbid Verbal Intelligence and Health Risk Behaviors in a Rural-Dwelling Cohort: A Project FRONTIER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Chloe V.; Jahn, Danielle R.; Mauer, Cortney B.; O'Bryant, Sid E.

    2013-01-01

    Limited research is available regarding the impact of neuropsychological functioning on health risk behaviors in rural-dwelling elderly populations. This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between estimated premorbid verbal IQ (AMNART), executive functioning impairment (EXIT25), and health risk behaviors including alcohol use (AUDIT), smoking, compliance with recommended cancer screenings, and obesity (BMI). The total sample included 456 English-speaking adults and older adults of non-Hispanic White and Hispanic origin seen as part of an ongoing study of rural cognitive aging, Project FRONTIER. Regression analyses revealed significant independent effects of AMNART and EXIT25 on most health risk behaviors, and supported the hypothesized mediating role of EXIT25 on the relationships between AMNART and smoking, cancer screenings, and BMI in both cognitively impaired and healthy subgroups. This study clarifies the relationships between executive functioning, premorbid IQ, and health risk behaviors in diverse groups, and confirms that premorbid IQ represents an important determinant of health behaviors and neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:23192834

  7. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crewther Sheila G

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. Methods The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. Results In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Conclusion Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  8. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Homophobic Bullying Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…

  9. What drives successful verbal communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eDe Boer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a vast amount of potential mappings between behaviours and intentions in communication: a behaviour can indicate a multitude of different intentions, and the same intention can be communicated with a variety of behaviours. Humans routinely solve these many-to-many referential problems when producing utterances for an Addressee. This ability might rely on social cognitive skills, for instance, the ability to manipulate unobservable summary variables to disambiguate ambiguous behaviour of other agents (mentalizing and the drive to invest resources into changing and understanding the mental state of other agents (communicative motivation. Alternatively, the ambiguities of verbal communicative interactions might be solved by general-purpose cognitive abilities that process cues that are incidentally associated with the communicative interaction. In this study, we assess these possibilities by testing which cognitive traits account for communicative success during a verbal referential task. Cognitive traits were assessed with psychometric scores quantifying motivation, mentalizing abilities, and general-purpose cognitive abilities, taxing abstract visuo-spatial abilities. Communicative abilities of participants were assessed by using an on-line interactive task that required a speaker to verbally convey a concept to an Addressee. The communicative success of the utterances was quantified by measuring how frequently a number of Evaluators would infer the correct concept. Speakers with high motivational and general-purpose cognitive abilities generated utterances that were more easily interpreted. These findings extend to the domain of verbal communication the notion that motivational and cognitive factors influence the human ability to rapidly converge on shared communicative innovations.

  10. razonamiento verbal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Susana Lozzia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar el desarrollo de un banco de ítem de razonamiento verbal a partir de la Teoría de Respuesta al Item (TRI. Se presenta la TRI y su aplicación en la elaboración de bancos de ítem que posibilitan el diseño de tests adaptativos. Los ítem son de elección múltiple y miden la habilidad para reconocer y discriminar relaciones entre palabras. Un banco de ítem es un conjunto de ítem que miden una misma variable y cuyos parámetros están calibrados (estimados en una misma escala. La construcción de un banco es un proceso de creación-calibración de ítem que se realiza en sucesivas etapas. Como los sujetos de las muestras son diferentes en cada etapa, los ítem a calibrar deben ser administrados junto con un pequeño grupo de ítem calibrados en etapas anteriores, los cuales sirven de enlace para que todas las estimaciones resulten en la misma escala. La estimación de los parámetros se lleva a cabo por el método de máxima verosimilitud marginal ajustando el modelo logístico de tres parámetros con el programa XCALIBRETM. Los análisis del funcionamiento diferencial (Differential Item Functioning - DIF se basan en el test normal para la diferencia de los parámetros de dificultad, dicha diferencia con sus errores estándar para cada ítem es proporcionada por BILOG-MGTM. Se eliminan aquellos que no ajustan al modelo y los que presentan DIF. El banco cuenta hasta el momento con 93 ítem.

  11. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.

  12. Childhood intelligence is heritable, highly polygenic and associated with FNBP1L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benyamin, B.; St Pourcain, B.; Davis, O. S.

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence in childhood, as measured by psychometric cognitive tests, is a strong predictor of many important life outcomes, including educational attainment, income, health and lifespan. Results from twin, family and adoption studies are consistent with general intelligence being highly herita...

  13. Working memory and fluid intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale; Gathercole; Conway, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and which aspect of working memory span tasks– short-term storage or controlled attention - might drive the relationship. A sample of 119 children were followed from kindergarten to 2nd grade and completed assessments of working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence. The data showed that working memory, verbal short-term memory, and fluid intelligence were highly related but sepa...

  14. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Taiwan Odd-Even Number Sequencing Test: A Nonalphabetic Measure of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Peng, Chung-Yu; Hua, Mau-Sun; Liu, Chen-Chung; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2016-05-09

    Alphabetic working memory (WM) tests, such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and IV Letter Number Sequencing, are not appropriate for nonalphabetic cultures. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Taiwan Odd-Even Number Sequencing Test (TOENST) and identified representative norms. The TOENST and other mental screening tasks were administered to 300 randomly selected healthy participants, 32 purposive sampling patients with schizophrenia, and 32 quota sampling controls. To investigate reliability and validity, a subset of the 300 healthy participants was randomly selected to receive a second TOENST (n = 30) or conventional WM tests (n = 42). The split-half reliability of the TOENST ranged from 0.69 to 0.95, and its test-retest reliability was 0.75. Criterion validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with conventional WM measures (all p < .05, except semantic verbal fluency), and construct validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with aging (main effect, F10,259 = 10.99, p < .001). Normative data were established, and performance was significantly associated with age and education. TOENST scores of patients with schizophrenia were significantly lower and correlated with frontal lobe tests, but not demographical or clinical characteristics. The TOENST has adequate psychometric properties and clinical utility and is as a viable alternative WM task for nonalphabetic cultures.

  15. A Socratic epistemology for verbal emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Kazemzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe and experimentally validate a question-asking framework for machine-learned linguistic knowledge about human emotions. Using the Socratic method as a theoretical inspiration, we develop an experimental method and computational model for computers to learn subjective information about emotions by playing emotion twenty questions (EMO20Q, a game of twenty questions limited to words denoting emotions. Using human–human EMO20Q data we bootstrap a sequential Bayesian model that drives a generalized pushdown automaton-based dialog agent that further learns from 300 human–computer dialogs collected on Amazon Mechanical Turk. The human–human EMO20Q dialogs show the capability of humans to use a large, rich, subjective vocabulary of emotion words. Training on successive batches of human–computer EMO20Q dialogs shows that the automated agent is able to learn from subsequent human–computer interactions. Our results show that the training procedure enables the agent to learn a large set of emotion words. The fully trained agent successfully completes EMO20Q at 67% of human performance and 30% better than the bootstrapped agent. Even when the agent fails to guess the human opponent’s emotion word in the EMO20Q game, the agent’s behavior of searching for knowledge makes it appear human-like, which enables the agent to maintain user engagement and learn new, out-of-vocabulary words. These results lead us to conclude that the question-asking methodology and its implementation as a sequential Bayes pushdown automaton are a successful model for the cognitive abilities involved in learning, retrieving, and using emotion words by an automated agent in a dialog setting.

  16. Benefits of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on verbal reasoning skills in prelingually deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Evi; Langereis, Margreet C; Frijns, Johan H M; Free, Rolien H; Goedegebure, Andre; Smits, Cas; Stokroos, Robert J; Ariens-Meijer, Saskia A M; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Vermeulen, Anneke M

    2016-11-01

    Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (CI) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels. This holds especially for children in spoken language environments. However, speech perception in complex listening situations and the acquisition of complex verbal skills remains difficult. Bilateral CI was expected to enhance the acquisition of verbal intelligence by improved understanding of speech in noise. This study examined the effect of bilateral CI on verbal intelligence of 49 deaf children (3;5-8;0 years). Relations between speech perception in noise, auditory short-term memory and verbal intelligence were analysed with multiple linear regressions. In addition, the interaction of educational setting, mainstream or special, on these relations was analysed. Children with bilateral CI obtained higher scores on verbal intelligence. Significant associations were present between speech perception in noise, auditory short-term memory and verbal intelligence. Children with simultaneous bilateral CIs showed better speech perception in noise than children with unilateral CIs, which mediated by the auditory short-term memory capacity, enhanced the ability to acquire more complex verbal skills for BICI children in mainstream education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Monkey game : A computerized verbal working memory task for self-reliant administration in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Jolani, Shahab; van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, the psychometric properties of an online self-reliant verbal working memory task (the Monkey game) for primary school children (6–12 years of age) were examined. In Study 1, children (n = 5,203) from 31 primary schools participated. The participants completed computerized verbal and

  18. Intelligence Assessment: Gardner Multiple Intelligence Theory as an Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leandro S.; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Ferreira, Aristides I.; Bermejo, Maria Rosario; Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrandiz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    In the multiple intelligence framework, newer and more contextualized cognitive tasks are suggested as alternative to more traditional psychometric tests. The purpose of this article is to examine whether or not these two types of instruments converge into a general factor of cognitive performance. Thus, the Battery of General and Differential…

  19. Types of verbal interaction with instructable robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, C.; Suppes, P.; Michalowski, S.

    1987-01-01

    An instructable robot is one that accepts instruction in some natural language such as English and uses that instruction to extend its basic repertoire of actions. Such robots are quite different in conception from autonomously intelligent robots, which provide the impetus for much of the research on inference and planning in artificial intelligence. Examined here are the significant problem areas in the design of robots that learn from vebal instruction. Examples are drawn primarily from our earlier work on instructable robots and recent work on the Robotic Aid for the physically disabled. Natural-language understanding by machines is discussed as well as in the possibilities and limits of verbal instruction. The core problem of verbal instruction, namely, how to achieve specific concrete action in the robot in response to commands that express general intentions, is considered, as are two major challenges to instructability: achieving appropriate real-time behavior in the robot, and extending the robot's language capabilities.

  20. Evoked Potentials and Human Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, John P.; Schafer, Edward W. P.

    Evidence of a relationship between the electrical responses of the human brain and psychometric measure of intelligence is presented. These involuntary cortical responses, known as average evoked potentials are considered to be the electrical signs of information processing by the brain. The time delays of these responses from presentation of a…

  1. A New Era of Intelligence Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. A. Conway

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A consensus definition of intelligence remains elusive but there are many reasons to believe that the field of intelligence is entering a new era of significant progress. The convergence of recent advances in psychometrics, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience has set the stage for the development of stronger theories and more sophisticated models. The establishment of a new open access journal as an outlet for new intelligence research is evidence that the new era has begun.

  2. A New Era of Intelligence Research

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Andrew R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A consensus definition of intelligence remains elusive but there are many reasons to believe that the field of intelligence is entering a new era of significant progress. The convergence of recent advances in psychometrics, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience has set the stage for the development of stronger theories and more sophisticated models. The establishment of a new open access journal as an outlet for new intelligence research is evidence that the new era has begun.

  3. Bayesian psychometric scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, G.J.A.; Berg, van den S.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.; Irwing, P.; Booth, T.; Hughes, D.

    2015-01-01

    In educational and psychological studies, psychometric methods are involved in the measurement of constructs, and in constructing and validating measurement instruments. Assessment results are typically used to measure student proficiency levels and test characteristics. Recently, Bayesian item resp

  4. Bayesian psychometric scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Gerardus J.A.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Irwing, P.; Booth, T.; Hughes, D.

    2015-01-01

    In educational and psychological studies, psychometric methods are involved in the measurement of constructs, and in constructing and validating measurement instruments. Assessment results are typically used to measure student proficiency levels and test characteristics. Recently, Bayesian item

  5. Assessing Music Perception in Young Children: Evidence for and Psychometric Features of the M-Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Caio G; Swardfager, Walter; Moreno, Sylvain; Bortz, Graziela; Ilari, Beatriz; Jackowski, Andrea P; Ploubidis, George; Little, Todd D; Lamont, Alexandra; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Given the relationship between language acquisition and music processing, musical perception (MP) skills have been proposed as a tool for early diagnosis of speech and language difficulties; therefore, a psychometric instrument is needed to assess music perception in children under 10 years of age, a crucial period in neurodevelopment. We created a set of 80 musical stimuli encompassing seven domains of music perception to inform perception of tonal, atonal, and modal stimuli, in a random sample of 1006 children, 6-13 years of age, equally distributed from first to fifth grades, from 14 schools (38% private schools) in So Paulo State. The underlying model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. A model encompassing seven orthogonal specific domains (contour, loudness, scale, timbre, duration, pitch, and meter) and one general music perception factor, the "m-factor," showed excellent fit indices. The m-factor, previously hypothesized in the literature but never formally tested, explains 93% of the reliable variance in measurement, while only 3.9% of the reliable variance could be attributed to the multidimensionality caused by the specific domains. The 80 items showed no differential item functioning based on sex, age, or enrolment in public vs. private school, demonstrating the important psychometric feature of invariance. Like Charles Spearman's g-factor of intelligence, the m-factor is robust and reliable. It provides a convenient measure of auditory stimulus apprehension that does not rely on verbal information, offering a new opportunity to probe biological and psychological relationships with music perception phenomena and the etiologies of speech and language disorders.

  6. Assessing Music Perception in Young Children: Evidence for and Psychometric Features of the M-Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Caio G.; Swardfager, Walter; Moreno, Sylvain; Bortz, Graziela; Ilari, Beatriz; Jackowski, Andrea P.; Ploubidis, George; Little, Todd D.; Lamont, Alexandra; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Given the relationship between language acquisition and music processing, musical perception (MP) skills have been proposed as a tool for early diagnosis of speech and language difficulties; therefore, a psychometric instrument is needed to assess music perception in children under 10 years of age, a crucial period in neurodevelopment. We created a set of 80 musical stimuli encompassing seven domains of music perception to inform perception of tonal, atonal, and modal stimuli, in a random sample of 1006 children, 6–13 years of age, equally distributed from first to fifth grades, from 14 schools (38% private schools) in So Paulo State. The underlying model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. A model encompassing seven orthogonal specific domains (contour, loudness, scale, timbre, duration, pitch, and meter) and one general music perception factor, the “m-factor,” showed excellent fit indices. The m-factor, previously hypothesized in the literature but never formally tested, explains 93% of the reliable variance in measurement, while only 3.9% of the reliable variance could be attributed to the multidimensionality caused by the specific domains. The 80 items showed no differential item functioning based on sex, age, or enrolment in public vs. private school, demonstrating the important psychometric feature of invariance. Like Charles Spearman's g-factor of intelligence, the m-factor is robust and reliable. It provides a convenient measure of auditory stimulus apprehension that does not rely on verbal information, offering a new opportunity to probe biological and psychological relationships with music perception phenomena and the etiologies of speech and language disorders. PMID:28174518

  7. Benefits of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on verbal reasoning skills in prelingually deaf children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Evi; Langereis, Margreet C.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Free, Rolien H.; Goedegebure, Andre; Smits, Cas; Stokroos, Robert J.; Ariens-Meijer, Saskia A. M.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Vermeulen, Anneke M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (Cl) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels.

  8. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  9. Benefits of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on verbal reasoning skills in prelingually deaf children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, E.; Langereis, M.C.; Frijns, J.H.; Free, R.H.; Goedegebure, A.; Smits, C.; Stokroos, R.J.; Ariens-Meijer, S.A.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Vermeulen, A.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (CI) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels.

  10. Benefits of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on verbal reasoning skills in prelingually deaf children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Evi; Langereis, Margreet C.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Free, Rolien H.; Goedegebure, Andre; Smits, Cas; Stokroos, Robert J.; Ariens-Meijer, Saskia A. M.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Vermeulen, Anneke M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (Cl) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels.

  11. The Monkey game: A computerized verbal working memory task for self-reliant administration in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Jolani, Shahab; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, the psychometric properties of an online self-reliant verbal working memory task (the Monkey game) for primary school children (6-12 years of age) were examined. In Study 1, children (n = 5,203) from 31 primary schools participated. The participants completed computerized verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks (i.e., the Monkey game and the Lion game) and a paper-and-pencil version of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Reading comprehension and math achievement test scores were obtained from the schools. First, the internal consistency of the Monkey game was examined. Second, multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of classroom membership. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the Monkey game's concurrent relationship with the Lion game and its predictive relationships with reading comprehension and math achievement. Also, age-related differences in performance were examined. In Study 2, the concurrent relationships between the Monkey game and two tester-led computerized working memory tasks were further examined (n = 140). Also, the 1- and 2-year stability of the Monkey game was investigated. The Monkey game showed excellent internal consistency, good concurrent relationships with the other working memory measures, and significant age differences in performance. Performance on the Monkey game was also predictive of subsequent reading comprehension and mathematics performance, even after controlling for individual differences in intelligence. Performance on the Monkey game was influenced by classroom membership. The Monkey game is a reliable and suitable instrument for the online computerized and self-reliant assessment of verbal working memory in primary school children.

  12. How Youth in India and Lebanon Rate their Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Nasser

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 648 Lebanese and 252 Indian students estimated their intelligences based on Gardner’s 10 multiple intelligence. Males rated higher their body kinesthetic and religious dimension (spiritual while females rated higher their verbal and intra-personal estimates of intelligence. Using the educational level of the parent, no significant correlation with self-estimates of intelligence for each of the national samples was reported. Differences appeared between Indian and Lebanese samples on the cognitive components of intelligences, namely, verbal, spatial and logical abilities. ANOVA results showed that a higher logical component higher than their female counterparts and Indian males and females.

  13. The effects of intelligence test preparation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, H.T.; te Nijenhuis, J; Keen, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to investigate the effects of reading a book concerning intelligence tests and the effects of a specific test-training programme on numerical and verbal intelligence tests. The second goal was to investigate to what extent the acquisition of test-specific problem-sol

  14. The Language, Working Memory, and Other Cognitive Demands of Verbal Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To gain a better understanding of the cognitive processes supporting verbal abilities, the underlying structure and interrelationships between common verbal measures were investigated. Methods: An epidemiological sample (n = 374) of school-aged children completed standardized tests of language, intelligence, and short-term and working…

  15. The role of decision speed in the construct of intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bucik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A theory of general intelligence in Spearman's sense has been frequently verified via two complementary approaches, the one using psychometric and the other using experimental methodology. The results led to the conclusion that both, psychometric tests and elementary cognitive tasks in different experimental paradigms measure the same thing in substantial extent. The rapid, error free information processing, reflecting the efficiency of a nervous system with limited capacity, was supposed to be the essential component of the intellect. This view is often criticised by the authors who claim that high correlation between speed of information processing and psychometric intelligence is simply the consequence of the fact that some intelligence tests themselves are "speeded" and that mental speed is merely a marginal variable in both psychometric tests and elementary cognitive tasks. In our study we tested 88 subjects with three psychometric tests, measuring general intelligence in Spearman's sense. Parallel versions of those tests were created by splitting each of them into two equivalent halves by "odd-even" principle. One version was applied under strict time constraints and the other one without time pressure. In addition five speed-of-information-processing paradigms were applied. The relationship between the mental speed and general intelligence measured in timed and untimed conditions was examined. Results suggest that the role of speed of information processing is significant in determining general intelligence. Mental speed also seems to be relatively independent with regarding to time limitations in testing intelligence. The results are discussed in terms of the neural efficiency presumptions.

  16. A Review and Critique of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Carol A.

    The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) is designed for use as a quick intelligence test for individuals aged 4 years through adulthood. The K-BIT measures both verbal and nonverbal intelligence, yielding Vocabulary, Matrices, and IQ composite scores. The test is easy to administer, and questions are scored objectively, making it easy for…

  17. ACT Verbal Prep Course

    CERN Document Server

    Standridge, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Prep for ACT Verbal. Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the verbal sections of the ACT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. The verbal sections are not easy. There is no quick fix that will allow you to "beat" the ACT, but it is very learnable. If you study hard and master the techniques in this book, your score will improve-significantly. The ACT cannot be "beaten." But it can be mastered-through hard work, analytical thought, and by training yourself to think like a test writer. Many of the exercises in this book are design

  18. The Verbal Behavior Assessment Scale (VerBAS): Construct Validity, Reliability, and Internal Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Pieter C.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the psychometric characteristics of the Verbal Behavior Assessment Scale, the 15-item questionnaire was administered to pairs of caregivers of 115 individuals with developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis involving 11 more participants revealed evidence concerning the distinction of three different communicative functions…

  19. Psychometric latent response models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, E.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, some psychometric models will be presented that belong to the larger class oflatent response models (LRMs). First, LRMs are introduced by means of an application in the field ofcomponential item response theory (Embretson, 1980, 1984). Second, a general definition of LRMs (not specifi

  20. Factor Structure of Japanese Versions of Two Emotional Intelligence Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Eriko; Saklofske, Donald H.; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Fung, Tak Shing; Miyaoka, Yayoi; Kiyama, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the psychometric properties of two emotional intelligence measures translated into Japanese. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the factor structure of a Japanese version of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) completed by 310 Japanese university students. A second study employed CFA…

  1. Verbal Interaction Project: Aiding Cognitive Growth in Disadvantaged Preschoolers through the Mother-Child Home Program; July 1, 1967 - August 31, 1970. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The design, procedure, and results of research conducted for three years in the Verbal Interaction Project are discussed. The major hypothesis tested was that the general and verbal intelligence of low-income subjects exposed to stimulation of verbal interaction in mother-child dyads would rise significantly. A second hypothesis tested was that…

  2. Practised Intelligence Testing Based on a Modern Test Conceptualization and Its Reference to the Common Intelligence Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinger, Klaus D.; Litzenberger, Margarete; Mrakotsky, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The question is to what extent intelligence test-batteries prove any kind of empirical reference to common intelligence theories. Of particular interest are conceptualized tests that are of a high psychometric standard--those that fit the Rasch model--and hence are not exposed to fundamental critique. As individualized testing, i.e., a…

  3. Intelligence in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Nader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial results of an investigation are presented whose primary objective is to adapt and to standardize the neurocognitive assessment battery C.A.S. of Das and Naglieri (1997 in a child sample. The test is an operationalization of a non traditional intelligence model (PASS that considers the intelligent behaviors as a group of four cognitive basic processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing. The objectives of this work are to obtain the psychometric properties of the instrument and also, to analyze if differences exist according to sex and age. The study type is crosswise - transactional. It was administered the CAS to 150 children residents in Buenos Aires among the ages of 6 to 12 years (population general non consultant and the WISC-III to a sample of 50 children. 

  4. Intelligence assessments for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin Foo, Rebecca; Guppy, Max; Johnston, Leanne M

    2013-10-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is defined as a primary disorder of posture and movement; however, approximately 45% of children with CP also have an intellectual impairment. Prevalence estimates are limited by a lack of guidelines for intelligence testing. This systematic review aims to identify and examine intelligence assessments for children with CP. Electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, EMBASE, and ERIC) were searched to identify assessments that (1) measured intellectual function, (2) in children aged 4 to 18 years, (3) with CP, and (4) with psychometrics available. Searches yielded 48 assessments, of which nine provided psychometric data for children with CP. The included tests were the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale, the Leiter International Performance Scale, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the Pictorial Test of Intelligence, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Intelligence assessments in children with CP lack reliability data, consensus regarding validity data, and population-specific norms. Research is required to establish psychometrics for children with CP. For children with higher motor involvement and/or communication and/or visual impairments, multiple options are required to assess intelligence appropriately. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Improving Teachers' Verbal Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Suggests strategies center directors can use to improve teachers' verbal interactions with children. Directors can help teachers (1) understand child growth and development; (2) understand that what they say matters; (3) hear themselves talking to children; and (4) develop their observation skills. Directors can also share good models with…

  6. On Verbal Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxin Dai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored a new concept, verbal competence, to present a challenge to Chomsky’s linguistic competence and Hymes’ communicative competence. It is generally acknowledged that Chomsky concerned himself only with the syntactic/grammatical structures, and viewed the speaker’s generation and transformation of syntactic structures as the production of language. Hymes challenged Chomsky’s conception of linguistic competence and argued for an ethnographic or sociolinguistic concept, communicative competence, but his concept is too broad to be adequately grasped and followed in such fields as linguistics and second language acquisition. Communicative competence can include abilities to communicate with nonverbal behaviors, e.g. gestures, postures or even silence. The concept of verbal competence concerns itself with the mental and psychological processes of verbal production in communication. These processes originate from the speaker’s personal experience, in a certain situation of human communication, and with the sudden appearance of the intentional notion, shape up as the meaning images and end up in the verbal expression.

  7. Verbal dyspraxia and galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Amy Leigh; Singh, Rani H; Kennedy, Mary Jane; Elsas, Louis J

    2003-03-01

    Classical galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from deficient galactose-1-phosphateuridyl transferase (GALT) activity. Verbal dyspraxia is an unusual outcome in galactosemia. Here we validated a simplified breath test of total body galactose oxidation against genotype and evaluated five potential biochemical risk indicators for verbal dyspraxia in galactosemia: cumulative percentage dose (CUMPCD) of (13)CO(2) in breath, mean erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate, highest erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate, mean urinary galactitol, and erythrocyte GALT activity. Thirteen controls and 42 patients with galactosemia took a (13)C-galactose bolus, and the (CUMPCD) of (13)CO(2) in expired air was determined. Patients with or =5% CUMPCD had milder mutant human GALT alleles. Twenty-four patients consented to formal speech evaluation; 15 (63%) had verbal dyspraxia. Dyspraxic patients had significantly lower CUMPCD values (2.84 +/- 5.76% versus 11.51 +/- 7.67%; p 2.7 mg/dL, and mean urinary galactitol levels >135 mmol/mol creatinine were associated with dyspraxic outcome with odds ratios of 21, 13, and 5, respectively. We conclude that total body oxidation of galactose to CO(2) in expired air reflects genotype and that this breath test is a sensitive predictor of verbal dyspraxia in patients with galactosemia.

  8. Non-Verbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  9. Natural language processing, pragmatics, and verbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpas, C

    1992-01-01

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) is that part of Artificial Intelligence (AI) concerned with endowing computers with verbal and listener repertoires, so that people can interact with them more easily. Most attention has been given to accurately parsing and generating syntactic structures, although NLP researchers are finding ways of handling the semantic content of language as well. It is increasingly apparent that understanding the pragmatic (contextual and consequential) dimension of natural language is critical for producing effective NLP systems. While there are some techniques for applying pragmatics in computer systems, they are piecemeal, crude, and lack an integrated theoretical foundation. Unfortunately, there is little awareness that Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior provides an extensive, principled pragmatic analysis of language. The implications of Skinner's functional analysis for NLP and for verbal aspects of epistemology lead to a proposal for a "user expert"-a computer system whose area of expertise is the long-term computer user. The evolutionary nature of behavior suggests an AI technology known as genetic algorithms/programming for implementing such a system.

  10. Future of Psychometrics: Ask What Psychometrics Can Do for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    I address two issues that were inspired by my work on the Dutch Committee on Tests and Testing (COTAN). The first issue is the understanding of problems test constructors and researchers using tests have of psychometric knowledge. I argue that this understanding is important for a field, like psychometrics, for which the dissemination of…

  11. Future of Psychometrics: Ask What Psychometrics Can Do for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    I address two issues that were inspired by my work on the Dutch Committee on Tests and Testing (COTAN). The first issue is the understanding of problems test constructors and researchers using tests have of psychometric knowledge. I argue that this understanding is important for a field, like psychometrics, for which the dissemination of…

  12. The evolution of general intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Judith M; Schubiger, Michèle N; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-07-28

    The presence of general intelligence poses a major evolutionary puzzle, which has led to increased interest in its presence in nonhuman animals. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate this puzzle, and to explore the implications for current theories about the evolution of cognition. We first review domain-general and domain-specific accounts of human cognition in order to situate attempts to identify general intelligence in nonhuman animals. Recent studies are consistent with the presence of general intelligence in mammals (rodents and primates). However, the interpretation of a psychometric g-factor as general intelligence needs to be validated, in particular in primates, and we propose a range of such tests. We then evaluate the implications of general intelligence in nonhuman animals for current theories about its evolution and find support for the cultural intelligence approach, which stresses the critical importance of social inputs during the ontogenetic construction of survival-relevant skills. The presence of general intelligence in nonhumans implies that modular abilities can arise in two ways, primarily through automatic development with fixed content and secondarily through learning and automatization with more variable content. The currently best-supported model, for humans and nonhuman vertebrates alike, thus construes the mind as a mix of skills based on primary and secondary modules. The relative importance of these two components is expected to vary widely among species, and we formulate tests to quantify their strength.

  13. Emotional intelligence and social functioning in persons with schizotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Fabian; Sergi, Mark J; Levy, Cynthia A

    2008-09-01

    The present study is the first to examine emotional intelligence in persons with schizotypy. Over 2100 undergraduates were screened for schizotypy with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Version. Forty participants identified as persons with high schizotypy and 56 participants identified as persons with low schizotypy completed assessments of emotional intelligence (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), social functioning (Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report), verbal episodic (secondary) memory (California Verbal Learning Test), and executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Persons high in schizotypy were impaired in overall emotional intelligence and two aspects of emotional intelligence, the ability to perceive emotions and the ability to manage emotions. Persons high in schizotypy were also impaired in three aspects of social functioning: peer relationships, family relationships, and academic functioning. Group differences in verbal episodic (secondary) memory and executive functioning were not observed. For persons with high schizotypy, overall emotional intelligence and two aspects of emotional intelligence, the ability to perceive emotions and the ability to manage emotions, were associated with peer relationship functioning. Overall emotional intelligence was associated with verbal episodic (secondary) memory, but not executive functioning, in persons with high schizotypy. The current findings suggest that emotional intelligence is impaired in persons with schizotypy and that these impairments affect their social functioning.

  14. Developing a Cultural Intelligence Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-12

    2. I can identify negative feelings without becoming distressed. 3. I stay focused (not lost in unimportant details or  procrastination ) in getting a...32 verbal and non-verbal cues--and our inability to identify them--represents the cultural gap that must be overcome in order to defeat such...gunfight. The ambiguity of the global war on terror can be overcome and victory achieved through an investment in the cultural intelligence of the

  15. IQs Are Very Strong but Imperfect Indicators of Psychometric "g": Results from Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The most global score yielded by intelligence tests, IQs, are supported by substantial validity evidence and have historically been central to the identification of intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, and giftedness. This study examined the extent to which IQs measure the ability they target, psychometric "g." Data from…

  16. Raven's Test Performance of Sub-Saharan Africans: Average Performance, Psychometric Properties, and the Flynn Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Carlson, Jerry S.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of published data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices. The specific goals were to estimate the average level of performance, to study the Flynn Effect in African samples, and to examine the psychometric meaning of Raven's test scores as measures of general intelligence.…

  17. Was Pre-Modern Man a Child? The Quintessence of the Psychometric and Developmental Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W.

    2012-01-01

    The essay integrates the psychometric intelligence approach with the cognitive-developmental approach or the stage theory erected by Piaget and his disciples. The latter led to Piagetian Cross-Cultural Psychology and the accumulation of an immense body of data. It shows that different IQ levels are indicative of the peculiar stages of cognitive…

  18. Was Pre-Modern Man a Child? The Quintessence of the Psychometric and Developmental Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W.

    2012-01-01

    The essay integrates the psychometric intelligence approach with the cognitive-developmental approach or the stage theory erected by Piaget and his disciples. The latter led to Piagetian Cross-Cultural Psychology and the accumulation of an immense body of data. It shows that different IQ levels are indicative of the peculiar stages of cognitive…

  19. Verbal fluency tests – application in neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskunowicz, Małgorzata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tests (VFT have established position in methodology of cognitive functions research. They are used in neuropsychological assessment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. This article’s aim is to present current knowledge of the VFT both to clinicians and researchers. It describes models of cognitive processes involved in task performance mainly: semantic memory access and executive functions. and. It describes studies on verbal fluency both in healthy and impaired subjects involving neuroimaging discussing neuroanatomical structures involved in task performance. Authors are quite unanimous as to connection between frontal and temporal lobes condition and task performance, but also other cortical and subcortical structures seem to be involved. Methods of qualitative performance analysis and studies applying them are further described. This article brings up also important questions of psychometric and demographic characteristics of the task and limitations arising from the lack of Polish norms of the tool.

  20. Sex differences in self‐estimation of multiple intelligences among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    A. Furnham; Yuen, MT

    2005-01-01

    A total of 378 Hong Kong adolescents estimated their own and their parents' IQ score on each of Gardner's 10 multiple intelligences: verbal (linguistic), logical (mathematical), spatial, musical, body‐kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, existential, spiritual and naturalistic. They answered three simple questions concerning intelligence and intelligence tests. There were sex differences in eight of the 10 self‐estimates except for verbal and interpersonal. Male participants gave higher...

  1. Nothing Fails Like Success: The Search for an Intelligence Paradigm for Studying Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    The decline of the psychometric paradigm for studying intelligence was due in part to its failure to meet four challenges. On the surface, users of the information-processing paradigms seem successfully to have met these challenges, but at a deeper level, the level of success is not so great. (Author/BW)

  2. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Designing verbal autopsy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibuya Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy analyses are widely used for estimating cause-specific mortality rates (CSMR in the vast majority of the world without high-quality medical death registration. Verbal autopsies -- survey interviews with the caretakers of imminent decedents -- stand in for medical examinations or physical autopsies, which are infeasible or culturally prohibited. Methods and Findings We introduce methods, simulations, and interpretations that can improve the design of automated, data-derived estimates of CSMRs, building on a new approach by King and Lu (2008. Our results generate advice for choosing symptom questions and sample sizes that is easier to satisfy than existing practices. For example, most prior effort has been devoted to searching for symptoms with high sensitivity and specificity, which has rarely if ever succeeded with multiple causes of death. In contrast, our approach makes this search irrelevant because it can produce unbiased estimates even with symptoms that have very low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the new method is optimized for survey questions caretakers can easily answer rather than questions physicians would ask themselves. We also offer an automated method of weeding out biased symptom questions and advice on how to choose the number of causes of death, symptom questions to ask, and observations to collect, among others. Conclusions With the advice offered here, researchers should be able to design verbal autopsy surveys and conduct analyses with greatly reduced statistical biases and research costs.

  4. [Different verbal behavior in children with attention deficit between 7 and 12 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, D A; Restrepo, M A; Henao, G C; Gutiérrez-Clellen, V; Sánchez, D

    According to factor brain organization of cognition model, it has been proposed that there are specific a shared underlie factors in the structure of each cognitive functions. To determine if children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) have different verbal abilities than controls, and if verbal behaviors are related to inattention and hyperactive symptoms. 32 children with attention deficit without hyperactivity (ADD/-H), 28 children with attention deficit hyperactivity (ADD/+H), according to DSM-IV criteria and higher than 60-T-Score on an ADHD checklist, and 32 control children were selected. Age, sex, school achievement, and socioeconomic status were controlled. All children had a WISC-R performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) > 80 and were 7-to-12-year old. Verbal test to assess comprehension, inferences, narrative, fluency, analogies and rapid naming were applied. Children from both ADD groups obtained significant lower WISC-R verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), PIQ, full scale IQ (FSIQ), and phonologic fluency score than controls (ANOVA-Bonferroni's correction p analogies (p verbal fluency continued presenting significant differences between control and ADD children. Inattention-hyperactivity checklist scores had significant inverse and mild correlations with inferences, items recalled in a narrative, phonologic verbal fluency, and analogies (r > -0.20, p 0.20, p verbal production, fluency and speed in ADD/+H and ADD/-H children. There were shared underlie relations between verbal abilities and behavioral symptoms.

  5. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  6. The validation of Huffaz Intelligence Test (HIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Azrin Mohammad; Ahmad, Tahir; Awang, Siti Rahmah; Safar, Ajmain

    2017-08-01

    In general, a hafiz who can memorize the Quran has many specialties especially in respect to their academic performances. In this study, the theory of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner is embedded in a developed psychometric instrument, namely Huffaz Intelligence Test (HIT). This paper presents the validation and the reliability of HIT of some tahfiz students in Malaysia Islamic schools. A pilot study was conducted involving 87 huffaz who were randomly selected to answer the items in HIT. The analysis method used includes Partial Least Square (PLS) on reliability, convergence and discriminant validation. The study has validated nine intelligences. The findings also indicated that the composite reliabilities for the nine types of intelligences are greater than 0.8. Thus, the HIT is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the multiple intelligences among huffaz.

  7. Myopia and intelligence: a pleiotropic relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, S J; Cohn, C M; Jensen, A R

    1988-09-01

    The well-established association between myopia and superior intelligence in the general population was investigated in a group of intellectually gifted children and their less gifted full siblings to determine whether the relationship of myopia to psychometric intelligence is consistent with the hypothesis of pleiotropy, i.e., both characteristics are affected by the same gene or set of genes. Failure to find a difference in degree of myopia, assessed as a metric variable, between intellectually gifted and nongifted siblings would contradict pleiotropy. A variety of possible causal pathways, both genetic and environmental, have been hypothesized in the literature to explain the relationship between intelligence and myopia, and these still cannot be ruled out. It is theoretically noteworthy, however, in view of the independent evidence for the considerable heritability of both intelligence and myopia, that the highly significant gifted-nongifted sibling difference in myopia found in the present study is consistent with the hypothesis that intelligence and myopia are related pleiotropically.

  8. Intelligent mechatronics; Intelligent mechatronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1995-10-01

    Intelligent mechatronics (IM) was explained as follows: a study of IM essentially targets realization of a robot namely, but in the present stage the target is a creation of new values by intellectualization of machine, that is, a combination of the information infrastructure and the intelligent machine system. IM is also thought to be constituted of computers positively used and micromechatronics. The paper next introduces examples of IM study, mainly those the author is concerned with as shown below: sensor gloves, robot hands, robot eyes, tele operation, three-dimensional object recognition, mobile robot, magnetic bearing, construction of remote controlled unmanned dam, robot network, sensitivity communication using neuro baby, etc. 27 figs.

  9. Playing with the Multiple Intelligences: How Play Helps Them Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…

  10. WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an Unselected Cohort: Clinical Significance and Longitudinal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Silva, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined children whose Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) verbal and performance Intelligence Quotient discrepancies placed them beyond the 90th percentile. Longitudinal study showed 23 percent of the discrepant cases to be discrepant at two or more ages. Studied frequency of perinatal difficulties, early childhood…

  11. Nothing Fails Like Success: The Search for an Intelligent Paradigm for Studying Intelligence. Technical Report No. 29, July 1, 1980 through September 30, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    The possibility is considered that research on intelligence is entering or is about to enter a time of crisis. First, it is suggested that the decline of the psychometric paradigm as the primary means for studying intelligence was due in part to the failure of users of the paradigm to meet in a highly successful way four challenges that confronted…

  12. Do Age and Sex of School Students Make Significant Difference in Their Multiple Intelligences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, R.; Vedapriya, S. Gethsi

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Intelligences are a new educational theory proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983. Multiple intelligences describe an array of different kinds of intelligences exhibited by human beings. This theory consists of verbal-linguistic, logical and mathematics, visual and spatial, bodily kinesthetic, musical-rhythmic, intrapersonal, interpersonal,…

  13. Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation: Results of the Initial Psychometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Amy E; Penn, David L; Green, Michael F; Harvey, Philip D

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of social cognition in treatment trials remains problematic due to poor and limited psychometric data for many tasks. As part of the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, the psychometric properties of 8 tasks were assessed. One hundred and seventy-nine stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 104 healthy controls completed the battery at baseline and a 2-4-week retest period at 2 sites. Tasks included the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task (BLERT), Penn Emotion Recognition Task (ER-40), Relationships Across Domains (RAD), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task (Eyes), The Awareness of Social Inferences Test (TASIT), Hinting Task, and Trustworthiness Task. Tasks were evaluated on: (i) test-retest reliability, (ii) utility as a repeated measure, (iii) relationship to functional outcome, (iv) practicality and tolerability, (v) sensitivity to group differences, and (vi) internal consistency. The BLERT and Hinting task showed the strongest psychometric properties across all evaluation criteria and are recommended for use in clinical trials. The ER-40, Eyes Task, and TASIT showed somewhat weaker psychometric properties and require further study. The AIHQ, RAD, and Trustworthiness Task showed poorer psychometric properties that suggest caution for their use in clinical trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and logical intelligences were predicators of reading comprehension. Moreover, musical, verbal, visual, kinesthetic and natural intelligences made significant contributions to predicting vocabulary knowledge.   Key words: Multiple intelligences, reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge.

  15. Psychometric equivalence of recorded spondaic words as test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, R C; Matthies, M L; Meyer, T A; Griffiths, S K

    1998-06-01

    In the determination of the speech-reception threshold (SRT), spondaic words are assumed to be homogeneous with respect to intelligibility; and the assumption of equal intelligibility requires that the words be comparable for all signal levels. Previous attempts to assess the equal intelligibility assumption using word thresholds as the sole criterion are not an adequate basis for specifying the equality of intelligibility. In the present study, the recorded spondaic words (Tillman recording) were analyzed in an attempt to create a more homogeneous set of spondaic words for future laboratory work. To achieve this goal, the data reported by Young, Dudley, and Gunter (1982) and data collected in our laboratory were fitted to a logistic function (psychometric function) from which a 50% point (threshold) and slope were obtained. To specify their acoustical parameters, the recorded spondaic words were digitized and the RMS level and duration of each syllable and word were calculated. None of the RMS or duration measures were correlated with word thresholds, so no attempt was made to equate level or duration. On the other hand, when the threshold of each word was adjusted to equal the mean threshold of the set (n = 36), the dispersion among word thresholds and slopes was greatly reduced. Further, we recommend that small sets of "equally intelligible" spondaic words not be used for clinical testing because set size is a strong factor in determining threshold for spondees (Meyer & Bilger, 1997; Punch & Howard, 1985).

  16. Working memory and intelligence: the same or different constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Phillip L; Beier, Margaret E; Boyle, Mary O

    2005-01-01

    Several investigators have claimed over the past decade that working memory (WM) and general intelligence (g) are identical, or nearly identical, constructs, from an individual-differences perspective. Although memory measures are commonly included in intelligence tests, and memory abilities are included in theories of intelligence, the identity between WM and intelligence has not been evaluated comprehensively. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of 86 samples that relate WM to intelligence. The average correlation between true-score estimates of WM and g is substantially less than unity (p=.479). The authors also focus on the distinction between short-term memory and WM with respect to intelligence with a supplemental meta-analysis. The authors discuss how consideration of psychometric and theoretical perspectives better informs the discussion of WM-intelligence relations.

  17. Business intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebotarean Elena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Business intelligence (BI refers to computer-based techniques used in spotting, digging-out, and analyzing business data, such as sales revenue by products and/or departments, or by associated costs and incomes. BI technologies provide historical, current, and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of business intelligence technologies are reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, data mining, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining, and predictive analytics. Business intelligence aims to support better business decision-making. Thus a BI system can be called a decision support system (DSS. Though the term business intelligence is sometimes used as a synonym for competitive intelligence, because they both support decision making, BI uses technologies, processes, and applications to analyze mostly internal, structured data and business processes while competitive intelligence gathers, analyzes and disseminates information with a topical focus on company competitors. Business intelligence understood broadly can include the subset of competitive intelligence.

  18. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  19. Practical Intelligence for Success in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Teachers have many expectations for students that are never explicitly verbalized. The Yale Practical Intelligence for School curriculum is based on three kinds of tacit knowledge necessary for adapting to any environment: managing oneself, managing tasks, and working with others. Includes 16 references. (MLH)

  20. Toward a Theory of Intelligence. Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    physical or verbal. Physical intelligence consists of information drawn from things—seeing troops, hearing tanks, or smelling food . Animals use...battle with France that they actually prepared to attempt a coup against Hitler . Yet...encryption methods. As another example, a prototype of the Nazi’s famous encryption device, the Enigma machine, was first exhibited at an open trade

  1. Working Memory Components and Intelligence in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Carin M.; Nyberg, Lilianne; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated, in children aged 6-13 years, how different components of the working memory (WM) system (short-term storage and executive processes), within both verbal and visuospatial domains, relate to fluid intelligence. We also examined the degree of domain-specificity of the WM components as well as the differentiation of storage…

  2. Measuring verbal and non-verbal communication in aphasia: reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the Scenario Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W Mieke E; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive communication partner. To determine the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the Scenario Test and discuss its clinical value. The Scenario Test was administered to 122 persons with aphasia after stroke and to 25 non-aphasic controls. Analyses were performed for the entire group of persons with aphasia, as well as for a subgroup of persons unable to communicate verbally (n = 43). Reliability (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, inter-judge, and intra-judge reliability) and validity (internal validity, convergent validity, known-groups validity) and sensitivity to change were examined using standard psychometric methods. The Scenario Test showed high levels of reliability. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96; item-rest correlations = 0.58-0.82) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.98) were high. Agreement between judges in total scores was good, as indicated by the high inter- and intra-judge reliability (ICC = 0.86-1.00). Agreement in scores on the individual items was also good (square-weighted kappa values 0.61-0.92). The test demonstrated good levels of validity. A principal component analysis for categorical data identified two dimensions, interpreted as general communication and communicative creativity. Correlations with three other instruments measuring communication in aphasia, that is, Spontaneous Speech interview from the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT), Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT), and Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI), were moderate to strong (0.50-0.85) suggesting good convergent validity. Group differences were observed between persons with aphasia and non-aphasic controls

  3. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  4. Development and Validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: A Measure of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Kyle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…

  5. Childhood intelligence is heritable, highly polygenic and associated with FNBP1L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Benyamin (Beben); B. Pourcain (Bst); O.S.P. Davis (Oliver S.); G. Davies (Gail); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); M.-J. Brion (Maria); R.M. Kirkpatrick (Robert); R.A.M. Cents (Rolieke); S. Franić (Sanja); M.B. Miller (Michael); C.M.A. Haworth (Claire); E.L. Meaburn (Emma); T.S. Price (Thomas); D.M. Evans (David); N. Timpson (Nicholas); J.P. Kemp (John); S.M. Ring (Susan); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); J. Yang (Jian); S.E. Harris (Sarah); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P. Scheet (Paul); X. Xiao (Xiangjun); J.J. Hudziak (James); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.M. Starr (John); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); C.E. Pennell (Craig); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); W.G. Iacono (William); C. Palmer (Cameron); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); D. Posthuma (Danielle); M. McGue (Matt); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Davey-Smith (George); I.J. Deary (Ian); R. Plomin (Robert); P.M. Visscher (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntelligence in childhood, as measured by psychometric cognitive tests, is a strong predictor of many important life outcomes, including educational attainment, income, health and lifespan. Results from twin, family and adoption studies are consistent with general intelligence being high

  6. Childhood intelligence is heritable, highly polygenic and associated with FNBP1L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Benyamin (Beben); B. Pourcain (Bst); O.S.P. Davis (Oliver S.); G. Davies (Gail); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); M.-J. Brion (Maria); R.M. Kirkpatrick (Robert); R.A.M. Cents (Rolieke); S. Franić (Sanja); M.B. Miller (Michael); C.M.A. Haworth (Claire); E.L. Meaburn (Emma); T.S. Price (Thomas); D.M. Evans (David); N. Timpson (Nicholas); J.P. Kemp (John); S.M. Ring (Susan); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); J. Yang (Jian); S.E. Harris (Sarah); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P. Scheet (Paul); X. Xiao (Xiangjun); J.J. Hudziak (James); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.M. Starr (John); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); C.E. Pennell (Craig); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); W.G. Iacono (William); C. Palmer (Cameron); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); D. Posthuma (Danielle); M. McGue (Matt); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Davey-Smith (George); I.J. Deary (Ian); R. Plomin (Robert); P.M. Visscher (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntelligence in childhood, as measured by psychometric cognitive tests, is a strong predictor of many important life outcomes, including educational attainment, income, health and lifespan. Results from twin, family and adoption studies are consistent with general intelligence being high

  7. The C-Test: An Integrative Measure of Crystallized Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purya Baghaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Crystallized intelligence is a pivotal broad ability factor in the major theories of intelligence including the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC model, the three-stratum model, and the extended Gf-Gc (fluid intelligence-crystallized intelligence model and is usually measured by means of vocabulary tests and other verbal tasks. In this paper the C-Test, a text completion test originally proposed as a test of general proficiency in a foreign language, is introduced as an integrative measure of crystallized intelligence. Based on the existing evidence in the literature, it is argued that the construct underlying the C-Test closely matches the abilities underlying the language component of crystallized intelligence, as defined in the well-established theories of intelligence. It is also suggested that by carefully selecting texts from pertinent knowledge domains, the factual knowledge component of crystallized intelligence could also be measured by the C-Test.

  8. Tense Aspect in Verbal Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaberry, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed the development of past tense verbal morphology in Spanish second language acquisition among native English speakers divided into three levels of proficiency. Analysis shows that learners may use a default marker of past tense during the beginning stages of development of verbal morphology, but the choice of the default may be dependent…

  9. Verbal Behavior and Courtroom Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Michael G.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies characteristics of successful courtroom speech for prosecuting attorneys, defense attorneys, and accuseds using computer-based content analysis and rater judgments of verbal behaviors. Demonstrates that verbal aggression is an important factor for successful prosecutors, equivocation is important to success for defense attorneys, and…

  10. Multiple Intelligences and Perfectionism in Middle School Gifted Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman KAHRAMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the perfectionism levels of 181 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade gifted students’ were investigated in terms of multiple intelligences. In the study a relational screening model, Survey of Positive and Negative Perfectionism, developed by Kırdök (2004, was used to assess the level of the students’ positive and negative perfectionism. The Multiple Intelligences Inventory, developed by Saban (2001, was used to determine the students’ multiple intelligences, and a personal information form was implemented to obtain socio-demographic data. The results of the study showed that [verbal-linguistic intelligence, mathematical-logical intelligence, and intrapersonal intelligence] [intrapersonal intelligence, mathematical-logical intelligence, and verbal-linguistic intelligence] predicted 34% of the students’ perfectionism levels (p<.001. The explanatory power of the scores in multiple intelligences over negative perfectionism was not found to be statistically significant for any of the sub-dimensions. In order to develop gifted students’ positive perfectionism qualifications, assuming that multiple intelligences can be used as a tool, some suggestions were presented for researchers, counselors, and teachers.

  11. Improving Intelligence Analysis With Decision Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Mandeep K; Mandel, David R; Mellers, Barbara A; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-11-01

    Intelligence analysis plays a vital role in policy decision making. Key functions of intelligence analysis include accurately forecasting significant events, appropriately characterizing the uncertainties inherent in such forecasts, and effectively communicating those probabilistic forecasts to stakeholders. We review decision research on probabilistic forecasting and uncertainty communication, drawing attention to findings that could be used to reform intelligence processes and contribute to more effective intelligence oversight. We recommend that the intelligence community (IC) regularly and quantitatively monitor its forecasting accuracy to better understand how well it is achieving its functions. We also recommend that the IC use decision science to improve these functions (namely, forecasting and communication of intelligence estimates made under conditions of uncertainty). In the case of forecasting, decision research offers suggestions for improvement that involve interventions on data (e.g., transforming forecasts to debias them) and behavior (e.g., via selection, training, and effective team structuring). In the case of uncertainty communication, the literature suggests that current intelligence procedures, which emphasize the use of verbal probabilities, are ineffective. The IC should, therefore, leverage research that points to ways in which verbal probability use may be improved as well as exploring the use of numerical probabilities wherever feasible. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by Defence Research and Development Canada 2015.

  12. Non-Verbal and Verbal Fluency in Prodromal Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja-Brita Robins Wahlin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examines non-verbal (design and verbal (phonemic and semantic fluency in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD. An accumulating body of research indicates subtle deficits in cognitive functioning among prodromal mutation carriers for HD. Methods: Performance was compared between 32 mutation carriers and 38 non-carriers in order to examine the magnitude of impairment across fluency tasks. The predicted years to onset (PYTO in mutation carriers was calculated by a regression equation and used to divide the group according to whether onset was predicted as less than 12.75 years (HD+CLOSE; n = 16 or greater than 12.75 years (HD+DISTANT; n = 16. Results: The results indicate that both non-verbal and verbal fluency is sensitive to subtle impairment in prodromal HD. HD+CLOSE group produced fewer items in all assessed fluency tasks compared to non-carriers. HD+DISTANT produced fewer drawings than non-carriers in the non-verbal task. PYTO correlated significantly with all measures of non-verbal and verbal fluency. Conclusion: The pattern of results indicates that subtle cognitive deficits exist in prodromal HD, and that less structured tasks with high executive demands are the most sensitive in detecting divergence from the normal range of functioning. These selective impairments can be attributed to the early involvement of frontostriatal circuitry and frontal lobes.

  13. The Desire Thinking Questionnaire: development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Gabriele; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2011-11-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. Recent research has highlighted the role of desire thinking in the maintenance of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders. The goal of this research project was to develop the first self-report measure of desire thinking. In Study 1 we constructed the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and conducted a preliminary factor analysis which identified two factors. The first factor concerned the perseveration of verbal thoughts about desire-related content and experience and was named 'Verbal Perseveration'. The second factor concerned the tendency to prefigure images about desire-related content and experience and was named 'Imaginal Prefiguration'. In Study 2 we performed a confirmatory factor analysis which provided support for this two factor solution, with both factors achieving adequate internal consistency. Divergent validity was also established through correlation analyses. In Study 3 the temporal stability of the DTQ was examined and confirmed. Finally, in Study 4, the predictive validity of the DTQ in a sample of alcohol abusers was investigated. The DTQ was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as divergent and predictive validity. This self-report measure may aid future research into desire thinking and craving, as well as facilitate assessment and case formulation within the context of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders.

  14. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  15. Measuring verbal psychotherapeutic techniques – A systematic review of intervention characteristics and measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eGumz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Language is one of the most important tools of psychotherapists. The working mechanisms of verbal therapeutic techniques, however, are still marginally understood. In part, this is due to the lack of a generally acknowledged typology as well as a gold standard for the assess-ment of verbal techniques, which limits the possibility of conducting studies focusing this topic. The present study reviews measures used in clinical research which assess directly ob-servable dimensions of verbal interventions in a reliable manner. All measures were evaluated with respect to their theoretical foundation, research goals, assessment modes, and various psychometric properties. A systematic search in databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, PSYNDEX, Web of Science, Embase followed by an additional snowballing search cover-ing the years 1940-2013 yielded n=179 publications eligible for review. Within these publica-tions, 34 measures were identified showing great heterogeneity regarding the aspects under study. Only two measures reached the highest psychometric standards and can be recom-mended for clinical use without any reservation. Central problems include deficiencies in the systematization of techniques as well as their partly ambiguous and inconsistent definitions. To promote this field of research, it will be important to achieve a consensus concerning the terminology, conceptions and measures of verbal techniques.

  16. Performances on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Rey Complex Figure Test in a healthy, elderly Danish sample--reference data and validity issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    This study presents Danish data for Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) from 100 subjects aged 60-87 years. Education and estimated verbal intelligence (DART score) had a significant impact on the RAVLT trial 1-5 score but not on other RAVLT measures. The ...

  17. Functional brain network efficiency predicts intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Nicolas; Pedroni, Andreas; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Hänggi, Jürgen; Knoch, Daria; Jäncke, Lutz

    2012-06-01

    The neuronal causes of individual differences in mental abilities such as intelligence are complex and profoundly important. Understanding these abilities has the potential to facilitate their enhancement. The purpose of this study was to identify the functional brain network characteristics and their relation to psychometric intelligence. In particular, we examined whether the functional network exhibits efficient small-world network attributes (high clustering and short path length) and whether these small-world network parameters are associated with intellectual performance. High-density resting state electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded in 74 healthy subjects to analyze graph-theoretical functional network characteristics at an intracortical level. Ravens advanced progressive matrices were used to assess intelligence. We found that the clustering coefficient and path length of the functional network are strongly related to intelligence. Thus, the more intelligent the subjects are the more the functional brain network resembles a small-world network. We further identified the parietal cortex as a main hub of this resting state network as indicated by increased degree centrality that is associated with higher intelligence. Taken together, this is the first study that substantiates the neural efficiency hypothesis as well as the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT) of intelligence in the context of functional brain network characteristics. These theories are currently the most established intelligence theories in neuroscience. Our findings revealed robust evidence of an efficiently organized resting state functional brain network for highly productive cognitions.

  18. Academic Achievement, Intelligence, and Creativity: A Regression Surface Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjoribanks, K

    1976-01-01

    Data collected on 400 12-year-old English school children were used to examine relations between measures of intelligence, creativity and academic achievement. Complex multiple regression models, which included terms to account for the possible interaction and curvilinear relations between intelligence, creativity and academic achievement were used to construct regression surfaces. The surfaces showed that the traditional threshold hypothesis, which suggests that beyond a certain level of intelligence academic achievement is related increasingly to creativity and ceases to be related strongly to intelligence, was not supported. For some areas of academic performance the results suggest an alternate proposition, that creativity ceases to be related to achievement after a threshold level of intelligence has been reached. It was also found that at high levels of verbal ability, non-verbal ability and creativity appeared to have differential relations with academic achievement.

  19. Modeling psychometric functions in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yssaad-Fesselier, Rosa; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2006-02-01

    We demonstrate some procedures in the statistical computing environment R for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters of a psychometric function by fitting a generalized nonlinear regression model to the data. A feature for fitting a linear model to the threshold (or other) parameters of several psychometric functions simultaneously provides a powerful tool for testing hypotheses about the data and, potentially, for reducing the number of parameters necessary to describe them. Finally, we illustrate procedures for treating one parameter as a random effect that would permit a simplified approach to modeling stimulus-independent variability due to factors such as lapses or interobserver differences. These tools will facilitate a more comprehensive and explicit approach to the modeling of psychometric data.

  20. Storage Capacity Explains Fluid Intelligence but Executive Control Does Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuderski, Adam; Taraday, Maciej; Necka, Edward; Smolen, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether fluid intelligence (Gf) is better predicted by the storage capacity of active memory or by the effectiveness of executive control. In two psychometric studies, we measured storage capacity with three kinds of task which required the maintenance of a visual array, the monitoring of simple relations among perceptually available…

  1. Relationships in Analogy Items: A Semantic Component of a Psychometric Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitely, Susan E.

    1977-01-01

    The verbal analogy item as a measure of intelligence is investigated. Using latent partition analysis, this study attempts to identify a semantic structure of relationships that individuals use to comprehend completed analogies. The implications for test construction and test validity are discussed. (Author/JKS)

  2. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Complex Verbal Associative Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Carlo; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    The remote associates test (RAT) is a complex verbal task with associations to both creative thought and general intelligence. RAT problems require not only lateral associations and the internal production of many words but a convergent focus on a single answer. Complex problem-solving of this sort may thus require both substantial verbal…

  3. Wechsler Performance IQ > Verbal IQ Index in a Forensic Sample: A Reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolfe, Alan S.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the Performance IQ(PIQ) > Verbal IQ(VIQ) scales of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale with type of crime, ethnicity, and reading disability in a corrections sample of 70 men. Analyses indicated the significant relationships between PIQ > VIQ and type of crime and reading disability may be independent of ethnicity and each other. (JAC)

  4. Verbal memory and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Pauline M

    2015-11-01

    Midlife women frequently report memory problems during the menopausal transition. Recent studies validate those complaints by showing significant correlations between memory complaints and performance on validated memory tasks. Longitudinal studies demonstrate modest declines in verbal memory during the menopausal transition and a likely rebound during the postmenopausal stage. Clinical studies that examine changes in memory following hormonal withdrawal and add-back hormone therapy (HT) demonstrate that estradiol plays a critical role in memory. Although memory changes are frequently attributed to menopausal symptoms, studies show that the memory problems occur during the transition even after controlling for menopausal symptoms. It is well established that self-reported vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are unrelated to objective memory performance. However, emerging evidence suggests that objectively measured VMS significantly correlate with memory performance, brain activity during rest, and white matter hyperintensities. This evidence raises important questions about whether VMS and VMS treatments might affect memory during the menopausal transition. Unfortunately, there are no clinical trials to inform our understanding of how HT affects both memory and objectively measured VMS in women in whom HT is indicated for treatment of moderate to severe VMS. In clinical practice, it is helpful to normalize memory complaints, to note that evidence suggests that memory problems are temporary, and to counsel women with significant VMS that memory might improve with treatment.

  5. MRI correlates of general intelligence in neurotypical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpas, Charles B; Genc, Sila; Saling, Michael M; Velakoulis, Dennis; Desmond, Patricia M; O'Brien, Terence J

    2016-02-01

    There is growing interest in the neurobiological substrate of general intelligence. Psychometric estimates of general intelligence are reduced in a range of neurological disorders, leading to practical application as sensitive, but non-specific, markers of cerebral disorder. This study examined estimates of general intelligence in neurotypical adults using diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional connectivity analysis. General intelligence was related to white matter organisation across multiple brain regions, confirming previous work in older healthy adults. We also found that variation in general intelligence was related to a large functional sub-network involving all cortical lobes of the brain. These findings confirm that individual variance in general intelligence is related to diffusely represented brain networks.

  6. Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Thampi, Sabu M.

    2009-01-01

    Biologically inspired computing is an area of computer science which uses the advantageous properties of biological systems. It is the amalgamation of computational intelligence and collective intelligence. Biologically inspired mechanisms have already proved successful in achieving major advances in a wide range of problems in computing and communication systems. The consortium of bio-inspired computing are artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, artificial i...

  7. Verbal Analogies in the ITPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Philip J.; Kunze, Luvern H.

    1973-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the Auditory Association subtest of the revised Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) measures the ability of children to complete verbal analogies. (Author)

  8. Conducting Simulation Studies in Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…

  9. Estimating self, parental, and partner multiple intelligences: a replication in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Kannan, Kumaraswami

    2006-12-01

    Participants were 230 adult Malaysians who estimated their own, their parents', and their partners' overall IQs and 10 multiple intelligences. In accordance with both the previous literature and the authors' hypotheses, men rated themselves higher than did women on overall, verbal, logical-mathematical, and spatial intelligences. There were fewer gender differences in ratings of parents and in those of partners. Participants believed that they were more intelligent than both parents (but not their partners) and that their fathers were more intelligent than their mothers. Regressions indicated that participants believed that verbal intelligence and--to a lesser extent--logical-mathematical intelligence were the main predictors of overall intelligence. The authors discussed results in terms of the extant cross-cultural literature in the field.

  10. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-V: Test Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sabrina D; Burns, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Changes from the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) to the fifth edition are discussed, with particular emphasis on how the electronic administration facilitated assessment. The hierarchical organization and conceptualization of primary indices have been adjusted, based on recent theory and research on the construct of intelligence. Changes also include updates to psychometric properties and consideration of cultural bias. The scoring program allows intelligence scores to be linked statistically to achievement measures to aid in diagnoses of learning disabilities. Electronic assessment was clunky at times but overall delivered on its promise of quicker and more accurate administration and scoring.

  11. Solving Verbal Analogies: Some Cognitive Components of Intelligence Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitely, Susan E.

    1976-01-01

    The results indicate that although relational concepts influence the cognitive aptitudes which are reflected in analogy item performance, success in solving analogies does not depend on individual differences in some major aspects of processing relationships. (Author/DEP)

  12. Structural equation model of intellectual change and continuity and predictors of intelligence in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, D P; Andres, D; Etezadi, J; Arbuckle, T; Schwartzman, A; Chaikelson, J

    1995-06-01

    This study examined the effects of abilities as a young adult, an engaged lifestyle, personality, age, and health on continuity and change in intellectual abilities from early to late adulthood. A battery of measures, including a verbal and nonverbal intelligence test, was given to 326 Canadian army veterans. Archival data provided World War Two enlistment scores on the same intelligence test for this sample: Results indicated relative stability of intellectual scores across 40 years, with increases in vocabulary and decreases in arithmetic, verbal analogies, and nonverbal skills. Young adult intelligence was the most important determinant of older adult performance. Predictors for verbal intelligence were consistent with an engagement model of intellectual maintenance but also indicated the importance of introversion-extraversion and age. Nonverbal intelligence in late life was predicted by young adult nonverbal scores, age, health, and introversion-extraversion.

  13. Intelligent Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig.......Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig....

  14. Test Review: Review of Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition: Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2004). "Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition". Bloomington, MN: Pearson, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Sherry K.; Jaspers, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2; Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004b), which is designed to provide a brief, individualized format for measuring verbal and nonverbal intelligence in children and adults from the ages of 4 years, 0 months through 90 years, 11 months. The test consists of only three…

  15. Verbal Fluency and Early Memory Decline: Results from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kimberly Diggle; Koscik, Rebecca L.; LaRue, Asenath; Clark, Lindsay R.; Hermann, Bruce; Johnson, Sterling C.; Sager, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between phonemic and semantic (category) verbal fluency and cognitive status in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (WRAP), a longitudinal cohort enriched for family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Participants were 283 WRAP subjects (age 53.1[6.5] years at baseline); who had completed three waves of assessment, over ∼6 years and met psychometric criteria either for “cognitively healthy” (CH) or for psychometric amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using an approach that did not consider fluency scores. CH and aMCI groups differed significantly on phonemic total scores, category total scores, phonemic switching, and category mean cluster size. These results suggest that measures of both phonemic and semantic fluency yield lower scores in persons with evidence of psychometric aMCI compared with those who are CH. Differences have not previously been reported in a group this young, and provide evidence for the importance of including multiple verbal fluency tests targeting preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26025231

  16. The Contributions of Memory and Vocabulary to Non-Verbal Ability Scores in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Bavin, Edith L.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    It is usually assumed that performance on non-verbal intelligence tests reflects visual cognitive processing and that aspects of working memory (WM) will be involved. However, the unique contribution of memory to non-verbal scores is not clear, nor is the unique contribution of vocabulary. Thus, we aimed to investigate these contributions. Non-verbal test scores for 17 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and 39 children with typical development (TD) of similar mental age were compared to determine the unique contribution of visual and verbal short-term memory (STM) and WM and the additional variance contributed by vocabulary scores. No significant group differences were found in the non-verbal test scores or receptive vocabulary scores, but there was a significant difference in expressive vocabulary. Regression analyses indicate that for the TD group STM and WM (both visual and verbal) contributed similar variance to the non-verbal scores. For the ID group, visual STM and verbal WM contributed most of the variance to the non-verbal test scores. The addition of vocabulary scores to the model contributed greater variance for both groups. More unique variance was contributed by vocabulary than memory for the TD group, whereas for the ID group memory contributed more than vocabulary. Visual and auditory memory and vocabulary contributed significantly to solving visual non-verbal problems for both the TD group and the ID group. However, for each group, there were different weightings of these variables. Our findings indicate that for individuals with TD, vocabulary is the major factor in solving non-verbal problems, not memory, whereas for adolescents with ID, visual STM, and verbal WM are more influential than vocabulary, suggesting different pathways to achieve solutions to non-verbal problems. PMID:28082922

  17. Schizotypy versus openness and intelligence as predictors of creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey F; Tal, Ilanit R

    2007-07-01

    Schizophrenia-spectrum risk alleles may persist in the population, despite their reproductive costs in individuals with schizophrenia, through the possible creativity benefits of mild schizotypy in non-psychotic relatives. To assess this creativity-benefit model, we measured creativity (using 6 verbal and 8 drawing tasks), schizotypy, Big Five personality traits, and general intelligence in 225 University of New Mexico students. Multiple regression analyses showed that openness and intelligence, but not schizotypy, predicted reliable observer ratings of verbal and drawing creativity. Thus, the 'madness-creativity' link seems mediated by the personality trait of openness, and standard creativity-benefit models seem unlikely to explain schizophrenia's evolutionary persistence.

  18. The psychometric properties of cancer multisymptom assessment instruments: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Aynur; Walsh, Declan; Kirkova, Jordanka

    2015-07-01

    Various instruments are used to assess both individual and multiple cancer symptoms. We evaluated the psychometric properties of cancer multisymptom assessment instruments. An Ovid MEDLINE search was done. All searches were limited to adults and in English. All instruments published from 2005 to 2014 (and with at least one validity test) were included. We excluded those who only reported content validity. Instruments were categorized by the three major types of symptom measurement scales employed as follows: visual analogue (VAS), verbal rating (VRS), and numerical rating (NRS) scales. They were then examined in two areas: (1) psychometric thoroughness (number of tests) and (2) psychometric strength of evidence (validity, reliability, generalizability). We also assigned an empirical global psychometric quality score (which combined the concepts of thoroughness and strength of evidence) to rank the instruments. We analyzed 57 instruments (17 original, 40 modifications). They varied in types of scales used, symptom dimensions measured, and time frames evaluated. Of the 57, 10 used VAS, 28 VRS, and 19 NRS. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), ESAS-Spanish, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI)-Russian, and MDASI-Taiwanese were the most comprehensively tested for validity and reliability. The ESAS, ESAS-Spanish, ASDS-2, Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS)-SF, POMS, SDS, MDASI (and some translations), and MDASI-Heart Failure all showed good validity and reliability. The MDASI appeared to be the best overall from a psychometric perspective. This was followed by the ESAS, ESAS-Spanish, POMS, SDS, and some MDASI translations. VRS-based instruments were most common. There was a wide range of psychometric rigor in validation. Consequently, meta-analysis was not possible. Most cancer multisymptom assessment instruments need further extensive validation

  19. [Psychophysiological structure of verbal and nonverbal intellect in 6-7 year old children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukikh, M M; Loginova, E S

    2011-01-01

    Wechsler test revealed the peculiarities of intellectual development of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is shown that the psychophysiological structure of intelligence in 6-7 year old children without any signs of ADHD is characterized by a high level of development and close interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Their peers with ADHD demonstrate an insufficient level of development of visual-spatial perception, voluntary activity organization and regulation, and a lower level of interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Significant differences between verbal and nonverbal integral indices are the evidence of the deficit in voluntary attention and voluntary regulation and in the integrity of operational cognitive structures.

  20. Intelligent playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines play, gaming and learning in regard to intelligent playware developed for outdoor use. The key questions are how does these novel artefacts influence the concept of play, gaming and learning. Up until now play and game have been understood as different activities. This paper...... examines if the sharp differentiation between the two can be uphold in regard to intelligent playware for outdoor use. Play and game activities will be analysed and viewed in conjunction with learning contexts. This paper will stipulate that intelligent playware facilitates rapid shifts in contexts...

  1. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  2. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  3. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  4. The role of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the association between verbal ability and conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley K Smith

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although there is clear evidence that low verbal ability is a risk factor for conduct disorder (CD, some researchers have questioned whether this association is due to the common comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and CD. The present study examined the association among verbal ability, ADHD, and CD in a genetically informative sample in order to examine the role of genes and/or environmental influences shared in common with ADHD on the covariation between verbal ability and CD. Participants were 2744 adolescents from the Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence (CADD, and included 360 MZ female twin pairs, 221 DZ female twin pairs, 297 MZ male twin pairs, 220 DZ male twin pairs, and 274 opposite-sex DZ twin pairs. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV was used to assess lifetime symptoms of ADHD and CD. Verbal ability was assessed via the Vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS for individuals over the age of 16 and the Vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC for individuals under the age of 16. There was a small but significant negative covariance between verbal ability and CD and between verbal ability and ADHD. Results also suggest that the covariation between verbal ability and CD is due to influences shared in common with ADHD.

  5. Verbal behavior: The other reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Terry J.

    1992-01-01

    The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary PMID:22477049

  6. Business intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cebotarean Elena

    2011-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) refers to computer-based techniques used in spotting, digging-out, and analyzing business data, such as sales revenue by products and/or departments, or by associated costs and incomes...

  7. The role of interaction of verbal and non-verbal means of communication in different types of discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova M. А.

    2010-01-01

    Communication relies on verbal and non-verbal interaction. To be most effective, group members need to improve verbal and non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication fulfills functions within groups that are sometimes difficult to communicate verbally. But interpreting non-verbal messages requires a great deal of skill because multiple meanings abound in these messages.

  8. Parental Estimates of Their Own and Their Relatives' Intelligence. A Spanish Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Luz F.; Gonzalez, Coral; Beltran, Jesus A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, Spanish mothers and fathers (N = 108) estimated their own general and multiple intelligences, as well as those of their children and of their own parents. The mothers' self-estimates of their verbal, logical-mathematical, spatial, and corporal intelligence were lower than the fathers'. The mothers made lower estimates of their…

  9. Gender differences on tests of crystallized intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Muglia Wechsler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether performance on tests of crystallized intelligence is affected by gender and to ascertain whether differential item parameters could account for the gender disparities. The sample comprised 1.191 individuals (55% women between the ages of 16 and 77 years old (M=22; SD=9.5. The participants were primarily college students (58.3% living in four Brazilian states. Four verbal tests measuring crystallized intelligence (vocabulary, synonyms, antonyms and verbal analogies were constructed and administered in a group setting. An analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in the overall performance between men and women. However, a differential item functioning analysis indicated significant differences on 8.7% of the items, which indicates the existence of gender bias. Because bias can limit women’s access to social opportunities, the results obtained indicate the importance of reducing item bias in cognitive measures to ensure the accuracy of test results

  10. A preliminary study to assess the construct validity of a cultural intelligence measure on a South African sample

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: Cultural intelligence is an essential social competence for effective individual interaction in a cross-cultural context. The cultural intelligence scale (CQS) is used extensively for assessing cultural intelligence; nevertheless, its reliability and validity on a South African sample are yet to be ascertained.Research purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess the construct validity of the CQS on a South African sample. The results of the psychometric assessment off...

  11. Semantic Pattern Analysis for Verbal Fluency Based Assessment of Neurological Disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Ainsworth, Keela C [ORNL; Brown, Tyler C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary results of semantic pattern analysis of verbal fluency tests used for assessing cognitive psychological and neuropsychological disorders. We posit that recent advances in semantic reasoning and artificial intelligence can be combined to create a standardized computer-aided diagnosis tool to automatically evaluate and interpret verbal fluency tests. Towards that goal, we derive novel semantic similarity (phonetic, phonemic and conceptual) metrics and present the predictive capability of these metrics on a de-identified dataset of participants with and without neurological disorders.

  12. Kreative metoder i verbal supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2013-01-01

    , bevægelser i rummet, etc.) og 4) der primært kommunikeres via verbal-sproglige udvekslinger. Efter en diskussion af forholdet mellem kreativitet og kreative metoder, fokuseres der på relevansen af og måder til adgang til ubevidste manifestationer. Sproget non- og paraverbale betydning inddrages. Et centralt...

  13. Verbal Understanding and Pavlovian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, François

    2004-01-01

    The behavioral processes through which people react appropriately to verbal descriptions remain poorly understood. I argue here that these processes are Pavlovian. Common objections to a Pavlovian account of symbolic behavior evidence a lack of familiarity with the relevant data or misunderstandings of operant theory. Although much remains to be…

  14. Processes in Verbal Analogy Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudin, Jonathan

    1980-01-01

    Verbal analogy solution is more flexible than is suggested by either the standard process theory or Sternberg's theory. It was determined that subjects initially examine terms A and B; if this strategy is not successful, they examine the relationship between A and C. (Author/CP)

  15. Kreative metoder i verbal supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2013-01-01

    , bevægelser i rummet, etc.) og 4) der primært kommunikeres via verbal-sproglige udvekslinger. Efter en diskussion af forholdet mellem kreativitet og kreative metoder, fokuseres der på relevansen af og måder til adgang til ubevidste manifestationer. Sproget non- og paraverbale betydning inddrages. Et centralt...

  16. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Maria Amelia; da F Passos, Maria de Lourdes R

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior.

  17. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Maria Amelia; Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in "Verbal Behavior" (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal…

  18. Verbal and non-verbal samples from a TV interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Faria Dalacorte Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the analysis of verbal and non-verbal elements displayed by the participants of the interview TV program Roda Viva. The study also focuses on the investigation of the possible influences of such effects on the social and interactional process during the TV show. The structure of the program includes the main interviewer, Marilia Gabriela, the guest, in this case, the actor Wagner Moura, and other journalists that are all seated around the guest. The study reveals that, throughout the conversation, overlaps and raising tone of voice, produced especially by the main interviewer, occur in relevant moments of the interview, possibly to collaborate with the guest, who exhibited a lot of hesitations in what would be considered a non-preferred topic. These strategies may also reveal a unique marc of Marilia Gabriela’s conversational style.

  19. Verbal Response Mode Use by Clients in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, William B.; Sultan, Faye E.

    1979-01-01

    Verbal behavior in transcripts of psychotherapy was coded according to Stile's taxonomy of verbal response modes. Therapists of different theoretical persuasions used different mixtures of verbal techniques. Common elements that make verbal interaction psychologically therapeutic lie in client behavior. (Author)

  20. The Measurement of Intelligence in the XXI Century using Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, M A; Román, F J; De La Fuente, J; Privado, J; Colom, R

    2016-12-05

    This paper reviews the use of video games for measuring intelligence differences and reports two studies analyzing the relationship between intelligence and performance on a leisure video game. In the first study, the main focus was to design an Intelligence Test using puzzles from the video game. Forty-seven young participants played "Professor Layton and the curious village"® for a maximum of 15 hours and completed a set of intelligence standardized tests. Results show that the time required for completing the game interacts with intelligence differences: the higher the intelligence, the lower the time (d = .91). Furthermore, a set of 41 puzzles showed excellent psychometric properties. The second study, done seven years later, confirmed the previous findings. We finally discuss the pros and cons of video games as tools for measuring cognitive abilities with commercial video games, underscoring that psychologists must develop their own intelligence video games and delineate their key features for the measurement devices of next generation.

  1. Loosening Psychometric Constraints on Educational Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    In response to an argument by Baird, Andrich, Hopfenbeck and Stobart (2017), Michael Kane states that there needs to be a better fit between educational assessment and learning theory. In line with this goal, Kane will examine how psychometric constraints might be loosened by relaxing some psychometric "rules" in some assessment…

  2. Psychometric Properties of IRT Proficiency Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Tong, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of item response theory proficiency estimates are considered in this paper. Proficiency estimators based on summed scores and pattern scores include non-Bayes maximum likelihood and test characteristic curve estimators and Bayesian estimators. The psychometric properties investigated include reliability, conditional…

  3. Visuospatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Correlates of Vocabulary Ability in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Stephanie F; Klee, Thomas; Kornisch, Myriam; Furlong, Lisa

    2017-08-16

    Recent studies indicate that school-age children's patterns of performance on measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) differ across types of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because these disorders are often characterized by early language delay, administering STM and WM tests to toddlers could improve prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Toddler-appropriate verbal, but not visuospatial, STM and WM tasks are available. A toddler-appropriate visuospatial STM test is introduced. Tests of verbal STM, visuospatial STM, expressive vocabulary, and receptive vocabulary were administered to 92 English-speaking children aged 2-5 years. Mean test scores did not differ for boys and girls. Visuospatial and verbal STM scores were not significantly correlated when age was partialed out. Age, visuospatial STM scores, and verbal STM scores accounted for unique variance in expressive (51%, 3%, and 4%, respectively) and receptive vocabulary scores (53%, 5%, and 2%, respectively) in multiple regression analyses. Replication studies, a fuller test battery comprising visuospatial and verbal STM and WM tests, and a general intelligence test are required before exploring the usefulness of these STM tests for predicting longitudinal outcomes. The lack of an association between the STM tests suggests that the instruments have face validity and test independent STM skills.

  4. Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence in healthy young adults: the role of basal ganglia volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosima Rhein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R. Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01, whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01. Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively. The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex

  5. Leadership styles of school principals and their multiple intelligences profiles: Any relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Ghamrawi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate any relationship existing between the leadership styles exhibited by Lebanese public school principals and their multiple intelligences profile. MLQ (5X was employed to collect data relating to leadership styles of 307 school principals, and McKenzie (1999 was used to profile their multiple intelligences (MI. SPSS 18.0 was used to support data analysis. Results indicated that transformational leadership style was the dominant self-reported style exhibited by school principals. Visual-spatial intelligence was conveyed to be the intelligence enjoyed by the majority of school principals; followed equally by logical-mathematical and existential intelligences; then also equally by interpersonal and verbal-linguistic intelligences; followed by musical, intrapersonal, kinesthetic, and naturalist intelligences. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for the composite scores of MLQ and each individual MI. Strong positive correlations were detected between MI and existential, verbal and interpersonal intelligences. Linear Multiple Regression Analysis denoted that 47.5% of the total variance of transformational leadership was predicted by the interaction of the three MI (Existential, verbal, and Interpersonal, with existential intelligence being the strongest predictor of transformational leadership. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  6. Profile of cognitive deficits and associations with depressive symptoms and intelligence in chronic early-onset schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    -onset schizophrenia patients, assess the potential associations with depressive symptom severity, and examine whether cognitive deficits within several domains reflect intelligence impairments. This study compared attention, visual-construction, aspects of visual and verbal memory, and executive functions in chronic......-onset schizophrenia, significant deficits were observed in all specific cognitive functions. The profile of cognitive deficits was jagged, and visual-construction, attention, and one aspect of verbal memory (verbal stories recall) were differentially impaired. Deficits of visual recall, visual recognition...

  7. EEG Alpha Rhythm Frequency and Intelligence in Normal Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey; Vogel, Friedrich

    1996-01-01

    Scores on Raven's Progressive Matrices correlated positively with electroencephalogram-recorded alpha rhythm frequency (AF) in 101 healthy male adults, as did one test of verbal ability and one of mental performance. However, AF did not show significant relationships with general intelligence or spatial and arithmetic abilities. (SLD)

  8. Emotional Intelligence Competencies and the Army Leadership Requirements Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    cultural stereotype in the military that suggests the display of emotions is less than desirable, however the ability for military leaders to regulate...2004) found that older participants rated higher in emotional intelligence competencies than younger participants. Additionally, women scored...behaviors, and actions make sound ethical decisions, avoid stereotypes , refrain from verbally lashing out, and never compromise their values. An

  9. Creativity, Emotional Intelligence, and School Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; Legrand, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that both creativity and emotional intelligence (EI) were related to children school performance. In this study, we investigated the incremental validity of EI over creativity in an elementary school setting. Seventy-three children aged from 9 to 12 years old were recruited to participate in the study. Verbal and…

  10. Working Memory and Intelligence in Children: What Develops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the contribution of the phonological and executive working memory (WM) systems to 205 (102 girls, 103 boys, 6 to 9 years old) elementary school children's fluid and crystallized intelligence. The results show that (a) a 3-factor structure (phonological short-term memory [STM], visual-spatial WM, and verbal WM) was comparable…

  11. Creativity, Emotional Intelligence, and School Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; Legrand, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that both creativity and emotional intelligence (EI) were related to children school performance. In this study, we investigated the incremental validity of EI over creativity in an elementary school setting. Seventy-three children aged from 9 to 12 years old were recruited to participate in the study. Verbal and…

  12. Non-verbal Behavior in English Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金花; 付雪芬

    2013-01-01

    This paper first reveals the non-verbal behavior and then further emphasizes the important of body behavior which can be used in class frequently under the classification of the non-verbal behavior. By analyzing the important role of non-verbal behavior plays in communication, the paper discusses the specific and important part that non-verbal behavior serves, especially in foreign language teaching. The paper concludes that non-verbal behavior can perform as a relation maintainer, a structure maker, and a content container. The further suggestions for teacher to facilitate are proposed.

  13. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  14. Verbal ability, argument order, and attitude formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Mozuraitis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait, need for cognition, did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose.

  15. Graphic Creativity Assessment: Psychometric Properties in College Students From Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Freiberg Hoffmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on creativity has acquired major development due to its relevance concerning teaching in college. Its assessment is generally conducted by means of verbal and graphic measures. A short scale to measure verbal creativity (CREA in college students from Buenos Aires is currently available. However, right now there are no similar scales designed to assess graphic creativity. In view of that, this study will analyse psychometric features of the ECG scale locally known as Evaluación de la Creatividad Gráfica – Graphic Creativity Assessment, to be employed in the academic milieu in order to provide a complementary measure of verbal creativity. Face and construct validity evidences (converging validity analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were examined as well as reliability, taking into account internal consistency aspects, inter-rater and test-retest stability. The resulting scale showed adequate technical features. The original version, supported by De la Torre’s model, was composed by 12 indicators. This study’s findings maintained 9 of them but, considering new analyses, only 4 of the original ones were retained. This 4-indicator model obtained a better fit to empirical data and good indexes of correlation with a verbal creativity measure, as well as good reliability indicators (internal consistency, inter-rater and test-retest. Findings are discussed taking into account theoretical basis.

  16. Maturation rate and spatial, verbal, and musical abilities: a seven-year-longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, M

    1991-06-01

    We traced spatial, verbal and musical abilities through a seven-year period of adolescence. When we started our study, 60 boys had reached a mean age of 11.72, 60 girls were 11.52 on average. Menarche and mutation served as markers for maturation. We found that early, mid, and late maturers differed on spatial orientation and on tactile-visual discrimination as measured with the Witelson task. No differences between the maturational groups emerged on verbal fluency and on Wing's Standardized Tests of Musical Intelligence. At some stages, sex differences on spatial, verbal, and musical tests emerged, and disappeared at others. The sex differences in performance levels were not associated with a sex-specific relationship between maturation rate and performance levels. We found indications of the usefulness of sex hormone measurement in relation to cognitive and musical development in adolescence.

  17. Civic Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, David

    1985-01-01

    Social studies must educate students to be socially responsible, civically competent persons. In addition to encouraging civic literacy, civic values, and civic skill, teachers need to help students develop civic-mindedness. The objective of the NCSS' National Issues Forum in the Classroom Project is to develop students' civic intelligence. (RM)

  18. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  19. Ambient intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David; Gegov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers some history and the state of the art of Ambient Intelligence and from that seeks to identify new topics and future work. Ubiquitous computing, communications, human-centric computer interaction, embedded systems, context awareness, adaptive systems and distributed device networks are considered.

  20. The level and nature of autistic intelligence III: Inspection time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elise B; Soulières, Isabelle; Dawson, Michelle; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Mottron, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Across the autism spectrum, level of intelligence is highly dependent on the psychometric instrument used for assessment, and there are conflicting views concerning which measures best estimate autistic cognitive abilities. Inspection time is a processing speed measure associated with general intelligence in typical individuals. We therefore investigated autism spectrum performance on inspection time in relation to two different general intelligence tests. Autism spectrum individuals were divided into autistic and Asperger subgroups according to speech development history. Compared to a typical control group, mean inspection time for the autistic subgroup but not the Asperger subgroup was significantly shorter (by 31%). However, the shorter mean autistic inspection time was evident only when groups were matched on Wechsler IQ and disappeared when they were matched using Raven's Progressive Matrices. When autism spectrum abilities are compared to typical abilities, results may be influenced by speech development history as well as by the instrument used for intelligence matching.

  1. Sex differences in estimating multiple intelligences in self and others: a replication in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Shagabutdinova, Ksenia

    2012-01-01

    This was a crosscultural study that focused on sex differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences (including 10 that were specified by Gardner, 1999 and three by Sternberg, 1988) as well as in an overall general intelligence estimate. It was one of a programmatic series of studies done in over 30 countries that has demonstrated the female "humility" and male "hubris" effect in self-estimated and other-estimated intelligence. Two hundred and thirty Russian university students estimated their own and their parents' overall intelligence and "multiple intelligences." Results revealed no sex difference in estimates of overall intelligence for both self and parents, but men rated themselves higher on spatial intelligence. This contradicted many previous findings in the area which have shown that men rate their own overall intelligence and mathematical intelligence significantly higher than do women. Regressions indicated that estimates of verbal, logical, and spatial intelligences were the best predictors of estimates of overall intelligence, which is a consistent finding over many studies. Regressions also showed that participants' openness to experience and self-respect were good predictors of intelligence estimates. A comparison with a British sample showed that Russians gave higher mother estimates, and were less likely to believe that IQ tests measure intelligence. Results were discussed in relation to the influence of gender role stereotypes on lay conception of intelligence across cultures.

  2. Cognitive and emotional demands of black humour processing: the role of intelligence, aggressiveness and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Hergovich, Andreas; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Stoettner, Susanne; Bunda, Iris; Witting, Andrea; Seidler, Melanie; Moser, Reinhilde; Kacena, Stefanie; Jaeckle, David; Loader, Benjamin; Mueller, Christian; Auff, Eduard

    2017-05-01

    Humour processing is a complex information-processing task that is dependent on cognitive and emotional aspects which presumably influence frame-shifting and conceptual blending, mental operations that underlie humour processing. The aim of the current study was to find distinctive groups of subjects with respect to black humour processing, intellectual capacities, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. A total of 156 adults rated black humour cartoons and conducted measurements of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. Cluster analysis yields three groups comprising following properties: (1) moderate black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence; low mood disturbance and moderate aggressiveness; (2) low black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence, high mood disturbance and high aggressiveness; and (3) high black humour preference and high comprehension; high nonverbal and verbal intelligence; no mood disturbance and low aggressiveness. Age and gender do not differ significantly, differences in education level can be found. Black humour preference and comprehension are positively associated with higher verbal and nonverbal intelligence as well as higher levels of education. Emotional instability and higher aggressiveness apparently lead to decreased levels of pleasure when dealing with black humour. These results support the hypothesis that humour processing involves cognitive as well as affective components and suggest that these variables influence the execution of frame-shifting and conceptual blending in the course of humour processing.

  3. Nonverbal signals speak up: association between perceptual nonverbal dominance and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Brück, Carolin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Emotional communication uses verbal and nonverbal means. In case of conflicting signals, nonverbal information is assumed to have a stronger impact. It is unclear, however, whether perceptual nonverbal dominance varies between individuals and whether it is linked to emotional intelligence. Using audiovisual stimulus material comprising verbal and nonverbal emotional cues that were varied independently, perceptual nonverbal dominance profiles and their relations to emotional intelligence were examined. Nonverbal dominance was found in every participant, ranging from 55 to 100%. Moreover, emotional intelligence, particularly the ability to understand emotions, correlated positively with nonverbal dominance. Furthermore, higher overall emotional intelligence as well as a higher ability to understand emotions were linked to smaller reaction time differences between emotionally incongruent and congruent stimuli. The association between perceptual nonverbal dominance and emotional intelligence, and more specifically the ability to understand emotions, might reflect an adaptive process driven by the experience of higher authenticity in nonverbal cues.

  4. THE MODERN RACISM SCALE: PSYCHOMETRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL CÁRDENAS

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An adaption of McConahay, Harder and Batts’ (1981 moderm racism scale is presented for Chilean population andits psychometric properties, (reliability and validity are studied, along with its relationship with other relevantpsychosocial variables in studies on prejudice and ethnic discrimination (authoritarianism, religiousness, politicalposition, etc., as well as with other forms of prejudice (gender stereotypes and homophobia. The sample consistedof 120 participants, students of psychology, resident in the city of Antofagasta (a geographical zone with a highnumber of Latin-American inmigrants. Our findings show that the scale seems to be a reliable instrument to measurethe prejudice towards Bolivian immigrants in our social environment. Likewise, important differences among thesubjects are detected with high and low scores in the psychosocial variables used.

  5. Physical capability scale: psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Barbara; Boltz, Marie; Galik, Elizabeth; Wells, Chris

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric testing of the Basic Physical Capability Scale. The study was a secondary data analysis of combined data sets from three studies. Study participants included 93 older adults, recruited from 2 acute-care settings and 110 older adults living in long-term care facilities. Rasch analysis was used for the testing of the measurement model. There was some support for construct validity based on the fit of the items to the scale across both samples. In addition, there was support for hypothesis testing as physical function was significantly associated with physical capability. There was evidence for internal consistency (Alpha coefficients of .77-.83) and interrater reliability based on an intraclass correlation of .81. This study provided preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Basic Physical Capability Scale, and guidance for scale revisions and continued use.

  6. Psychometrics behind Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-03-01

    The paper provides a survey of 18 years' progress that my colleagues, students (both former and current) and I made in a prominent research area in Psychometrics-Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). We start with a historical review of the establishment of a large sample foundation for CAT. It is worth noting that the asymptotic results were derived under the framework of Martingale Theory, a very theoretical perspective of Probability Theory, which may seem unrelated to educational and psychological testing. In addition, we address a number of issues that emerged from large scale implementation and show that how theoretical works can be helpful to solve the problems. Finally, we propose that CAT technology can be very useful to support individualized instruction on a mass scale. We show that even paper and pencil based tests can be made adaptive to support classroom teaching.

  7. Longitudinal Associations between Executive Functions and Intelligence in Preschool Children: A Multi-Method, Multi- Informant Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) and intelligence were examined concurrently and longitudinally in 126 preschool children. EF was assessed using the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Children's intelligence was assessed using the Verbal and Performance subtests from…

  8. Using the Speech Transmission Index for predicting non-native speech intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, Sander J.; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.; Houtgast, Tammo; Steeneken, Herman J. M.

    2004-03-01

    While the Speech Transmission Index (STI) is widely applied for prediction of speech intelligibility in room acoustics and telecommunication engineering, it is unclear how to interpret STI values when non-native talkers or listeners are involved. Based on subjectively measured psychometric functions for sentence intelligibility in noise, for populations of native and non-native communicators, a correction function for the interpretation of the STI is derived. This function is applied to determine the appropriate STI ranges with qualification labels (``bad''-``excellent''), for specific populations of non-natives. The correction function is derived by relating the non-native psychometric function to the native psychometric function by a single parameter (ν). For listeners, the ν parameter is found to be highly correlated with linguistic entropy. It is shown that the proposed correction function is also valid for conditions featuring bandwidth limiting and reverberation.

  9. Education-Related Factors in Cultural Intelligence Development: A Colombian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Ardila, Cristina; Aguilar-Barrientos, Sara; Román-Calderón, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study inquiring about the role of education-related factors in the development of cultural intelligence. Five hundred fifty-seven students of a Colombian international business (IB) undergraduate program participated in the study. The psychometric properties of the measures were assessed by conducting…

  10. Gray Matter and Intelligence Factors: Is There a Neuro-g?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haier, Richard J.; Colom, Roberto; Schroeder, David H.; Condon, Christopher A.; Tang, Cheuk; Eaves, Emily; Head, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneous results among neuro-imaging studies using psychometric intelligence measures may result from the variety of tests used. The g-factor may provide a common metric across studies. Here we derived a g-factor from a battery of eight cognitive tests completed by 6929 young adults, 40 of whom also completed structural MRI scans. Regional…

  11. Emotional Intelligence in Applicant Selection for Care-Related Academic Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu; Levy, Anat; Zisberg, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Two studies describe the development of the Audiovisual Test of Emotional Intelligence (AVEI), aimed at candidate selection in educational settings. Study I depicts the construction of the test and the preliminary examination of its psychometric properties in a sample of 92 college students. Item analysis allowed the modification of problem items,…

  12. Using the Speech Transmission Index for predicting non-native speech intelligibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Houtgast, T.; Steeneken, H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    While the Speech Transmission Index ~STI! is widely applied for prediction of speech intelligibility in room acoustics and telecommunication engineering, it is unclear how to interpret STI values when non-native talkers or listeners are involved. Based on subjectively measured psychometric functions

  13. Gray Matter and Intelligence Factors: Is There a Neuro-g?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haier, Richard J.; Colom, Roberto; Schroeder, David H.; Condon, Christopher A.; Tang, Cheuk; Eaves, Emily; Head, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneous results among neuro-imaging studies using psychometric intelligence measures may result from the variety of tests used. The g-factor may provide a common metric across studies. Here we derived a g-factor from a battery of eight cognitive tests completed by 6929 young adults, 40 of whom also completed structural MRI scans. Regional…

  14. Using the Speech Transmission Index for predicting non-native speech intelligibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Houtgast, T.; Steeneken, H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    While the Speech Transmission Index ~STI! is widely applied for prediction of speech intelligibility in room acoustics and telecommunication engineering, it is unclear how to interpret STI values when non-native talkers or listeners are involved. Based on subjectively measured psychometric functions

  15. Team B Intelligence Coups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2003 Iraq prewar intelligence failure was not simply a case of the U.S. intelligence community providing flawed data to policy-makers. It also involved subversion of the competitive intelligence analysis process, where unofficial intelligence boutiques "stovepiped" misleading intelligence assessments directly to policy-makers and…

  16. Verbal communication improves laparoscopic team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiliang Chang; Waid, Erin; Martinec, Danny V; Bin Zheng; Swanstrom, Lee L

    2008-06-01

    The impact of verbal communication on laparoscopic team performance was examined. A total of 24 dyad teams, comprised of residents, medical students, and office staff, underwent 2 team tasks using a previously validated bench model. Twelve teams (feedback groups) received instant verbal instruction and feedback on their performance from an instructor which was compared with 12 teams (control groups) with minimal or no verbal feedback. Their performances were both video and audio taped for analysis. Surgical backgrounds were similar between feedback and control groups. Teams with more verbal feedback achieved significantly better task performance (P = .002) compared with the control group with less feedback. Impact of verbal feedback was more pronounced for tasks requiring team cooperation (aiming and navigation) than tasks depending on individual skills (knotting). Verbal communication, especially the instructions and feedback from an experienced instructor, improved team efficiency and performance.

  17. Visuospatial and verbal memory in mental arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearman, Jack; Klinger, Vojtěch; Szűcs, Dénes

    2016-08-01

    Working memory allows complex information to be remembered and manipulated over short periods of time. Correlations between working memory and mathematics achievement have been shown across the lifespan. However, only a few studies have examined the potentially distinct contributions of domain-specific visuospatial and verbal working memory resources in mental arithmetic computation. Here we aimed to fill this gap in a series of six experiments pairing addition and subtraction tasks with verbal and visuospatial working memory and interference tasks. In general, we found higher levels of interference between mental arithmetic and visuospatial working memory tasks than between mental arithmetic and verbal working memory tasks. Additionally, we found that interference that matched the working memory domain of the task (e.g., verbal task with verbal interference) lowered working memory performance more than mismatched interference (verbal task with visuospatial interference). Findings suggest that mental arithmetic relies on domain-specific working memory resources.

  18. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  19. Intelligence Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    environment (i.e., culture , class, family, educational 2 Chapter 23 Intelligence Revisited opportunities, gender) shapes our intellect, and there are no...connectivity is going to be rather problematic, to say the least. A single nano-bot cruising this Disneyland of synaptic wonderment is certainly... cultures ). Embodiment – A sense of being anchored to our physical bodies. Agency – A sense of free will, wherein we are in charge of our own

  20. Verbalizing OWL in Attempto controlled English

    OpenAIRE

    Kaljurand, K; Fuchs, N E

    2007-01-01

    We describe a verbalization of the logical content of OWL ontologies — using OWL 1.1 without data-valued properties — in Attempto Controlled English (ACE). Because ACE is a subset of English, the verbalization makes OWL ontologies accessible to people with no training in formal methods. We conclude that OWL can be verbalized in concise and understandable English provided that a certain naming style is adopted for OWL individuals, classes, and properties.

  1. Psychometric evaluation of ADAS-Cog and NTB for measuring drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, A; Hannesdottir, K; Jaeger, J; Annas, P; Segerdahl, M; Karlsson, P; Sjögren, N; von Rosen, T; Miller, F

    2014-02-01

    To conduct a psychometric analysis to determine the adequacy of instruments that measure cognition in Alzheimer's disease trials. Both the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognition (ADAS-Cog) and the Neuropsychological Test Battery (NTB) are validated outcome measures for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease and are approved also for regulatory purposes. However, it is not clear how comparable they are in measuring cognitive function. In fact, many recent trials in Alzheimer's disease patients have failed and it has been questioned if ADAS-Cog still is a sensitive measure. The present paper examines the psychometric properties of ADAS-Cog and NTB, based on a post hoc analysis of data from a clinical trial (NCT01024660), which was conducted by AstraZeneca, in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, with a Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) Total score 16-24. Acceptability, reliability, different types of validity and ability to detect change were assessed using relevant statistical methods. Total scores of both tests, as well as separate domains of both tests, including the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Verbal Fluency Condition, were analyzed. Overall, NTB performed well, with acceptable reliability and ability to detect change, while ADAS-Cog had insufficient psychometric properties, including ceiling effects in 8 out of a total of 11 ADAS-Cog items in mild AD patients, as well as low test-retest reliability in some of the items. Based on a direct comparison on the same patient sample, we see advantages of the NTB compared with the ADAS-Cog for the evaluation of cognitive function in the population of mild-to-moderate AD patients. The results suggest that not all of ADAS-Cog items are relevant for both mild and moderate AD population. This validation study demonstrates satisfactory psychometric properties of the NTB, while ADAS-Cog was found to be

  2. The Yugoslavia Prospective Lead Study: contributions of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure to early intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Popovac, D; Factor-Litvak, P; Kline, J; Waternaux, C; LoIacono, N; Graziano, J H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate associations between the timing of lead (Pb) exposure on early intelligence, we examined the results of psychometric evaluations at ages 3, 4, 5, and 7 years, from 442 children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy from a smelter town and a non-lead-exposed town in Yugoslavia. We compared the relative contribution of prenatal blood lead (BPb) with that of relative increases in BPb in either the early (0-2 years) or the later (from 2 years on) postnatal period to child intelligence measured longitudinally at ages 3 and 4 (McCarthy GCI), 5 (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, WPPSI-R IQ), and 7 (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-version III, WISC-III IQ), controlling for: Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) quality; maternal age, intelligence, education, and ethnicity; and birthweight and gender. Elevations in both prenatal and postnatal BPb were associated with small decrements in young children's intelligence.

  3. Genetic associations between intelligence and cortical thickness emerge at the start of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; van Soelen, Inge L C; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Schnack, Hugo G; Ehli, Erik A; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-08-01

    Cognitive abilities are related to (changes in) brain structure during adolescence and adulthood. Previous studies suggest that associations between cortical thickness and intelligence may be different at different ages. As both intelligence and cortical thickness are heritable traits, the question arises whether the association between cortical thickness development and intelligence is due to genes influencing both traits. We study this association in a longitudinal sample of young twins. Intelligence was assessed by standard IQ tests at age 9 in 224 twins, 190 of whom also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three years later at age 12, 177/125 twins returned for a follow-up measurement of intelligence/MRI scanning, respectively. We investigated whether cortical thickness was associated with intelligence and if so, whether this association was driven by genes. At age 9, there were no associations between cortical thickness and intelligence. At age 12, a negative relationship emerged. This association was mainly driven by verbal intelligence, and manifested itself most prominently in the left hemisphere. Cortical thickness and intelligence were explained by the same genes. As a post hoc analysis, we tested whether a specific allele (rs6265; Val66Met in the BDNF gene) contributed to this association. Met carriers showed lower intelligence and a thicker cortex, but only the association between the BDNF genotype and cortical thickness in the left superior parietal gyrus reached significance. In conclusion, it seems that brain areas contributing to (verbal) intellectual performance are specializing under the influence of genes around the onset of puberty.

  4. A New Analysis of Verbal Irony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Alotaibi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes a new analysis of verbal irony to the literature. It presents the main analyses of verbal irony – and the main criticisms of these analyses – found in both older and modern literatures as part of its attempt to build a new account for verbal irony. Thus, this paper discusses traditional, echoic and pretense accounts of irony and the limitations of these analyses. In traditional account, verbal irony is analyzed as a type of a trope or a figurative, in which the speaker communicates the opposite of the literal meaning (see Utsumi (2000. In echoic analysis, verbal irony is assumed to be an echoic interpretation of an attributed utterance or thought (see Wilson and Sperber (1992. As for pretense account of verbal irony, it views the ironist as pretending to be an injudicious speaker talking to an uninitiated hearer (see Clark and Gerrig (1984. The three analyses of verbal irony attract some criticism in the literature (see Kreuz and Glucksberg (1989 and Utsumi (2000. This paper argues for a new analysis, suggesting that there are multiple types of verbal irony that should be examined under more than one analytical approach based on their meanings. This paper suggests that ironic verbal expressions that communicate the opposite of their literal meaning should be analyzed as a type of metaphor with two oppositional subjects in which the ironist pretends to believe that they resemble one another.

  5. High fives motivate: The effects of gestural and ambiguous verbal praise on motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley eMorris

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The type of praise children receive influences whether children choose to persist after failure. One mechanism through which praise affects motivation is through the causal attributions inferred from language. For example, telling a child You got an A on the test because you’re smart, provides an explicit link between possessing a trait and an outcome, specifically that intelligence causes success. Nonetheless, most praise given to children is ambiguous, or lacks explicit attributions (e.g., yea or a thumbs-up. To investigate the effects of ambiguous praise on motivation, we randomly assigned 95 5-6-year-old children to a praise condition (verbal trait; verbal effort; verbal ambiguous; or gestural and measured motivation using task persistence, self-evaluations, and eye fixations on errors. Ambiguous praise, similar to verbal effort praise, produced higher persistence and self-evaluations, and fewer fixations on error after failure compared to verbal trait praise. Interestingly, gestures produced the highest self-evaluations. Thus, praise without explicit attributions motivated as well or better than praise explicitly focused on effort.

  6. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  7. An independent confirmatory factor analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth Edition (WISC-IV) integrated: what do the process approach subtests measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M; Bernstein, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    The Wechsler intelligence scale for children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) Integrated contains the WISC-IV core and supplemental subtests along with process approach subtests designed to facilitate a process-oriented approach to score interpretation. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which WISC-IV Integrated subtests measure the constructs they are purported to measure. In addition to examining the measurement and scoring model provided in the manual, this study also tested hypotheses regarding Cattell-Horn-Carroll abilities that might be measured along with other substantive questions regarding the factor structure of the WISC-IV Integrated and the nature of abilities measured by process approach subtests. Results provide insight regarding the constructs measured by these subtests. Many subtests appear to be good to excellent measures of psychometric g (i.e., the general factor presumed to cause the positive correlation of mental tasks). Other abilities measured by subtests are described. For some subtests, the majority of variance is not accounted for by theoretical constructs included in the scoring model. Modifications made to remove demands such as memory recall and verbal expression were found to reduce construct-irrelevant variance. The WISC-IV Integrated subtests appear to measure similar constructs across ages 6-16, although strict factorial invariance was not supported.

  8. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  9. Gender and gender role differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.

  10. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  11. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  12. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  13. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  14. Estimates of self, parental, and partner multiple intelligence and their relationship with personality, values, and demographic variables: a study in Britain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Zilkha, Susan

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, 151 British and 151 French participants estimated their own, their parents' and their partner's overall intelligence and 13 'multiple intelligences.' In accordance with previous studies, men rated themselves as higher on almost all measures of intelligence, but there were few cross-national differences. There were also important sex differences in ratings of parental and partner intelligence. Participants generally believed they were more intelligent than their parents but not their partners. Regressions indicated that participants believed verbal, logical-mathematical, and spatial intelligence to be the main predictors of intelligence. Regressions also showed that participants' Big Five personality scores (in particular, Extraversion and Openness), but not values or beliefs about intelligence and intelligences tests, were good predictors of intelligence. Results were discussed in terms of the influence of gender-role stereotypes.

  15. The Psychometric Toolbox: An Excel Package for Use in Measurement and Psychometrics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Masip-Cabrera, Antoni; Navarro-González, David; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2017-01-01

    The Psychometric Toolbox (PT) is a user-friendly, non-commercial package mainly intended to be used for instructional purposes in introductory courses of educational and psychological measurement, psychometrics and statistics. The PT package is organized in six separate modules or sub-programs: Data preprocessor (descriptive analyses and data…

  16. [Effects of acaoustic adaptation of classrooms on the quality of verbal communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Voice organ disorders among teachers are caused by excessive voice strain. One of the measures to reduce this strain is to decrease background noise when teaching. Increasing the acoustic absorption of the room is a technical measure for achieving this aim. The absorption level also improves speech intelligibility rated by the following parameters: room reverberation time and speech transmission index (STI). This article presents the effects of acoustic adaptation of classrooms on the quality of verbal communication, aimed at getting the speech intelligibility at the good or excellent level. The article lists the criteria for evaluating classrooms in terms of the quality of verbal communication. The parameters were defined, using the measurement methods according to PN-EN ISO 3382-2:2010 and PN-EN 60268-16:2011. Acoustic adaptations were completed in two classrooms. After completing acoustic adaptations the reverberation time for the frequency of 1 kHz was reduced: in room no. 1 from 1.45 s to 0.44 s and in room no. 2 from 1.03 s to 0.37 s (maximum 0.65 s). At the same time, the speech transmission index increased: in room no. 1 from 0.55 (satisfactory speech intelligibility) to 0.75 (speech intelligibility close to excellent); in room no. 2 from 0.63 (good speech intelligibility) to 0.80 (excellent speech intelligibility). Therefore, it can be stated that prior to completing acoustic adaptations room no. 1 did not comply and room no. 2 barely complied with the criterion (speech transmission index of 0.62). After completing acoustic adaptations both rooms meet the requirements.

  17. Effects of acaoustic adaptation of classrooms on the quality of verbal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Mikulski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voice organ disorders among teachers are caused by excessive voice strain. One of the measures to reduce this strain is to decrease background noise when teaching. Increasing the acoustic absorption of the room is a technical measure for achieving this aim. The absorption level also improves speech intelligibility rated by the following parameters: room reverberation time and speech transmission index (STI. This article presents the effects of acoustic adaptation of classrooms on the quality of verbal communication, aimed at getting the speech intelligibility at the good or excellent level. Material and Methods: The article lists the criteria for evaluating classrooms in terms of the quality of verbal communication. The parameters were defined, using the measurement methods according to PN-EN ISO 3382-2:2010 and PN-EN 60268-16:2011. Acoustic adaptations were completed in two classrooms. Results: After completing acoustic adaptations the reverberation time for the frequency of 1 kHz was reduced: in room no. 1 from 1.45 s to 0.44 s and in room no. 2 from 1.03 s to 0.37 s (maximum 0.65 s. At the same time, the speech transmission index increased: in room no. 1 from 0.55 (satisfactory speech intelligibility to 0.75 (speech intelligibility close to excellent; in room no. 2 from 0.63 (good speech intelligibility to 0.80 (excellent speech intelligibility. Therefore, it can be stated that prior to completing acoustic adaptations room no. 1 did not comply and room no. 2 barely complied with the criterion (speech transmission index of 0.62. After completing acoustic adaptations both rooms meet the requirements. Med Pr 2013;64(2:207–215

  18. Sensory discrimination and intelligence: testing Spearman's other hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Bell, P Joseph; Bell, Andrew J; Campbell, Mary L; Fazal, Nicola D

    2004-01-01

    At the centenary of Spearman's seminal 1904 article, his general intelligence hypothesis remains one of the most influential in psychology. Less well known is the article's other hypothesis that there is "a correspondence between what may provisionally be called 'General Discrimination' and 'General Intelligence' which works out with great approximation to one or absoluteness" (Spearman, 1904, p. 284). Studies that do not find high correlations between psychometric intelligence and single sensory discrimination tests do not falsify this hypothesis. This study is the first directly to address Spearman's general intelligence-general sensory discrimination hypothesis. It attempts to replicate his findings with a similar sample of schoolchildren. In a well-fitting structural equation model of the data, general intelligence and general discrimination correlated .92. In a reanalysis of data published byActon and Schroeder (2001), general intelligence and general sensory ability correlated .68 in men and women. One hundred years after its conception, Spearman's other hypothesis achieves some confirmation. The association between general intelligence and general sensory ability remains to be replicated and explained.

  19. Comparing verbal aspect in Slavic and Gothic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genis, R.; van der Liet, H.; Norde, M.

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written and said about Gothic verbal aspect, especially since the publications of Streitberg (1891 a.f.). Opinions have varied and according to some authors there is no such thing as verbal aspect in Gothic. Others maintain there is and both camps have defended their positions fiercely

  20. A Study on Intertextuality in Verbal Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks about how intertextuality and its concerned theories can be well applied to the study of humor.Through analysis of specific samples,the paper finds parody,verbal irony and text allusions are effective intertextual means to produce and understand verbal humor.

  1. Accounting: Accountants Need Verbal Skill Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Bruce L.

    1978-01-01

    Verbal skills training is one aspect of accounting education not usually included in secondary and postsecondary accounting courses. The author discusses the need for verbal competency and methods of incorporating it into accounting courses, particularly a variation of the Keller plan of individualized instruction. (MF)

  2. Establishing Vocal Verbalizations in Mute Mongoloid Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddenhagen, Ronald G.

    Behavior modification as an attack upon the problem of mutism in mongoloid children establishes the basis of the text. Case histories of four children in a state institution present the specific strategy of speech therapy using verbal conditioning. Imitation and attending behavior, verbal chaining, phonetic theory, social reinforcement,…

  3. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  4. Verbal Analogical Reasoning in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    1986-01-01

    Verbal analogical reasoning tasks are described as potentially valuable in the assessment and management of subtle linguistic defects less easily detected by standardized language tests. Semantic and structural factors that should be considered in the development of verbal analogies as test items are cited, as well as adaptations for nonreaders.…

  5. The Multidimensionality of Verbal Analogy Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullstadius, Eva; Carlstedt, Berit; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    The influence of general and verbal ability on each of 72 verbal analogy test items were investigated with new factor analytical techniques. The analogy items together with the Computerized Swedish Enlistment Battery (CAT-SEB) were given randomly to two samples of 18-year-old male conscripts (n = 8566 and n = 5289). Thirty-two of the 72 items had…

  6. Trato verbal paterno al adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Juan Carlos

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En alguna ocasión se ha escuchado una palabra, que causa un sentimiento y a la vez un recuerdo, que lleva a evocar la adolescencia o la infancia, se recuerda quien la pronunciaba y en que ocasión la decía. Este es el poder que tiene una palabra y más aún si es dicha por el padre, puesto que este es la figura significativa que se lleva en la memoria. De aquí nace el interés de realizar un estudio, en donde se describe y analice la percepción y el sentimiento del adolescente, quien en esta etapa es vulnerable al cambio, ya que está buscando su propia identidad; que con el trato verbal paterno la encontrara sin ninguna dificultad o por el contrario nunca la encontrará.

     

  7. [The role in verbal communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roberta; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The content of the thought is expressed by words articulated correctly according to grammar and syntax. The meanings are conveyed through words but also through the way they are used, the manner of communication. The real reason of communication is the intention, the purpose, often implicit, which determines the source of a speech. It is possible to identify a direct aim (the purpose of communicating) and an indirect objective (the role intention), understood as keeping a role between the speaker and the listener. The role is also indicated by the non-verbal or paraverbal component of the message, that is the tone of voice, the emphasis and the posture of the communicator. In the multitude of possible relationship (affective, social, business, political, religious), frequently bounded together, we can recognize three categories of relations: symmetrical, reciprocal and complementary.

  8. NEGOSIASI PENERJEMAHAN VERBAL - VISUAL DESAIN GRAFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeljadi Pranata

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Design is commonly regarded as an act of individual creation to which both verbalization and logical analysis are only peripherally relevant. This article reviews a research study about talking design by Tomes et al (1998 which involving graphic designers and their clients. The conclusion is that talking design -- verbal and visual -- is the design itself. Comments from a design-major student give more light to the research s outputs. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Desain umumnya dipandang sebagai karya ekspresi diri. Analisis logis dan penerjemahan verbal hanya dianggap relevan di permukaan saja. Artikel ini mereview kajian riset Tomes dkk. (1998 mengenai bahasan desain yang melibatkan tim desainer grafis dan kliennya. Simpulannya%2C bahasan desain ¾ verbal dan visual ¾ adalah desain itu sendiri. Artikel ini dilengkapi tanggapan mahasiswa desain terhadap hasil riset tersebut. graphic design%2C design process%2C verbal/visual communication

  9. Psychometric function for NU-6 word recognition in noise: effects of first language and dominant language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Zaki, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    The present study attempted to establish psychometric function in individuals whose first language is not English. Psychometric function was obtained for one of the most commonly used clinical tests, the Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 (Tillman & Carhart 1966), so that findings could be directly applied to everyday clinical practice. Five groups of 14 normal-hearing, adult listeners differing in their first language and dominant language (English monolinguals, English- and Arabic-dominant Arabic-English bilinguals, and English- and Russian-dominant Russian-English bilinguals) participated. Both forms of the Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 test (8 lists of 50 monosyllabic English words) were presented. The lists were randomly assigned to eight signal-to-noise ratios (-3 to 18 dB in 3 dB steps). Listeners responded verbally and in writing. Psychometric functions were derived via logistic regression and described by two parameters: the 50% correct performance level (θ) and the slope (k). Both English-dominant bilingual groups obtained psychometric functions comparable with monolinguals. The θ and k of the functions for these three groups of participants were consistent with the literature. Compared with these three groups, non-English-dominant bilinguals' functions grew significantly more gradually (i.e., a significantly higher θ and a significantly lower k). No differences in either θ or k were found between bilinguals with the same dominant language but different first languages. Bilinguals reporting themselves to be dominant in English generate monolingual-like psychometric functions. By contrast, a different set of psychometric properties describes the function of bilinguals dominant in their first language. Because first language did not appear to be a significant factor in determining bilinguals' functions, it is concluded that English learning history and English proficiency are more important variables than first language for

  10. Polish Version of the Managing the Emotions of Others Scale (MEOS): Psychometric Properties and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Konrad S; Zajenkowski, Marcin; Stolarski, Maciej; Styła, Rafał; Zajenkowska, Anna; Jędrasik-Styła, Małgorzata; Linke, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to test the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the managing the emotions of others scale (MEOS). MEOS consists of six dimensions: mood enhancing (Enhance), mood worsening (Worsen), concealing emotions from others (Conceal), use of inauthentic displays for self-serving purposes (Inauthentic), poor emotion skills (Poor skills), and use of diversion to enhance another's mood (Divert). The results showed that among MEOS dimensions, Enhance was the most strongly related to performance-based emotional intelligence. Among the Dark Triad, Narcissism was related to the greatest number of MEOS subscales-all except Poor skills. The results indicated that the MEOS has a similar factor structure, reliability, and pattern of correlations with personality and emotional intelligence in Poland as in previous studies.

  11. Chilean version of the INECO Frontal Screening (IFS-Ch: Psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Ihnen

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study sought to analyze the psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy of the Chilean version of the INECO Frontal Screening (IFS-Ch in a sample of dementia patients and control Methods: After adapting the instrument to the Chilean context and obtaining content validity evidence through expert consultation, the IFS-Ch was administered to 31 dementia patients and 30 control subjects together with other executive assessments (Frontal Assessment Battery [FAB], Modified version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [MCST], phonemic verbal fluencies [letters A and P] and semantic verbal fluency [animals] and global cognitive efficiency tests (Mini mental State Examination [MMSE] and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised [ACE-R]. Caregivers of dementia patients and proxies of control subjects were interviewed with instruments measuring dysexecutive symptoms (Dysexecutive Questionnaire [DEX], dementia severity (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale [CDR] and functional status in activities of daily living (Activities of Daily Living Scale [IADL] and Technology-Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire [T-ADLQ]. Convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity for the IFS-Ch were estimated. Results: Evidence of content validity was obtained. Evidence of convergent validity was also found showing significant correlations (p<0.05 between the IFS-Ch and the other instruments measuring: executive functions (FAB, r=0.935; categories achieved in the MCST, r=0.791; perseverative errors in the MCST, r= -0.617; animal verbal fluency, r=0.728; A verbal fluency, r=0.681; and P verbal fluency, r=0.783, dysexecutive symptoms in daily living (DEX, r= -0.494, dementia severity (CDR, r= -0.75 and functional status in activities of daily living (T-ADLQ, r= -0.745; IADL, r=0.717. Regarding reliability, a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.905 was obtained. For diagnostic accuracy

  12. Evaluating verbal and non-verbal communication skills, in an ethnogeriatric OSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren G; Schrimmer, Anne; Diamond, James; Burke, Janice

    2011-05-01

    Communication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Interviews from 19 medical students, residents, and fellows in an ethnogeriatric OSCE were analyzed. Each interview was videotaped and evaluated on a 14 item verbal and an 8 item non-verbal communication checklist. The relationship between verbal and non-verbal communication skills on interview evaluations by standardized patients were examined using correlational analyses. Maintaining adequate facial expression (FE), using affirmative gestures (AG), and limiting both unpurposive movements (UM) and hand gestures (HG) had a significant positive effect on perception of interview quality during this OSCE. Non-verbal communication skills played a role in perception of overall interview quality as well as perception of culturally competent communication. Incorporating formative and summative evaluation of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills may be a critical component of curricular innovations in ethnogeriatrics, such as the OSCE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  14. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  15. Measurement of ability emotional intelligence: results for two new tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Elizabeth J

    2010-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested.

  16. Developmental Patterns in the Solution of Verbal Analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Nigro, Georgia

    1980-01-01

    Examines developmental patterns in the solution of verbal analogies. Twenty subjects in each of grades 3, 6, 9, and in college were tested on their relative abilities to solve 180 verbal analogies based on five different verbal relations. (CM)

  17. Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Strejčková, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je seznámení s Business Intelligence a zpracování vývojového trendu, který ovlivňuje podobu řešení Business Intelligence v podniku ? Business Activity Monitoring. Pro zpracování tohoto tématu byla použita metoda studia odborných pramenů, a to jak v českém, tak v anglickém jazyce. Hlavním přínosem práce je ucelený, v českém jazyce zpracovaný materiál pojednávající o Business Activity Monitoring. Práce je rozdělena do šesti hlavních kapitol. Prvních pět je věnováno p...

  18. Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Strejčková, Lucie

    2001-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je seznámení s Business Intelligence a zpracování vývojového trendu, který ovlivňuje podobu řešení Business Intelligence v podniku ? Business Activity Monitoring. Pro zpracování tohoto tématu byla použita metoda studia odborných pramenů, a to jak v českém, tak v anglickém jazyce. Hlavním přínosem práce je ucelený, v českém jazyce zpracovaný materiál pojednávající o Business Activity Monitoring. Práce je rozdělena do šesti hlavních kapitol. Prvních pět je věnováno p...

  19. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and L2 Reading Skill among Iranian EFL University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Khooei Oskooei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences (MI and foreign language (L2 reading skill among Iranian EFL sophomores. Multiple intelligences and L2 reading measurements of participants – 29 males and 69 females who were selected from four intact classes – were obtained through McKenzie’s (1999 Multiple Intelligences Inventory and reading part of a Preliminary English Test PET, respectively, and then Pearson’s correlation analysis was run to determine the degree of the relationship between each component of multiple intelligences and L2 reading skill. Afterwards, through a multiple regression analysis those components of multiple intelligences which acted as the predictors of L2 reading skill were identified and the power of each predictor was calculated. The results of the correlation analyses revealed that linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, spatial, and interpersonal intelligences were significantly correlated with reading skill. In addition, the results showed that linguistic-verbal, interpersonal, and logical-mathematical intelligences were the best predictors of L2 reading skill scores of the participants. The results of the study can help coursebook designers, educational planners, foreign language institutes, teachers, learners and their parents to provide and use different methods of teaching and learning. Keywords: multiple intelligences, general intelligence, reading comprehension, university students, EFL

  20. Measuring emotional intelligence with the Mayer-Salovery-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, Marc A; Salovey, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript examines the measurement instrument developed from the ability model of EI (Mayer and Salovey, 1997), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey and Caruso, 2002). The four subtests, scoring methods, psychometric properties, reliability, and factor structure of the MSCEIT are discussed, with a special focus on the discriminant, convergent, predictive, and incremental validity of the test. The authors review associations between MSCEIT scores and important outcomes such as academic performance, cognitive processes, psychological well-being, depression, anxiety, prosocial and maladaptive behavior, and leadership and organizational behavior. Findings regarding the low correlations between MSCEIT scores and self-report measures of EI also are presented. In the conclusion the authors' provide potential directions for future research on emotional intelligence.

  1. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence.

  2. Review of the Psychometric Evidence of the Perceived Stress Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hyun Lee, RN, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Overall, the PSS is an easy-to-use questionnaire with established acceptable psychometric properties. However, future studies should evaluate these psychometric properties in greater depth, and validate the scale using diverse populations.

  3. Intelligent products : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, G.G.; Främling, K.; Holmström, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the field of Intelligent Products. As Intelligent Products have many facets, this paper is mainly focused on the concept behind Intelligent Products, the technical foundations, and the achievable practical goals of Intelligent Products. A novel classification of In

  4. Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Włodarczak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence, short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  5. Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczak, Marcin; Heldner, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence), short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's) as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  6. Language and verbal reasoning skills in adolescents with 10 or more years of cochlear implant experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Ann E; Sedey, Allison L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify factors predictive of successful English language outcomes in adolescents who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 2 and 5 yrs of age. All 112 participants had been part of a previous study examining English language outcomes at the age of 8 and 9 yrs with CIs. The participants were given a battery of language and verbal reasoning tests in their preferred communication mode along with measures of working memory (digit span) and verbal rehearsal speed (sentence repetition duration). The degree to which students' language performance was enhanced when sign was added to spoken language was estimated at both test sessions. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to document factors contributing to overall language outcomes. A substantial proportion of the adolescents obtained test scores within or above 1SD compared with hearing age-mates in the tests' normative samples: 71% on a verbal intelligence test, 68% on a measure of language content, 71% on receptive vocabulary, and 74% on expressive vocabulary. Improvement in verbal intelligence scores over an 8-yr interval exceeded expectation based on age-mates in the test's normative sample. Better English language outcomes were associated with shorter duration of deafness before cochlear implantation, higher nonverbal intelligence, higher family socioeconomic status, longer digit spans, and faster verbal rehearsal speed as measured by sentence repetition rate. Students whose current receptive vocabulary scores were not enhanced by the addition of signs also exhibited higher English language scores than those without sign enhancement; however, sign enhancement demonstrated in the elementary school years was not predictive of later high-school language skills. Results of this study support the provision of CIs to children at the youngest age possible. In addition, it highlights the substantial role that cognition plays in later language outcomes. Although the students' use

  7. Why is working memory related to intelligence? Different contributions from storage and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cai-Ping; Braeken, Johan; Colom, Roberto; Ferrer, Emilio; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Domain-specific contributions of working memory (WM), short-term memory (STM), and executive functioning (EF) to individual differences in intelligence were analysed using a latent variable approach. A sample of 345 participants completed a battery of 24 tests tapping the constructs of interests as comprehensively as possible. Visuospatial and verbal STM and WM tasks were administered along with three subcomponents of EF, namely inhibition, planning, and shifting. Intelligence was assessed by non-verbal/abstract/fluid intelligence (Gf) and verbal/crystallised intelligence (Gc) standardised tests. Structural equation modelling results show that EF is the main predictor of Gf, whereas verbal STM is the main predictor of Gc. Storage and processing providing different contributions to the prediction of Gf and Gc supports the view that both short-term storage and executive functioning account for the relationship between WM and intelligence. This main conclusion stresses the importance of acknowledging core cognitive constructs as being hierarchical systems with general and domain-specific mechanisms.

  8. Confessions, scapegoats and flying pigs: Psychometric testing and the law

    OpenAIRE

    Callie Theron

    2007-01-01

    The use of psychometric tests in personnel selection has been regarded with an extraordinary degree of suspicion and scepticism. This is especially true when selection occurs in respect of a diverse applicant group. Concern is expressed about the seemingly uncritical embracing of specific tenets related to the use of psychometric tests in personnel selection in the absence of any systematic coherent psychometric argument to justify these beliefs. The absence of such a supporting psychometric ...

  9. [Non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara

    2008-09-01

    This review underlines the importance of non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease. A social psychological perspective of communication is privileged. Non-verbal behaviors such as looks, head nods, hand gestures, body posture or facial expression provide a lot of information about interpersonal attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional experiences. Therefore they play an important role in the regulation of interaction between individuals. Non-verbal communication is effective in Alzheimer's disease even in the late stages. Patients still produce non-verbal signals and are responsive to others. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the social factors influencing the non-verbal exchange. Misidentification and misinterpretation of behaviors may have negative consequences for the patients. Thus, improving the comprehension of and the response to non-verbal behavior would increase first the quality of the interaction, then the physical and psychological well-being of patients and that of caregivers. The role of non-verbal behavior in social interactions should be approached from an integrative and functional point of view.

  10. The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire: a psychometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the pre......The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim...... of the present study was both to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 22 and 12 item scales and of three new scales. The main study sample was a community sample comprising more than 6,000 men and women. In this sample the coefficients of homogeneity were all over 0.30 for the three new scales, but below...

  11. Intelligent Routines

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    Intelligent Routines II: Solving Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry with Sage” contains numerous of examples and problems as well as many unsolved problems. This book extensively applies the successful software Sage, which can be found free online http://www.sagemath.org/. Sage is a recent and popular software for mathematical computation, available freely and simple to use. This book is useful to all applied scientists in mathematics, statistics and engineering, as well for late undergraduate and graduate students of above subjects. It is the first such book in solving symbolically with Sage problems in Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry. Plenty of SAGE applications are given at each step of the exposition.

  12. Pathogen intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  13. Intelligent Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem de Lint

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, within liberal democracies, the post-Westphalian consolidation of security and intelligence has ushered in the normalization not only of security in ‘securitization’ but also of intelligence in what is proposed here as ‘intelligencification.’ In outlining the features of intelligencified governance, my aim is to interrogate the view that effects or traces, and productivity rather than negation is as persuasive as commonly thought by the constructivists. After all, counter-intelligence is both about purging and reconstructing the archive for undisclosed values. In practice, what is being normalized is the authorized and legalized use of release and retention protocols of politically actionable information. The intelligencification of governmentality affords a sovereignty shell-game or the instrumentalization of sovereign power by interests that are dependent on, yet often inimical to, the power of state, national, and popular sovereignty. On voit le politique et le social comme dépendant de contingences exclusives. Récemment, au sein des démocraties libérales, la consolidation de la sécurité et des services de renseignements de sécurité qui a suivi les traités de la Westphalie a donné lieu à la normalisation non seulement de la sécurité en «sécurisation» mais aussi des services de renseignements de sécurité en ce qui est proposé ici comme «intelligencification» [terme anglais créé par l’auteur, dérivé du mot anglais «intelligence» dans le sens de renseignements des écurité]. En particulier, ce que l’on normalise dans le but de contourner des contingences exclusives est l’utilisation autorisée et légalisée de protocoles de communication et de rétention d’information qui, politiquement, pourrait mener à des poursuites. En esquissant les traits de la gouvernance «intelligencifiée», mon but est d’interroger le point de vue que les effets ou les traces, et la productivité plutôt que la

  14. The Interchangeability of CVLT-II and WMS-IV Verbal Paired Associates Scores: A Slightly Different Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruselvam, Indrani; Vogt, Elisabeth M; Hoelzle, James B

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the similarity of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) Auditory Memory Index (AMI) scores when California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) scores are substituted for WMS-IV Verbal Paired Associates (VPA) subtest scores. College students (n = 103) were administered select WMS-IV subtests and the CVLT-II in a randomized order. Immediate and delayed VPA scaled scores were significantly greater than VPA substitute scaled scores derived from CVLT-II performance. At the Index level, AMI scores were significantly lower when CVLT-II scores were used in place of VPA scores. It is important that clinicians recognize the accepted substitution of CVLT-II scores can result in WMS-IV scores that are inconsistent with those derived from standard administration. Psychometric issues that plausibly contribute to these differences and clinical implications are discussed.

  15. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  16. psychotools - Infrastructure for Psychometric Modeling: Version 0.1-1

    OpenAIRE

    Zeileis, A.; Strobl, Carolin; Wickelmaier, F

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructure for psychometric modeling such as data classes (e.g., for paired comparisons) and basic model fitting functions (e.g., for Rasch and Bradley-Terry models). Intended especially as a common building block for fitting psychometric mixture models in package ‘‘psychomix’’ and psychometric tree models in package ‘‘psychotree’’. License: GPL-2

  17. Reflective visualization and verbalization of unconscious preference

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    Unconscious preference is the preference which can be observed as an action resulted from one's decision making, but whose origin and background one can not describe with verbal explanation. It is an important problem to develop a method to help one become conscious of the one's unconscious preference, and convey it to the others in the form of verbal explanation. This paper develops a method which combines the concepts of reflection, visualization, and verbalization, applied to group discussion, with a tool which implements an algorithm to process information on the subjects' stated preference. The method is applied to the experiments where the unconscious preference on the art works is investigated.

  18. Is Age Kinder to the Initially More Able? Differential Ageing of Verbal Ability in the Healthy Old People in Edinburgh Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian; MacLennan, William J.; Starr, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Results from a study of 387 healthy old people studied at baseline and four years later in Edinburgh (Scotland) suggest that, those with higher baseline ability, in higher social-class groups, with more education, and those who are younger are relatively protected from a decline in verbal intelligence, measured by an adult reading test, with age.…

  19. The Psychometric Evaluation of Human Life Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copping, Lee T; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven; Richardson, George B

    2017-01-01

    A recent critique of Copping, Campbell, and Muncer raised several issues concerning the validity of psychometric assessment techniques in the study of life history (LH) strategies. In this reply, some of our key concerns about relying on aggregated psychometric measures are explained, and we raise questions generally regarding the use of higher order factor structures. Responses to some of the statistical issues raised by Figueredo et al. are also detailed. We stand by our original conclusions and call for more careful consideration of instruments used to evaluate hypotheses derived from LH theory.

  20. Verbal risk in communicating risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, J.C. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). School of Communication; Reno, H.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1993-03-01

    When persons in the waste management industry have a conversation concerning matters of the industry, thoughts being communicated are understood among those in the industry. However, when persons in waste management communicate with those outside the industry, communication may suffer simply because of poor practices such as the use of jargon, euphemisms, acronyms, abbreviations, language usage, not knowing audience, and public perception. This paper deals with ways the waste management industry can communicate risk to the public without obfuscating issues. The waste management industry should feel obligated to communicate certain meanings within specific contexts and, then, if the context changes, should not put forth a new, more appropriate meaning to the language already used. Communication of the waste management industry does not have to be provisional. The authors suggest verbal risks in communicating risk can be reduced significantly or eliminated by following a few basic communication principles. The authors make suggestions and give examples of ways to improve communication with the general public by avoiding or reducing jargon, euphemisms, and acronyms; knowing the audience; avoiding presumptive knowledge held by the audience; and understanding public perception of waste management issues.

  1. Associations between music education, intelligence, and spelling ability in elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Hille, Katrin; Gust, Kilian; Bitz, Urlich; Kammer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Musical education has a beneficial effect on higher cognitive functions, but questions arise whether associations between music lessons and cognitive abilities are specific to a domain or general. We tested 194 boys in Grade 3 by measuring reading and spelling performance, non verbal intelligence and asked parents about musical activities since preschool. Questionnaire data showed that 53% of the boys had learned to play a musical instrument. Intelligence was higher for boys playing an instru...

  2. Comparing Models of Intelligence in Project TALENT: The VPR Model Fits Better than the CHC and Extended Gf-Gc Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jason T.; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Three prominent theories of intelligence, the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC), extended fluid-crystallized (Gf-Gc) and verbal-perceptual-image rotation (VPR) theories, provide differing descriptions of the structure of intelligence (McGrew, 2009; Horn & Blankson, 2005; Johnson & Bouchard, 2005b). To compare these theories, models representing them were…

  3. [Association between intelligence development and facial expression recognition ability in children with autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ning; Wu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Ya-Fen; Guan, Han; Xu, Cai-Juan; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the features of intelligence development, facial expression recognition ability, and the association between them in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A total of 27 ASD children aged 6-16 years (ASD group, full intelligence quotient >70) and age- and gender-matched normally developed children (control group) were enrolled. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition and Chinese Static Facial Expression Photos were used for intelligence evaluation and facial expression recognition test. Compared with the control group, the ASD group had significantly lower scores of full intelligence quotient, verbal comprehension index, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), processing speed index(PSI), and working memory index (WMI) (Pchildren have delayed intelligence development compared with normally developed children and impaired expression recognition ability. Perceptual reasoning and working memory abilities are positively correlated with expression recognition ability, which suggests that insufficient perceptual reasoning and working memory abilities may be important factors affecting facial expression recognition ability in ASD children.

  4. Using the Theory of Successful Intelligence as a Basis for Augmenting AP Exams in Psychology and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemler, Steven E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence was used to create augmented exams in Advanced Placement Psychology and Statistics. Participants included 1895 high school students from 19 states and 56 schools throughout the U.S. The psychometric results support the validity of creating examinations that assess memory, analytical, creative, and…

  5. The Effects of Verbal and Non-Verbal Features on the Reception of DRTV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Komar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of consumer response are important for successful advertising as they help advertisers to find new, original and successful ways of persuasion. Successful advertisements have to boost the product’s benefits but they also have to appeal to consumers’ emotions. In TV advertisements, this is done by means of verbal and non-verbal strategies. The paper presents the results of an empirical investigation whose purpose was to examine the viewers’ emotional responses to a DRTV commercial induced by different verbal and non-verbal features, the amount of credibility and persuasiveness of the commercial and its general acceptability. Our findings indicate that (1 an overload of the same verbal and non-verbal information decreases persuasion; and (2 highly marked prosodic delivery is either exaggerated or funny, while the speaker is perceived as annoying.

  6. The Effect of Functional Hearing and Hearing Aid Usage on Verbal Reasoning in a Large Community-Dwelling Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidser, Gitte; Rudner, Mary; Seeto, Mark; Hygge, Staffan; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Verbal reasoning performance is an indicator of the ability to think constructively in everyday life and relies on both crystallized and fluid intelligence. This study aimed to determine the effect of functional hearing on verbal reasoning when controlling for age, gender, and education. In addition, the study investigated whether hearing aid usage mitigated the effect and examined different routes from hearing to verbal reasoning. Cross-sectional data on 40- to 70-year-old community-dwelling participants from the UK Biobank resource were accessed. Data consisted of behavioral and subjective measures of functional hearing, assessments of numerical and linguistic verbal reasoning, measures of executive function, and demographic and lifestyle information. Data on 119,093 participants who had completed hearing and verbal reasoning tests were submitted to multiple regression analyses, and data on 61,688 of these participants, who had completed additional cognitive tests and provided relevant lifestyle information, were submitted to structural equation modeling. Poorer performance on the behavioral measure of functional hearing was significantly associated with poorer verbal reasoning in both the numerical and linguistic domains (p < 0.001). There was no association between the subjective measure of functional hearing and verbal reasoning. Functional hearing significantly interacted with education (p < 0.002), showing a trend for functional hearing to have a greater impact on verbal reasoning among those with a higher level of formal education. Among those with poor hearing, hearing aid usage had a significant positive, but not necessarily causal, effect on both numerical and linguistic verbal reasoning (p < 0.005). The estimated effect of hearing aid usage was less than the effect of poor functional hearing. Structural equation modeling analyses confirmed that controlling for education reduced the effect of functional hearing on verbal reasoning and showed that

  7. Sex differences in verbal working memory performance emerge at very high loads of common neuroimaging tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jessica L; Gallagher, Natalie M; Sullivan, Marie; Callicott, Joseph H; Green, Adam E

    2017-04-01

    Working memory (WM) supports a broad range of intelligent cognition and has been the subject of rich cognitive and neural characterization. However, the highest ranges of WM have not been fully characterized, especially for verbal information. Tasks developed to test multiple levels of WM demand (load) currently predominate brain-based WM research. These tasks are typically used at loads that allow most healthy participants to perform well, which facilitates neuroimaging data collection. Critically, however, high performance at lower loads may obscure differences that emerge at higher loads. A key question not yet addressed at high loads concerns the effect of sex. Thoroughgoing investigation of high-load verbal WM is thus timely to test for potential hidden effects, and to provide behavioral context for effects of sex observed in WM-related brain structure and function. We tested 111 young adults, matched on genotype for the WM-associated COMT-Val(108/158)Met polymorphism, on three classic WM tasks using verbal information. Each task was tested at four WM loads, including higher loads than those used in previous studies of sex differences. All tasks loaded on a single factor, enabling comparison of verbal WM ability at a construct level. Results indicated sex effects at high loads across tasks and within each task, such that males had higher accuracy, even among groups that were matched for performance at lower loads.

  8. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  9. Politeness Strategies in English Verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Li

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses politeness and face, politeness strategies and polite language in verbal communication. The author puts forward some constructive suggestions on the appropriate use of politeness strategies and polite language in different contexts.

  10. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  11. SELKIRK'S THEORY OF VERBAL COMPOUNDING: A CRITICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English verbal compounds are "endocentric adjective or noun compounds whose head ... from phrase structure and does not simply constitute the "lower" portion ..... to V-ing' can, pragmatically, be made somewhat more specific, and approach.

  12. Emotional Intelligence Meets Traditional Standards for an Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John D.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Results of 2 studies involving 503 adults and 229 adolescents show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale, a new ability test of emotional intelligence, meets 3 classical criteria of a standard intelligence. (SLD)

  13. Verbal Communication Skills in Different Tourism Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    MIHUT Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problems verbal communication conducts to in the tourism sector. Language plays a major role in determining the causes and the means of overcoming communication barriers. The theoretical part of the present paper sustains the importance of various elements verbal communication consists of, pointing out its roots and determinants. The practical part reveals the fact that, along with an ever growing number of tourism contexts, language has gained its position of...

  14. Skinner's verbal behavior, Chomsky's review, and mentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, N

    1990-01-01

    Skinner's Verbal Behavior (1957) is a comprehensive treatise that deals with most aspects of verbal behavior. However, its treatment of the learning of grammatical behavior has been challenged repeatedly (e.g., Chomsky, 1959). The present paper will attempt to show that the learning of grammar and syntax can be dealt with adequately within a behavior-analytic framework. There is no need to adopt mentalist (or cognitivist) positions or to add mentalist elements to behaviorist theories. PMID:2103585

  15. Consciência e Comportamento Verbal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Maria de Castro Marcondes Machado

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Examina-se aqui a consciência na perspectiva do Behaviorismo Radical. Pode-se entender a consciência como a capacidade de descrever o que se está fazendo, de forma verbal, manifesta ou encoberta. A consciência também tem a ver com o controle do comportamento por regras. Seguir regras é ser consciente, no sentido de que quem se comporta "sabe o que está fazendo". O Behaviorismo Radical considera o operante verbal e a consciência como aspectos distinguidores do homem; ambos são produto da seleção pela conseqüência: o operante verbal ao nível do condi-cionamento operante; e a consciência ao nível da seleção de culturas.Consciousness is here examined from point of view of Radical Behaviorism. Consciousness can be taken as the ability to describe verbally, in overt or implicit way, what one is doing. Consciousness also has to do with the control of behavior by rules. To follow a rule is to be conscious, in the sense of "knowing what one is doing". Radical Behaviorism considers verbal operants and consciousness as distinguishing features of human beings; both are a product of selection by consequences: verbal operants at the level of operant conditioning and consciouness at the level of the selection of cultures.

  16. Genetic Architecture of Verbal Abilities in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of individual differences in general verbal ability, verbal learning and letter and category fluency were examined in two independent samples of 9- and 18-year-old twin pairs and their siblings. In both age groups, we observed strong familial resemblance for general verbal ability and moderate familial resemblance for verbal learning,…

  17. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  18. Psychometric Measurement Models and Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sese, Albert; Palmer, Alfonso L.; Montano, Juan J.

    2004-01-01

    The study of measurement models in psychometrics by means of dimensionality reduction techniques such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is a very common practice. In recent times, an upsurge of interest in the study of artificial neural networks apt to computing a principal component extraction has been observed. Despite this interest, the…

  19. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Bai, Yu; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ). The reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and temporal stability of the inventory were examined. Method: A university student sample ("n" = 878) and a working adult sample ("n" = 153) were recruited.…

  1. Psychometric Characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Information is presented on the psychometric characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, a measure of psychotropic drug effects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the checklist appeared very good. Interrater reliability was generally in the moderate range. In general, validity was established for most Aberrant Behavior…

  2. Emotional Considerations in Spasmodic Dysphonia: Psychometric Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannito, Michael P.

    1991-01-01

    This study examined emotional characteristics of 18 female spasmodic dysphonic subjects in comparison to matched normal controls across psychometric measures of depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. Statistically significant differences were noted between groups for all measures and over half of the dysphonic subjects exhibited clinically…

  3. What Is Embodiment? A Psychometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R.; Schuur, Friederike; Kammers, Marjolein P. M.; Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    What is it like to have a body? The present study takes a psychometric approach to this question. We collected structured introspective reports of the rubber hand illusion, to systematically investigate the structure of bodily self-consciousness. Participants observed a rubber hand that was stroked either synchronously or asynchronously with their…

  4. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  5. Inverting the Army Intelligence Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Counterinsurgency, Company Intelligence Support Team, COIST, HUMINT, SIGINT, MASINT, OSINT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: (U) 17. LIMITATION OF...intelligence ( OSINT ), signals intelligence (SIGINT), and technical intelligence (TECHINT).14 11

  6. A Mexican Study of Multiple Intelligences for Pre-Service Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Elena Tapia Carlín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a study conducted in a Mexican English teacher education program about multiple intelligences. Seventy-four first year students participated in the study. Findings reveal that the highest kinds of intelligences were the bodily kinesthetic, the interpersonal, the intrapersonal, and the musical; the lowest ones were the naturalist, the existential, the verbal linguistic, the logical mathematical, and the visual spatial. The authors suggest that it is important to diagnose and promote these intelligences in trainees in a systematic way in order to equip them with knowledge and experience of multiple intelligences in order to use them in their future teacher practice.

  7. A psychometric appraisal of the DREEM

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hammond, Sean M

    2012-01-12

    Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM). Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89), subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming\\'s indices) shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the device in future

  8. A psychometric appraisal of the DREEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammond Sean M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM. Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89, subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming's indices shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the

  9. Psychometric properties of the adult resilience indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kotzé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Researchers need to assess the psychometric rigour of resilience measuring scales. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator (ARI.Motivation for the study: Researchers have not previously published the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator.Research design, approach and method: The authors used a cross-sectional quantitative research design. A sample of 789 young adults participated in the study. Cross-validation allowed the authors to confirm (using the validation sample the validity of the ARI structure they obtained during initial testing (using the calibration sample. They investigated two measurement models (the original factor structure and a one-dimensional factor structure.Main findings: The original factor structure presented the data and the proposed theory better than did the one-dimensional factor structure. The authors found acceptable goodness of fit for the ARI. More specifically, they found invariance (in terms of equal factor loadings,covariances and error variances in the calibration and validation samples. They also found acceptable reliability estimates for each of the eight sub-scales.Practical/managerial implications: The results can help researchers and practitioners interested in measuring resilience in adults to choose a resilience measure and to select an appropriate measure for their populations and contexts.Contribution/value-add: Previous research has clearly shown that reliable and valid resilience measures are necessary. It is also necessary to assess the psychometric properties of the currently available instruments and to publish the findings. This study has helped by examining the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator.

  10. Improving the speech intelligibility in classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Choi Ling Coriolanus

    One of the major acoustical concerns in classrooms is the establishment of effective verbal communication between teachers and students. Non-optimal acoustical conditions, resulting in reduced verbal communication, can cause two main problems. First, they can lead to reduce learning efficiency. Second, they can also cause fatigue, stress, vocal strain and health problems, such as headaches and sore throats, among teachers who are forced to compensate for poor acoustical conditions by raising their voices. Besides, inadequate acoustical conditions can induce the usage of public address system. Improper usage of such amplifiers or loudspeakers can lead to impairment of students' hearing systems. The social costs of poor classroom acoustics will be large to impair the learning of children. This invisible problem has far reaching implications for learning, but is easily solved. Many researches have been carried out that they have accurately and concisely summarized the research findings on classrooms acoustics. Though, there is still a number of challenging questions remaining unanswered. Most objective indices for speech intelligibility are essentially based on studies of western languages. Even several studies of tonal languages as Mandarin have been conducted, there is much less on Cantonese. In this research, measurements have been done in unoccupied rooms to investigate the acoustical parameters and characteristics of the classrooms. The speech intelligibility tests, which based on English, Mandarin and Cantonese, and the survey were carried out on students aged from 5 years old to 22 years old. It aims to investigate the differences in intelligibility between English, Mandarin and Cantonese of the classrooms in Hong Kong. The significance on speech transmission index (STI) related to Phonetically Balanced (PB) word scores will further be developed. Together with developed empirical relationship between the speech intelligibility in classrooms with the variations

  11. Intelligent Extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  12. Applying Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kordon, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Offers guidelines on creating value from the application of computational intelligence methods. This work introduces a methodology for effective real-world application of computational intelligence while minimizing development cost, and outlines the critical, underestimated technology marketing efforts required

  13. Intelligence Operations Manual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Andrade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This Manual was an important document for the development of intelligence units in El Salvador´s police. It is a guiding document for intelligence operations where relevant aspects on overall information management are detailed.

  14. Intelligent route surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, R.M.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.; Voorthuijsen, G.P. van

    2009-01-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent

  15. Intelligent Computer Graphics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Miaoulis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    In Computer Graphics, the use of intelligent techniques started more recently than in other research areas. However, during these last two decades, the use of intelligent Computer Graphics techniques is growing up year after year and more and more interesting techniques are presented in this area.   The purpose of this volume is to present current work of the Intelligent Computer Graphics community, a community growing up year after year. This volume is a kind of continuation of the previously published Springer volumes “Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Computer Graphics” (2008), “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2009” (2009), “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2010” (2010) and “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2011” (2011).   Usually, this kind of volume contains, every year, selected extended papers from the corresponding 3IA Conference of the year. However, the current volume is made from directly reviewed and selected papers, submitted for publication in the volume “Intelligent Computer Gr...

  16. Advanced intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ryoo, Young; Jang, Moon-soo; Bae, Young-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been initiated with the attempt to imitate the human brain. People wish to let machines perform intelligent works. Many techniques of intelligent systems are based on artificial intelligence. According to changing and novel requirements, the advanced intelligent systems cover a wide spectrum: big data processing, intelligent control, advanced robotics, artificial intelligence and machine learning. This book focuses on coordinating intelligent systems with highly integrated and foundationally functional components. The book consists of 19 contributions that features social network-based recommender systems, application of fuzzy enforcement, energy visualization, ultrasonic muscular thickness measurement, regional analysis and predictive modeling, analysis of 3D polygon data, blood pressure estimation system, fuzzy human model, fuzzy ultrasonic imaging method, ultrasonic mobile smart technology, pseudo-normal image synthesis, subspace classifier, mobile object tracking, standing-up moti...

  17. An Annotated Bibliography of Verbal Behavior Articles Published Outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior: 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechago, Sarah A; Phillips, Lauren A

    2016-06-01

    An annotated bibliography is provided that summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior in 2015, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Thirty such articles were identified and annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.

  18. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  19. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…

  20. Interactive use of communication by verbal and non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Communication of autistic children. To assess the communication functionality of verbal and non-verbal children of the autistic spectrum and to identify possible associations amongst the groups. Subjects were 20 children of the autistic spectrum divided into two groups: V with 10 verbal children and NV with 10 non-verbal children with ages varying between 2y10m and 10y6m. All subjects were video recorded during 30 minutes of spontaneous interaction with their mothers. The samples were analyzed according to the functional communicative profile and comparisons within and between groups were conducted. Data referring to the occupation of communicative space suggest that there is an even balance between each child and his mother. The number of communicative acts per minute shows a clear difference between verbal and non-verbal children. Both verbal and non-verbal children use mostly the gestual communicative mean in their interactions. Data about the use of interpersonal communicative functions point out to the autistic children's great interactive impairment. The characterization of the functional communicative profile proposed in this study confirmed the autistic children's difficulties with interpersonal communication and that these difficulties do not depend on the preferred communicative mean.

  1. An executable model of the interaction between verbal and non-verbal communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic

  2. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  3. An Annotated Bibliography of Verbal Behavior Articles Published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior": 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechago, Sarah A.; Phillips, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    An annotated bibliography is provided that summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior" in 2015, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Thirty such articles were identified and annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.

  4. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  5. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  6. An executable model of the interaction between verbal and non-verbal communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic pr

  7. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…

  8. Ecocultural Bias in Culture-Specific Intelligence Tests in an Ecologically Diverse Culture: The Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.

    1987-01-01

    Ecocultural bias in the Preschool Intelligence Test and the Adult Verbal Aptitude Test was studied. Test results with 177 five- and six-year-olds and 168 mothers in neighborhoods with similar lifestyles and economies in the Philippines show need to screen items for bias. Tests of crystallized abilities had greatest potential for bias. Culturally…

  9. Temporal Relations and Intelligence: Correlating Relational Performance with Performance on the WAIS-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hora, Denis; Pelaez, Martha; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rae, Gordon; Robinson, Karen; Chaudhary, Tahir

    2008-01-01

    Relational frame theory (RFT) explicitly suggests that derived relational responding underlies complex verbally-based cognitive performances. The current study investigated whether the ability to respond in accordance with temporal relations between stimuli was predictive of performance on the four indices of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale,…

  10. Validity of the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale as a Measure of Adult Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifitera, Aurelio; Ryan, Joseph J.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the validity of the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale (IPS) as a substitute for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). IPS scores were correlated with the three WAIS IQs, and regression equations were computed to obtain estimated Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, and Full Scale IQ. (Author)

  11. Performance on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 by Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, C. Holley; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the performance of 292 4- to 17-year-olds with Williams syndrome (WS) on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 (KBIT-2; Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004). Mean IQ Composite, Verbal standard score (SS), and Nonverbal SS were in the borderline range relative to the general population, with variability similar to the general population.…

  12. Business Intelligence: Applying the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the variables that affect an individual's intention to use business intelligence technology in organizations. Constructs in the study were social influence, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and behavioral intention. Social influence refers to verbal comments from executives and coworkers that…

  13. Business Intelligence: Applying the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the variables that affect an individual's intention to use business intelligence technology in organizations. Constructs in the study were social influence, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and behavioral intention. Social influence refers to verbal comments from executives and coworkers that…

  14. Tests of Machine Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Legg, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Although the definition and measurement of intelligence is clearly of fundamental importance to the field of artificial intelligence, no general survey of definitions and tests of machine intelligence exists. Indeed few researchers are even aware of alternatives to the Turing test and its many derivatives. In this paper we fill this gap by providing a short survey of the many tests of machine intelligence that have been proposed.

  15. Construct of emotional intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Pečjak in Andreja Avsec

    2003-01-01

    The article highlights the construct of emotional intelligence, that has appeared about then years ago. We present the popular and scientific comprehension of emotional intelligence, briefly describe the development of the concept and than in detail we propose the existing comprehension of emotional intelligence: through the models of Goleman (1995) and Bar-On (1997) we present the comprehension of emotional intelligence as a non-cognitive (personality) traits.

  16. Construct of emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pečjak in Andreja Avsec

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the construct of emotional intelligence, that has appeared about then years ago. We present the popular and scientific comprehension of emotional intelligence, briefly describe the development of the concept and than in detail we propose the existing comprehension of emotional intelligence: through the models of Goleman (1995 and Bar-On (1997 we present the comprehension of emotional intelligence as a non-cognitive (personality traits.

  17. Computational intelligence in optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Tenne, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of recent studies covering the spectrum of computational intelligence applications with emphasis on their application to challenging real-world problems. Topics covered include: Intelligent agent-based algorithms, Hybrid intelligent systems, Cognitive and evolutionary robotics, Knowledge-Based Engineering, fuzzy sets and systems, Bioinformatics and Bioengineering, Computational finance and Computational economics, Data mining, Machine learning, and Expert systems. ""Computational Intelligence in Optimization"" is a comprehensive reference for researchers, prac

  18. Associations between music education, intelligence, and spelling ability in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, Katrin; Gust, Kilian; Bitz, Urlich; Kammer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Musical education has a beneficial effect on higher cognitive functions, but questions arise whether associations between music lessons and cognitive abilities are specific to a domain or general. We tested 194 boys in Grade 3 by measuring reading and spelling performance, non verbal intelligence and asked parents about musical activities since preschool. Questionnaire data showed that 53% of the boys had learned to play a musical instrument. Intelligence was higher for boys playing an instrument (p intelligence remained (p music education and general cognitive ability as well as a specific language link.

  19. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  20. Designing with computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Heitor; Mourelle, Luiza

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses a number of real-world applications of computational intelligence approaches. Using various examples, it demonstrates that computational intelligence has become a consolidated methodology for automatically creating new competitive solutions to complex real-world problems. It also presents a concise and efficient synthesis of different systems using computationally intelligent techniques.

  1. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  2. The brain as a distributed intelligent processing system: an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Freitas da Rocha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various neuroimaging studies, both structural and functional, have provided support for the proposal that a distributed brain network is likely to be the neural basis of intelligence. The theory of Distributed Intelligent Processing Systems (DIPS, first developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence, was proposed to adequately model distributed neural intelligent processing. In addition, the neural efficiency hypothesis suggests that individuals with higher intelligence display more focused cortical activation during cognitive performance, resulting in lower total brain activation when compared with individuals who have lower intelligence. This may be understood as a property of the DIPS. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our study, a new EEG brain mapping technique, based on the neural efficiency hypothesis and the notion of the brain as a Distributed Intelligence Processing System, was used to investigate the correlations between IQ evaluated with WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and the brain activity associated with visual and verbal processing, in order to test the validity of a distributed neural basis for intelligence. CONCLUSION: The present results support these claims and the neural efficiency hypothesis.

  3. Adolescents' performance on delay and probability discounting tasks: contributions of age, intelligence, executive functioning, and self-reported externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Elizabeth A; Hooper, Catalina J; Collins, Paul; Luciana, Monica

    2007-11-01

    Healthy adolescents, ages 9-23, completed delay and probability discounting tasks and measures of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, executive functioning, and self-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior. Delay but not probability discounting decreased with age. Delay discounting was also associated with verbal intelligence and Go-NoGo and Iowa Gambling Task performance. Probability discounting was associated only with externalizing behavior. Findings conform to an accumulation of evidence that while delay and probability discounting may have some overlapping components, they also reflect some fundamentally different processes in this age group.

  4. Insights From Verbal Protocols: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores a postgraduate student writer’s responses and reactions through verbal protocols as she attends to teacher feedback. Teacher feedback has been heralded as an important element in process writing. Numerous studies have been carried out on various aspects of teacher feedback such as on the effectiveness of feedback, students’ preferences for teacher feedback and students’ perceptions of feedback. However, there is still a gap in the literature in determining how students respond as they engage with teacher feedback. This paper reports on one postgraduate student’s responses on and her reactions to teacher feedback. Concurrent verbal protocols used in complement with written drafts and teacher commentaries were the main sources of data for this study. The analyses reveal that attending to feedback is a recursive process that fosters self-reflection which, in turn promotes planning for revision. Keywords: Verbal protocols, Teacher written feedback; Recursion; Reflection; Planning

  5. O estudo do comportamento verbal no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pineiro Fidalgo

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho realizou uma revisão histórica de dissertações de mestrado e teses de doutorado brasileiras sobre comportamento verbal, com base na proposta Skinneriana (1957/1992, produzidas entre 1968 e 2012. Foram investigados: a tipo de trabalho (dissertação ou tese, b universidades em que os trabalhos foram defendidos, c orientadores, d linha de pesquisa (básica, aplicada ou histórico-conceitual, e metodologia (descritiva ou experimental, e f temas de investigação. No total, 177 dissertações e 53 teses sobre comportamento verbal foram identificadas. Os resultados indicam que o estudo do comportamento verbal, no Brasil, estabeleceu-se como programa de pesquisa e cresceu ao longo dos anos.

  6. Nonverbal and verbal emotional expression and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D S; Pennebaker, J W

    1993-01-01

    The spontaneous nonverbal expression of emotion is related to immediate reductions in autonomic nervous system activity. Similar changes in specific autonomic channels occur when individuals are encouraged to verbally express their emotions. Indeed, these physiological changes are most likely to occur among individuals who are either verbally or nonverbally highly expressive. These data suggest that when individuals must actively inhibit emotional expression, they are at increased risk for a variety of health problems. Several experiments are summarized which indicate that verbally expressing traumatic experiences by writing or talking improves physical health, enhances immune function, and is associated with fewer medical visits. Although less research is available regarding nonverbal expression, it is also likely that the nonverbal expression of emotion bears some relation to health status. We propose that the effectiveness of many common expressive therapies (e.g., art, music, cathartic) would be enhanced if clients are encouraged to both express their feelings nonverbally and to put their experiences into words.

  7. The Relationship Satisfaction scale - psychometric properties

    OpenAIRE

    Espen Røysamb; Joar Vittersø; Kristian Tambs

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Relationship Satisfaction (RS) scale. Two population based samples were used: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, N=117,178) and The Quality of Life study (N=347). Convergent and discriminant validity was investigated in relation to the Quality of Marriage Index (QMI), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Relationship Satisfaction of partner, Big Five personality traits (IPIP50) and future relatio...

  8. Four Theorems on the Psychometric Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Keith A.; Solomon, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, . This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull “slope” parameter, , can be approximated by , where is the of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for and , from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when , . We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4–0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is stimulus-independent, it has lower kurtosis than a Gaussian. PMID:24124456

  9. On the Delimitative Aspect:Verbal Reduplication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红兵

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature shows that scholars differ considerably on what verbal reduplication indicates. By making use of an oral speech corpus, we analyzed and tested the data and found that the functions of verbal reduplication have close relationships with the time that the action takes place. this is a point that is different from other perfective aspectual categories, which are usual-ly used in the past time. Due to its basic meaning, the delimitative aspect shows preference for volitional verbs. It has the semantic features of dynamicity, perfectivity, delimitativity, and transitoriness, yet it stresses the non-durativity of the event.

  10. Pragmatic Analysis on Verbal Humor in Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2009-01-01

    As a nature of humanity, humor is a way of communication peculiar to human beings. Verbal humor is a cate-gory of humor which is used to express humorist ideas through language, and siteom as a unique comedy performance is an important carrier of humor. This paper applies some basic pragnmtic theories, such as Cooperative Principles (CP) and Relevance Theory(RT), to analyze the verbal humor in American popular situational comedy Friends, aiming to explore the generation mechanism of English humor. And then a better understanding and appreciation of English humor for English learners can be achieved.

  11. Measuring Intelligence through Games

    CERN Document Server

    Schaul, Tom; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Artificial general intelligence (AGI) refers to research aimed at tackling the full problem of artificial intelligence, that is, create truly intelligent agents. This sets it apart from most AI research which aims at solving relatively narrow domains, such as character recognition, motion planning, or increasing player satisfaction in games. But how do we know when an agent is truly intelligent? A common point of reference in the AGI community is Legg and Hutter's formal definition of universal intelligence, which has the appeal of simplicity and generality but is unfortunately incomputable. Games of various kinds are commonly used as benchmarks for "narrow" AI research, as they are considered to have many important properties. We argue that many of these properties carry over to the testing of general intelligence as well. We then sketch how such testing could practically be carried out. The central part of this sketch is an extension of universal intelligence to deal with finite time, and the use of samplin...

  12. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory and the Motives for Aggression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Montejo Hernández

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychometric properties of the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory and the Motives for Aggression Inventory were examined in a sample of 373 students of Medicine and Psychology in the city of Tunja in Colombia. In the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory, most common aggressive behaviors were verbal aggression and attitudes or rage gestures, with physical aggression, verbal aggression and threatening showing the highest correlations; most common situation were study problems, family and interpersonalrelations, and familiar or personal economy, no high correlationswere found among situations or situations with behaviors. In the Motives for Aggression Inventory, most common motives were rage, emotional discomfort, self-defense and defending values. A ronbach´s Alpha of 0.91 was obtained. Both of the questionnaires showed a single dimension (construct validity and satisfactory divergent validity, with the Psychopathy subscale of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire by Krug (1987, and convergent validity, with the Aggression Questionnaire by Buss and Perry (1992. Homogeneity coefficients were appropriated. Motives in the IMA, specially the pleasure of being aggressive, getting what you want, somethingmakes you feel bad, and valuing aggressive persons, were predictors of the behaviors in the ISCA.

  14. The Alliance Negotiation Scale: A psychometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M; Safran, Jeremy D; Muran, J Christopher

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the working alliance concept (Bordin, 1979). The ANS was also intended to improve upon existing measures such as the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1986, 1989) and its short form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989) by expanding the emphasis on negative therapy process. The present study investigates the psychometric validity of the ANS test scores and interpretation-including confirming its original factor structure and evaluating its internal consistency and construct validity. Construct validity was examined through the ANS' convergence and divergence with several existing scales that measure theoretically related constructs. The results bolster and extend previous findings about the psychometric integrity of the ANS, and begin to illuminate the relationship between negotiation and other important variables in psychotherapy research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. COMPARISON OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE AREAS OF STUDENTS AT SPORTS HIGH SCHOOLS AND PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet GÜLLÜ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare multiple intelligence areas of students at sports high schools and at public high schools. Research group was composed of totally 658 students who were chosen randomly 321 students at sports high schools and 346 students at public high schools in Malatya, Eskişehir, Trabzon and Erzurum Cities. As data collection tool in this research,” The Multiple Intelligence Areas Scale For Educationist” improved by Saban (2003 was used. As data collection tool in this research,” The Multiple Intelligence Areas Scale for Educationist” improved by Saban (2003 was used. Independent–samples T Test for comparing pair and One-way Anova Test and LSD Test for comparing multiple were used in analyzing the data and significant level was chosen as α=0,05. As a result of the research, it was found that according to their sexuality, there was the meaningful different (p< 0,05 among verbal, visual, musical, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences in girls’ favour; that according to their class, there was the meaningful different (p< 0,05 among verbal, logical, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences of all students; that only the bodily intelligence of students at high schools was better than students at public high schools; that verbal, logical, visual and intrapersonal intelligences of students at public high schools were better than students at sports high schools (p< 0,05. Besides it was determined that development levels of musical, interpersonal and naturalistic intelligences of both students at public high schools and sports high schools were same.Key Words: .

  16. A neuropsychological study of personality: trait openness in relation to intelligence, fluency, and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schretlen, David J; van der Hulst, Egberdina-Józefa; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Gordon, Barry

    2010-12-01

    Openness is a personality trait that has been linked to intelligence and divergent thinking. DeYoung, Peterson, and Higgins (2005) theorized that trait Openness depends on dopamine function, especially in the prefrontal cortex. We tested their theory in 335 healthy adults by hypothesizing that individual differences in Openness would correlate more strongly with performance on tests of executive function than on tests of intelligence and fluency. However, Openness correlated more strongly with verbal/crystallized intelligence (Gc; r = .44) than with executive functioning (r = .16) and fluency (r = .24). Further, the partial correlation between Openness and Gc increased from r = .26 among young adults to r = .53 among elderly adults. These findings suggest that Openness is more closely associated with the acquisition of broad verbal intellectual skills and knowledge than with executive abilities localized to a specific brain region or neurotransmitter system.

  17. Psychometric Assessment of Stereoscopic Head-Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2015 - Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF STEREOSCOPIC HEAD- MOUNTED DISPLAYS...disparity. This paper details the psychometric validation of the stereoscopic rendering of a virtual environment using game-based simulation software...mounted display, near eye display, stereo display, stereo HMD, psychometric assessment, stereoscopic performance, eye-limited stereo vision. 16

  18. Gray matter density in relation to different facets of verbal creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Andreas; Koschutnig, Karl; Hutterer, Lisa; Steiner, Elisabeth; Benedek, Mathias; Weber, Bernhard; Reishofer, Gernot; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Neuroscience studies on creativity have revealed highly variegated findings that often seem to be inconsistent. As recently argued in Fink and Benedek (Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 2012), this might be primarily due to the broad diversity in defining and measuring creativity as well as to the diversity of experimental procedures and methodologies used in this field of research. In specifically focusing on one measure of brain activation and on the well-established process of creative ideation (i.e., divergent thinking), EEG studies revealed a quite consistent and replicable pattern of right-lateralized brain activity over posterior parietal and occipital sites. In this study, we related regional gray matter density (as assessed by means of voxel-based morphometry) to different facets of psychometrically determined verbal creativity in a sample of 71 participants. Results revealed that verbal creativity was significantly and positively associated with gray matter density in clusters involving the right cuneus and the right precuneus. Enhanced gray matter density in these regions may be indicative of vivid imaginative abilities in more creative individuals. These findings complement existing functional studies on creative ideation which are, taken as a whole, among the most consistent findings in this field.

  19. Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental relationships between self-reported talents and measured intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Julie Aitken; Johnson, Andrew M; Jang, Kerry L; Vernon, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between self-report abilities and measured intelligence was examined at both the phenotypic (zero-order) level as well as at the genetic and environmental levels. Twins and siblings (N = 516) completed a timed intelligence test and a self-report ability questionnaire, which has previously been found to produce 10 factors, including: politics, interpersonal relationships, practical tasks, intellectual pursuits, academic skills, entrepreneur/business, domestic skills, vocal abilities, and creativity. At the phenotypic level, the correlations between the ability factor scores and intelligence ranged from 0.01 to 0.42 (between self-report academic abilities and verbal intelligence). Further analyses found that some of the phenotypic relationships between self-report ability scores and measured intelligence also had significant correlations at the genetic and environmental levels, suggesting that some of the observed relationships may be due to common genetic and/or environmental factors.

  20. [Intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Ma, Hong-Wei; Tian, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Fang

    2009-10-01

    To study the intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction (FGR). The intelligence levels were tested by the Wechsler Children Scales of Intelligence (C-WISC) in 54 children with FGR and in 84 normal children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) in the FGR group were 105.9+/-10.3, 112.4+/-11.2 and 97.1+/-10.6 respectively, and they all were in a normal range. But the PIQ was significantly lower than that in the control group (104.8+/-10.5; pintelligence level of children with FGR is normal, but there are imbalances in the intelligence structure and dysfunctions in performance ability related to right cerebral hemisphere. Performance trainings should be done from the infancy in children with FGR.

  1. Creativity, intelligence, and personality: a critical review of the scattered literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, Mark; Furnham, Adrian

    2006-11-01

    The authors examined the relations among intelligence, personality, and creativity. They consider the concept and definition of creativity in conjunction with the qualifications that researchers in the field have suggested. The present authors briefly refer to historiometric studies but focus on psychometric intelligence and its relations to tests of divergent thinking (DT) and ratings of creativity. The authors consider the relation between personality and creativity in the context of Eysenckian 3-factor and 5-factor models of personality and with reference to DT tests and ratings of creativity. The authors also present recommendations for the future study of creativity.

  2. Assessing Social-Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia With the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test

    OpenAIRE

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Newhill, Christina E.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Matcheri S Keshavan

    2008-01-01

    The emotion management subscale of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) has recently been recommended by the National Institute of Mental Health Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia committee as the sole measure of social cognition for trials of cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia, yet the psychometric properties of this subscale and the larger instrument in schizophrenia patients have not been thoroughly examined. This research ...

  3. Reconsidering the heritability of intelligence in adulthood: taking assortative mating and cultural transmission into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; van der Sluis, Sophie; Maes, Hermine H M; Posthuma, Danielle

    2012-03-01

    Heritability estimates of general intelligence in adulthood generally range from 75 to 85%, with all heritability due to additive genetic influences, while genetic dominance and shared environmental factors are absent, or too small to be detected. These estimates are derived from studies based on the classical twin design and are based on the assumption of random mating. Yet, considerable positive assortative mating has been reported for general intelligence. Unmodeled assortative mating may lead to biased estimates of the relative magnitude of genetic and environmental factors. To investigate the effects of assortative mating on the estimates of the variance components of intelligence, we employed an extended twin-family design. Psychometric IQ data were available for adult monozygotic and dizygotic twins, their siblings, the partners of the twins and siblings, and either the parents or the adult offspring of the twins and siblings (N = 1314). Two underlying processes of assortment were considered: phenotypic assortment and social homogamy. The phenotypic assortment model was slightly preferred over the social homogamy model, suggesting that assortment for intelligence is mostly due to a selection of mates on similarity in intelligence. Under the preferred phenotypic assortment model, the variance of intelligence in adulthood was not only due to non-shared environmental (18%) and additive genetic factors (44%) but also to non-additive genetic factors (27%) and phenotypic assortment (11%).This non-additive nature of genetic influences on intelligence needs to be accommodated in future GWAS studies for intelligence.

  4. A psychometric analysis of chess expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maas, H.L.J.; Wagenmakers, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study introduces the Amsterdam Chess Test (ACT). The ACT measures chess playing proficiency through 5 tasks: a choose-a-move task (comprising two parallel tests), a motivation questionnaire, a predict-a-move task, a verbal knowledge questionnaire, and a recall task. The validity of these tasks

  5. Non Verbal Communication in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curt, Carmen Judith Nine

    Differences between American (Anglo) and Latin American cultures, particularly the culture of Puerto Rico, in the area of non-verbal communication (NVC) are examined in this work. Specific contrasts in language and kinesic patterns between the two cultures are illustrated in descriptions of communicative gestures employed by Puerto Ricans in the…

  6. A Comparison of Verbal and Nonverbal Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Virginia; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The FIRO-B by Schutz and the Personal Orientation Inventory by Shostrum were used to assess personality changes in a verbal and a nonverbal T-group. Personality measures used failed to find significant posttreatment differences between groups. Several significant differences occurred within groups. (Author)

  7. Verbal Artistry: A Case for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    This article expands our understanding of how language-minoritized children's communicative competence interrelates with schooling. It features a verbal performance by a young Native American girl. A case is made for greater empirical specification of the real extent of children's non-school-sanctioned communicative competence. The case disrupts…

  8. Verbal Artistry: A Case for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    This article expands our understanding of how language-minoritized children's communicative competence interrelates with schooling. It features a verbal performance by a young Native American girl. A case is made for greater empirical specification of the real extent of children's non-school-sanctioned communicative competence. The case disrupts…

  9. A Comparison of Verbal and Nonverbal Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Virginia; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The FIRO-B by Schutz and the Personal Orientation Inventory by Shostrum were used to assess personality changes in a verbal and a nonverbal T-group. Personality measures used failed to find significant posttreatment differences between groups. Several significant differences occurred within groups. (Author)

  10. Dissociating verbal and nonverbal audiovisual object processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J

    2009-02-01

    This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same object or not. Verbal stimuli were simultaneously presented spoken and written object names, and nonverbal stimuli were photographs of objects simultaneously presented with naturally occurring object sounds. Stimulus differences were controlled by including two further conditions that paired photographs of objects with spoken words and object sounds with written words. Verbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a region of the left superior temporal sulcus that has previously been associated with phonological processing. Nonverbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a right fusiform region that has previously been associated with structural and conceptual object processing. Thus, we demonstrate how brain activation for audiovisual integration depends on the verbal content of the stimuli, even when stimulus and task processing differences are controlled.

  11. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logie, R.H.; Saito, S.; Morita, A.; Varma, S.; Norris, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers

  12. Aging and verbal working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Kralingen, R.B.A.S. van

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The development of verbal working memory capacity over time was investigated. xxx Methods. Four different age groups were tested with the new standard computerized version of the reading span test (Van den Noort et al., 2006, 2008). xxx Results. Compared to the young adults, the old adu

  13. Las construcciones verbales seriales en mapuche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernández-Garay

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las construcciones verbales seriales (CVS del mapudungun, lengua indígena hablada en el sur de la República Argentina, sobre todo en las provincias de La Pampa, Neuquén, Río Negro y Chubut. Los estudios tradicionales del mapudungun han tratado los verbos conformadospor dos o más raíces verbales como lexemas compuestos. A partir de la perspectiva tipológica, que define las construcciones verbales seriales como una secuencia de verbos que funciona como un predicado único, sin presentar elementos coordinantes ni subordinantes entre ellos, se las analiza estableciendo los distintos tipos de CVS, sus valores semánticos, así como su frecuencia de aparición en los corpora sobre los que se basanuestro trabajo. -- This article analyzes the serial verb constructions (SVC of Mapudungun, an indigenous language spoken in the southern region of Argentina —mainly in the provinces of La Pampa, Neuquén, Río Negro y Chubut.Traditional investigations of Mapudungun have considered verbs constituted by two or more verbal roots as complex lexemes. From a typological trend, which defines SVC as a sequence of verbs that functions as a unique predicate, without presenting coordination or subordination elements betweenthem, we analyze Mapudungun SVC and, thus, establish a typology, their semantic values and the appearance frequency in the corpora we gathered for this investigation.

  14. Assessing Pragmatics: DCTS and Retrospective Verbal Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Palanques, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Assessing pragmatic knowledge in the instructed setting is seen as a complex but necessary task, which requires the design of appropriate research methodologies to examine pragmatic performance. This study discusses the use of two different research methodologies, namely those of Discourse Completion Tests/Tasks (DCTs) and verbal reports. Research…

  15. Response Generation Norms for Verbal Analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Albert; Pellegrino, James W.

    Normative data were collected for the generation of responses to 150 incomplete verbal analogies. Two types of normative data are provided: (a) the probabilities associated with each response produced for each analogy base and (b) the probabilities that initial responses represented the appropriate semantic relationship, with a division of…

  16. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  17. Optimizing Classification in Intelligence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ACC Classification Accuracy AUC Area Under the ROC Curve CI Competitive Intelligence COMINT Communications Intelligence DoD Department of...indispensible tool to support a national leader’s decision making process, competitive intelligence (CI) has emerged in recent decades as an environment meant...effectiveness for the intelligence product in competitive intelligence environment: accuracy, objectivity, usability, relevance, readiness, and timeliness

  18. The Anatomy of Moral Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Judith A.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that moral intelligence is one of the separate, autonomous multiple intelligences. The essay discusses moral development as a function of cognitive/analytical development, the relationship between moral reasoning and moral conduct, the biological basis of moral intelligence, moral intelligence as a function of social intelligence, and…

  19. Incongruence between Verbal and Non-Verbal Information Enhances the Late Positive Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Shu; Osumi, Michihiro; Shiotani, Mayu; Nobusako, Satoshi; Maeoka, Hiroshi; Okada, Yohei; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Matsuo, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP). Combinations of verbal information [positive/negative] and facial expressions [smile/angry] expressions were presented randomly on a computer screen to 17 healthy volunteers. The value of trustworthiness of the presented facial expression was evaluated by the amount of donation offered by the observer to the person depicted on the computer screen. In addition, the time required to judge the value of trustworthiness was recorded for each trial. Using electroencephalography, ERP were obtained by averaging the wave patterns recorded while the participants judged the value of trustworthiness. The amount of donation offered was significantly lower when the verbal information and facial expression were incongruent, particularly for [negative × smile]. The amplitude of the early posterior negativity (EPN) at the temporal lobe showed no significant difference between all conditions. However, the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) at the parietal electrodes for the incongruent condition [negative × smile] was higher than that for the congruent condition [positive × smile]. These results suggest that the LPP amplitude observed from the parietal cortex is involved in the processing of incongruence between verbal information and facial expression.

  20. Linguistic analysis of verbal and non-verbal communication in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison; Butt, David; Ellis-Clarke, Jodie; Cartmill, John

    2010-12-01

    Surgery can be a triumph of co-operation, the procedure evolving as a result of joint action between multiple participants. The communication that mediates the joint action of surgery is conveyed by verbal but particularly by non-verbal signals. Competing priorities superimposed by surgical learning must also be negotiated within this context and this paper draws on techniques of systemic functional linguistics to observe and analyse the flow of information during such a phase of surgery.

  1. Psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the political skill inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junqi; Chen, Zhuo

    2012-02-01

    Ferris and colleagues defined political skill in organizations as "the ability to effectively understand others at work and to use such knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one's personal and/or organizational objectives." In this study, the psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the Political Skill Inventory were investigated, supporting construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validities. The results suggested that the Chinese translation retained a four-factor structure. Political skill was positively correlated with self-monitoring, conscientiousness, political savvy, emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and proactive personality, and was negatively correlated with trait anxiety and external locus of control. After controlling for age, sex, and job tenure, political skill was predictive of task performance, work contribution, and interpersonal help.

  2. Intelligence analysis – the royal discipline of Competitive Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartes, František

    ... cycle’s specific area, in the so-called “Intelligence Analysis”. Intelligence Analysis is one of the stages of the Intelligence Cycle in which data from both the primary and secondary research are analyzed...

  3. [Relationship between gene mutations and intelligence in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Bo; Ma, Hong-Wei; Wang, Lin; Tian, Xiao-Bo; Hu, Man; Ren, Shuang; Tan, Ying-Hua

    2011-10-01

    To study the level of intelligence in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and the relationship between the level of intelligence and gene mutations. One hundred and two children with DMD between January 2009 and March 2011 were enrolled. DMD gene detection was performed through the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in 84 cases. The level and the structure of intelligence were evaluated by Chinese Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC) in 50 children with DMD (≥6 years old; DMD group) and in 50 age-and gender-matched healthy children (control group). The average intelligence quotient (IQ) was 84±21 in 102 children with DMD. Thirty patients (29.4%) had the full intelligence quotient (FIQ) less than 70. The FIQ, verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) and the scores of 11 sub-tests of intelligence in the DMD group were significantly lower than those in the control group (Pchildren with DMD are lower than those in healthy children. There is association between mental retardation and gene mutations.

  4. Can Intelligence Explode?

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The technological singularity refers to a hypothetical scenario in which technological advances virtually explode. The most popular scenario is the creation of super-intelligent algorithms that recursively create ever higher intelligences. It took many decades for these ideas to spread from science fiction to popular science magazines and finally to attract the attention of serious philosophers. David Chalmers' (JCS 2010) article is the first comprehensive philosophical analysis of the singularity in a respected philosophy journal. The motivation of my article is to augment Chalmers' and to discuss some issues not addressed by him, in particular what it could mean for intelligence to explode. In this course, I will (have to) provide a more careful treatment of what intelligence actually is, separate speed from intelligence explosion, compare what super-intelligent participants and classical human observers might experience and do, discuss immediate implications for the diversity and value of life, consider po...

  5. Fractionating human intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; Highfield, Roger R; Parkin, Beth L; Owen, Adrian M

    2012-12-20

    What makes one person more intellectually able than another? Can the entire distribution of human intelligence be accounted for by just one general factor? Is intelligence supported by a single neural system? Here, we provide a perspective on human intelligence that takes into account how general abilities or "factors" reflect the functional organization of the brain. By comparing factor models of individual differences in performance with factor models of brain functional organization, we demonstrate that different components of intelligence have their analogs in distinct brain networks. Using simulations based on neuroimaging data, we show that the higher-order factor "g" is accounted for by cognitive tasks corecruiting multiple networks. Finally, we confirm the independence of these components of intelligence by dissociating them using questionnaire variables. We propose that intelligence is an emergent property of anatomically distinct cognitive systems, each of which has its own capacity.

  6. Network structure underlying resolution of conflicting non-verbal and verbal social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Takao, Hidemasa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Gonoi, Wataru; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-06-01

    Social judgments often require resolution of incongruity in communication contents. Although previous studies revealed that such conflict resolution recruits brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG), functional relationships and networks among these regions remain unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the functional dissociation and networks by measuring human brain activity during resolving incongruity between verbal and non-verbal emotional contents. First, we found that the conflict resolutions biased by the non-verbal contents activated the posterior dorsal mPFC (post-dmPFC), bilateral anterior insula (AI) and right dorsal pIFG, whereas the resolutions biased by the verbal contents activated the bilateral ventral pIFG. In contrast, the anterior dmPFC (ant-dmPFC), bilateral superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus were commonly involved in both of the resolutions. Second, we found that the post-dmPFC and right ventral pIFG were hub regions in networks underlying the non-verbal- and verbal-content-biased resolutions, respectively. Finally, we revealed that these resolution-type-specific networks were bridged by the ant-dmPFC, which was recruited for the conflict resolutions earlier than the two hub regions. These findings suggest that, in social conflict resolutions, the ant-dmPFC selectively recruits one of the resolution-type-specific networks through its interaction with resolution-type-specific hub regions.

  7. Derivational Morphology of the Early Irish Verbal Noun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Randall Clark

    2012-01-01

    As is well known, the Insular Celtic languages (Irish, Scots Gaelic, Welsh, Breton and the now-extinct Manx and Cornish) utilize a class of verbal abstracts known as "verbal nouns" to perform the functions that are fulfilled in other Indo-European languages by infinitives and supines. Yet in many ways the Celtic verbal noun remains somewhat of an…

  8. Verbal Communication: From Pedagogy to Make-Believe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melser, Derek

    2009-01-01

    This paper brings the concept of "acting in concert" to the aid of those wanting to understand the nature of verbal communication. Verbal communication is introduced as a form of concerted activity which has a management function vis-a-vis other concerted (and cooperative) activity. In the body of the paper, verbal communication is likened to…

  9. The N-Word: Reducing Verbal Pollution in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ericka J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the crisis of verbal pollution in our society. "Verbal pollution" refers to the use of words and comments that the majority agrees are offensive, are damaging, and may lead to the deterioration of social institutions. Verbal pollution encompasses hate speech, such as the derogatory words used by…

  10. Citation Analysis of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior:" 1984-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, S.; O'Hora, D.; Whelan, R.; O'Donovan, A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study undertook an updated citation analysis of Skinner's (1957) "Verbal Behavior". All articles that cited "Verbal Behavior" between 1984 and 2004 were recorded and content analyzed into one of five categories; four empirical and one nonempirical. Of the empirical categories, studies that employed a verbal operant from Skinner's…

  11. Intelligence analysis – the royal discipline of Competitive Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    František Bartes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose work methodology for Competitive Intelligence teams in one of the intelligence cycle’s specific area, in the so-called “Intelligence Analysis”. Intelligence Analysis is one of the stages of the Intelligence Cycle in which data from both the primary and secondary research are analyzed. The main result of the effort is the creation of added value for the information collected. Company Competiitve Intelligence, correctly understood and implemented in busines...

  12. Knowledge Intelligence: A New Field in Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Guangli; Li, Xiuting; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Yuejin; Shi, Yong

    This paper discussed the development of business intelligence considering the development of data mining. Business intelligence plays an important role in producing up-to-data information for operative and strategic decision-making. We proposed a new kind of knowledge named intelligent knowledge gotten from data. We illustrated a way to combine the business intelligence and intelligent knowledge and proposed a way of the management of intelligent knowledge which is more structural than the traditional knowledge.

  13. Fathers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness as Predictors of Adult Sons' Perceptions of Fathers' Sarcasm, Criticism, and Verbal Aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Finds that approximately 40% of the variance in adult sons' reports of fathers' messages (sarcasm, criticism, and verbal aggressiveness) was attributable to fathers' self-reported argumentativeness and verbal aggression. (SR)

  14. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  15. Intelligence Essentials for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Larry Kahaner, Competitive Intelligence : From Black Ops to Boardrooms — How Businesses Gather, Analyze and Use Infor- mation to Succeed in the Global...32744.fm Page 2 Tuesday, June 22, 1999 9:42 AMauthorities. The Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals...SCIP, Competitive Intelligence Review, 8, No. 3 (Fall 1997), unnumbered 8th page. 5 SCIP, 1995 SCIP Membership Directory (Alexandria, VA: SCIP, 1995

  16. Intelligence Analysis: Once Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    least touch on the subject of intelligence analysis. However, while still a large body of work, it is a considerably smaller set that specifically...meaning is influenced by the analyst’s mindset, mental model, or frame of mind . Kent (1949, p. 199) indicated “…an intelligence staff which must...or a top-down process are not unique to the intelligence literature. In the scientific literature, arguments date back to Descartes (1596- 1650

  17. Emotional Intelligence and cognitive abilities - associations and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeller, Silvia; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex

    2016-11-17

    In order to expand on previous research, this cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and cognitive abilities in healthy adults with a special focus on potential sex differences. EI was assessed by means of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), whereas cognitive abilities were investigated using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), which measures key aspects of cognitive functioning, i.e. verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, verbal fluency, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. 137 subjects (65% female) with a mean age of 38.7 ± 11.8 years were included into the study. While males and females were comparable with regard to EI, men achieved significantly higher BACS composite scores and outperformed women in the BACS subscales motor speed, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. Verbal fluency significantly predicted EI, whereas the MSCEIT subscale understanding emotions significantly predicted the BACS composite score. Our findings support previous research and emphasize the relevance of considering cognitive abilities when assessing ability EI in healthy individuals.

  18. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  19. The search for intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E. J.

    1980-12-01

    Implications of current understandings of the nature of human intelligence for the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence are discussed. The perceptual theory of intelligence as the manipulation of perceptual images rather than language is introduced, and conditions leading to the ascendancy of man over other hominids with similar conceptual abilities are discussed, including the liberation of the hands from a locomotive function and the evolution of neoteny. It is argued that the specificity of the environmental, behavioral and physiological conditions which lead to the emergence of technologically oriented, and communicative intelligent creatures suggests that any SETI would most likely be fruitless.

  20. Intelligence and childlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Demographers debate why people have children in advanced industrial societies where children are net economic costs. From an evolutionary perspective, however, the important question is why some individuals choose not to have children. Recent theoretical developments in evolutionary psychology suggest that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to prefer to remain childless than less intelligent individuals. Analyses of the National Child Development Study show that more intelligent men and women express preference to remain childless early in their reproductive careers, but only more intelligent women (not more intelligent men) are more likely to remain childless by the end of their reproductive careers. Controlling for education and earnings does not at all attenuate the association between childhood general intelligence and lifetime childlessness among women. One-standard-deviation increase in childhood general intelligence (15 IQ points) decreases women's odds of parenthood by 21-25%. Because women have a greater impact on the average intelligence of future generations, the dysgenic fertility among women is predicted to lead to a decline in the average intelligence of the population in advanced industrial nations.

  1. Routledge companion to intelligence studies

    CERN Document Server

    Dover, Robert; Hillebrand, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies provides a broad overview of the growing field of intelligence studies. The recent growth of interest in intelligence and security studies has led to an increased demand for popular depictions of intelligence and reference works to explain the architecture and underpinnings of intelligence activity. Divided into five comprehensive sections, this Companion provides a strong survey of the cutting-edge research in the field of intelligence studies: Part I: The evolution of intelligence studies; Part II: Abstract approaches to intelligence; Part III: Historical approaches to intelligence; Part IV: Systems of intelligence; Part V: Contemporary challenges. With a broad focus on the origins, practices and nature of intelligence, the book not only addresses classical issues, but also examines topics of recent interest in security studies. The overarching aim is to reveal the rich tapestry of intelligence studies in both a sophisticated and accessible way. This Companion...

  2. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Dyads for Estimating Global Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Patel, Ronak; Crawford, John R

    2015-08-01

    All possible two-subtest combinations of the core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) subtests were evaluated as possible viable short forms for estimating full-scale IQ (FSIQ). Validity of the dyads was evaluated relative to FSIQ in a large clinical sample (N = 482) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Sample validity measures included correlations, mean discrepancies, and levels of agreement between dyad estimates and FSIQ scores. In addition, reliability and validity coefficients were derived from WAIS-IV standardization data. The Coding + Information dyad had the strongest combination of reliability and validity data. However, several other dyads yielded comparable psychometric performance, albeit with some variability in their particular strengths. We also observed heterogeneity between validity coefficients from the clinical and standardization-based estimates for several dyads. Thus, readers are encouraged to also consider the individual psychometric attributes, their clinical or research goals, and client or sample characteristics when selecting among the dyadic short forms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. 77 FR 32952 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board...

  4. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  5. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  6. Care Dependency Scale - psychometric testing of the Polish version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Muszalik, Marta; Kedziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Kornatowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The importance of this study lies in the availability of psychometrically sound assessment instruments, which are of critical importance for the study of patient's care dependency and the provision of care to these patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychometric properties of the Ca

  7. Psychometric Characteristics of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    The Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) is widely used to identify "developmentally immature" children for placement in extra-year, transition programs in spite of a problematic absence of psychometric evidence and research support. In this study of psychometric characteristics of the GSRST, teacher ratings of classroom performance and…

  8. Psychometric Evaluation and Discussions of English Language Learners' Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Daeryong; Taherbhai, Husein; Frantz, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The importance of listening in the context of English language acquisition is gaining acceptance, but its unique attributes in language performance, while substantively and qualitatively justifiable, are generally not psychometrically defined. This article psychometrically supports listening as a distinct domain among the three other domains of…

  9. Psychometric testing and Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. van der Merwe

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a cumulative report on the findings of various exploratory research that were done with regard to the practice of psychometric testing in the Eastern Cape. Recent and ongoing developments in the South African labour legislation, and especially the implications of the Employment Equity Act, highlight once again the importance of the validation of all instruments to be used for human assessment and selection purposes. Information was gathered to establish which psychometric tests are used, and for what purposes, in industry today. Biographical information on each organisation is supplied, including the number of employees. The role of psychometric testing in the selection procedure is discussed. The different tests used, as well as the test users, are also indicated. The findings of other, related research, as well as comments, recommendations and shortcomings, are discussed. Opsomming Hierdie is ‘n kumulatiewe verslag wat die resultate verstrek van verskeie verkennende ondersoeke wat gedoen is na die aanwending van psigometriese toetsing in die Oos-Kaap. Onlangse en voortdurende ontwikkelinge in die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidswetgewing, en veral die implikasies van die Wet op Gelyke Indiensneming, beklemtoon weer eens die belangrikheid van die validering van enige instrumente wat gebruik word vir evaluerings- en keuringsdoeleindes van individue. Inligting is ingewin om te bepaal watter psigometriese toetse, sowel as vir watter doel, vandag in die bedryf gebruik word. Biografiese inligting oor die onderskeie organisasies, insluitende hul aantal werknemers, word verstrek. Die rol van psigometriese toetsing in die keuringsproses word bespreek. Die verskillende toetse wat deur die organisasies gebruik word, sowel as die toetsge-bruikers, word ook aangedui. Die bevindinge van ander, relevante navorsing, sowel as opmerkings, aanbevelings en tekortkominge word bespreek.

  10. Four theorems on the psychometric function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A May

    Full Text Available In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, Δx. This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull "slope" parameter, β, can be approximated by β(Noise x β(Transducer, where β(Noise is the β of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and β(Transducer depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for β(Noise and β(Transducer, from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when d' ∝ (Δx(b, β ≈ β(Noise x b. We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4-0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull β reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of β for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is

  11. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, significant reduction in auditory memory was seen in aged group and the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test, like many other auditory verbal memory tests, showed the aging effects on auditory verbal memory performance.

  12. Verbal Fluency and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Adults with Down Syndrome and Unspecified Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroussi, Panayiota; Andreou, Georgia; Karagiannopoulou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine verbal fluency and verbal short-term memory in 12 adults with Down syndrome (DS) and 12 adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) of unspecified origin, matched for receptive vocabulary and chronological age. Participants' performance was assessed on two conditions of a verbal fluency test, namely, semantic…

  13. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  14. Brazilian children performance on Rey’s auditory verbal learning paradigm Desempenho de crianças brasileiras no paradigma de aprendizagem auditivo-verbal de Rey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinda Martins Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning paradigm is worldwide used in clinical and research settings. There is consensus about its psychometric robustessness and that its various scores provide relevant information about different aspects of memory and learning. However, there are only a few studies in Brazil employing this paradigm and none of them with children. This paper describes the performance of 119 Brazilian children in a version of Rey´s paradigm. The correlations between scores showed the internal consistency of this version. Also, the pattern of results observed was very similar to that observed in foreign studies with adults and children. There was correlation between age in months and recall scores, showing that age affects the rhythm of learning. These results were discussed based on the information processing theory.O paradigma de aprendizagem auditivo-verbal de Rey é utilizado em todo o mundo, tanto em pesquisa quanto na clínica. Há consenso sobre sua robustez psicométrica e de que seus vários escores fornecem informações relevantes sobre diferentes aspectos da memória e da aprendizagem. No entanto, existem apenas alguns poucos estudos no Brasil envolvendo este paradigma e nenhum deles com crianças. Este artigo descreve o desempenho de 119 crianças brasileiras em uma versão do paradigma de Rey. As correlações entre escores mostraram a consistência interna desta versão. Além disso, o padrão de resultados encontrado foi muito similar àquele observado em estudos estrangeiros com adultos e crianças. Verificou-se correlação entre idade em meses e os escores de evocação, mostrando que a idade afeta o ritmo de aprendizagem. Estes resultados foram discutidos a partir da teoria do processamento da informação.

  15. 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Bolt, Daniel; Ark, L; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS) builds on the Psychometric Society's mission to share quantitative methods relevant to psychology. The chapters of this volume present cutting-edge work in the field. Topics include studies of item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Additional psychometric topics relate to structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis, among others. The papers in this volume will be especially useful for researchers in the social sciences who use quantitative methods. Prior knowledge of statistical methods is recommended. The 78th annual meeting took place in Arnhem, The Netherlands between July 22nd and 26th, 2013. The previous volume to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting is New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 201...

  16. Confessions, scapegoats and flying pigs: Psychometric testing and the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie Theron

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of psychometric tests in personnel selection has been regarded with an extraordinary degree of suspicion and scepticism. This is especially true when selection occurs in respect of a diverse applicant group. Concern is expressed about the seemingly uncritical embracing of specific tenets related to the use of psychometric tests in personnel selection in the absence of any systematic coherent psychometric argument to justify these beliefs. The absence of such a supporting psychometric rationale seems unfortunate in as far as it probably would inhibit the independent critical evaluation of the psychometric merits of these generally accepted beliefs. Specific beliefs related to selection fairness, measurement bias and adverse impact are critically examined.

  17. Experimental Use of Signed Presentations of the Verbal Scale of the WISC-R with Profoundly Deaf Children: A Preliminary Report of the Sign Selection Process and Experimental Test Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margery Silberman

    The paper provides a theoretical framework for the inclusion of a verbal intelligence test as part of the psychodiagnostic assessment battery used with deaf children. Descriptions are provided for three selected sign language varieties being used in a study designed to examine performance of 30 deaf children (9-16 years old) on signed…

  18. Experimental Use of Signed Presentations of the Verbal Scale of the WISC-R with Profoundly Deaf Children: A Preliminary Report of the Sign Selection Process and Experimental Test Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margery Silberman

    The paper provides a theoretical framework for the inclusion of a verbal intelligence test as part of the psychodiagnostic assessment battery used with deaf children. Descriptions are provided for three selected sign language varieties being used in a study designed to examine performance of 30 deaf children (9-16 years old) on signed…

  19. Exploring the neurological substrate of emotional and social intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Reuven; Tranel, Daniel; Denburg, Natalie L; Bechara, Antoine

    2003-08-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis posits that deficits in emotional signalling (somatic states) lead to poor judgment in decision-making, especially in the personal and social realms. Similar to this hypothesis is the concept of emotional intelligence, which has been defined as an array of emotional and social abilities, competencies and skills that enable individuals to cope with daily demands and be more effective in their personal and social life. Patients with lesions to the ventromedial (VM) prefrontal cortex have defective somatic markers and tend to exercise poor judgment in decision-making, which is especially manifested in the disadvantageous choices they typically make in their personal lives and in the ways in which they relate with others. Furthermore, lesions to the amygdala or insular cortices, especially on the right side, also compromise somatic state activation and decision-making. This suggests that the VM, amygdala and insular regions are part of a neural system involved in somatic state activation and decision-making. We hypothesized that the severe impairment of these patients in real-life decision-making and an inability to cope effectively with environmental and social demands would be reflected in an abnormal level of emotional and social intelligence. Twelve patients with focal, stable bilateral lesions of the VM cortex or with right unilateral lesions of the amygdala or the right insular cortices, were tested on the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), a standardized psychometric measure of various aspects of emotional and social intelligence. We also examined these patients with various other procedures designed to measure decision-making (the Gambling Task), social functioning, as well as personality changes and psychopathology; standardized neuropsychological tests were applied to assess their cognitive intelligence, executive functioning, perception and memory as well. Their results were compared with those of 11 patients with focal

  20. Adaptive bandwidth measurements of importance functions for speech intelligibility prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmal, Nathaniel A; DeRoy, Kristina

    2011-12-01

    The Articulation Index (AI) and Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) predict intelligibility scores from measurements of speech and hearing parameters. One component in the prediction is the "importance function," a weighting function that characterizes contributions of particular spectral regions of speech to speech intelligibility. Previous work with SII predictions for hearing-impaired subjects suggests that prediction accuracy might improve if importance functions for individual subjects were available. Unfortunately, previous importance function measurements have required extensive intelligibility testing with groups of subjects, using speech processed by various fixed-bandwidth low-pass and high-pass filters. A more efficient approach appropriate to individual subjects is desired. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of measuring importance functions for individual subjects with adaptive-bandwidth filters. In two experiments, ten subjects with normal-hearing listened to vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) nonsense words processed by low-pass and high-pass filters whose bandwidths were varied adaptively to produce specified performance levels in accordance with the transformed up-down rules of Levitt [(1971). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467-477]. Local linear psychometric functions were fit to resulting data and used to generate an importance function for VCV words. Results indicate that the adaptive method is reliable and efficient, and produces importance function data consistent with that of the corresponding AI/SII importance function.

  1. Psychopathy, intelligence, and impulsivity in German violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tribolet-Hardy, Fanny; Vohs, Knut; Mokros, Andreas; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported numerous correlations between psychopathy and various personality traits, behavioural tendencies or clinical characteristics. The present study examined in greater depth the relationships between the components of psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and intelligence as well as impulsivity. A total of ninety male violent offenders were recruited from a prison and a forensic-psychiatric hospital in Germany. All of the subjects were assessed using the PCL-R, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and a short version of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WIP). As expected, a canonical correlation analysis showed a negative association between spatial intelligence and the Factor 2 subtotal on the PCL-R (reckless lifestyle/antisociality). In addition, our results agreed with the assumption of an association between impulsivity and the subtotal for PCL-R Factor 2. The positive relationship between verbal intelligence and the subtotal for Factor 1 of the PCL-R (insincere, manipulative conduct/affective deficits) vanished after controlling for educational level. The results indicate that there is a relationship between the spatial components of intelligence and the concept of psychopathy as described by Hare. This result supports the spatial impairment aetiological model of antisocial behaviour.

  2. Intelligence for Human-Assistant Planetary Surface Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Robert; Graham, Jeffrey; Tyree, Kimberly; Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.

    2006-01-01

    The central premise in developing effective human-assistant planetary surface robots is that robotic intelligence is needed. The exact type, method, forms and/or quantity of intelligence is an open issue being explored on the ERA project, as well as others. In addition to field testing, theoretical research into this area can help provide answers on how to design future planetary robots. Many fundamental intelligence issues are discussed by Murphy [2], including (a) learning, (b) planning, (c) reasoning, (d) problem solving, (e) knowledge representation, and (f) computer vision (stereo tracking, gestures). The new "social interaction/emotional" form of intelligence that some consider critical to Human Robot Interaction (HRI) can also be addressed by human assistant planetary surface robots, as human operators feel more comfortable working with a robot when the robot is verbally (or even physically) interacting with them. Arkin [3] and Murphy are both proponents of the hybrid deliberative-reasoning/reactive-execution architecture as the best general architecture for fully realizing robot potential, and the robots discussed herein implement a design continuously progressing toward this hybrid philosophy. The remainder of this chapter will describe the challenges associated with robotic assistance to astronauts, our general research approach, the intelligence incorporated into our robots, and the results and lessons learned from over six years of testing human-assistant mobile robots in field settings relevant to planetary exploration. The chapter concludes with some key considerations for future work in this area.

  3. Relationship Between Surface-Based Brain Morphometric Measures and Intelligence in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of History of Language Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balardin, Joana Bisol; Sato, João Ricardo; Vieira, Gilson; Feng, Yeu; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh; Murphy, Declan; Ecker, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of conditions that show abnormalities in the neuroanatomy of multiple brain regions. The variability in the development of intelligence and language among individuals on the autism spectrum has long been acknowledged, but it remains unknown whether these differences impact on the neuropathology of ASD. In this study, we aimed to compare associations between surface-based regional brain measures and general intelligence (IQ) scores in ASD individuals with and without a history of language delay. We included 64 ASD adults of normal intelligence (37 without a history of language delay and 27 with a history of language delay and 80 neurotypicals). Regions with a significant association between verbal and nonverbal IQ and measures of cortical thickness (CT), surface area, and cortical volume were first identified in the combined sample of individuals with ASD and controls. Thicker dorsal frontal and temporal cortices, and thinner lateral orbital frontal and parieto-occipital cortices were associated with greater and lower verbal IQ scores, respectively. Correlations between cortical volume and verbal IQ were observed in similar regions as revealed by the CT analysis. A significant difference between ASD individuals with and without a history of language delay in the association between CT and verbal IQ was evident in the parieto-occipital region. These results indicate that ASD subgroups defined on the basis of differential language trajectories in childhood can have different associations between verbal IQ and brain measures in adulthood despite achieving similar levels of cognitive performance.

  4. en problemas verbales de álgebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Díaz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La representación algebraica se analiza con respecto a la relación entre dos variables. Los participantes fueron 24 alumnos de primer grado de secundaria y 24 de segundo, a quienes se entrevistó durante la resolución de cuatro problemas numéricos y cuatro problemas verbales de álgebra. Los resultados indican un patrón evolutivo en el rendimiento, con predominio de los problemas numéricos sobre los problemas verbales. Los problemas numéricos se resolvieron mejor con estrategias informales. Los sujetos mostraron dificultades para relacionar los símbolos literales con las cantidades numéricas correspondientes.

  5. Mecanismos de humor verbal en Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Simarro Vázquez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to characterize samples of verbal humor published on the social network Twitter. To do so, an analysis of 81 humorous texts published under the hashtag #otegi during 1 March 2016, on which date Arnaldo Otegi was released from prison after six years, was carried out. A pragmatic study of the tweets was performed, opting for the General Theory of Verbal Humor as a basis. The examination conducted reveals that the manner of presentation of opposing scripts, the logical mechanisms availed of to resolve this kind of incongruity, the special narrative strategies selected and the linguistic choices made are determined at all times by the circumstances in which the texts are presented and the upper limit constraint of 140 characters per Twitter publication.

  6. Verbal communication of semantic content in products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2005-01-01

    the increasing need to communicate soft qualities in all stages of complex product design processes: From retrieving initial information, developing design briefs and specifications to negotiations, tests and trade-offs during the iterative design process and - at the end - a final evaluation. If all...... a number of the selected terms seem to have several interpretations causing ambiguous information. The work also suggests that more emphasis is needed in design education on training precise verbal communication concerning semantic contents in products.......The purpose of the present research work is to explore how precise verbal communication can capture the semantic content of physical products. The paper presents an overview of the background and work done so far. Furthermore are ideas for future work discussed. The background includes...

  7. Verbal Decision Analysis: Foundations and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Moshkovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of research in multiple criteria decision analysis is to develop tools to help people make more reasonable decisions. In many cases, the development of such tools requires the combination of knowledge derived from such areas as applied mathematics, cognitive psychology, and organizational behavior. Verbal Decision Analysis (VDA is an example of such a combination. It is based on valid mathematical principles, takes into account peculiarities of human information processing system, and fits the decision process into existing organizational environments. The basic underpinnings of Verbal Decision Analysis are demonstrated by early VDA methods, such as ZAPROS and ORCLASS. New trends in their later modifications are discussed. Published applications of VDA methods are presented to support the findings.

  8. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  9. Spiritual Intelligence: The Tenth Intelligence that Integrates All Other Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses seven ways to develop spiritual intelligence, including: think about goals and identify values; access inner processes and use visualization to see goals fulfilled; integrate personal and universal vision; take responsibility for goals; develop a sense of community; focus on love and compassion; and take advantages of…

  10. A functional analysis of social reinforcement in vicarious verbal conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, G B; Tryon, W W

    1985-01-01

    This article reports the results of 629 subjects in three experiments designed to replicate and extend the phenomenon of vicarious verbal conditioning. Experiment I replicated the finding that subjects who responded most to vicarious verbal conditioning were aware of the contingency involved. Experiment II attempted to examine the effects of prior history with the verbal reinforcer on vicarious verbal conditioning by providing seven groups of subjects with varying classic conditioning histories prior to vicarious verbal conditioning. The null results associated with this experiment were hypothesized to be due to the fact that the vicarious verbal conditioning took place in a language laboratory where the subjects could hear but not see the model. Experiment III replicated Experiment II in a live group context as was done in Experiment I. The results showed that vicarious verbal conditioning was again found to take place, that associating the verbal reinforcer with a tone or tone plus money via forward classic conditioning potentiated the effects of the verbal reinforcer, that backward classic conditioning did not potentiate the reinforcer, d) nor did either of two sensitization procedures potentiate the effects of the verbal reinforcer. Both aware and unaware subjects evidenced vicarious verbal conditioning.

  11. Insights From Verbal Protocols: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This study explores a postgraduate student writer’s responses and reactions through verbal protocols as she attends to teacher feedback. Teacher feedback has been heralded as an important element in process writing. Numerous studies have been carried out on various aspects of teacher feedback such as on the effectiveness of feedback, students’ preferences for teacher feedback and students’ perceptions of feedback. However, there is still a gap in the literature in determining how students res...

  12. Skinner's verbal behavior: A reference list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Mark L.; Partington, James W.

    1982-01-01

    The language literature contains many citations to Skinner's book Verbal Behavior (1957), however, most of them are negative and generally unsupportive. The current list of references was assembled to bring readers in contact with the growing body of literature which supports Skinner's work. A total of 136 references were found and divided into two categories, (1) conceptual, and (2) experimental and applied. These references are presented in an effort to stimulate additional research in this important aspect of behavior analysis. PMID:22573391

  13. [Non-verbal learning disabilities: developmental dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, L

    2007-11-01

    Dyspraxia is a non verbal neuropsychological dysfunction still unrecognized but which can generate scholar learning and behavioural disabilities. We propose, at first time, to do a state of art with the various terminologies and typologies which lead to put together clumsiness, motor coordination disorder and the different types of dyspraxia. Then, we will bring an integrative model and clinical data in children with developmental dyspraxia, allowing a better pointing, to make a diagnostic and then we suggest some advices for remediations.

  14. Maladaptive functional relations in client verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    1983-01-01

    Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior is applied in this paper to several kinds of maladaptive behavior with which clinicians must deal. Lying, denial, and poor observing skills are discussed as defective tacting repertoires. Demanding and manipulative behaviors are mands that obtain immediate reinforcement at the expense of disrupting long-term interpersonal relations. Obsessing is runaway intraverbal behavior. Variables that enter into the maladaptive functional relations are examined.

  15. Genetic correlations between brain volumes and the WAIS-III dimensions of verbal comprehension, working memory, perceptual organization, and processing speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posthuma, Daniëlle; Baare, Wim F.C.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.;

    2003-01-01

    to cerebellar volume. Verbal Comprehension was not related to any of the three brain volumes. It is concluded that brain volumes are genetically related to intelligence which suggests that genes that influence brain volume may also be important for intelligence. It is also noted however, that the direction......We recently showed that the correlation of gray and white matter volume with full scale IQ and the Working Memory dimension are completely mediated by common genetic factors (Posthuma et al., 2002). Here we examine whether the other WAIS III dimensions (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization...... to Working Memory capacity (r = 0.27). This phenotypic correlation is completely due to a common underlying genetic factor. Processing Speed was genetically related to white matter volume (r(g) = 0.39). Perceptual Organization was both genetically (r(g) = 0.39) and environmentally (r(e) = -0.71) related...

  16. Concurrent Validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition Index Score Short Forms in the Canadian Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the concurrent validity of estimated Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition (WAIS-III) index scores using various one- and two-subtest combinations. Participants were the Canadian WAIS-III standardization sample. Using all possible one- and two-subtest combinations, an estimated Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), an…

  17. Validation of the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale as a Measure of Intelligence in Male Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlahan, Daniel R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale (IPS) as a predictor of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs among alcoholic inpatients. Strong correlations were found between IPS and WAIS Verbal IQ and Full Scale IQ; however, the correlation with Performance IQ was only -.41. (NRB)

  18. The additive effect of regulatory activities on top of intelligence in relation to academic performance in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A; Janssen, PJ

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the additive, beneficial effect of regulatory activities on top of verbal, numerical, and diagrammatic intelligence in the prediction of academic performance. About 500 freshmen of different study domains participated in this research. The findings supported both the mixed an

  19. Validation of the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale as a Measure of Intelligence in Male Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlahan, Daniel R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale (IPS) as a predictor of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs among alcoholic inpatients. Strong correlations were found between IPS and WAIS Verbal IQ and Full Scale IQ; however, the correlation with Performance IQ was only -.41. (NRB)

  20. An Examination of the Effect of Tangible and Social Reinforcers on Intelligence Test Performance of Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Janice; Eller, Ben F.

    1985-01-01

    Determined if intelligence quotient mean test scores of middle school students could be increased through the use of money and praise. Results indicated lower class performance increased with monetary reward, whites' performance increased with verbal praise, and white females' and middle class males' performance increased with monetary reward…

  1. Effects of Geographic Region upon Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Results: A Hawaii-Mainland United States Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T.; Bratton, Joseph C.

    1977-01-01

    Investigated geographic differences in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) results by comparing 60 Hawaiian and 60 mainland United States psychiatric outpatients. The influence of pidgin English led to expectations that Hawaiian subjects would have significantly lower WAIS Verbal scores than mainland subjects. Data verified these…

  2. Reprint of "Mathematics as verbal behavior".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-05-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk.

  3. Role of Age, Siblings Verbal and Nonverbal Ability in Development of the Theory of Mind in Intellectually Disabled Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Yazdani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate theory of mind development (TOM with regard to mental retarded students (MRS and its relationship with verbal and non-verbal abilities, and number of siblings. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional, for all male mental retarded students, age of 8 to 14 years (about 59 individuals which were from the city Torbat-e Heidarieh, Iran. Unexpected-content task (UCT and 38-items test were used for measuring TOM. Also, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children Revised (WISC-R was used to examine the verbal and non-verbal abilities. Information of siblings was established in an interview with the parents, also by looking at the students’ ID cards. In order to analyze data, ANOVA, Scheffe, Pearson correlation coefficient and chi- square were carried out. Results: First and second level theory of mind development with regard to intellectually disable students were ascending to 12 years age (p0.05. Conclusion: Altogether, the things “theory theory” and “modular” approaches state might be acceptable. Those theories which are based on sociocultural approaches expressing experiment of communication underlies mind understanding development must be more examined.

  4. The Psychometrics of the Mini-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Brubaker, Michael D; Nedelec, Joseph L

    2017-01-01

    Many published studies have employed the Mini-K to measure a single fast-slow life history dimension. However, the internal structure of the Mini-K has not been determined and it is not clear that a single higher order K-factor fits the data. It is also not clear that the Mini-K is measurement invariant across groups such as the sexes. To establish the construct validity of K as well as the broader usefulness of applying life history theory to humans, it is crucial that these psychometric issues are addressed as a part of measure validation efforts. Here we report on three studies that used latent variable modeling and data drawn from two college student samples ( ns = 361 and 300) to elucidate the psychometrics of the Mini-K. We found that (a) the Mini-K had a six dimensional first-order structure, (b) the K-factor provided a parsimonious explanation of the associations among the lower order factors at no significant cost to fit, (c) the Mini-K measured the same K-factor across the sexes, (d) K-factor means did not have the same meaning across the sexes and thus the first-order factors should be used in studies of mean sex differences, and finally, (e) the K-factor was only associated with environment and aspects of mating competition in females. Implications and future directions for life history research are discussed.

  5. Psicometria Psicometría Psychometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Pasquali

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A psicometria fundamenta-se na teoria da medida em ciências para explicar o sentido que têm as respostas dadas pelos sujeitos a uma série de tarefas e propor técnicas de medida dos processos mentais. Neste artigo são apresentados os conceitos e modelos da psicometria moderna e discutidos os parâmetros de validade e precisão dos testes.La Psicometría se fundamenta en la teoría de la medida en las ciencias buscando explicar el sentido en las respuestas de los que fueron sujetos a una serie de tareas, además de proponerse técnicas de medida de sus procesos mentales. En este artículo son presentados los conceptos y modelos de psicometría moderna, así como son discutidos los parámetros de validez y precisión de los testes.Psychometrics has foundations on the theory of measurement in Sciences and is aimed at explaining the meaning of responses provided by subjects submitted to a series of tasks, and proposing techniques for the measurement of mental processes. This article presents concepts and models of modern psychometrics and discusses the validity and reliability parameters of the applied tests.

  6. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  7. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  8. Humanoid Intelligent Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jun-ping; TU Xu-yan

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept and design strategy for the humanoid intelligent management system (HIMS) based on artificial life. Various topics are discussed including the design method and implementation techniques for the dual management scheme (DMS), humanoid intelligent management model (HIMM), central-decentralized management pattern, and multi-grade coordination function.

  9. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  10. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-27

    and Prosecution Act of 2006, both by Elizabeth B. Bazan . authorization and defense appropriations acts, they include a substantial portion of the...Expands Rumsfeld’s Domain,” Washington Post, Jan . 23, 2005, p. A1. strategically analyze intelligence, and for failing to share intelligence with other

  11. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  12. Intelligent design som videnskab?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2007-01-01

    Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises.......Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises....

  13. Emotional Intelligence and Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John D.; Perkins, Donna M.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Emotional intelligence and social behavior were explored in a study with 11 adolescents. Results found that those with higher emotional intelligence were better able to identify their own and others' emotions in situations, use that information to guide their actions, and resist peer pressure than others. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  14. Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced so much that it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the LISP language. (JN)

  15. Development of brief versions of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for schizophrenia: considerations of the structure and predictability of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Chika; Uetsuki, Miki; Suga, Motomu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2013-12-30

    Short forms (SF) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale have been developed to enhance its practicality. However, only a few studies have addressed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R) SFs based on data from patients with schizophrenia. The current study was conducted to develop the WAIS-R SFs for these patients based on the intelligence structure and predictability of the Full IQ (FIQ). Relations to demographic and clinical variables were also examined on selecting plausible subtests. The WAIS-R was administered to 90 Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and multiple regression analysis were conducted to find potential subtests. EFA extracted two dominant factors corresponding to Verbal IQ and Performance IQ measures. Subtests with higher factor loadings on those factors were initially nominated. Regression analysis was carried out to reach the model containing all the nominated subtests. The optimality of the potential subtests included in that model was evaluated from the perspectives of the representativeness of intelligence structure, FIQ predictability, and the relation with demographic and clinical variables. Taken together, the dyad of Vocabulary and Block Design was considered to be the most optimal WAIS-R SF for patients with schizophrenia, reflecting both intelligence structure and FIQ predictability.

  16. A call for policy guidance on psychometric testing in doping control in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petróczi, Andrea; Backhouse, Susan H; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Brand, Ralf; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Lazuras, Lambros; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in anti-doping is identifying athletes who use, or are at risk of using, prohibited performance enhancing substances. The growing trend to employ a forensic approach to doping control aims to integrate information from social sciences (e.g., psychology of doping) into organised intelligence to protect clean sport. Beyond the foreseeable consequences of a positive identification as a doping user, this task is further complicated by the discrepancy between what constitutes a doping offence in the World Anti-Doping Code and operationalized in doping research. Whilst psychology plays an important role in developing our understanding of doping behaviour in order to inform intervention and prevention, its contribution to the array of doping diagnostic tools is still in its infancy. In both research and forensic settings, we must acknowledge that (1) socially desirable responding confounds self-reported psychometric test results and (2) that the cognitive complexity surrounding test performance means that the response-time based measures and the lie detector tests for revealing concealed life-events (e.g., doping use) are prone to produce false or non-interpretable outcomes in field settings. Differences in social-cognitive characteristics of doping behaviour that are tested at group level (doping users vs. non-users) cannot be extrapolated to individuals; nor these psychometric measures used for individual diagnostics. In this paper, we present a position statement calling for policy guidance on appropriate use of psychometric assessments in the pursuit of clean sport. We argue that, to date, both self-reported and response-time based psychometric tests for doping have been designed, tested and validated to explore how athletes feel and think about doping in order to develop a better understanding of doping behaviour, not to establish evidence for doping. A false 'positive' psychological profile for doping affects not only the individual

  17. Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J D; Salovey, P; Caruso, D R; Sitarenios, G

    2001-09-01

    The authors have claimed that emotional intelligence (EI) meets traditional standards for an intelligence (J. D. Mayer, D. R. Caruso, & P. Salovey, 1999). R. D. Roberts, M. Zeidner, and G. Matthews (2001) questioned whether that claim was warranted. The central issue raised by Roberts et al. concerning Mayer et al. (1999) is whether there are correct answers to questions on tests purporting to measure EI as a set of abilities. To address this issue (and others), the present authors briefly restate their view of intelligence, emotion, and EI. They then present arguments for the reasonableness of measuring EI as an ability, indicate that correct answers exist, and summarize recent data suggesting that such measures are, indeed, reliable.

  18. Computational Intelligence in Intelligent Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nürnberger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems and their phenomena are ubiquitous as they can be found in biology, finance, the humanities, management sciences, medicine, physics and similar fields. For many problems in these fields, there are no conventional ways to mathematically or analytically solve them completely at low cost. On the other hand, nature already solved many optimization problems efficiently. Computational intelligence attempts to mimic nature-inspired problem-solving strategies and methods. These strategies can be used to study, model and analyze complex systems such that it becomes feasible to handle them. Key areas of computational intelligence are artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation and fuzzy systems. As only a few researchers in that field, Rudolf Kruse has contributed in many important ways to the understanding, modeling and application of computational intelligence methods. On occasion of his 60th birthday, a collection of original papers of leading researchers in the field of computational intell...

  19. Motor system contributions to verbal and non-verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana A Liao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM involves the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in mind. Neuroimaging studies have shown that secondary motor areas activate during WM for verbal content (e.g., words or letters, in the absence of primary motor area activation. This activation pattern may reflect an inner speech mechanism supporting online phonological rehearsal. Here, we examined the causal relationship between motor system activity and WM processing by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to manipulate motor system activity during WM rehearsal. We tested WM performance for verbalizable (words and pseudowords and non-verbalizable (Chinese characters visual information. We predicted that disruption of motor circuits would specifically affect WM processing of verbalizable information. We found that TMS targeting motor cortex slowed response times on verbal WM trials with high (pseudoword vs. low (real word phonological load. However, non-verbal WM trials were also significantly slowed with motor TMS. WM performance was unaffected by sham stimulation or TMS over visual cortex. Self-reported use of motor strategy predicted the degree of motor stimulation disruption on WM performance. These results provide evidence of the motor system’s contributions to verbal and non-verbal WM processing. We speculate that the motor system supports WM by creating motor traces consistent with the type of information being rehearsed during maintenance.

  20. Understanding US National Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In July 2010, the Washington Post (WP) published the results of a project on “Top Secret America” on which twenty investigative journalists had been working for two years. The project drew attention to the change and growth in National Intelligence following 9/11 (Washington Post 2010a). The init......In July 2010, the Washington Post (WP) published the results of a project on “Top Secret America” on which twenty investigative journalists had been working for two years. The project drew attention to the change and growth in National Intelligence following 9/11 (Washington Post 2010a......). The initial idea had been to work on intelligence generally, but given that this proved overwhelming, the team narrowed down to focus only on intelligence qualified as “top secret.” Even so, the growth in this intelligence activity is remarkable. This public is returning, or in this case expanding...