Norcross, John C; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S; Pfund, Rory A; Stamm, Karen E; Christidis, Peggy
The undergraduate curriculum in psychology profoundly reflects and shapes the discipline. Yet, reliable information on the undergraduate psychology curriculum has been difficult to acquire due to insufficient research carried out on unrepresentative program samples with disparate methods. In 2014, APA launched the first systematic effort in a decade to gather national data on the psychology major and program outcomes. We surveyed a stratified random sample of department chairs/coordinators of accredited colleges and universities in the United States that offer undergraduate courses and programs in psychology. A total of 439 undergraduate psychology programs (45.2%) completed the survey. This article summarizes, for both associate and baccalaureate programs, the results of the Undergraduate Study in Psychology. Current practices concerning the introductory course, the courses offered, core requirements, the psychology minor, and tracks/concentrations are presented. The frequency of formal program reviews and program-level assessment methods are also addressed. By extending prior research on the undergraduate curriculum, we chronicle longitudinal changes in the psychology major over the past 20 years. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
American Psychologist, 2011
The principles for undergraduate education in psychology presented here are designed for creating a world-class educational system that provides students with the workplace skills needed in this information age; a solid academic background that prepares them for advanced study in a wide range of fields; and the knowledge, skills, and abilities…
Ajayi, Olubukola; Adewumi, Bukunmi
This study was designed to assess the psychological factors influencing life satisfaction of undergraduates. The instruments used were Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), Rosenberge Self-esteem Scale (RSS), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). A total number of 190 participants were purposively selected across various faculties in Ekiti State University. Four hypotheses were tested using Independent t-test to find the effects of perceived stres...
Fallahi, Carolyn R.; LaMonaca, Frank H., Jr.
The authors redesigned a Lifespan Development course using Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning and measured changes across his six domains: Knowledge, Application, Integration, Human Dimension, Caring, and Learning How to Learn. Using case studies and group work, 151 undergraduates completed identical pre- and post-tests that measured…
Illovsky, Michael E.
This is a study of 57 graduate students and 229 undergraduate students in classes preparing them to be teachers. The survey extended over a period of five years, involving 14 classes in a college of education. Using the Personality Research Form scales to compare the psychological aspects of undergraduate and graduate college of education…
Warchal, Judith R.; Ruiz, Ana I.; You, Di
This study focuses on the inclusion of the American Psychological Association's learning goals in the mission statements of undergraduate psychology programs across the US. We reviewed the mission statements available on websites for 1336 psychology programs listed in the Carnegie classification. Results of a content analysis revealed that of the…
Fuentes, Milton A.; Shannon, Casey R.
Over the past few decades, diversity and multiculturalism have received considerable attention in the field of psychology. While there have been notable efforts to ensure these important areas are addressed in undergraduate psychology training, little is known about this undertaking. The present study examined how diversity and multiculturalism…
Goodwin-Smith, Ian; Pearson, Elissa; Ranzijn, Rob; Campbell, Alan; Lushington, Kurt
This work identifies the human service sector as an important and growing destination for psychology graduates. It further identifies a number of key themes which flow from that observation and which are important to configuring psychology education in a way which takes account of emerging trends. The major theme identified in the research is the…
Jing, Tang; Dancheng, Luo; Ye, Zhao
Purpose: The entrepreneurship is a course of gaining knowledge from the failure and stimulating positive energy constantly. The entrepreneur's psychological resilience is the key to gain knowledge (positive energy) from failure (negative energy). The education of undergraduate entrepreneurship is one of the priorities these days. Educators shall…
Marta Luísa da Cruz Alves
Full Text Available Creativity is an important human faculty in several performance areas, including the work of a psychologist. This article aimed to describe creativity in a group of Psychology undergraduate students in order to verify whether their professional development fosters creative potential. The study comprised 75 students, equally distributed in three groups from the first, fifth and tenth terms, aged 18 to 59, who were submitted to the Verbal TTCT (Torrance Test of Creative Thinking: Thinking Creatively with Words, following technical specifications of this tool. Further to test evaluation, results of the three groups were statistically compared and the main results showed higher creativity index in senior students, mainly regarding Fluency – ability to produce a large number of ideas, and Originality – ability to produce new and infrequent ideas.
Zilda Aparecida Pereira Del Prette
Full Text Available Social skills occurring in a high frequency and low variability can be taken as patterns, suggesting cultural or sub-cultural features which are important when selecting instruments for evaluation and planning interventions. This research aimed to characterize the social skills repertoire among Psychology students from 4 Brazilian places: São Paulo (SP, Bahia (BA, Minas Gerais (MGe Rio de Janeiro (RJ, also examining their differences and the influence of sex and age on their patterns. Five hundred sixty four Psychology undergraduates completed a self-report inventory (IHS-del-Prette with a structure of 5 factors: F1 coping and assertion; F2 expressing positive affection; F3 talking and self-confidence; F4 dealing with unknown people and new situations; F5 aggressiveness self-control. The samples were compared considering general (GS and factorial (F1, F2, F3, F4 e F5 scores as well as sex and age influence in each one (ANOVA, followed by t or Scheffé test. The results showed that: a Psychology students presented higher scores than normative sample in the GS, F1, F3 and F4 and lower in the F2 and F5, but sex differences were similar to the normative pattern; b place, sex and age significantly affected the scores, with place-sex and place-age interactions; c samples from MG, BA, RJ and SP presented similar profiles, with higher values for RJ in the F1 and for MG and SP in the F2 and F5; d students from BA presented the highest sex differences and from RJ the lowest ones; e age differences occurred in the F4 (favorable to younger students for SP and in the F5 (favorable to older ones for BA and RJ. The meaning of these differences and similarities are discussed as well as some explanatory hypotheses and questions for further studies.
Walsh, J M; Feeney, C; Hussey, J; Donnellan, C
Professional education can be a stressful experience for some individuals, and may impact negatively on emotional well-being and academic performance. Psychological morbidity and associated sources of stress have not been investigated extensively in physiotherapy students. This study explored sources of stress, psychological morbidity and possible associations between these variables in undergraduate physiotherapy students. A questionnaire-based survey. The Undergraduate Sources of Stress Questionnaire was used to identify sources of stress, and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was used to rate the prevalence of psychological morbidity, using a conservative GHQ threshold of 3 to 4 to determine probable 'cases'. Uni- and multivariate tests of correlation were used to analyse the data. An Irish educational institution. One hundred and twenty-five physiotherapy undergraduate students. More than one-quarter of all students (27%) scored above the GHQ threshold, indicating probable psychological morbidity. This is higher than the level of psychological morbidity reported by the general population. Regression analysis showed that academic (beta=0.31, Pphysiotherapy students, with academic and personal issues being the greatest concern. While personal causes of stress such as stressful events and mood are more difficult to control, manipulation of curricular factors may have positive effects on academic sources of stress. Copyright 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.
An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…
Siegal, Brittany; Kagan, Sarah H.
Matters of development and generation may create barriers in teaching millennial undergraduates psychological and social gerontology. We introduce strategy to mitigate these barriers by teaching psychological and social gerontology as undergraduate honors courses, augmented with the use of social networking tools. We detail honors programming,…
The APA Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major: Version 2.0 (henceforth Guidelines 2.0; APA, 2013) represents a national effort to describe and develop high-quality undergraduate programs in psychology. The task force charged with the revision of the original guidelines for the undergraduate major examined the success of the document's implementation and made changes to reflect emerging best practices and to integrate psychology's work with benchmarking scholarship in higher education. Guidelines 2.0 abandoned the original distinction drawn between psychology-focused skills and psychology skills that enhance liberal arts development. Instead, Guidelines 2.0 describes five inclusive goals for the undergraduate psychology major and two developmental levels of student learning outcomes. Suggestions for assessment planning are provided for each of the five learning goals. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Takooshian, Harold; Gielen, Uwe P; Plous, Scott; Rich, Grant J; Velayo, Richard S
How can we best internationalize undergraduate psychology education in the United States and elsewhere? This question is more timely than ever, for at least 2 reasons: Within the United States, educators and students seek greater contact with psychology programs abroad, and outside the United States, psychology is growing apace, with educators and students in other nations often looking to U.S. curricula and practices as models. In this article, we outline international developments in undergraduate psychology education both in the United States and abroad, and analyze the dramatic rise of online courses and Internet-based technologies from an instructional and international point of view. Building on the recommendations of the 2005 APA Working Group on Internationalizing the Undergraduate Psychology Curriculum, we then advance 14 recommendations on internationalizing undergraduate psychology education--for students, faculty, and institutions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Zilda Aparecida Pereira Del Prette
as patterns, suggesting cultural or sub-cultural features which are important when selecting instruments for evaluation and planning interventions. This research aimed to characterize the social skills repertoire among Psychology students from 4 Brazilian places: São Paulo (SP, Bahia (BA, Minas Gerais (MGe Rio de Janeiro (RJ, also examining their differences and the influence of sex and age on their patterns. Five hundred sixty four Psychology undergraduates completed a self-report inventory (IHS-del-Prette with a structure of 5 factors: F1 coping and assertion; F2 expressing positive affection; F3 talking and self-confidence; F4 dealing with unknown people and new situations; F5 aggressiveness self-control. The samples were compared considering general (GS and factorial (F1, F2, F3, F4 e F5 scores as well as sex and age influence in each one (ANOVA, followed by t or Scheffé test. The results showed that: a Psychology students presented higher scores than normative sample in the GS, F1, F3 and F4 and lower in the F2 and F5, but sex differences were similar to the normative pattern; b place, sex and age significantly affected the scores, with place-sex and place-age interactions; c samples from MG, BA, RJ and SP presented similar profiles, with higher values for RJ in the F1 and for MG and SP in the F2 and F5; d students from BA presented the highest sex differences and from RJ the lowest ones; e age differences occurred in the F4 (favorable to younger students for SP and in the F5 (favorable to older ones for BA and RJ. The meaning of these differences and similarities are discussed as well as some explanatory hypotheses and questions for further studies.
Cromby, John; Harper, David J.; Reavey, Paula
One of the limitations on developing more progressive applied psychology\\ud training is the teaching received by students at undergraduate level. In this\\ud study, we focus on the provision of teaching about mental health or its\\ud equivalents (e.g. abnormal psychology and clinical psychology) on UK\\ud undergraduate psychology programmes. Most students who go on to train as\\ud clinical psychologists will have received teaching on modules like these. A\\ud survey questionnaire was sent to 109 u...
Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Wood, Rebecca M.; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Hamid
We examined the effects of in-class writing instruction, practice, peer review, and feedback on writing skills of undergraduates enrolled in a general psychology course. We rated writing for grammar, writing style, mechanics, and American Psychological Association referencing style. Significant differences emerged on the 4 writing skill domains (p…
Teaching of History of Psychology is likely to become increasingly important as the British Psychological Society's 2002 guidelines for approved undergraduate courses are implemented. Results of a survey of History of Psychology teaching during the academic year 1999-2000 are summarised and discussed in the light of these new requirements. While…
Ryan, Tracey Ellen; Blau, Shawn; Grozeva, Dima
This article describes an experimental undergraduate psychology course that ran for two semesters during the 2009 academic year at a private, urban university in the United States. Students learned the techniques and strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) with a focus on the practical elements…
Multiple studies have analyzed the aims, resources, and approaches to undergraduate and graduate history of psychology education in several countries. Argentina is one of the countries with the highest historiographical production in Latin America. However, to date, there are no published studies on the collective debates among professionals, institutions, and associations that were instrumental in the development of the historiography of science becoming a mandatory part of the curriculum in Argentinian psychology programs. This study describes and analyzes the role of undergraduate history of psychology courses in official debates that took place during the last 30 years regarding Argentinian psychologists' training and education, in the context of regional and international historiography. Data was retrieved from several primary sources, such as minutes and official dossiers, working documents on accreditation standards, and nationwide curricular diagnoses on undergraduate psychology education, as well as individual scholars' ideas. Our findings suggest that, in line with regional and international historiography, history of psychology courses in Argentina have repeatedly been considered as core content in debates and discussions about psychology education, from the restoration of democracy in 1983 to the present day, in which they are currently considered to be mandatory minimum curricular content. Although throughout its history Argentinian psychology has largely been reduced to the teaching of Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysis, historical education has been perceived as a gateway toward a more plural and critical local psychology. We conclude by discussing some potential and actual concerns that pose a threat to Argentinian undergraduate history courses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Brazier, Mary M.
A computer project sponsored by a National Science Foundation grant was completed in the psychology department at Loyola University. The purpose of the project was to upgrade existing laboratory equipment in both the operant learning and sensation/perception laboratories, to provide equipment for a cognition laboratory, and to allow increased and…
Full Text Available Introduction: The dental profession has been considered a stressful occupation. The origins of this stress may also lie in the process of dental education. The perception of stress is frequently influenced by one′s personal system of beliefs and attitudes. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between psychological well-being and perception of stress among undergraduate dental students in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 800 1-4 th year dental students. Information on demographics, social background, and health behaviors were collected. The psychological general well-being (PGWB index and the dental environment stress (DES questionnaire were used to measure PGWB and perceptions of stress, respectively. Multiple intergroup comparisons were carried out using ANOVA. Correlation analysis was done to find out relationship between PGWB and DES. Regression analysis to find out the strongest predictor of PGWB. P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in PGWB among different year of study. Female students had significantly lower PGWB scores and higher DES scores than male students. The stress differed among different year of study with highest stress in final year students in all domains except for clinical/preclinical training, which was highest among 1 st year students. Correlational analysis showed a negative relationship between PGWB and DES score. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that "workload," "patient treatment," "performance pressure" and "others" domains of stress were significant predictors of PGWB. Conclusion: This study revealed that the perception of stress is influenced by gender and health behaviors which in turn affect PGWB.
Yang, Zhihan; Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Zhang, Yonghong
The present study examines the efficacy of expressive writing among Chinese undergraduates. The sample comprised of 74 undergraduates enrolled in a 9-week intervention (35 in experimental class vs. 39 in control class). The writing exercises were well-embedded in an elective course for the two classes. The 46-item simplified Chinese Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale, which assesses psychological, physical and social health, was adopted to measure the outcome of this study. Baseline (second week) and post-test (ninth week) scores were obtained during the classes. After the intervention on the eighth week, the self-reported psychological, social and physical health of the experimental class improved. Psychological health obtained the maximum degree of improvement, followed by social and physical health. Furthermore, female participants gained more psychological improvement than males. These results demonstrated that the expressive writing approach could improve the physical, social and psychological health of Chinese undergraduates, and the method can be applied in university psychological consulting settings in Mainland China. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Stanley, Christopher T.; Robbins, Jamie E.
Given the growth of Sport and Exercise Psychology (SEP) in recent decades, and the interdisciplinary nature of research and practice in the field, it may be particularly relevant in undergraduate courses and textbooks. However, no studies to date have examined the relative presence of the field. Accordingly, a primary aim of the study described in…
Grace Adebisi Fayombo
This study investigated the relationships between the active learning strategies (discussion, video clips, game show, role– play, five minute paper, clarification pauses, and small group) and academic achievement among a sample of 158 undergraduate psychology students in The University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations between active learning strategies and students’ academic achievement; so also the activ...
Ali S Radeef
Full Text Available Background: This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between medical and science undergraduate students and to assess the sources of stressors that are attributing to it. Methods: A sample of 697 undergraduate students participated in this study, in which 501 were medical students and the remaining 196 were Science students. Psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The students were given a list of possible sources of stress which were chosen depending on previous studies. Results: The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 32.6%. Science students showed a significantly higher rate and mean score of psychological distress than medical students, and the mean score was significantly higher during the clinical phase rather than the pre-clinical phase in medical students. Overall, female students had a significantly higher mean score than males, however although the mean score was higher in females it was only significant in the pre-clinical phase. In addition to academic and psychological stressors, factors such as reduced holidays, lack of time for relaxation, and limitation of leisure/entertainment time were among the top ten stressors reported by the students. Conclusions: Psychological distress is common among university students, and it is higher among science students than medical students. Academic and psychological factors can be considered as sources of stressors which may precipitate psychological distress among college students.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.
The present study aims at investigating the conceptions of happiness and unhappiness in a sample of Italian psychology undergraduates. Participants completed a questionnaire asking them to report the most important things that made them feel happy (happiness components) and those ones that made them feel unhappy (unhappiness components). Different measures of overall happiness and overall unhappiness were also obtained by asking respondents to assess to what extent each reported happiness and unhappiness component was present in their life, and by inviting them to provide a global judgment about their happiness and unhappiness. Results indicated that participants did not conceptualize happiness and unhappiness as perfect antonyms. Indeed, both investigated concepts encompassed a similar set of semantic components; however, the perceived salience of some of them - assessed in terms of frequency of citation and average ranking - significantly varied between happiness and unhappiness. With regard to the measurement of overall happiness and unhappiness, on average, respondents considered themselves as moderately happy and only slightly unhappy. However, a judgmental asymmetry was found when comparing global and specific evaluations of unhappiness. Theoretical and empirical implications of the study are discussed.
Objective: The present study aimed to review the relationships between procrastination and two self-factors self-efficacy and self-esteem. Methods: Participants were 140 undergraduates Psychology students enrolled in Mohagheg Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran. Instruments used for collecting the required data were the student-version of the General Procrastination Scale (GP-S), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and Rosenberg?s Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Results: Using causal modeling, two mode...
The present study aimed to review the relationships between procrastination and two self-factors self-efficacy and self-esteem. Participants were 140 undergraduates Psychology students enrolled in Mohagheg Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran. Instruments used for collecting the required data were the student-version of the General Procrastination Scale (GP-S), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Using causal modeling, two models were compared; a model with self-esteem as a mediator versus a model with procrastination as a mediator. The self-esteem mediator model accounted for 21% of the variance in procrastination. The significance of the mediation effect was found by bootstrapping method. The relationship of procrastination with self-esteem and self-efficacy was revealed among undergraduate psychology students.
Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Lester, David
Lester and Bean's (1992) Attribution of Causes to Suicide Scale gauges lay theories of suicide including intrapsychic problems, interpersonal conflicts, and societal forces as causes. Results obtained with its German form (n=165 Austrian psychology undergraduates) showed no sex differences and no social-desirability effects. Intriguingly, all three subscales were moderately intercorrelated, thereby indicating respondents' general agreement (or disagreement) with all three theories. Thus, the critical dimension of lay theories of suicide appears to be the belief that suicide has definite causes (regardless of type) versus that it is without causes (unpredictable). In addition, religiosity was positively associated (and overall knowledge about suicide negatively associated) with belief in intrapsychic causes, whereas liberal political views were negatively associated with belief in interpersonal causes.
Bogossian, Fiona; Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Beauchamp, Alison; Porter, Joanne; Kain, Victoria; Bucknall, Tracey; Phillips, Nicole M
Early recognition and situation awareness of sudden patient deterioration, a timely appropriate clinical response, and teamwork are critical to patient outcomes. High fidelity simulated environments provide the opportunity for undergraduate nursing students to develop and refine recognition and response skills. This paper reports the quantitative findings of the first phase of a larger program of ongoing research: Feedback Incorporating Review and Simulation Techniques to Act on Clinical Trends (FIRST2ACTTM). It specifically aims to identify the characteristics that may predict primary outcome measures of clinical performance, teamwork and situation awareness in the management of deteriorating patients. Mixed-method multi-centre study. High fidelity simulated acute clinical environment in three Australian universities. A convenience sample of 97 final year nursing students enrolled in an undergraduate Bachelor of Nursing or combined Bachelor of Nursing degree were included in the study. In groups of three, participants proceeded through three phases: (i) pre-briefing and completion of a multi-choice question test, (ii) three video-recorded simulated clinical scenarios where actors substituted real patients with deteriorating conditions, and (iii) post-scenario debriefing. Clinical performance, teamwork and situation awareness were evaluated, using a validated standard checklist (OSCE), Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) score sheet and Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT). A Modified Angoff technique was used to establish cut points for clinical performance. Student teams engaged in 97 simulation experiences across the three scenarios and achieved a level of clinical performance consistent with the experts' identified pass level point in only 9 (1%) of the simulation experiences. Knowledge was significantly associated with overall teamwork (p=.034), overall situation awareness (p=.05) and clinical performance in two of the three scenarios
Júnia M. Serra-Negra
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001 and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05 for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001, Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001. The reason for first visit to dentist was associated with dimensions of Physiological arousal (B = 0.76, p < 0.01 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 1.29, p < 0.01. Dentists should be encouraged to evaluate the dental fear of their patients before treatment. The DFS has been found to be an effective instrument for this purpose.
Full Text Available The present study examined locus of control, self-esteem and gender as factors of professional psychological help-seeking behaviour of undergraduates. The study adopted an ex-post facto descriptive survey research design, and a total of 325 Participants were systematically randomly selected from the population of undergraduates in a state university in the western part of Nigeria.178 of them were males and 147 females, 268 Christians, 52 Muslims and 5 belonging to other forms of religions. Age of participants ranged between 16 – 30 years with a mean age of 22.05 and a standard deviation of 2.275. Samples were limited to students who were either in their second or third year in the university (first year and final year students were left out. Validated self-reported measures were used for data collection and three hypotheses were tested in the study. Significant positive correlation existed among the variables (p.05.
McCarthy, Bridie; Trace, Anna; O'Donovan, Moira
The inclusion of the social, behavioural and bio-sciences is acknowledged as essential to the development of the art and science of nursing. Nonetheless, the literature highlights on-going debate about the content and delivery of these subject areas in undergraduate nursing education. The bio-sciences and social sciences in particular have received much attention but more recently the inclusion of psychology in nursing curricula is gaining momentum. Studies conducted on nursing students' views of these supporting sciences have also highlighted problems with their understanding, relevance and application to nursing practice. Although broad guidelines are given as to what should be included, no detail is given as to how much detail or at what level these subjects should be taught. Subsequently, approved institutions are responsible for their own course content. This has resulted in inconsistent and varied approaches to integrating the sciences in undergraduate nursing curricula. Following a recent review of the undergraduate nursing curriculum in one university in the Republic of Ireland a decision was made to combine the teaching, learning and assessment of Applied Psychology with Interpersonal Communication skills. This paper will describe the developmental process and evaluation of the integrated module. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ishak, Shaziela; Salter, Nicholas P.
There is no comprehensive guide for teaching psychological writing, and little is known about how often instructors teach the topic. We present a best practices guide for teaching psychological writing beyond just American Psychological Association style, discuss psychology-specific writing assignments, and examine psychological writing…
Arulrajah, Annette Ananthi; Harun, Lily Mastura Haji
The aim of this study was to: (a) explore the levels of four factors (psychological well-being, perceived stress, coping styles, and social support) among undergraduates; (b) acquire an accurate description of the demographic variables; (c) explore the relationships among the four factors after controlling for the possible intervening demographic…
Kirikkanat, Berke; Soyer, Makbule Kali
The major purpose of this study was to create a path analysis model of academic success in a group of university students, which included the variables of academic confidence and psychological capital with a mediator variable--academic coping. 400 undergraduates from Marmara University and Istanbul Commerce University who were in sophomore, junior…
Masal, Ercan; Koc, Mustafa; Colak, Tugba Seda; Takunyaci, Mithat
The main purpose of this research is to analyse whether there is a difference or not in levels of having psychological symptoms of the students of undergraduate program in elementary mathematics teaching. Another aim of the research is to determine whether the levels of having psychological symptoms of the students differ or not regarding various…
Ruiz, Ana; Warchal, Judith
The American Psychological Association (APA) recently approved a new set of "Guidelines for the undergraduate psychology major, version 2.0" (APA, 2013a) which addressed ethics specifically. Yet the teaching of ethics receives little attention in publications, national and international institutes, and conferences. Few guidelines for…
Similar to the other developing countries, undergraduate psychology programs in Turkish universities have rapidly grown in the last two decades. Although this sharp increment signifies the need for psychologists, it has also caused a number of challenges for effective teaching of psychology. The department chairs (N = 42) were interviewed with an…
Earnest, David R.; Rosenbusch, Katherine; Wallace-Williams, Devin; Keim, Alaina C.
Despite the prominence of study abroad programs, few are offered in the field of psychology. The current study sought to investigate the impact of study abroad programs in psychology through a comparison of study abroad and domestic student cultural competencies. Participants included 104 undergraduate students enrolled in either a psychology…
Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia
Psychological distress as experienced by higher education students is of major concern because of its potential to adversely impact academic performance, retention, mental health and lifestyle. This paper reports a mixed method investigation of student self-reported psychological distress and help-seeking behaviour. The sample comprised all…
Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Heidhy, Imran
Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers. In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers. The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure. Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.
Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Shankar, Pathiyil R; Binu, V S; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy; Ray, Biswabina; Menezes, Ritesh G
In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students). The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. The higher level of psychological morbidity warrants need for interventions like
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher
Full Text Available Background: Alcohol use amongst tertiary education students, particularly female undergraduates, is increasing. Heavy alcohol use by tertiary students leads to a variety of alcohol-related problems such as damage to property, poor academic performance, problematic peer relationships, high dropout rates, unprotected sexual activity, physical injuries, date rape and suicide. Abuse of alcohol is attributed to curiosity and experimentation, peer pressure, low self-esteem, enjoyment, parental modelling, socio-cultural influences, stress and life events, self-medication and concerns about weight and appearance. Our study explores alcohol use and the reasons behind it amongst undergraduate female psychology students at the University of Limpopo. The findings will be important, as these students represent many future psychologists who are going to advise others on harms related to alcohol use. Methods: This was a descriptive survey, and the qualitative results are presented. The sample consists of 700 undergraduate female psychology students. A self-administered questionnaire included five open-ended questions which elicited the thoughts and experiences of these students about alcohol use. Responses to these questions were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results: The themes that arose were as follows: fun and enjoyment, socio-cultural influences, alcohol use leads to negative behaviour(s, peer influence, destress, concerns about weight and appearance, abstinence from alcohol and it improves self-esteem. Conclusion: The themes were reasons that female students gave for consuming alcohol. The majority of participants reported responsible drinking behaviour, but a notable proportion of female students’ drinking behaviours (across all year levels are cause for concern in terms of negative impact at both social and academic levels.
Taylor, Christina J; Galasso, Rosemarie
The coverage of religion and mythology in undergraduate courses in the Psychology of Women was explored by (a) surveying a sample of undergraduate instructors (N=72); and (b) examining coverage in textbooks on the Psychology of Women (N=95). 48.6% of teachers said they include some coverage, while 43.1% said they never do. The total percentage of coverage in textbooks is small, ranging from a mean of 2.0% in the 1970s to 1.1% in the current decade.
Landrum, R. Eric
Challenges abound in providing accurate and useful information to prospective and declared psychology majors about their career options and how to make decisions that will lead to satisfying and rewarding postgraduate lives. One component of this challenge is that by majoring in psychology, career affordances (i.e., the opportunities and…
Chow, Henry P. H.
Introduction: University students need to cope with a complex new life role and to achieve academic success. This article explores the academic performance and psychological well-being among university students in a western Canadian city. Method: Using a convenience sample, a total of 501 undergraduate students in Regina, Saskatchewan took part in…
Chopik, William J.; Bremner, Ryan H.; Defever, Andrew M.; Keller, Victor N.
Over the past 10 years, crises surrounding replication, fraud, and best practices in research methods have dominated discussions in the field of psychology. However, no research exists examining how to communicate these issues to undergraduates and what effect this has on their attitudes toward the field. We developed and validated a 1-hr lecture…
Henderson, Dawn X.
This article describes an undergraduate course in community psychology at an Historically Black University. The course integrated community engagement using a local neighborhood revitalization project as a platform for students to volunteer, prepare a historical analysis, and sense of community project. The course aims to fulfill a requirement…
Rodriguez, Maria A.; Espinoza, José M.
The development of a teaching methodology for the undergraduate Psychology course Human Development II in a private university in Lima, Peru is described. The theoretical framework consisted of an integration of Citizen Science and Service Learning, with the application of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), specifically Wikipedia and…
Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012
The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program provides funds to institutions of higher education, a consortia of such institutions, or partnerships between nonprofit organizations and institutions of higher education to plan, develop, and implement programs that strengthen and improve undergraduate instruction in…
Roberts, Patricia; Ertubey, Candan; McMurray, Isabella; Robertson, Ian
Psychology is a science-based discipline in which research is inextricably embedded in teaching and learning activities. Educators use different methods to help students in their learning of the nature of research and the practical skills required to conduct research, with students playing either a passive or more active role in the learning…
Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S; Formann, Anton K
Subjective estimates and associated confidence ratings for the solutions of some classic occupancy problems were studied in samples of 721 psychology undergraduates, 39 casino visitors, and 34 casino employees. On tasks varying the classic birthday problem, i.e., the probability P for any coincidence among N individuals sharing the same birthday, clear majorities of respondents markedly overestimated N, given P, and markedly underestimated P, given N. Respondents did notedly better on tasks varying the birthmate problem, i.e., P for the specific coincidence among N individuals of having a birthday today. Psychology students and women did better on both task types, but were less confident about their estimates than casino visitors or per sonnel and men. Several further person variables, such as indicators of topical knowledge and familiarity, were associated with better and more confident performance on birthday problems, but not on birthmate problems. Likewise, higher confidence ratings were related to subjective estimates that were closer to the solutions of birthday problems, but not of birthmate problems. Implications of and possible explanations for these findings, study limitations, directions for further inquiry, and the real-world relevance of ameliorating misconceptions of probability are discussed.
Chen Su-May Sheih
Full Text Available In modern society, undergraduates may encounter multiple pressures and thus feel the sense of alienation, anxiety, disturbance and depression. For undergraduates, reading can be independently conducted without the intervention of an instructor; therefore, undergraduates who feel reluctant to expose private emotions to counselors can help themselves through the reading of emotional healing books. This is the application of bibliotherapy. Among various resources, fiction can serve as an appropriate emotional reading material. The researcher deployed semi-structured in-depth interview, and interviewed 21 undergraduates in Taipei City and Taipei County. This study is aimed to understand the kinds of fictions undergraduates read when they are upset and to analyze the emotional healing process of identification, catharsis, and insight so that the emotional healing efficacy can be evaluated. The findings showed that romance, realistic fiction, fantasy, martial arts novel, inspirational fiction, historical fiction, and science fiction can provide full process of emotional healing efficacy. However, detective fiction, online novel, psychological fiction, and horror fiction can only provide parts of the healing process. Besides, the healing efficacy of a specific fiction is different from reader to reader.
Koppelman, Hermannus; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van der Hoeven, Gerrit
This paper describes a one semester research course for undergraduates of computing programs. Students formulate a research proposal, conduct research and write a full paper. They present the results at a one-day student conference. On the one hand we offer the students a lot of structure and
Full Text Available The bibliographic profi le of 125 undergraduate (licentiatetheses was analyzed, describing absolutequantities of several bibliometric variables, as wellas within-document indexes and average lags of thereferences. The results show a consistent patternacross the years in the 6 cohorts included in thesample (2001-2007, with variations, which fallwithin the robust confi dence intervals for the globalcentral tendency. The median number of referencesper document was 52 (99% CI 47-55; the medianpercentage of journal articles cited was 55%, with amedian age for journal references of 9 years. Otherhighlights of the bibliographic profi le were the useof foreign language references (median 61%, andlow reliance on open web documents (median 2%.A cluster analysis of the bibliometric indexes resultedin a typology of 2 main profi les, almost evenlydistributed, one of them with the makeup of a naturalscience bibliographic profi le and the secondwithin the style of the humanities. In general, thenumber of references, proportion of papers, andage of the references are close to PhD dissertationsand Master theses, setting a rather high standard forundergraduate theses.
Francisco J. Ruiz
Full Text Available Beck's cognitive model of depression proposes that depressogenic schemas have an effect on depressive symptoms by increasing the frequency of negative automatic thoughts in response to negative life events. We aimed to test a moderated, serial mediation model where psychological inflexibility, a core concept of the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT model of psychopathology, both mediates and moderates the relationship between depressogenic schemas and the frequency of negative automatic thoughts. A cross-sectional design was used in which 210 undergraduates responded to questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest. Results supported the proposed moderated mediation model. Both psychological inflexibility and negative automatic thoughts were significant mediators of the relationship between depressogenic schemas and depressive symptoms, and psychological inflexibility also moderated the effect of depressogenic schemas on negative automatic thoughts. We conclude that the role of psychological inflexibility in the cognitive model of depression deserves more attention.
Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Fan, Chung-Hau; Hansmann, Paul R.
Trainers within school psychology have struggled to recruit racial/ethnic minority graduate students, with a recent demographic survey suggesting that racial/ethnic minorities comprise 9.3% of school-based practitioners (Curtis, Castillo, & Gelley, 2012). Furthermore, research has suggested that school psychology training programs have also…
Agus, M.; Hitchcott, P. K.; Penna, M. P.; Peró-Cebollero, M.; Guàrdia-Olmos, J.
Many studies have investigated the features of probabilistic reasoning developed in relation to different formats of problem presentation, showing that it is affected by various individual and contextual factors. Incomplete understanding of the identity and role of these factors may explain the inconsistent evidence concerning the effect of problem presentation format. Thus, superior performance has sometimes been observed for graphically, rather than verbally, presented problems. The present study was undertaken to address this issue. Psychology undergraduates without any statistical expertise (N = 173 in Italy; N = 118 in Spain; N = 55 in England) were administered statistical problems in two formats (verbal-numerical and graphical-pictorial) under a condition of time pressure. Students also completed additional measures indexing several potentially relevant individual dimensions (statistical ability, statistical anxiety, attitudes towards statistics and confidence). Interestingly, a facilitatory effect of graphical presentation was observed in the Italian and Spanish samples but not in the English one. Significantly, the individual dimensions predicting statistical performance also differed between the samples, highlighting a different role of confidence. Hence, these findings confirm previous observations concerning problem presentation format while simultaneously highlighting the importance of individual dimensions.
Jepsen, Denise Mary; Neumann, Ruth
Little is known of how and when undergraduate students decide to progress to postgraduate studies. This study examined the effect of a single semester on intentions to undertake postgraduate study. The study was conducted twice in two years using approximately 120 students enrolled in a third year "Behaviour in Organisations" unit at a…
Humphris, Gerry; Blinkhorn, Andy; Freeman, Ruth; Gorter, Ronald; Hoad-Reddick, Gillian; Murtomaa, Heikki; O'Sullivan, Robin; Splieth, Christian
To determine the degree of psychological distress, the experience of emotional exhaustion, and the extent of stress associated with course work in dental students and to compare these measurements among seven European dental schools. Multi-centred survey. Dental Schools at Amsterdam, Belfast, Cork, Greifswald, Helsinki, Liverpool and Manchester. 333 undergraduate first-year dental students. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Dental Environment Stress Questionnaire (DES), demographic variables. Questionnaire administered to all students attending first year course. Completed questionnaires sent to central office for processing. Seventy-nine percent of the sampled students responded. Over a third of the students (36%) reported significant psychological distress (morbidity) at the recommended cut-off point (>3 on GHQ). These scores were similar to those reported for medical undergraduates. Twenty-two percent recorded comparatively high scores on emotional exhaustion. A wide variation in these 2 measurements was found across schools (p'sStress levels indicated by the DES were less variable (p>0.5). Some evidence showed that contact with patients and the level of support afforded by living at home may be protective. Higher than expected levels of emotional exhaustion were found in a large sample of first-year undergraduate dental students in Europe.
Connelly, Vincent; Dockrell, Julie E.; Barnett, Jo
Psychology undergraduates need to produce good quality essays in order to succeed at university. Students find the transition to university writing difficult. Using a rubric, a profile of student weakness in psychology essay writing was described. The students were generally poor at the structural organisation of their essays. A pilot intervention…
Butler, Allison G.; Lenore, Sandra; Nunez, Jenifer
An innovative learning partnership took place between undergraduates in an educational psychology course and fifth graders at a local elementary school. The goals for the partnership were: (a) to use videoconferencing to provide educational psychology students with a window into a live classroom, thus allowing opportunities to see theories and…
Hill, G. William, IV
Provides an interview with David Matsumoto, Professor of Psychology and Director of the Culture and Emotion Research Laboratory at San Francisco State University. He has studied emotion, human interaction, and culture for more than 15 years. Focuses on cross-cultural psychology and perspectives in relation to the psychology curriculum. (CMK)
Full Text Available University students are reported to have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than the general population. Consequently, research surrounding factors that may contribute to poor mental health of students is imperative in order to identify interventions for this at-risk population. Previous research has determined that sedentary behaviour is associated with physical health, with an emerging focus on the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health. As the role of student consists of primarily sedentary behaviours such as reading, writing and computer use, the relationship between these activities and student mental wellbeing is particularly relevant. The presentation reported on the findings of study conducted on a sample of first year undergraduates and their reported levels of psychological distress and use of time. The findings highlight the diverse and demanding lifestyles of today’s student and the need for further research into student mental well-being.
Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.
Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…
Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; Allard, Carolyn B
The top 86 students were selected from a pool of approximately 400 applicants to a summer clinical psychology research training program for undergraduate students of color. Forty-three of the students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 clinical psychology research training programs, and 43 were randomly assigned to a control condition without training. The multicultural version of the training program emphasized the cultural context of psychology in all areas of training, whereas cultural context was de-emphasized in the monocultural version of the program. Although the cultural content of the 2 training programs was effectively manipulated as indicated by a fidelity check by an outside expert, there were no significant differences between the effects of the 2 programs on the outcomes measured in this study. The primary differences in this study were between students who did versus those who did not participate in a training program. Sixty-five percent of the students who completed the multicultural training program applied to graduate schools in psychology, compared with 47% of those who completed the monocultural training program, and 31% of those in the control group. Participation in summer research training programs also increased self-perceptions of multicultural competence.
Holmes, Jeffrey D.
Could the same interests that draw many students to psychology also predict departure from the major? I present a comparison of students and instructors with respect to professional interests and views of the scientific nature of psychology (Study 1) and an examination of the link between student interests and persistence in the major (Study 2).…
Bailey, Sarah F.; Barber, Larissa K.; Nelson, Videl L.
This study examined trends in how psychology internships are supervised compared to current experiential learning best practices in the literature. We sent a brief online survey to relevant contact persons for colleges/universities with psychology departments throughout the United States (n = 149 responded). Overall, the majority of institutions…
Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael
In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…
Kang, Yu-kun; Guo, Wan-jun; Xu, Hao; Chen, Yue-hui; Li, Xiao-jing; Tan, Zheng-ping; Li, Na; Gesang, Ze-Ren; Wang, Ying-mei; Liu, Chang-bo; Luo, Ying; Feng, Jia; Xu, Qiu-jie; Lee, Sing; Li, Tao
To evaluate the psychometric properties of the 6-item Kessler psychological distress scale (K6) in screening for serious mental illness (SMI) among undergraduates in a major comprehensive university in China. The K6 was self-completed by 8289 randomly sampled participants. A group of them (n=222) were re-assessed using K6 and interviewed using the Chinese version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.1 (CIDI-3.1). The test-retest reliability of the K6 scale was 0.79, the Cronbach's alpha was 0.84, and its area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for diagnosing CIDI-3.1 SMI was 0.85 (95% CI=0.80-0.90). For the optimal cut-off of K6 (12/13), the sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and classification accuracy (AC) were 0.83, 0.79, 0.60, 0.93, and 0.80, respectively. The 12-month prevalence of SMI was estimated as 3.97% using this optimal cut-off. Binary logistic regression analysis (including gender, ethnicity, grade, number of siblings and family residency location) showed that only family residency location in rural areas compared to urban areas was significantly associated with more SMI. This study documented the value of using the K6 for detecting SMI in Chinese undergraduate populations and supported its cross-cultural reliability and validity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
APA Books, 2012
"Graduate Study in Psychology" is the best source of information related to graduate programs in psychology and provides information related to approximately 600 graduate programs in psychology in the U.S. and Canada. "Graduate Study in Psychology" contains information about: (1) number of applications received by a program;…
McMillan, J. [ed.
The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.
Igwe, Monday N; Bakare, Muideen O; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Onyeama, Gabriel M; Okonkwo, Kevin O
Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire were administered to the students. The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67+/-3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24+/-3.24, 10.76+/-3.50 and 9.01+/-3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p=0.000), domain 3 (p=0.029), domain 4 (p=0.000) and total score (p=0.000), with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p=0.769). The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r=0.319, p=0.000) and the number of weeks of posting in paediatrics (r=0.372, p=0
Gan, Wan Ying; Yeoh, Wei Ching
Intuitive eating, which can be defined as reliance on physiological hunger and satiety cues to guide eating, has been proposed as a healthy weight management strategy. To date, there has not been a published study on intuitive eating in the context of Malaysia. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aims to determine associations between body weight status, psychological well-being and disordered eating behaviors with intuitive eating among undergraduate university students. A total of 333 undergraduate respondents (21.3% males and 78.7% females) from three randomly selected faculties in a public university in Malaysia participated in this study. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire which featured socio-demographic characteristics, intuitive eating, self-esteem, body appreciation, general unconditional acceptance, body acceptance by others, body function and disordered eating. Body weight, height, body fat percentage and waist circumference were measured. The results from this study revealed that there was no difference (t = 0.067, p = 0.947) in intuitive eating scores between males (75.69 ± 7.16) and females (75.62 ± 7.90). Multiple linear regression results have shown that body appreciation (β = 0.385, p < 0.001) and disordered eating (β = -0.168, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of intuitive eating, which accounted for 19.6% of the variance in intuitive eating. Health promotion programs should highlight the importance of enhancing body appreciation and preventing disordered eating behaviors among university students in order to promote intuitive eating as one of the healthy weight management approaches.
Guthrie, Kathy L.; Bovio, Becka
In working to develop undergraduate student leadership capacity, Florida State University created the Undergraduate Certificate in Leadership Studies. This program, grounded in leadership theory and framed by a seamless learning model, has been influential in development of student leadership perceptions and capacity. This article addresses the…
Abrams, Kenneth; Ziegler, Naomi
Study abroad in psychology promotes knowledge of other cultures, global-mindedness, the re-evaluation of one's cultural identity, interest in civic engagement, and insight into the universality or non-universality of psychological phenomena. Heightened recognition of these outcomes has led to increasingly larger numbers of psychology students…
Alice Schmidt Hanbidge; Nicole Sanderson; Tony Tin
Learning essential information literacy skills through the use of mobile phones is an innovative mlearning pilot project that was collaboratively undertaken in a Canadian university college over the course of two academic terms by faculty and the library staff. The research pilot project involved ninety one undergraduate students in five different classes majoring in psychology, social work, education or social development studies in an attempt to determine the effectiveness of us...
Kent, Alexandra; Skipper, Yvonne
Improving students' psychological literacy has become a key part of the new British Psychological Society accreditation. This is fuelling an emphasis on helping students to apply their degree knowledge critically and innovatively, both to enhance their chances in a competitive job market and to give them the skills to make a real-world difference.…
Holly J. Bowen
Full Text Available It is common practice for psychology researchers to recruit their sample of participants from the undergraduate student population. Participants are typically compensated with partial course credit or a monetary payment. The current study reveals that the motivation to participate in a study (cash versus course credit can relate to performance on a behavioral task of rewarded memory. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were recruited and compensated for their time with either partial course credit or cash. Potential performance-based cash rewards were earned during a rewarded memory task, where correct recognition of half the stimuli was worth a high reward and the other half a low reward. Memory for high reward items was better than low reward items, but only for the cash group. The credit group did not modulate their performance based on the value of the stimuli. In Experiment 2, undergraduates were compensated with partial course credit for their time and given the opportunity to earn a bonus credit for performance on a memory test. The findings were in line with the results from the credit group of Experiment 1, suggesting that the modulation of performance in the cash group of Experiment 1 cannot be accounted for by congruency between motivation to participate and reward for task performance. Of methodological importance, the findings indicate that recruiting and compensating participants with cash versus course credit may influence the results on a rewarded memory task. This factor should be taken into consideration in studies of reward motivation.
Anaesthesia is commonly taught to medical students. The duration and content of such teaching varies however and no consensus exists as to what constitutes an optimal curriculum. Anaesthetists possess the necessary knowledge and skills and operate in clinical settings suitable to provide training for medical undergraduates, especially in areas where deficiencies have been identified. This Delphi study was directed towards developing a consensus on an optimal anaesthesia, intensive care and pain medicine curriculum for medical undergraduates.
Moskos, Michelle; Olson, Lenora; Halbern, Sarah; Keller, Trisha; Gray, Doug
We conducted a psychological autopsy study to further understand youth suicide in Utah. While traditional psychological autopsy studies primarily focus on the administration of psychometric measures to identify any underlying diagnosis of mental illness for the suicide decedent, we focused our interviews to identify which contacts in the…
Olkin, Rhoda; Pledger, Constance
Although the field of disabilities studies incorporates psychology within its interdisciplinary purview, it embodies a distinct perspective consonant with the new paradigm of disability. Although psychology has begun embracing diversity, disability remains marginalized. Examines the foundational ideas of disability studies, training in disability…
田積, 徹; 石原, 俊一; 嶋原, 栄子; 谷口, 麻起子; 新美, 秀和; 炭谷, 将史; 李, 艶; 高橋, 宗; 高橋, 啓子
This study sought to reveal the association between results on a psychology proficiency test (PPT) and academic performance in psychology courses of students studying psychology at a small local college. This study controlled for factors of metacognition and motivation to achieve that are presumably related to results on the PPT. Two scores served as indicators of performance in psychology courses. These scores were calculated for students taking psychology courses, which included those cours...
Holm-Denoma, Jill; Smith, April; Waesche, Matthew
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of including female athletes' weights in athletic event programs on female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective state and to investigate whether the magnitude of the athletes' reported weights had differential effects on female spectators (i.e., do female spectators who view heavier athletes respond differently than those who view less heavy athletes?). We used an experimental design to examine hypotheses derived from competing theories to determine whether exposure to female athletes of varying weight would adversely or beneficially impact female undergraduates (N = 152) who served as athletic event spectators. Analyses indicated that in this simulated study, female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective states were not impacted by the presence or by the magnitude of female athletes' weights in athletic event programs. The results imply that including athletes' weights in game-day programs at women's athletic events does not affect female spectators on an individual level.
Weir, Michael J.
In the United States, undergraduate underrepresented minority (URM) students tend to change out of declared majors in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines at a rate of nearly sixty percent prior to earning a post secondary degree. This phenomenon contributes to a general concern that the United States is not producing enough STEM trained skilled workers to meet future employment needs of industry and government. Although there has been research developed to examine how to increase the numbers of URM students enrolling in STEM programs at higher education institutions, retention of these students remains critical. One area of increasing focus for researchers is to understand how multiple factors impact the college experience of URM students and how those factors may contribute to the student decision to persist in earning a STEM disciple degree. This research study is a phenomenological mixed method study that examines how students experience the phenomenon of advising and the influence of the advising experience of undergraduate URM students on their likelihood of persisting in STEM at a northeast US technology oriented post secondary institution. Persistence, from the perspective of the student, is driven by cognitive psychological attributes such as confidence, motivation and self-efficacy. Utilizing a Social Cognitive theoretical framework, this study examines how three distinct undergraduate URM student populations enrolled in; an Academic Services Program, Honors College, and the general undergraduate population at this institution experience advising and how their experiences may influence their propensity to persist in earning a STEM oriented degree.
Clayton, Karen E; Zusho, Akane
In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually based sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. This mixed-methods study examined why Jamaican undergraduate students are motivated or unmotivated and how this relates to the extant literature on achievement motivation. This study was conducted in two phases and consisted of 175 and 189 Jamaican undergraduate students across phases one and two, respectively. First, a qualitative investigation using open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews explored Jamaican undergraduate students' conceptualization of motivation and the factors that positively or negatively impacted their motivation. The second phase consisted of using prototype theory to capture a hierarchical cognitive representation of Jamaican students' motivation using coded themes derived from phase one of the study. The overall results indicated that personal, cognitive, contextual, and sociocultural factors are important determinants of Jamaican undergraduate students' academic motivation and that sociocultural (e.g., familial, economic, religious) factors appear to play a more critical role in impacting their motivation. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.
The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…
Stark-Wroblewski, Kim; Kreiner, David S.; Boeding, Christopher M.; Lopata, Ashley N.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Church, Tina M.
We examined whether using virtual reality (VR) technology to provide students with direct exposure to evidence-based psychological treatment approaches would enhance their understanding of and appreciation for such treatments. Students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course participated in a VR session designed to help clients overcome the fear…
Kottke, Janet L.; Shoenfelt, Elizabeth L.; Stone, Nancy J.
An informational brochure was created to assist students and faculty unfamiliar with the industrial-organizational (IO) and human factors (HF) disciplines. The brochure highlights the content of these two professions, presents advice for undergraduates to prepare for admission to IO and HF graduate programs, provides sources of IO and HF…
Shi, Ru; Shan, Shou-qin; Tian, Jian-quan
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was given to 264 students in an undergraduate Pharmacy course at a military medical university. Selected MBTI personality types were compared for achievement in the course using a t-test to compare total points earned. High grades were earned by students stronger in the traits of introversion (I) and judgment…
Searight, H. Russell; Ratwik, Susan; Smith, Todd
Many undergraduate programs require students to complete an independent research project in their major field prior to graduation. These projects are typically described as opportunities for integration of coursework and a direct application of the methods of inquiry specific to a particular discipline. Evaluations of curricular projects have…
Ahmadi, Golnoosh; Shahriari, Mohsen; Kohan, Shahnaz; Keyvanara, Mahmood
Fear is a normal emotion that can evoke an appropriate response when facing threat. However, sometimes the consequences of fear can lead to responses that are maladaptive. Fear can have negative effects on learning. Research has focused on the experience of fear and its consequences among midwifery students during their undergraduate program. A qualitative analysis was conducted of interviews with ten midwifery students in different years of an undergraduate program. The data was analyzed through a content analysis approach. Two main categories and five subcategories emerged. The first category, areas of fear in midwifery students, consisted of the following subcategories: fear of doing harm, fear of encountering their first childbirth, and fear of penalties. The second category, consequences of fear, consisted of the following subcategories: general physical and psychological consequences and interference in adopting the professional role. In this study, fear not only raised the students' stress levels thereby, leading to physical and psychological issues but also hindered their adoption of their professional role. These findings will potentially inform support and retention strategies within midwifery undergraduate programs in the future. Maternity care in Iran is provided mainly within a medical model of care. The majority of women give birth in hospital, where care is provided by midwives who work under the direction and supervision of an obstetrician. Midwives within the medically dominated system lack autonomy and have very little opportunity to gain experience in providing continuity of care for women as midwife-led models of care are rare. This practice context means that midwifery students have very little opportunity to gain experience in autonomous midwifery practice. Midwifery undergraduate program in Iran is for four years. Admission to the undergraduate program is implemented via a direct entry route. Nearly all of the midwifery students are school
This paper studies the higher school undergraduate entrepreneurship education system. Its architecture mainly includes five aspects of content: improve the students' entrepreneurial cognitive ability, adjust the teacher's education idea, carry out various kinds of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial training, carry out flexible forms of team…
Langevin, Elizabeth L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between undergraduate student happiness and academic performance (GPA), controlling for age, gender, and race/ethnicity for third and fourth year business students at University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus. The eight-item Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was used to measure the…
Langdon, G. S.; Balchin, K.; Mufamadi, P.
This paper examines the development of risk awareness among undergraduate students studying mechanical engineering at a South African university. A questionnaire developed at the University of Liverpool was modified and used on students from the first, second and third year cohorts to assess their awareness in the areas of professional…
In almost every human interaction, listening plays a vital role and so determines the effectiveness of such communication events. Sadly the comportment of many university undergraduates during lectures leaves much to be desired. This to a large extent impedes their communication effectiveness. The purpose of this study ...
MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen
This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…
Thompson, Ross; Wylie, Judith; Hanna, Donncha
Due to the empirical nature of the discipline, psychology students, during the course of their degree, are required to become proficient with a range of quantitative methods. Unfortunately many of these students experience high levels of maths anxiety, which can have a damaging effect on this aspect of their educational development. The first…
Stoloff, Michael L.; Couch, James V.
Reports a survey of computer use in psychology departments in Virginia's four year colleges. Results showed that faculty, students, and clerical staff used word processing, statistical analysis, and database management most frequently. The three most numerous computers brands were the Apple II family, IBM PCs, and the Apple Macintosh. (Author/JDH)
Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S.; Sonneck, Gernot
Psychometric properties and demographic correlates of a German form of R. W. Hubbard and J. L. McIntosh's (1992) Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz (RFOS), an inventory for assessing overall knowledge about suicide, were investigated in a sample of 1,093 Austrian medical and psychology students. Internal consistency of the RFOS was weak, as were many…
Rabinowitz, Fredric E.
Discusses a classroom role-playing exercise in which students and teacher re-enact interviewing techniques that cause subjects to assume characteristics of the multiple personality. Demonstrates the social psychological aspects of multiple personality disorder. Considers the pedagogical and ethical implications of creating the multiple personality…
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Undergraduate International Studies and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and...
Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing amount of stress in undergraduate dental students leading to anxiety, depression, and suicidal attempts/suicide. Aims: This study aims to evaluate anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students and to find out the various areas of stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire (to assess academic and nonacademic areas of stress and three scales-Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A; Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS and Beck′s Suicide Intent Scale (BSI. Descriptive statistics; Pearson′s Chi-square test; Multiple ANOVA; Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyze the data at the significant level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: In a total of 258 dental undergraduate students, academic areas of stress that were found to be statistically significant were long teaching hours (P = 0.002; high workload (P ≤ 0.001; frequency of tests (P ≤ 0.001 and competition/fear of failure (P = 0.009. Lack of interest in the profession was a statistically significant nonacademic area for stress (P ≤ 0.001. The students of first and final year reported higher anxiety (HAM-A 13.93 ± 6.908 and 16.44 ± 7.637 respectively and depression (HDRS 14.29 ± 6.302 and 14.22 ± 5.422; whereas suicidal intent was reported almost the same throughout the study sample (BSI 5.65 ± 5.465. Conclusion: An increasing level of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent due to various stressors in undergraduate dental students indicate a need to modify current education system and timely help to have psychological healthy dental professionals in future.
Research indicate that students generally fail to benefit from study skills courses and show resistance to this course in higher education level. The purpose of this research is to investigate reasons why students show resistance to the course of study skills and habits. In this research, a qualitative design utilizing retrospective interviews was…
Amaral, A.; Percy, J. R.
We describe and evaluate a summer undergraduate research project and experience by one of us (AA), under the supervision of the other (JP). The aim of the project was to sample current approaches to analyzing variable star data, and topics related to the study of Mira variable stars and their astrophysical importance. This project was done through the Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) in astronomy at the University of Toronto. SURP allowed undergraduate students to explore and learn about many topics within astronomy and astrophysics, from instrumentation to cosmology. SURP introduced students to key skills which are essential for students hoping to pursue graduate studies in any scientific field. Variable stars proved to be an excellent topic for a research project. For beginners to independent research, it introduces key concepts in research such as critical thinking and problem solving, while illuminating previously learned topics in stellar physics. The focus of this summer project was to compare observations with structural and evolutionary models, including modelling the random walk behavior exhibited in the (O-C) diagrams of most Mira stars. We found that the random walk could be modelled by using random fluctuations of the period. This explanation agreed well with observations.
Adriana Benevides Soares
Full Text Available Social relations at the university are important for adaptation, experience and academic results. This article aims to identify how college students perceive their experiences in interpersonal situations in academic space. We used focus group to collect the data and content analysis to categorize and analyze the speech of the students. Participants were 13 psychology students from a public university in Rio de Janeiro city. The results allowed the categorization of situations as easy and difficult. Concerning difficult situations, we perceived the students’ difficulties in dealing with interpersonal relationships. Regarding the teacher-student relationship, difficulties were identified with the teacher’s didactics. As situations listed as easy, we highlight the students who admire their teachers, the tolerance of differences, socialization, and acceptance to work with colleagues.
Sachin R Gedam
Full Text Available Background: Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially among adolescents and youth. It is mainly used for education, entertainment, social networking, and information sharing. Its excessive use among health care providers is becoming a major concern. Aims: The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, understand the pattern, and to determine the association between psychopathology and internet addiction among health profession undergraduates. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 846 students of various faculties from Deemed University. Students were assessed with semi-structured data, Internet Addiction Test and Mental Health Inventory, after giving them brief instructions. Students were classified into normal students and addicted students for comparison. Results: The total prevalence of internet addiction was 19.85%, with moderate and severe addiction being 19.5% and 0.4%, respectively. Internet addiction was associated with gender, computer ownership, preferred time of internet use, login status, and mode of internet access (P < 0.05. It was also associated with anxiety, depression, loss of emotional/behavioral control, emotional ties, life satisfaction, psychological distress, and lower psychological well-being (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Significant association was found between psychopathology and internet addiction. Male gender, login status, emotional ties, and psychological distress were found to be important predictors of internet addiction among students. Hence, these parameters should be taken into consideration while promoting awareness of problematic internet use and educating students regarding healthy internet use.
Adams, Danielle R.; Meyers, Steven A.; Beidas, Rinad S.
Objective: Financial strain may directly or indirectly (i.e., through perceived stress) impact students' psychological symptoms and academic and social integration, yet few studies have tested these relationships. The authors explored the mediating effect of perceived stress on the relationship between financial strain and 2 important outcomes:…
Full Text Available Abdullah M Alzahem,1 Henk T van der Molen,2 Benjamin J de Boer31Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD Residency Program, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences/National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Clinical Psychology, Princess Nora University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: Stress among dental students can be a significant threat, resulting in physical and/or mental illness, and have a negative effect on students' performance and the professional practice of dentistry. Stress can occur from different sources. The purpose of this study is to test whether the year of study has an effect on the stress levels of dental students.Method: Our study consisted of a cross-sectional survey using a modified version of the Dental Environment Stress (DES questionnaire. The questionnaires were filled out by male undergraduate dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh City during the 2010–2011 academic year (n = 214.Results: The results show the most common sources of stress: examinations and completing clinical requirements. Moreover, in the five-year lecture-based traditional curriculum, the third year students reported the highest level of stress, whereas the first year reported the lowest level of stress.Conclusion: Third year undergraduate dental students reported the highest level of stress. This stress could be reduced by reviewing and modifying the dental curriculum by allowing students to have contact with patients more gradually, starting from the first year, in addition to adding stress prevention and intervention programs in dental curricula.Keywords: dental, education, students, stress, study year
Tinnon, Elizabeth; Newton, Rebecca
This study examined the effectiveness of simulation as a method of teaching pharmacological concepts to nursing students; perceptions of satisfaction with simulation as a teaching strategy were also evaluated. Second-semester juniors participated in three simulations and completed the National League for Nursing Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Questionnaire and the Student Evaluation of Educational Quality Survey; a control group received traditional lectures. A unit exam on anticoagulant therapy content was administered to measure effectiveness. Findings support that simulation is as effective as traditional lecture for an undergraduate pharmacology course.
Etcheverry, Emily J.; And Others
A Canadian university study of 308 students' time use in academic areas used a model relating variables of social background, social psychological characteristics, time use, and educational attainment. Findings suggested that, taking into account these other variables, the time students spend on academic activities and paid employment has little…
Fan, Yin-Guang; Xiao, Qin; Wang, Qian; Li, Wen-Xian; Dong, Ma-Xia; Ye, Dong-Qing
To explore the relationships between quality of life, negative life events, social support and suicide ideation among undergraduates in colleges. 3517 undergraduates in colleges were recruited by multistage stratified random clustered sampling method. Factors associated with suicide ideation were analyzed with logistic regression by scores of Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation(BSSI), Generic Quality of Life Inventory (GQOLI), Adolescent Self-rate Life Events Checklist (ASLEC), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) and a questionnaire on background information. The rate of suicide ideation within 7 days was 14.1%, especially in females (15.96%), with single parent (23.79%) and disabled undergraduates (25.00%). The primary risk factors for suicide ideation were with low psychological function, material life, family/social support, lower availability of support and more negative life events. The prevalence of suicide ideation among these undergraduates was high, appropriate measures focusing on these risk factors should be implemented.
Mapp, Kim J.
There is an ever-increasing number of issues that face our world today; from climate change, water and food scarcity, to pollution and resource extraction. Science and ecology play fundamental roles in these problems, and yet the understanding of these fields is limited in our society (Miller, 2002; McBride, Brewer, Berkowitz, and Borrie, 2013). Across the nation students are finishing their undergraduate degrees and are expected to enter the workforce and society with the skills needed to succeed. The deficit of science and ecological literacy in these students has been recognized and a call for reform begun (D'Avanzo, 2003 and NRC, 2009). This mixed-methods study looked at how a field studies course could fill the gap of science and ecological literacy in undergraduates. Using grounded theory, five key themes were data-derived; definitions, systems thinking, human's role in the environment, impetus for change and transference. These themes where then triangulated for validity and reliability through qualitative and quantitative assessments. A sixth theme was also identified, the learning environment. Due to limited data to support this themes' development and reliability it is discussed in Chapter 5 to provide recommendations for further research. Key findings show that this field studies program influenced students' science and ecological literacy through educational theory and practice.
Dr. Meena Prakash Kute; SadhanaPote-Palsamkar
The present paper is based on the descriptive correlational research study which aimed to study the relationship between internet usage and self-regulated learning of undergraduates. The survey method was employed to collect the data from commerce, science and arts undergraduates of Mumbai University. The findings of present study showed that, there is significant relationship between internet usage and self-regulated learning of undergraduates. The relationship was found to be positive and n...
Odom, Summer F.; Ho, Sarah P.; Moore, Lori L.
To meet the demands for effective leadership, leadership educators should integrate high-impact practices for students to develop, practice, and evaluate their leadership knowledge, skills, and abilities. The purpose of this application brief is to describe how undergraduate leadership teaching assistant (ULTA) experiences can be a high- impact…
Moran, Katherine E.
Research in the area of academic writing has demonstrated that writing varies significantly across disciplines and among genres within disciplines. Two important approaches to studying diversity in disciplinary academic writing have been the genre-based approach and the corpus-based approach. Genre studies have considered the situatedness of…
Wiersma, Jenneke E.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T. E.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Background: Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is
Flint, Robert W.; Hill, Jonathan E.; Sandusky, Leslie A.; Marino, Christina L.
Undergraduate neuroscience laboratory activities frequently focus on exercises that build student’s wet/dry laboratory skills, foster critical thinking, and provide opportunities for hands-on experiences. Such activities are, without a doubt, extremely important, but sometimes fall short of modeling actual research and often lack the ‘unknown’ hypothetical nature accompanying empirical studies. In this article we report a series of research activities using an animal model of Korsakoff’s syndrome in a Physiological Psychology course. The activities involve testing hypotheses regarding performance of animals with experimentally-induced Korsakoff’s syndrome and the effectiveness of glucose as a memory-enhancer in this model. Students were given a set of 24 articles for use in answering a series of laboratory report questions regarding the activities. At the conclusion of the course, students were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess the effectiveness of the laboratory activities. Results of the laboratory exercises indicated that locomotor activity, environmental habituation, and anxiety were unaffected in the Korsakoff condition, and glucose had no effect. Results of performance in the T-maze indicated that Korsakoff animals had significantly fewer spontaneous alternations than controls, but Korsakoff animals given glucose did not reveal this difference. Results of the student assessments indicated that the activities were considered educational, challenging, and more interesting than standard laboratory activities designed to reproduce reliable phenomena. PMID:23494173
Fournier, Ann; Sheehan, Caryn
Millennial students are often characterized as technology focused multitaskers, yet young nursing students are expected to focus on and thoughtfully engage with the person at the center of their caring efforts. Developing gratitude practices requires quiet contemplation and focus. Cultivating an attitude of gratitude in millennial nursing students may be one avenue to address concerns surrounding the provision of relationship based person-centered care by young nurses. In other disciplines, gratitude work has been studied extensively and is associated with several positive outcomes. Assignments included in most nursing programs can easily be modified to include a gratitude focus. Examples of gratitude assignments and the student reflection of these assignments are included here as a call for nurse educators to further study this concept. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Miles Bore,1 Brian Kelly,2 Balakrishnan Nair2 1School of Psychology, 2School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia Purpose: Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. Subjects and methods: In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127 completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout; and personality traits. Results: Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. Conclusion: The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students. Keywords: medical student, well-being, psychological distress, personality
Full Text Available This paper aims to classify career aspirations by identifying career anchors and self-monitoring for a second-year undergraduates studying at two top of range universities in St. Petersburg. The participants major in strategical professions. The study involved 202 people from the following bachelor programs: «Logistics and Supply chain management» (n=98, «Sociology» (n=92 and «Human Resource Management» (n=22. The findings illustrate that peculiarities of undergraduates’ career aspirations are possible to estimate using career anchors developed by Schein and level of self-monitoring developed by Snyder which are varied for students studying at different educational programs. The results also indicate the significant differences of career aspirations between young girls and young men at each bachelor’s program. The male groups, having the same level of self-monitoring with female ones, demonstrate some differences in career anchors.
The history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (American Psychological Association Division 45) for its first 20 years are reviewed. The legitimization of the ethnic minority scholarship within organized psychology is chronicled, highlighting the central role of advocacy and activism. Multiculturalism is presented as a paradigm for the globalization of the United States. It is concluded that ethnic minority psychology has changed the field and equips us for the challenges of the internationalization of the world. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Bülent Baki Telef
The aim of this study was to examine the trends of postgraduate theses in psychology, psychiatry, and education related to positive psychology in Turkey. The sample consisted of 204 masters’ and doctoral theses written in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, and education in relation to positive psychology between 2005 and 2015 for which access was permitted. The “Thesis Classification Form” prepared by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The findings are presented with perce...
Wang, Qing; Li, Huiping; Pang, Weiguo
Coaching psychology is of increasing interest to medical educators for its potential benefits as a facilitative method in problem-based learning (PBL). However, the field lacks empirical studies that explore the lived experiences of students and tutors in the PBL coaching process. This study aimed to elicit knowledge regarding medical students' and tutors' experiences and perceptions of PBL coaching in the context of Chinese undergraduate medical education. The qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was employed. Participants comprised third year medical students (n=20) and PBL tutors (n=5) who have adopted a coaching approach in PBL for a semester. Semi-structured interviews were utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their experiences of PBL coaching. Data analysis followed an iterative four-stage scheme of Biggerstaff and Thompson. Six main themes emerged from diverse experiences and interpretations: 1) mindsets of coaching and learning, 2) the development of learning dispositions and capacities, 3) student group collaboration, 4) tutor-student relationships, 5) personal and professional development, and 6) challenges and difficulties in implementation. It could be concluded that PBL coaching is a dynamic, facilitative process that makes a particular contribution to the learning process from psychological, emotional, and social perspectives, whilst it demonstrates significant overlaps with PBL tutoring in terms of supporting students' cognitive activities in PBL. Further research is needed to identify the barriers and challenges for medical educators to implement coaching in the PBL process.
Full Text Available Background: Coaching psychology is of increasing interest to medical educators for its potential benefits as a facilitative method in problem-based learning (PBL. However, the field lacks empirical studies that explore the lived experiences of students and tutors in the PBL coaching process. This study aimed to elicit knowledge regarding medical students’ and tutors’ experiences and perceptions of PBL coaching in the context of Chinese undergraduate medical education. Methods: The qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA was employed. Participants comprised third year medical students (n=20 and PBL tutors (n=5 who have adopted a coaching approach in PBL for a semester. Semi-structured interviews were utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their experiences of PBL coaching. Data analysis followed an iterative four-stage scheme of Biggerstaff and Thompson. Results: Six main themes emerged from diverse experiences and interpretations: 1 mindsets of coaching and learning, 2 the development of learning dispositions and capacities, 3 student group collaboration, 4 tutor–student relationships, 5 personal and professional development, and 6 challenges and difficulties in implementation. Conclusions: It could be concluded that PBL coaching is a dynamic, facilitative process that makes a particular contribution to the learning process from psychological, emotional, and social perspectives, whilst it demonstrates significant overlaps with PBL tutoring in terms of supporting students’ cognitive activities in PBL. Further research is needed to identify the barriers and challenges for medical educators to implement coaching in the PBL process.
Puente, Antonio E.; And Others
Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)
Deo, Michael S.; Lymburner, Jocelyn A.
The current study explored whether an affliction similar to Medical Student Syndrome occurs in psychology students (i.e., Psychology Student Syndrome) by examining the relationship between self ratings of psychological health and the number of psychopathology courses taken. Undergraduate participants rated their level of concern about suffering…
Carlos J. O. Trejo-Pech
Full Text Available We develop constructs to evaluate the factors influencing the degree of students’ acceptance of cases. In our proposed framework, student acceptance is affected by the case selection, intensity of faculty use, training, course type and level, level of instructor expertise, teaching atmosphere, and the faculty’s beliefs about the usefulness of the case method. Our sample includes faculty teaching quantitative or qualitative courses across several disciplines in undergraduate business administration. Responses to a survey are analyzed using factor analysis and regression. The quantitative analysis is complemented by interviews with a subset of expert faculty using a two-round modified Delphi technique. This study may be limited by the fact that it measured faculty perceptions of the degree of students’ acceptance of cases, rather than student acceptance directly. Future research might survey students or use students’ courses evaluations to validate or contradict our results.
This exploratory study examined reflective practice among a class of students studying a "communities and addictions" course as part of the undergraduate health science degree. Most reflective practice publications are focused on medical or teachers' training rather than undergraduates in general. This is surprising given that reflective…
Dixon-Williams, Shelley B.
This research is an exploratory multiple case study of adult serving undergraduate colleges and universities. Using the Council of Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) Principles of Effective Practice for Serving Adult Learners, this study examines the differences of adult serving undergraduate colleges across the three sectors of higher…
Ubierna, Francisco; Arranz, Nieves; Fdez de Arroyabe, J. C.
This paper presents an analysis of the entrepreneurial intentions of university undergraduate students, with particular regard to those studying design. Attitudinal, social and capabilities variables are analysed in order to determine the profile of an entrepreneur. Using a sample of 521 undergraduate students, the findings show that design…
Silvey, Brian A.; Montemayor, Mark; Baumgartner, Christopher M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate instrumental music education majors' score study practices as they related to the effectiveness of their simulated conducting. Participants (N = 30) were video recorded in two sessions in which they completed a 20-min score study session and a simulated conducting performance. In the first…
Al Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Elzubair, M.; Magzoub, M.E.; AlMutairi, A.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health
Bore, Miles; Kelly, Brian; Nair, Balakrishnan
Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127) completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout); and personality traits. Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students.
Bas, Asli Uz
The purpose of this study was to assess the "Positive Psychology" course according to comments and life satisfaction levels of counselor candidates. The course was offered in Guidance and Psychological Counseling undergraduate program as an elective course. The participants of the study were 56 senior undergraduate students attended…
Holmström, Stefan; Lindberg, Erik; Jansson, John
The main objective of this study was to provide a contribution to the entrepreneurship education field through evaluating and describing changes in students' attitudes towards entrepreneurship. A pre-test and post-test design was used to evaluate a course design where sport psychology was the main topic with an embedded element of entrepreneurship education. The course was part of university program in Masters Programme in Sports Psychology or Physical Trainer Programme. Sport psychology-stud...
Wong, Shyh Shin
This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…
O'Regan, Andrew; Culhane, Aidan; Dunne, Colum; Griffin, Michael; McGrath, Deirdre; Meagher, David; O'Dwyer, Pat; Cullen, Walter
Educational activity in general practice has increased considerably in the past 20 years. Vertical integration, whereby practices support students and trainees at different stages, may enhance general practices' capacity to fulfil this role. To explore the potential for vertical integration in undergraduate and postgraduate education in general practice, by describing the experience of (and attitudes towards) 'vertical integration in general practice education' among key stakeholder groups. Qualitative study of GPs, practice staff, GPs-in-training and medical students involving focus groups which were thematically analysed. We identified four overarching themes: (1) Important practical features of vertical integration are interaction between learners at different stages, active involvement in clinical teams and interagency collaboration; (2) Vertical integration may benefit GPs/practices, students and patients through improved practice systems, exposure to team-working and multi-morbidity and opportunistic health promotion, respectively; (3) Capacity issues may challenge its implementation; (4) Strategies such as recognising and addressing diverse learner needs and inter-agency collaboration can promote vertical integration. Vertical integration, whereby practices support students and trainees at different stages, may enhance general practices' teaching capacity. Recognising the diverse educational needs of learners at different stages and collaboration between agencies responsible for the planning and delivery of specialist training and medical degree programmes would appear to be important.
Hoefer, M Lyn; Warnick, Erin; Knapp, Terry J
The author indexes of 15 introductory psychology textbooks were surveyed to identify the authorities cited most frequently. The five names cited most often in descending order were Freud, Bandura, Skinner, Piaget, and James. Differences from earlier comparable citation studies are discussed.
Fornés, Joana; Cardoso, Meiremar; Castelló, Joana Maria; Gili, Margalida
Psychological harassment in the workplace involves disrespectful or humiliating behavior to workers. Nurses make up one of the groups that are most exposed to these behaviors. This descriptive study investigated the most common types of psychological harassment in the nursing workplace and their relationship with sociodemographic variables among 285 nurses in Spain. Findings indicate differences in the prevalence of psychological harassment depending on the criterion that was used. Psychological harassment is positively correlated with a desire to abandon the profession and negatively with participation in decision making. The results suggest combining different measures to evaluate psychological harassment in the workplace and zero-tolerance polices for psychological abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study identifies the priorities of vocational educational courses and interests of the Indian undergraduate students. The study was conducted in S.V. University area covering 300 undergraduate students of Arts, Commerce and Science streams. The study identified the more prominent, prominent and less prominent vocational educational courses. Further, studies the association between vocational education interests and the background of the students (sex, caste, stream of study, year of study and area. The difference between various groups of students belonging to above groups in their vocational education interests of the undergraduate students was also identified. The study provided a suggestive list of vocational educational courses for undergraduate students for enhancing their employability.
Comparing Psychology Undergraduates' Performance in Probabilistic Reasoning under Verbal-Numerical and Graphical-Pictorial Problem Presentation Format: What Is the Role of Individual and Contextual Dimensions?
Agus, Mirian; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Penna, Maria Pietronilla; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan
This study aims to investigate about the existence of a graphical facilitation effect on probabilistic reasoning. Measures of undergraduates' performances on problems presented in both verbal-numerical and graphical-pictorial formats have been related to visuo-spatial and numerical prerequisites, to statistical anxiety, to attitudes towards…
Szpitalak, Malwina; Prochwicz, Katarzyna
Psychosocial and social theories of mood disorders indicate that factors connected with women's gender roles could create a higher risk of depression. The fact that social role is an important factor associated with depressive disorders suggests that not only a biological but also a psychological gender influences the vulnerability to depression. Gender schema theory was applied to investigate a role of femininity in depressive disorders. It was predicted that patients who identify themselves with the traditional feminine gender role will be more depressed than androgynous and undifferentiated patients or individuals with high level of masculinity. Sixty one patients suffering from affective disorder participated in this research. The Polish adaptation of Bem Sex - Role Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were used to investigate the association between psychological gender and symptoms of depression. The results indicated that there is a significant connection between the type of psychological gender and the level of depression. The highest level of depression was shown by undifferentiated patients, femininity was also found to be associated with a great number of depressive symptoms. These findings also suggest that androgynous individuals and patients with a high level of masculinity tend to be less depressed. Psychological gender is an important factor which interacts to create a higher depression risk in men and women.
Hernández-Franco, Vicente; Baena, Belén Charro; Prieto-Ursúa, María; Toro, Laura Bermejo
Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the specific vocational identity of secondary school students whose first choice of degree program is Psychology. In particular, this study analyzes when their interest in Psychology began, the curriculum track taken in high school and their profile of vocational interests and values. Method: The…
Bennett, D. Scott
Discusses how theory and science are integrated into "Introduction to International Relations" and "International Relations Theory", two undergraduate courses at Pennsylvania State University (University Park). Highlights five issues that are used in the author's approach to teaching theory and science. (CMK)
This paper focuses on undergraduate students' conceptions of, and learning in, ... by environmental education researchers to engage with learning theory. Furthermore, it has been concluded that little research conducted within the realm of social ... learning in general when topics and content are found to be in conflict with ...
Matthews, Judith; Quattrocki, Carolyn
Describes a seminar in which undergraduate students in home economics were provided with research training and the opportunity to work together on a research project which included housing, clothing, nutrition, consumer services, child development, and family relations. Students also explored difficulties international students encounter in…
Felsenthal, Norman A.
Reporting on a group of class projects undertaken by a series of his college-level "Broadcasting and Society" courses, the author concludes that there is great value in encouraging undergraduates to do their own original research. Among the topics researched by the students are the effect of television on nuns, television news viewing habits of…
The African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues is dedicated to the Scientific investigation of psychological and social issues and related phenomenon in Africa. The journal does not undertake to specify rigidly an appropriate domain of context, but intends rather to reflect current significant research of ...
Experiences and results of research by the North Carolina Central University Department of Public Administration while a : conducting feasibility study for establishing a new multidisciplinary undergraduate degree in public transportation administrat...
To What Extent Is Mathematical Ability Predictive of Performance in a Methodology and Statistics Course? Can an Action Research Approach Be Used to Understand the Relevance of Mathematical Ability in Psychology Undergraduates?
Bourne, Victoria J.
Research methods and statistical analysis is typically the least liked and most anxiety provoking aspect of a psychology undergraduate degree, in large part due to the mathematical component of the content. In this first cycle of a piece of action research, students' mathematical ability is examined in relation to their performance across…
Alice Schmidt Hanbidge
Full Text Available Learning essential information literacy skills through the use of mobile phones is an innovative mlearning pilot project that was collaboratively undertaken in a Canadian university college over the course of two academic terms by faculty and the library staff. The research pilot project involved ninety one undergraduate students in five different classes majoring in psychology, social work, education or social development studies in an attempt to determine the effectiveness of using mobile technology to enhance students’ information literacy skills and learning experiences. Pre and post-test measures, and survey questionnaires generated quantitative and qualitative data that was analyzed to determine the degree of changes in frequency of mobile device information literacy access and fluency in digital literacy skills. The article highlights the Mobile Information Literacy innovation and includes the development and design of the mobile lessons, interactive exercises, and its applications. The study’s main results and conclusions are also discussed. Additionally, the successes and challenges of the pilot to support anytime, anywhere student mobile information literacy eLearning training that engages mobile learners and enhances their learning experience are identified and critically reflected upon to improve the innovation for stage two of the project.
Pablo da Silva Gusmão
Full Text Available Aural Skills classes, which are required and collective, present some particular issues at the Brazilian universities, such as the diverse student’s proficiency levels, motivational issues and lack of autonomy for learning. This paper present the results of a research that investigated the relationships between the psychological constructs involved in the self- regulation of aural skills learning in Undergraduate music students. Through semi-structured interviews, the objective was to understand the interaction of the processes described in Zimmerman (2002 in the three student’s narratives. In this initial research, it was possible to see a relationship between the achievement in Aural Skill courses and the utilization of self- regulatory process, particularly goal-setting and efficient time management, as well as the lack of strategies related to the division of goals into proximal and specific sub-goals, and to the definition of self-evaluation standards. The investigation of strategies for intervention on cognitive processes involved with self-regulated learning of aural skills may help students to become more motivated and autonomous in their academic study.
Nieberding, Megan; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Romine, James
Non-science major students represent individuals who will become productive members of society in non-science fields including our business leaders, policy makers, and teachers. Their college non-major science courses are often the last formal instruction they will receive in science. As such, it important to understand what students already know about science and provide instruction that is engaging and helps them gain a greater appreciation for doing science. We report on a study of almost 12,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introduction astronomy courses from 1989 - 2014, most of who were freshman or sophomore students. Almost every year during the 25 year period, students were asked to complete an in-class survey that included basic science content questions and attitude towards science questions. They were also asked to write a response to the question, “What does it mean to study something scientifically?”Sixty-five percent of responses were meaningful and considered to be on target. In their responses 16% of students described science as a way of gaining knowledge or learning about something. Twenty three percent of respondents described science as using observations or experimentation and 10% described it as involving a hypothesis. Only 8% of respondents mentioned data analysis while 6% described using data or evidence. Four percent of respondents mentioned science was a way to solve problems and 4% described science as being systematic. Students who were self-reported STEM majors (Pre-med, engineering, math, and science majors) more often mentioned that science is an empirical technique as well as the use of hypotheses in science STEM majors also mentioned data twice as often as non-STEM majors in their responses. Education majors, who made up 6% of the sample, had the least descriptive answers overall, and were the group who most often not include aspects that were essential to studying science.Gathering this information has helped characterize
Gao, Hong-sheng; Qu, Cheng-yi; Miao, Mao-hua
To evaluate psychosocial factors and patterns on suicidal ideation of the undergraduates in Shanxi province. Four thousand eight hundred and eighty-two undergraduates in Shanxi province were investigated with multistage stratified random clustered samples. Factors associated with suicidal ideation were analyzed with logistic regression and Path analysis by scores of Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI), Suicide Attitude Questionnaire (QSA), Adolescent Self-Rate Life Events Check List (ASLEC), DSQ, Social Support Rating Scale, SCL-90, Simple Coping Modes Questionnaire and EPQ. Tendency of psychological disorder was the major factor. Negative life events did not directly affect suicidal ideation, but personality did directly or indirectly affect suicidal ideation through coping and defensive response. Personality played a stabilized fundamental role while life events were minor but "triggering" agents. Mental disturbance disposition seemed to be the principal factor related to suicidal ideation. Above three factors were intergraded and resulted in suicidal ideation in chorus.
‘Communication skills’ are required in job-hunting of young people. While people regard ‘communication skills’ as important, there are often some aspects of‘communication skills’ that people perceive negatively. This study investigated undergraduate students’attitudes toward ‘communication skills’. These attitudes were assessed using five factors: versatility, uncertainness, excessive demands, absoluteness, and possibility of measurement. Undergraduate students with job-hunting experience app...
Altaany, Fawzi H.; Jassim, Firas A.
The aim of this study is to investigate the style of Facebook usage between undergraduate students and the impact on their academics performance. Also, this paper was evaluated in the view of student the using of Facebook. A questioner was design for collecting data from a sample of 480 undergraduate students in Irbid National University. The survey revealed that 77% of the students have an account on Facebook. One of the main findings is that there was a significant relationship between gend...
Moyer, Anne; Franklin, Nancy
Participating in research must be an educational experience for students in order to ethically justify its inclusion as a requirement in college courses. Introductory Psychology students (N = 280) completed a written class assignment describing their research participation as a means to enhance this educational mission. Approximately half of students spontaneously mentioned something positive about the significance of the research or what they learned, with the remainder providing neutral, mixed, or negative comments. Students could articulate clearly and knowledgeably about the research in which they had participated. Such an assignment is an effective means to foster an understanding of the science of psychology.
Lempp, Heidi; Seale, Clive
To study medical students' views about the quality of the teaching they receive during their undergraduate training, especially in terms of the hidden curriculum. Semistructured interviews with individual students. One medical school in the United Kingdom. 36 undergraduate medical students, across all stages of their training, selected by random and quota sampling, stratified by sex and ethnicity, with the whole medical school population as a sampling frame. Medical students' experiences and perceptions of the quality of teaching received during their undergraduate training. Students reported many examples of positive role models and effective, approachable teachers, with valued characteristics perceived according to traditional gendered stereotypes. They also described a hierarchical and competitive atmosphere in the medical school, in which haphazard instruction and teaching by humiliation occur, especially during the clinical training years. Following on from the recent reforms of the manifest curriculum, the hidden curriculum now needs attention to produce the necessary fundamental changes in the culture of undergraduate medical education.
Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Liu; Chen, Yuxia; Zou, Huijing; Su, Yonggang; Fan, Xiuzhen
Career maturity is an important parameter as nursing undergraduates prepare for their future careers. However, little is known regarding the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity among nursing undergraduates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of career maturity and its relationship with attributions and future time perspective. A cross-sectional survey was designed. This survey was administered to 431 Chinese nursing undergraduates. Independent-sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA were performed to examine the mean differences between categories of binary and categorical demographic characteristics, respectively. Pearson correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to test the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity. The degree of career maturity was moderate among nursing undergraduates and that internal attributions of academic achievement, future efficacy and future purpose consciousness were positively associated with career maturity (all p time perspective and to facilitate their transition from school to clinical practice.
Solomonides, Ian Paul
The aim of the research was to: investigate the effect of a learning intervention on the Approach to Study of first year engineering degree students. The learning intervention was a local programme of learning to learn' workshops designed and facilitated by the author. The primary aim of these was to develop students' Approaches to Study. Fifty-three first year engineering undergraduates at The Nottingham Trent University participated in the workshops. Approaches to Study were quantified using data obtained from the Revised Approach to Study Inventory (RASI) which was also subjected to a validity and reliability study using local data. Quantitative outcomes were supplemented using a qualitative analysis of essays written by students during the workshops. These were analysed for detail regarding student Approach to Study. It was intended that any findings would inform the local system of Engineering Education, although more general findings also emerged, in particular in relation to the utility of the research instrument. It was concluded that the intervention did not promote the preferential Deep Approach and did not affect Approaches to Study generally as measured by the RASI. This concurred with previous attempts to change student Approaches to Study at the group level. It was also established that subsequent years of the Integrated Engineering degree course are associated with progressively deteriorating Approaches to Study. Students who were exposed to the intervention followed a similar pattern of deteriorating Approaches suggesting that the local course context and its demands had a greater influence over the Approach of students than the intervention did. It was found that academic outcomes were unrelated to the extent to which students took a Deep Approach to the local assessment demands. There appeared therefore to be a mis-match between the Approach students adopted to pass examinations and those that are required for high quality learning outcomes. It is
Coumaravelou Saravanan; Rajiah Kingston
Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress a...
Research Paper An exploratory study of psychological and developmental issues facing HIV and AIDS affected adolescents living in a residential care facility. Myrthe Van Vilsteren, Sadiyya Haffejee, Rabia Patel, Brett Bowman ...
Jennifer L. Jones
Full Text Available Popularized by the work of Jerome Bruner in the mid-1990’s, the “Concept Attainment Model” is a process of structured inquiry that requires students to make generalizations and draw conclusions from examples (and non-examples of a particular concept toward developing new insights, hypotheses, and associations regarding what they have previously learned (Bruner, 1977. In order to broaden some of the typical assumptions about the manners and conditions in which it can be effectively employed in the undergraduate classroom, this qualitative research study offers an example of the Concept Attainment Model in action in the teaching of traditional just war theory in an undergraduate religion class. Data was collected and analysed according to Spradley’s qualitative research methodologies (Spradley, 1980. Among the most important findings of this study is that in a religion or similar humanities course, the Concept Attainment Model is most likely to find success when highly scaffolded by the instructor.
Full Text Available Introduction: Increased levels of psychological disturbances such as depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS among dental students affect the way these students take care of patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess DAS among undergraduate dental students in Hyderabad city, Telangana, India. Materials and Methods: A short version of depression, anxiety, and stress scale was distributed to undergraduate dental students in four dental colleges. Comparison among the variables was done using ANOVA and Independent t-test. Results: The study group comprised 200 (23.7% males and 645 (76.3% females. The overall mean DAS score and its dimensions were not significant based on gender. Married students showed significantly more DAS compared to unmarried (P < 0.05. When the year of study was considered for all colleges together, the overall mean DAS score and its individual dimensions score were significantly high among III year students followed by IV, I, and II years (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Clinical years were more stressful than the nonclinical years. This suggests a need for special attention to the structure of the clinical program, particularly at the point of transition from the preclinical to the clinical phase.
Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong-Ju
The purpose of this study was to understand the meaning of death metaphors seen by 133 undergraduate nursing students through open questionnaires and collage artworks, using qualitative content analysis in Korea. The 4 themes emerged: "rest-physical," "fear-psychological," "separating-social," and "new life-spiritual."
Diêgo Ferreira de Oliveira
Full Text Available The present research had as an objective the comparison of Social Skills (SS on psychology course undergraduates' and professionals working in the area with at least one year of work performance. Three groups participated in this study: 63 students at the beginning of the course (1st, 2nd and 3rd semesters; 54 students at the end of the course (8th, 9th and 10th semesters; and 25 psychologists. For the data collect it was used a Social Skills Inventory (SSI that was applied at the university places of work or availability, or via e-mail, with the professionals. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the overall score of Social Skills, neither between the students at the beginning and the end of the course (p=0.319 nor between students at the end of the course and the psychologists (p= 0,70. There was a significant difference in the comparison of students at the beginning of the course and psychologists (p= 0.009. From the manual, it was possible to verify that the majority, of students and professionals, presented a good repertory of SS in its different factors. It was considered still relevant, the development of activities that could enable a major learning of these SS still during graduation, evaluating that they are fundamental to the psychologists' performance. Keywords: Social skills. Psychology. Psychology students. Psychologists.
Charmaine Graham; Amanda Richardson; Sharron King; Belinda Chiera; Tim Olds
University students are reported to have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than the general population. Consequently, research surrounding factors that may contribute to poor mental health of students is imperative in order to identify interventions for this at-risk population. Previous research has determined that sedentary behaviour is associated with physical health, with an emerging focus on the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health. As the role of student ...
Wisborg, K.; Barklin, A.; Hedegaard, M.
habits, alcohol and caffeine intake during pregnancy, education and cohabitation failed to change the result. The results remained essentially unchanged after exclusion of preterm deliveries. Exclusion of women with complications during pregnancy such as diabetes, hypertension, vaginal bleeding......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. POPULATION: A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about...... psychological stress during pregnancy. METHODS: Information about psychological stress during pregnancy was obtained from questionnaires and measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQ). A score was generated by the sum of all the answers, each contributing a value between 0 (low psychological...
Full Text Available Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1 catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2 classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as the research design and conceptual model guiding analysis and interpretation of data. The majority of studies (68% investigated endpoints related to psychosexual differentiation. The preponderance of studies (76% examined a direct relationship (i.e., inferring causality between prenatal androgen exposure and psychological outcomes. Findings are discussed in relation to the observed imbalance between theoretical interest in the role of prenatal androgens in shaping psychosexual differentiation and a broader conceptual model that examines the role of other potential factors in mediating or moderating the influence of CAH pathophysiology on psychological outcomes in both affected females and males. The latter approach offers to identify factors amenable to clinical intervention that enhance both health and quality of life outcomes in CAH as well as other disorders of sex development.
Recent analyses of environmental engineering and management (EE and M) field has highlighted its rapidly expanding size and increasingly diverse nature (Hart and Nolan, 1999). The last 30 years have seen growing international recognition that the challenges associated with environmental degradation and sustainable development have important implications for, and connections with, education and research (IUCN, 1970; UNCED, 1992). The concept of environmental education is now widespread in national educational policies, curriculum documents, curriculum development initiatives, and conservation strategies. Reflecting this trend, several universities throughout the world offer a wide range of graduate as well as undergraduate programs in environment. These programs have originated from various academic schools and disciplines (engineering, public policy, business, management, etc) creating considerable diversity of focus, themes emphasized, courses and methods of offerings. The rise of these programs, in part, reflects the growing need for engineers, technologists as well as managers, who are able to understand, contribute to, and manage a wide variety of technology-based programs and organizations. In addition, the large number of environmental engineering research journals, professional associations and international/national conferences point to the rapid growth of this field. This paper will examine the trends in provision, type of program, major curriculum focus of undergraduate environmental engineering and management education and then compare these trends with the emerging trends in the environmental engineering and management research journals of the last decade. (author)
Representaciones de estudiantes y graduados recientes sobre la carrera y la profesión del psicólogo Representation of undergraduate and recently graduate Psychology students, its career path profession
in the students attending university. In order to understand its relationship with the career path construction and the counseling for future professional inclusion, it has been considered relevant to deepen the study in the knowledge of such representations. It is about an exploratory and descriptive study in which quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to collect data. The analysis of the qualitative data was obtained through the interviews carried out with recent graduate and current undergraduate students of Psychology, during different periods of their career path. The analysis is based on the Guidance and Social Psychology theory. The conclusions stand out the fact that education guides the selection of areas of inclusion and professional performance. The students manifest the tendency towards the clinical point of view that has the career in Psychology. This has been corroborated by the amount of classes on Clinical Psychology that is included in the curricula. It might be considered that students are inclined to believe that Clinical Psychology is the main role, even though not the only one, for the professional practice. Though, they visualize it with little expectations of a good economic income as a professional practice. Other areas are considered peripheral in relation to the interests of the undergraduate and graduate students, but they are considered to have better possibilities of a good economic income in the professional world.
Andressa Melina Becker da Silva
Full Text Available Sport Psychology is one of the areas of the expertise of psychologists that makes use assessment tools. Therefore depends on the construction and validation of instruments for this population. Examine the instruments cited in this literature can help in this process. This study examined the instruments validated for the Brazilian population, cited in national articles on Sport Psychology, from 2002 to 2012. The descriptors "validation", "test", "sport", and "Psychophysiology", were crossed with descriptors "anxiety", "stress", "depression", "motivation", "leadership", "aggression," "imagination," "humor," "self-esteem", and "self-efficacy" - on the electronic bases Periódicos/CAPES, SciELO-Brazil and PubMed, in January 2013. For 38 sports and other non-competitive, six instruments translated and validated in Brazil were found, but not yet assessed / approved by the Federal Council of Psychology. The inclusion of the psychophysiological measures in the evaluation process and the validation of the instruments applied to Sport Psychology are discusses.
Kingsley, Barbara E.; Robertson, Julia M.
As a fundamental element of any psychology degree, the teaching and learning of research methods is repeatedly brought into sharp focus, and it is often regarded as a real challenge by undergraduate students. The reasons for this are complex, but frequently attributed to an aversion of maths. To gain a more detailed understanding of students'…
Nasip, Sorayah; Amirul, Sharifah Rahama; Sondoh, Stephen Laison, Jr.; Tanakinjal, Geoffrey Harvey
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between individual psychological characteristics (i.e. innovativeness, locus of control, self-confidence, propensity to take risk, need for achievement and tolerance for ambiguity) and entrepreneurial intention. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 676 undergraduate students…
Full Text Available Tulisan ini berupaya menjelaskan pendidikan Islam dalam kajian Psikologi Islam. Psikologi Islam adalah suatu pendekatan studidalam memahami kejiwaan dan perilaku manusia yang berdasarkan konsep tauhid, dengan cara integrasi antara ilmu dan iman. PsikologiIslam adalah sebuah bentuk psikologi yang berlandaskan citra manusiamenurut ajaran Islam, mempelajari keunika n dan pola perilaku manusia sebagai ungkapan pengalaman interaksi dengan diri sendiri, lingkungan sekitar, dan alam rohani dengan tujuan meningkatkan kesehatan mentaldan kualitas hidup keberagamaan, serta menggapai kebahagiaan hidup di dunia dan di akhirat. Salah satu upaya untuk dapat membangunkem bali peradaban manusia dan penyempurnaan konsep perilaku manusia itu adalah dengan berpendidikan dan memahami konsepkonsep pendidikan dalam Islam, serta penyempurnaan jiwa yang diisi dengan iman dapatlah dibahas dalam kajian ilmu Psikologi Islam yang berlandaskan pada Al-Qur’an dan Hadist. Dalam pendidikan Islam telah diletakkan dasar-dasar Al-Qur’an yang berkenaan dengan tujuan pendidikan Islam dan materi-materi yang harus diajarkan dalam pendidikan Islam. Materi-materi yang akan disampaikan sebaiknya menggunakan metode yang menarik dan menjadi persoalan esensial dalam rangka tercapainya tujuan pendidikan Islam yang diharapkan. Berdasarkan pada begitu eratnya antara tugas psikologi Islam yang lebih menekankan pada jiwa ini sangat berpengaruh dalam ilmu pendidikan Islam. Jiwa yang bersih tentunya akan mudah dalam menerima dan mengaplikasikan konsep-konsep pendidikan Islam yang berdasarkan pada Al-Qur’an dan Sunnah Rasulullah SAW. Di atas kedua pilar ini lah dibangun konsep dasar pendidikan Islam. Titik tolaknya dimulai dari konsep manusia menurut IslamKeywords: Islamic Psychology, Islamic Education, Human, Life, Behavior
Stewart, Martyn; Stott, Tim; Nuttall, Anne-Marie
Study goals and effective management of study time are both linked to academic success for undergraduates. Mastery goals in particular are associated with study enjoyment and positive educational outcomes such as conceptual change. Conversely, poor self-regulation, in the form of procrastination, is linked to a range of negative study behaviours.…
Sui, Guorong; Liang, Binming; Jia, Hongzhi
With the development of science and technology, all teachers in the college will face how to stimulate the undergraduate student's ability and make them to be an excellent engineer. For solving these questions, a new scheme with three steps has been designed. First, students will participate in the class teaching activity not only teacher. It will encourage them to read many extracurricular books and articles. Second, they will be required to think and design more new experiments after complete all experiment about the textbook and join more competition of the innovation and entrepreneurship. Third, some students who have more time and ability can early enter into his advisor professor's lab to join various science and technology project. By this scheme, it will be realized to improve student's innovation ability and be a brilliant engineer.
Bang, Kyung-Sook; Lee, Insook; Kim, Sungjae; Lim, Chun Soo; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Park, Bum-Jin; Song, Min Kyung
We conducted a campus forest-walking program targeting university and graduate students during their lunchtime and examined the physical and psychological effects of the program. We utilized a quasi-experimental design with a control group and a pretest-posttest design. Forty-seven men (M = 25.5 ± 3.8 years) and 52 women (M = 23.3 ± 4.3 years) volunteered to participate (experimental group n = 51, control group n = 48). The intervention group participated in campus forest-walking program once a week for six weeks; they were also asked to walk once a week additionally on an individual basis. Additionally, participants received one lecture on stress management. Post-tests were conducted both just after the program ended and three months after. A chi-square test, t -test, and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to evaluate the effects of the program. Health promoting behaviors ( F = 7.27, p = 0.001, ES = 0.27) and parasympathetic nerve activity ( F = 3.69, p = 0.027, ES = 0.20) significantly increased and depression ( F = 3.15, p = 0.045, ES = 0.18) significantly decreased in the experimental group after the intervention compared to the control group. In conclusion, using the campus walking program to target students during their lunchtime is an efficient strategy to promote their physical and psychological health.
Fagan, Thomas K.
Discusses the history of school psychology, emphasizing the work of L. Witmer (1897, 1907, 1910, 1922) and G. S. Hall (1911, 1923). Providing psychological services in the schools is among the earliest instances of applied psychology. School psychology was one of many child-saving services originating from 1890 to 1920. (SLD)
Pinilla, Severin; Nicolai, Leo; Gradel, Maximilian; Pander, Tanja; Fischer, Martin R; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos
Peer mentoring is a powerful pedagogical approach for supporting undergraduate medical students in their learning environment. However, it remains unclear what exactly peer mentoring is and whether and how undergraduate medical students use social media for peer-mentoring activities. We aimed at describing and exploring the Facebook use of undergraduate medical students during their first 2 years at a German medical school. The data should help medical educators to effectively integrate social media in formal mentoring programs for medical students. We developed a coding scheme for peer mentoring and conducted a mixed-methods study in order to explore Facebook groups of undergraduate medical students from a peer-mentoring perspective. All major peer-mentoring categories were identified in Facebook groups of medical students. The relevance of these Facebook groups was confirmed through triangulation with focus groups and descriptive statistics. Medical students made extensive use of Facebook and wrote a total of 11,853 posts and comments in the respective Facebook groups (n=2362 total group members). Posting peaks were identified at the beginning of semesters and before exam periods, reflecting the formal curriculum milestones. Peer mentoring is present in Facebook groups formed by undergraduate medical students who extensively use these groups to seek advice from peers on study-related issues and, in particular, exam preparation. These groups also seem to be effective in supporting responsive and large-scale peer-mentoring structures; formal mentoring programs might benefit from integrating social media into their activity portfolio.
Laidlaw, Anita Helen; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde
Funding: Medical School, University of St Andrews Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 20 undergraduate students from 5 different subject areas. Interviews wer...
Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde
Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…
Michael Olusesan Awoleye
Full Text Available This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all of these were found to have significant impact on their academics and social life. Further analysis revealed that gender attitude is also an important issue; male students appear to use the Internet more than their female counterparts; just as science based students use it more than the non-science based students. The paper therefore recommends appropriate policies for all higher schools of learning in Nigeria to facilitate further diffusion and use of the Internet.
Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Aoki, Shuntaro; Yoneda, Kenichiro; Sawaguchi, Yusuke
Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors). Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts), emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement), cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively), and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem). Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset) or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset). This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1) a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2) a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. The participants were 30 male and 94 female undergraduate and graduate students (mean age =20.4 years). Stress mindset, coping, and psychological stress responses were measured using self-report questionnaires. Six mediation analyses were performed with stress-is-enhancing mindset or stress-is-debilitating mindset as the independent variable, one of the psychological stress responses as the dependent variable, and the four coping strategies as mediators. Emotional expression partially mediated the relationship between a strong stress-is-debilitating mindset and higher irritability
Kumar, Anuj; Nong, Paige; Su, Gang; Meng, Fan
Life scientists increasingly use visual analytics to explore large data sets and generate hypotheses. Undergraduate biology majors should be learning these same methods. Yet visual analytics is one of the most underdeveloped areas of undergraduate biology education. This study sought to determine the feasibility of undergraduate biology majors conducting exploratory analysis using the same interactive data visualizations as practicing scientists. We examined 22 upper level undergraduates in a genomics course as they engaged in a case-based inquiry with an interactive heat map. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed students’ visual analytic behaviors, reasoning and outcomes to identify student performance patterns, commonly shared efficiencies and task completion. We analyzed students’ successes and difficulties in applying knowledge and skills relevant to the visual analytics case and related gaps in knowledge and skill to associated tool designs. Findings show that undergraduate engagement in visual analytics is feasible and could be further strengthened through tool usability improvements. We identify these improvements. We speculate, as well, on instructional considerations that our findings suggested may also enhance visual analytics in case-based modules. PMID:26877625
Cheong Lee Mei, Dianne
Full Text Available Malaysian female undergraduates are perceived as able to rationally evaluate and estimate risks towards Net pals. Friendship is secured online while deception and fraud are revealed offline. Based on what they have been informed, the female undergraduates may know their Net pals’ likes and dislikes but the invisible cyber veil does not allow them to penetrate the illusion and accurately evaluate a person’s character and personality. This study examined how Malaysian female undergraduates use the Internet, perceive risks in meeting Net pals and the safety awareness surrounding cyber friendship. Responses of 118 female undergraduates (43% from UiTM, 30% from UM, 27% from MMU to a survey indicated that Net pals were befriended through chat rooms and websites. More than half of the female undergraduates would have a face-to-face meeting with their Net pals without the knowledge of relevant parties and have done at least one potentially unsafe behaviour. If the extent and level of Internet safety awareness is known, the problem of Internet deception that might lead to potential social problems such as rape and sexual abuse can be effectively addressed.
Amsel, Eric; Ashley, Aaron; Baird, Todd; Johnston, Adam
Two studies explored conceptual change in undergraduate psychology students' acceptance of the scientific foundations of the discipline. In Study 1, Introductory Psychology students completed the Psychology as Science questionnaire (PAS) at the beginning and end of the semester and did so from their own (Self Condition) and their instructors'…
Karazsia, Bryan T; Stavnezer, Amy Jo; Reeves, Jonathan W
Discussions of and recommendations for the training of clinical neuropsychologists exist at the doctoral, internship, and post-doctoral level. With few exceptions, the literature on undergraduate preparations in clinical neuropsychology is sparse and lacks empirical evidence. In the present study, graduate-level faculty and current trainees completed surveys about graduate school preparations. Faculty expectations of minimum and ideal undergraduate training were highest for research methods, statistics, and assessment. Preferences for "goodness of fit" also emerged as important admissions factors. These results offer evidence for desirable undergraduate preparations for advanced study in clinical neuropsychology. Although undergraduate training in psychology is intentionally broad, results from this study suggest that students who desire advanced study in clinical neuropsychology need to tailor their experiences to be competitive in the application process. The findings have implications for prospective graduate students, faculty who train and mentor undergraduates, and faculty who serve on admissions committees.
Fletcher, G; Agius, R M
Difficulties in teaching occupational medicine to undergraduates stem from the reduced availability of teaching time and the perception of the specialty. Recent changes in the General Medical Council curricular framework have permitted the development of a special study module (options course) in occupational medicine, in which a small number of motivated undergraduates elected to participate and which was adequately resourced. This course laid particular emphasis on changing students' attitudes towards the specialty, self-learning techniques, problem-solving and other skills such as workplace assessment. The objectives, content and teaching methods of the course are described, as is a preliminary evaluation. It is suggested that other medical schools should adopt and refine this approach in order to improve the quality of undergraduate training in at least a proportion of the output of medical schools.
... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to this...
Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo
The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…
Morris, Neil P.; Ramsay, Luke; Chauhan, Vikesh
This article reports findings from a study investigating undergraduate biological sciences students' use of technology and computer devices for learning and the effect of providing students with a tablet device. A controlled study was conducted to collect quantitative and qualitative data on the impact of a tablet device on students' use of…
The objective of this study is to explore the eight fundamental moral characteristics of undergraduate students in order to benefit instructional model development. The eight moral characteristics are diligence, frugality, honesty, discipline, politeness, cleanliness, unity and generosity. The study findings rank these eight moral characteristics…
Maharaj, Chris; Blair, Erik; Chin Yuen Kee, Sarah
The link between motivation and success is well documented; however, there is still room to problematise motivation in regards to the individual and contextual levels. This study looks at motivation in relation to students studying undergraduate engineering courses at a Caribbean university and seeks to discover the factors that motivate them to…
Misner, John M.
This paper examines the use of community based economic impact studies as service learning tools for undergraduate business programs. Economic impact studies are used to measure the economic benefits of a variety of activities such as community redevelopment, tourism, and expansions of existing facilities for both private and public producers.…
Thomas, Susan J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Coralie J
Although many postgraduate psychology programs address students' mental health, there are compelling indications that earlier, undergraduate, interventions may be optimal. We investigated specific attitudes that predict students' intentions to seek treatment for psychological distress to inform targeted interventions. Psychology students (N = 289; mean age = 19.75 years) were surveyed about attitudes and intentions to seek treatment for stress, anxiety, or depression. Less than one quarter of students reported that they would be likely to seek treatment should they develop psychological distress. Attitudes that predicted help-seeking intentions related to recognition of symptoms and the benefits of professional help, and openness to treatment for emotional problems. The current study identified specific attitudes which predict help-seeking intentions in psychology students. These attitudes could be strengthened in undergraduate educational interventions promoting well-being and appropriate treatment uptake among psychology students. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…
Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.
A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college
Wu, Defang; Luo, Yang; Liao, Xinyu
There is universal agreement on the essential role of critical thinking in nursing practice. Most studies into this topic have provided descriptive statistical information and insights on related external factors such as educational environment and teaching strategies. However, there has been limited research into the psychological factors that may predict the disposition of students toward critical thinking. This study explored the relationship between the disposition of nursing students toward critical thinking and their mental self-supporting ability to obtain a profile and determine the psychological predictors of critical thinking. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2013 using a convenience sample from four nursing schools. Four hundred six Chinese nursing undergraduates completed two questionnaires including (a) the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (Chinese version) and (b) the Mental Self-Supporting Questionnaire for University Students. Pearson's correlation and linear regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between these two variables and the predicted positive psychological qualities for the critical thinking disposition of participants. Average participant scores for critical thinking disposition and mental self-supporting were 280.91 ± 28.43 and 76.40 ± 8.47, respectively. Positive correlations were observed between these two variables (r = .583, p critical thinking disposition (R = .435, p critical thinking and mental self-supporting abilities.The four factors that had a major influence on critical thinking disposition included self-decision, self-cognition, self-confidence, and self-responsibility. Nursing educators should focus on improving the critical thinking ability of their students in these four aspects.
Full Text Available Satoshi Horiuchi,1 Akira Tsuda,2 Shuntaro Aoki,3,4 Kenichiro Yoneda,5 Yusuke Sawaguchi6 1Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 2Department of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 3Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 4Graduate School of Psychological Science, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, 5Graduate School of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 6Graduate School of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, Japan Background: Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors. Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts, emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement, cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively, and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem. Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset. This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1 a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2 a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. Materials and methods: The participants were 30 male and
Sadetski, M; Tourinho Moretto, M L; Correia de Araujo, R P; de Carvalho, J F
Objectives To detect the frequency of psychological alterations in primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients. Methods Thirty-six primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients were analyzed by a psychological interview using a standard protocol and review of medical charts. Clinical manifestations, associated comorbidities, antiphospholipid antibodies, and treatment were also evaluated. Results The mean age was 44.2 ± 10.8 years, 29 (80%) were women and 29 (80%) were of Caucasian race. The mean duration of disease was 7.3 ± 5.2 years. The frequency of the presence of psychological alterations was 97.1%. Family dependence was observed in 14 (40%), memory loss in 12 (34.3%), social losses in 12 (34.3%), sexual limitations in seven (20%), sadness in six (17.1%), severe speech limitation in four (11.4%), anxiety in three (8.6%), learning difficulty in two (5.7%), generalized phobia in two (5.7%), suicide ideation in one (2.6%), agoraphobia in one (2.6%), and obsessive-compulsive disorder in one (2.6%). Conclusion This study demonstrated that almost all primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients have psychological alterations. These data reinforce the need for psychological evaluation in primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients.
Kamaluddin, M R; Othman, A; Ismail, K H; Mat Saat, G A
The horrific nature of murder using different types of weapons has been an important focal point of many criminological studies. Weapons that are used in murders seem to play dominant roles in murder investigations as they may provide information leading to arrest. The established factors for weapon usage include environmental context, demography and availability of weapons. However, there is insufficient research attention on the psychological functioning of murderers for particular weapon usage. In light of this, the current study seeks to narrow this gap of information by identifying the influences of psychological traits on weapon usage among a sample of male murderers. The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 71 male murderers incarcerated in 11 prisons within Peninsular Malaysia. The selection of the sample was based on predetermined selection criteria using a purposive sampling method. A guided self-administered questionnaire comprising sociodemography variables and four Malay validated psychometric instruments: Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire-40-Cross-Culture, Self-control Scale, "How I Think" Questionnaire and Aggression Questionnaire; was used. Independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score differences of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple weapons while Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the differences between the specific types of weapons used among the murderers. Following this, one-way ANOVA was carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences among the murderers according to the different sources of weapon. Results indicated specific psychological traits influenced the number(s), source(s) and type(s) of weapon used in committing murder. The findings have implications for the psychological profiling of unknown murderers within the Malaysian context.
Full Text Available A Review of: Mbabu, L.G., Bertram, A. B., & Varnum, K. (2013. Patterns of undergraduates’ use of scholarly databases in a large research university. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39(2, 189-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.10.1016/j.acalib.2012.10.004 Abstract Objective – To investigate undergraduate students’ patterns of electronic database use to discover whether database use increases as undergraduate students progress into later stages of study with increasingly sophisticated information needs and demands. Design – User database authentication log analysis. Setting – A large research university in the Midwestern United States of America. Subjects – A total of 26,208 undergraduate students enrolled during the Fall 2009 academic semester. Methods – The researchers obtained logs of user-authenticated activity from the university’s databases. Logged data for each user included: the user’s action and details of that action (including database searches, the time of action, the user’s relationship to the university, the individual school in which the user was enrolled, and the user’s class standing. The data were analyzed to determine which proportion of undergraduate students accessed the library’s electronic databases. The study reports that the logged data accounted for 61% of all database activity, and the authors suggest the other 39% of use is likely from “non-undergraduate members of the research community within the [university’s] campus IP range” (192. Main Results – The study found that 10,897 (42% of the subject population of undergraduate students accessed the library’s electronic databases. The study also compared database access by class standing, and found that freshman undergraduates had the highest proportion of database use, with 56% of enrolled freshman accessing the library’s databases. Sophomores had the second highest proportion of students accessing the databases at 40%; juniors and seniors
Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask
Despite numerous annual bank robberies worldwide, research in the psychological sequelae of bank robberies is sparse and characterized by several limitations. To overcome these limitations we investigated the psychological impact of bank robbery in a cohort study by comparing general levels of traumatization and somatization in employees never exposed to robbery and employees exposed to robbery at different degrees and time-points, while controlling for selected risk factors of posttraumatic distress. Multivariate regression analyses showed that only the acute directly exposed robbery group which had a significantly higher score on general traumatization and somatization compared to the control group whilst controlling for other factors. In conclusion, bank robbery exposure appears to be especially associated with psychological distress in the acute phase and in victims present during the robbery. After the acute phase, other factors appear more important in predicting general traumatization and somatization in bank employees compared to exposure to robbery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shrier, Ian; Hallé, Madeleine
To explore the relationship between potential psychological risk factors and injury risk in circus artists. Historical cohort study. Cirque du Soleil training programme. Forty-seven circus artists training to become Cirque du Soleil artists. Artists completed the validated REST-Q questionnaire (19 domains) during their first 2 weeks of training. Injury risk ratio. Of the five a priori exposures of interest, injury, emotional exhaustion, self-efficacy and fatigue were associated with an increase in injury risk (risk ratios between 1.8 and 2.8), but Conflicts/Pressure was not (risk ratio=0.8). Of the several specific psychological aspects that are considered risk factors for injury, low self-efficacy had the strongest relationship. Most of the strong psychological risk factors for injuries previously identified in athletes also appear to be risk factors in circus artists.
Gustems-Carnicer, Josep; Calderón, Caterina
The coping strategies used by students play a key role in their psychological well-being. This study examines the relationship between coping strategies and psychological well-being in a sample of 98 undergraduates aged between 19 and 42 years. Coping strategies were evaluated by means of the CRI-A (Moos, 1993), while psychological well-being was…
Burke, Brian L.; Sears, Sharon R.; Kraus, Sue; Roberts-Cady, Sarah
This study compared changes in psychology and philosophy classes in two distinct components of critical thinking (CT): general skills and personal beliefs. Participants were 128 undergraduates enrolled in CT in psychology, other psychology courses, or philosophy courses. CT and philosophy students significantly reduced beliefs in paranormal…
Appleby, Drew C.
Undergraduate psychology programs have not always provided the same level of support for their job-seeking students than they have for those preparing to become psychologists. This is a particularly unfortunate situation because, according to the American Psychological Association's Center for Workforce Studies (American Psychological Association,…
Homa, Natalie; Hackathorn, Jana; Brown, Carrie M.; Garczynski, Amy; Solomon, Erin D.; Tennial, Rachel; Sanborn, Ursula A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.
Introductory psychology is one of the most popular undergraduate courses and often serves as the gateway to choosing psychology as an academic major. However, little research has examined the typical structure of introductory psychology courses. The current study examined student learning objectives (SLOs) and course content in introductory…
Fraser, Joy; Fahlman, Dorothy; Arscott, Jane; Guillot, Isabelle
Prior to undertaking a descriptive study on attrition and retention of students in two online undergraduate health administration and human service programs, a pilot test was conducted to assess the procedures for participant recruitment, usability of the survey questionnaire, and data collection processes. A retention model provided the…
Brandt, Carol B.
This case study explores how an American Indian woman experienced scientific discourse and the issues of language, power, and authority that occurred while she was an undergraduate student at a university in the southwestern United States. This ethnographic research, using a phenomenological perspective, describes her experiences as she searched…
Hargadon, Kristian M.
The flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein, otherwise known as the "central dogma" of biology, is one of the most basic and overarching concepts in the biological sciences. Nevertheless, numerous studies have reported student misconceptions at the undergraduate level of this fundamental process of gene expression. This…
Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth
Examines the effectiveness of adding a literature-study-group component to an undergraduate reading diagnosis and remediation course for preservice teachers. Group members read nonfiction works related to literacy, periodically meet to discuss the book and their responses, and share with their classmates. The paper explains how to conduct such…
Oh, Phil Seok
The goal of this case study was to describe characteristic features of abductive inquiry learning activities in the domain of earth science. Participants were undergraduate junior and senior students who were enrolled in an earth science education course offered for preservice secondary science teachers at a university in Korea. The undergraduate…
Mac an Bhaird, Ciarán; Nolan, Brien C.; O'Shea, Ann; Pfeiffer, Kirsten
In this article we present the findings of a research study which investigated the opportunities for creative reasoning (CR) made available to first year undergraduate students in assessments. We compared three first year calculus courses across two Irish universities using Lithner's framework. This framework sets apart imitative reasoning (IR)…
Fontenot, Renée J.; Mathisen, Richard E.; Carley, Susan S.; Stuart, Randy S.
An exploratory study of undergraduate students enrolled in marketing courses at a Southeastern regional university was conducted to determine the motivations and characteristics of marketing students who plan to be online learners and examined for differences between those who have taken and those who have not taken online classes. An online…
Scimone, Anthony; Scimone, Angelina A.
Investigates chemistry topics necessary to facilitate the study of biochemistry in U.S. medical schools. Lists topics considered especially important and topics considered especially unimportant in general chemistry and organic chemistry. Suggests that in teaching undergraduate general or organic chemistry, the topics categorized as exceptionally…
A component in the study of critical thinking which needs to be addressed is informal reasoning fallacy. It is a type of mental trickery which is able to self-deceive undergraduates and public at large. In order to practice good critical thinking, one has to detect and get rid of these fallacies. However, students have to be disposed in detecting…
Durruty, Ignacio; Ayude, María A.
The case study discussed in this work is used at the chemical reaction engineering course, offered in fifth-year of the chemical engineering undergraduate program at National University of Mar del Plata (UNMdP). A serial-parallel reaction system based on the anaerobic degradation of particulate-containing potato processing wastewater is presented.…
Willette, James M.
The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological study was to understand how male undergraduate students who identify as openly gay experience marginality and mattering at a Jesuit Catholic university. There were 28 Jesuit colleges and universities in the United States as of this writing, each with its own varying approach towards the treatment…
Wallin, Patric; Adawi, Tom
Graduate students and postdoctoral researchers are increasingly taking on mentoring roles in undergraduate research (UR). There is, however, a paucity of research focusing on how they conceptualize their mentoring role. In this qualitative interview study, we identified three entry points that mentors reflect on to define their role: (1) What are…
The goal of this analysis was to obtain local citation behavior data on undergraduates researching history, political science, and sociology papers. The study found that students cited books and journals even with the availability of web sources; however, usage varied by subject. References to specific websites' domains also varied across subject…
Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.
We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…
Fard-Kashani, Alireza; Jahromi, Abdol Hossein Zahedi; Javadi, Ali; Fallahi, Ali Mohammad
The current study aimed at diagnosing the language needs of Iranian undergraduate students of computer engineering in order to find out whether there is any significant difference in perceptions between the students and their ESAP (English for Specific Academic Purpose) teachers, concerning their Reading skill needs. To conduct the intended…
Dom, Vannak; Yi, Gihong
The empirical study on 610 undergraduate students between the age of 16 to 25 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, was set to examine the relationship of gender and subject choice. The findings have revealed that women were overrepresented in non-science subjects and their gender identity has strong connection with subject choice (*** p < 0.001). The study…
Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Lowinger, Robert Jay
This exploratory study examined white undergraduate students' (a) racial attitudes towards Asian Americans, (b) principled policy attitudes toward affirmative action, and (c) self-interest in relation to their support for college-based affirmative action policies for Asian Americans at a Midwestern university. A sample (n = 264, 28% male, 72%…
Haight, Lori P.
The purpose of this interpretive case study was to explore the collegiate experiences of undergraduate women participating in a cohort women's-only leadership development program at a coeducational institution. Using a framework based on Kurt Lewin's psycho-social model of behavior being the function of a person interacting with the environment…
Hall, Stacey L.; Forrester, Scott; Borsz, Melissa
This constructivist case study examined undergraduate student leadership development. Twenty-one student leaders, 13 females and 8 males, in a campus recreational sports department were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Seven broad themes: organizing, planning, and delegating; balancing academic, personal and professional…
We all know that they do it, but what do students laugh "about" when learning science together? Although research has shown that students do use humor when they learn science, the role of humor in science education has received little attention. In this study, undergraduate students' laughter during collaborative work in physics has been…
Offers a theoretical basis for undergraduate theatre studies that stresses the participation, democratization, and popularization that are necessary to sustain the arts in American society. Argues that the curriculum should be reoriented to emphasize theatre's functional value by building on students' already acquired and practiced aesthetic…
Hjelmeland, Heidi; Dieserud, Gudrun; Dyregrov, Kari; Knizek, Birthe L.; Leenaars, Antoon A.
One of the most established "truths" in suicidology is that almost all (90% or more) of those who kill themselves suffer from one or more mental disorders, and a causal link between the two is implied. Psychological autopsy (PA) studies constitute one main evidence base for this conclusion. However, there has been little reflection on the…
This is the first study that explores in such depth the emotional dimensions of visitors at numerous and various events held around the world, for almost ten years. Unexpected findings and new knowledge provide novel directions to the new millennium tourism stakeholders, and the tourism/psychology research community.
Dutra, Danette K
The implementation of unfolding scenario-based case studies in the didactic classroom is associated with learner-centered education. The utilization of learner-centered pedagogies, such as case studies, removes the focus from the instructor and instead places it on the student. Learner-centered pedagogies are believed to improve students' levels of cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine how nurse educators are implementing the pedagogies of case studies in their undergraduate didactic courses. The goal was to examine, document, report, and, ultimately, implement the strategies. Purposeful sampling was utilized in this qualitative, multisite-designed study. For each of the four participants, three separate site visits were completed. Observations and post-observational interviews took place at each site visit. Transcribed data from interviews, observations, and course documents were imported into the computer program Nvivo8. Repetitive comparative analysis was utilized to complete the data coding process. The guiding research question of this study sought to investigate the implementation strategies of case studies in didactic nursing courses. The implementation of case studies by the participants reflected two primary patterns: Formal Implementation (FI) and Informal Implementation (II) of case studies. The FI of case studies was further divided into two subcategories: Formal Implementation of case studies used Inside the Classroom setting (FIIC) and Formal Implementation of cases studies used Outside of the Classroom (FIOC). Results of this investigation have led to an increased understanding of implementation strategies of unfolding scenario-based case studies in undergraduate nursing didactic courses. Data collected were rich in the description of specific methodologies for utilization of case studies and may serve as a resource for faculty in development of creative strategies to enhance the didactic classroom experience.
Morrow, C. A.; Stoll, W.; Moldwin, M.; Gross, N. A.
This presentation describes results from an NSF-funded study of the pathways students in solar and space physics have taken to arrive in graduate school. Our Pathways study has documented results from structured interviews conducted with graduate students attending two, week-long, NSF-sponsored scientific workshops during the summer of 2011. Our research team interviewed 48 solar and space physics students (29 males and 19 females currently in graduate programs at US institutions,) in small group settings regarding what attracted and retained them along their pathways leading to grad school. This presentation addresses what these students revealed about the attributes and influences that supported completion of their undergraduate experience and focused their aspirations toward graduate school. In advance of the interview process, we collected 125 on-line survey responses from students at the two workshops. This 20-item survey included questions about high school and undergraduate education, as well as about research and graduate experience. A subset of the 125 students who completed this on-line survey volunteered to be interviewed. Two types of interview data were collected from the 48 interviewees: 1) written answers to a pre-interview questionnaire; and 2) detailed notes taken by researchers during group interviews. On the pre-interview questionnaire, we posed the question: "How did you come to be a graduate student in your field?" Our findings to date are based on an analysis of responses to this question, cross correlated with the corresponding on-line survey data. Our analysis reveals the importance of early research experiences. About 80% of the students participating in the Pathways study cited formative undergraduate research experiences. Moreover, about 50% of participants reported undergraduate research experiences that were in the field of their current graduate studies. Graduate students interviewed frequently cited a childhood interest in science
Fuson, Michael M.
Laboratories studying the anisotropic rotational diffusion of bromobenzene using nuclear spin relaxation and molecular dynamics simulations are described. For many undergraduates, visualizing molecular motion is challenging. Undergraduates rarely encounter laboratories that directly assess molecular motion, and so the concept remains an…
Frank, Jonathan; Shaw, Lewis; Wilson, Elizabeth
This study examines undergraduate business students' use of PowerPoint slides provided as a supplement to class attendance, textbook reading, and other traditional course resources. We survey students in 4 diverse (accounting, marketing, management, and information systems) lower-level undergraduate courses in which the instructor provided…
Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.
Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…
Lambert, Matthew E.; Lenthall, Gerard
Describes study that examined the relationship between computer anxiety and the use of psychology courseware in an undergraduate abnormal psychology class using four computerized case simulations. Comparisons of pretest and posttest computer anxiety measures are described, and the relationship between computer anxiety/attitudes and computer use is…
Pawlow, Laura A.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.
Participation in undergraduate research has been shown to provide a wide array of benefits across many disciplines of study; however, relatively less is known about the impact of this experience on Psychology majors specifically. We collected measures of Psychology students' (N = 229) knowledge of the major (career, core, and…
This study is a qualitative appreciative inquiry into how students of an undergraduate Ed. and Training programme are prepared for diversity. The setting for the study is the School of Education Studies at Dublin City University and the research involves a review of programmes and moudule intentions and qualitative data collected from final year students, academic staff and alumni of the programme. The study includes a literature review that examines the conceptualisation of diversity and ...
Full Text Available Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1 st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01 and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01 in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.
Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Kingston, Rajiah
Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1(st) year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01) and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01) in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.
Chen Su-may Sheih
Full Text Available Breakups with significant others are among the main reasons for emotional disturbance problems in Taiwanese undergraduates. Most undergraduates lack emotional regulation; therefore, their negative emotions can easily accumulate, influencing their mental health. Exacerbating these effects, the accumulation of negative emotions can lead to social problems. Therefore, helping undergraduates appropriately cope with negative emotions generated by breakups is a topic worth exploring. Movie therapy involves watching appropriate movies for soothing negative emotions. To investigate the emotional healing efficacy of movies, this study employed content analysis to select movies about breakups and recruited 14 undergraduates suffering from breakups. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted after the subjects viewed one of the movies, and the emotional healing efficacy of movies was analyzed based on whether the subjects experienced the processes of identification, catharsis, and insight. The findings indicated that 14 movies had emotional healing efficacy. The subjects experienced emotional healing from movies that contained three critical elements: similarity of backgrounds between the viewer and the movie characters, the extroversive expression of the movie characters’ emotions, and the characters’ demonstration of concrete solutions to the problems. [Article content in Chinese
The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish and American undergraduate students' academic motivation and academic self-concept scores regarding the years that they spent in university. The analysis was based on 566 (284 Turkish, 282 American) undergraduate students where, Academic Motivation Scale and Academic Self-Concept Scale were used as measuring instruments. The results showed that there was a statistical significant effect of nationality and number of years spent in university on undergraduate students' intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-concept scores. Turkish students had higher intrinsic scores whereas American students had higher extrinsic scores and more positive academic-self concept compared to Turkish partners. Regarding grade level, senior students from both cultures had higher intrinsic motivation and academic self-concept scores compared to other grade levels. In terms of extrinsic motivation, there is steady decline in American students' scores as grade level increases. On the other hand, Turkish undergraduates' extrinsic scores decrease in the second year but increase in the third and fourth year of university education. Results were discussed by taking into consideration the social and cultural differences between two nations.
von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth
Early life factors, like intelligence and socioeconomic status (SES), are associated with health outcomes in adulthood. Fitting comprehensive life-course models, we tested (1) the effect of childhood intelligence and SES, education and adulthood SES on psychological distress at midlife, and (2) compared alternative measurement specifications (reflective and formative) of SES. Prospective cohort study (the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s). Aberdeen, Scotland. 12 500 live-births (6282 boys) between 1950 and 1956, who were followed up in the years 2001-2003 at age 46-51 with a postal questionnaire achieving a response rate of 64% (7183). Psychological distress at age 46-51 (questionnaire). Childhood intelligence and SES and education had indirect effects on psychological distress at midlife, mediated by adult SES. Adult SES was the only variable to have a significant direct effect on psychological distress at midlife; the effect was stronger in men than in women. Alternative measurement specifications of SES (reflective and formative) resulted in greatly different model parameters and fits. Even though formative operationalisations of SES are theoretically appropriate, SES is better specified as reflective than as a formative latent variable in the context of life-course modelling.
Morales, Eduardo; Lau, Michael Y.; Ballesteros, Andrea
This article covers the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Psychology, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association (APA) in understanding the relationship of ethnic minority psychological associations with Division 17. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling…
McCrae, R R; Yik, M S; Trapnell, P D; Bond, M H; Paulhus, D L
Prior research (R.R. McCrae, P.T. Costa, & M.S. Yik, 1996) using a Chinese translation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory suggested substantial differences between Hong Kong and North American undergraduates. Study 1, with a sample of bilingual Hong Kong students (N = 162), showed that prior findings were not due simply to the translation. Study 2, with undergraduates of European and Chinese ancestry living in Canada (N = 633), suggested that more of the differences were cultural in origin. Study 3, which used peer ratings of Chinese students (N = 99), replicated most Study 2 results, suggesting that exposure to Canadian culture increased openness, cheerfulness, and prosocial behavior and attitudes. Differences in sense of competence and vulnerability to stress appeared to be due to different cultural standards for judging these traits. Together, the 3 studies illustrate an integrated approach to interpreting personality differences across cultures.
Internet-mediated research has offered substantial advantages over traditional laboratory-based research in terms of efficiently and affordably allowing for the recruitment of large samples of participants for psychology studies. Core technical, ethical, and methodological issues have been addressed in recent years, but the important issue of participant dropout has received surprisingly little attention. Specifically, web-based psychology studies often involve undergraduates completing lengthy and time-consuming batteries of online personality questionnaires, but no known published studies to date have closely examined the natural course of participant dropout during attempted completion of these studies. The present investigation examined participant dropout among 1,963 undergraduates completing one of six web-based survey studies relatively representative of those conducted in university settings. Results indicated that 10% of participants could be expected to drop out of these studies nearly instantaneously, with an additional 2% dropping out per 100 survey items included in the study. For individual project investigators, these findings hold ramifications for study design considerations, such as conducting a priori power analyses. The present results also have broader ethical implications for understanding and improving voluntary participation in research involving human subjects. Nonetheless, the generalizability of these conclusions may be limited to studies involving similar design or survey content.
Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki
The academic success and degree completion of tertiary students depends on their academic performance (AP), commonly measured by the percentage grades for the units they complete. No research has examined whether occupational therapy students' approaches to study are predictive of their AP. This study investigated whether approaches to study were predictive of the AP among a group of Australian undergraduate occupational therapy students. A total of 376 undergraduate occupational therapy students completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). Regression analysis was conducted using a range of demographic characteristics and the ASSIST scores as independent variables with students' self-reported by their self-reported mean percentage grade range (as a proxy indicator of their AP) as the dependent variable. The deep and the strategic approaches to study were not significantly correlated with occupational therapy students' AP. The ASSIST fear of failure subscale of the surface approach to study had a unique contribution to AP, accounting for 1.3% of its total variance. Occupational therapy students' year level of enrolment made a unique contribution to their AP, accounting for 4.2% of the total variance. Age and gender made a unique contribution to AP as well although their impact was small. Undergraduate occupational therapy students' approaches to study were predictive of their AP to a very limited degree. However, their AP was predicted by a number of demographic variables, including age, gender and year level of enrolment. Further study in this area is recommended. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport
This study assessed the impact of a positive psychology intervention in a sample of 40 young men (35%) and women (65%) aged 18-30 years. Participants were 1st and 4th year undergraduate University students, postgraduate students and working youths. The study examined the effects of a battery of interventions commonly used in positive psychology interventions, including a video and three exercises (i.e. expressing gratitude, best possible selves, goal setting) on character strengths, hope, gra...
Von Stumm, S.; Deary, I. J.; Hagger-Johnson, G.
Abstract: Objectives: Early life factors, like intelligence and socioeconomic status (SES), are associated with health outcomes in adulthood. Fitting comprehensive life-course models, we tested (1) the effect of childhood intelligence and SES, education and adulthood SES on psychological distress at midlife, and (2) compared alternative measurement specifications (reflective and formative) of SES. Design: Prospective cohort study (the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s). Setting: Aberdeen, Scotla...
Wiersma, Jenneke E; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J F; van der Does, A J Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is the first study to simultaneously compare in large samples various psychological characteristics between chronically depressed and nonchronically depressed adults. Baseline data were drawn from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), an ongoing longitudinal cohort study aimed at examining the long-term course of depressive and anxiety disorders in different health care settings and phases of illness. Participants were aged 18 to 65 years at the baseline assessment in 2004-2007 and had a current diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (N = 1,002). Chronicity of depression was defined as being depressed for 24 months or more in the past 4 to 5 years. The chronicity criterion was fulfilled by 31% (n = 312). The NEO Five-Factor Inventory measured the 5 personality domains, the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised was used to measure cognitive reactivity (eg, hopelessness, rumination), and the Mastery Scale measured external locus of control. Compared to the nonchronically depressed persons, the chronically depressed persons reported significantly higher levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.55-2.12; P testing these variables multivariably, the odds of chronic depression were significantly increased among those with low extraversion (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88; P = .001), high rumination (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53; P = .04), and high external locus of control (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.21-1.80; P psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. These findings provide suggestions for more specific interventions, focused on extraversion, rumination, and external locus of control, in the treatment of chronic depression. © Copyright 2011
Brown, Ted; Fong, Kenneth N K; Bonsaksen, Tore; Lan, Tan Hwei; Murdolo, Yuki; Gonzalez, Pablo Cruz; Beng, Lim Hua
Students may adopt various approaches to academic learning. Occupational therapy students' approaches to study and the impact of cultural context have not been formally investigated to date. To examine the approaches to study adopted by undergraduate occupational therapy students from four different cultural settings. 712 undergraduate occupational therapy students (n = 376 from Australia, n = 109 from Hong Kong, n = 160 from Norway and n = 67 from Singapore) completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the ASSIST subscales for the students from the four countries. Post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that the mean scores for the strategic approach were significantly different between Australia and the other three countries. The mean scores for the surface approach were significantly different between Australia and Hong Kong, and Hong Kong and Norway. There were no significant differences between the deep approach to studying between Australia, Norway, Singapore and Hong Kong. Culture and educational context do appear to impact the approaches to study adopted by undergraduate occupational therapy students. Academic and practice educators need to be cognizant of what approaches to studying the students they work with adopt.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying among study participants and examine the psychological impact on both cyber victims and cyber attackers, also analyzing gender differences in the impact. The sample consisted of 639 students from the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Bucaramanga branch, with an average age of 17.66 years (N = 303 boys, girls N = 334. For developing this analysis, the following instruments were used: (a Scale cyber aggressions; (B Scale cyber victimization; and (c Symptom Assessment Questionnaire-45 (SA-45. The results show that 27.5% of the sample has been attacked on occasion, and that the stalker was 26.7% over the past year. On the other hand, the results showed that there is a psychological impact (SA45 scales in both cyber victims and cyber aggressors. Gender differences in cyberbullying were evident only at some scales (primarily depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and somatization, although they were not significant among the psychological symptoms reported in this study (except for scales related to Somatization and Phobic Anxiety. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales
Margaritis, Vasileios; Mamai-Homata, Eleni
Smoking is the most widespread addictive behaviour in the world, as it causes physical and psychological dependence on nicotine. The objective of the present study was to discern the prevalence and the relative risks of nicotine dependence of adult people in Athens, Greece, as this country holds first place in cigarette consumption in the European Union. A random sample of 202 current smokers (82 men and 120 women) was drawn from residents aged v 18 years in Athens, the capital of Greece. A questionnaire on the physical (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence) and psychological (American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic criteria of nicotine abuse) nicotine dependence was used. According to the results of the present study, 12.4% of the sample reported null physical nicotine dependence, and 31.7% had low, 25.7% had moderate and 30.2% had high nicotine dependence. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger people (aged 18 to 24 and 25 to 34, odds ratio [OR] = 0.047, P physical dependence. Women tended to be systematically less dependent than men (25% and 37.8% high dependence, respectively). Furthermore, 75.7% of the sample had psychological nicotine dependence. Binary logistic regression analysis and chi-square test revealed that younger people (18- to 24-year-olds, OR = 0.081, P dependence. In addition, women showed a higher percentage of withdrawal symptoms compared with men (80% and 68%, respectively). The results of the present study provided compelling evidence that physical and, in particular, psychological nicotine dependence of adult people in Athens, Greece, was significant, and this calls for a course of action that should be taken by public health policy-makers to reduce smoke consumption.
Macale, Loreana; Vellone, Ercole; Scialò, Gennaro; Iossa, Mauro; Cristofori, Elena; Alvaro, Rosaria
The evaluation of academic education has become crucial in the European Union since the Bologna Process encouraged all European universities to reach high quality standards in education. Although several studies have been conducted on the quality of undergraduate nursing education, few studies have explored this topic from the students' perspective. The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of educational quality in undergraduate nursing students. The phenomenological method was used to study 55 students (mean age 24 years; 73% female) pursuing a baccalaureate degree in nursing in three universities in central Italy. The following five themes emerged from the phenomenological analysis: 1) quality of faculties: teaching skills, preparation, sensitivity to students, self-discipline; 2) theory-practice integration and communication between teaching and clinical area; 3) general management and organization of the programme; 4) quality of infrastructures: libraries, classrooms, information technology, services, administration, and communication; and 5) clinical tutorship: humanity, relationships and ability of the clinical tutor to guide and support. This study's novel finding was a deeper understanding of the educational quality's meanings among undergraduate nursing students. Students thought educational quality consisted of the faculty members' sensitivity towards their problems and the clinical tutors' humanity, interpersonal skills, guidance and support.
University students are required to undergo a lot of studying in order to meet the requirements of their curriculum. To help them acquire this, Universities ensure the provision of information materials and conducive studying environment through the University library. However, literature suggests that study habits developed ...
Čukljek, Snježana; Jureša, Vesna; Grgas Bile, Cecilija; Režek, Biserka
The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes of nursing students towards nursing, and changes in their attitudes during the study. A quantitative study with pre-post survey was conducted among nursing students enrolled in first study year in the academic year 2012/2013 (N=115) and third study year in the academic year 2014/2015 (N=106). Students voluntarily and anonymously completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic information and the Nursing Image Questionnaire, which includes 30 items that assess how an individual looks at the roles and tasks, values, social stereotypes of nursing, professionalism and performance of nurses. The results indicated that students had positive attitude towards nursing at the beginning and during the study. During the study, there was a positive change in attitudes in the majority of items of the questionnaire, whereas at the end of the study lower attitude was expressed in only four items. The study conducted among nursing students indicated that students’ attitudes changed during the study, influenced by the acquisition of knowledge and skills. During the study, students acquire a more realistic perception of nursing, and adoption of professional values emerges.
Almeland, Stian K; Lindford, Andrew; Berg, Jais Oliver
.00 on a 1-4 Likert scale. Final agreement in the third round resulted in a list of 68 competences with agreement above 80% (31 skills and 37 knowledge items). CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes the first scientifically developed undergraduate core curriculum in plastic surgery. It comprises of a consensus......, there appears to be a need to define the core competences that are to be taught. The aim of this study was to establish a Scandinavian core undergraduate curriculum of competences in plastic surgery, using scientific methods. METHODS: The Delphi technique for group consensus was employed. An expert panel...... of anonymous questionnaires; a final core curriculum competency list was agreed upon based on a consensus agreement level of 80%. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-five competences were suggested in the first round. In the second round, 76 competences (33 skills and 43 knowledge items) received a score ≥3...
Diamond, Ursula; Di Bartolo, Christina A; Badin, Emily; Shatkin, Jess P
The Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies (CAMS) program is housed in a Liberal Arts undergraduate college of a large research university. Psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and social workers at the university's medical center teach the courses. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which CAMS encourages graduates of the program to pursue a career in child and adolescent mental health (CAMH). In 2015-2016, graduates of the CAMS program were invited to participate in a mixed methods study. In addition to statistical analyses, qualitative thematic analyses were performed to interpret free-text responses. Forty-five percent (314/702) of invited graduates completed the online survey. Interviews were conducted with 11% (34/314) of participants by study staff over the phone. Quantitative results suggested that 81% (149/185) of participants enrolled in educational programs after graduation due to an interest in CAMH. A significantly higher proportion of the total sample (t = 3.661, p graduation. Results of qualitative interviews with 34 participants uncovered five key themes unique to CAMS that may explain the program's influence on graduates' career choices and career development: practitioners-as-instructors, instructor mentorship, novel course content, experiential learning opportunities, and career training and skills. Quantitative and qualitative results indicated that teaching college undergraduate students about CAMH encourages them to set career goals within the field. These findings suggest the utility of implementing similar programs at other undergraduate colleges.
Francis, Leslie J.; Yablon, Yaacov B.; Robbins, Mandy
This study tests the hypothesis that higher levels of positive \\ud religious affect are associated with higher levels of personal happiness \\ud among a sample of 284 Hebrew-speaking female undergraduate students \\ud who completed the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism, the \\ud Oxford Happiness Inventory, and the short-form Eysenck Personality \\ud Questionnaire Revised. The data reported a small but statistically \\ud significant association between religiosity and happiness after ta...
Sachin R Gedam; Santanu Ghosh; Lipsy Modi; Arvind Goyal; Himanshu Mansharamani
Background: Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially among adolescents and youth. It is mainly used for education, entertainment, social networking, and information sharing. Its excessive use among health care providers is becoming a major concern. Aims: The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, understand the pattern, and to determine the association between psychopathology and internet addiction among health profession undergraduates. Materials and Meth...
Recordings of patient satisfaction with provision of dental implant treatment are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate satisfaction amongst patients attending for provision of implant treatment by training undergraduate and postgraduate students at Dublin Dental School and Hospital (DDSH). A questionnaire was formulated and distributed to 100 individuals randomly selected from records of patients who had received implant treatment via student clinics in the previous 5 years. The response rate was 68%. Results showed a high overall level of satisfaction with treatment received.
... the veterinary profession: A study of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria. ... the university, however only 33.7% believed that they obtain veterinary services ... of the opinion that both veterinary and medical students study similar courses. ... that veterinarians, pharmacists and physicians can work together in the Food ...
Morris, Neil P; Ramsay, Luke; Chauhan, Vikesh
This article reports findings from a study investigating undergraduate biological sciences students' use of technology and computer devices for learning and the effect of providing students with a tablet device. A controlled study was conducted to collect quantitative and qualitative data on the impact of a tablet device on students' use of devices and technology for learning. Overall, we found that students made extensive use of the tablet device for learning, using it in preference to laptop computers to retrieve information, record lectures, and access learning resources. In line with other studies, we found that undergraduate students only use familiar Web 2.0 technologies and that the tablet device did not alter this behavior for the majority of tools. We conclude that undergraduate science students can make extensive use of a tablet device to enhance their learning opportunities without institutions changing their teaching methods or computer systems, but that institutional intervention may be needed to drive changes in student behavior toward the use of novel Web 2.0 technologies.
Kinnunen, Päivi; Butler, Matthew; Morgan, Michael; Nylen, Aletta; Peters, Anne-Kathrin; Sinclair, Jane; Kalvala, Sara; Pesonen, Erkki
There is growing appreciation of the importance of understanding the student perspective in Higher Education (HE) at both institutional and international levels. This is particularly important in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics subjects such as Computer Science (CS) and Engineering in which industry needs are high but so are student dropout rates. An important factor to consider is the management of students' initial expectations of university study and career. This paper reports on a study of CS first-year students' expectations across three European countries using qualitative data from student surveys and essays. Expectation is examined from both short-term (topics to be studied) and long-term (career goals) perspectives. Tackling these issues will help paint a picture of computing education through students' eyes and explore their vision of its and their role in society. It will also help educators prepare students more effectively for university study and to improve the student experience.
Skvortsov, Anatoliy; Romashchuk, Alexander
The Socratic function of single case studies (SCSs) is described in its relation to the problem of scientific theory development. Contrary to the traditional point of view, the single case study is not a demonstration or verification of theoretical concepts, but a method of their generation and opportunity for analysis of their interrelations. Considering the case study from the perspective of the Socratic function brings to light important conclusions about the ecological validity of theory development. The essential features of the Socratic function are illustrated using the example of the famous Romantic Essays of Alexandr Luria. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
This dissertation examines socialization practices in the academy in three separate studies. The first study considers the general absence of women in mainstream undergraduate curriculum and examines the influence of introducing women exemplars into an undergraduate political psychology course that is not identified as "Women's Studies." The…
Miller, Carol J.; Crain, Susan J.
This study examines undergraduate law-based degree programs in the 404 U.S. universities with undergraduate degrees in business that had Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation in 2005. University Web sites were used to identify and compare law-based undergraduate programs inside business to law-related programs…
Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra
Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…
Curry, Kathy S.
This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in Macon, Georgia. Ten major themes emerged from the research study that included (a) journey to a science-related career; (b) realization of career interest; (c) family support (d) society's role; (e) professors' treatment of students; (f) lack of mentors and models; (g) gender and career success; (h) females and other disadvantages in science-related careers; (i) rewards of the journey; and (j) advice for the journey. The three minor themes identified were (a) decision-making; (b) career awareness; and (c) guidance. The key findings revealed that females pursuing a science degree or subsequent science-related career, shared their experience with other females interested in science as a career choice, dealt with barriers standing in the way of their personal goals, lack role models, and received little or no support from family and friends. The study findings may offer information to female college students interested in pursuing science-related careers and further foundational research on gender disparities in career choice.
A study group of scientists was convened by the Sociedad de Biología de Chile (Biological Society of Chile) and the Regional Program for Graduate Training in Biological Sciences, PNUD-Unesco, RLA 78/024, to assess undergraduate and graduate studies in life sciences in Chile. The group presented this report at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Society. Discussion centered on the features that should characterize the studies leading to the academic degrees of Licenciado (Licenciate), Magíster (Master) and Doctor (Ph. D) in Sciences, and also on the qualifications that the universities should satisfy in order to grant them. After analyzing the present situation of undergraduate and graduate studies in Biological Sciences in Chilean universities, the group made the following main suggestions: 1. It is recommended that Chilean universities agree on a 4-year plan for the Licenciado degree, without the requirement of a thesis. The importance of providing the students with good laboratory exercises and field experience and with the opportunity to perform short research projects is stressed. In addition, a sound theoretical training on mathematics, physics and chemistry in the education of a modern Biologist is important. Licenciate studies ought to be the basis for professional careers and the universities should offer to the Licenciados free access to their professional schools. 2. It is considered appropriate for Chile and its universities to develop graduate programs in those disciplines that have reached a level of excellence. To accomplish this aim, adequate finance of the universities is necessary to permit them to provide the essential facilities for doing research, and to create a wide system of fellowships for graduate students. Direct government support for research and graduate student fellowships is requested. 3. Research experience of the kind needed for the preparation of a doctoral thesis is recommended as the academic level appropriate for those engaged in
To improve the research quality preparation for graduate study and looking for job competition ability of undergraduates students, the education orientation objective need to be explicit. Universities need develop undergraduates' cultivation plan according to students' classification. Based on analysis of students export characteristic, there will be corresponding cultivation plan. Keep tracking study during the cultivation plan implantation process, the Curriculum system and related manage documents are revised corresponding to exist problems. There are mainly three kinds of undergraduates' career direction plan for opto-electronic major undergraduates. In addition to the vast majority university graduates opting for direct employment, nearly one third of university students choose to take part in the postgraduate entrance exams and other further education abroad, and also one-tenth choose their own businesses, university chooses are diversified. The exports are further studying as graduates, working and study abroad. Because national defense students are also recruited, the cultivation plan will be diversified to four types. For students, who go to work directly after graduation, the "Excellence engineers plan" is implemented to enhance their practice ability. For students, who will study further as graduate student, the scientific innovation research ability cultivation is paid more attention to make good foundation for their subsequent development. For students, who want to study abroad after graduation, the bilingual teaching method is introduced, and the English environment is built. We asked foreign professionals to give lectures for students. The knowledge range is extending, and the exchange and cooperation chance is provided at the same time. And the cultivation plan is revised during docking with Universities abroad. For national defense students, combat training and other defense theory courses are added to make them familiar with force knowledge. And
Bonsaksen, Tore; Brown, Ted; Lim, Hua Beng; Fong, Kenneth
Learning outcomes may be a result of several factors including the learning environment, students' predispositions, study efforts, cultural factors and approaches towards studying. This study examined the influence of demographic variables, education-related factors, and approaches to studying on occupational therapy students' Grade Point Average (GPA). Undergraduate occupational therapy students (n = 712) from four countries completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). Demographic background, education-related factors, and ASSIST scores were used in a hierarchical linear regression analysis to predict the students' GPA. Being older, female and more time engaged in self-study activities were associated with higher GPA among the students. In addition, five ASSIST subscales predicted higher GPA: higher scores on 'seeking meaning', 'achieving', and 'lack of purpose', and lower scores on 'time management' and 'fear of failure'. The full model accounted for 9.6% of the variance related to the occupational therapy students' GPA. To improve academic performance among occupational therapy students, it appears important to increase their personal search for meaning and motivation for achievement, and to reduce their fear of failure. The results should be interpreted with caution due to small effect sizes and a modest amount of variance explained by the regression model, and further research on predictors of academic performance is required.
Horak, Rachel E A; Merkel, Susan; Chang, Amy
A number of national reports, including Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, have called for drastic changes in how undergraduate biology is taught. To that end, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has developed new Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate microbiology that outline a comprehensive curriculum for any undergraduate introductory microbiology course or program of study. Designed to foster enduring understanding of core microbiology concepts, the Guidelines work synergistically with backwards course design to focus teaching on student-centered goals and priorities. In order to qualitatively assess how the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are used by educators and learn more about the needs of microbiology educators, the ASM Education Board distributed two surveys to the ASM education community. In this report, we discuss the results of these surveys (353 responses). We found that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are being implemented in many different types of courses at all undergraduate levels. Educators indicated that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines were very helpful when planning courses and assessments. We discuss some specific ways in which the ASM Curriculum Guidelines have been used in undergraduate classrooms. The survey identified some barriers that microbiology educators faced when trying to adopt the ASM Curriculum Guidelines, including lack of time, lack of financial resources, and lack of supporting resources. Given the self-reported challenges to implementing the ASM Curriculum Guidelines in undergraduate classrooms, we identify here some activities related to the ASM Curriculum Guidelines that the ASM Education Board has initiated to assist educators in the implementation process.
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic technical quality of endodontic treatment performed by undergraduate students at the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia. Materials and Methods. Electronic records of 220 patients treated by final-year undergraduate students during the school year 2011/2012 were examined, and the final sample consisted of 212 patients, 322 teeth, and 565 root canals. The criteria for overall radiographic adequacy of root canal fillings were defined as the presence of adequate length and density and absence of iatrogenic errors (ledge, fractured instrument, untreated canal, and apical transportation. Chi-square test was used to determine statistical significance between different parameters. Results. Adequate root canal fillings were found in 74.22% of the teeth. The percentage of root fillings with adequate length and density was 89.73% and 92.6%, respectively. Fractured instruments and ledges were present in 16 root canals (2.8%, while the presence of missed canal and apical transportation was observed in 2 cases, each (0.3%. Conclusions. Overall, the technical quality of root canal fillings performed by undergraduate students was satisfactory.
Courtenay, Molly; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Deslandes, Rhian; Hodson, Karen; Lim, Rosemary; Morris, Gary; Reeves, Scott; Weiss, Marjorie
Multi-drug resistant infections have been identified as one of the greatest threats to human health. Healthcare professionals are involved in an array of patient care activities for which an understanding of antimicrobial stewardship is important. Although antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship competencies have been developed for healthcare professionals who adopt the role of a prescriber, competencies do not exist for other medicine-related stewardship activities. Undergraduate education provides an ideal opportunity to prepare healthcare professionals for these roles and activities. This report presents a protocol for a study designed to provide national consensus on antimicrobial stewardship competencies appropriate for undergraduate healthcare professional education. A modified Delphi process will be used in which a panel of Experts, comprising members from across the United Kingdom, with expertise in prescribing and medicines management with regard to the education and practice of healthcare professionals, and antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship, will be invited to take part in two survey rounds. The competencies developed will be applicable to all undergraduate healthcare professional education programmes. They will help to standardise curricula content and enhance the impact of antimicrobial stewardship education.
Full Text Available The author emphasizes the increasing role of psychology in the life of modern society, entering into the social life in a variety of forms. Psychology is a truly «effective» science of studying a person. The most significant achievements of modern psychology are considered: the development of practical educational psychology, the creation of system activity approach to cognition, the occurrence of psychology in the world of cognitive science, psychology of emergencies, etc. Psychology has become a reality and its various areas are treated as «the architect» of mental and economic life throughout the world, including Russia, psychology turns into a efficient reconstructing science that can be observed not only in the construction program standards of modern education, but also in the programs of tolerance development in the society as a support of diversity standards. Considerable attention is paid to the activities of the Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, as a center of psychological science with all its increasing diversity and development. On the eve of the 50th anniversary of the Department of Psychology, A.G. Asmolov, whose life was closely connected with the educational and research center, examines successes and accomplishments of the Department, contribution to the world of psychology. A.G. Asmolov lists the names of the most outstanding graduates of the Department who have achieved impressive results in various branches of psychology and are now in different parts of the Russian Federation and of the world working in the sphere of psychology. The Department is said to be a «trendsetter» in psychology. Such interesting areas as psychology of uncertainty, psychology of complexity, psychology of diversity, etc. are being developed. The ideas that emerge at the Department of psychology are becoming the ideas known in the whole world.
Bickerdike, Andrea; O'Deasmhunaigh, Conall; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm
To determine learning strategies, study habits, and online social networking use of undergraduates at an Irish medical school, and their relationship with academic performance. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Year 2 and final year undergraduate-entry and graduate-entry students at an Irish medical school. Data about participants' demographics and educational background, study habits (including time management), and use of online media was collected using a self-report questionnaire. Participants' learning strategies were measured using the 18-item Approaches to Learning and Studying Inventory (ALSI). Year score percentage was the measure of academic achievement. The association between demographic/educational factors, learning strategies, study habits, and academic achievement was statistically analysed using regression analysis. Forty-two percent of students were included in this analysis (n=376). A last-minute "cramming" time management study strategy was associated with increased use of online social networks. Learning strategies differed between undergraduate- and graduate-entrants, with the latter less likely to adopt a 'surface approach' and more likely adopt a 'study monitoring' approach. Year score percentage was positively correlated with the 'effort management/organised studying' learning style. Poorer academic performance was associated with a poor time management approach to studying ("cramming") and increased use of the 'surface learning' strategy. Our study demonstrates that effort management and organised studying should be promoted, and surface learning discouraged, as part of any effort to optimise academic performance in medical school. Excessive use of social networking contributes to poor study habits, which are associated with reduced academic achievement.
Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.
This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…
College of Psychology Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Allopathic Medicine Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of , dentistry, law, and psychology. Certificate Receive a graduate level certificate to enhance your skills Institute Core Services & Equipment HPD Research Undergraduate Research Community Community Outreach
College of Psychology Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Allopathic Medicine Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of , dentistry, law, and psychology. Certificate Receive a graduate level certificate to enhance your skills Institute Core Services & Equipment HPD Research Undergraduate Research Community Community Outreach
The purpose of this paper was to review literatures about past clinical psychological studies on the hearing impaired in japan, in order to get suggestions about subjects on psychological supports and clinical psychological studies for the hearing impaired in Japan. First, in the topic of the history and subjects on the clinical psychological study and psycological supports for the hearing impaired, it was showed that the pathological viewpoint was taken place for the cultural viewpoint in th...
Bromnick, Rachel; Horowitz, Ava; Shepherd, Daniel
Within the current economic climate students are seen as needing more than a degree to succeed in securing graduate employment. One way that students chose to enhance their employability is through engaging in voluntary work. In this empirical study, undergraduate psychology students' reasons for volunteering are explored within the context of…
Craig, Ashley; Elbers, N.A.; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Gopinath, Bamini; Kifley, Annette; Dinh, Michal; Pozzato, Ilaria; Ivers, Rebecca; Nicholas, Michael; Cameron, Ian
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) in comparison to car occupants who also sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. Methods: An inception
Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.
Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates relations between psychological contract fulfillment…
Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi
An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.
Full Text Available Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b whether the primary infertile women (n=18 are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12 with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ, Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.
Psychology is being studied by a growing number of people. At pre-tertiary level, it is now the fourth most popular subject, with over 56,000 entries for A-level examinations and 101,000 entries for AS-level examinations this year (JCQ, 2014). According to the Quality Assurance Agency Subject Benchmark for Psychology (QAA, 2010), psychology is one of the most popular subjects for undergraduate study in the UK (at the time of the publication of the Subject Benchmark, it was the second most stu...
Olga A. Molokova
Full Text Available Aim. The solution version of one of problems of psychology andpedagogical escort of students at the initial stage of their adaptation to training in higher education institution is stated in the study. Such maintenance obligatory includes diagnostics of a psychological state of pupils that in a traditional state demands considerable expenses by as teachers’ and first-year students’ forces and time. Possibility of elimination of this shortcoming is presented.Methods. The methods involve the modified Sklyayn’s technique which description is presented in K. Rogers’s works; the technique of the personal differential definition; the technique of definition of the psychological satisfaction in various vital spheres. Students’ relation to the research was found out during anonymous poll.Results. It is shown that, despite the positive relation to psychological researches from the majority of respondents, there is a problem of the obvious or latent unwillingness of some first-year students to participate in surveys and test work caused by work content and its duration. The alternative to tiresome measurements of indicators of adaptation of pupils to training in higher education institution is presented – the express diagnostics reduce time of monitoring and allow teachers to get students interested. Comparison of the results received at use of Sklyayn’s technique and a technique «Personal differential» shows that they investigate the same phenomenon at nonverbal and verbal levels: correlation of persons’ «real self» and «ideal self». However, if creation of verbal formulations of the person relation to what he/she is, and to what he/she wants to be, can cause difficulties by the examinee, the nonverbal diagnostics turned to subconsciousness, is not only simpler, but also reflects a psychological state of the person more precisely.Scientific novelty. Modification of the technique by Sklyayn is proposed; it
Renn, O [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Programmgruppe Technik und Gesellschaft; Swaton, E [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint IAEA-IIASA Risk Assessment Group
Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed.
Renn, O.; Swaton, E.
Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed. (author)
Full Text Available A Review of: Riehle, C. F., & Hensley, M. K. (2017. What do undergraduate students know about scholarly communication?: A mixed methods study. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 17(1, 145–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/pla.2017.0009 Abstract Objective – To examine undergraduate student researchers’ perception and understanding of scholarly communication practices and issues. Design – Mixed method study involving a survey and semi-structured interviews. Setting – Two major undergraduate universities in the Midwest region of the United States. Subjects – Undergraduate students who participated in or had completed undergraduate research experiences with faculty mentors. Method – The method was first approved by Institutional Review Board offices at both campuses involved in the study. Then, students received invitations to participate in a survey via email (Campus 1 = 221 students; Campus 2 = 345 students. Identical online surveys ran separately on each campus; both remained open for a period of three weeks. All respondents received a reminder email one week before the survey closed. Participants answered twelve questions related to demographics and scholarly communication practices. The survey examined knowledge and experience across five areas: the peer review process, author and publisher rights, publication and access models, impact of research, and data management. All students who completed the survey were entered in a drawing for a $50 Amazon card. The response rates were 34.8% (Campus 1 and 18.6% (Campus 2. Surveys on both campuses were administered using different software: campus 1 utilized Qualtrics survey software while campus 2 used an institution-specific survey software. Data sets were normed and merged later in the study to enable comparison and identify broad themes. Survey respondents were also invited to participate in a 15 to 20 minute follow-up interview and were compensated with a $20 Amazon gift card. The
Shorey, Shefaly; Siew, An Ling; Ang, Emily
Education is going through accelerated changes to accommodate the needs of contemporary students. However, there are ongoing concerns regarding the quality of education in communication skills for nurses and other healthcare professionals. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a blended learning pedagogical tool in enhancing the learning of nursing undergraduates. However, little is known about students' experiences of a blended learning model for teaching communication skills. To explore first year nursing students' experiences of the blended learning design adopted in a communication module. A descriptive qualitative design was adopted. Data were collected in the form of written reflections from 74 first year nursing undergraduates who were enrolled in a university-affiliated nursing school. Students were asked to complete an online reflective exercise regarding an undergraduate communication module on their last day of class, and the submitted reflections were analyzed. A thematic analysis was conducted and ethics approval was obtained for this study. Six overarching themes and fifteen subthemes were generated. The six overarching themes were: 1) Helpful and engaging classroom experience, 2) valuable online activities, 3) meaningful assessment, 4) appreciation for interprofessional education, 5) personal enrichment, and 6) overall feedback and recommendations. The students in this study felt that the blended pedagogy communication module enhanced their learning and boosted their confidence in facing similar situations. Interprofessional education was well-accepted among students as they attained a deeper understanding on the importance of interprofessional learning and an appreciation towards other professionals. Blended pedagogy can be used in teaching communication skills to nursing students to provide a holistic and up-to-date learning experience. Future studies should consider engaging students in face-to-face interviews to obtain
Asamsama, Octaviana Hemmy; Huang, Leesa; Nelson, R. Brett; Chen, Cin-Ru; Huang, Lily; Kwon, Kyongboon; Kodama, Naoko
Relative to positive psychology, a focus on increasing psychological well-being has been recently supported. Positive psychology is the study of influences and processes that contribute to the successful and optimal functioning of individuals. Nurturing and encouraging wellness competencies creates a buffer against mental illness and fosters…
Lucas A. Keefer
Full Text Available While social class has recently become a prominent topic in social psychological research, much of this effort has focused on the psychological consequences of objective and subjective indices of class (e.g., income, perceived status. This approach sheds light on the consequences of social class itself, but overlooks a construct of central importance in earlier theorizing on class: class consciousness, or the extent to which individuals acknowledge and situate themselves within class relations. The current paper offers a psychological model of class consciousness comprised of five elements: awareness of social class, perceptions of class conflict, beliefs about the permeability of class groups, identification with a class group, and personal experience of being treated as a member of one’s class. We offer a measure assessing those central dimensions and assess differences in these dimensions by age, gender, indices of social class, political ideology, and among different class groups. Finally, we offer suggestions for how an awareness of class consciousness may enrich social psychology and ultimately foster political change.
Piquero, Gemma; Vargas-Balbuena, Javier
We provide a simple theoretical study of beams non-uniformly polarized across their transverse sections which can be introduced in undergraduate optics courses. In order to generate such beams we propose to use a slightly convergent (or divergent) linearly and uniformly polarized beam impinging on an anisotropic uniaxial material with the beam propagation direction along the optic axis. Analytical expressions for the Jones vector, Stokes parameters, ellipticity and azimuth at each point of the transverse section, perpendicular to the propagation direction, are obtained at the output of this system. By means of these parameters a detailed description of the state of polarization across the transverse profile is given
Nordsteien, Anita; Horntvedt, May-Elin T; Syse, Jonn
Health care personnel are expected to be familiar with evidence-based practice (EBP). Asking clinical questions, conducting systematic literature searches and conducting critical appraisal of research findings have been some of the barriers to EBP. To improve undergraduate nurses' research skills, a collaborative library-faculty teaching intervention was established in 2012. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the collaborative library-faculty teaching intervention affected the nursing students' research skills when writing their final theses. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis were used. The study focused on a final year undergraduate nurse training programme in Norway. 194 theses submitted between 2013 and 2015 were collected and assessed. The students were exposed to the intervention for respectively one, two and three years during this period. Descriptive statistics were used to compare each year's output over the three-year period and to examine the frequency of the use of various databases, types of information and EBP-tools. Qualitative data was used to capture the students' reasoning behind their selection processes in their research. The research skills with regard to EBP have clearly improved over the three years. There was an increase in employing most EBP-tools and the justifications were connected to important EBP principles. The grades in the upper half of the grading scale increased from 66.7 to 82.1% over the period 2013 to 2015, and a correlation was found between grades and critical appraisal skills. The collaborative library-faculty teaching intervention employed has been successful in the promotion of nursing student research skills as far as the EBP principles are concerned. Writing a thesis in the undergraduate nursing programme is important to develop and practice these research skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objective: The research problem of this article is centred on the preferences for smartphone apps by the growing market of smartphone users in South Africa. The study includes a demographic profile of the users to establish what attracts this market into downloading smartphone apps. Methodology: The study employed a mono-method, quantitative methodological framework with an online survey as the data collection instrument. The survey was conducted amongst undergraduate university students in 2013 and repeated again in 2014. Results: It was found that the ‘young adult’ demographic, of which the sample of undergraduate university students formed a part, was discerning about which apps they downloaded and that the frequency of downloads occurred less than once a month in most cases. Information and entertainment needs were amongst the top reasons users indicated as motivations for downloading apps. Conclusion: The study’s findings confirmed that the sample had definite preferences regarding which apps the users were downloading, and these preferences depended on the needs that they wished to fulfil. The study also revealed that, even though users were aware of security threats associated with downloading apps, this knowledge did not deter them from continuing to download apps. Future research recommendations also arose from the study, giving direction to prospective studies.
Honnekeri, Bianca S; Goel, Akhil; Umate, Maithili; Shah, Nilesh; De Sousa, Avinash
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a globally prevalent, chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder affecting youth. With comorbidities including major depression, substance abuse, lower educational and work attainment, and increased suicide risk, it has a significant public health burden. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of SAD in urban Indian undergraduate students and to study their Facebook (FB) usage patterns. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, 316 undergraduate students were screened for social anxiety using validated instruments, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and divided into two groups based on scores obtained. The groups were then compared with regards to behaviors and attitudes toward Facebook, obtained from a self-report questionnaire. SAD was estimated to be a significant, prevalent (7.8%) disorder in otherwise productive youth, and showed female preponderance. Higher specific social phobia scores were associated with the inability to reduce Facebook use, urges toward increasing use, spending more time thinking about Facebook, negative reactions to restricting use, and using it to forget one's problems. SAD was estimated to have a prevalence of 7.8% in our study, and was associated with stronger FB usage attitudes and patterns. We recommend that the relationship between social anxiety and Internet use be explored further, to study the possibility of Internet-based screening and intervention strategies having wider reach and appeal in socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mann, Elizabeth G; Medves, Jennifer; Vandenkerkhof, Elizabeth G
Mobile technology presents new opportunities for nursing education and ultimately the provision of nursing care. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of mobile technology in undergraduate nursing education. In this evaluation study, undergraduate nursing students were provided with iPod Touch devices containing best practice guidelines. Computer self-efficacy was assessed, and the Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify potential predictors of the use of mobile technology. Questionnaires were completed at baseline (n = 33) and postimplementation (n = 23). Feedback on feasibility issues was recorded throughout the study period. Students generally found the devices useful, and few technical problems were identified; however, lack of skill in using the devices and lack of support from staff in the clinical setting were commonly identified issues. Self-efficacy scores were high throughout the study. Attitudes, perceptions of the desirability of use, perceived personal control over use, and intentions of using the device were lower postimplementation than at baseline. Attitude toward the technology predicted intention to use the device after graduation. Mobile technology may promote evidence-informed practice; however, supporting students' acquisition of related skills may optimize use. Successful integration of mobile technology into practice requires attention to factors that affect student attitudes.
Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J
School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Gutmann, Joanna; Kühbeck, Felizian; Berberat, Pascal O.; Fischer, Martin R.; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio
The ubiquity of the internet and computer-based technologies has an increasing impact on higher education and the way students access information for learning. Moreover, there is a paucity of information about the quantitative and qualitative use of learning media by the current student generation. In this study we systematically analyzed the use of digital and non-digital learning resources by undergraduate medical students. Daily online surveys and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a cohort of 338 third year medical students enrolled in a general pharmacology course. Our data demonstrate a predominant use of digital over non-digital learning resources (69 ± 7% vs. 31 ± 7%; p students. Most used media for learning were lecture slides (26.8 ± 3.0%), apps (22.0 ± 3.7%) and personal notes (15.5 ± 2.7%), followed by textbooks (> 300 pages) (10.6 ± 3.3%), internet search (7.9 ± 1.6%) and e-learning cases (7.6 ± 3.0%). When comparing learning media use of teaching vs. pre-exam self-study periods, textbooks were used significantly less during self-study (-55%; p learning cases (+176%; p learning resources by undergraduate medical students, in particular mobile applications. PMID:25849565
Tharani, Ambreen; Husain, Yusra; Warwick, Ian
Students can experience multiple stressors during their academic life which have an impact on their emotional health and academic progress. This study sought to explore students' understanding of and factors affecting their emotional well-being in an undergraduate nursing programme at a private nursing institution in Karachi, Pakistan. In this qualitative study, data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews using a self-designed guide from 16 participants in total, drawn from various years of the selected undergraduate programme. Participants noted that the quality of the 'learning environment' was a key influence on their emotional well-being. They highlighted faculty role and teaching approaches, academic expectations and availability of learning resources as important factors that affected their emotional well-being as well as their academic performance. Institutional support was also deemed important. Factors associated with a 'hidden curriculum' were found to be a threat to students' emerging sense of professionalism. Suggestions are given as to how the learning environment in the nursing programme under study can be improved to take into account students' emotional well-being. Emphasis needs to be laid on developing supportive faculty role to provide conducive learning environment and professional development of students. Efforts to develop stress-free academic environment with supportive institutional policies need to be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The undergraduate science programme was launched at the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU in 1991-92 with an enrolment of 1,210 students. The programme was well received, and enrolments increased over the years. However, the success rates have not kept pace with enrolment.In this paper, the authors report the results of an evaluation of the undergraduate Physics programme at IGNOU. The evaluation, the first of its type for this programme, adapted the major tenets of the CIPP model. The findings are based on the responses from a randomly chosen sample of 509 learners across India. The methods employed for the study include records, document, and database analysis, surveys, and case studies.Although the University has enhanced access to higher science education, the attrition rate is high (73%, and the success rate is low. The authors recommend that the University review and reorient its strategies for providing good quality, learner-centred higher education in science subjects. The programme should address the concerns of the learners about the effectiveness of the student support systems, the difficulty level, and the learner-friendliness of study materials with the goal of achieving long-term sustainability while maintaining parity with the conventional system. The need for improving the presentation of the courses and simplifying the mathematical details is emphasised.
Szabo, Attila; Abrahám, Júlia
Running yields positive changes in affect, but the external validity of controlled studies has received little attention in the literature. In this inquiry, 50 recreational runners completed the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (Gauvin & Rejeskí, 1993) before and after a bout of self-planned running on an urban running path. Positive changes were seen in all four measures of affect (p run, weekly running time, weekly running distance, and running experience) to the observed changes in affect. The results have revealed that exercise characteristics accounted for only 14-30% of the variance in the recreational runners' affect, in both directions. It is concluded that psychological benefits of recreational running may be linked to placebo (conditioning and/or expectancy) effects.
Sundberg, Kristina; Josephson, Anna; Reeves, Scott; Nordquist, Jonas
The mission of undergraduate medical education leaders is to strive towards the enhancement of quality of medical education and health care. The aim of this qualitative study is, with the help of critical perspectives, to contribute to the research area of undergraduate medical education leaders and their identity formation; how can the identity of undergraduate medical education leaders be defined and further explored from a power perspective? In this explorative study, 14 educational leaders at a medical programme in Scandinavia were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. The data was analysed through Moustakas' structured, phenomenological analysis approach and then pattern matched with Gee's power-based identity model. Educational leaders identify themselves more as mediators than leaders and do not feel to any larger extent that their professional identity is authorised by the university. These factors potentially create difficulties when trying to communicate with medical teachers, often also with a weaker sense of professional identity, about medical education. The perceptions of the professional identity of undergraduate medical education leaders provide us with important notions on the complexities on executing their important mission to develop medical education: their perceptions of ambiguity towards the process of trying to lead teachers toward educational development and a perceived lack of authorisation of their work from the university level. These are important flaws to observe and correct when improving the context in which undergraduate medical education leaders are trying to develop and improve undergraduate medical programmes. A practical outcome of the results of this study is the facilitation of design of faculty development programmes for educational leaders in undergraduate medial education.
Asiedu, Kofi; Kyei, Samuel; Boampong, Frank; Ocansey, Stephen
To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of symptomatic dry eye disease (DED) among undergraduate students in a Ghanaian university. This cross-sectional study included 700 undergraduate students of the University of Cape Coast, aged 18 to 34 years. Participants completed questionnaires delivered directly to randomly and systematically selected subjects to detect symptomatic dry eye and its predictive factors. Symptomatic dry eye was defined as any reported symptom on the Standard Patient Evaluation Eye Dryness (SPEED) questionnaire reported as often or constant or if any symptom on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) was reported as most of the time or all of the time. Furthermore, OSDI ≥13 and SPEED ≥6 were used to defined symptomatic dry eye and prevalence were also estimated with these criteria as secondary measures. Current symptoms of dry eye and possible risk factors such as age, gender, current alcohol drinking, use of oral contraceptives, use of computer more than an hour daily, environmental conditions, allergies, and self-medication with over-the-counter eye drops were the main outcome measures. We used logistic regression analysis to examine the associations between dry eye and its predictive factors. Of the 700 participants, 650 completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of symptomatic dry eye was 44.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.6%-48.2%). There was a significant association between symptomatic dry eye and discomfort with eyes in windy conditions (χ=110.1; df=4; Peye drops (OR 4.20; 95% CI, 2.61-6.74; Pdry eye. Sex was predictive in univariate analysis but was not significantly associated in multivariate analysis. The prevalence of symptomatic dry eye among undergraduate students in Ghana is high and it is associated with self-medication with over-the-counter eye drops, allergies, use of oral contraceptive, windy conditions, very low humid areas, air-conditioned rooms, and sex. Relevant input directed against modifiable risks
Full Text Available Objectives; Aim of the descriptive study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of physical and psychological symptoms so as to determine palliative care needs of cancer patients. Methods; Total 142 patients who were treated in oncology clinic at an university hospital were enrolled in the cross sectional research. “Descriptive Information Questionnaire” was developed by the authors and the adapted “Beck Depression Inventory (BAI” and “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BDI”, “Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS” to evaluate psychological and physical symptoms were used to collect data. Results; The mean age was 49,35±36,61 years and 54.9% of them were out-patients. %16.2 of the patients were diagnosed with colon and 13.4% breast cancer. The mean BDI score was 8.59±6.36, and 88.7% the patients have depressive symptoms. The mean BAI score was 11.39±7.53. The three most frequent problems were fatigue (87.3%, breathlessness (76.1%, and insomnia (67.6%. The mean of the highest-ranking problems were anorexia (6.02+2.77, fatigue (5.33+2.09 and insomnia (0.04+2.42. Conclusion: The study shows that some symptoms might be experienced by majority of the cancer patients as well as some symptoms might be felt more severe by fewer patients. Therefore, It should be assessed that both the frequency and severity of symptoms that patients experienced associated with cancer and its’ treatment individually and focusing on primary care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 219-224
Full Text Available The current study aimed at diagnosing the language needs of Iranian undergraduate students of computer engineering in order to find out whether there is any significant difference in perceptions between the students and their ESAP (English for Specific Academic Purpose teachers, concerning their Reading skill needs. To conduct the intended research study, both qualitative and quantitative approaches were taken. The quantitative approach included the use of self-assessment, and two questionnaires, and the qualitative approach included participant observation. The questionnaires were adapted from Atai and Shoja (2009, and were distributed among 500 undergraduate students of computer engineering and 30 ESAP teachers who were chosen randomly through cluster sampling method from thirteen universities. Mann-Whitney U-test results showed that there was a significant difference between perceptions of the students and their teachers about their Reading skill needs and ‘Reading’ was mentioned as one of the most difficult skills for the students. Moreover, it was found that the majority of students suffered from low level of General English Language Proficiency, and also ‘low motivation’ and the ‘character’ of teachers were found to be important factors affecting students’ learning. Keywords: Needs analysis, English for specific purposes, English for academic purposes, Present situation analysis, Target situation analysis
Ramesh, Gayathri; Pathak, Rajeev; Pathak, Sunita; Raj, Amrita; Kumar, Amit; Katiyar, Anuradha
The screening and the early detection of the premalignant and malignant lesions are the only means for controlling the oral cancer which is known to be one of the leading causes for mortality worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology though not a substitute for biopsy can be a powerful tool for its early detection. Dental Surgeons can play a great role in this direction. The present study was undertaken to assess the self-reported knowledge and attitude regarding the early detection of oral cancer and exfoliative cytology among the undergraduates of Rama Dental College, Kanpur. A pretested questionnaire based cross sectional study consisting of twenty four questions was conducted among hundred randomly selected students from third year, final year and intern's batch. According to 73% of students biopsy was the special test done in oral cancer detection and only 59% had heard regarding oral cytology technique. Formalin was the fixative known for cytology smears among 61%. Significance of toluidine blue staining was not known by 62%. Seventy seven percent of students were not aware about classes of cytology reporting. Eighty six percent of students felt that the adequacy of training in cytology was lagging. This survey identified an existing gap in the knowledge among the dental students regarding cytology as a diagnostic aid in oral cancer detection. This emphasizes the need to provide training for undergraduates at clinical level on regular basis and also through CDE and oral can-cer detection workshops.
Mirzazadeh, Azim; Gandomkar, Roghayeh; Hejri, Sara Mortaz; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Koochak, Hamid Emadi; Golestani, Abolfazl; Jafarian, Ali; Jalili, Mohammad; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Saleh, Narges; Shahi, Farhad; Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami
The purpose of this study was to utilize the Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) evaluation model as a comprehensive framework to guide initiating, planning, implementing and evaluating a revised undergraduate medical education programme. The eight-year longitudinal evaluation study consisted of four phases compatible with the four components of the CIPP model. In the first phase, we explored the strengths and weaknesses of the traditional programme as well as contextual needs, assets, and resources. For the second phase, we proposed a model for the programme considering contextual features. During the process phase, we provided formative information for revisions and adjustments. Finally, in the fourth phase, we evaluated the outcomes of the new undergraduate medical education programme in the basic sciences phase. Information was collected from different sources such as medical students, faculty members, administrators, and graduates, using various qualitative and quantitative methods including focus groups, questionnaires, and performance measures. The CIPP model has the potential to guide policy makers to systematically collect evaluation data and to manage stakeholders' reactions at each stage of the reform in order to make informed decisions. However, the model may result in evaluation burden and fail to address some unplanned evaluation questions.
Fillman, Valentina M
Career choice variables of career interest, self-efficacy, and perception were chosen based upon Social Cognitive Career Theory concepts for study between nursing and undecided undergraduate student groups. Components of the Career Search Questionnaire and Perceptions of Professional Nursing instruments were combined and adapted to form the Career Choice Survey for use in this research. This web-based survey totaling 40 questions was sent to 577 undergraduate students with a 12% response rate (N=68). Due to the need to increase nursing recruitment and retention, hypotheses were developed that distinguish if any relationship existed between groups. Findings of this quantitative study resulted in statistically significant results on two of the three variable hypotheses (p=.006 for career interest, p=.002 for self-efficacy, p=.395 for perception), aligning with previous research and provide insight into the change in nursing perception. Overall, scores for each subscale were encouraging to current nurses and expected from undecided students. Implications for practice include increases in accurate nursing portrayal in the media and early career counseling to younger populations. Nurse educators can further research in career choice with focus on continuing education for current nurses and recruitment of young nursing hopefuls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this article we presented the computerized tools for psychological studies of memory. The importance of implementing computerized automated tools for psychological studies is discussed. It has been shown that this tools can be used both for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies. The validity of these tools for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies of memory can be seen as the first step to use automated computerized tools for big data collection in psychology.
Full Text Available As personalized development for undergraduate is the trend of higher education development, the undergraduate tutors should play their role in the establishment of personalized personnel training mode. Based on reform practice of university education integration, this article gives a deepening research on the essence and implement methods of undergraduate tutorial system. To implement and strengthen the function of undergraduate tutorial system, we need to increase teachers’ comprehensive quality training, build a multiple-dimension, full-process and whole-staff-participation educational concept, absorb the enterprise mentors to give guidance on students’ career planning and implement the scientific and reasonable undergraduate administrative evaluation system. With continuous theory exploration and practice research, the quality of undergraduate talent training has been gradually improved.
Smith, Tara D; Maton, Kenneth I
Demographic trends suggest increasing numbers of multiple racial heritage students attending U.S. campuses and universities, a change reflected within psychology. However, there is little empirical investigation into the educational experiences and needs of multiracials. The current study (the second in a series of studies to use data from a national survey of psychology graduate and undergraduate students) compared 2 multiracial groups, Asian American/European American and Latino/a/European Americans, with their single-heritage counterparts on several variables of interest-academic supports and barriers, linkage between barriers faced and ethnicity, and perceived cultural diversity. Results indicated that multiracial groups reported more of a link between academic barriers experienced and their ethnicity than European American students, but less of a link than their monoracial minority peers. No differences between groups were found related to academic supports, academic barriers, and perceived cultural diversity. Study limitations, future research, and implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Villar, Feliciano; Fabà, Josep; Celdrán, Montserrat
The goals of this study were to design and implement an experiential learning assignment in an undergraduate developmental psychology and aging course and to explore students' perceptions of it. One hundred and forty-three first-year students enrolled in an introductory course on developmental psychology across the life span recorded, transcribed,…
Slezak, Jonathan M.; Faas, Caitlin
This study implemented the components of interteaching as a probe to teach American Psychological Association (APA) Style to undergraduate university students in a psychology research methods and statistics course. The interteaching method was compared to the traditional lecture-based approach between two sections of the course with the same…
Schwartz, Jonathan P.; Buboltz, Walter C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between attachment to parents and psychological separation in college students. Three hundred sixty-eight undergraduate students completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987) and the Psychological Separation Inventory (Hoffman, 1984). Results…
Two studies examined undergraduates' metacognitive awareness of six empirically-supported learning strategies. Study 1 results overall suggested an inability to predict the learning outcomes of educational scenarios describing the strategies of dual-coding, static-media presentations, low-interest extraneous details, testing, and spacing; there was, however, weak endorsement of the strategy of generating one's own study materials. In addition, an independent measure of metacognitive self-regulation was correlated with scenario performance. Study 2 demonstrated higher prediction accuracy for students who had received targeted instruction on applied memory topics in their psychology courses, and the best performance for those students directly exposed to the original empirical studies from which the scenarios were derived. In sum, this research suggests that undergraduates are largely unaware of several specific strategies that could benefit memory for course information; further, training in applied learning and memory topics has the potential to improve metacognitive judgments in these domains.
Full Text Available The year 1995 was considered the beginning of the Internet age in Malaysia. The growth in the number of Internet hosts in Malaysia began around 1996. Since then, the use of Internet has grown tremendously and, the use of Internet by students at universities now is common in Malaysia. Students use the Internet for social, entertainment, and educational purposes. This paper presents the findings from a preliminary study on how undergraduate students at a local university in Malaysia use the Internet for academic purposes. The research questions answered in this paper are: (i what is the level of Internet usage skill? (ii How is the Internet used for academic purposes? (iii To what extent are Internet facilities used for academic purposes? (iv What are the pathways and search engines used to find information? and (v What is the perception of students toward the quality of learning by using the Internet for academic purposes? The answers to these questions are obtained through the use of a questionnaire completed by 92 undergraduate students at a local university. The data collected were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The results obtained provide some information about the extent of Internet use for academic purposes by graduate students.
Rachel E.A. Horak
Full Text Available A number of national reports, including Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, have called for drastic changes in how undergraduate biology is taught. To that end, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM developed new Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate microbiology that outline a comprehensive curriculum for any undergraduate introductory microbiology course or program of study. Designed to foster enduring understanding of core microbiology concepts, the Guidelines work synergistically with backwards course design to focus teaching on student-centered goals and priorities. In order to qualitatively assess how the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are used by educators and learn more about the needs of microbiology educators, the ASM Education Board distributed two surveys to the ASM education community. In this report, we discuss results of these surveys (353 responses. We found that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are being implemented in many different types of courses at all undergraduate levels. Educators indicated that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines were very helpful when planning courses and assessments. We discuss some specific ways in which the ASM Curriculum Guidelines have been used in undergraduate classrooms. The survey identified some barriers that microbiology educators faced when trying to adopt the ASM Curriculum Guidelines, including lack of time, lack of financial resources, and lack of supporting resources. Given the self-reported challenges to implementing the ASM Curriculum Guidelines in undergraduate classrooms, we identify here some activities related to the ASM Curriculum Guidelines that the ASM Education Board has initiated to assist educators in the implementation process.
Kerrison, Dorothy Adair
The primary objective of this pilot study is to provide evidence that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program is both appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students both in everyday life as well as their future health careers. Two validated programs were combined into one program in order to evaluate their combined effects: Cooking With a Chef and Cooking Matters at the Store. The secondary objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the components and reliability of a questionnaire created specifically for this pilot study. A review of past literature was written, which included culinary nutrition as a source of primary prevention, the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition, and the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition. Based on the literature review, it was determined that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program was appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students interested in pursuing health-related careers. The pilot study design was a semi-crossover study: all four groups received the program, however, two groups were first treated as the control groups. All fifty-four participants received 5 sessions of culinary nutrition information from Cooking With a Chef, collaboratively delivered by a nutrition educator and a chef, and one session of information about shopping healthy on a budget from Cooking Matters at the Store in the form of a grocery store tour led by the nutrition educator. Three questionnaires were administered to the participants that evaluated culinary nutrition and price knowledge, cooking attitudes, and opinions of the programs' relevance to participants' everyday lives and careers. Two of the questionnaires, including a questionnaire developed specifically for the pilot study, were delivered as a pre- and post-test while the third questionnaire was delivered as a post-test. Eight random participants also partook in a focus group session led by the nutrition
Quince, Thelma; Thiemann, Pia; Benson, John; Hyde, Sarah
Empathy is important to patient care. It enhances patients’ satisfaction, comfort, self-efficacy, and trust which in turn may facilitate better diagnosis, shared decision making, and therapy adherence. Empathetic doctors experience greater job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Understanding the development of empathy of tomorrow’s health care professionals is important. However, clinical empathy is poorly defined and difficult to measure, while ways to enhance it remain unclear. This review examines empathy among undergraduate medical students, focusing upon three main questions: How is empathy measured? This section discusses the problems of assessing empathy and outlines the utility of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Student Version and Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Both have been used widely to assess medical students’ empathy. Does empathy change during undergraduate medical education? The trajectory of empathy during undergraduate medical education has been and continues to be debated. Potential reasons for contrasting results of studies are outlined. What factors may influence the development of empathy? Although the influence of sex is widely recognized, the impact of culture, psychological well-being, and aspects of undergraduate curricula are less well understood. This review identifies three interrelated issues for future research into undergraduate medical students’ empathy. First, the need for greater clarity of definition, recognizing that empathy is multidimensional. Second, the need to develop meaningful ways of measuring empathy which include its component dimensions and which are relevant to patients’ experiences. Medical education research has generally relied upon single, self-report instruments, which have utility across large populations but are limited. Finally, there is a need for greater methodological rigor in investigating the possible determinants of clinical empathy in medical education. Greater
Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede
In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness....
Sbarra, David A; Hasselmo, Karen; Nojopranoto, Widyasita
Marital separation and divorce are associated with increased risk for early death, and the magnitude of this association rivals that of many well-established public health factors. In the case of divorce, however, the mechanisms explaining precisely why and how some people are at risk for early death remain unclear. This paper reviews what is known about the association between divorce and risk for all-cause mortality, then discusses four emerging themes in this area of research: the biological intermediaries linking divorce to pathophysiology and disease onset, moving beyond the statistical mean, focusing research on the diathesis-stress model, and studying how opportunity foreclosures may place people on a trajectory toward poor distal health outcomes. These ideas are grounded in a set of public lay commentaries about the association between divorce and death; in this way, the paper seeks to integrate current research ideas with how the general public thinks about divorce and its correlates. Although this paper focuses on divorce, many of the emerging themes are applicable to the study of psychosocial stress and health more generally. Therefore, the study of divorce and death provides a good case study for health psychology and considers new questions that can be pursued in a variety of research areas.
Full Text Available In this manuscript, we discuss research findings from a collaborative visual arts curricular unit on ableism, which we implemented in non-Disability Studies undergraduate courses at two universities during the 2012-2013 academic year. Our project builds on previous research in which we (Derby, 2015, in press; Karr & Weida, 2013 began adding Disability Studies arts pedagogy to our undergraduate coursework. For this project, we developed a shared unit, which we implemented in a general freshman seminar course, an introductory art teaching methods course, and an upper level art education course on applied technology. Utilizing a pedagogy of transformation, we engaged students with shared resources, including lectures, readings, and videos on Disability Studies and ableism; the project culminated with each student producing and exhibiting both an artwork and an artist's statement. After reviewing the literature and describing the project and research methods, we provide a nuanced discussion of the data, especially the artwork. The data indicate that our students, who were previously unexposed to ableism, conceptualized ableism at least on an elementary level, with many students demonstrating advanced conceptualization of ableism in one or more of three categories. Our findings suggest that integrating Disability Studies into non-Disability Studies curricula on a small scale can be useful, but that results are limited by the complexities of disability. The success of the project indicates that incorporating Disability Studies into standard curricula through a pedagogy of transformation can reach typical college students who are unfamiliar with Disability Studies concepts.
Sethy, Satya Sundar
'Professional Ethics' has been offered as a compulsory course to undergraduate engineering students in a premier engineering institution of India. It was noticed that students' perceptions and attitudes were frivolous and ornamental towards this course. Course instructors and institution authorities were motivated to find out the factors contributing to this awkwardness. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared and administrated to 336 students registered for the July-November 2014 semester. The study found two factors contributing to students' indifference towards the Professional Ethics course. First, most of the students did not have self-interest to join the engineering programme, and while pursuing their study, they decided to switch to a different field upon completion of their engineering study. Second, students who desired to be engineers in their future believed that engineering code of ethics is not really referred to in most of the engineering jobs, and therefore Professional Ethics course is only meant for classroom discussions.
Saad, Syafawati Ab.; Azziz, Nor Hizamiyani Abdul; Zakaria, Siti Aisyah; Yazid, Nornadia Mohd
The purpose of this paper is to study the trend performance of the first year engineering students at a public university in Mathematics course: Engineering Mathematics I. We analyze how ethnicity factor influenced students' performance in mathematics course over three years period. The performance of the undergraduate students in this study is measured by their cumulative grade point average (CGPA) in the first semester. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) will be used to test the significance difference between three variables (Malay, Chinese and Indian). Method of simple linear regression (SLR) is used to test the relationship between the performances and to predict the future performance for this course. The findings of the study show that Chinese students perform better than Malay and Indian students.
Yue, Xiao Dong; Bender, Michael; Cheung, Chau-Kiu
Separate studies of Chinese and Western individuals have suggested that there are cultural differences in perceptions of creativity, particularly in an emphasis on meritorious salience versus aesthetic salience as bases for creativity, but cross-cultural studies are needed to substantiate that difference. In this study, undergraduates from Giessen…
Dolan, Erin; Johnson, Deborah
Involvement in research has become a fixture in undergraduate science education across the United States. Graduate and postdoctoral students are often called upon to mentor undergraduates at research universities, yet mentoring relationships in undergraduate—graduate/postdoctoral student dyads and undergraduate—graduate/postdoctoral student—faculty triads have been largely unexamined. Here, we present findings of an exploratory case study framed by relational theory that identifies the motives, gains, and challenges reported by graduate/postdoctoral students who mentored undergraduates in research. Graduate/postdoctoral mentors experienced a wide range of gains, including improved qualifications and career preparation, cognitive and socioemotional growth, improved teaching and communication skills, and greater enjoyment of their own apprenticeship experience. Notably, graduate/postdoctoral mentors reported twice as many gains as challenges, neither of which were limited by their motives for mentoring. Indeed, their motives were fairly narrow and immediate, focusing on how mentoring would serve as a means to an end, while the gains and challenges they reported indicated a longer-term vision of how mentoring influenced their personal, cognitive, and professional growth. We propose that understanding the impact of mentoring undergraduates on the education and training of graduate/postdoctoral students may uncover new ideas about the benefits reaped through undergraduate research experiences.
Xu, Xianglong; Lin, Qianyi; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Runzhi; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong
Background Previous studies showed that social media is associated with sleep quality. WeChat (a native social media in China) is very popular in China, especially among the youth. In the second quarter of 2016, Tencent?s WeChat had 806 million monthly active users. The study sought to identify the influence of WeChat on the sleep quality among undergraduate students. Methods A cross-sectional survey adopted a multi-stage stratified sampling survey to investigate undergraduates in Chongqing, ...
van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Lonner, W.J.; Dinnel, D.L.; Hayes, S.A.; Sattler, D.N.
From a methodological perspective cross-cultural studies in psychology differ in three dimensions. First, cross-cultural psychological studies can be exploratory or test specific hypotheses. Second, some cross-cultural studies compare countries or ethnic groups while other cross-cultural studies
Marcos Ruiz; María José Contreras
Psychology undergraduates can benefit from direct experiences with laboratory procedures of psychological phenomena. However, they are not always available for students within a distance education program. The present study included students from the Spanish National Distance Education University (UNED) that were to take part in a Basic Psychology examination session. They participated in web-sessions on a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) laboratory procedure. The aim was to study whether their perfor...
Kalaitzidis, Evdokia; Schmitz, Karl
The study aims to explore nursing students' perceptions of the relative value of various aspects of the ethical component of the undergraduate topic, 'Ethics and Law applied to Nursing' (topic NURS2104). To enable time for reflection on ethics in nursing, sampling occurred 1 year after successful completion of the above-mentioned topic and after successful completion of all but the final clinical experience components of the Bachelor of Nursing (BN) degree. A significant proportion of respondents perceived ethics education as relevant to professional practices. It is also noteworthy that the ethical decision-making strategies that had been incorporated into the topic (NURS2104) became transformed by the clinical experience of each particular student. While results of this study are not conclusive, they nevertheless provide important information for future nursing students on the evolutionary development of ethics education. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald
Two recent studies indicated that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills. The current study investigated whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. The Scholastic Assessment Test—Mathematics (SAT-Math) scores were analysed for 150 CA undergraduates: 42 writers of Chinese and 108 non-writers of Chinese. The results suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. An underlying mechanism may be the common cognitive components that encompass writing Chinese, spatial tasks, and SAT-Math. Contrary to previous findings with other populations in the USA, CA females scored slightly higher on SAT-Math than males. The finding supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.
Aikens, Melissa L; Sadselia, Sona; Watkins, Keiana; Evans, Mara; Eby, Lillian T; Dolan, Erin L
Undergraduate researchers at research universities are often mentored by graduate students or postdoctoral researchers (referred to collectively as "postgraduates") and faculty, creating a mentoring triad structure. Triads differ based on whether the undergraduate, postgraduate, and faculty member interact with one another about the undergraduate's research. Using a social capital theory framework, we hypothesized that different triad structures provide undergraduates with varying resources (e.g., information, advice, psychosocial support) from the postgraduates and/or faculty, which would affect the undergraduates' research outcomes. To test this, we collected data from a national sample of undergraduate life science researchers about their mentoring triad structure and a range of outcomes associated with research experiences, such as perceived gains in their abilities to think and work like scientists, science identity, and intentions to enroll in a PhD program. Undergraduates mentored by postgraduates alone reported positive outcomes, indicating that postgraduates can be effective mentors. However, undergraduates who interacted directly with faculty realized greater outcomes, suggesting that faculty interaction is important for undergraduates to realize the full benefits of research. The "closed triad," in which undergraduates, postgraduates, and faculty all interact directly, appeared to be uniquely beneficial; these undergraduates reported the highest gains in thinking and working like a scientist. © 2016 M. L. Aikens et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Brandriss, Mark E.
This article describes ways to incorporate high-precision measurements of the specific gravities of minerals into undergraduate courses in mineralogy and physical geology. Most traditional undergraduate laboratory methods of measuring specific gravity are suitable only for unusually large samples, which severely limits their usefulness for student…
Reis, Sonia Maria Nunes
The differences between European Portuguese (EP) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP) raise some interesting issues that are well worth considering through undergraduate university students' perceptions and attitudes. Instructors of undergraduate courses in Portuguese literature suggest that in terms of curriculum design, curriculum delivery, and…
This is a case study of my reflections on teaching a first-year undergraduate tutorial on Ancient Greek Philosophy in the UK. This study draws upon the notion of reflective practice as an essential feature of teaching, in this case applied to Higher Education. My aim is to show how a critical engagement with my teaching practices and the overall…
Terry, Roger L.
Undergraduate theses are an excellent method of providing paraprofessional research experience for psychology students. Describes some of the problems (and their remedies) in conducting and advising baccalaureate psychology theses, many of which were published or read at professional meetings. (CS)
Aikens, Melissa L.; Sadselia, Sona; Watkins, Keiana; Evans, Mara; Eby, Lillian T.; Dolan, Erin L.
Undergraduate researchers at research universities are often mentored by graduate students or postdoctoral researchers (referred to collectively as "postgraduates") and faculty, creating a mentoring triad structure. Triads differ based on whether the undergraduate, postgraduate, and faculty member interact with one another about the…
Olga Lucia Obando-Salazar
Full Text Available Qualitative methodology is used in social and intervention research because it facilitates a deeper analysis of causal factors and development of alternative solutions to social problems. Based on the findings of three studies in the field of political and gender psychology, this article focuses on Participant Action Research (PAR as a useful qualitative approach to deal with social phenomena, such as racism, violence against women, and the problem of children and youth who have been dislocated as the result of armed conflict and sheltered by the Colombian government's program for persons relocated to civil society. This article is composed of three parts. The first part offers historical and theoretical background to the Action Research (AR paradigm, its validation criteria and their meaning for the development of the Latin American rendering of Participant Action Research (PAR. The second part synthesizes trends in the AR approach in the United States and Germany, discusses feminist research and compares these to trends in PAR in Latin America. The third part is a description of Participant Action Research as an intervention method, including features, models, goals, and concepts. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060438
Jesso, A. T.; Kondratieva, M. F.
In this study, instructors of undergraduate mathematics from post-secondary institutions in Newfoundland were surveyed (N = 13) and interviewed (N = 8) about their use of, experiences with, and views on, technologically assisted teaching. It was found that the majority of them regularly use technologies for organizational and communication purposes. However, the use of math-specific technology such as computer algebra systems, or dynamic geometry software for instructional, exploratory, and creative activities with students takes place mostly on an individual basis, only occasionally, and is very much topic specific. This was even the case for those instructors who use technology proficiently in their research. The data also suggested that familiarity with and discussions of examples of technology implementation in teaching at regular and field-oriented professional development seminars within mathematics departments could potentially increase the use of math-specific technology by instructors.
McMillan, J. [ed.
The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. Ten students from throughout the midwestern and eastern areas of the country were accepted into the program. These students selected projects in the areas of marine sciences, biostatistics and epidemiology, and toxicology. The research experience for all these students and their mentors was very positive. The seminars were well attended and the students showed their interest in the presentations and environmental sciences as a whole by presenting the speakers with thoughtful and intuitive questions. This report contains the research project written presentations prepared by the student interns.
Fábio Nogueira Pereira
Full Text Available This study researched how a population of 40 undergraduate students attending a career planning project in a private college perceived work, career and their relation with interpersonal relationships. The questionnaire revealed that most subjects perceived work positively, reported through four different perceptions of work, reported perceiving a social dimension of work, but about half of it reported that they didn’t perceive people in general working in a way that showed being concerned about changing society. When the subjects listed people who worked with the same values they held, reports ranged through parents, bosses and friends; when asked about people that didn’t have the same values, they listed work-mates, peers and siblings; when asked about most important people for their career, they listed their parents separately, teachers and children. Data suggested a wide participation of relationships in processing information and constructing conceptions related to work and career.
Pollock, M.; Judge, S.; Wiles, G. C.; Wilson, M. A.
The foundation of a Wooster education is the Independent Study (I.S.) program. Established in 1947, the I.S. program is widely recognized as an exemplary undergraduate research experience (AAC&U; US News and World Report; College that Change Lives by Loren Pope). I.S. requires every Wooster student to complete an original research project. This presentation describes the details of the Wooster I.S. and, based on our experiences, gives strategies for a successful mentored undergraduate research program. Overall, the I.S. process resembles a graduate research project. Students typically begin their work in the spring of their junior year when they review the literature, learn techniques, and write a proposal for their Senior I.S. research. Many students conduct field and lab work over the following summer, although this is not a requirement of the program. In their senior year, students work one-on-one with faculty members and sometimes in small (~4 person) research groups to drive their projects forward with an increasing sense of independence. I.S. culminates in a written thesis and oral defense. Most of our students present their work at national meetings and many projects are published in peer-reviewed journals. The success of the I.S. program is largely the result of two key components: (1) the integration of undergraduate research into the curriculum, and (2) the focus on student mentoring. We have thoughtfully structured our courses so that, as students move toward I.S., they progress from concrete to abstract concepts, and from simple to complex skills. The College also recognizes the value of I.S by assigning it credit; Students earn a full course credit for each semester of I.S. (3 courses total) and there is some credit in the faculty teaching load for I.S. advising. Advisors are really mentors who are invested in their students' academic and scholarly success. As mentors, we emphasize collaboration, provide guidance and support, and hold students
Amir Ashkan Nasiripour
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: It is necessary to study employees’ empowerment components to realize the empowerment process and enhance the organization's capacity to make empowerment atmosphere. Employee's viewpoints and attitudes affect organizational decision making and also their cooperation, partnership, and job satisfaction. Current research was done to study the empowerment components of the employees of the hospitals of Medical University of Qom in year 2011.Methods: This study was done using descriptive cross-sectional method on 365 employees of the hospitals of Qom University of Medical Sciences. The samples were equally selected from the hospitals using a stratified random method. The research tool was a questionnaire consisting of 15 closed-answer questions plus demographic characteristics. Data analysis was done using descriptive and analytical statistics. Independent t-test and analysis of variance was used to determine the intergroup differences. Results: The amount of the hospital employees’ empowerment components with a mean of 3.89 was in good condition. Also, the employees' attitude toward this category was different. There was a significant difference between men and women's attitude toward job meaningfulness. There was no significant association between psychological empowerment indices and age, academic discipline, education level, and the type of unit or ward's activity with confidence interval of 95% (p>0.05. There was also a statistically significant association between employees' work experience and the component of sense of effectiveness.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the amount of empowerment components in the employees of hospitals of the Qom University of Medical Sciences was in acceptable level. Therefore, it is suggested that university managers pay more attention to employees' capabilities for assigning more responsibilities to them, and make much effort by their programming to make an
Hamdy, H; Telmesani, A W; Al Wardy, N; Abdel-Khalek, N; Carruthers, G; Hassan, F; Kassab, S; Abu-Hijleh, M; Al-Roomi, K; O'malley, K; El Din Ahmed, M G; Raj, G A; Rao, G M; Sheikh, K
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have witnessed over the last 40 years a rapid and major social, cultural, and economic transformation. The development of medical education in the region is relatively new, dating from the late 1960s. An important goal among the medical colleges in the region is to graduate national physicians who can populate the healthcare service of each country. The aim of this study is to provide understanding of undergraduate medical education in each of the six GCC countries and the challenges that each face. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Fourteen senior medical faculty were requested to submit information about undergraduate medical education in their own countries, focusing on its historical background, student selection, curriculum, faculty, and challenges. The information provided was about 27 medical colleges: 16 from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), five from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), two from the Kingdom of Bahrain, two from Sultanate of Oman, one from Kuwait, and one from the State of Qatar. It was found that older colleges are reviewing their curriculum while new colleges are developing their programs following current trends in medical education, particularly problem-based learning and integrated curricula. The programs as described 'on paper' look good but what needs to be evaluated is the curriculum 'in action'. Faculty development in medical education is taking place in most of the region's medical colleges. The challenges reported were mainly related to shortages of faculty, availability of clinical training facilities and the need to more integration with the National Health Care services. Attention to quality, standards, and accreditation is considered essential by all colleges.
Hamdy, H; Telmesani, A W; Wardy, N Al; Abdel-Khalek, N; Carruthers, G; Hassan, F; Kassab, S; Abu-Hijleh, M; Al-Roomi, K; O'Malley, K; El Din Ahmed, M G; Raj, G A; Rao, G M; Sheikh, J
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have witnessed over the last 40 years a rapid and major social, cultural, and economic transformation. The development of medical education in the region is relatively new, dating from the late 1960s. An important goal among the medical colleges in the region is to graduate national physicians who can populate the healthcare service of each country. The aim of this study is to provide understanding of undergraduate medical education in each of the six GCC countries and the challenges that each face. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Fourteen senior medical faculty were requested to submit information about undergraduate medical education in their own countries, focusing on its historical background, student selection, curriculum, faculty, and challenges. The information provided was about 27 medical colleges: 16 from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), five from the United Arab Emirates, two from the Kingdom of Bahrain, two from Sultanate of Oman, one from Kuwait and one from the State of Qatar. It was found that older colleges are reviewing their curriculum while new colleges are developing their programs following current trends in medical education particularly problem-based learning and integrated curricula. The programs as described 'on paper' look good but what needs to be evaluated is the curriculum 'in action'. Faculty development in medical education is taking place in most of the region's medical colleges. The challenges reported were mainly related to shortages of faculty, availability of clinical training facilities, and the need to more integration with the National Health Care services. Attention to quality, standards, and accreditation is considered essential by all colleges.
Full Text Available The undergraduate program in Biotechnology at Federal University of Pará has been consolidated as excellence course in Pará, however there are still difficulties in some practice classes. In this way, the aim of this research was to develop low cost and easy implementation methodologies of teaching and learning that help the students to understand the integration of contents, and promote interdisciplinary and greater integration among professors. The main theme of the study was “Proteins: obtaining to analysis”. Professors charged of subjects in Biochemistry, Protein Biochemistry, Protein Engineering, Microbiology and Separation Methods of Biotech Products, has developed this work, which has been promoted by the program PROINT of UFPA. The main purpose of PROINT has been the consolidation of undergraduate teaching projects. Thirty students enrolled in the third semester were involved in this study. To perform the practice classes: a were made models with alternative materials (Styrofoam, cardboard; b were used the tutorials and exercises online as a complement to the teaching and learning process and; c were analyzed chromatograms, simulation purification steps, assembled and interpreted tables purification (falcon tubes, colored beads. Were used also conventional materials and reagents purchased in practices related to microbiology with the support of PROINT. Until now had been a greater interest and participation of students in the implementation of practices and a greater understanding of the theoretical content covered.
Ciarocco, Natalie J.; Dinella, Lisa M.; Hatchard, Christine J.; Valosin, Jayde
The current study empirically tested the effectiveness of a modular approach to integrating professional development across an undergraduate psychology curriculum. Researchers conducted a two-group, between-subjects experiment on 269 undergraduate psychology students assessing perceptions of professional preparedness and learning. Analysis…
Bartels, Jared M; Hinds, Ryan M; Glass, Laura A; Ryan, Joseph J
The goal was to examine the relationship between the number of psychology courses students have taken and their perceptions of psychology as a science. Additionally, differences in perceptions of psychology among psychology, education, and natural science majors were examined. Results indicated that students who had taken four or more psychology courses had more favorable perceptions of psychology as a science compared to those who had taken no courses or one course and those who had taken two to three courses. No significant differences in overall perceptions of psychology emerged among students in the three majors.
Raja Paramjeet Banipal Singh
Conclusion: Holistic approach in cancer management including psychological evaluation and its solution at appropriate time/stage signifies the need of time as the present study revealed that the percentage of DAS as per the DASS scale was 90, 56, and 28%, respectively. A judicious diagnosis with an apposite intercession including psychological consultation with social support at appropriate time may alleviate the extra burden of psychological disorder, rather enhance the quality of life of cancer-affected rural population.
Zhou, Jiangyuan; Guo, Wei
Research in developmental psychology and neuroscience has demonstrated the critical role of imitation in human learning. Self-report questionnaires collected from 456 undergraduate students in two U.S. institutions and one Chinese institution demonstrated that undergraduate students from both U.S. and Chinese cultures used various imitations in…
Leandro da Costa Santos
Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the relation between religiousness and the moral reasoning of Accounting undergraduate students. To achieve that, the religiousness and moral reasoning of the subjects were first described and, subsequently, correlated. In order to measure religiousness, the Faith Maturity Scale developed by Benson, Donahue, Erickson (1993 was used. The measuring of moral reasoning, on the other hand, was carried out using the Defining Issues Test -2 created by Rest and Narvaez (1988. The sample was drawn from 67 Accounting undergraduate students, in their last semester of College, from two universities in Paraíba, and the internal consistency reliability test of the research instruments was carried out using the model defined by Cronbach (1951. To verify whether there is a relation between religiousness and moral reasoning, the Spearman (rs non-parametric correlation coefficient was used. The main results revealed that the majority of the subjects have their faith classified as integrated. As for moral reasoning, most of the subjects were classified in the level of maintaining the norms, which indicates that, for the bulk of subjects, the conformity to the laws and norms is the most important thing. Still on moral reasoning, it has been shown that, when analysed by type, most individuals fall into type 2 (personal interest, but in transition, with the important observation that individuals of this type, when involved in moral dilemmas, tend to prioritise their own interests. With regards to the analysis of the relation between religiousness and moral reasoning, it’s been demonstrated that there is no relevant evidence that confirms it, since the relation between both variables was not significant.
Moses Olaniran Olawole
Full Text Available Abstract Travel behavior and determinants of mode choice of university students in Nigeria are neither well understood nor well represented in literature. This study model is modal choice of undergraduates, using data from students travel survey and logistic regression to determine factors influence modal choice of undergraduate students in Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The results indicate that walking dominate modes for on-campus and commercial bus for off-campus students, while motorcycles taxi is used by few of the sample. Mode choices are influenced by a combination of socio-economic and trip factors. A key finding is extent that these variables positively affect the odds of using walk and commercial bus modes especially with reference to student residence: on and off-campus. The results suggest investment in pedestrian infrastructure and development of intermodal transport system as a means of making the university livable and attractive. Abstrak Kebiaasaan perjalanan dan penentu moda dari mahasiswa di Nigeria tidak juga dipahami dengan baik atau dijelaskan dalam literatur. Model penelitian ini adalah pemilihan moda mahasiswa menggunakan data dari survei perjalanan mahasiswa dan regresi logistik untuk menentukan faktor penyebab pilihan moda dari mahasiswa di Universitas Obafemi Awolowo, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Hasilnya menunjukkan berjalan mendominasi pilihan untuk ke kampus dan kendaraan bus umum untuk mahasiswa di luar kampus, sementara sepeda motor taksi digunakan oleh beberapa sample. Pilihan cara dipengaruhi oleh kombinasi dari sosial-ekonomi dan faktor kunjungan. Inti penelitian adalah luasnya variabel positif mempengaruhi peluang dari berjalan dan kendaraan bus umum terutama rujukan ke asrama mahasiswa, dalam maupun luar kampus. Hasil penelitian menyarankan investasi pada infrastruktur pejalan kaki dan pengembangan dari sistem transportasi antarmoda sebagai sarana membuat universitas layak huni dan menarik.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Team-based learning (TBL, a new active learning method, has not been reported for neurology education. We aimed to determine if TBL was more effective than passive learning (PL in improving knowledge outcomes in two key neurology topics - neurological localization and neurological emergencies. Methods We conducted a modified crossover study during a nine-week internal medicine posting involving 49 third-year medical undergraduates, using TBL as the active intervention, compared against self-reading as a PL control, for teaching the two topics. Primary outcome was the mean percentage change in test scores immediately after (post-test 1 and 48 hours after TBL (post-test 2, compared to a baseline pre-test. Student engagement was the secondary outcome. Results Mean percentage change in scores was greater in the TBL versus the PL group in post-test 1 (8.8% vs 4.3%, p = 0.023 and post-test 2 (11.4% vs 3.4%, p = 0.001. After adjustment for gender and second year examination grades, mean percentage change in scores remained greater in the TBL versus the PL group for post-test 1 (10.3% vs 5.8%, mean difference 4.5%,95% CI 0.7 - 8.3%, p = 0.021 and post-test 2 (13.0% vs 4.9%, mean difference 8.1%,95% CI 3.7 - 12.5%, p = 0.001, indicating further score improvement 48 hours post-TBL. Academically weaker students, identified by poorer examination grades, showed a greater increase in scores with TBL versus strong students (p Conclusions Compared to PL, TBL showed greater improvement in knowledge scores, with continued improvement up to 48 hours later. This effect is larger in academically weaker students. TBL is an effective method for improving knowledge in neurological localization and neurological emergencies in undergraduates.
Edo-Gual, Montserrat; Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín
To analyse the relationship between death attitudes, emotional intelligence, resilience and self-esteem in a sample of nursing undergraduates. The death attitudes held by nursing students may influence the care they offer to end-of-life patients and their families. Emotional intelligence, resilience and self-esteem are important social and emotional competencies for coping positively with death and dying. Cross-sectional and correlational study. Participants were 760 nursing undergraduates from four nursing schools in Spain. Data were collected in 2013-2014. The students responded anonymously to a self-report questionnaire that gathered socio-demographic data and which assessed the following aspects: fear of death (Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale), death anxiety (Death Anxiety Inventory-Revised), perceived emotional intelligence (Trait Meta-Mood Scale, with its three dimensions: attention, clarity and repair), resilience (Brief Resilient Coping Scale) and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). In addition to descriptive statistics, analyses of variance, mean differences, correlations and regression analyses were computed. Linear regression analysis indicated that attention to feelings, resilience and self-esteem are the significant predictors of death anxiety. The results show that death anxiety and fear of death are modulated by social and emotional competencies associated with positive coping. The training offered to future nurses should include not only scientific knowledge and technical skills but also strategies for developing social and emotional competencies. In this way, they will be better equipped to cope positively and constructively with the suffering and death they encounter at work, thus helping them to offer compassionate patient-centred care and minimising the distress they experience in the process. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Michaud, Pierre-André; Jucker-Kupper, Patrick; The Profiles Working Group
The Joint Commission of the Swiss Medical Schools (SMIFK/CIMS) decided in 2000 to establish a Swiss Catalogue of Learning Objectives (SCLO) for undergraduate medical training, which was adapted from a similar Dutch blueprint. A second version of the SCLO was developed and launched in 2008. The catalogue is a prerequisite for the accreditation of the curricula of the six Swiss medical faculties and defines the contents of the Federal Licensing Examination (FLE). Given the evolution of the field of medicine and of medical education, the SMIFK/CIMS has decided to embark on a total revision of the SCLO. This article presents the proposed structure and content of Profiles, a new document which, in the future, will direct the format of undergraduate studies and of the FLE. Profiles stands for the Principal Relevant Objectives for Integrative Learning and Education in Switzerland. It is currently being developed by a group of experts from the six Swiss faculties as well as representatives of other institutions involved in these developments. The foundations of Profiles are grounded in the evolution of medical practice and of public health and are based on up-to-date teaching concepts, such as EPAs (entrustable professional activities). An introduction will cover the concepts and a tutorial will be displayed. Three main chapters will provide a description of the seven 2015 CanMEDS roles, a list of core EPAs and a series of ≈250 situations embracing the most frequent and current conditions affecting health. As Profiles is still a work in progress, it is hoped that this paper will attract the interest of all individuals involved in the training of medical students.
Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.
Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates
Bal, P.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; van der Velde, M.E.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183262107; de Lange, A.H.; Rousseau, D.M.
Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates
Bal, P.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; van der Velde, E.G.; de Lange, A.H.; Rousseau, D.M.
Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N=176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates
Bal, P.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Velde, M.E.G. van der; Lange, A.H. de; Rousseau, D.M.
Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates
Ollis, Cindy L.
The Coping Competence Questionnaire (CCQ), based on the reformulated learned helplessness theory, was designed to assess a general stress resistance versus a propensity towards learned helplessness with a brief, 12-item self-report questionnaire. In this study the CCQ was administered to 247 undergraduate students, who were then paired, in groups…
Thompson, Sharon H.; Lougheed, Eric
Although a majority of young adults are members of at least one social networking site, peer reviewed research examining gender differences in social networking communication is sparse. This study examined gender differences in social networking, particularly for Facebook use, among undergraduates. A survey was distributed to 268 college students…
van Lankveld, T.; Schoonenboom, J.; Kusurkar, R.A.; Volman, M.; Beishuizen, J.; Croiset, G.
Beginning medical teachers often see themselves as doctors or researchers rather than as teachers. Using both figured worlds theory and dialogical self theory, this study explores how beginning teachers in the field of undergraduate medical education integrate the teacher role into their identity. A
Eves, Robert L.; Davis, Larry E.; Brown, D. Gordon; Lamberts, William L.
According to Carl Sagan (1987), "Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge." Field studies and undergraduate research provide students with the best opportunities for "thinking" about science, while at the same time acquiring a body of knowledge. Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems is a…
Racial equality is promoted on nearly every academic campus across America; however, research has shown that educators express racial bias in various ways. The purpose of this experimental research was to determine the extent of racial bias among White, undergraduate professors, an area lacking previous research. The study tested whether a…
Higgins, Robert; Hogg, Peter; Robinson, Leslie
This article discusses the piloting and evaluation of the Research-informed Teaching experience (RiTe) project. The aim of RiTe was to link teaching and learning with research within an undergraduate diagnostic radiography curriculum. A preliminary pilot study of RiTe was undertaken with a group of level 4 (year 1) volunteer BSc (Hons) diagnostic…
Kozub, Robert M.
This study examines undergraduate business students' attitude towards and use of Powerpoint[R] slides provided as a supplement to class attendance, textbook reading, and other traditional course resources. A survey of students with six majors (accounting, finance, marketing, management, international business and management information systems)…
Gibson, Howard; Garside, Darren
The final-year undergraduate dissertation is commonplace in Education Studies programmes across the world and yet its philosophical assumptions are complex and not always questioned. In England there is evidence to suggest a tacit preference for empiricism in textbooks designed to support early researchers. This brings, we suggest, problems…
van Delft-Schreurs, C C H M; van Bergen, J J M; van de Sande, P; Verhofstad, M H J; de Vries, J; de Jongh, M A C
The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of psychological complaints and the relationship of these complaints with the quality of life (QOL) and accident- and patient-related factors among severely injured patients after the rehabilitation phase. Patients of 18 years or older with an injury severity score above 15 were included 15-53 months after their accident. Accident and patient characteristics were obtained from questionnaires and the trauma registry. Several questionnaires (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Impact of Events Scale, and Cognitive Failure Questionnaire) were used to determine the symptoms of psychological problems (anxiety or depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, or subjective cognitive complaints, respectively). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref was used to determine QOL. A reference group of the Dutch general population was used for comparison of QOL scores. The participation rate was 62 % (n = 173). At the time of the study, 30.1 % (n = 52) of the investigated patients had psychological complaints. No relation between psychological complaints and somatic severity or type of injury was found. Patients who were employed before the accident or resumed working reported less psychological complaints. Use of any medication before the accident and treatment for pre-accidental psychological problems were positively related to psychological complaints afterwards. QOL of severely injured patients was impaired in comparison with the general Dutch population, but only for those with psychological complaints. Psychological complaints seem to be an important and underestimated factor for a decreased QOL among severely injured patients.
Negrini, Alessia; Perron, Jacques; Corbière, Marc
Being absent from work because of a psychological disability is costly for both individuals and organizations and frequent in employees working in the field of education. Absenteeism from work has been mostly studied as an organizational withdrawal behavior related to negative factors. The purpose of this longitudinal study is to define the predictors of absenteeism due to psychological disability by taking into account resources, such as Self-determined work motivation and Subjective well-being, as well as symptoms of Psychological distress. The sample consisted of 261 employees from a Canadian public school organization. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to compare the mean scores of participants who were not absent from work and participants who were absent due to psychological disability. Logistic regression analyses were computed for the dependent variable to assess the contribution of the three independent variables. Participants who were absent from work due to psychological disability in the year following the data collection scored significantly lower on resources, and higher on symptoms than those participants who were not absent. The three-predictor model was found to be significant. However, only Self-determined work motivation and Psychological distress significantly predicted absenteeism due to psychological disability. Results are discussed in terms of psychological processes regulating the relationships between the work-related factors (i.e., work motivation) and life-related factors (i.e., psychological distress and subjective well-being) of personal adjustment and accomplishment.
Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.
Natalia A. Kaminskaya
Full Text Available The paper aims to systematize modern concepts of body image and body scheme. For the analysis of theoretical models the following criteria were allocated: explication of the mechanism underlying the formation and restructuring of body image, development of certain aspects of body image which are explained by the presented concepts. Separately the issue of the difference between the body scheme and the body image is discussed that seems relevant in connection with the specific features of the neural mechanisms of body image. In the study of the phenomenological level of bodily experience the assumption that the body scheme is fragmented and has no hierarchical structure is considered. Significant differences in viewing basic mechanisms of developing the body image associated with attention to various bodily phenomena are showed. Psychodynamic, cognitive, socio-cultural, feminist and interdisciplinary approaches are analyzed, which permitted to identify mechanisms of integration-differentiation, cognitive generalization and internalization-introjection. The analysis suggests the consideration of the body image in the context of issues on the appropriation of the body. If person is considered as a tool for shaping and maintening integration of mental processes, the patterns of interconnected and interdependent changes in the processes that occur in the construction of the image of the external situation and the body image acquires a special psychological meaning. It becomes necessary to allocate correctly the structure of the integrating object in which the subject is involved during the normal course of life, and in exceptional cases, i.e. in the presence of physical defects, the sudden change of appearance, etc. These development objects determine specific form of body image and its possible distortions.
Hamaker, E.L.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.; Kamphuis, J.H.
Many psychological processes are characterized by recurrent shifts between different states. To model these processes at the level of the individual, regime-switching models may prove useful. In this chapter we discuss two of these models: the threshold autoregressive model and the Markov
An assessment of personality and psychological distress of people living with delusional halitosis attending Oral Wellness Centre (OWC) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City over a six-month period was undertaken. Five (5) patients with age range of 18-30 years and a mean age of 24 years (SD = 4.47) ...
... high in 24 (54.9%) respondents in group 2 who had counseling and were unemployed; depression was associated with occupation (P<0.04). Counseling reduces psychological symptoms in people living with HIV/AIDS. Therefore its use should be encouraged in people living with the disease to boost self-esteem needed ...
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Ezeala, Christian Chinyere; Siyanga, Nalucha
It aimed to compare the study skills of two groups of undergraduate pharmacy students in the School of Medicine, University of Zambia using the Study Skills Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ), with the goal of analysing students’ study skills and identifying factors that affect study skills. A questionnaire was distributed to 67 participants from both programs using stratified random sampling. Completed questionnaires were rated according to participants study skill. The total scores and scores ...
Frillman, Sharron Ann
This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in…
Reddy, S. R.
AMS Climate Studies is an introductory college-level course developed by the American Meteorological Society for implementation at undergraduate institutions nationwide and increasing involvement of under-represented groups The course places students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate Earth's climate system using real-world environmental data. The AMS Climate Studies course package consists of a textbook, investigations manual, course website, and course management system-compatible files. Instructors can use these resources in combinations that make for an exciting learning experience for their students. The AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project Workshop participation is on a first-come, first-serve basis as determined by the date-of-receipt of the License Order Form. To grow AMS Diversity Programs to their fullest extent, institutions are encouraged to nominate course instructors who did not previously attend Diversity Project workshops. Until three months before the workshop, two-thirds of the workshop positions would be reserved for institutions new to AMS Diversity Projects. The AMS five day course implementation workshop was held in Washington, DC, during May 24-29, 2012. It covered essential course topics in climate science and global climate change, and strategies for course implementation. Talks would feature climate science and sustainability experts from Federal agencies and area research institutions, such as NASA, NOAA, University of Maryland, Howard University, George Mason University, and other Washington, DC, area institutions. The workshop would also include visits to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and NOAA's Climate Prediction Center. JSU Meteorology Program will be offering AMS Climate Studies undergraduate course under MET 210: Climatology in spring 2014. AMS Climate Studies is offered as a 3 credit hour laboratory course with 2 lectures and 1 lab sessions per week. Although this course places
Anderson, Dana D.; And Others
Describes two exercises in which undergraduates from abnormal psychology courses act as role-play clients for graduate counselor-trainees. Finds that the exercises seem to be educationally beneficial and may also help decrease undergraduates' negative stereotyping of persons with psychological problems. (KO)
Bolier, Linda; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Riper, H.; Smit, F.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas
Background The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for
Bolier, L.; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, G.J.; Riper, H.; Smit, H.F.E.; Bohlmeijer, E.
Background: The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for
Cook, Robert S.; And Others
The psychological autopsy and its use in studying the suicides of three adolescents at a school for gifted students are described in this article. Positive and negative effects of autopsy interviews are discussed, as is the importance of confidentiality. A sample interview protocol is provided for psychological autopsy researchers. (Author/PB)
Michalski, Daniel S.; Cope, Caroline; Fowler, Garth A.
The 2016 Graduate Study in Psychology Summary Report reflects data collected from more than 500 departments and programs offering master's and doctoral degrees in psychology and related training. This report represents data from the 2013-2014 academic year and aggregates these data in the following areas: survey participation; admissions review,…
Versteegen, GJ; Dijkstra, PU; Jaspers, JPC; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ; Klip, EC
Aim of the study was to analyse quality of life and psychological functioning in patients with sprain of the neck, to analyse the relationship between complaints, quality of life, psychological functioning and personality factors, and to analyse the pro. le of patients with whiplash associated
Bloemer, J.M.M.; Odekerken-Schröder, G.J.; Martens, H.
Despite the extant literature on customer loyalty, it is recognized that the psychological processes behind commitment and customer loyalty are still ill understood. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess the impact of three psychological antecedents (position involvement,
Schonnesson, Lena Nilsson
A literature study was conducted to highlight the relationship between psychological dysfunction and sexuality within a marital context. The research reviewed suggests that women report more psychological symptoms, in particular depression, than do men. The husband's personality and functioning appeared to determine the level of marital…
Duro, Elaine; Elander, James; Maratos, Frances A.; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Aubeeluck, Aimee
This qualitative study of understandings of critical thinking in higher education aimed to identify themes that could help to demystify critical thinking and inform its more explicit incorporation in the psychology curriculum. Data collected from focus groups with 26 undergraduate psychology students and individual semistructured interviews with 4…
Chandler, Donald S., Jr.
This pilot study examined the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction in psychology courses. Among a sample of 33 college students enrolled in two undergraduate psychology courses, a Spearman rho analysis revealed a significant relationship between the intrinsic motivational factors (e.g. student/class…
Shek, Daniel T L
On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents (N = 2,758) responded to instruments measuring their perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being, including hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, and self-esteem. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that perceived parental psychological control was concurrently related to adolescent psychological well-being at Time 1 and Time 2. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the relationships between perceived parental psychological control and adolescent psychological well-being over time were bidirectional in nature. Regarding the differential contribution of paternal and maternal psychological control to adolescent psychological well-being over time, paternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction at Time 2, particularly for adolescent girls. On the other hand, maternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent self-esteem at Time 2. Relative to those conditions in which one or none of the adolescents' parents was perceived to display high psychological control at Time 1, the psychological well-being of adolescents at Time 2 was poorer under the condition in which both parents were perceived to display high levels of psychological control at Time 1. The clinical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Green, Heather J.; Hood, Michelle; Neumann, David L.
Student satisfaction at university is receiving increasing attention. While academic discipline has been associated with student satisfaction in many studies, we found no previous reviews of student satisfaction within psychology, a discipline with among the largest undergraduate enrolments. In this paper, we review the student satisfaction…
Zelechoski, Amanda D.; Riggs Romaine, Christina L.; Wolbransky, Melinda
Given the recent proliferation of undergraduate psychology and law courses, there is an increased need to empirically evaluate effective methods of teaching psycholegal material. The current study used a between- and within-subject design across four higher education institutions (N = 291 students) to evaluate the effectiveness of incorporating…
Jones, Steve; Allen, Julie
Extensive engagement with current academic sources is expected of all psychology undergraduates. Thirty-eight undergraduate psychology students took part in a series of focus group discussions of their information-searching experiences and skills. The majority of students had not been required to engage with any form of information searching while…
Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of published original research conducted amongst Indian medical undergraduate students. Methodology: A systematic review was undertaken using keywords “MBBS students” or “medical students” or “health students” or “university students” and “India” through search engines, PUBMED and Google scholar. Considering feasibility, time frame of published original research article was restricted to one-year only i.e. 2016. Research domain, research design, author and other bibliometric details of research manuscript were captured using check-list and analysis carried out using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 99 suitable original research articles were identified under certain criteria and considered in present analysis. With regard to thematic research domain, highest, 29 (29.2% articles were related to teaching and learning process followed by 13 (13.1% to mental health (depression, anxiety, sleep, spirituality of students; 07 (7.0% were based on physical fitness/ exercise/yoga; and substance abuse (6.0% amongst medical students etc. Nearly, 86 (86.8% of articles were cross-sectional descriptive based studies while 13 (13.1% had intervention based research design. A total of 34 (34.3% research articles could be labeled as “KAP” (knowledge, attitude and practice survey. Department wise detail of corresponding author was largely dominated by faculty from pre and para-clinical departments. Highest was community medicine in (35.3% articles, pharmacology (23.2%, physiology (17.1%, microbiology (6.0%, and biochemistry (4.0% etc. The studies covered an average sample size of 188.8 MBBS students (20-360, range; 57.5% of research article covered students from only one professional year. However, in 42 (42.4% articles there was no further mention of gender based sample information. Out of all the references used in research articles, only 57.3% were of recent (2005-2015 origin while the rest were from older
Tao, Ying; Li, Liping; Xu, Qunyan; Jiang, Anli
This paper demonstrates the establishment of an extra-curricular education program in Chinese context and evaluates its effectiveness on undergraduate nursing students' self-directed learning. Zimmerman's self-directed learning model was used as the theoretical framework for the development of an education program. Mixed-method was applied in this research study. 165 undergraduate students from a nursing college were divided into experimental group (n=32) and control group (n=133). Pre- and post-tests were implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of this education program using the self-directed learning scale of nursing undergraduates. Qualitative interview was undertaken within participants from the experimental group to obtain their insights into the influence of this program. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses showed that the program contributed to nursing students' self-directed learning ability. In the experimental group, the post-test score showed an increase compared with pretest score (plearning activities and influence on learning environment. It can be found in the qualitative analysis that learners benefited from this program. The education program contributes to the improvement of nursing undergraduates' self-directed learning. Various pedagogic methods could be applied for self-directed learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Time management is an important skill that every student in higher education institutions should acquire since it is one of the key factors in assuring excellent achievement in academic. Students with poor time-management skills are far more likely to be tressed and, as a result, have a negative impact on the quality of life. Thus, this paper discusses this issue based on a study among students of Electrical, Electronic & System Engineering at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia according to year of study and then establishes the relationship with the student's academic performance. Data were collected using a set of questionnaire carried out on 272 undergraduate students from year one to year four for 2015/2016 session. These data were then analysed using ANOVA statistical inference and Pearson correlations. Results revealed that time management skills of the respondents were at moderate level and established a negative correlation with year of study. This study also found significant findings where time management skills have a positive but weak correlation with student’s academic performance. These findings suggest the need for additional research to further refine the justifications of these measures. The university is also anticipated to provide a good platform for students to develop their time management skills at the early stage of their admission to university.
Annett, J M
Over the last decade, interest in the general applicability of psychological research has increased significantly, leading to doubts among some critics of cognitive psychology regarding the usefulness of the modern information-processing approach. In particular, current cognitive models of memory address mainly visual and verbal information processing, with little acknowledgement of the existence of other sensory modalities. However, since the mid-1970's, the literature on olfactory memory has expanded rapidly, and it has remained relatively independent of mainstream memory research. This article outlines the olfactory literature, which has focused principally on examination of the Proustian characteristics of smell. The relationship between olfactory and other types of memory is also examined. The author notes that there is evidence that models of memory intended to be general have taken insufficient account of findings from olfaction and other sensory modalities, an approach that could be considered symptomatic of dangerous tendency to base purportedly general theories on databases that are too narrow.
Raymond M. Landry Jr.
Globalisation makes it inevitable for accounting professionals with diverse personalities to work under one roof. Such differences in behavioral patterns (Type A or Type B) impact performance in good and bad ways. This paper examines the psychological profile of Asian accounting professionals and accounting students using Type A or Type B behavior classifications. Examination of accounting professionals shows that Type B is the most common behavior among all professionals sampled and contrary...
Водопьянова, Наталия Е; Чикер, Вера А; Потявина, Валерия В
In the article, the issues concerning hope, which is one of the most important resources for specialists of many nurturant professions, are observed. The theoretical analysis of hope and its categorization from the perspective of subjective and resource-based view is given. The special scientific and practical interest to human subjective and personal resources is determined by their unique role not only in human life support, but also in overcoming hard situations and extreme obstacles, including crisis situations in professional activity, with the example of the profession of a doctor. The aim of the empirical research is studying the correlation between hope and such manifestations of subjective regulations medical practice as inner subjective control and failure avoidance motivation. 120 doctors (60 men and 60 women) working in St. Petersburg hospitals took part in the research. Several research methods were used, such as 'Resource map' application form, R. Snyder's hope scale adapted by K. Muzdybayev, 'Subjective control level' method by E. Bazhin, E. Golynkina and L. Etkind, 'Failure avoidance motivation' method by T. Ehlers. Doctors think that Hope and Optimism are among important components of their professional practice, together with willing features helping them to reach their goals (such as persistence, patience, eagerness, insistence and endurance) and such personal qualities as self-assuredness, motion control in different situations, ability to solve hard problems. According the data of correlation and regression analyses, the anticipation that hope is determined by high level of inner control locus and low failure avoidance motivation (responsibility for patients' lives) within medical practice. Most doctors have average or high level of hope, which lets determine this personal disposition quality as one of the important ones for this profession. Being the positive result of professional practice and not depending on the doctors' sex and
Leonardo Mendes de Souza
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p233 In the past few years, increased popularity of resistance training (RT and a significant increase in the number of professionals and undergraduate in Physical Education students have been observed. A variety of names has been usually adopted for the same resistance exercise in fields. The aim of the study was to compare the resistance exercise nomenclature adopted by physical education professionals and students, and also to identify the frequencies of names adopted for these resistance exercises. The study included 191 graduate students and active physical education professionals of RT centers and gyms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ten exercises traditionally performed on RT programs were selected. The results indicated that there was no association between the nomenclature of exercises and academic degree for all exercises included in the survey. However, there was significant difference (p <0.001 among response frequencies for each exercise, for the whole sample. In this sense, this study enabled identifying significant differences in the nomenclature of resistance exercises. Therefore, nomenclature standardization is essential to establish a direction and clearness in communication among professionals.
Edgar, Susan; Mercer, Annette; Hamer, Peter
The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an association between admission interview score and subsequent academic and clinical performance, in a four-year undergraduate physiotherapy course. Retrospective observational study. 141 physiotherapy students enrolled in two entry year groups. Individual student performance in all course units, practical examinations, clinical placements as well as year level and overall Grade Point Average. Predictor variables included admission interview scores, admission academic scores and demographic data (gender, age and entry level). Interview score demonstrated a significant association with performance in three of six clinical placements through the course. This association was stronger than for any other admission criterion although effect sizes were small to moderate. Further, it was the only admission score to have a significant association with overall Clinical Grade Point Average for the two year groups analysed (r=0.322). By contrast, academic scores on entry showed significant associations with all year level Grade Point Averages except Year 4, the clinical year. This is the first study to review the predictive validity of an admission interview for entry into a physiotherapy course in Australia. The results show that performance in this admission interview is associated with overall performance in clinical placements through the course, while academic admission scoring is not. These findings suggest that there is a role for both academic and non-academic selection processes for entry into physiotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Higher education is increasingly making use of information and communication technology (ICT to deliver educational services. Young adults at higher educational institutions are also making use of ICTs in their daily lives but are not taught how to do so ethically. Software piracy, plagiarism and cheating, while making use of ICTs, are the most common ethical dilemmas that will face digital natives. Objective: The purpose of this article was to investigate information ethics of young adults at a higher education institution in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Method: This study made use of a positive, quantitative survey approach. A closed-ended questionnaire was distributed to a group of 312 first-year students, who had registered for a computer literacy class. A response rate of 69.2% was recorded, resulting in 216 students participating in the study. The results were analysed using descriptive and inferential (t-tests statistics in SPSS V22. Results: The results indicated that plagiarism is a problem among first-year students, and elements of authorship should be included in the curriculum. Students understood what software piracy was but did not think it was wrong to copy software from the Internet. Finally, the students understood that cheating, while making use of technology, is wrong and should be avoided. Conclusion: The recommendation of the study then is that information ethics must be included in the undergraduate curriculum in order to prepare students to deal with these ethical problems.
Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Rodríguez, Charo; Ware, Mark A; Posel, Nancy
BACKGROUND Pain is one of the most common reasons for individuals to seek medical advice, yet it remains poorly managed. One of the main reasons that poor pain management persists is the lack of adequate knowledge and skills of practicing clinicians, which stems from a perceived lack of pain education during the training of undergraduate medical students. OBJECTIVE: To identify gaps in knowledge with respect to pain management as perceived by students, patients and educators. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Data were generated through six focus groups with second- and fourth-year medical students, four focus groups with patients and individual semistructured interviews with nine educators. All interviews were audiotaped and an inductive thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 70 individuals participated in the present study. Five main themes were identified: assessment of physical and psychosocial aspects of pain; clinical management of pain with pharmacology and alternative therapies; communication and the development of a good therapeutic relationship; ethical considerations surrounding pain; and institutional context of medical education about pain. CONCLUSION: Participating patients, students and pain experts recognized a need for additional medical education about pain assessment and management. Educational approaches need to teach students to gather appropriate information about pain, to acquire knowledge of a broad spectrum of therapeutic options, to develop a mutual, trusting relationship with patients and to become aware of their own biases and prejudice toward patients with pain. The results of the present study should be used to develop and enhance existing pain curricula content. PMID:23985579
Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn
The aim of this study is to explain the process of adopting and incorporating simulation as a teaching strategy in undergraduate nursing programs, define uptake, and discuss potential outcomes. In many countries, simulation is increasingly adopted as a common teaching strategy. However, there is a dearth of knowledge related to the process of adoption and incorporation. We used an interpretive, constructivist approach to grounded theory to guide this research study. We conducted the study was in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-2012. Using multiple data sources, we informed the development of this theory including in-depth interviews (n = 43) and a review of key organizational documents, such as mission and vision statements (n = 67) from multiple nursing programs (n = 13). The adoption and uptake of mid- to high-fidelity simulation equipment is a multistep iterative process involving various organizational levels within the institution that entails a seven-phase process: (a) securing resources, (b) nursing leaders working in tandem, (c) getting it out of the box, (d) learning about simulation and its potential for teaching, (e) finding a fit, (f) trialing the equipment, and (g) integrating into the curriculum. These findings could assist nursing programs in Canada and internationally that wish to adopt or further incorporate simulation into their curricula and highlight potential organizational and program level outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Davis, Gregory K; Roberts, Lynne; Mangos, George; Henry, Amanda; Pettit, Franziska; O'Sullivan, Anthony; Homer, Caroline S E; Craig, Maria; Harvey, Samuel B; Brown, Mark A
Women who have had hypertension in pregnancy are at greater risk of long term cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about their cardiovascular risk postpartum or the effects on the woman's mental health and the outcomes of their infants. In this project we will study the physiological and psychological health of women and the physical health and development of their infants six months, two years and five years after birth. We will establish normal blood pressure (BP) and metabolic function for women who were normotensive in pregnancy and use these to assess women who had gestational hypertension (GH) or preeclampsia (PE). Women will be asked to participate if they have given birth in the preceding six months. They will be excluded if they had diabetes, hypertension, renal or other serious maternal disease prior to pregnancy or congenital anomaly in the pregnancy. We will recruit 292 women who were normotensive and their babies, 100 who had GH and 100 who had PE and their babies. They will be assessed at six months, two and five years after birth. At each assessment mothers will have their blood pressure (BP) assessed peripherally with a liquid crystal sphygmomanometer and 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and centrally with non-invasive applanation tonometry. Additional physiological testing will include: body composition; energy balance; vascular compliance; cardiac function; liver and renal function, lipids and biochemistry; glucose and insulin; and urinalysis. Psychological status will be assessed with validated self-report questionnaires for depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mother-infant bonding. The babies will have a medical examination by a paediatrician at each assessment. Their behavioural development will be assessed with an Ages and Stages Questionnaire completed by their mother at each assessment and a developmental assessment by a child psychologist at two and five years. This study will re
Wong, Wing Chi; Li, Mei Kuen; Chan, Wai Ying Veronica; Choi, Yuen Yu; Fong, Chi Hung Sandra; Lam, Ka Wah Kara; Sham, Wun Chi; So, Ping Ping; Wong, Kit; Yeung, Kuen Ha; Yeung, Tsz Yan
To explore the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong and to compare those of (1) male and female undergraduates with those of (2) undergraduates studying health-related vs. nonhealth-related programmes. Menstruation is typically viewed as a forbidden topic or a troublesome experience. These negative beliefs and attitudes result from existing myths and taboos associated with cultural factors and health education levels. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all universities in Hong Kong. Undergraduates were invited through convenience sampling to complete a questionnaire assessing their attitudes and beliefs towards menstruation. A questionnaire on 'beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation' was adopted. Questionnaires were self-administered by the respondents. A total of 450 questionnaires were distributed, and a response rate of 96.6% was obtained; 416 completed questionnaires were collected and analysed. Many Chinese undergraduates agreed that menstruation is annoying, causes disability, involves prescription and proscription and is not pleasant. When comparing the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese male undergraduates with those of female undergraduates, females tended to disagree that menstruation should be maintained secret, but tended to agree that it was annoying. When comparing the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese undergraduates studying health-related programmes with those under nonhealth-related programmes, the latter group exhibited a higher level of belief in prescription and proscription for menstruation than the former group. Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong were influenced by the traditional Chinese culture and social environment, resulting in negative attitudes towards menstruation. This study recommends that sex education, especially reproductive health education, be extended to tertiary education. This study provides relevant information on planning
Mack, Michael Ryan
Chemistry education researchers have not adequately studied teaching and learning experiences at all levels in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum leaving gaps in discipline-based STEM education communities understanding about how the upper- division curricula works (National Research Council, 2012b; Towns, 2013). This study explored faculty approaches to teaching in upper-division physical chemistry course settings using an interview-based methodology. Two conceptualizations of approaches to teaching emerged from a phenomenographic analysis of interview transcripts: (1) faculty beliefs about the purposes for teaching physical chemistry and (2) their conceptions of their role as an instructor in these course settings. Faculty who reported beliefs predominantly centered on helping students develop conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills in physical chemistry often worked with didactic models of teaching, which emphasized the transfer of expert knowledge to students. When faculty expressed beliefs that were more inclusive of conceptual, epistemic, and social learning goals in science education they often described more student-centered models of teaching and learning, which put more responsibilities on them to facilitate students' interactive engagement with the material and peers during regularly scheduled class time. Knowledge of faculty thinking, as evinced in a rich description of their accounts of their experience, provides researchers and professional developers with useful information about the potential opportunities or barriers that exist for helping faculty align their beliefs and goals for teaching with research-based instructional strategies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation is an integral part of medical education. Despite a wide use of various evaluation tools, little is known about student perceptions regarding the purpose and desired consequences of evaluation. Such knowledge is important to facilitate interpretation of evaluation results. The aims of this study were to elicit student views on the purpose of evaluation, indicators of teaching quality, evaluation tools and possible consequences drawn from evaluation data. Methods This qualitative study involved 17 undergraduate medical students in Years 3 and 4 participating in 3 focus group interviews. Content analysis was conducted by two different researchers. Results Evaluation was viewed as a means to facilitate improvements within medical education. Teaching quality was believed to be dependent on content, process, teacher and student characteristics as well as learning outcome, with an emphasis on the latter. Students preferred online evaluations over paper-and-pencil forms and suggested circulating results among all faculty and students. Students strongly favoured the allocation of rewards and incentives for good teaching to individual teachers. Conclusions In addition to assessing structural aspects of teaching, evaluation tools need to adequately address learning outcome. The use of reliable and valid evaluation methods is a prerequisite for resource allocation to individual teachers based on evaluation results.
André, Beate; Aune, Anne G; Brænd, Jorunn A
Evidence-based practice is currently one of the most important developments in health care. Research in nursing science is rapidly growing; however, translating the knowledge based on this research into clinical practice is often hampered, and may be dependent on reflective skills. The aim of this study was to see how undergraduate nursing students in nursing should increase their skills and knowledge related to evidence-based practice through participation in clinical research projects. A qualitative approach was used in collecting and analyzing the data. Students participated in a pilot clinical research project and a received guidance related to their bachelor thesis. After the project was completed, all students filled in a questionnaire. The students' motivation to participate in this study was reported to be high, but they reported low knowledge related to evidence-based practice. All students reported that their attitude towards evidence-based practice changed in a positive direction during their participation in the project. Evidence-based practice influenced nursing practices by putting more focus on critical thinking, increasing pride and giving a sense of ownership in the clinical field. The curricula and the pedagogical perspectives in nursing education can influence the attitude towards evidence-based practice and skills among nursing bachelor students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kristin C. Burkholder
Full Text Available The present study assesses the efficacy of a semester-long undergraduate sustainability curriculum designed from a systems approach. The three-course curriculum, which incorporated environmental science and ethics courses along with an integrative course using a community-based learning pedagogy, was intended to provide students with experience using knowledge and skills from distinct disciplines in a holistic way in order to address the complex problems of the human acceptance of and response to anthropogenic climate change. In the fall of 2013, 23 of the 24 sophomore general education students enrolled in the three courses were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester; 17 of those same students completed the survey again in the spring of 2016, their senior year. Results, which focus on the 17 students who continued to participate through their senior year, were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The pre/post data from the surveys demonstrated significant improvement in climate literacy, certainty, concern and urgency over the course of the semester; the senior data indicated that those improvements were largely retained. The study also suggests that the nine-credit curriculum improved transferable skills such as interdisciplinary thinking, self-confidence and public speaking. A qualitative analysis of three student cases, informed by a focus group (n = 7 of seniors along with other sources of information, suggested retention of such transferable skills, and, in some cases, deeper involvement in climate and sustainability action.
Beauty B. Ntereke
Full Text Available The ability to read and interpret textbooks and other assigned material is a critical component of success at university level. Therefore, the aims of this study are twofold: to evaluate the reading levels of first-year students when they first enter the university to determine how adequately prepared they are for university reading. It is also to find out if there will be any significant improvement after going through the academic literacy course offered to first-year students. The participants were 51 first-year undergraduate humanities students enrolled in the Communication and Academic Literacy course at the University of Botswana. The data were collected through a reading test adopted from Zulu which was administered at the beginning of the first semester. The same test was administered at the end of the semester after the students had gone through the academic literacy course to see if there was any difference in performance. The findings of this study indicate that there is a mixed and wide variation of students reading competency levels when students first enter the university and that a significant number of first-year entrants are inadequately prepared for university reading.
Williams, Bev; Richard, Liz; Al Sayah, Fatima
Graduates from Problem/Context Based Learning (CBL) undergraduate nursing programs often express concern that they may not be as well prepared for transition to graduate nursing practice as their colleagues from more traditional lecture-based programs. To determine if there is a difference in how graduates from CBL and non-CBL programs describe their transition to graduate practice within the first 2 years of graduation. This was a comparative descriptive study that involved the use of a web-based survey. A convenience sample of 163 graduate nurses with 1 to 2 years of experience consented to be part of the study. They completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, which consisted of 26 items based on entry to practice competencies identified by the provincial professional nursing organization. There was no significant difference in the transition experience of graduates from CBL and traditional education programs within their first 2 years following graduation. These results confirm the findings of authors who compared transition among CBL and non-CBL graduates who had graduated anywhere from six months to several years following graduation. It is clear that CBL programs do prepare graduates to successfully transition into graduate nurse practice. Graduates from both CBL and non-CBL programs indicated a need for more formal agency sponsored orientation and transition assistance programs at the beginning of their initial employment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Considering the importance of quality of life in medical students we have conducted a cross sectional & descriptive study on screening of mental illness of 60 medical students of prefinal year and comparing it with 60 students of third year of Science and Art College. Students were selected via random sampling. GHQ-12 was used as a screening tool and after obtaining scores students were graded in 3 categories - individuals screened positive for psychological morbidity were of Grades 2 and 3 and individuals screened negative for psychological morbidity were of Grade 1 and they were compared according to college, gender & residence. Students screened positive for psychological morbidity as per GHQ-12 were found higher in medical college (87% as compared to Science and Art College (45% and a statistically significant association was found between psychological morbidity and medical students. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with residence and gender.
Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene
As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.
Dannenberg, Katja Anne; Stroben, Fabian; Schröder, Therese; Thomas, Anke; Hautz, Wolf E
64% of young medical professionals in Germany do not feel adequately prepared for the practical requirements of the medical profession. The goal of "outcome-orientated training" is to structure medical curricula based on the skills needed when entering the workforce after completing undergraduate medical education, and thus to bridge the gap between the skills graduates have attained and those necessary for a career in the medical profession. Outcome frameworks (OFs) are used for this purpose. In preparation for developing the National Competence-Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Medicine (NKLM) - the German OF - the "Consensus Statement of Practical Skills in Undergraduate Medical Education" (which structures the teaching and acquisition of practical skills in Germany and which strongly influenced the "Clinical-Practical Skills" chapter of the NKLM) was published in 2011. It is not uncommon for at least a decade to elapse between the definition and implementation of an OF and the students' graduation, which can further increase the gap between necessary and acquired skills. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to posit theses for future development in healthcare and to apply these theses to a current OF. Partially structured interviews with experts were used to generate theses pertaining to general, future development in healthcare. These theses were assessed by physician experts based on the likelihood of implementation by the year 2025. The 288 learning goals of the consensus statement were assessed for their relevance for medical education in the interim. 11 theses were generated for the development of medicine, and these theses were assessed and discussed by 738 experts. These theses include the increase in diseases associated with old age, the increasing significance of interprofessional cooperation, and the growing prevalence of telemedicine applications. Of the 288 learning goals of the consensus statement, 231 of the goals were assessed as relevant
Dannenberg, Katja Anne
Full Text Available Background: 64% of young medical professionals in Germany do not feel adequately prepared for the practical requirements of the medical profession. The goal of “outcome-orientated training” is to structure medical curricula based on the skills needed when entering the workforce after completing undergraduate medical education, and thus to bridge the gap between the skills graduates have attained and those necessary for a career in the medical profession. Outcome frameworks (OFs are used for this purpose. In preparation for developing the National Competence-Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Medicine (NKLM – the German OF – the “Consensus Statement of Practical Skills in Undergraduate Medical Education” (which structures the teaching and acquisition of practical skills in Germany and which strongly influenced the “Clinical-Practical Skills” chapter of the NKLM was published in 2011.It is not uncommon for at least a decade to elapse between the definition and implementation of an OF and the students’ graduation, which can further increase the gap between necessary and acquired skills. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to posit theses for future development in healthcare and to apply these theses to a current OF. Methodology: Partially structured interviews with experts were used to generate theses pertaining to general, future development in healthcare. These theses were assessed by physician experts based on the likelihood of implementation by the year 2025. The 288 learning goals of the consensus statement were assessed for their relevance for medical education in the interim. Results: 11 theses were generated for the development of medicine, and these theses were assessed and discussed by 738 experts. These theses include the increase in diseases associated with old age, the increasing significance of interprofessional cooperation, and the growing prevalence of telemedicine applications. Of the 288 learning goals of
Rui, Zeng; Lian-Rui, Xiang; Rong-Zheng, Yue; Jing, Zeng; Xue-Hong, Wan; Chuan, Zuo
Interpreting an electrocardiogram (ECG) is not only one of the most important parts of clinical diagnostics but also one of the most difficult topics to teach and learn. In order to enable medical students to master ECG interpretation skills in a limited teaching period, the flipped teaching method has been recommended by previous research to improve teaching effect on undergraduate ECG learning. A randomized controlled trial for ECG learning was conducted, involving 181 junior-year medical undergraduates using a flipped classroom as an experimental intervention, compared with Lecture-Based Learning (LBL) as a control group. All participants took an examination one week after the intervention by analysing 20 ECGs from actual clinical cases and submitting their ECG reports. A self-administered questionnaire was also used to evaluate the students' attitudes, total learning time, and conditions under each teaching method. The students in the experimental group scored significantly higher than the control group (8.72 ± 1.01 vs 8.03 ± 1.01, t = 4.549, P = 0.000) on ECG interpretation. The vast majority of the students in the flipped classroom group held positive attitudes toward the flipped classroom method and also supported LBL. There was no significant difference (4.07 ± 0.96 vs 4.16 ± 0.89, Z = - 0.948, P = 0.343) between the groups. Prior to class, the students in the flipped class group devoted significantly more time than those in the control group (42.33 ± 22.19 vs 30.55 ± 10.15, t = 4.586, P = 0.000), whereas after class, the time spent by the two groups were not significantly different (56.50 ± 46.80 vs 54.62 ± 31.77, t = 0.317, P = 0.752). Flipped classroom teaching can improve medical students' interest in learning and their self-learning abilities. It is an effective teaching model that needs to be further studied and promoted.
Williams, Robert B.
An aspect of an undergraduate psychology course on adult development was the preparation of case records on adults who consented to be studied. Participants (1) developed their abilities to observe and accurately record adult behavior across a variety of ages and contexts; (2) withheld judgments about behavior when evidence was lacking; (3)…
College of Psychology Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Allopathic Medicine Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of , dentistry, law, and psychology. Certificate Receive a graduate level certificate to enhance your skills Institute Core Services & Equipment HPD Research Undergraduate Research Community Community Outreach
Full Text Available Thelma Quince, Pia Thiemann, John Benson, Sarah Hyde Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Empathy is important to patient care. It enhances patients’ satisfaction, comfort, self-efficacy, and trust which in turn may facilitate better diagnosis, shared decision making, and therapy adherence. Empathetic doctors experience greater job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Understanding the development of empathy of tomorrow's health care professionals is important. However, clinical empathy is poorly defined and difficult to measure, while ways to enhance it remain unclear. This review examines empathy among undergraduate medical students, focusing upon three main questions: How is empathy measured? This section discusses the problems of assessing empathy and outlines the utility of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Student Version and Davis's Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Both have been used widely to assess medical students' empathy. Does empathy change during undergraduate medical education? The trajectory of empathy during undergraduate medical education has been and continues to be debated. Potential reasons for contrasting results of studies are outlined. What factors may influence the development of empathy? Although the influence of sex is widely recognized, the impact of culture, psychological well-being, and aspects of undergraduate curricula are less well understood. This review identifies three interrelated issues for future research into undergraduate medical students' empathy. First, the need for greater clarity of definition, recognizing that empathy is multidimensional. Second, the need to develop meaningful ways of measuring empathy which include its component dimensions and which are relevant to patients' experiences. Medical education research has generally relied upon single, self-report instruments, which have
Zhou, H; Peng, J; Wang, D; Kou, L; Chen, F; Ye, M; Deng, Y; Yan, J; Liao, S
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress. Introduction PsyCap includes four categories namely self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Research has demonstrated that PsyCap and coping styles affect current psychological distress. Nevertheless, few
Davari, Parastoo; Millsop, Jillian W; Johnson, Mary Ann N; Takahashi, Stefani R; Peng, David H; Badger, Joanna; Bahr, Brooks A; Shinkai, Kanade; Li, Chin-Shang; Fazel, Nasim
Limited data are available regarding the undergraduate dermatology clinical clerkship curriculum in the United States. Our primaryaim is to assess medical students' perspectives of the dermatology clinical clerkship. A multicenter survey study was conducted, which included four California dermatology academic programs. A 17-item questionnaire was designed to investigate medical student perception with regard tothe overall educational value of the various teaching aspects of the dermatology clinical clerkship. A total of 152 medical student surveys were completed. Over half of the medical students felt proficient in diagnosing the most commondermatologic conditions. Eighty-seven percent of medical students were very satisfied with the dermatology clerkship. Ninety-one percent of students felt the length of the clerkship was appropriate. The vast majority of medical students reported a high level of proficiency in the treatment and diagnosis of common skin disorders. In contrast, our findings suggest that medical students may not begaining sufficient hands-on experience in conducting certain dermatologic procedures following the dermatology clerkship. Overall, medical studentperception of the dermatology clinical clerkship was mostly positive.
Marianny Jessica de Brito Silva
Full Text Available This paper aimed to identify the perception of undergraduate Management course students from the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE, Agreste Campus, about their professors’ assessment methods. A quantitative approach was employed through a questionnaire conducted on a research sample of 155 students. The data collected and analyzed revealed that the students in question pointed out didactic and bureaucratic functions as the reasons for undertaking assessments and recognized their importance only for students, as an indication of their performance. Most students stated that their feelings about the assessment processes vary according to their time of study and empathy for the discipline, and that the teaching-assessment ratio is generally positive. Assessment feedback was common practice for the sample, but there was a lack of diversity of assessment tools and those used clash with the ones they desired. In conclusion, according to the students’ perception, it is possible to develop multiple thoughts about the assessment process, driving improvements in educational practices and the formation and training of university professors.
Burcu Ozge Özaslan Caliskan
Full Text Available Academic engagement used to refer to the extent to which students identify with and value schooling outcomes, and participate in academic and non-academic school activities. This study aims to investigate the academic engagement and satisfaction from the school among the university students. The data is taken from the undergraduate students in School of Transportation & Logistics in Istanbul University. We used a questionnaire that consisted of two parts. First part of the questionnaire is about to measure the students’ academic engagement that is improved by Schaufeli et al. Second part of the questionnaire is about to measure the students’ satisfaction from the school. K-means cluster analysis is used to determine two groups of students, group the students in to two clusters based on their school satisfaction scores. We named these two groups as “satisfied” and “unsatisfied” students. Secondly we investigate the relationships between the satisfaction scores and the academic engagement. By means of T Test we investigate whether the academic engagement differs between the clusters that are determined according to the students’ satisfaction scores. Finally we found that academic engagement differs according to the identified clusters.
Full Text Available Raywat Deonandan, James Gomes, Eric Lavigne, Thy Dinh, Robert Blanchard Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29% responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats. Keywords: epidemiology, education, undergraduate, research–teaching nexus
Full Text Available The love-pursuing pattern (LPP, or love-initiating behavior, is important in building or maintaining a relationship, but has been less studied. We hypothesize that the LPPs might be modulated by personality traits. Therefore we have administered an adjective-based LPP questionnaire, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ, the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scales (SSS, and the Plutchik – van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP in 164 Chinese undergraduates who were in a current heterosexual-love relationship. We did not find any differences of LPP, ZKPQ, SSS, or PVP scale scores when either referred to gender or initiator/ receiver. In initiators (13 women, 85 men, the SSS Experience Seeking was negatively correlated with LPP Impulsive scale, Disinhibition was positively correlated with Threatening scale, and the PVP was negatively correlated with Persistent scale. In all subjects, the ZKPQ Aggression-Hostility was negatively correlated with the perceived happiness from the relationship, Activity was positively correlated with relationship suitability, and the SSS Experience Seeking was negatively correlated with a future marriage probability. Low SSS Experience Seeking and Disinhibition, ZKPQ Aggression-Hostility, together with high Activity and emotionality would be helpful to initiate a love relationship, and increase chances of the perceived happiness and suitability, and a future marriage.
Taís Alexandre Antunes Paes
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the ethical perception of students on ethical dilemmas of social, economic and environmental common tourist activity. The practice of tourism constantly presents ethical dilemmas in their social actors need to make decisions. Depending on how decisions are taken the effects of such actions, can generate benefits or harms to society due to the constant changes that occur between these social agents when there is the purchase of services and tourism products. It is due to such aspects that makes prominent analyze the ethical perception of the students, since they will be future decision makers and tourism service providers. In this way, we interviewed 103 undergraduate students of tourism course at a public university in northeastern Brazil considering a non-probability sampling for accessibility and convenience. For this analysis was developed with a range of social, economic and environmental nature scenarios. The items were based on six moral issues pertaining to the integrative model Jones (1991 which together form the moral intensity: the magnitude of the impact, social consensus effect of probability, time immediacy, concentration and proximity effect. Among the results is greater ethical awareness for environment-related dilemma and an unethical action tendency for economic die dilemma.
Saswati Mahapatra; Anjali Bhagra; Bisrat Fekadu; Zhuo Li; Brent A.Bauer; Dietlind L.Wahner-Roedler
OBJECTIVE:Integrative medicine (IM) combines complementary medical approaches into conventional medicine and considers the whole person.We implemented a longitudinal IM short-course curriculum into our medical school education.This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the curriculum via knowledge and attitude surveys regarding IM among students.METHODS:A mandatory short IM curriculum across all years of medical school was created and taught by IM professionals and physician faculty members with expertise in integrative therapies.Graduating classes of 2015 and 2016 completed the same survey in their first and third years of medical school.Paired data analysis was done,and only students who completed surveys at both time points were included in final analyses.RESULTS:Of 52 students in each class,17 (33％) in the class of 2015 and 22 (42％) in the class of 2016 completed both surveys.After the IM curriculum,students' knowledge of and comfort with several IM therapies—biofeedback,mindfulness,and the use of St.John's wort—improved significantly.Students' personal health practices also improved,including better sleep,exercise,and stress management for the class of 2015.Students graduating in 2016 reported decreased alcohol use in their third year compared with their first year.CONCLUSION:It is feasible to incorporate IM education into undergraduate medical education,and this is associated with improvement in students' knowledge of IM and personal health practices.
Sequeira, Gina M; Chakraborti, Chayan; Panunti, Brandy A
The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is a diverse, underserved, and often stigmatized group that faces many barriers to accessing quality healthcare. Not only are few practicing physicians knowledgeable about and sensitive to the needs of LGBT patients, but medical school curricula include limited LGBT-related content. Our goals were to use LGBT-related educational sessions to gauge undergraduate medical students' interest and their perceptions of relevance and to eventually incorporate this topic into the curriculum. We provided 4 educational sessions to preclinical medical students at the Tulane University School of Medicine: 3 optional, 1-hour didactic sessions and 1 standardized patient encounter. Following sessions 1-3, students completed electronic feedback forms; we then analyzed their responses thematically. THE THEMATIC ANALYSIS OF STUDENT RESPONSES IDENTIFIED KEY THEMES: a current lack of exposure to LGBT content, agreement that LGBT material is applicable to students' work as future physicians, and the relevance of including such information in the medical school curriculum. The study validated the underlying assumption that LGBT educational sessions are meaningful to and valued by medical students.
Sviridova, T V; Lazurenko, S B; Venger, A L; Komarova, E V; Potapov, A S; Buslaeva, A S
The present study was aimed at the psychological characteristics of children with different chronic diseases of the digestive system and the identification of key factors influencing the formation of their personality. The continuous prospective study of psychological peculiarities of 125 patients (7-17 y.o.) with diseases of the digestive system who have been monitored at Scientific Centre of Children's Health (Moscow) was performed. As research methods were used: analysis of medical and pedagogical documentation, participant observation, educational experiment, interview, questionnaires and projective methods. The study involved 125 patients aged 7-17 years (12.4 averagely) with diseases of the digestive system including teens--68 (54%), primary school pupil--57 (46%). The number of boys significantly prevailed over the number of girls (2:1). The study confirmed the existence of a close relationship and mutual influence of three factors: the physical condition, social situation of development, and individual psychological characteristics of children. According to the psychological characteristics the children can be combined in three groups: Group I (47 of 125 people; 37.6%) - children with bad psychological status. This is most typicalfor children with active form of chronic diseases requiring intensive medical assistance (37 of 47people; 78.7%). Group II (59 of 125 people; 47.2%)--children with instable psychological condition, with risk of neurotization. This group mainly comprises patients with chronic diseases at the stage of unstable clinical remission with preserved or compensated functions of organism bodies and systems or with incomplete compensation of functions requiring long term supportive treatment (45 of 59 people; 76.3%). Group III--patients with rather stable psychological condition (19 of 125 people; 15.2%). It comprises patients with rather stable psychological condition, anyway, with expressed psychological vulnerability in stress situation
Lauper Elisabeth; Moser Stephanie; Fischer Maja; Matthies Ellen; Kaufmann-Hayoz Ruth
Eco-driving has well-known positive effects on fuel economy and greenhouse-gas emissions. Moreover, eco-driving reduces road-traffic noise, which is a serious threat to the health and well-being of many people. We investigated the psychological predictors of the adoption of eco-driving from the perspective of road-traffic noise abatement. The data came from 890 car drivers who participated in a longitudinal survey over four months. Specifically, we tested the effects of the intention to preve...
N hasan neghad
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological hardiness is a personal factor and social support is regarded as an environmental factor that can facilitate adjustment to disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adaptation with psychological hardiness and social support in individuals with Multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Seventy two females with MS and 25 males with MSwere selected through randomized sampling from two MS centers. Main variables of the study including adaptation, psychological hardiness, and social supportwere assessed respectively by Adaptation Inventory, Personal Attitudes Survey, and Social Support Questionnaire. Results: Spearman correlation coefficients revealed that there are significant relationships between adaptation and psychological hardiness (p<0.0001, as well as between adaptation and social support (p<0.0001. In addition, Multiple linear Regression showed that psychological hardiness (β= -0.483 and social support (β= -0.240 can explain 35/1% of adaptation variance in individuals with MS. Psychological hardinessproved to have a more important role in adaptation of individuals with MS. Conclusion: The study data demonstrated that personal factors like psychological hardiness and environmental factors such as social support can predict adjustment in individuals with MS. In order to clarify mechanisms of these factors on adaptation in individuals with MS, morelongitudinal and experimental studiesare required. These results are alsoapplicable in designing therapeutic programs for individuals with MS.
Montazeri, Ali; Baradaran, Hamid; Omidvari, Sepideh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Ebadi, Mehdi; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Harirchi, Amir Mahmood; Shariati, Mohammad
An earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the city of Bam in Iran on the 26th of December 2003 at 5.26 A.M. It was devastating, and left over 40,000 dead and around 30,000 injured. The profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. A study was carried out to assess psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors and factors associated with severe mental health in those who survived the tragedy. This was a population-based study measuring psychological distress among the survivors of Bam earthquake in Iran. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method a random sample of individuals aged 15 years and over living in Bam were interviewed. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). In all 916 survivors were interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years (SD = 12.4), mostly were males (53%), married (66%) and had secondary school education (50%). Forty-one percent reported they lost 3 to 5 members of their family in the earthquake. In addition the findings showed that 58% of the respondents suffered from severe mental health as measured by the GHQ-12 and this was three times higher than reported psychological distress among the general population. There were significant differences between sub-groups of the study sample with regard to their psychological distress. The results of the logistic regression analysis also indicated that female gender; lower education, unemployment, and loss of family members were associated with severe psychological distress among earthquake victims. The study findings indicated that the amount of psychological distress among earthquake survivors was high and there is an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims in local medical settings and to reduce negative health impacts of the earthquake adequate psychological counseling is needed for those who
Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Tibben, A.
This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis
van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Bröcker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.
This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis
van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.
This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis
African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. ... Experts as sources in reported agricultural articles in Nigerian dailies · EMAIL FULL ... Factors influencing the teaching of physical education and sport in Cluster H Shools of Chivi ...
African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. ... History, culture, social structure and entrepreneurship in the political ... Psychol-social factors in rural health information dissemination · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Lienert-Brown, Mel; Taylor, Peta; Withington, John; Lefebvre, Evelyn
The core of pre-registration nursing education is the learning that takes place during the clinical placement. However, despite the fact that registered nurse preceptors are key players in supporting students during their placements there is a lack of literature examining the views of preceptors working with nursing students in mental health settings. To explore mental health nurses' views and experiences of working with undergraduate nursing students and determine what factors influence this experience. A descriptive exploratory study approach using an on-line questionnaire was adopted for this study. A specialist mental health service (SMHS) within one District Health Board in New Zealand. 89 registered nurses who had been involved in working with nursing students participated in this study. Data was collected using an online questionnaire. The majority of the respondents in this study reported that they felt confident and well supported in the work they did with nursing students and had a positive perception of this role. However, one significant negative factor identified was the extra stress and workload pressure they reported when working with students, when no allowance was made for this. Another key finding was that engaging in some form of education related to the preceptorship role was positively correlated with nurses knowing what was required of them, feeling confident, the extent to which they planned clinical education, and feeling that they were sufficiently appreciated. Ensuring nurses have access to education related to clinical teaching and learning increases their confidence in the work they do with nursing students and has also been shown to have a positive impact on how they view this role. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the history of psychology there are many scientists whose names and contributions have been forgotten. One poorly studied area in the history of psychology is the psychological views of theologians. Among these is Veniamin Alekseevich Snegirev, a psychologist and theologian at Kazan Theological Academy, whose contributions are not fully appreciated today. The authors identify V.A. Snegirev’s contribution to several fields of psychological science at the end of the 19th century: methodology, theory, general psychology, and the psychology of dreams. The research is based on archival materials, encyclopedia articles, reviews of the activity of Kazan Theological Academy in the 19th century, works of Snegirev and other researchers who have studied his contributions. The authors describe the scientist’s childhood, his student period, and work as a professor. his work at the Kazan Theological Academy and the University of Kazan is discussed in detail: he taught courses on psychology, logic, and metaphysics, was a member of the Academy Council, took part in the functioning of the library, was recognized with several awards and honors. Snegirev’s teaching activity is described by the recollections of his student, the famous philosopher Viktor I. Nesmelov. Snegirev considered psychology to be based in philosophy, because philosophical problems represent the content of human consciousness. A bibliography of Snegirev’s scientific works is provided. The psychological and philosophical views of the Russian scientist are signifi- cant: his main points are to recognize the object of science – the human being – as a “living person”, thinking, feeling, and exercising his will; and the rejection of the idea that a person can be reduced to a sum of mental phenomena. There are several common concepts in the works of Snegirev and European and American philosophers, such as Wilhelm Dilthey and William James. Snegirev participated in the
Wang Can; Liu Dawei
Since the 1990s, the numbers of college students who drop out of school due to mental disorders have increased dramatically. In recent years, reports on college students’ mental health crisis have drawn more and more public at-tention. Therefore, the mental health status of col-lege students is becoming a serious focus in the field of psychology. However,there are few studies on the mental health of ethnic minority college students. As a standardized practical screening instru-ment, the psychological assessment scale has be-come a widely used tool for many universities to e-valuate psychological problems. This paper intends to analyze the characteristics of the psychological scales commonly used in ethnic minority colleges, and clearly describe the status of its application. Through searching thefull-text database CNKI,we discovered that there are several tools concerning psychological scale that are used commonly in eth-nic minority colleges, including the Symptom Checklist 90 ( SCL - 90 ) , Zung Self - Rating Scales(SDS/SAS),Psychological Health Inventory ( PHI) ,Eysenck Personality Questionnaire( EPQ) , 16 PF Questionnaire ( 16 pf ) , and the College Students’Personality Health Questionnaire ( UPI ) . We did a comparative analysis on them as follows:1. The Symptom Checklist-90-R( SCL-90-R ) is a self -reporting psychometric question-naire published in 1975 . It is designed to evaluate a broad range of psychological problems and symp-toms of psychopathology. It is still one of the most widely used instruments in the investigation of the mental health of college students. 2. The Zung Self - Rating Depression Scale (SDS)and Zung Self -Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS) were designed by psychiatrist William W. K. Zung. The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scaleis used to as-sess the level of depression for patients diagnosed with depressive disorder. The Zung Self-Rating Anx-iety Scale was designed to assess a patient’s level of anxiety. Both of them are commonly used in
Ling, Yu; He, Yushu; Wei, Yong; Cen, Weihong; Zhou, Qi; Zhong, Mingtian
Studies in western countries have examined the specific vulnerability hypothesis of Dykman's theory of goal-orientation predispositions to depression through two-time point designs. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the moderating effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goals on stress and depressive symptoms in Chinese undergraduate students. A total of 462 undergraduate students [46% female; mean age, 19.06 (range, 17-22) years] completed self-reported measures assessing intrinsic and extrinsic goals, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of social and academic hassles. Every 3 months over the subsequent 12 months, the undergraduate students completed measures assessing depressive symptoms and the occurrence of daily hassles. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that undergraduate students with low levels of intrinsic goals reported greater depressive symptoms following the occurrence of social and academic hassles than did those with high levels of such goals. However, undergraduate students with high levels of extrinsic goals did not report greater depressive symptoms following the occurrence of social and academic hassles than did those possessing low levels. These findings suggest that intrinsic goals can protect undergraduate students experiencing high levels of social and academic hassles from depressive symptoms. The study findings provide new insight into the course of depressive symptoms among undergraduate students, and offer psychologist and psychiatrists ways to protect individuals from depressive symptoms by building up intrinsic goals.
Mellis, Birgit; Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M; Jayasekare, Rasitha
For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004-2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students.
Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D.; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M.; Jayasekare, Rasitha
For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004–2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students. PMID:29698502
Fatemeh Khozaei; Ahmad S. Hassan; Zahra Khozaei
Problem statement: Unlike numerous studies have explored residents satisfaction and sense of attachment to housing, little discussion exists on this area addressing the relationship between sense of attachment to place and student housing satisfaction. To fill such a gap, this article was an attempt to investigate undergraduate students level of satisfaction and sense of attachment to place drawn from three ethnics (Malay, Chinese and Indian) living in the hostels of University Sains Malaysia...
de Vibe, Michael; Solhaug, Ida; Tyssen, Reidar; Friborg, Oddgeir; Rosenvinge, Jan H; S?rlie, Tore; Bj?rndal, Arild
Background Distress and burnout among medical and psychology professionals are commonly reported and have implications for the quality of patient care delivered. Already in the course of university studies, medicine and psychology students report mental distress and low life satisfaction. There is a need for interventions that promote better coping skills in students in order to prevent distress and future burnout. This study examines the effect of a seven-week Mindfulness-...
Swann, C; Moran, A; Piggott, D
© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Objectives: There has been considerable inconsistency and confusion in the definition of elite/expert athletes in sport psychology research, which has implications for studies conducted in this area and for the field as a whole. This study aimed to: (i) critically evaluate the ways in which recent research in sport psychology has defined elite/expert athletes; (ii) explore the rationale for using such athletes; and (iii) evaluate the conclusions that research in this fiel...
Guendelman, Simón; Medeiros, Sebastián; Rampes, Hagen
There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological corr...
Amaral, Mariana; Matias, Filipa; Massena, Lígia; Cardoso, Nuno
Motivated by the contracting nature of the Portuguese age pyramid, and thereby the ever increasing geriatric population, the aim of this study was to compare the number of European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System Credits dedicated to Geriatrics with Pediatrics in Portuguese Medical Schools. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted and included six Portuguese Medical Schools that have six years of training and a total of 360 credits. The study plans were obtained from the medical schools' websites or requested. Schools were grouped in modular/classic teaching methodology and the courses were categorized in mandatory/optional and specific/related. The credits of Geriatrics and Pediatrics were compared. Four schools had classical methodology and two had a modular one. Overall, they had more credits dedicated to Pediatrics than Geriatrics. Three schools offered mandatory courses specifically oriented to Geriatrics (1.5 - 8 credits) compared to all schools mandatory courses courses on Pediatrics (5.7 - 26.5 credits). The ratio of averages of mandatory specific courses (Pediatrics/Geriatrics) was 12.4 in the classical and 1.5 in the modular group. Pediatrics teaching has revealed to be superior to Geriatrics in all categories. Based on our results, we consider the Portuguese Geriatrics' undergraduate teaching sub-optimal. Nowadays, geriatric population is quantitatively similar to pediatric population. Efforts should be made to adequate Geriatrics teaching to our reality in order to provide a more adequate health care to this age group.
Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between the psychological career resources and career anchors of a sample of 2 997 working adults at predominantly managerial and supervisory levels in the service industry. The Psychological Career Resources Inventory and the Career Orientations Inventory were applied. Stepwise regression analyses indicated dimensions of psychological career resources as significant predictors of participants’ career anchors. The findings add valuable new knowledge that can be used to inform organisational career development support practices as well as career counselling and guidance services concerned with promoting individuals’ employability and experiences of intrinsic career success.
Full Text Available Objective. The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. Design and Setting. A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom, McGill University (Canada, and a control group (non-medical staff. The questions were about plastic surgery: (1 source of information and basic understanding; (2 undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3 factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group. The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ2 and level of significance p≤0.05. Results. Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n=171/332, 52% (McGill n=72/132, 54%. Birmingham students (14% considered the word “plastic” synonymous with “cosmetic” more than McGill students (4%, p<0.025. Teaching was the main source of knowledge for McGill students (39%, p<0.001 while Birmingham students and control group chose the media (70%, p<0.001. McGill students (67% more than Birmingham (49%, p<0.010 considered curriculum inclusion. The preferred learning method was lectures for McGill students (61%, p<0.01 but an optional module for Birmingham (61%. A similar proportion (18% from both student groups considered a career in plastic surgery. Conclusions. Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in
To investigate the association between psychosocial conditions at work, unemployment and self-reported psychological health. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire for the 2000 public health survey in Scania was administered to both working and unemployed people aged 18-64 years. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between psychosocial factors at work/unemployment and self-reported psychological health (General Health Questionnaire 12). Psychosocial conditions at work were classified according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive and job strain. The multivariate analyses included age, country of origin, education, economic stress and social participation. A total of 5180 people returned their questionnaire, giving a participation rate of 59%. Fifteen per cent of men and 20% of women reported poor psychological health. Those with high demands and high control (active category), those with high demands and low control (job strain category) and the unemployed had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health compared to those with low demands and high control (relaxed category). Those with low demands and low control (passive category) did not differ significantly from the relaxed category. The associations remained in the multivariate analyses. The study found that certain psychosocial work factors are associated with higher levels of self-reported psychological ill-health and illustrates the great importance of psychosocial conditions in determining psychological health at the population level. As found elsewhere, being unemployed was an even stronger predictor of psychological ill-health.
Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed
We assessed the mediating role of education in the association between childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood using longitudinal data collected in three waves, from 1994 to 2008, in the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4530), a cohort that is representative of men and women from Tromsø. Education was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years, and psychological distress in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years. Ordinary least square regression analysis was used to assess the associations between childhood disadvantage, education, and psychological distress in adulthood. The indirect effects and the proportion (%) of indirect effects of childhood disadvantage (via education) on psychological distress in adulthood were assessed by mediation analysis. Childhood disadvantage was associated with lower education and higher psychological distress in adulthood (p childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood was mediated by education. Childhood disadvantages were measured retrospectively. The association between childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood is primarily independent of education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dubé, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine
Casual sexual relationships and experiences (CSREs) are still considered to be detrimental to the psychological well-being of youth even though findings remain inconclusive. Most studies have focused on emerging adulthood. Using a prospective design based on a representative sample of high school students in the province of Québec, we measured sexually active adolescents' (N = 2,304) psychological well-being six months after engaging in these relationships while controlling for prior well-being. We analyzed two forms of CSREs, friends with benefits (FWB) and one-night stand (ONS) relationships, as well as levels of sexual intimacy. The results show that CSREs had a small impact (small effect sizes) on subsequent psychological well-being, especially among girls; FWB relationships involving penetrative contact increased girls' psychological distress and both their alcohol and drug consumption. ONSs including sexual touching increased girls' psychological distress and their drug use. None of the CSREs influenced boys' psychological well-being. The findings underscored the importance of using caution when arguing that CSREs are detrimental or harmless to the psychological well-being of adolescents. The results also highlight the importance of taking into account gender and forms of CSREs in prevention and health interventions.
Dubé, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine
Casual sexual relationships and experiences (CSREs) are still considered to be detrimental to the psychological well-being of youth even though findings remain inconclusive. Most studies have focused on emerging adulthood. Using a prospective design based on a representative sample of high school students in the province of Québec, we measured sexually active adolescents’ (N = 2,304) psychological well-being six months after engaging in these relationships while controlling for prior well-being. We analyzed two forms of CSREs, friends with benefits (FWB) and one-night stand (ONS) relationships, as well as levels of sexual intimacy. The results show that CSREs had a small impact (small effect sizes) on subsequent psychological well-being, especially among girls; FWB relationships involving penetrative contact increased girls’ psychological distress and both their alcohol and drug consumption. ONSs including sexual touching increased girls’ psychological distress and their drug use. None of the CSREs influenced boys’ psychological well-being. The findings underscored the importance of using caution when arguing that CSREs are detrimental or harmless to the psychological well-being of adolescents. The results also highlight the importance of taking into account gender and forms of CSREs in prevention and health interventions. PMID:28010123
Balogun, Olukunmi; Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew; Gilmour, Stuart; Shibuya, Kenji
To examine the association between alcohol use and psychological distress among adolescents in a range of developing countries. Secondary data analysis of the Global School-Based Student Health Survey was conducted using nationally representative data from 12 developing countries: Botswana, Grenada, Indonesia, Kenya, Myanmar, the Philippines, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Seychelles, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uganda. The surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2008 and involved 32,001 adolescents primarily aged 13-15 years. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the association between alcohol use and psychological distress. The prevalence of past 30-day alcohol use and lifetime drunkenness varied widely across countries, as did the occurrence of psychological distress (anxiety-induced sleeplessness and/or depression). The risk of psychological distress was significantly higher among adolescents when using alcohol in all countries except Myanmar. In nine of the 12 countries, past 30-day alcohol use was associated with psychological distress, while students who had been drunk at least once in their lifetime had an increased risk of experiencing psychological distress in 11 of the study countries. The high prevalence of alcohol use among adolescents and the strength of the association with psychological distress present a major public health challenge in developing countries. The urgent need to reduce adolescent alcohol use necessitates the implementation of context- and culture-specific strategies that reduce the physical availability of alcohol. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meo, Sultan Ayoub
To evaluate and compare students' perceptions about teaching and learning, knowledge and skills, outcomes of course materials and their satisfaction in traditional Lecture Based learning versus Problem-Based Learning curricula in two different medical schools. The comparative cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from July 2009 to January 2011. Two different undergraduate medical schools were selected; one followed the traditional curriculum, while the other followed the problem-based learning curriculum. Two equal groups of first year medical students were selected. They were taught in respiratory physiology and lung function lab according to their curriculum for a period of two weeks. At the completion of the study period, a five-point Likert scale was used to assess students' perceptions on satisfaction, academic environment, teaching and learning, knowledge and skills and outcomes of course materials about effectiveness of problem-based learning compared to traditional methods. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Students used to problem-based learning curriculum obtained marginally higher scores in their perceptions (24.10 +/- 3.63) compared to ones following the traditional curriculum (22.67 +/- 3.74). However, the difference in perceptions did not achieve a level of statistical significance. Students following problem-based learning curriculum have more positive perceptions on teaching and learning, knowledge and skills, outcomes of their course materials and satisfaction compared to the students belonging to the traditional style of medical school. However, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant.
Salem, Jamie; Fehrmann, Paul
With the growing population of undergraduate students on our campus and an increased focus on their success, librarians at a large midwestern university were interested in the citation management styles of this university cohort. Our university library spends considerable resources each year to maintain and promote access to the robust…
Shaw, Lorraine; Carey, Phil; Mair, Michael
This article reports on an observation-based evaluation of student-tutor interaction in first-year undergraduate tutorials. Using a single case analysis, the paper looks at how tutors and students built and maintained relationships through two different though interlinked forms of interaction--storytelling and the use of classroom space for…
Crittenden, Victoria L.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.
In response to calls from both business practitioners and educators, this research explores the extent to which undergraduate marketing education is delivered with a cross-functional perspective. Given that marketing is often recognized as a boundary-spanning role within companies, marketing department chairs were asked to report on…
Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery
Research on laboratory learning points to the need to better understand what and how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was administered to general and organic chemistry students from 15 colleges and universities across the United States in order to measure the…
Celikkan, Ufuk; Senuzun, Fisun; Sari, Dilek; Sahin, Yasar Guneri
This paper describes how interactive videoconference can benefit the Electrocardiography (ECG) skills of undergraduate nursing students. We have implemented a learning system that interactively transfers the visual and practical aspects of ECG from a nursing skills lab into a classroom where the theoretical part of the course is taught. The…
Johnson, James W.
Today's undergraduate student faces many challenges. The challenges include paying for tuition and textbooks and finding a job upon graduation. These students are tech-savvy and seeking better ways to learn and retain material they learn in their classes. In addition, the textbook market is trying to evolve by serving this tech-generation through…
Schutte, Audra Faye
Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…
Whilst the copying, falsification and plagiarism of essays and assignments has long been a prevalent form of academic misconduct amongst undergraduate students, the increasing use of the internet in higher education has raised concern over enhanced levels of online plagiarism and new types of "cyber-cheating". Based on a self-report…
Trenbath, Thien-Kim Leckie
This dissertation shows the evolution of five undergraduate students' ideas of natural and anthropogenic climate change throughout a lecture hall course on climate change. This research was informed by conceptual change theory and students' inaccurate ideas of climate change. Subjects represented different levels of climate change understanding at…
Wang, Zhonghua; Cheng, Lifang; Wang, Hao
Electronic industry is an economic pillar in China. Due to the Moore's Law, the industry requires continuous development and innovation. In order to achieve these goals, the cultivation of electronic application-oriented undergraduate is essential. However, at current, the innovative educational concepts and teaching methods are lagging behind so…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain is one of the most common reasons for individuals to seek medical advice, yet it remains poorly managed. One of the main reasons that poor pain management persists is the lack of adequate knowledge and skills of practicing clinicians, which stems from a perceived lack of pain education during the training of undergraduate medical students.
Zhu, Yanhan; Wu, Juan
The innovation is the soul of one nation making progresses. To build an innovative country, we need to train more innovative talents who is capable of public administration. The innovative talents training of public administration undergraduate faces a lot of problems, such as the influences of traditional culture, the constraint of education…
Costella, John; Adam, Tom; Gray, Fran; Nolan, Nicole; Wilkins, Catherine
How can an academic library most effectively participate and expand its contributions to program reviews at the institutional level? By becoming involved in undergraduate reviews, college and university libraries can articulate new and enhanced roles for themselves on campus. Academic libraries have always contributed to a variety of institutional…
Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery
Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…
Lehman, Darrin R.; Nisbett, Richard E.
Effects of undergraduate training on inductive reasoning and logic were examined. Social science training produced significant effects on statistical and methodological reasoning. Natural science and humanities training produced significant effects on conditional logic reasoning. Results indicate that reasoning is taught and generalizable. (BC)
Meerza, Alyya; Beauchamp, Gary
The increasing use of information and communication technology (ICT) in higher education has been explored largely in relation to undergraduate's attitude towards the usage of ICT in the universities. However, the success of ICT in any learning institution including Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) depends on the attitudes of undergraduates…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to document the food-related environmental beliefs and behaviours of undergraduate university students. More specifically, this research was focussed on determining if environmental sustainability is a consideration in students' food choices, identifying the specific choices and behaviours adopted to reduce…
Chen, Leon; Severns, Roger
We conducted an annual survey of undergraduate students taking finance courses over the past 5 years (2009-2014). Our results showed that although more than 70% of students considered the financial planning profession to some extent, the percentage of students who had seriously considered it declined over time, despite the increasing number of new…
Jackowski, Mick; Gullion, Laurie
Students in an undergraduate sport management writing course experienced a service learning component via outreach with local sport organizations. Class instructors supported students and evaluated student logs, class presentations, student memorandums, product review, and interviews with agency personnel and students. Results indicated that…
Smith, Morgan R; Grealish, Laurie; Henderson, Saras
Student satisfaction is a quality measure of increasing importance in undergraduate programs, including nursing programs. To date theories of student satisfaction have focused primarily on students' perceptions of the educational environment rather than their perceptions of learning. Understanding how students determine satisfaction with learning is necessary to facilitate student learning across a range of educational contexts and meet the expectations of diverse stakeholders. To understand undergraduate nursing students' satisfaction with learning. Constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to identify how nursing students determined satisfaction with learning. Two large, multi-campus, nursing schools in Australia. Seventeen demographically diverse undergraduate nursing students studying different stages of a three year program participated in the study. Twenty nine semi-structured interviews were conducted. Students were invited to describe situations where they had been satisfied or dissatisfied with their learning. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data. Students are satisfied with learning when they shape a valued learning journey that accommodates social contexts of self, university and nursing workplace. The theory has three phases. Phase 1 - orienting self to valued learning in the pedagogical landscape; phase 2 - engaging with valued learning experiences across diverse pedagogical terrain; and phase 3 - recognising valued achievement along the way. When students experience a valued learning journey they are satisfied with their learning. Student satisfaction with learning is unique to the individual, changes over time and maybe transient or sustained, mild or intense. Finding from the research indicate areas where nurse academics may facilitate satisfaction with learning in undergraduate nursing programs while mindful of the expectations of other stakeholders such as the university, nurse registering authorities
Xu, Xianglong; Lin, Qianyi; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Runzhi; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong
Previous studies showed that social media is associated with sleep quality. WeChat (a native social media in China) is very popular in China, especially among the youth. In the second quarter of 2016, Tencent's WeChat had 806 million monthly active users. The study sought to identify the influence of WeChat on the sleep quality among undergraduate students. A cross-sectional survey adopted a multi-stage stratified sampling survey to investigate undergraduates in Chongqing, China. Data were collected on 1979 eligible adults, aged 20.27 (SD: 1.26) years old, using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure sleep quality. Respondents aged 20.27 ± 1.26 years included 535 (27.0%) males, and 1311 (66.3%) reported as having poor sleep quality. Of the 1979 participants, 1320 (66.70%) were WeChat users. In multivariable analyses, gender, grade, nationality, living costs, the student leader, the only child, type of university, WeChat usage was associated with domains of PSQI among undergraduates ( p students.
Cassel, Anneli; Humphreys, Kate
Psychogenic amnesia is widely understood to be a memory impairment of psychological origin that occurs as a response to severe stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapy approaches in the treatment of this disorder. The current article describes a single case, "Ben", who was treated with formulation-driven psychological therapy using techniques drawn from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for psychogenic amnesia. Before treatment, Ben exhibited isolated retrograde and anterograde memory impairments. He received 12 therapy sessions that targeted experiential avoidance followed by two review sessions, six weeks and five months later. Ben's retrograde and anterograde memory impairments improved following therapy to return to within the "average" to "superior" ranges, which were maintained at follow-up. Further experimental single case study designs and larger group studies are required to advance the understanding of the effectiveness and efficacy of psychological therapy for psychogenic amnesia.
Deery, Stephen J; Iverson, Roderick D; Walsh, Janet T
Experiences of psychological contract breach have been associated with a range of negative behavior. However, much of the research has focused on master of business administration alumni and managers and made use of self-reported outcomes. Studying a sample of customer service employees, the research found that psychological contract breach was related to lower organizational trust, which, in turn was associated with perceptions of less cooperative employment relations and higher levels of absenteeism. Furthermore, perceptions of external market pressures moderated the effect of psychological contract breach on absenteeism. The study indicated that psychological contract breach can arise when employees perceive discrepancies between an organization's espoused behavioral standards and its actual behavioral standards, and this can affect discretionary absence. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Christina T. Mathias
Conclusion: As shown in the study, some of the undergraduate students are experiencing compassion fatigue and burnout, associated with relieving suffering of others. Therefore, knowledge of compassion fatigue and burnout and the coping strategies should be part of nursing training.
Koschwanez, Heidi E; Broadbent, Elizabeth
To provide a critical review of methods used to assess human wound healing in psychological research and related disciplines, in order to guide future research into psychological influences on wound healing. Acute wound models (skin blister, tape stripping, skin biopsy, oral palate biopsy, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tubing), surgical wound healing assessment methods (wound drains, wound scoring), and chronic wound assessment techniques (surface area, volumetric measurements, wound composition, and assessment tools/scoring systems) are summarized, including merits, limitations, and recommendations. Several dermal and mucosal tissue acute wound models have been established to assess the effects of psychological stress on the inflammatory, proliferative, and repair phases of wound healing in humans, including material-based models developed to evaluate factors influencing post-surgical recovery. There is a paucity of research published on psychological factors influencing chronic wound healing. There are many assessment techniques available to study the progression of chronic wound healing but many difficulties inherent to long-term clinical studies. Researchers need to consider several design-related issues when conducting studies into the effects of psychological stress on wound healing, including the study aims, type of wound, tissue type, setting, sample characteristics and accessibility, costs, timeframe, and facilities available. Researchers should consider combining multiple wound assessment methods to increase the reliability and validity of results and to further understand mechanisms that link stress and wound healing. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Montenegro, Roberto E; Birnie, Krista D; Fisher, Paul Graham; Dahl, Gary V; Binkley, John; Schiffman, Joshua D
Recent data question whether medical education adequately prepares physicians to care for the growing number of children with chronic medical conditions. We describe a 10-week course designed to provide undergraduate students with the knowledge and skills required to understand and care for children with chronic or catastrophic illnesses. The course presented the illness experience from the child's perspective and thus presented information in a manner that was efficient, conducive, and memorable. The curriculum was designed like a graduate-level seminar that included workshops, lectures, readings, writing, and lively discussions. This is an educational intervention study that used survey data to assess changes in attitudes among and between participants completing this course versus students not exposed to this course. We used Somers' D test and Fisher's z-transformation to perform both pre- and post-nonparametric comparisons. Course participants were more likely to change their attitudes and agree that chronically ill children "feel comfortable talking with their peers about their condition" (P=0.003) and less likely to agree that these children "want to be treated differently," "want more sympathy," or "care less about romantic relationships" (P = 0.003, 0.002 and 0.02, respectively). Controls were more likely to continue to agree that chronically ill children "want to be treated differently" (P = 0.009) and "care less about romantic relationships" (P = 0.02), and less likely to agree that these children "talk openly" or "feel comfortable talking with their peers about their condition" (P = 0.04). This classroom-based course serves as a feasible and cost-effective model for universities and medical schools to aid in improving student attitudes toward treating chronically ill children. The course provides the unique opportunity to learn directly from those who care for and those who have lived with chronic illness.
We provide an overview of modern Western literature devoted to the problem of psychological violence and its various manifestations in the education system, particularly at school. We briefly characterize the approaches to the problem of violence, describe the results of several studies demonstrating the relationship of the psychological climate at school and academic performance, the probability of applying for support to teachers and peers, give the specific facts of influence of sex, age a...
Adelia, Cindy Inge
This study aims to examine the Effect of Big Five Personality to Psychological Adjustment on Indonesian’s Sojourners. The instruments used to collect the data arepsychological adjustment scale and Big Five Inventory. The scale of psychological adjustment was made within 33 items. Big Five Inventory was used from Big Five Inventory that had been adapted by professional translator. Convenience sampling method was used to gather the respond of 117 samples. The data obtained are later analyzed us...
Stevenson, Clifford; Hopkins, Nick; Luyt, Russell; Dixon, John
In this article we review the argument outlined in the opening article in this special thematic section: that the current social psychology of citizenship can be understood as the development of longstanding conceptualisations of the concept within the discipline. These conceptualisations have contributed to the current social psychological study of the constructive, active and collective (but often exclusive) understandings of citizenship in people’s everyday lives, as evidenced by contribut...
This thesis contributes to Carlson et al.’s (2008) findings on a brand-based community and its psychological aspects. The research aimed to investigate the influences of psychological sense of brand community (PSBC) on mobile game loyalty. Particularly, it attempted to, first, look at sense of brand community from the social identity viewpoint, and second, explore the influence of PSBC on game loyalty as well as the role PSBC plays in the satisfaction–loyalty relationship. The relevant studie...
Keegan, Richard James
While there has been a significant expansion of continued professional development opportunities in recent years, there has often, historically, been a reluctance for sport and exercise psychologists to both share, and receive feedback on their professional practice (Cotterill, Weston and Breslin, 2016). The recent development of the new Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology journal, a flagship journal of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology, supports an increasing appetite fo...