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Sample records for psychology statistical physics

  1. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    1988-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  2. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  3. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wannier, Gregory Hugh

    1966-01-01

    Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

  4. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Guénault, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this revised and enlarged second edition of an established text Tony Guénault provides a clear and refreshingly readable introduction to statistical physics, an essential component of any first degree in physics. The treatment itself is self-contained and concentrates on an understanding of the physical ideas, without requiring a high level of mathematical sophistication. A straightforward quantum approach to statistical averaging is adopted from the outset (easier, the author believes, than the classical approach). The initial part of the book is geared towards explaining the equilibrium properties of a simple isolated assembly of particles. Thus, several important topics, for example an ideal spin-½ solid, can be discussed at an early stage. The treatment of gases gives full coverage to Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. Towards the end of the book the student is introduced to a wider viewpoint and new chapters are included on chemical thermodynamics, interactions in, for exam...

  5. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  6. Theoretical physics 8 statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to statistical physics, one of the core components of advanced undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, using methods of probability theory and statistics to solve physical problems. The first part of the book gives a detailed overview on classical statistical physics and introduces all mathematical tools needed. The second part of the book covers topics related to quantized states, gives a thorough introduction to quantum statistics, followed by a concise treatment of quantum gases. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in quantum mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successf...

  7. Statistical Physics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshioka, Daijiro

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the basics of statistical physics. The first part explains the essence of statistical physics and how it provides a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, allowing one to derive quantities such as entropy. Here the author avoids going into details such as Liouville’s theorem or the ergodic theorem, which are difficult for beginners and unnecessary for the actual application of the statistical mechanics. In the second part, statistical mechanics is applied to various systems which, although they look different, share the same mathematical structure. In this way readers can deepen their understanding of statistical physics. The book also features applications to quantum dynamics, thermodynamics, the Ising model and the statistical dynamics of free spins.

  8. Statistical symmetries in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA

    1994-01-01

    Every law of physics is invariant under some group of transformations and is therefore the expression of some type of symmetry. Symmetries are classified as geometrical, dynamical or statistical. At the most fundamental level, statistical symmetries are expressed in the field theories of the elementary particles. This paper traces some of the developments from the discovery of Bose statistics, one of the two fundamental symmetries of physics. A series of generalizations of Bose statistics is described. A supersymmetric generalization accommodates fermions as well as bosons, and further generalizations, including parastatistics, modular statistics and graded statistics, accommodate particles with properties such as 'colour'. A factorization of elements of ggl(n b ,n f ) can be used to define truncated boson operators. A general construction is given for q-deformed boson operators, and explicit constructions of the same type are given for various 'deformed' algebras. A summary is given of some of the applications and potential applications. 39 refs., 2 figs

  9. Methods of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Akhiezer, Aleksandr I

    1981-01-01

    Methods of Statistical Physics is an exposition of the tools of statistical mechanics, which evaluates the kinetic equations of classical and quantized systems. The book also analyzes the equations of macroscopic physics, such as the equations of hydrodynamics for normal and superfluid liquids and macroscopic electrodynamics. The text gives particular attention to the study of quantum systems. This study begins with a discussion of problems of quantum statistics with a detailed description of the basics of quantum mechanics along with the theory of measurement. An analysis of the asymptotic be

  10. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  11. Elementary statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, C

    1965-01-01

    This book is intended to help physics students attain a modest working knowledge of several areas of statistical mechanics, including stochastic processes and transport theory. The areas discussed are among those forming a useful part of the intellectual background of a physicist.

  12. Statistical physics of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Bauch, Chris T.; Bhattacharyya, Samit; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero; Perc, Matjaž; Perra, Nicola; Salathé, Marcel; Zhao, Dawei

    2016-12-01

    Historically, infectious diseases caused considerable damage to human societies, and they continue to do so today. To help reduce their impact, mathematical models of disease transmission have been studied to help understand disease dynamics and inform prevention strategies. Vaccination-one of the most important preventive measures of modern times-is of great interest both theoretically and empirically. And in contrast to traditional approaches, recent research increasingly explores the pivotal implications of individual behavior and heterogeneous contact patterns in populations. Our report reviews the developmental arc of theoretical epidemiology with emphasis on vaccination, as it led from classical models assuming homogeneously mixing (mean-field) populations and ignoring human behavior, to recent models that account for behavioral feedback and/or population spatial/social structure. Many of the methods used originated in statistical physics, such as lattice and network models, and their associated analytical frameworks. Similarly, the feedback loop between vaccinating behavior and disease propagation forms a coupled nonlinear system with analogs in physics. We also review the new paradigm of digital epidemiology, wherein sources of digital data such as online social media are mined for high-resolution information on epidemiologically relevant individual behavior. Armed with the tools and concepts of statistical physics, and further assisted by new sources of digital data, models that capture nonlinear interactions between behavior and disease dynamics offer a novel way of modeling real-world phenomena, and can help improve health outcomes. We conclude the review by discussing open problems in the field and promising directions for future research.

  13. [Statistics for statistics?--Thoughts about psychological tools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Uwe; Stöbel-Richter, Yve

    2007-12-01

    Statistical methods take a prominent place among psychologists' educational programs. Being known as difficult to understand and heavy to learn, students fear of these contents. Those, who do not aspire after a research carrier at the university, will forget the drilled contents fast. Furthermore, because it does not apply for the work with patients and other target groups at a first glance, the methodological education as a whole was often questioned. For many psychological practitioners the statistical education makes only sense by enforcing respect against other professions, namely physicians. For the own business, statistics is rarely taken seriously as a professional tool. The reason seems to be clear: Statistics treats numbers, while psychotherapy treats subjects. So, does statistics ends in itself? With this article, we try to answer the question, if and how statistical methods were represented within the psychotherapeutical and psychological research. Therefore, we analyzed 46 Originals of a complete volume of the journal Psychotherapy, Psychosomatics, Psychological Medicine (PPmP). Within the volume, 28 different analyse methods were applied, from which 89 per cent were directly based upon statistics. To be able to write and critically read Originals as a backbone of research, presumes a high degree of statistical education. To ignore statistics means to ignore research and at least to reveal the own professional work to arbitrariness.

  14. The Psychology of Physical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Gregory J.

    2006-12-01

    Who becomes a physical scientist is not completely a coincidence. People with spatial talent and who are thing-oriented are most likely to be attracted to physical science, including astronomy. Additional lessons from the psychology of science suggest that compared with non-scientists and social scientists, physical scientists are most likely to be introverted, independent, self-confident, and yet somewhat arrogant. Understanding the physical and inanimate world is part of what physical scientists do, and understanding those who understand the physical world is part of what psychologists of science do.

  15. Nonequilibrium statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Röpke, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Authored by one of the top theoretical physicists in Germany, and a well-known authority in the field, this is the only coherent presentation of the subject suitable for masters and PhD students, as well as postdocs in physics and related disciplines.Starting from a general discussion of the nonequilibrium state, different standard approaches such as master equations, and kinetic and linear response theory, are derived after special assumptions. This allows for an insight into the problems of nonequilibrium physics, a discussion of the limits, and suggestions for improvements. Applications

  16. Quantum physics and statistical physics. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Marcelo; Finn, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    By logical and uniform presentation this recognized introduction in modern physics treats both the experimental and theoretical aspects. The first part of the book deals with quantum mechanics and their application to atoms, molecules, nuclei, solids, and elementary particles. The statistical physics with classical statistics, thermodynamics, and quantum statistics is theme of the second part. Alsonso and Finn avoid complicated mathematical developments; by numerous sketches and diagrams as well as many problems and examples they make the reader early and above all easily understandably familiar with the formations of concepts of modern physics.

  17. Statistical Reform in School Psychology Research: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Hariharan; Rogers, H. Jane

    2007-01-01

    Statistical reform in school psychology research is discussed in terms of research designs, measurement issues, statistical modeling and analysis procedures, interpretation and reporting of statistical results, and finally statistics education.

  18. Statistical methods in radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E; Bogard, James S

    2012-01-01

    This statistics textbook, with particular emphasis on radiation protection and dosimetry, deals with statistical solutions to problems inherent in health physics measurements and decision making. The authors begin with a description of our current understanding of the statistical nature of physical processes at the atomic level, including radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. Examples are taken from problems encountered in health physics, and the material is presented such that health physicists and most other nuclear professionals will more readily understand the application of statistical principles in the familiar context of the examples. Problems are presented at the end of each chapter, with solutions to selected problems provided online. In addition, numerous worked examples are included throughout the text.

  19. Statistical methods for physical science

    CERN Document Server

    Stanford, John L

    1994-01-01

    This volume of Methods of Experimental Physics provides an extensive introduction to probability and statistics in many areas of the physical sciences, with an emphasis on the emerging area of spatial statistics. The scope of topics covered is wide-ranging-the text discusses a variety of the most commonly used classical methods and addresses newer methods that are applicable or potentially important. The chapter authors motivate readers with their insightful discussions, augmenting their material withKey Features* Examines basic probability, including coverage of standard distributions, time s

  20. Introduction to mathematical statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Minlos, R A

    1999-01-01

    This book presents a mathematically rigorous approach to the main ideas and phenomena of statistical physics. The introduction addresses the physical motivation, focussing on the basic concept of modern statistical physics, that is the notion of Gibbsian random fields. Properties of Gibbsian fields are analyzed in two ranges of physical parameters: "regular" (corresponding to high-temperature and low-density regimes) where no phase transition is exhibited, and "singular" (low temperature regimes) where such transitions occur. Next, a detailed approach to the analysis of the phenomena of phase transitions of the first kind, the Pirogov-Sinai theory, is presented. The author discusses this theory in a general way and illustrates it with the example of a lattice gas with three types of particles. The conclusion gives a brief review of recent developments arising from this theory. The volume is written for the beginner, yet advanced students will benefit from it as well. The book will serve nicely as a supplement...

  1. The (mis)reporting of statistical results in psychology journals

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the prevalence, nature (direction), and causes of reporting errors in psychology, we checked the consistency of reported test statistics, degrees of freedom, and p values in a random sample of high- and low-impact psychology journals. In a second study, we established the generality of reporting errors in a random sample of recent psychological articles. Our results, on the basis of 281 articles, indicate that around 18% of statistical results in the psychological literature...

  2. Statistical methods in physical mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.O.

    1995-05-01

    One of the great success stories of modern molecular genetics has been the ability of biologists to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for serious inherited diseases like fragile X syndrome, cystic fibrosis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. This dissertation concentrates on constructing high-resolution physical maps. It demonstrates how probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis can aid molecular geneticists in the tasks of planning, execution, and evaluation of physical maps of chromosomes and large chromosomal regions. The dissertation is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the field of physical mapping, describing the role of physical mapping in gene isolation and ill past efforts at mapping chromosomal regions. The next two chapters review and extend known results on predicting progress in large mapping projects. Such predictions help project planners decide between various approaches and tactics for mapping large regions of the human genome. Chapter 2 shows how probability models have been used in the past to predict progress in mapping projects. Chapter 3 presents new results, based on stationary point process theory, for progress measures for mapping projects based on directed mapping strategies. Chapter 4 describes in detail the construction of all initial high-resolution physical map for human chromosome 19. This chapter introduces the probability and statistical models involved in map construction in the context of a large, ongoing physical mapping project. Chapter 5 concentrates on one such model, the trinomial model. This chapter contains new results on the large-sample behavior of this model, including distributional results, asymptotic moments, and detection error rates. In addition, it contains an optimality result concerning experimental procedures based on the trinomial model. The last chapter explores unsolved problems and describes future work

  3. Statistical methods in physical mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, David O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    One of the great success stories of modern molecular genetics has been the ability of biologists to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for serious inherited diseases like fragile X syndrome, cystic fibrosis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. This dissertation concentrates on constructing high-resolution physical maps. It demonstrates how probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis can aid molecular geneticists in the tasks of planning, execution, and evaluation of physical maps of chromosomes and large chromosomal regions. The dissertation is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the field of physical mapping, describing the role of physical mapping in gene isolation and ill past efforts at mapping chromosomal regions. The next two chapters review and extend known results on predicting progress in large mapping projects. Such predictions help project planners decide between various approaches and tactics for mapping large regions of the human genome. Chapter 2 shows how probability models have been used in the past to predict progress in mapping projects. Chapter 3 presents new results, based on stationary point process theory, for progress measures for mapping projects based on directed mapping strategies. Chapter 4 describes in detail the construction of all initial high-resolution physical map for human chromosome 19. This chapter introduces the probability and statistical models involved in map construction in the context of a large, ongoing physical mapping project. Chapter 5 concentrates on one such model, the trinomial model. This chapter contains new results on the large-sample behavior of this model, including distributional results, asymptotic moments, and detection error rates. In addition, it contains an optimality result concerning experimental procedures based on the trinomial model. The last chapter explores unsolved problems and describes future work.

  4. Notices about using elementary statistics in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    松田, 文子; 三宅, 幹子; 橋本, 優花里; 山崎, 理央; 森田, 愛子; 小嶋, 佳子

    2003-01-01

    Improper uses of elementary statistics that were often observed in beginners' manuscripts and papers were collected and better ways were suggested. This paper consists of three parts: About descriptive statistics, multivariate analyses, and statistical tests.

  5. Statistics for High Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    The lectures emphasize the frequentist approach used for Dark Matter search and the Higgs search, discovery and measurements of its properties. An emphasis is put on hypothesis test using the asymptotic formulae formalism and its derivation, and on the derivation of the trial factor formulae in one and two dimensions. Various test statistics and their applications are discussed.  Some keywords: Profile Likelihood, Neyman Pearson, Feldman Cousins, Coverage, CLs. Nuisance Parameters Impact, Look Elsewhere Effect... Selected Bibliography: G. J. Feldman and R. D. Cousins, A Unified approach to the classical statistical analysis of small signals, Phys.\\ Rev.\\ D {\\bf 57}, 3873 (1998). A. L. Read, Presentation of search results: The CL(s) technique,'' J.\\ Phys.\\ G {\\bf 28}, 2693 (2002). G. Cowan, K. Cranmer, E. Gross and O. Vitells,  Asymptotic formulae for likelihood-based tests of new physics,' Eur.\\ Phys.\\ J.\\ C {\\bf 71}, 1554 (2011) Erratum: [Eur.\\ Phys.\\ J.\\ C {\\bf 73}...

  6. Physical and psychological violence against infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Moghadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of physical and psychological violence against women with female factor infertility.Materials and methods: A total of 400 women with primary infertility attending the Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran, were interviewed using the conflict tactics Scales (CTS2 questionnaire to investigate their experiences of physical and psychological violence.Results: The prevalence of psychological violence was 135 (33.8%, followed by physical 56 (14%. All women reported their husbands to be the perpetrators.Conclusion: Clinicians should identify the abused women and provide them with medical care and supportive counseling.

  7. The (mis)reporting of statistical results in psychology journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the prevalence, nature (direction), and causes of reporting errors in psychology, we checked the consistency of reported test statistics, degrees of freedom, and p values in a random sample of high- and low-impact psychology journals. In a second study, we established the

  8. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  9. Being and feeling unique: statistical deviance and psychological marginality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frable, D E

    1993-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that people with culturally stigmatized and concealable conditions (e.g., gays, epileptics, juvenile delinquents, and incest victims) would be more likely to feel unique than people with culturally valued or conspicuous conditions (e.g., the physically attractive, the intellectually gifted, the obese, and the facially scarred). In Study 1, culturally stigmatized individuals with concealable conditions were least likely to perceive consensus between their personal preferences and those of others. In Study 2, they were most likely to describe themselves as unique and to make these self-relevant decisions quickly. Marginality is a psychological reality, not just a statistical one, for those with stigmatized and concealable "master status" conditions.

  10. The (mis)reporting of statistical results in psychology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2011-09-01

    In order to study the prevalence, nature (direction), and causes of reporting errors in psychology, we checked the consistency of reported test statistics, degrees of freedom, and p values in a random sample of high- and low-impact psychology journals. In a second study, we established the generality of reporting errors in a random sample of recent psychological articles. Our results, on the basis of 281 articles, indicate that around 18% of statistical results in the psychological literature are incorrectly reported. Inconsistencies were more common in low-impact journals than in high-impact journals. Moreover, around 15% of the articles contained at least one statistical conclusion that proved, upon recalculation, to be incorrect; that is, recalculation rendered the previously significant result insignificant, or vice versa. These errors were often in line with researchers' expectations. We classified the most common errors and contacted authors to shed light on the origins of the errors.

  11. Statistical physics and condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding

  12. Statistical physics and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding has

  13. Links Between Psychological Factors And Physical Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For diverse reasons, a large number of patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are yet to imbibe regular physical exercise behaviour. In this study, we characterised the link between psychological factors and physical exercise behaviour of a sample of Nigerian T2D patients. Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of ...

  14. Statistical Physics of Colloidal Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, E.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis is concerned with the equilibrium statistical mechanics of colloidal dispersions which represent useful model systems for the study of condensed matter physics; namely, charge stabilized colloidal dispersions and polymer stabilized colloidal dispersions. A one-component macroparticle approach is adopted in order to treat the macroscopic and microscopic properties of these systems in a simple and comprehensive manner. The thesis opens with the description of the nature of the colloidal state before reviewing some basic definitions and theory in Chapter II. In Chapter III a variational theory of phase equilibria based on the Gibbs-Bogolyobov inequality is applied to sterically stabilized colloidal dispersions. Hard spheres are chosen as the reference system for the disordered phases while an Einstein model is used for the ordered phases. The new choice of pair potential, taken for mathematical convenience, is a superposition of two Yukawa functions. By matching a double Yukawa potential to the van der Waals attractive potential at different temperatures and introducing a purely temperature dependent coefficient to the repulsive part, a rich variety of observed phase separation phenomena is qualitatively described. The behaviour of the potential is found to be consistent with a small decrease of the polymer layer thickness with increasing temperature. Using the same concept of a collapse transition the non-monotonic second virial coefficient is also explained and quantified. It is shown that a reduction of the effective macroparticle diameter with increasing temperature can only be partially examined from the point of view of a (binary-) polymer solution theory. This chapter concludes with the description of the observed, reversible, depletion flocculation behaviour. This is accomplished by using the variational formalism and by invoking the double Yukawa potential to allow

  15. Statistical and thermal physics with computer applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    This textbook carefully develops the main ideas and techniques of statistical and thermal physics and is intended for upper-level undergraduate courses. The authors each have more than thirty years' experience in teaching, curriculum development, and research in statistical and computational physics. Statistical and Thermal Physics begins with a qualitative discussion of the relation between the macroscopic and microscopic worlds and incorporates computer simulations throughout the book to provide concrete examples of important conceptual ideas. Unlike many contemporary texts on the

  16. An introduction to Bayesian statistics in health psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depaoli, Sarah; Rus, Holly; Clifton, James; van de Schoot, A.G.J.; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current article is to provide a brief introduction to Bayesian statistics within the field of Health Psychology. Bayesian methods are increasing in prevalence in applied fields, and they have been shown in simulation research to improve the estimation accuracy of structural equation

  17. Past and future American Psychological Association guidelines for statistical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finch, S; Thomason, N; Cumming, G

    2002-01-01

    We review the publication guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) since 1929 and document their advice for authors about statistical practice. Although the advice has been extended with each revision of the guidelines, it has largely focused on null hypothesis significance testing

  18. Statistical reporting errors and collaboration on statistical analyses in psychological science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, C.L.S.; Nuijten, M.B.; Dominguez Alvarez, L.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis is error prone. A best practice for researchers using statistics would therefore be to share data among co-authors, allowing double-checking of executed tasks just as co-pilots do in aviation. To document the extent to which this ‘co-piloting’ currently occurs in psychology, we

  19. Effect size, confidence intervals and statistical power in psychological research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Téllez A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative psychological research is focused on detecting the occurrence of certain population phenomena by analyzing data from a sample, and statistics is a particularly helpful mathematical tool that is used by researchers to evaluate hypotheses and make decisions to accept or reject such hypotheses. In this paper, the various statistical tools in psychological research are reviewed. The limitations of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST and the advantages of using effect size and its respective confidence intervals are explained, as the latter two measurements can provide important information about the results of a study. These measurements also can facilitate data interpretation and easily detect trivial effects, enabling researchers to make decisions in a more clinically relevant fashion. Moreover, it is recommended to establish an appropriate sample size by calculating the optimum statistical power at the moment that the research is designed. Psychological journal editors are encouraged to follow APA recommendations strictly and ask authors of original research studies to report the effect size, its confidence intervals, statistical power and, when required, any measure of clinical significance. Additionally, we must account for the teaching of statistics at the graduate level. At that level, students do not receive sufficient information concerning the importance of using different types of effect sizes and their confidence intervals according to the different types of research designs; instead, most of the information is focused on the various tools of NHST.

  20. Vol. 3: Statistical Physics and Phase Transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Problems of modern physics and the situation with physical research in Ukraine are considered. Programme of the conference includes scientific and general problems. Its proceedings are published in 6 volumes. The papers presented in this volume refer to statistical physics and phase transition theory

  1. Journal Data Sharing Policies and Statistical Reporting Inconsistencies in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle B. Nuijten

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present three retrospective observational studies that investigate the relation between data sharing and statistical reporting inconsistencies. Previous research found that reluctance to share data was related to a higher prevalence of statistical errors, often in the direction of statistical significance (Wicherts, Bakker, & Molenaar, 2011. We therefore hypothesized that journal policies about data sharing and data sharing itself would reduce these inconsistencies. In Study 1, we compared the prevalence of reporting inconsistencies in two similar journals on decision making with different data sharing policies. In Study 2, we compared reporting inconsistencies in psychology articles published in PLOS journals (with a data sharing policy and Frontiers in Psychology (without a stipulated data sharing policy. In Study 3, we looked at papers published in the journal Psychological Science to check whether papers with or without an Open Practice Badge differed in the prevalence of reporting errors. Overall, we found no relationship between data sharing and reporting inconsistencies. We did find that journal policies on data sharing seem extremely effective in promoting data sharing. We argue that open data is essential in improving the quality of psychological science, and we discuss ways to detect and reduce reporting inconsistencies in the literature.

  2. A modern course in statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Reichl, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    "A Modern Course in Statistical Physics" is a textbook that illustrates the foundations of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics, and the universal nature of thermodynamic processes, from the point of view of contemporary research problems. The book treats such diverse topics as the microscopic theory of critical phenomena, superfluid dynamics, quantum conductance, light scattering, transport processes, and dissipative structures, all in the framework of the foundations of statistical physics and thermodynamics. It shows the quantum origins of problems in classical statistical physics. One focus of the book is fluctuations that occur due to the discrete nature of matter, a topic of growing importance for nanometer scale physics and biophysics. Another focus concerns classical and quantum phase transitions, in both monatomic and mixed particle systems. This fourth edition extends the range of topics considered to include, for example, entropic forces, electrochemical processes in biological syste...

  3. Reconstructing Macroeconomics Based on Statistical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masanao; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    We believe that time has come to integrate the new approach based on statistical physics or econophysics into macroeconomics. Toward this goal, there must be more dialogues between physicists and economists. In this paper, we argue that there is no reason why the methods of statistical physics so successful in many fields of natural sciences cannot be usefully applied to macroeconomics that is meant to analyze the macroeconomy comprising a large number of economic agents. It is, in fact, weird to regard the macroeconomy as a homothetic enlargement of the representative micro agent. We trust the bright future of the new approach to macroeconomies based on statistical physics.

  4. Understanding search trees via statistical physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ary search tree model (where stands for the number of branches of the search tree), an important problem for data storage in computer science, using a variety of statistical physics techniques that allow us to obtain exact asymptotic results.

  5. Statistical physics including applications to condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies -- as e.g. semiconductors or lasers -- are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

  6. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Statistical Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Course is aimed at college teachers of statistical physics at BSc/MSc level. ... teachers, with at least a masters degree in Physics/Mathematics/Engineering are ... Topics: There will be six courses dealing with, Basic principles and general ...

  7. Concept of probability in statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Guttmann, Y M

    1999-01-01

    Foundational issues in statistical mechanics and the more general question of how probability is to be understood in the context of physical theories are both areas that have been neglected by philosophers of physics. This book fills an important gap in the literature by providing a most systematic study of how to interpret probabilistic assertions in the context of statistical mechanics. The book explores both subjectivist and objectivist accounts of probability, and takes full measure of work in the foundations of probability theory, in statistical mechanics, and in mathematical theory. It will be of particular interest to philosophers of science, physicists and mathematicians interested in foundational issues, and also to historians of science.

  8. Statistics for Physical Sciences An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Statistical Methods for the Physical Sciences is an informal, relatively short, but systematic, guide to the more commonly used ideas and techniques in statistical analysis, as used in physical sciences, together with explanations of their origins. It steers a path between the extremes of a recipe of methods with a collection of useful formulas, and a full mathematical account of statistics, while at the same time developing the subject in a logical way. The book can be read in its entirety by anyone with a basic exposure to mathematics at the level of a first-year undergraduate student

  9. 688,112 statistical results : Content mining psychology articles for statistical test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartgerink, C.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this data deposit, I describe a dataset that is the result of content mining 167,318 published articles for statistical test results reported according to the standards prescribed by the American Psychological Association (APA). Articles published by the APA, Springer, Sage, and Taylor & Francis

  10. Replication unreliability in psychology: elusive phenomena or elusive statistical power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio E Tressoldi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to analyse whether the unreliability of results related to certain controversial psychological phenomena may be a consequence of their low statistical power.Applying the Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing (NHST, still the widest used statistical approach, unreliability derives from the failure to refute the null hypothesis, in particular when exact or quasi-exact replications of experiments are carried out.Taking as example the results of meta-analyses related to four different controversial phenomena, subliminal semantic priming, incubation effect for problem solving, unconscious thought theory, and non-local perception, it was found that, except for semantic priming on categorization, the statistical power to detect the expected effect size of the typical study, is low or very low.The low power in most studies undermines the use of NHST to study phenomena with moderate or low effect sizes.We conclude by providing some suggestions on how to increase the statistical power or use different statistical approaches to help discriminate whether the results obtained may or may not be used to support or to refute the reality of a phenomenon with small effect size.

  11. Physical and psychological aspects of women selfperception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Fialová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research "Body image as a part of active life style" was to explore the meaning of several aspects of physical and psychological self and satisfaction with them. We are interested in the degree of meaning, satisfaction, control and chance for change. The article analyses the relation of 866 women (18-60 years old to their own body and health and to the own ideas and feelings. The monitored women feel considerable discrepancy between the importance of several items related to their body and psyche and between the satisfaction with them. The largest disproportion in the evaluation of importance and satisfaction was discovered at the life without fear, fright and tense (49 %. A big discrepancy was founded also at physical activities and fitness (32 %. The control over body and psyche perceive more than 60 % of the women, spirituality is a little more controlled than corporality. Contentment was evaluated less than control, opportunity and importance. More than 60 % of women showed dissatisfaction with the aspects of body and psyche. We have to learn to know the worth of our self and care of own progress in relation and limits of individual occasions. The satisfaction with the self is a ground of physical and psychological well - being.

  12. An introduction to Bayesian statistics in health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaoli, Sarah; Rus, Holly M; Clifton, James P; van de Schoot, Rens; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current article is to provide a brief introduction to Bayesian statistics within the field of health psychology. Bayesian methods are increasing in prevalence in applied fields, and they have been shown in simulation research to improve the estimation accuracy of structural equation models, latent growth curve (and mixture) models, and hierarchical linear models. Likewise, Bayesian methods can be used with small sample sizes since they do not rely on large sample theory. In this article, we discuss several important components of Bayesian statistics as they relate to health-based inquiries. We discuss the incorporation and impact of prior knowledge into the estimation process and the different components of the analysis that should be reported in an article. We present an example implementing Bayesian estimation in the context of blood pressure changes after participants experienced an acute stressor. We conclude with final thoughts on the implementation of Bayesian statistics in health psychology, including suggestions for reviewing Bayesian manuscripts and grant proposals. We have also included an extensive amount of online supplementary material to complement the content presented here, including Bayesian examples using many different software programmes and an extensive sensitivity analysis examining the impact of priors.

  13. Statistical and physical evolution of QSO's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caditz, D.; Petrosian, V.

    1989-09-01

    The relationship between the physical evolution of discrete extragalactic sources, the statistical evolution of the observed population of sources, and the cosmological model is discussed. Three simple forms of statistical evolution: pure luminosity evolution (PLE), pure density evolution (PDE), and generalized luminosity evolution (GLE), are considered in detail together with what these forms imply about the physical evolution of individual sources. Two methods are used to analyze the statistical evolution of the observed distribution of QSO's (quasars) from combined flux limited samples. It is shown that both PLE and PDE are inconsistent with the data over the redshift range 0 less than z less than 2.2, and that a more complicated form of evolution such as GLE is required, independent of the cosmological model. This result is important for physical models of AGN, and in particular, for the accretion disk model which recent results show may be inconsistent with PLE

  14. Probability and statistics in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frodesen, A.G.; Skjeggestad, O.

    1979-01-01

    Probability theory is entered into at an elementary level and given a simple and detailed exposition. The material on statistics has been organised with an eye to the experimental physicist's practical need, which is likely to be statistical methods for estimation or decision-making. The book is intended for graduate students and research workers in experimental high energy and elementary particle physics, and numerous examples from these fields are presented. (JIW)

  15. Statistical Reporting Errors and Collaboration on Statistical Analyses in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Nuijten, Michèle B; Dominguez-Alvarez, Linda; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis is error prone. A best practice for researchers using statistics would therefore be to share data among co-authors, allowing double-checking of executed tasks just as co-pilots do in aviation. To document the extent to which this 'co-piloting' currently occurs in psychology, we surveyed the authors of 697 articles published in six top psychology journals and asked them whether they had collaborated on four aspects of analyzing data and reporting results, and whether the described data had been shared between the authors. We acquired responses for 49.6% of the articles and found that co-piloting on statistical analysis and reporting results is quite uncommon among psychologists, while data sharing among co-authors seems reasonably but not completely standard. We then used an automated procedure to study the prevalence of statistical reporting errors in the articles in our sample and examined the relationship between reporting errors and co-piloting. Overall, 63% of the articles contained at least one p-value that was inconsistent with the reported test statistic and the accompanying degrees of freedom, and 20% of the articles contained at least one p-value that was inconsistent to such a degree that it may have affected decisions about statistical significance. Overall, the probability that a given p-value was inconsistent was over 10%. Co-piloting was not found to be associated with reporting errors.

  16. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Statistical Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Course is aimed at college teachers of statistical physics at BSc/MSc level. It will cover basic principles and techniques, in a pedagogical manner, through lectures and tutorials, with illustrative problems. Some advanced topics, and common difficulties faced by students will also be discussed. College/University ...

  17. 688,112 statistical results: Content mining psychology articles for statistical test results

    OpenAIRE

    Hartgerink, C.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this data deposit, I describe a dataset that is the result of content mining 167,318 published articles for statistical test results reported according to the standards prescribed by the American Psychological Association (APA). Articles published by the APA, Springer, Sage, and Taylor & Francis were included (mining from Wiley and Elsevier was actively blocked). As a result of this content mining, 688,112 results from 50,845 articles were extracted. In order to provide a comprehensive set...

  18. Statistical physics of pairwise probability models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roudi, Yasser; Aurell, Erik; Hertz, John

    2009-01-01

    (dansk abstrakt findes ikke) Statistical models for describing the probability distribution over the states of biological systems are commonly used for dimensional reduction. Among these models, pairwise models are very attractive in part because they can be fit using a reasonable amount of  data......: knowledge of the means and correlations between pairs of elements in the system is sufficient. Not surprisingly, then, using pairwise models for studying neural data has been the focus of many studies in recent years. In this paper, we describe how tools from statistical physics can be employed for studying...

  19. Topics in statistical and theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrushin, R L; Shubin, M A

    1996-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes dedicated to the scientific heritage of F. A. Berezin (1931-1980). Before his untimely death, Berezin had an important influence on physics and mathematics, discovering new ideas in mathematical physics, representation theory, analysis, geometry, and other areas of mathematics. His crowning achievements were the introduction of a new notion of deformation quantization and Grassmannian analysis ("supermathematics"). Collected here are papers by many of his colleagues and others who worked in related areas, representing a wide spectrum of topics in statistical a

  20. Conference: Statistical Physics and Biological Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, David J.; Hwa, Terence

    2001-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, the Institute for Theoretical Physics ran a 6 month scientific program on Statistical Physics and Biological Information. This program was organized by Walter Fitch (UC Irvine), Terence Hwa (UC San Diego), Luca Peliti (University Federico II), Naples Gary Stormo (Washington University School of Medicine) and Chao Tang (NEC). Overall scientific supervision was provided by David Gross, Director, ITP. The ITP has an online conference/program proceeding which consists of audio and transparencies of almost all of the talks held during this program. Over 100 talks are available on the site at http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/infobio01/

  1. Conference: Statistical Physics and Biological Information; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, David J.; Hwa, Terence

    2001-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, the Institute for Theoretical Physics ran a 6 month scientific program on Statistical Physics and Biological Information. This program was organized by Walter Fitch (UC Irvine), Terence Hwa (UC San Diego), Luca Peliti (University Federico II), Naples Gary Stormo (Washington University School of Medicine) and Chao Tang (NEC). Overall scientific supervision was provided by David Gross, Director, ITP. The ITP has an online conference/program proceeding which consists of audio and transparencies of almost all of the talks held during this program. Over 100 talks are available on the site at http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/infobio01/

  2. Statistical and thermal physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hoch, Michael JR

    2011-01-01

    ""When I started reading Michael J.R. Hoch's book Statistical and Thermal Physics: An Introduction I thought to myself that this is another book the same as a large group of others with similar content. … But during my reading this unjustified belief changed. … The main reason for this change was the way of information presentation: … the way of presentation is designed so that the reader receives only the information that is necessary to give the essence of the problem. … this book will provide an introduction to the subject especially for those who are interested in basic or applied physics.

  3. Statistical Issues in Searches for New Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Given the cost, both financial and even more importantly in terms of human effort, in building High Energy Physics accelerators and detectors and running them, it is important to use good statistical techniques in analysing data. This talk covers some of the statistical issues that arise in searches for New Physics. They include topics such as: Should we insist on the 5 sigma criterion for discovery claims? What are the relative merits of a Raster Scan or a "2-D" approach? P(A|B) is not the same as P(B|A) The meaning of p-values Example of a problematic likelihood What is Wilks Theorem and when does it not apply? How should we deal with the "Look Elsewhere Effect"? Dealing with systematics such as background parametrisation Coverage: What is it and does my method have the correct coverage? The use of p0 vs. p1 plots

  4. Statistical physics of medical ultrasonic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.F.; Insana, M.F.; Brown, D.G.; Smith, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    The physical and statistical properties of backscattered signals in medical ultrasonic imaging are reviewed in terms of: 1) the radiofrequency signal; 2) the envelope (video or magnitude) signal; and 3) the density of samples in simple and in compounded images. There is a wealth of physical information in backscattered signals in medical ultrasound. This information is contained in the radiofrequency spectrum - which is not typically displayed to the viewer - as well as in the higher statistical moments of the envelope or video signal - which are not readily accessed by the human viewer of typical B-scans. This information may be extracted from the detected backscattered signals by straightforward signal processing techniques at low resolution

  5. Fluctuations of physical values in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaripov, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The new matrix inequalities for the boundary of measurement accuracy of physical values in the ensemble of quantum systems were obtained. The multidimensional thermodynamical parameter measurement is estimated. The matrix inequalities obtained are quantum analogs of the Cramer-Rao information inequalities in mathematical statistics. The quantity of information in quantum mechanical measurement, connected with the boundaries of jointly measurable values in one macroscopic experiment was determined. The lower boundary of the variance of estimation of multidimensional quantum mechanical parameter was found. (author)

  6. Teaching Statistics in APA-Accredited Doctoral Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: A Syllabi Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Anna S.; Ripley, Jennifer S.; Hook, Joshua; Erspamer, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Although statistical methods and research design are crucial areas of competency for psychologists, few studies explore how statistics are taught across doctoral programs in psychology in the United States. The present study examined 153 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology and aimed…

  7. Nonequilibrium statistical physics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Livi, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Statistical mechanics has been proven to be successful at describing physical systems at thermodynamic equilibrium. Since most natural phenomena occur in nonequilibrium conditions, the present challenge is to find suitable physical approaches for such conditions: this book provides a pedagogical pathway that explores various perspectives. The use of clear language, and explanatory figures and diagrams to describe models, simulations and experimental findings makes the book a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, and also for lecturers organizing teaching at varying levels of experience in the field. Written in three parts, it covers basic and traditional concepts of nonequilibrium physics, modern aspects concerning nonequilibrium phase transitions, and application-orientated topics from a modern perspective. A broad range of topics is covered, including Langevin equations, Levy processes, directed percolation, kinetic roughening and pattern formation.

  8. Statistical physics of an anyon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasnieres de Veigy, A.

    1994-01-01

    In quantum two-dimensional physics, anyons are particles which have an intermediate statistics between Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics. The wave amplitude can change by an arbitrary phase under particle exchanges. Contrary to bosons or fermions, the permutation group cannot uniquely characterize this phase and one must introduce the braid group. One shows that the statistical ''interaction'' is equivalent to an Aharonov-Bohm interaction which derives from a Chern-Simons lagrangian. The main subject of this thesis is the thermodynamics of an anyon gas. Since the complete spectrum of N anyons seems out of reach, we have done a perturbative computation of the equation of state at second order near Bose or Fermi statistics. One avoids ultraviolet divergences by noticing that the short-range singularities of the statistical interaction enforce the wave functions to vanish when two particles approach each other (statistical exclusion). The gas is confined in a harmonic well in order to obtain the thermodynamics limit when the harmonic attraction goes to zero. Infrared divergences thus cancel in this limit and a finite virial expansion is obtained. The complexity of the anyon model appears in this result. We have also computed the equation of state of an anyon gas in a magnetic field strong enough to project the system in its degenerate groundstate. This result concerns anyons with any statistics. One then finds an exclusion principle generalizing the Pauli principle to anyons. On the other hand, we have defined a model of two-dimensional particles topologically interacting at a distance. The anyon model is recovered as a particular case where all particles are identical. (orig.)

  9. PREFACE: Statistical Physics of Complex Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanian, R.; Khajehpour, M. R. H.; Kolahchi, M. R.; Rouhani, S.

    2005-04-01

    The field of complex fluids is a rapidly developing, highly interdisciplinary field that brings together people from a plethora of backgrounds such as mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, materials science, applied mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. In this melting pot of science, the traditional boundaries of various scientific disciplines have been set aside. It is this very property of the field that has guaranteed its richness and prosperity since the final decade of the 20th century and into the 21st. The C3 Commission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), which is the commission for statistical physics that organizes the international STATPHYS conferences, encourages various, more focused, satellite meetings to complement the main event. For the STATPHYS22 conference in Bangalore (July 2004), Iran was recognized by the STATPHYS22 organizers as suitable to host such a satellite meeting and the Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS) was chosen to be the site of this meeting. It was decided to organize a meeting in the field of complex fluids, which is a fairly developed field in Iran. This international meeting, and an accompanying summer school, were intended to boost international connections for both the research groups working in Iran, and several other groups working in the Middle East, South Asia and North Africa. The meeting, entitled `Statistical Physics of Complex Fluids' was held at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS) in Zanjan, Iran, from 27 June to 1 July 2004. The main topics discussed at the meeting included: biological statistical physics, wetting and microfluidics, transport in complex media, soft and granular matter, and rheology of complex fluids. At this meeting, 22 invited lectures by eminent scientists were attended by 107 participants from different countries. The poster session consisted of 45 presentations which, in addition to the main topics of the

  10. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdeborova, L.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an NP-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal question we address in this article is: How to recognize if an NP-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfy ability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named ”locked” constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfy ability.

  11. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdeborova, L.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an non-deterministic polynomial-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal the question we address in the article is: How to recognize if an non-deterministic polynomial-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfiability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named 'locked' constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfiability (Authors)

  12. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdeborová, Lenka

    2009-06-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an NP-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal question we address in this article is: How to recognize if an NP-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfiability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named "locked" constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfiability.

  13. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES OF THE STATISTICAL DATA ANALYSIS WITHIN THE SYSTEM OF HIGHER PSYCHOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Smirnova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The features of using information technologies within applied statisticians in psychology are considered in the article. Requirements to statistical preparation of psychology students in the conditions of information society are analyzed.

  14. Networking—a statistical physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Saad, David

    2013-01-01

    Networking encompasses a variety of tasks related to the communication of information on networks; it has a substantial economic and societal impact on a broad range of areas including transportation systems, wired and wireless communications and a range of Internet applications. As transportation and communication networks become increasingly more complex, the ever increasing demand for congestion control, higher traffic capacity, quality of service, robustness and reduced energy consumption requires new tools and methods to meet these conflicting requirements. The new methodology should serve for gaining better understanding of the properties of networking systems at the macroscopic level, as well as for the development of new principled optimization and management algorithms at the microscopic level. Methods of statistical physics seem best placed to provide new approaches as they have been developed specifically to deal with nonlinear large-scale systems. This review aims at presenting an overview of tools and methods that have been developed within the statistical physics community and that can be readily applied to address the emerging problems in networking. These include diffusion processes, methods from disordered systems and polymer physics, probabilistic inference, which have direct relevance to network routing, file and frequency distribution, the exploration of network structures and vulnerability, and various other practical networking applications. (topical review)

  15. Networking—a statistical physics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Saad, David

    2013-03-01

    Networking encompasses a variety of tasks related to the communication of information on networks; it has a substantial economic and societal impact on a broad range of areas including transportation systems, wired and wireless communications and a range of Internet applications. As transportation and communication networks become increasingly more complex, the ever increasing demand for congestion control, higher traffic capacity, quality of service, robustness and reduced energy consumption requires new tools and methods to meet these conflicting requirements. The new methodology should serve for gaining better understanding of the properties of networking systems at the macroscopic level, as well as for the development of new principled optimization and management algorithms at the microscopic level. Methods of statistical physics seem best placed to provide new approaches as they have been developed specifically to deal with nonlinear large-scale systems. This review aims at presenting an overview of tools and methods that have been developed within the statistical physics community and that can be readily applied to address the emerging problems in networking. These include diffusion processes, methods from disordered systems and polymer physics, probabilistic inference, which have direct relevance to network routing, file and frequency distribution, the exploration of network structures and vulnerability, and various other practical networking applications.

  16. Statistical mechanics and the physics of fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mario

    This volume collects the lecture notes of a course on statistical mechanics, held at Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa for third-to-fifth year students in physics and chemistry. Three main themes are covered in the book. The first part gives a compact presentation of the foundations of statistical mechanics and their connections with thermodynamics. Applications to ideal gases of material particles and of excitation quanta are followed by a brief introduction to a real classical gas and to a weakly coupled classical plasma, and by a broad overview on the three states of matter.The second part is devoted to fluctuations around equilibrium and their correlations. Coverage of liquid structure and critical phenomena is followed by a discussion of irreversible processes as exemplified by diffusive motions and by the dynamics of density and heat fluctuations. Finally, the third part is an introduction to some advanced themes: supercooling and the glassy state, non-Newtonian fluids including polymers and liquid cryst...

  17. Quantum theoretical physics is statistical and relativistic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, C.

    1980-01-01

    A new theoretical framework for the quantum mechanism is presented. It is based on a strict deterministic behavior of single systems. The conventional QM equation, however, is found to describe statistical results of many classical systems. It will be seen, moreover, that a rigorous synthesis of our theory requires relativistic kinematics. So, QM is not only a classical statistical theory, it is, of necessity, a relativistic theory. The equation of the theory does not just duplicate QM, it indicates an inherent nonlinearity in QM which is subject to experimental verification. It is shown, therefore, that conventional QM is a corollary of classical deterministic principles. It is suggested that this concept of nature conflicts with that prevalent in modern physics. (author)

  18. Physical exercise and psychological wellness in health club ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper constitutes a comparative and longitudinal investigation of physical exercise and psychological wellness in a sample of health club members in Zululand, South Africa. The research was contextualized within a public health and community psychological model of mental health promotion. Physical exercise was ...

  19. Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits. International Society of Sport Psychology Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    International Society of Sport Psychology clarifies the psychological benefits of physical activity, noting the positive relationship between physical activity level and mental health. Exercise can reduce anxiety, decrease depression levels, reduce neuroticism and anxiety, reduce stress, and have beneficial emotional effects for both sexes across…

  20. Statistical physics of interacting neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Wolfgang; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido

    2001-12-01

    Recent results on the statistical physics of time series generation and prediction are presented. A neural network is trained on quasi-periodic and chaotic sequences and overlaps to the sequence generator as well as the prediction errors are calculated numerically. For each network there exists a sequence for which it completely fails to make predictions. Two interacting networks show a transition to perfect synchronization. A pool of interacting networks shows good coordination in the minority game-a model of competition in a closed market. Finally, as a demonstration, a perceptron predicts bit sequences produced by human beings.

  1. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Statistical Power of Psychological Research: What Have We Gained in 20 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated power for 6,155 statistical tests in 221 journal articles published in 1982 volumes of "Journal of Abnormal Psychology,""Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology," and "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology." Power to detect small, medium, and large effects was .17, .57, and .83, respectively. Concluded that power of…

  3. Statistical Physics Approaches to RNA Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Ralf

    2012-02-01

    The central dogma of molecular Biology states that DNA is transcribed base by base into RNA which is in turn translated into proteins. However, some organisms edit their RNA before translation by inserting, deleting, or substituting individual or short stretches of bases. In many instances the mechanisms by which an organism recognizes the positions at which to edit or by which it performs the actual editing are unknown. One model system that stands out by its very high rate of on average one out of 25 bases being edited are the Myxomycetes, a class of slime molds. In this talk we will show how the computational methods and concepts from statistical Physics can be used to analyze DNA and protein sequence data to predict editing sites in these slime molds and to guide experiments that identified previously unknown types of editing as well as the complete set of editing events in the slime mold Physarum polycephalum.

  4. Statistical Physics Approaches to Microbial Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pankaj

    The unprecedented ability to quantitatively measure and probe complex microbial communities has renewed interest in identifying the fundamental ecological principles governing community ecology in microbial ecosystems. Here, we present work from our group and others showing how ideas from statistical physics can help us uncover these ecological principles. Two major lessons emerge from this work. First, large, ecosystems with many species often display new, emergent ecological behaviors that are absent in small ecosystems with just a few species. To paraphrase Nobel laureate Phil Anderson, ''More is Different'', especially in community ecology. Second, the lack of trophic layer separation in microbial ecology fundamentally distinguishes microbial ecology from classical paradigms of community ecology and leads to qualitative different rules for community assembly in microbes. I illustrate these ideas using both theoretical modeling and novel new experiments on large microbial ecosystems performed by our collaborators (Joshua Goldford and Alvaro Sanchez). Work supported by Simons Investigator in MMLS and NIH R35 R35 GM119461.

  5. Statistical physics of pairwise probability models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Roudi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Statistical models for describing the probability distribution over the states of biological systems are commonly used for dimensional reduction. Among these models, pairwise models are very attractive in part because they can be fit using a reasonable amount of data: knowledge of the means and correlations between pairs of elements in the system is sufficient. Not surprisingly, then, using pairwise models for studying neural data has been the focus of many studies in recent years. In this paper, we describe how tools from statistical physics can be employed for studying and using pairwise models. We build on our previous work on the subject and study the relation between different methods for fitting these models and evaluating their quality. In particular, using data from simulated cortical networks we study how the quality of various approximate methods for inferring the parameters in a pairwise model depends on the time bin chosen for binning the data. We also study the effect of the size of the time bin on the model quality itself, again using simulated data. We show that using finer time bins increases the quality of the pairwise model. We offer new ways of deriving the expressions reported in our previous work for assessing the quality of pairwise models.

  6. Statistical physics, seismogenesis, and seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Ian

    1996-11-01

    The scaling properties of earthquake populations show remarkable similarities to those observed at or near the critical point of other composite systems in statistical physics. This has led to the development of a variety of different physical models of seismogenesis as a critical phenomenon, involving locally nonlinear dynamics, with simplified rheologies exhibiting instability or avalanche-type behavior, in a material composed of a large number of discrete elements. In particular, it has been suggested that earthquakes are an example of a "self-organized critical phenomenon" analogous to a sandpile that spontaneously evolves to a critical angle of repose in response to the steady supply of new grains at the summit. In this stationary state of marginal stability the distribution of avalanche energies is a power law, equivalent to the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude law, and the behavior is relatively insensitive to the details of the dynamics. Here we review the results of some of the composite physical models that have been developed to simulate seismogenesis on different scales during (1) dynamic slip on a preexisting fault, (2) fault growth, and (3) fault nucleation. The individual physical models share some generic features, such as a dynamic energy flux applied by tectonic loading at a constant strain rate, strong local interactions, and fluctuations generated either dynamically or by fixed material heterogeneity, but they differ significantly in the details of the assumed dynamics and in the methods of numerical solution. However, all exhibit critical or near-critical behavior, with behavior quantitatively consistent with many of the observed fractal or multifractal scaling laws of brittle faulting and earthquakes, including the Gutenberg-Richter law. Some of the results are sensitive to the details of the dynamics and hence are not strict examples of self-organized criticality. Nevertheless, the results of these different physical models share some

  7. Prevalence of Physical and Psychological Violence among Heterosexual Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Angulo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are few studies at the population level on the prevalence of violence in heterosexual relationships. This study demonstrated the reality of this phenomenon in our context. Objective: to determine the prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the city of Cienfuegos in 2010. Methods: a cross-sectional study of adults aged 15 to 74 years was conducted in six health areas. An equal probability sample of 1873 subjects was selected. The variables included psychological and physical violence, sex, age, skin color, marital status, educational level and history of living in troubled homes. The results were processed using SPSS 15.0. Results: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among couples was approximately six out of ten with different frequency levels. Psychological violence rose to 82.3 % and physical violence to 96.3 % when the couple lived together. Women reported being victims of violence from age 35 to 44 and men from age 25 to 34. Seventy point eight percent of couples who had middle school education reported suffering physical violence while 63 % of those with university education reported psychological violence. Fifty-one point eight percent of the study population was victim of physical violence during childhood. Conclusions: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the sample studied in Cienfuegos is higher than the mean in the general population.

  8. The scientifiv way of thinking in statistics, statistical physics and quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Săvoiu, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the way of thinking in both classical and modern Physics and Statistics, Statistical Mechanics or Statistical Physics and Quantum Mechanics. These different statistical ways of thinking and their specific methods have generated new fields for new activities and new scientific disciplines, like Econophysics (between Economics and Physics), Sociophysics (between Sociology and Physics), Mediaphysics (between all media and comunication sciences), etc. After describing some r...

  9. The scientific way of thinking in statistics, statistical physics and quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Săvoiu, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the way of thinking in both classical and modern Physics and Statistics, Statistical Mechanics or Statistical Physics and Quantum Mechanics. These different statistical ways of thinking and their specific methods have generated new fields for new activities and new scientific disciplines, like Econophysics (between Economics and Physics), Sociophysics (between Sociology and Physics), Mediaphysics (between all media and comunication sciences), etc. After describing some r...

  10. Excel 2016 for educational and psychological statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching educational and psychological statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2013 for Educational and Psychological Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical education and psychology problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in education and psychology courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Educational and Psychological Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and man...

  11. Physical Attractiveness Research. Toward a Developmental Social Psychology of Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews research on physical attractiveness from a dialectical-interactional perspective and attempts to examine the relationship between outer appearance and inner psychological characteristics from a developmental perspective. (BD)

  12. Role of Physical Attractiveness in Peer Attribution of Psychological Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The physical attractiveness stereotype was examined as it pertains to the attribution of psychological disturbance among peers. Consistent with the stereotype, attractive interviewees were judged as less disturbed with better prognosis than unattractive interviewees. (Author)

  13. The psychology of the heart: Implications for health, physical activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for health, physical activity and sport of psychophysiological resonance, coherence and heart rate variability feedback applications involving respiration and facilitation of positive emotion. Keywords: Heart psychology, psychophysiology, resonance, coherence, transcultural context, heart rate variability, biofeedback.

  14. Statistical Physics of Complex Substitutive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qing

    Diffusion processes are central to human interactions. Despite extensive studies that span multiple disciplines, our knowledge is limited to spreading processes in non-substitutive systems. Yet, a considerable number of ideas, products, and behaviors spread by substitution; to adopt a new one, agents must give up an existing one. This captures the spread of scientific constructs--forcing scientists to choose, for example, a deterministic or probabilistic worldview, as well as the adoption of durable items, such as mobile phones, cars, or homes. In this dissertation, I develop a statistical physics framework to describe, quantify, and understand substitutive systems. By empirically exploring three collected high-resolution datasets pertaining to such systems, I build a mechanistic model describing substitutions, which not only analytically predicts the universal macroscopic phenomenon discovered in the collected datasets, but also accurately captures the trajectories of individual items in a complex substitutive system, demonstrating a high degree of regularity and universality in substitutive systems. I also discuss the origins and insights of the parameters in the substitution model and possible generalization form of the mathematical framework. The systematical study of substitutive systems presented in this dissertation could potentially guide the understanding and prediction of all spreading phenomena driven by substitutions, from electric cars to scientific paradigms, and from renewable energy to new healthy habits.

  15. Statistical physics of media processes: Mediaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Dmitri V.; Mandel, Igor

    2007-04-01

    The processes of mass communications in complicated social or sociobiological systems such as marketing, economics, politics, animal populations, etc. as a subject for the special scientific subbranch-“mediaphysics”-are considered in its relation with sociophysics. A new statistical physics approach to analyze these phenomena is proposed. A keystone of the approach is an analysis of population distribution between two or many alternatives: brands, political affiliations, or opinions. Relative distances between a state of a “person's mind” and the alternatives are measures of propensity to buy (to affiliate, or to have a certain opinion). The distribution of population by those relative distances is time dependent and affected by external (economic, social, marketing, natural) and internal (influential propagation of opinions, “word of mouth”, etc.) factors, considered as fields. Specifically, the interaction and opinion-influence field can be generalized to incorporate important elements of Ising-spin-based sociophysical models and kinetic-equation ones. The distributions were described by a Schrödinger-type equation in terms of Green's functions. The developed approach has been applied to a real mass-media efficiency problem for a large company and generally demonstrated very good results despite low initial correlations of factors and the target variable.

  16. Physical and psychological determinants of injury in Ontario forest firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, H; Larivière, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest firefighters are faced with multiple physical and psychological challenges as a result of their duties. Little is known about the determinants of injury among these workers. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) Aviation, Forest Fire and Emergency Services (AFFES) records detailed information on two mutually exclusive types of workplace injury: First aid (self-reported) and Workplace Safety Insurance Board (WSIB, i.e. received medical attention). To identify the contributions of physical and psychological factors on the likelihood of injury among forest firefighters. Participants were male and female forest firefighters aged between 18 and 65. Data were collected using two self-administered instruments: The NEO Personality Inventory and the Job Stress Survey. Secondary data were collected from the OMNR AFFES and data were analysed by way of multivariate statistical procedures. There were 252 participants. Those who were older, had a history of injury, had high scores for the personality construct of Neuroticism or low scores for the Openness construct were significantly more likely to incur a first aid injury, while those with high experience levels were significantly less likely to incur injury (P First aid and WSIB injuries in the OMNR AFFES were quite distinct phenomena and different factors need consideration in their prediction. It is recommended that managers and decision-makers in this field consider factors such as job stress, personality and the prior occurrence of injuries in their assessment of risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Statistical spectroscopic studies in nuclear structure physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halemane, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    The spectral distribution theory establishes the centroid and width of the energy spectrum as quantities of fundamental importance and gives credence to a geometry associated with averages of the product of pairs of operators acting within a model space. Utilizing this fact and partitioning the model space according to different group symmetries, simple and physically meaningful expansions are obtained for the model interactions. In the process, a global measure for the goodness of group symmetries is also developed. This procedure could eventually lead to a new way of constructing model interactions for nuclear structure studies. Numerical results for six (ds)-shell interactions and for scalar-isospin, configuration-isospin, space symmetry, supermultiplet and SU(e) x SU(4) group structures are presented. The notion of simultaneous propagation of operator averages in the irreps of two or more groups (not necessarily commuting) is also introduced. The non-energy-weighted sum rule (NEWSR) for electric and magnetic multipole excitations in the (ds)-shell nuclei 20 Ne, 24 Mg, 28 Si, 32 S, and 36 Ar are evaluated. A generally applicable procedure for evaluating the eigenvalue bound to the NEWSR is presented and numerical results obtained for the said excitations and nuclei. Comparisons are made with experimental data and shell-model results. Further, a general theory is given for the linear-energy-weighted sum rule (LEWSR). When the Hamiltonian is one-body, this has a very simple form (expressible in terms of occupancies) and amounts to an extension of the Kurath sum rule to other types of excitations and to arbitrary one-body Hamiltonians. Finally, we develop a statistical approach to perturbation theory and inverse-energy-weighted sum rules, and indicate some applications

  18. Statistical Information and Uncertainty: A Critique of Applications in Experimental Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Laming

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, first, a formal exploration of the relationships between information (statistically defined, statistical hypothesis testing, the use of hypothesis testing in reverse as an investigative tool, channel capacity in a communication system, uncertainty, the concept of entropy in thermodynamics, and Bayes’ theorem. This exercise brings out the close mathematical interrelationships between different applications of these ideas in diverse areas of psychology. Subsequent illustrative examples are grouped under (a the human operator as an ideal communications channel, (b the human operator as a purely physical system, and (c Bayes’ theorem as an algorithm for combining information from different sources. Some tentative conclusions are drawn about the usefulness of information theory within these different categories. (a The idea of the human operator as an ideal communications channel has long been abandoned, though it provides some lessons that still need to be absorbed today. (b Treating the human operator as a purely physical system provides a platform for the quantitative exploration of many aspects of human performance by analogy with the analysis of other physical systems. (c The use of Bayes’ theorem to calculate the effects of prior probabilities and stimulus frequencies on human performance is probably misconceived, but it is difficult to obtain results precise enough to resolve this question.

  19. Leisure-time physical activity and some psychological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... physical work capacity for the demands of daily living and job performance. ... physical activity and psychological well-being of executive employees; and to ... A cross-sectional study design was carried out on a group of 156 (mean age; ...

  20. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  1. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  2. Journal data sharing policies and statistical reporting inconsistencies in psychology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.; Borghuis, J.; Veldkamp, C.L.S.; Dominguez Alvarez, L.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present three retrospective observational studies that investigate the relation between data sharing and statistical reporting inconsistencies. Previous research found that reluctance to share data was related to a higher prevalence of statistical errors, often in the direction of

  3. Thermodynamics and statistical physics. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnakenberg, J.

    2002-01-01

    This textbook covers tthe following topics: Thermodynamic systems and equilibrium, irreversible thermodynamics, thermodynamic potentials, stability, thermodynamic processes, ideal systems, real gases and phase transformations, magnetic systems and Landau model, low temperature thermodynamics, canonical ensembles, statistical theory, quantum statistics, fermions and bosons, kinetic theory, Bose-Einstein condensation, photon gas

  4. Statistical physics approaches to Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouyong

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of late life dementia. In the brain of an AD patient, neurons are lost and spatial neuronal organizations (microcolumns) are disrupted. An adequate quantitative analysis of microcolumns requires that we automate the neuron recognition stage in the analysis of microscopic images of human brain tissue. We propose a recognition method based on statistical physics. Specifically, Monte Carlo simulations of an inhomogeneous Potts model are applied for image segmentation. Unlike most traditional methods, this method improves the recognition of overlapped neurons, and thus improves the overall recognition percentage. Although the exact causes of AD are unknown, as experimental advances have revealed the molecular origin of AD, they have continued to support the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which states that early stages of aggregation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides lead to neurodegeneration and death. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the common cross-beta structural features of the final stable aggregates-amyloid fibrils. Solid-state NMR studies also reveal structural features for some well-ordered fibrils. But currently there is no feasible experimental technique that can reveal the exact structure or the precise dynamics of assembly and thus help us understand the aggregation mechanism. Computer simulation offers a way to understand the aggregation mechanism on the molecular level. Because traditional all-atom continuous molecular dynamics simulations are not fast enough to investigate the whole aggregation process, we apply coarse-grained models and discrete molecular dynamics methods to increase the simulation speed. First we use a coarse-grained two-bead (two beads per amino acid) model. Simulations show that peptides can aggregate into multilayer beta-sheet structures, which agree with X-ray diffraction experiments. To better represent the secondary structure transition happening during aggregation, we refine the

  5. Exploring Statistics Anxiety: Contrasting Mathematical, Academic Performance and Trait Psychological Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Victoria J.

    2018-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is experienced by a large number of psychology students, and previous research has examined a range of potential correlates, including academic performance, mathematical ability and psychological predictors. These varying predictors are often considered separately, although there may be shared variance between them. In the…

  6. Excel 2013 for educational and psychological statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach educational and psychological statistics effectively. It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical problems in education and psychology. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and practitioners, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in statistics courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2013 for Educational and Psychological Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and practitioners how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. E...

  7. Teaching Statistics Using Classic Psychology Research: An Activities-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Karen Y.; Dodd, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss a collection of active learning activities derived from classic psychology studies that illustrate the appropriate use of descriptive and inferential statistics. (Contains 2 tables.)

  8. Brownian quasi-particles in statistical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez-Arenas, A.; Fronteau, J.; Combis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The idea of a Brownian quasi-particle and the associated differentiable flow (with nonselfadjoint forces) are used here in the context of a stochastic description of the approach towards statistical equilibrium. We show that this quasi-particle flow acquires, at equilibrium, the principal properties of a conservative Hamiltonian flow. Thus the model of Brownian quasi-particles permits us to establish a link between the stochastic description and the Gibbs description of statistical equilibrium

  9. Psychological trauma, physical health and somatisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, V; Norwood, A

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between trauma, physical health and somatisation. A search was made on the Procite Database at the Department of Psychiatry at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences for research articles with the following key words: posttraumatic stress disorder, somatisation, trauma (the Procite Database holds more than 15,000 articles related to trauma and disaster). A review of the current research findings show a link between prior exposure to traumatic events (such as war, disaster, motor vehicles and industrial accidents, crime and sexual assault, domestic violence and child abuse) and subsequent physical heath and medical care utilisation. Possible mechanisms and conceptualisations which may explain the association between trauma and physical health, such as high-risk health behaviours, neurobiology, alexithymia and culture are discussed. Because traumatised persons show high medical utilisation, good screening, thorough assessment, empirically-based treatment and appropriate referral of such patients are essential.

  10. Learning Psychological Research and Statistical Concepts using Retrieval-based Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Wee Hun eLim; Gavin Jun Peng eNg; Gabriel Qi Hao eWong

    2015-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are an indispensable subject in the undergraduate psychology curriculum, but there are challenges associated with engaging students in it, such as making learning durable. Here we hypothesized that retrieval-based learning promotes long-term retention of statistical knowledge in psychology. Participants either studied the educational material in four consecutive periods, or studied it just once and practiced retrieving the information in the subsequent three pe...

  11. Nonextensive statistical mechanics and high energy physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsallis Constantino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of the celebrated Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and statistical mechanics is justified for ergodic-like systems. In contrast, complex systems typically require more powerful theories. We will provide a brief introduction to nonadditive entropies (characterized by indices like q, which, in the q → 1 limit, recovers the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and associated nonextensive statistical mechanics. We then present somerecent applications to systems such as high-energy collisions, black holes and others. In addition to that, we clarify and illustrate the neat distinction that exists between Lévy distributions and q-exponential ones, a point which occasionally causes some confusion in the literature, very particularly in the LHC literature

  12. On fractional spin symmetries and statistical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidi, E.H.

    1995-09-01

    The partition function Z and the quantum distribution of systems Σ of identical particles of fractional spin s = 1/k mod 1, k ≥ 2, generalizing the well-known Bose and Fermi ones, are derived. The generalized Sommerfeld development of the distribution around T = O deg. K is given. The low temperature analysis of statistical systems Σ is made. Known results are recovered. (author). 26 refs, 6 figs

  13. Statistical and particle physics: Common problems and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, K.C.; Mc Kane, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    These proceedings contain statistical mechanical studies in condensed matter physics; interfacial problems in statistical physics; string theory; general monte carlo methods and their application to Lattice gauge theories; topological excitations in field theory; phase transformation kinetics; and studies of chaotic systems

  14. Embracing Uncertainty: The Interface of Bayesian Statistics and Cognitive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Anderson

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists working in conservation and resource management are discovering the importance of using Bayesian analytic methods to deal explicitly with uncertainty in data analyses and decision making. However, Bayesian procedures require, as inputs and outputs, an idea that is problematic for the human brain: the probability of a hypothesis ("single-event probability". I describe several cognitive concepts closely related to single-event probabilities, and discuss how their interchangeability in the human mind results in "cognitive illusions," apparent deficits in reasoning about uncertainty. Each cognitive illusion implies specific possible pitfalls for the use of single-event probabilities in ecology and resource management. I then discuss recent research in cognitive psychology showing that simple tactics of communication, suggested by an evolutionary perspective on human cognition, help people to process uncertain information more effectively as they read and talk about probabilities. In addition, I suggest that carefully considered standards for methodology and conventions for presentation may also make Bayesian analyses easier to understand.

  15. Statistics a guide to the use of statistical methods in the physical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, Roger J

    1989-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A.C. Phillips Computing for Scienti

  16. Psychological and physical effects of pain on cancer patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological and physical effects of pain on cancer patients in Ibadan, Nigeria. FT Nuhu, OA Odejide, KO Adebayo, AJ Yusuf. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Psychiatry Vol. 12 (1) 2009: pp. 64-70. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Young Children's Physical and Psychological Well-Being through Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Jin; Wee, Su-Jeong; Gilbert, Beverly Boals; Choi, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Children's participation in yoga activities is receiving increasingly widespread attention as an exercise system that promotes not only physical health benefits but also psychological well-being. The authors of this article introduce how yoga practices can be implemented in an early childhood classroom to enhance children's mind and body harmony,…

  18. Safety bey statistics? A critical view on statistical methods applied in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, W.

    2016-01-01

    The only proper way to describe uncertainties in health physics is by statistical means. But statistics never can replace Your personal evaluation of effect, nor can statistics transmute randomness into certainty like an ''uncertainty laundry''. The paper discusses these problems in routine practical work.

  19. Statistical Physics and Light-Front Quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raufeisen, J

    2004-08-12

    Light-front quantization has important advantages for describing relativistic statistical systems, particularly systems for which boost invariance is essential, such as the fireball created in a heavy ion collisions. In this paper the authors develop light-front field theory at finite temperature and density with special attention to quantum chromodynamics. They construct the most general form of the statistical operator allowed by the Poincare algebra and show that there are no zero-mode related problems when describing phase transitions. They then demonstrate a direct connection between densities in light-front thermal field theory and the parton distributions measured in hard scattering experiments. The approach thus generalizes the concept of a parton distribution to finite temperature. In light-front quantization, the gauge-invariant Green's functions of a quark in a medium can be defined in terms of just 2-component spinors and have a much simpler spinor structure than the equal-time fermion propagator. From the Green's function, the authors introduce the new concept of a light-front density matrix, whose matrix elements are related to forward and to off-diagonal parton distributions. Furthermore, they explain how thermodynamic quantities can be calculated in discretized light-cone quantization, which is applicable at high chemical potential and is not plagued by the fermion-doubling problems.

  20. Age, burnout and physical and psychological work ability among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, D J; Freude, G; Martus, P; Rose, U; Müller, G; Potter, G G

    2018-03-26

    The ageing of the US labour force highlights the need to examine older adults' physical and psychological ability to work, under varying levels of occupational burnout. To examine how age and burnout interact in predicting physical and psychological work ability. Using a cohort of actively working nurses, we assessed factors on the Work Ability Index at 12-month follow-up and determined how these were related to age and exhaustion-related burnout at baseline. The study group consisted of 402 nurses aged 25-67 (mean = 41.7). Results indicated age by burnout interactions in which decrements in physical work ability with greater age were observed at all but the lowest level of burnout (1.5 SD below mean: β = -0.14, 95% CI -0.36, 0.07; 1 SD below: β = -0.23, 95% CI -0.39, -0.06; mean: β = -0.39, 95% CI -0.50, -0.29; 1 SD above: β = -0.56, 95% CI -0.70, -0.42; 1.5 SD above: β = -0.64, 95% CI -0.83, -0.46). In contrast, we observed decrements in psychological work ability with age at higher levels of burnout only (1 SD above: β = -0.20, 95% CI -0.35, -0.05; 1.5 SD above: β = -0.30, 95% CI -0.49, -0.11); at lower levels of burnout, older age was associated with improvements in this (1 SD below: β = 0.19, 95% CI 0.03, 0.35; 1.5 SD below: β = 0.29, 95% CI 0.08, 0.50). Findings indicated physical and psychological dimensions of work ability that differed by age and occupational burnout. This emphasizes the need for interventions to reduce burnout and to address age-related strengths and vulnerabilities relating to physical and psychological work ability.

  1. Is poker a skill game? New insights from statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2015-06-01

    During last years poker has gained a lot of prestige in several countries and, besides being one of the most famous card games, it represents a modern challenge for scientists belonging to different communities, spanning from artificial intelligence to physics and from psychology to mathematics. Unlike games like chess, the task of classifying the nature of poker (i.e., as “skill game” or gambling) seems really hard and it also constitutes a current problem, whose solution has several implications. In general, gambling offers equal winning probabilities both to rational players (i.e., those that use a strategy) and to irrational ones (i.e., those without a strategy). Therefore, in order to uncover the nature of poker, a viable way is comparing performances of rational vs. irrational players during a series of challenges. Recently, a work on this topic revealed that rationality is a fundamental ingredient to succeed in poker tournaments. In this study we analyze a simple model of poker challenges by a statistical physics approach, with the aim to uncover the nature of this game. As main result we found that, under particular conditions, few irrational players can turn poker into gambling. Therefore, although rationality is a key ingredient to succeed in poker, also the format of challenges has an important role in these dynamics, as it can strongly influence the underlying nature of the game. The importance of our results lies on the related implications, as for instance in identifying the limits within which poker can be considered as a “skill game” and, as a consequence, which kind of format must be chosen to devise algorithms able to face humans.

  2. Methods of contemporary mathematical statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of courses introducing the reader to the recent progress with attention being paid to laying solid grounds and developing various basic tools. An introductory chapter on lattice spin models is useful as a background for other lectures of the collection. The topics include new results on phase transitions for gradient lattice models (with introduction to the techniques of the reflection positivity), stochastic geometry reformulation of classical and quantum Ising models, the localization/delocalization transition for directed polymers. A general rigorous framework for theory of metastability is presented and particular applications in the context of Glauber and Kawasaki dynamics of lattice models are discussed. A pedagogical account of several recently discussed topics in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics with an emphasis on general principles is followed by a discussion of kinetically constrained spin models that are reflecting important peculiar features of glassy dynamic...

  3. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L.-Y.; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34–3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70–3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34–4.34 among males and 1.18–3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose–response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. PMID:24218225

  4. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34-3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70-3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34-4.34 among males and 1.18-3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose-response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Psychological correlates of physical abuse in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Chan, Kam Kuen; Lam, Peggo K W; Choi, Philemon Y W; Lai, Kelly Y C

    2003-01-01

    To understand the associations between adolescent family physical maltreatment and psychiatric morbidity or psychological problems. questionnaire survey on 489 secondary school students in Form 2 from 10 schools in Hong Kong. Questions regarding three forms of family physical maltreatment were measured: corporal punishment within the past 6 months, beaten without any reason within the past 6 months, or ever been beaten to injury. Corporal punishment was not associated with the psychological variables after Bonferroni adjustment was made. Those who experienced the two other forms of physical maltreatment had significant and strong associations with positive Achenbach CBCL outcome (OR from 3.26 to 3.27), drug abuse problems (OR from 2.60 to 20.38), self-injurious behaviors (OR from 3.34 to 8.47) and poor perceived parental support. In addition, those who had ever been beaten to injury scored significantly lower in the "physical appearance" and "behavioral conduct" subscales of the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. In Hong Kong, some forms of family physical maltreatment (beaten for no reason and beaten to injury) were associated with a number of psychiatric/psychological problems. Further studies should be carried out to clarify whether the relationships are causal in nature. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Psychological variables and physical exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabile Borges Dario

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide a literature review aiming to clarify the most prevalent psychological changes present in individuals suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA, the impact of exercise on such changes, and the exercise protocols commonly adopted to improve these individuals' mental health. The few studies available report anxiety disorders and depression as most prevalent and physical exercise as a significant therapeutic strategy for this population. There is some evidence of the beneficial effects of exercise on those psychological variables providing RA patients with more effective treatments.

  7. Statistical physics, neural networks, brain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulouse, G.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of some aspects of a vast domain, located at the crossroads of physics, biology and computer science is presented: (1) During the last fifteen years, physicists advancing along various pathways have come into contact with biology (computational neurosciences) and engineering (formal neural nets). (2) This move may actually be viewed as one component in a larger picture. A prominent trend of recent years, observable over many countries, has been the establishment of interdisciplinary centers devoted to the study of: cognitive sciences; natural and artificial intelligence; brain, mind and behaviour; perception and action; learning and memory; robotics; man-machine communication, etc. What are the promising lines of development? What opportunities for physicists? An attempt will be made to address such questions and related issues

  8. Probability and statistics for particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mana, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the basic concepts of probability and Bayesian inference with sufficient generality to make them applicable to current problems in scientific research. The first chapter provides the fundamentals of probability theory that are essential for the analysis of random phenomena. The second chapter includes a full and pragmatic review of the Bayesian methods that constitute a natural and coherent framework with enough freedom to analyze all the information available from experimental data in a conceptually simple manner. The third chapter presents the basic Monte Carlo techniques used in scientific research, allowing a large variety of problems to be handled difficult to tackle by other procedures. The author also introduces a basic algorithm, which enables readers to simulate samples from simple distribution, and describes useful cases for researchers in particle physics.The final chapter is devoted to the basic ideas of Information Theory, which are important in the Bayesian me...

  9. What can we learn from noise? - Mesoscopic nonequilibrium statistical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Mesoscopic systems - small electric circuits working in quantum regime - offer us a unique experimental stage to explorer quantum transport in a tunable and precise way. The purpose of this Review is to show how they can contribute to statistical physics. We introduce the significance of fluctuation, or equivalently noise, as noise measurement enables us to address the fundamental aspects of a physical system. The significance of the fluctuation theorem (FT) in statistical physics is noted. We explain what information can be deduced from the current noise measurement in mesoscopic systems. As an important application of the noise measurement to statistical physics, we describe our experimental work on the current and current noise in an electron interferometer, which is the first experimental test of FT in quantum regime. Our attempt will shed new light in the research field of mesoscopic quantum statistical physics.

  10. [Psychological benefits of physical activity for optimal mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Emmanuel

    Mental health is a worldwide public health concern, as can be seen from the WHO's comprehensive mental health action plan 2013-2020 which was adopted by the 66th World Health Assembly. According to the Mental health commission of Canada (2012), one in five Canadians will personally experience a mental illness in their lifetime, and the WHO shows that mental illness represents the second most prevalent risk of morbidity after heart disease. Physical activity certainly provides an answer to this problem. Physical activity has been shown to improve physical health but it is also one of the most natural and accessible means to improve mental health. The aim of the present article is to propose a biopsychosocial model on the basis of a literature review on the psychological benefits of physical activity. In view of the findings we assume that physical activity increases mental well-being and optimal mental health as opposed to poor mental health. Hence, physical activity provides a state of well-being that enables individuals to realize their own potential, and that helps to cope with the normal stresses of life or adversity. The model certainly opens the way for research and new hypothesis, but it also aims at the promotion of the benefits of physical activity on psychological well-being for optimal mental health.

  11. Learning Psychological Research and Statistical Concepts using Retrieval-based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wee Hun eLim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research methods and statistics are an indispensable subject in the undergraduate psychology curriculum, but there are challenges associated with teaching it, such as making learning durable. Here we hypothesized that retrieval-based learning promotes long-term retention of statistical knowledge in psychology. Participants either studied the educational material in four consecutive periods, or studied it just once and practised retrieving the information in the subsequent three periods, and then took a final test through which their learning was assessed. Whereas repeated studying yielded better test performance when the final test was immediately administered, repeated practice yielded better performance when the test was administered a week after. The data suggest that retrieval practice enhanced the learning – produced better long-term retention – of statistical knowledge in psychology than did repeated studying.

  12. Statistics Anxiety and Self-Efficacy in Psychology Students: A Challenge for Teaching and Learning in STEM

    OpenAIRE

    Swingler, Maxine V.; Morrow, Lorna I.

    2014-01-01

    Statistics and research methods are embedded in the university curricula for psychology, STEM, and more widely. Statistical skills are also associated with the development of psychological literacy and graduate attributes. Yet there is concern about students’ mathematical and statistical skills in their transition from school to HE. A major challenge facing the teaching and learning of statistics in HE is the high levels of statistics anxiety and low levels of statistics self-efficacy experie...

  13. Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Robin M; Limber, Susan P

    2013-07-01

    To examine the relationship between children's and adolescents' experiences with cyberbullying and traditional bullying and psychological health, physical health, and academic performance. Nine hundred thirty-one students in grades 6 through 12 completed an anonymous survey examining their experiences with cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Also included were measures of anxiety, depression, self-esteem, physical well-being, school attendance, and academic performance. Participants were categorized as belonging to one of four groups: cyber victims, cyberbullies, cyber bully/victims, and those not involved in cyberbullying. A similar categorization was done with traditional bullying. Those in the bully/victim groups (and particularly the cyber bully/victim group) had the most negative scores on most measures of psychological health, physical, health, and academic performance. There appears to be a substantial, although not perfect, overlap between involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Additionally, the physical, psychological, and academic correlates of the two types of bullying resembled one another. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical and psychological nicotine dependence in Greeks: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, Vasileios; Mamai-Homata, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is the most widespread addictive behaviour in the world, as it causes physical and psychological dependence on nicotine. The objective of the present study was to discern the prevalence and the relative risks of nicotine dependence of adult people in Athens, Greece, as this country holds first place in cigarette consumption in the European Union. A random sample of 202 current smokers (82 men and 120 women) was drawn from residents aged v 18 years in Athens, the capital of Greece. A questionnaire on the physical (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence) and psychological (American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic criteria of nicotine abuse) nicotine dependence was used. According to the results of the present study, 12.4% of the sample reported null physical nicotine dependence, and 31.7% had low, 25.7% had moderate and 30.2% had high nicotine dependence. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger people (aged 18 to 24 and 25 to 34, odds ratio [OR] = 0.047, P physical dependence. Women tended to be systematically less dependent than men (25% and 37.8% high dependence, respectively). Furthermore, 75.7% of the sample had psychological nicotine dependence. Binary logistic regression analysis and chi-square test revealed that younger people (18- to 24-year-olds, OR = 0.081, P dependence. In addition, women showed a higher percentage of withdrawal symptoms compared with men (80% and 68%, respectively). The results of the present study provided compelling evidence that physical and, in particular, psychological nicotine dependence of adult people in Athens, Greece, was significant, and this calls for a course of action that should be taken by public health policy-makers to reduce smoke consumption.

  15. The Role of Statistics and Research Methods in the Academic Success of Psychology Majors: Do Performance and Enrollment Timing Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freng, Scott; Webber, David; Blatter, Jamin; Wing, Ashley; Scott, Walter D.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension of statistics and research methods is crucial to understanding psychology as a science (APA, 2007). However, psychology majors sometimes approach methodology courses with derision or anxiety (Onwuegbuzie & Wilson, 2003; Rajecki, Appleby, Williams, Johnson, & Jeschke, 2005); consequently, students may postpone…

  16. Symmetry, Invariance and Ontology in Physics and Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Michael Stern

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has three main objectives: (a Discuss the formal analogy between some important symmetry-invariance arguments used in physics, probability and statistics. Specifically, we will focus on Noether’s theorem in physics, the maximum entropy principle in probability theory, and de Finetti-type theorems in Bayesian statistics; (b Discuss the epistemological and ontological implications of these theorems, as they are interpreted in physics and statistics. Specifically, we will focus on the positivist (in physics or subjective (in statistics interpretations vs. objective interpretations that are suggested by symmetry and invariance arguments; (c Introduce the cognitive constructivism epistemological framework as a solution that overcomes the realism-subjectivism dilemma and its pitfalls. The work of the physicist and philosopher Max Born will be particularly important in our discussion.

  17. Statistical physics and thermodynamics an introduction to key concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Statistical physics and thermodynamics describe the behaviour of systems on the macroscopic scale. Their methods are applicable to a wide range of phenomena: from refrigerators to the interior of stars, from chemical reactions to magnetism. Indeed, of all physical laws, the laws of thermodynamics are perhaps the most universal. This text provides a concise yet thorough introduction to the key concepts which underlie statistical physics and thermodynamics. It begins with a review of classical probability theory and quantum theory, as well as a careful discussion of the notions of information and entropy, prior to embarking on the development of statistical physics proper. The crucial steps leading from the microscopic to the macroscopic domain are rendered transparent. In particular, the laws of thermodynamics are shown to emerge as natural consequences of the statistical framework. While the emphasis is on clarifying the basic concepts, the text also contains many applications and classroom-tested exercises,...

  18. Are Psychology Students Getting Worse at Math?: Trends in the Math Skills of Psychology Statistics Students across 21 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas P.; Kirk, Roger E.

    2017-01-01

    Statistics is an important subject in psychology and social science education. However, inadequate mathematical skills can pose a barrier to learning statistics. Some educators have suggested that students' math skills are declining. The present research examined trends in the math skills of psychology undergraduates across 21 years. Students…

  19. 1. Warsaw School of Statistical Physics - Poster Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The abstracts of information presented in posters during '1st Warsaw School of Statistical Physics' which held in Kazimierz Dolny - Poland are presented. They cover different aspects of statistical processes like diffusion, fluid hydrodynamics as well as modern quantum mechanical methods of their solutions

  20. Correlated randomness: Some examples of exotic statistical physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. May 2005 physics pp. 645–660. Correlated randomness: Some examples of exotic statistical physics .... The key idea is that scale invariance is a statement not about algebraic .... Very recently an article appeared in Phys. Rev. ... One quarter of any newspaper with a financial section is filled with economic fluc-.

  1. Mapping Psychology Students' Perspective on Group Peer-Tutoring in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantinotti, Michael; Désormeaux-Moreau, Marjorie; Balbinotti, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Students in psychology generally have difficulties to successfully accomplish mandatory courses in statistics. Group peer-tutoring is a pedagogical strategy to support them with a peer that has already successfully mastered the content of such a course. In order to specifically tailor group peer-tutoring to the needs of students and to sustain…

  2. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yuan; Huang Ji-Ping

    2014-01-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)

  3. Examining reproducibility in psychology : A hybrid method for combining a statistically significant original study and a replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aert, R.C.M.; Van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2018-01-01

    The unrealistically high rate of positive results within psychology has increased the attention to replication research. However, researchers who conduct a replication and want to statistically combine the results of their replication with a statistically significant original study encounter

  4. A Concise Introduction to the Statistical Physics of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This concise primer (based on lectures given at summer schools on complex systems and on a masters degree course in complex systems modeling) will provide graduate students and newcomers to the field with the basic knowledge of the concepts and methods of statistical physics and its potential for application to interdisciplinary topics.  Indeed, in recent years, statistical physics has begun to attract the interest of a broad community of researchers in the field of complex system sciences, ranging from biology to the social sciences, economics and computer science. More generally, a growing number of graduate students and researchers feel the need to learn some basic concepts and questions originating in other disciplines without necessarily having to master all of the corresponding technicalities and jargon. Generally speaking, the goals of statistical physics may be summarized as follows: on the one hand to study systems composed of a large number of interacting ‘entities’, and on the other to predict...

  5. Statistical physics of complex systems a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This course-tested primer provides graduate students and non-specialists with a basic understanding of the concepts and methods of statistical physics and demonstrates their wide range of applications to interdisciplinary topics in the field of complex system sciences, including selected aspects of theoretical modeling in biology and the social sciences. Generally speaking, the goals of statistical physics may be summarized as follows: on the one hand to study systems composed of a large number of interacting units, and on the other to predict the macroscopic, collective behavior of the system considered from the perspective of the microscopic laws governing the dynamics of the individual entities. These two goals are essentially also shared by what is now called 'complex systems science', and as such, systems studied in the framework of statistical physics may be considered to be among the simplest examples of complex systems – while also offering a rather well developed mathematical treatment. The second ...

  6. Heuristic versus statistical physics approach to optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedrzejek, C.; Cieplinski, L.

    1995-01-01

    Optimization is a crucial ingredient of many calculation schemes in science and engineering. In this paper we assess several classes of methods: heuristic algorithms, methods directly relying on statistical physics such as the mean-field method and simulated annealing; and Hopfield-type neural networks and genetic algorithms partly related to statistical physics. We perform the analysis for three types of problems: (1) the Travelling Salesman Problem, (2) vector quantization, and (3) traffic control problem in multistage interconnection network. In general, heuristic algorithms perform better (except for genetic algorithms) and much faster but have to be specific for every problem. The key to improving the performance could be to include heuristic features into general purpose statistical physics methods. (author)

  7. A statistical physics perspective on criticality in financial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bury, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Stock markets are complex systems exhibiting collective phenomena and particular features such as synchronization, fluctuations distributed as power-laws, non-random structures and similarity to neural networks. Such specific properties suggest that markets operate at a very special point. Financial markets are believed to be critical by analogy to physical systems, but little statistically founded evidence has been given. Through a data-based methodology and comparison to simulations inspired by the statistical physics of complex systems, we show that the Dow Jones and index sets are not rigorously critical. However, financial systems are closer to criticality in the crash neighborhood. (paper)

  8. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2014-07-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

  9. Non-equilibrium statistical physics with application to disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cáceres, Manuel Osvaldo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is the result of the enhancement of several courses on non-equilibrium statistics, stochastic processes, stochastic differential equations, anomalous diffusion and disorder. The target audience includes students of physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and engineering at undergraduate and graduate level with a grasp of the basic elements of mathematics and physics of the fourth year of a typical undergraduate course. The little-known physical and mathematical concepts are described in sections and specific exercises throughout the text, as well as in appendices. Physical-mathematical motivation is the main driving force for the development of this text. It presents the academic topics of probability theory and stochastic processes as well as new educational aspects in the presentation of non-equilibrium statistical theory and stochastic differential equations.. In particular it discusses the problem of irreversibility in that context and the dynamics of Fokker-Planck. An introduction on fluc...

  10. Statistical physics of hard combinatorial optimization: Vertex cover problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Typical-case computation complexity is a research topic at the boundary of computer science, applied mathematics, and statistical physics. In the last twenty years, the replica-symmetry-breaking mean field theory of spin glasses and the associated message-passing algorithms have greatly deepened our understanding of typical-case computation complexity. In this paper, we use the vertex cover problem, a basic nondeterministic-polynomial (NP)-complete combinatorial optimization problem of wide application, as an example to introduce the statistical physical methods and algorithms. We do not go into the technical details but emphasize mainly the intuitive physical meanings of the message-passing equations. A nonfamiliar reader shall be able to understand to a large extent the physics behind the mean field approaches and to adjust the mean field methods in solving other optimization problems.

  11. "Statistical Techniques for Particle Physics" (2/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    This series will consist of four 1-hour lectures on statistics for particle physics. The goal will be to build up to techniques meant for dealing with problems of realistic complexity while maintaining a formal approach. I will also try to incorporate usage of common tools like ROOT, RooFit, and the newly developed RooStats framework into the lectures. The first lecture will begin with a review the basic principles of probability, some terminology, and the three main approaches towards statistical inference (Frequentist, Bayesian, and Likelihood-based). I will then outline the statistical basis for multivariate analysis techniques (the Neyman-Pearson lemma) and the motivation for machine learning algorithms. Later, I will extend simple hypothesis testing to the case in which the statistical model has one or many parameters (the Neyman Construction and the Feldman-Cousins technique). From there I will outline techniques to incorporate background uncertainties. If time allows, I will touch on the statist...

  12. "Statistical Techniques for Particle Physics" (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    This series will consist of four 1-hour lectures on statistics for particle physics. The goal will be to build up to techniques meant for dealing with problems of realistic complexity while maintaining a formal approach. I will also try to incorporate usage of common tools like ROOT, RooFit, and the newly developed RooStats framework into the lectures. The first lecture will begin with a review the basic principles of probability, some terminology, and the three main approaches towards statistical inference (Frequentist, Bayesian, and Likelihood-based). I will then outline the statistical basis for multivariate analysis techniques (the Neyman-Pearson lemma) and the motivation for machine learning algorithms. Later, I will extend simple hypothesis testing to the case in which the statistical model has one or many parameters (the Neyman Construction and the Feldman-Cousins technique). From there I will outline techniques to incorporate background uncertainties. If time allows, I will touch on the statist...

  13. "Statistical Techniques for Particle Physics" (4/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    This series will consist of four 1-hour lectures on statistics for particle physics. The goal will be to build up to techniques meant for dealing with problems of realistic complexity while maintaining a formal approach. I will also try to incorporate usage of common tools like ROOT, RooFit, and the newly developed RooStats framework into the lectures. The first lecture will begin with a review the basic principles of probability, some terminology, and the three main approaches towards statistical inference (Frequentist, Bayesian, and Likelihood-based). I will then outline the statistical basis for multivariate analysis techniques (the Neyman-Pearson lemma) and the motivation for machine learning algorithms. Later, I will extend simple hypothesis testing to the case in which the statistical model has one or many parameters (the Neyman Construction and the Feldman-Cousins technique). From there I will outline techniques to incorporate background uncertainties. If time allows, I will touch on the statist...

  14. "Statistical Techniques for Particle Physics" (3/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    This series will consist of four 1-hour lectures on statistics for particle physics. The goal will be to build up to techniques meant for dealing with problems of realistic complexity while maintaining a formal approach. I will also try to incorporate usage of common tools like ROOT, RooFit, and the newly developed RooStats framework into the lectures. The first lecture will begin with a review the basic principles of probability, some terminology, and the three main approaches towards statistical inference (Frequentist, Bayesian, and Likelihood-based). I will then outline the statistical basis for multivariate analysis techniques (the Neyman-Pearson lemma) and the motivation for machine learning algorithms. Later, I will extend simple hypothesis testing to the case in which the statistical model has one or many parameters (the Neyman Construction and the Feldman-Cousins technique). From there I will outline techniques to incorporate background uncertainties. If time allows, I will touch on the statist...

  15. Applying Bayesian statistics to the study of psychological trauma: A suggestion for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M

    2016-03-01

    Several contemporary researchers have noted the virtues of Bayesian methods of data analysis. Although debates continue about whether conventional or Bayesian statistics is the "better" approach for researchers in general, there are reasons why Bayesian methods may be well suited to the study of psychological trauma in particular. This article describes how Bayesian statistics offers practical solutions to the problems of data non-normality, small sample size, and missing data common in research on psychological trauma. After a discussion of these problems and the effects they have on trauma research, this article explains the basic philosophical and statistical foundations of Bayesian statistics and how it provides solutions to these problems using an applied example. Results of the literature review and the accompanying example indicates the utility of Bayesian statistics in addressing problems common in trauma research. Bayesian statistics provides a set of methodological tools and a broader philosophical framework that is useful for trauma researchers. Methodological resources are also provided so that interested readers can learn more. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Psychological Perspectives on Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A.; Gallo, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physical health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform understanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated distress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accumulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. PMID:20636127

  17. Physical and Psychological Morbidity in Adolescents With Atypical Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Susan M; Whitelaw, Melissa; Le Grange, Daniel; Yeo, Michele; Hughes, Elizabeth K

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents with atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) have lost significant weight but are not underweight. This study aimed to describe the physical and psychological morbidity of adolescents diagnosed with atypical AN, and to compare them with underweight adolescents with AN. All first presentations of atypical AN (n = 42) and full-threshold AN (n = 118) to a specialist pediatric eating disorder program between July 2010 and June 2014 were examined. Diagnosis was assessed by using the Eating Disorder Examination and anthropometric measurement. Psychological morbidity measures included eating and weight concerns, bingeing, purging, compulsive exercise, and psychiatric comorbidity. Compared with AN, more adolescents with atypical AN were premorbidly overweight or obese (71% vs 12%). They had lost more weight (17.6 kg vs 11.0 kg) over a longer period (13.3 vs 10.2 months). There was no significant difference in the frequency of bradycardia (24% vs 33%;) or orthostatic instability (43% vs 38%). We found no evidence of a difference in frequency of psychiatric comorbidities (38% vs 45%) or suicidal ideation (43% vs 39%). Distress related to eating and body image was more severe in atypical AN. Atypical AN considerably affects physical and psychological functioning, despite adolescents presenting within or above the normal weight range. There was little evidence that the morbidity of adolescents with atypical AN was any less severe than that of adolescents with full-threshold AN. The findings support the need for vigilance around weight loss in adolescents, regardless of body size. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Statistical Physics in the Era of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dashun

    2013-01-01

    With the wealth of data provided by a wide range of high-throughout measurement tools and technologies, statistical physics of complex systems is entering a new phase, impacting in a meaningful fashion a wide range of fields, from cell biology to computer science to economics. In this dissertation, by applying tools and techniques developed in…

  19. Renormalization group in statistical physics - momentum and real spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    Two variants of the renormalization group approach in statistical physics are considered, the renormalization group in the momentum and the renormalization group in the real spaces. Common properties of these methods and their differences are cleared up. A simple model for investigating the crossover between different universality classes is suggested. 27 refs

  20. Directionality of physical and psychological dating violence among adolescents in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Kelly Barreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the physical and psychological dating violence among adolescents with respect to the profiles of directionality - only man perpetrates, only woman perpetrates, and bidirectional, ie, both perpetrate violence. METHODS: Sample was performed by two-stage cluster selection in public and private school in the city of Recife (PE, Brazil, presenting data on 355 adolescents of both sexes between 15 and 19 years old. Psychological violence was measured in dimensions threat, verbal/emotional, and relational. Statistical analyzes incorporated the sampling weight and the complex sample design. RESULTS: Violence is bidirectional in most forms studied (83.9% and girls reported higher levels of perpetration of physical violence, and boys reported more perpetration of relational violence. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that adolescent dating violence shows a pattern where partners attack each other, both physically and psychologically. Future research should study the patterns of these acts of violence, keeping the adolescent couple as the unit of analysis and exploring the context in which such violence occurs.

  1. Academic Training Lecture: Statistical Methods for Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2012-01-01

    2, 3, 4 and 5 April 2012 Academic Training Lecture  Regular Programme from 11:00 to 12:00 -  Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant Statistical Methods for Particle Physics by Glen Cowan (Royal Holloway) The series of four lectures will introduce some of the important statistical methods used in Particle Physics, and should be particularly relevant to those involved in the analysis of LHC data. The lectures will include an introduction to statistical tests, parameter estimation, and the application of these tools to searches for new phenomena.  Both frequentist and Bayesian methods will be described, with particular emphasis on treatment of systematic uncertainties.  The lectures will also cover unfolding, that is, estimation of a distribution in binned form where the variable in question is subject to measurement errors.

  2. A critical discussion of null hypothesis significance testing and statistical power analysis within psychological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Allan; Sommerlund, Bo

    2007-01-01

    The uses of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and statistical power analysis within psychological research are critically discussed. The article looks at the problems of relying solely on NHST when dealing with small and large sample sizes. The use of power-analysis in estimating...... the potential error introduced by small and large samples is advocated. Power analysis is not recommended as a replacement to NHST but as an additional source of information about the phenomena under investigation. Moreover, the importance of conceptual analysis in relation to statistical analysis of hypothesis...

  3. What Should Researchers Expect When They Replicate Studies? A Statistical View of Replicability in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasad; Peng, Roger D; Leek, Jeffrey T

    2016-07-01

    A recent study of the replicability of key psychological findings is a major contribution toward understanding the human side of the scientific process. Despite the careful and nuanced analysis reported, the simple narrative disseminated by the mass, social, and scientific media was that in only 36% of the studies were the original results replicated. In the current study, however, we showed that 77% of the replication effect sizes reported were within a 95% prediction interval calculated using the original effect size. Our analysis suggests two critical issues in understanding replication of psychological studies. First, researchers' intuitive expectations for what a replication should show do not always match with statistical estimates of replication. Second, when the results of original studies are very imprecise, they create wide prediction intervals-and a broad range of replication effects that are consistent with the original estimates. This may lead to effects that replicate successfully, in that replication results are consistent with statistical expectations, but do not provide much information about the size (or existence) of the true effect. In this light, the results of the Reproducibility Project: Psychology can be viewed as statistically consistent with what one might expect when performing a large-scale replication experiment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Statistical physics a prelude and fugue for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This book, provides a general introduction to the ideas and methods of statistical mechanics with the principal aim of meeting the needs of Master’s students in chemical, mechanical, and materials science engineering. Extensive introductory information is presented on many general physics topics in which students in engineering are inadequately trained, ranging from the Hamiltonian formulation of classical mechanics to basic quantum mechanics, electromagnetic fields in matter, intermolecular forces, and transport phenomena. Since engineers should be able to apply physical concepts, the book also focuses on the practical applications of statistical physics to material science and to cutting-edge technologies, with brief but informative sections on, for example, interfacial properties, disperse systems, nucleation, magnetic materials, superfluidity, and ultralow temperature technologies. The book adopts a graded approach to learning, the opening four basic-level chapters being followed by advanced “starred�...

  5. Statistical Methods for Particle Physics (4/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The series of four lectures will introduce some of the important statistical methods used in Particle Physics, and should be particularly relevant to those involved in the analysis of LHC data. The lectures will include an introduction to statistical tests, parameter estimation, and the application of these tools to searches for new phenomena. Both frequentist and Bayesian methods will be described, with particular emphasis on treatment of systematic uncertainties. The lectures will also cover unfolding, that is, estimation of a distribution in binned form where the variable in question is subject to measurement errors.

  6. Statistical Methods for Particle Physics (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The series of four lectures will introduce some of the important statistical methods used in Particle Physics, and should be particularly relevant to those involved in the analysis of LHC data. The lectures will include an introduction to statistical tests, parameter estimation, and the application of these tools to searches for new phenomena. Both frequentist and Bayesian methods will be described, with particular emphasis on treatment of systematic uncertainties. The lectures will also cover unfolding, that is, estimation of a distribution in binned form where the variable in question is subject to measurement errors.

  7. Statistical Methods for Particle Physics (2/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The series of four lectures will introduce some of the important statistical methods used in Particle Physics, and should be particularly relevant to those involved in the analysis of LHC data. The lectures will include an introduction to statistical tests, parameter estimation, and the application of these tools to searches for new phenomena. Both frequentist and Bayesian methods will be described, with particular emphasis on treatment of systematic uncertainties. The lectures will also cover unfolding, that is, estimation of a distribution in binned form where the variable in question is subject to measurement errors.

  8. Statistical Methods for Particle Physics (3/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The series of four lectures will introduce some of the important statistical methods used in Particle Physics, and should be particularly relevant to those involved in the analysis of LHC data. The lectures will include an introduction to statistical tests, parameter estimation, and the application of these tools to searches for new phenomena. Both frequentist and Bayesian methods will be described, with particular emphasis on treatment of systematic uncertainties. The lectures will also cover unfolding, that is, estimation of a distribution in binned form where the variable in question is subject to measurement errors.

  9. Monte Carlo Simulation in Statistical Physics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo Simulation in Statistical Physics deals with the computer simulation of many-body systems in condensed-matter physics and related fields of physics, chemistry and beyond, to traffic flows, stock market fluctuations, etc.). Using random numbers generated by a computer, probability distributions are calculated, allowing the estimation of the thermodynamic properties of various systems. This book describes the theoretical background to several variants of these Monte Carlo methods and gives a systematic presentation from which newcomers can learn to perform such simulations and to analyze their results. The fifth edition covers Classical as well as Quantum Monte Carlo methods. Furthermore a new chapter on the sampling of free-energy landscapes has been added. To help students in their work a special web server has been installed to host programs and discussion groups (http://wwwcp.tphys.uni-heidelberg.de). Prof. Binder was awarded the Berni J. Alder CECAM Award for Computational Physics 2001 as well ...

  10. Thermodynamics, Gibbs Method and Statistical Physics of Electron Gases Gibbs Method and Statistical Physics of Electron Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Askerov, Bahram M

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical thermodynamics and the statistical physics of electron and particle gases. While treating the laws of thermodynamics from both classical and quantum theoretical viewpoints, it posits that the basis of the statistical theory of macroscopic properties of a system is the microcanonical distribution of isolated systems, from which all canonical distributions stem. To calculate the free energy, the Gibbs method is applied to ideal and non-ideal gases, and also to a crystalline solid. Considerable attention is paid to the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein quantum statistics and its application to different quantum gases, and electron gas in both metals and semiconductors is considered in a nonequilibrium state. A separate chapter treats the statistical theory of thermodynamic properties of an electron gas in a quantizing magnetic field.

  11. On Dobrushin's way from probability theory to statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Minlos, R A; Suhov, Yu M; Suhov, Yu

    2000-01-01

    R. Dobrushin worked in several branches of mathematics (probability theory, information theory), but his deepest influence was on mathematical physics. He was one of the founders of the rigorous study of statistical physics. When Dobrushin began working in that direction in the early sixties, only a few people worldwide were thinking along the same lines. Now there is an army of researchers in the field. This collection is devoted to the memory of R. L. Dobrushin. The authors who contributed to this collection knew him quite well and were his colleagues. The title, "On Dobrushin's Way", is mea

  12. Foundations of Complex Systems Nonlinear Dynamics, Statistical Physics, and Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, Gregoire

    2007-01-01

    Complexity is emerging as a post-Newtonian paradigm for approaching a large body of phenomena of concern at the crossroads of physical, engineering, environmental, life and human sciences from a unifying point of view. This book outlines the foundations of modern complexity research as it arose from the cross-fertilization of ideas and tools from nonlinear science, statistical physics and numerical simulation. It is shown how these developments lead to an understanding, both qualitative and quantitative, of the complex systems encountered in nature and in everyday experience and, conversely, h

  13. [Effect sizes, statistical power and sample sizes in "the Japanese Journal of Psychology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzukawa, Yumi; Toyoda, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    This study analyzed the statistical power of research studies published in the "Japanese Journal of Psychology" in 2008 and 2009. Sample effect sizes and sample statistical powers were calculated for each statistical test and analyzed with respect to the analytical methods and the fields of the studies. The results show that in the fields like perception, cognition or learning, the effect sizes were relatively large, although the sample sizes were small. At the same time, because of the small sample sizes, some meaningful effects could not be detected. In the other fields, because of the large sample sizes, meaningless effects could be detected. This implies that researchers who could not get large enough effect sizes would use larger samples to obtain significant results.

  14. Studying the Physical and Psychological Symptoms of Patients With Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memnun Seven

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives; Aim of the descriptive study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of physical and psychological symptoms so as to determine palliative care needs of cancer patients. Methods; Total 142 patients who were treated in oncology clinic at an university hospital were enrolled in the cross sectional research. “Descriptive Information Questionnaire” was developed by the authors and the adapted “Beck Depression Inventory (BAI” and “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BDI”, “Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS” to evaluate psychological and physical symptoms were used to collect data. Results; The mean age was 49,35±36,61 years and 54.9% of them were out-patients. %16.2 of the patients were diagnosed with colon and 13.4% breast cancer. The mean BDI score was 8.59±6.36, and 88.7% the patients have depressive symptoms. The mean BAI score was 11.39±7.53. The three most frequent problems were fatigue (87.3%, breathlessness (76.1%, and insomnia (67.6%. The mean of the highest-ranking problems were anorexia (6.02+2.77, fatigue (5.33+2.09 and insomnia (0.04+2.42. Conclusion: The study shows that some symptoms might be experienced by majority of the cancer patients as well as some symptoms might be felt more severe by fewer patients. Therefore, It should be assessed that both the frequency and severity of symptoms that patients experienced associated with cancer and its’ treatment individually and focusing on primary care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 219-224

  15. Psychological and physical distress of cancer patients during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, A.

    2001-05-01

    Purpose: patients undergoing radiotherapy have physical and psychological symptoms related to the underlying disease and the treatment. In order to give the best possible support to the patients, more knowledge about the amount and the changing of distress in the course of radiotherapy is of essentially importance. Methods: The distress was measured in a consecutive sample of cancer patients (n=82) undergoing radiotherapy. Each patient was given the EORTC-QLQ-C30, the HADS and a special questionnaire which ascertain radiotherapy-specific items before starting the radiotherapy, at the onset of radiotherapy, in the third week of radiotherapy and 3 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. Results: within the first week of treatment the psychological distress of the patients is increasing; 98.8 % of the patients are 'moderate distressed', 46 % 'severe distressed'. General physical symptoms seem not to be affected by the radiotherapy, there is no changing. The distress caused by the organization of the radiotherapy is decreasing, while therapy-related symptoms are increasing in the course of radiotherapy. Even after the end of the therapy these symptoms keep on causing distress, sometimes in a higher amount than before. A correlation between sex, sort of cancer and curative or palliative treatment and the amount of distress was found. Conclusion: the results stress the importance of adequate emotional support for patients undergoing radiotherapy especially in the first week of treatment and after the treatment. There is a need for the development of a valid radiotherapy - questionnaire in order to be able to measure the distress of these patients. (author)

  16. Statistical physics and computational methods for evolutionary game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to Evolutionary Game Theory (EGT) which is an emerging field in the area of complex systems attracting the attention of researchers from disparate scientific communities. EGT allows one to represent and study several complex phenomena, such as the emergence of cooperation in social systems, the role of conformity in shaping the equilibrium of a population, and the dynamics in biological and ecological systems. Since EGT models belong to the area of complex systems, statistical physics constitutes a fundamental ingredient for investigating their behavior. At the same time, the complexity of some EGT models, such as those realized by means of agent-based methods, often require the implementation of numerical simulations. Therefore, beyond providing an introduction to EGT, this book gives a brief overview of the main statistical physics tools (such as phase transitions and the Ising model) and computational strategies for simulating evolutionary games (such as Monte Carlo algor...

  17. STATISTICAL CHALLENGES FOR SEARCHES FOR NEW PHYSICS AT THE LHC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CRANMER, K.

    2005-09-12

    Because the emphasis of the LHC is on 5{sigma} discoveries and the LHC environment induces high systematic errors, many of the common statistical procedures used in High Energy Physics are not adequate. I review the basic ingredients of LHC searches, the sources of systematics, and the performance of several methods. Finally, I indicate the methods that seem most promising for the LHC and areas that are in need of further study.

  18. Representative volume size: A comparison of statistical continuum mechanics and statistical physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AIDUN,JOHN B.; TRUCANO,TIMOTHY G.; LO,CHI S.; FYE,RICHARD M.

    1999-05-01

    In this combination background and position paper, the authors argue that careful work is needed to develop accurate methods for relating the results of fine-scale numerical simulations of material processes to meaningful values of macroscopic properties for use in constitutive models suitable for finite element solid mechanics simulations. To provide a definite context for this discussion, the problem is couched in terms of the lack of general objective criteria for identifying the size of the representative volume (RV) of a material. The objective of this report is to lay out at least the beginnings of an approach for applying results and methods from statistical physics to develop concepts and tools necessary for determining the RV size, as well as alternatives to RV volume-averaging for situations in which the RV is unmanageably large. The background necessary to understand the pertinent issues and statistical physics concepts is presented.

  19. Physical, Psychological and Emotional Benefits of Green Physical Activity: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiao-Pu; Stone, Joseph Antony; Churchill, Sarah May; Wheat, Jonathan Stephen; Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence supports the multiple benefits to physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of green physical activity, a topic of increasing interest in the past decade. Research has revealed a synergistic benefit of green physical activity, which includes all aspects of exercise and physical activity in the presence of nature. Our theoretical analysis suggests there are three distinct levels of engagement in green physical activity, with each level reported to have a positive effect on human behaviours. However, the extent to which each level of green physical activity benefits health and wellbeing is assumed to differ, requiring confirmation in future research. This elucidation of understanding is needed because previous literature has tended to focus on recording empirical evidence rather than developing a sound theoretical framework to understand green physical activity effects. Here we propose an ecological dynamics rationale to explain how and why green physical activity might influence health and wellbeing of different population groups. This framework suggests a number of unexplored, interacting constraints related to types of environment and population groups, which shape reported levels of benefit of green physical activity. Further analysis is needed to clarify the explicit relationship between green physical activity and health and wellbeing, including levels of engagement, types of environmental constraints, levels of physical activity, adventure effects, skill effects and sampling of different populations.

  20. A statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory: Total statistical mechanical interpretation based on physical argument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadaki, Kohtaro

    2010-01-01

    The statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory (AIT, for short) was introduced and developed by our former works [K. Tadaki, Local Proceedings of CiE 2008, pp. 425-434, 2008] and [K. Tadaki, Proceedings of LFCS'09, Springer's LNCS, vol. 5407, pp. 422-440, 2009], where we introduced the notion of thermodynamic quantities, such as partition function Z(T), free energy F(T), energy E(T), statistical mechanical entropy S(T), and specific heat C(T), into AIT. We then discovered that, in the interpretation, the temperature T equals to the partial randomness of the values of all these thermodynamic quantities, where the notion of partial randomness is a stronger representation of the compression rate by means of program-size complexity. Furthermore, we showed that this situation holds for the temperature T itself, which is one of the most typical thermodynamic quantities. Namely, we showed that, for each of the thermodynamic quantities Z(T), F(T), E(T), and S(T) above, the computability of its value at temperature T gives a sufficient condition for T is an element of (0,1) to satisfy the condition that the partial randomness of T equals to T. In this paper, based on a physical argument on the same level of mathematical strictness as normal statistical mechanics in physics, we develop a total statistical mechanical interpretation of AIT which actualizes a perfect correspondence to normal statistical mechanics. We do this by identifying a microcanonical ensemble in the framework of AIT. As a result, we clarify the statistical mechanical meaning of the thermodynamic quantities of AIT.

  1. Advanced statistics to improve the physical interpretation of atomization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panão, Miguel R.O.; Radu, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Finite pdf mixtures improves physical interpretation of sprays. ► Bayesian approach using MCMC algorithm is used to find the best finite mixture. ► Statistical method identifies multiple droplet clusters in a spray. ► Multiple drop clusters eventually associated with multiple atomization mechanisms. ► Spray described by drop size distribution and not only its moments. -- Abstract: This paper reports an analysis of the physics of atomization processes using advanced statistical tools. Namely, finite mixtures of probability density functions, which best fitting is found using a Bayesian approach based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. This approach takes into account eventual multimodality and heterogeneities in drop size distributions. Therefore, it provides information about the complete probability density function of multimodal drop size distributions and allows the identification of subgroups in the heterogeneous data. This allows improving the physical interpretation of atomization processes. Moreover, it also overcomes the limitations induced by analyzing the spray droplets characteristics through moments alone, particularly, the hindering of different natures of droplet formation. Finally, the method is applied to physically interpret a case-study based on multijet atomization processes

  2. Place of physical training in the task psychological training of servicemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gysak O.D.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article exposed the use of forms of physical training for the formation of psychological readiness to act in military training and battlefield. Analysis of pedagogical, psychological and special literature, the analysis features of professional military airborne troops, and suggested areas of application of lessons on overcoming obstacles to the formation of the psychological readiness of military personnel.

  3. Statistical physics of networks, information and complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this project we explore the mathematical methods and concepts of statistical physics that are fmding abundant applications across the scientific and technological spectrum from soft condensed matter systems and bio-infonnatics to economic and social systems. Our approach exploits the considerable similarity of concepts between statistical physics and computer science, allowing for a powerful multi-disciplinary approach that draws its strength from cross-fertilization and mUltiple interactions of researchers with different backgrounds. The work on this project takes advantage of the newly appreciated connection between computer science and statistics and addresses important problems in data storage, decoding, optimization, the infonnation processing properties of the brain, the interface between quantum and classical infonnation science, the verification of large software programs, modeling of complex systems including disease epidemiology, resource distribution issues, and the nature of highly fluctuating complex systems. Common themes that the project has been emphasizing are (i) neural computation, (ii) network theory and its applications, and (iii) a statistical physics approach to infonnation theory. The project's efforts focus on the general problem of optimization and variational techniques, algorithm development and infonnation theoretic approaches to quantum systems. These efforts are responsible for fruitful collaborations and the nucleation of science efforts that span multiple divisions such as EES, CCS, 0 , T, ISR and P. This project supports the DOE mission in Energy Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation by developing novel infonnation science tools for communication, sensing, and interacting complex networks such as the internet or energy distribution system. The work also supports programs in Threat Reduction and Homeland Security.

  4. The impact of anticipated stigma on psychological and physical health problems in the unemployed group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling T. O'Donnell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the unemployed suffer increased psychological and physical health problems compared to their employed counterparts. Further, unemployment leads to an unwanted new social identity that is stigmatizing, and stigma is known to be a stressor causing psychological and physical health problems. However, it is not yet known whether being stigmatized as an unemployed group member is associated with psychological and physical health in this group. The current study tested the impact of anticipated stigma on psychological distress and physical health problems, operationalized as somatic symptoms, in a volunteer sample of unemployed people. Results revealed that anticipated stigma had a direct effect on both psychological distress and somatic symptoms, such that greater anticipated stigma significantly predicted higher levels of both. Moreover, the direct effect on somatic symptoms became non-significant when psychological distress was taken into account. Thus, to the extent that unemployed participants anticipated experiencing greater stigma, they also reported increased psychological distress, and this psychological distress predicted increased somatic symptoms. Our findings complement and extend the existing literature on the relationships between stigmatized identities, psychological distress and physical health problems, particularly in relation to the unemployed group. This group is important to consider both theoretically, given the unwanted and transient nature of the identity compared to other stigmatized identities, but also practically, as the findings indicate a need to orient to the perceived valence of the unemployed identity and its effects on psychological and physical health.

  5. Age group analysis of psychological, physical and functional deterioration in patients hospitalized for pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Salvador, Adelina; Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Sáez-Roca, Germán; López-Torres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-10-01

    Hospital admissions due to pneumonia range from 1.1 to 4 per 1,000 patients and this figure increases with age. Hospitalization causes a decline in functional status. Physical impairment impedes recovery and constitutes a higher risk of disability and mortality in elderly people. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of hospital stay in patients with pneumonia related with age. A total of 116 patients with pneumonia were included in this study, and divided into two age groups:psychological and emotional profile were evaluated. Pneumonia severity, nutritional status, independence and comorbidities were also assessed. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences between both age groups in pneumonia severity and comorbidities. Significant improvements between admission and discharge were found in lung function in both groups (pgroup. Hospitalization leads to a significant physical impairment in patients admitted for pneumonia. This deterioration increases with age. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Literature in Focus: Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Frederick James was a high-energy physicist who became the CERN "expert" on statistics and is now well-known around the world, in part for this famous text. The first edition of Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics was originally co-written with four other authors and was published in 1971 by North Holland (now an imprint of Elsevier). It became such an important text that demand for it has continued for more than 30 years. Fred has updated it and it was released in a second edition by World Scientific in 2006. It is still a top seller and there is no exaggeration in calling it «the» reference on the subject. A full review of the title appeared in the October CERN Courier.Come and meet the author to hear more about how this book has flourished during its 35-year lifetime. Frederick James Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics Monday, 26th of November, 4 p.m. Council Chamber (Bldg. 503-1-001) The author will be introduced...

  7. Intuitive psychology and physics among children with autism and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Lynne; Williams, Joanne

    2003-06-01

    Many studies have documented poor understanding of intuitive psychology among children with autism; however, few have investigated claims of superior understanding of intuitive physics said to be evident in this group. This study aimed to investigate the reported differential preference of intuitive psychology and intuitive physics among children with autism by employing three tasks each with a psychological and a physical condition. In order to gain a detailed developmental picture the study compared children with autism, an age matched comparison group, and typically developing preschoolers, 7-year-olds and 10-year-olds. Results demonstrated that children with autism preferred to employ physical causality when reasoning about novel physical and psychological events. Furthermore, their performance on a multiple-choice task confirmed their impairment in intuitive psychology whilst highlighting a superior ability to reason about physical phenomena in relation to all other comparison groups. The theoretical implications of this potential cognitive strength are discussed.

  8. Statistical methods for data analysis in particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lista, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This concise set of course-based notes provides the reader with the main concepts and tools needed to perform statistical analyses of experimental data, in particular in the field of high-energy physics (HEP). First, the book provides an introduction to probability theory and basic statistics, mainly intended as a refresher from readers’ advanced undergraduate studies, but also to help them clearly distinguish between the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches and interpretations in subsequent applications. More advanced concepts and applications are gradually introduced, culminating in the chapter on both discoveries and upper limits, as many applications in HEP concern hypothesis testing, where the main goal is often to provide better and better limits so as to eventually be able to distinguish between competing hypotheses, or to rule out some of them altogether. Many worked-out examples will help newcomers to the field and graduate students alike understand the pitfalls involved in applying theoretical co...

  9. Inverse statistical physics of protein sequences: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Simona; Feinauer, Christoph; Figliuzzi, Matteo; Monasson, Rémi; Weigt, Martin

    2018-03-01

    In the course of evolution, proteins undergo important changes in their amino acid sequences, while their three-dimensional folded structure and their biological function remain remarkably conserved. Thanks to modern sequencing techniques, sequence data accumulate at unprecedented pace. This provides large sets of so-called homologous, i.e. evolutionarily related protein sequences, to which methods of inverse statistical physics can be applied. Using sequence data as the basis for the inference of Boltzmann distributions from samples of microscopic configurations or observables, it is possible to extract information about evolutionary constraints and thus protein function and structure. Here we give an overview over some biologically important questions, and how statistical-mechanics inspired modeling approaches can help to answer them. Finally, we discuss some open questions, which we expect to be addressed over the next years.

  10. Statistical methods for data analysis in particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070643

    2015-01-01

    This concise set of course-based notes provides the reader with the main concepts and tools to perform statistical analysis of experimental data, in particular in the field of high-energy physics (HEP). First, an introduction to probability theory and basic statistics is given, mainly as reminder from advanced undergraduate studies, yet also in view to clearly distinguish the Frequentist versus Bayesian approaches and interpretations in subsequent applications. More advanced concepts and applications are gradually introduced, culminating in the chapter on upper limits as many applications in HEP concern hypothesis testing, where often the main goal is to provide better and better limits so as to be able to distinguish eventually between competing hypotheses or to rule out some of them altogether. Many worked examples will help newcomers to the field and graduate students to understand the pitfalls in applying theoretical concepts to actual data

  11. [The physical and psychological rehabilitation of women who have had a myocardial infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronov, D M; Karadzhaeva, O A

    1992-01-01

    The study was performed of the effect of bicycle exercise and occupational therapy (embroidery, knitting, sewing, drawing, etc.) on physical and psychological status of postmyocardial infarction females at the in-hospital stage of rehabilitation. It was found that occupational therapy improved the psychological status and life quality, whereas low-intensity physical training increased performance status in relevant women.

  12. What are the effects of psychological stress and physical work on blood lipid profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2017-05-01

    Blood lipids disorders are prevalent in the world. Some of their risk factors are modifiable such as mental and physical stress which existed in some places such as work environment.Objective of this study was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on the lipid profiles. It was a historical cohort study. The people who were employed as general worker were participated. The study was conducted with flexible interview for getting history, lipid profile examination, and a checklist including occupational and nonoccupational risk factors and using the health issues. According to the type of stress exposures, the study population was divided into 5 groups. Groups were followed for lipid profiles. These groups were exposed to psychological stress, physical stress or both of them; mild psychological stress (group 1), mild physical work without psychological stress (group 2), mild psychological stress and mild physical work (group 3), moderate physical work without psychological stress (group 4), and heavy physical work without psychological stress (group 5). Data were analyzed with SPSS 16. ANOVA, χ, and exact test were calculated with considering P less than 45 mg/dL was 14.61 (8.31-25.68) in group 1 and 16.00 (8.30-30.83) in group 3. After multinomial logistic regression they had significant differences. Psychological stress was a risk factor for lipid disorders, and suitable physical activity was protective in this situation.

  13. Topics in statistical data analysis for high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, G.

    2011-01-01

    These lectures concert two topics that are becoming increasingly important in the analysis of high-energy physics data: Bayesian statistics and multivariate methods. In the Bayesian approach, we extend the interpretation of probability not only to cover the frequency of repeatable outcomes but also to include a degree of belief. In this way we are able to associate probability with a hypothesis and thus to answer directly questions that cannot be addressed easily with traditional frequentist methods. In multivariate analysis, we try to exploit as much information as possible from the characteristics that we measure for each event to distinguish between event types. In particular we will look at a method that has gained popularity in high-energy physics in recent years: the boosted decision tree. Finally, we give a brief sketch of how multivariate methods may be applied in a search for a new signal process. (author)

  14. Introduction to statistical physics and to computer simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Casquilho, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous and comprehensive, this textbook introduces undergraduate students to simulation methods in statistical physics. The book covers a number of topics, including the thermodynamics of magnetic and electric systems; the quantum-mechanical basis of magnetism; ferrimagnetism, antiferromagnetism, spin waves and magnons; liquid crystals as a non-ideal system of technological relevance; and diffusion in an external potential. It also covers hot topics such as cosmic microwave background, magnetic cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation. The book provides an elementary introduction to simulation methods through algorithms in pseudocode for random walks, the 2D Ising model, and a model liquid crystal. Any formalism is kept simple and derivations are worked out in detail to ensure the material is accessible to students from subjects other than physics.

  15. Implementation of statistical analysis methods for medical physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Marilia S.; Pinto, Nivia G.P.; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of biomedical research with different radiation natures is to contribute for the understanding of the basic physics and biochemistry of the biological systems, the disease diagnostic and the development of the therapeutic techniques. The main benefits are: the cure of tumors through the therapy, the anticipated detection of diseases through the diagnostic, the using as prophylactic mean for blood transfusion, etc. Therefore, for the better understanding of the biological interactions occurring after exposure to radiation, it is necessary for the optimization of therapeutic procedures and strategies for reduction of radioinduced effects. The group pf applied physics of the Physics Institute of UERJ have been working in the characterization of biological samples (human tissues, teeth, saliva, soil, plants, sediments, air, water, organic matrixes, ceramics, fossil material, among others) using X-rays diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The application of these techniques for measurement, analysis and interpretation of the biological tissues characteristics are experimenting considerable interest in the Medical and Environmental Physics. All quantitative data analysis must be initiated with descriptive statistic calculation (means and standard deviations) in order to obtain a previous notion on what the analysis will reveal. It is well known que o high values of standard deviation found in experimental measurements of biologicals samples can be attributed to biological factors, due to the specific characteristics of each individual (age, gender, environment, alimentary habits, etc). This work has the main objective the development of a program for the use of specific statistic methods for the optimization of experimental data an analysis. The specialized programs for this analysis are proprietary, another objective of this work is the implementation of a code which is free and can be shared by the other research groups. As the program developed since the

  16. Relationship satisfaction and interpartner agreement about acts of physical and psychological aggression: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, José Luis; Cuenca, María Luisa; Redondo, Natalia

    2017-08-15

    To analyze, in a multilevel context, the impact of individual-level relationship satisfaction on couples' mean reports of aggression and agreement about acts of physical and psychological aggression. We conducted a quota sampling method to recruit a community sample of 2.988 heterosexual adult couples from the Region of Madrid (Spain). The percentages of intimate partner aggression considering the highest report of aggression in the couple were around 60% of psychological aggression and 15% of physical aggression. Couples that used aggressive tactics showed low to moderate levels of agreement about physical and psychological aggression. Multilevel models confirm that women's relationship satisfaction had a significant influence on the level of agreement about acts of psychological aggression, but the same pattern of results was not observed for men. On the other hand, men and women's relationship satisfaction had no significant influence on the level of agreement about physical aggression. Psychological aggression plays a more relevant role in women's relationship satisfaction than physical aggression.

  17. Lactation and Reactivity to Physical and Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, C

    1997-01-01

    .... Findings to date include lack of changes in attention and memory functions during pregnancy and lactation, lack of difference in hormonal and anxiety responses to psychological stress, enhanced...

  18. A New Approach to Monte Carlo Simulations in Statistical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, David P.

    2002-08-01

    Monte Carlo simulations [1] have become a powerful tool for the study of diverse problems in statistical/condensed matter physics. Standard methods sample the probability distribution for the states of the system, most often in the canonical ensemble, and over the past several decades enormous improvements have been made in performance. Nonetheless, difficulties arise near phase transitions-due to critical slowing down near 2nd order transitions and to metastability near 1st order transitions, and these complications limit the applicability of the method. We shall describe a new Monte Carlo approach [2] that uses a random walk in energy space to determine the density of states directly. Once the density of states is known, all thermodynamic properties can be calculated. This approach can be extended to multi-dimensional parameter spaces and should be effective for systems with complex energy landscapes, e.g., spin glasses, protein folding models, etc. Generalizations should produce a broadly applicable optimization tool. 1. A Guide to Monte Carlo Simulations in Statistical Physics, D. P. Landau and K. Binder (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2000). 2. Fugao Wang and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2050 (2001); Phys. Rev. E64, 056101-1 (2001).

  19. Statistical physics approach to earthquake occurrence and forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Godano, Cataldo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy); Grasso, Jean Robert [ISTerre, IRD-CNRS-OSUG, University of Grenoble, Saint Martin d’Héres (France); Lippiello, Eugenio, E-mail: eugenio.lippiello@unina2.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy)

    2016-04-25

    There is striking evidence that the dynamics of the Earth crust is controlled by a wide variety of mutually dependent mechanisms acting at different spatial and temporal scales. The interplay of these mechanisms produces instabilities in the stress field, leading to abrupt energy releases, i.e., earthquakes. As a consequence, the evolution towards instability before a single event is very difficult to monitor. On the other hand, collective behavior in stress transfer and relaxation within the Earth crust leads to emergent properties described by stable phenomenological laws for a population of many earthquakes in size, time and space domains. This observation has stimulated a statistical mechanics approach to earthquake occurrence, applying ideas and methods as scaling laws, universality, fractal dimension, renormalization group, to characterize the physics of earthquakes. In this review we first present a description of the phenomenological laws of earthquake occurrence which represent the frame of reference for a variety of statistical mechanical models, ranging from the spring-block to more complex fault models. Next, we discuss the problem of seismic forecasting in the general framework of stochastic processes, where seismic occurrence can be described as a branching process implementing space–time-energy correlations between earthquakes. In this context we show how correlations originate from dynamical scaling relations between time and energy, able to account for universality and provide a unifying description for the phenomenological power laws. Then we discuss how branching models can be implemented to forecast the temporal evolution of the earthquake occurrence probability and allow to discriminate among different physical mechanisms responsible for earthquake triggering. In particular, the forecasting problem will be presented in a rigorous mathematical framework, discussing the relevance of the processes acting at different temporal scales for

  20. New Directions in Statistical Physics: Econophysics, Bioinformatics, and Pattern Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassberger, P

    2004-01-01

    This book contains 18 contributions from different authors. Its subtitle 'Econophysics, Bioinformatics, and Pattern Recognition' says more precisely what it is about: not so much about central problems of conventional statistical physics like equilibrium phase transitions and critical phenomena, but about its interdisciplinary applications. After a long period of specialization, physicists have, over the last few decades, found more and more satisfaction in breaking out of the limitations set by the traditional classification of sciences. Indeed, this classification had never been strict, and physicists in particular had always ventured into other fields. Helmholtz, in the middle of the 19th century, had considered himself a physicist when working on physiology, stressing that the physics of animate nature is as much a legitimate field of activity as the physics of inanimate nature. Later, Max Delbrueck and Francis Crick did for experimental biology what Schroedinger did for its theoretical foundation. And many of the experimental techniques used in chemistry, biology, and medicine were developed by a steady stream of talented physicists who left their proper discipline to venture out into the wider world of science. The development we have witnessed over the last thirty years or so is different. It started with neural networks where methods could be applied which had been developed for spin glasses, but todays list includes vehicular traffic (driven lattice gases), geology (self-organized criticality), economy (fractal stochastic processes and large scale simulations), engineering (dynamical chaos), and many others. By staying in the physics departments, these activities have transformed the physics curriculum and the view physicists have of themselves. In many departments there are now courses on econophysics or on biological physics, and some universities offer degrees in the physics of traffic or in econophysics. In order to document this change of attitude

  1. A Blended Learning Experience in Statistics for Psychology Students Using the Evaluation as a Learning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto VALENTÍN CENTENO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching statistics course Applied Psychology, was based on different teaching models that incorporate active teaching methodologies. In this experience have combined approaches that prioritize the use of ICT with other where evaluation becomes an element of learning. This has involved the use of virtual platforms to support teaching that facilitate learning and activities where no face-to-face are combined. The design of the components of the course is inspired by the dimensions proposed by Carless (2003 model. This model uses evaluation as a learning element. The development of this experience has shown how the didactic proposal has been positively interpreted by students. Students recognized that they had to learn and deeply understand the basic concepts of the subject, so that they can teach and assess their peers.

  2. GPU-computing in econophysics and statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, T.

    2011-03-01

    A recent trend in computer science and related fields is general purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPUs), which can yield impressive performance. With multiple cores connected by high memory bandwidth, today's GPUs offer resources for non-graphics parallel processing. This article provides a brief introduction into the field of GPU computing and includes examples. In particular computationally expensive analyses employed in financial market context are coded on a graphics card architecture which leads to a significant reduction of computing time. In order to demonstrate the wide range of possible applications, a standard model in statistical physics - the Ising model - is ported to a graphics card architecture as well, resulting in large speedup values.

  3. Graphene growth process modeling: a physical-statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Huang, Qiang

    2014-09-01

    As a zero-band semiconductor, graphene is an attractive material for a wide variety of applications such as optoelectronics. Among various techniques developed for graphene synthesis, chemical vapor deposition on copper foils shows high potential for producing few-layer and large-area graphene. Since fabrication of high-quality graphene sheets requires the understanding of growth mechanisms, and methods of characterization and control of grain size of graphene flakes, analytical modeling of graphene growth process is therefore essential for controlled fabrication. The graphene growth process starts with randomly nucleated islands that gradually develop into complex shapes, grow in size, and eventually connect together to cover the copper foil. To model this complex process, we develop a physical-statistical approach under the assumption of self-similarity during graphene growth. The growth kinetics is uncovered by separating island shapes from area growth rate. We propose to characterize the area growth velocity using a confined exponential model, which not only has clear physical explanation, but also fits the real data well. For the shape modeling, we develop a parametric shape model which can be well explained by the angular-dependent growth rate. This work can provide useful information for the control and optimization of graphene growth process on Cu foil.

  4. Stochastic Spatial Models in Ecology: A Statistical Physics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Cencini, Massimo; Molina, Daniel; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2017-11-01

    Ecosystems display a complex spatial organization. Ecologists have long tried to characterize them by looking at how different measures of biodiversity change across spatial scales. Ecological neutral theory has provided simple predictions accounting for general empirical patterns in communities of competing species. However, while neutral theory in well-mixed ecosystems is mathematically well understood, spatial models still present several open problems, limiting the quantitative understanding of spatial biodiversity. In this review, we discuss the state of the art in spatial neutral theory. We emphasize the connection between spatial ecological models and the physics of non-equilibrium phase transitions and how concepts developed in statistical physics translate in population dynamics, and vice versa. We focus on non-trivial scaling laws arising at the critical dimension D = 2 of spatial neutral models, and their relevance for biological populations inhabiting two-dimensional environments. We conclude by discussing models incorporating non-neutral effects in the form of spatial and temporal disorder, and analyze how their predictions deviate from those of purely neutral theories.

  5. Statistical classification techniques in high energy physics (SDDT algorithm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouř, Petr; Kůs, Václav; Franc, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    We present our proposal of the supervised binary divergence decision tree with nested separation method based on the generalized linear models. A key insight we provide is the clustering driven only by a few selected physical variables. The proper selection consists of the variables achieving the maximal divergence measure between two different classes. Further, we apply our method to Monte Carlo simulations of physics processes corresponding to a data sample of top quark-antiquark pair candidate events in the lepton+jets decay channel. The data sample is produced in pp̅ collisions at √S = 1.96 TeV. It corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb"-"1 recorded with the D0 detector during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The efficiency of our algorithm achieves 90% AUC in separating signal from background. We also briefly deal with the modification of statistical tests applicable to weighted data sets in order to test homogeneity of the Monte Carlo simulations and measured data. The justification of these modified tests is proposed through the divergence tests. (paper)

  6. The interaction of physical properties of seawater via statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad; Jaafar, Othman; Sabri, Samsul Rijal Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Jaafar, Khamisah; Arbin, Norazman

    2015-09-01

    It is of importance to determine the relationships between physical parameters in marine ecology. Model and expert opinion are needed for exploration of the form of relationship between two parameters due to the complexity of the ecosystems. These need justification with observed data over a particular periods. Novel statistical techniques such as nonparametric regression is presented to investigate the ecological relationships. These are achieved by demonstrating the features of pH, salinity and conductivity at in Straits of Johor. The monthly data measurements from 2004 until 2013 at a chosen sampling location are examined. Testing for no-effect followed by linearity testing for the relationships between salinity and pH; conductivity and pH, and conductivity and salinity are carried out, with the ecological objectives of investigating the evidence of changes in each of the above physical parameters. The findings reveal the appropriateness of smooth function to explain the variation of pH in response to the changes in salinity whilst the changes in conductivity with regards to different concentrations of salinity could be modelled parametrically. The analysis highlights the importance of both parametric and nonparametric models for assessing ecological response to environmental change in seawater.

  7. Application of statistical physics approaches to complex organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matia, Kaushik

    The first part of this thesis studies two different kinds of financial markets, namely, the stock market and the commodity market. Stock price fluctuations display certain scale-free statistical features that are not unlike those found in strongly-interacting physical systems. The possibility that new insights can be gained using concepts and methods developed to understand scale-free physical phenomena has stimulated considerable research activity in the physics community. In the first part of this thesis a comparative study of stocks and commodities is performed in terms of probability density function and correlations of stock price fluctuations. It is found that the probability density of the stock price fluctuation has a power law functional form with an exponent 3, which is similar across different markets around the world. We present an autoregressive model to explain the origin of the power law functional form of the probability density function of the price fluctuation. The first part also presents the discovery of unique features of the Indian economy, which we find displays a scale-dependent probability density function. In the second part of this thesis we quantify the statistical properties of fluctuations of complex systems like business firms and world scientific publications. We analyze class size of these systems mentioned above where units agglomerate to form classes. We find that the width of the probability density function of growth rate decays with the class size as a power law with an exponent beta which is universal in the sense that beta is independent of the system studied. We also identify two other scaling exponents, gamma connecting the unit size to the class size and gamma connecting the number of units to the class size, where products are units and firms are classes. Finally we propose a generalized preferential attachment model to describe the class size distribution. This model is successful in explaining the growth rate and class

  8. Applications of statistical physics to the social and economic sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis applies statistical physics concepts and methods to quantitatively analyze socioeconomic systems. For each system we combine theoretical models and empirical data analysis in order to better understand the real-world system in relation to the complex interactions between the underlying human agents. This thesis is separated into three parts: (i) response dynamics in financial markets, (ii) dynamics of career trajectories, and (iii) a stochastic opinion model with quenched disorder. In Part I we quantify the response of U.S. markets to financial shocks, which perturb markets and trigger "herding behavior" among traders. We use concepts from earthquake physics to quantify the decay of volatility shocks after the "main shock." We also find, surprisingly, that we can make quantitative statements even before the main shock. In order to analyze market behavior before as well as after "anticipated news" we use Federal Reserve interest-rate announcements, which are regular events that are also scheduled in advance. In Part II we analyze the statistical physics of career longevity. We construct a stochastic model for career progress which has two main ingredients: (a) random forward progress in the career and (b) random termination of the career. We incorporate the rich-get-richer (Matthew) effect into ingredient (a), meaning that it is easier to move forward in the career the farther along one is in the career. We verify the model predictions analyzing data on 400,000 scientific careers and 20,000 professional sports careers. Our model highlights the importance of early career development, showing that many careers are stunted by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience. In Part III we analyze a stochastic two-state spin model which represents a system of voters embedded on a network. We investigate the role in consensus formation of "zealots", which are agents with time-independent opinion. Our main result is the unexpected finding that it is the

  9. Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) impact : physical and statistical impossibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2010-08-01

    The YDB impact hypothesis of Firestone et al. (2007) is so extremely improbable it can be considered statistically impossible in addition to being physically impossible. Comets make up only about 1% of the population of Earth-crossing objects. Broken comets are a vanishingly small fraction, and only exist as Earth-sized clusters for a very short period of time. Only a small fraction of impacts occur at angles as shallow as proposed by the YDB impact authors. Events that are exceptionally unlikely to take place in the age of the Universe are 'statistically impossible'. The size distribution of Earth-crossing asteroids is well-constrained by astronomical observations, DoD satellite bolide frequencies, and the cratering record. This distribution can be transformed to a probability density function (PDF) for the largest expected impact of the past 20,000 years. The largest impact of any kind expected over the period of interest is 250 m. Anything larger than 2 km is exceptionally unlikely (probability less than 1%). The impact hypothesis does not rely on any sound physical model. A 4-km diameter comet, even if it fragmented upon entry, would not disperse or explode in the atmosphere. It would generate a crater about 50 km in diameter with a transient cavity as deep as 10 km. There is no evidence for such a large, young crater associated with the YDB. There is no model to suggest that a comet impact of this size is capable of generating continental-wide fires or blast damage, and there is no physical mechanism that could cause a 4-km comet to explode at the optimum height of 500 km. The highest possible altitude for a cometary optimum height is about 15 km, for a 120-m diameter comet. To maximize blast and thermal damage, a 4-km comet would have to break into tens of thousands fragments of this size and spread out over the entire continent, but that would require lateral forces that greatly exceed the drag force, and would not conserve energy. Airbursts are

  10. An Overlooked Factor in Sexual Abuse: Psychological and Physical Force Examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    Separate studies of sex offenders in treatment while serving prison sentences and placed on probation suggest that psychological force is more commonly used in sexual assault than physical force. Seven types of psychological force are described, and the conceptual validity of this schematic for use in treatment is evaluated. (Author/EMK)

  11. A report on psychological well-being and physical self-perception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research compared psychological well-being and physical self-perceptions of convenience samples of health club members, hockey players, runners, soccer players, surfers and a control group of non-sports persons. All sports groups perceived themselves to be significantly more psychologically well than the control ...

  12. Statistical Physics: Third Tohwa University International Conference. AIP Conference Proceedings No. 519 [ACPCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyama, M.; Stanley, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of the Tohwa University International Conference on Statistical Physics is to provide an opportunity for an international group of experimentalists, theoreticians, and computational scientists who are working on various fields of statistical physics to gather together and discuss their recent advances. The conference covered six topics: complex systems, general methods of statistical physics, biological physics, cross-disciplinary physics, information science, and econophysics

  13. Longitudinal course of physical and psychological symptoms after a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wahlström

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: After disaster, physical symptoms are common although seldom recognized due to lack of knowledge of the course of symptoms and relation to more studied psychological symptoms. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the change in the reporting of different physical symptoms after a disaster, including possible factors for change, and whether psychological symptoms predict physical symptoms reporting at a later point in time. Method: A longitudinal study of citizens of Stockholm who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A total of 1,101 participants completed questionnaires on somatic symptoms, general distress, posttraumatic stress, exposure, and demographic details 14 months and 3 years after the disaster. Physical symptoms occurring daily or weekly during the last year were investigated in four symptom indices: neurological, cardiorespiratory, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis to determine odds ratios for a change in symptoms, and pathway analysis to predict the influence of psychological symptoms on physical symptoms. Results: There was a general decrease of reporting in all physical symptom indices except the musculoskeletal symptom index. The change in the neurological symptom index showed the strongest association with exposure, and for women. General distress and posttraumatic stress at 14 months postdisaster predicted physical symptoms at 3 years. Conclusion: Physical symptoms were predicted by psychological symptoms at an earlier time point, but in a considerable proportion of respondents, physical symptoms existed independently from psychological symptoms. Physicians should be observant on the possible connection of particular pseudoneurological symptoms with prior adversities.

  14. Psychological and physical well-being of Lithuanian youth: Relation to emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Antinienė

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The study revealed that the factors such as subjective assessment of physical and mental health, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being were reliable predictors of certain EI indexes.

  15. Worldwide seismicity in view of non-extensive statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochlaki, Kaliopi; Vallianatos, Filippos; Michas, George

    2014-05-01

    In the present work we study the distribution of worldwide shallow seismic events occurred from 1981 to 2011 extracted from the CMT catalog, with magnitude equal or greater than Mw 5.0. Our analysis based on the subdivision of the Earth surface into seismic zones that are homogeneous with regards to seismic activity and orientation of the predominant stress field. To this direction we use the Flinn-Engdahl regionalization (Flinn and Engdahl, 1965), which consists of 50 seismic zones as modified by Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007), where grouped the 50 FE zones into larger tectonically homogeneous ones, utilizing the cumulative moment tensor method. As a result Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007), limit the initial 50 regions to 39 ones, in which we apply the non- extensive statistical physics approach. The non-extensive statistical physics seems to be the most adequate and promising methodological tool for analyzing complex systems, such as the Earth's interior. In this frame, we introduce the q-exponential formulation as the expression of probability distribution function that maximizes the Sq entropy as defined by Tsallis, (1988). In the present work we analyze the interevent time distribution between successive earthquakes by a q-exponential function in each of the seismic zones defined by Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007).confirming the importance of long-range interactions and the existence of a power-law approximation in the distribution of the interevent times. Our findings supports the ideas of universality within the Tsallis approach to describe Earth's seismicity and present strong evidence on temporal clustering of seismic activity in each of the tectonic zones analyzed. Our analysis as applied in worldwide seismicity with magnitude equal or greater than Mw 5.5 and 6.) is presented and the dependence of our result on the cut-off magnitude is discussed. This research has been funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the

  16. A statistical physics of stationary and metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo, A; González, A; Curilef, S; Cabo-Bizet, N G; Vera, C A

    2011-01-01

    We present a generalization of Gibbs statistical mechanics designed to describe a general class of stationary and metastable equilibrium states. It is assumed that the physical system maximizes the entropy functional S subject to the standard conditions plus an extra conserved constraint function F, imposed to force the system to remain in the metastable configuration. After requiring additivity for two quasi-independent subsystems, and the commutation of the new constraint with the density matrix ρ, it is argued that F should be a homogeneous function of ρ, at least for systems in which the spectrum is sufficiently dense to be considered as continuous. Therefore, surprisingly, the analytic form of F turns out to be of the kind F(p i ) = p i q , where the p i are the eigenvalues of the density matrix and q is a real number to be determined. Thus, the discussion identifies the physical relevance of Lagrange multiplier constraints of the Tsallis kind and their q parameter, as enforced by the additivity of the constraint F which fixes the metastable state. An approximate analytic solution for the probability density is found for q close to unity. The procedure is applied to describe the results from the plasma experiment of Huang and Driscoll. For small and medium values of the radial distance, the measured density is predicted with a precision similar to that achieved by minimal enstrophy and Tsallis procedures. Also, the particle density is predicted at all the radial positions. Thus, the discussion gives a solution to the conceptual difficulties of the two above mentioned approaches as applied to this problem, which both predict a non-analytic abrupt vanishing of the density above a critical radial distance

  17. Beyond quantum probability: another formalism shared by quantum physics and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V

    2013-06-01

    There is another meeting place for quantum physics and psychology, both within and outside of cognitive modeling. In physics it is known as the issue of classical (probabilistic) determinism, and in psychology it is known as the issue of selective influences. The formalisms independently developed in the two areas for dealing with these issues turn out to be identical, opening ways for mutually beneficial interactions.

  18. Statistical physics of medical diagnostics: Study of a probabilistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaghi, Alireza; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl

    2018-03-01

    We study a diagnostic strategy which is based on the anticipation of the diagnostic process by simulation of the dynamical process starting from the initial findings. We show that such a strategy could result in more accurate diagnoses compared to a strategy that is solely based on the direct implications of the initial observations. We demonstrate this by employing the mean-field approximation of statistical physics to compute the posterior disease probabilities for a given subset of observed signs (symptoms) in a probabilistic model of signs and diseases. A Monte Carlo optimization algorithm is then used to maximize an objective function of the sequence of observations, which favors the more decisive observations resulting in more polarized disease probabilities. We see how the observed signs change the nature of the macroscopic (Gibbs) states of the sign and disease probability distributions. The structure of these macroscopic states in the configuration space of the variables affects the quality of any approximate inference algorithm (so the diagnostic performance) which tries to estimate the sign-disease marginal probabilities. In particular, we find that the simulation (or extrapolation) of the diagnostic process is helpful when the disease landscape is not trivial and the system undergoes a phase transition to an ordered phase.

  19. Statistical physics of medical diagnostics: Study of a probabilistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaghi, Alireza; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl

    2018-03-01

    We study a diagnostic strategy which is based on the anticipation of the diagnostic process by simulation of the dynamical process starting from the initial findings. We show that such a strategy could result in more accurate diagnoses compared to a strategy that is solely based on the direct implications of the initial observations. We demonstrate this by employing the mean-field approximation of statistical physics to compute the posterior disease probabilities for a given subset of observed signs (symptoms) in a probabilistic model of signs and diseases. A Monte Carlo optimization algorithm is then used to maximize an objective function of the sequence of observations, which favors the more decisive observations resulting in more polarized disease probabilities. We see how the observed signs change the nature of the macroscopic (Gibbs) states of the sign and disease probability distributions. The structure of these macroscopic states in the configuration space of the variables affects the quality of any approximate inference algorithm (so the diagnostic performance) which tries to estimate the sign-disease marginal probabilities. In particular, we find that the simulation (or extrapolation) of the diagnostic process is helpful when the disease landscape is not trivial and the system undergoes a phase transition to an ordered phase.

  20. Statistical Physics of Neural Systems with Nonadditive Dendritic Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Breuer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How neurons process their inputs crucially determines the dynamics of biological and artificial neural networks. In such neural and neural-like systems, synaptic input is typically considered to be merely transmitted linearly or sublinearly by the dendritic compartments. Yet, single-neuron experiments report pronounced supralinear dendritic summation of sufficiently synchronous and spatially close-by inputs. Here, we provide a statistical physics approach to study the impact of such nonadditive dendritic processing on single-neuron responses and the performance of associative-memory tasks in artificial neural networks. First, we compute the effect of random input to a neuron incorporating nonlinear dendrites. This approach is independent of the details of the neuronal dynamics. Second, we use those results to study the impact of dendritic nonlinearities on the network dynamics in a paradigmatic model for associative memory, both numerically and analytically. We find that dendritic nonlinearities maintain network convergence and increase the robustness of memory performance against noise. Interestingly, an intermediate number of dendritic branches is optimal for memory functionality.

  1. Sport Psychology: Myths in Sport Education and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Joy

    2008-01-01

    From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…

  2. Physical Activity Patterns and Psychological Correlates of Physical Activity among Singaporean Primary, Secondary, and Junior College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. K. John; Koh, K. T.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Liu, W. C.; Chye, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine physical activity patterns and psychological correlates of physical activity among primary, secondary, and junior college students in Singapore. A sample of 3,333 school students aged 10 to 18 years took part in the study. Results showed that the younger students had significantly higher physical…

  3. Psychological and physical co-morbidity among urban South African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Mendenhall

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence for the links between poverty and both physical and mental health; but limited research on the relationship of physical and mental health problems exists in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and co-morbidity of psychological distress among women with common physical diseases in a socio-economically disadvantaged urban area of South Africa.Women enrolled in the Birth to twenty (Bt20 cohort study were evaluated for this paper. Bt20 was founded in 1990 and has followed more than 3,000 children and their caregivers since birth; this study evaluates the health of the caregivers (average age 44 of these children. Psychological distress was evaluated by administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and we evaluated the presence of physical disease by self-report.Forty percent of the sample presented with psychological distress using the GHQ scoring method. More than half of the women who reported a history of a physical disease, including diabetes, heart attack, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, epilepsy, and tuberculosis, reported psychological disorder. Presence of one physical disease was not associated with increased rates of psychological distress. However, women who reported two diseases had increased rates of psychological symptoms, and this upward trend continued with each additional physical disease reported (measured to five.These data indicate high prevalence rates of co-morbid psychological distress among women with physical disease. This argues for the need of greater mental health support for women living with physical diseases.

  4. Expressive writing promotes self-reported physical, social and psychological health among Chinese undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihan; Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-03-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of expressive writing among Chinese undergraduates. The sample comprised of 74 undergraduates enrolled in a 9-week intervention (35 in experimental class vs. 39 in control class). The writing exercises were well-embedded in an elective course for the two classes. The 46-item simplified Chinese Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale, which assesses psychological, physical and social health, was adopted to measure the outcome of this study. Baseline (second week) and post-test (ninth week) scores were obtained during the classes. After the intervention on the eighth week, the self-reported psychological, social and physical health of the experimental class improved. Psychological health obtained the maximum degree of improvement, followed by social and physical health. Furthermore, female participants gained more psychological improvement than males. These results demonstrated that the expressive writing approach could improve the physical, social and psychological health of Chinese undergraduates, and the method can be applied in university psychological consulting settings in Mainland China. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Rank, job stress, psychological distress and physical activity among military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Lilian Cristina X; Lopes, Claudia S

    2013-08-03

    Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); "high effort and low reward" was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = -0.198; CI 95% -0.384; -0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = -0.184; CI 95% -0.321; -0.046). The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity.

  6. Survey of editors and reviewers of high-impact psychology journals: statistical and research design problems in submitted manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex; Reeder, Rachelle; Hyun, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed 21 editors and reviewers from major psychology journals to identify and describe the statistical and design errors they encounter most often and to get their advice regarding prevention of these problems. Content analysis of the text responses revealed themes in 3 major areas: (a) problems with research design and reporting (e.g., lack of an a priori power analysis, lack of congruence between research questions and study design/analysis, failure to adequately describe statistical procedures); (b) inappropriate data analysis (e.g., improper use of analysis of variance, too many statistical tests without adjustments, inadequate strategy for addressing missing data); and (c) misinterpretation of results. If researchers attended to these common methodological and analytic issues, the scientific quality of manuscripts submitted to high-impact psychology journals might be significantly improved.

  7. Interventional study plan to investigate the training effects on physical and psychological outcomes awareness of smoking in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadian, Fathola; Baghri, Maryam; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Studies have found that nearly 90% of the first use of tobacco takes place before high school graduation (teenagers) and training discussion due to prevention can be useful, therefore, here, we aimed to determine the effects of training on awareness of cigarette outcomes (physical and psychological) in male teenagers. We conducted an interventional study using Solomon's four-group plan, which used a two-stage cluster sampling in four groups (two experimental groups and two control groups). The three sessions of at least 2 h of education intervention including visual displaying using photo, film, and short scientific texts were held for the interventional group. After 1 month, all four groups took posttest, and research groups were followed up after 8 months of intervention. All data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and covariance in SPSS. According to the results, the mean of posttest scores had increased rather than pretest scores, and generally, a significant difference was observed ( P ≤ 0.001). These results were significant in the aspect of both physical and psychological outcomes awareness. The difference between the mean of scores in follow-up period and posttest was not statistically significant, and it shows training retention after 8 months ( P training, it is possible to increase the awareness of teenagers about physical and psychological outcomes of cigarette smoking that this can have an important role in smoking prevention.

  8. The Effect of Perceived Psychological Need Support on Amotivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Kersey, Rachel; Spray, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators have a responsibility to create a learning environment that is viewed as supportive of students' psychological needs and which helps reduce amotivation. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of students' perceived need support on four dimensions of amotivation in physical education (PE) ("deficiency in…

  9. Wellness Assessment: A Rationale, A Measure, and Physical/Psychological Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffield, Gilda; Dana, Richard H.

    Wellness, or holistic health, represents a positive attitude toward the integration of physical and psychological aspects of lifestyle. There have been few attempts to assess wellness that contain more than questionnaire items across several component areas. This paper describes a test battery that includes physical (nutrition, cardiorespiratory…

  10. Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: A neurophysicalmodel o f mind/brain interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry P.; Schwartz, Jeffrey M.; Beauregard, Mario

    2004-06-01

    Contemporary physical theory brings directly and irreducibly into the overall causal structure certain psychologically described choices made by human beings about how they will act. This key development in basic physical theory is applicable to neuroscience, and it provides neuroscientists and psychologists with an alternative conceptual structure for describing neural processes.

  11. The relationship between physical and psychological complaints and quality of life in severely injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft-Schreurs, C C H M; van Son, M A C; de Jongh, M A C; Lansink, K W W; de Vries, J; Verhofstad, M H J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first goal was to investigate which variables were associated with the remaining physical limitations of severely injured patients after the initial rehabilitation phase. Second, we investigated whether physical limitations were attributable to the association between psychological complaints and quality of life in this patient group. Patients who were 18 years or older and who had an injury severity score (ISS)>15 completed a set of questionnaires at one time-point after their rehabilitation phase (15-53 months after their trauma). The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire was used to determine physical limitations. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Dutch Impact of Event Scale and the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire were used to determine psychological complaints, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instrument-BREF was used to measure general Quality of Life (QOL). Differences in physical limitations were investigated for several trauma- and patient-related variables using non-parametric independent-sample Mann-Whitney U tests. Multiple linear regression was performed to investigate whether the decreased QOL of severely injured patients with psychological complaints could be explained by their physical limitations. Older patients, patients with physical complaints before the injury, patients with higher ISS scores, and patients who had an injury of the spine or of the lower extremities reported significantly more physical problems. Additionally, patients with a low education level, patients who were living alone, and those who were unemployed reported significantly more long-term physical problems. Severely injured patients without psychological complaints reported significantly less physical limitations than those with psychological complaints. The SMFA factor of Lower extremity dysfunction was a confounder of the association between psychological complaints

  12. Physical and psychOLOGical functions in Patients WITH THE END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Mahrova; Klara Svagrova; Vaclav Bunc

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the physical and psychological status in patients with the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on renal dialysis treatment (RDT) is a current issue of high importance due to a rising number of elderly patients. The aims of the study in ESRD patients were: 1) to test physical and psychological functions; 2) to propose suitable physical activities. Group of patients: (M/F,n=34/33, age 67.0±12.7yrs/64.0±13.1yrs). For testing we used Senior Fitness Test Manual, KDQOL–SFTM-questionnaire S...

  13. Differential Effects of Psychological and Physical Stress on the Sleep Pattern in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ranji; Li, Bingjin; Suemaru, Katsuya; Araki, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of 2 different kinds of stress, namely physical stress (foot shock) and psychological stress (non-foot shock) induced by the communication box method, on the sleep patterns of rats. The sleep patterns were recorded for 6 h immediately after 1 h of stress. Physical and psychological stress had almost opposite effects on the sleep patterns: In the physical stress group, hourly total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and total non-REM sleep we...

  14. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children-Psychological Correlates of PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge

    2016-10-13

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8-13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA ( r : 0.22-0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures.

  15. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males. Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63. The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender. This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures.

  16. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W. C.; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures. PMID:27754396

  17. Parallelization of the Physical-Space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J. W.; Guo, J.; Lyster, P. M.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the atmosphere than the observations or forecast alone can provide. Data assimilation plays an increasingly important role in the study of climate and atmospheric chemistry. The NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) has developed the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS) to create assimilated datasets. The core computational components of the GEOS DAS include the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) and the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). The need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system poses computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. PSAS is implemented in Fortran 90 using object-based design principles. The analysis portions of the code solve two equations. The first of these is the "innovation" equation, which is solved on the unstructured observation grid using a preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) method. The "analysis" equation is a transformation from the observation grid back to a structured grid, and is solved by a direct matrix-vector multiplication. Use of a factored-operator formulation reduces the computational complexity of both the CG solver and the matrix-vector multiplication, rendering the matrix-vector multiplications as a successive product of operators on a vector. Sparsity is introduced to these operators by partitioning the observations using an icosahedral decomposition scheme. PSAS builds a large (approx. 128MB) run-time database of parameters used in the calculation of these operators. Implementing a message passing parallel computing paradigm into an existing yet developing computational system as complex as PSAS is nontrivial. One of the technical challenges is balancing the requirements for computational reproducibility with the need for high performance. The problem of computational

  18. Associations between problematic internet use and adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms: possible role of sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Sun, Ying; Wan, Yuhui; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xi; Tao, Fangbiao

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between problematic Internet use (PIU) and physical and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescents, and to investigate the possible role of sleep quality in this association. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted in 4 cities in China. The Multidimensional Sub-health Questionnaire of Adolescents, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and demographic variables were used to measure adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms and sleep quality, respectively, in 13,723 students (aged 12-20 years). Problematic Internet use was assessed by the 20-item Young Internet Addiction Test. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate the effects of sleep quality and PIU on physical and psychological symptoms, and to identify the mediating effect of sleep quality in adolescents. Prevalence rates of PIU, physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and poor sleep quality were 11.7%, 24.9%, 19.8%, and 26.7%, respectively. Poor sleep quality was found to be an independent risk factor for both physical and psychological symptoms. The effects of PIU on the 2 health outcomes were partially mediated by sleep quality. Problematic Internet use is becoming a significant public health issue among Chinese adolescents that requires urgent attention. Excessive Internet use may not only have direct adverse health consequences but also have indirect negative effects through sleep deprivation.

  19. Introduction to the basic concepts of modern physics special relativity, quantum and statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo Maria

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of a well-received textbook on modern physics theory. This book provides an elementary but rigorous and self-contained presentation of the simplest theoretical framework that will meet the needs of undergraduate students. In addition, a number of examples of relevant applications and an appropriate list of solved problems are provided.Apart from a substantial extension of the proposed problems, the new edition provides more detailed discussion on Lorentz transformations and their group properties, a deeper treatment of quantum mechanics in a central potential, and a closer comparison of statistical mechanics in classical and in quantum physics. The first part of the book is devoted to special relativity, with a particular focus on space-time relativity and relativistic kinematics. The second part deals with Schrödinger's formulation of quantum mechanics. The presentation concerns mainly one-dimensional problems, but some three-dimensional examples are discussed in detail. The third...

  20. Psychological and physical features of teachers' labour activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolumbet A.N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work - to educe professionally important physical internalss, personal properties and requirements to motive preparedness of teachers. It is set that implementation of professional duties requires from teachers of high schools of display of general endurance, force of muscles of back, neck, stomach and hands (especially brushes. It allows to count the indicated internalss professionally important. The terms of enhanceable nervously - emotional excitation foresee requirements to adaptation possibilities of workers, their psychical firmness and physical capacity. It is necessary to distinguish from a number psychophysical functions attention (distribution, volume, memory, even temper, communicability and firmness to stresses. It is set that insufficient physical preparedness of teachers straight influences on fatigueability in the process of work. It is educed, that most teachers see a benefit in the specialized physical preparation of students to the future profession.

  1. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perce...

  2. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Psychological/Physical Health among Malaysian Working Women

    OpenAIRE

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: The workplace environment has a great influence on employees’ health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees’ psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological...

  3. Analysis of Core Stability Exercise Effect on the Physical and Psychological Function of Elderly Women Vulnerable to Falls during Obstacle Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Sik; Jung, Dae-In; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of core stability exercise (CSE) on the physical and psychological functions of elderly women while negotiating general obstacles. [Subjects and Methods] After allocating 10 elderly women each to the core stability training group and the control group, we carried out Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) and measured crossing velocity (CV), maximum vertical heel clearance (MVHC), and knee flexion angle for assessing physical performances. We evaluated depression and fear of falling for assessing psychological functions. [Results] Relative to the control group, the core stability training group showed statistically significant overall changes after the training session: an increase in POMA scores, faster CV, lower MVHC, and a decrease in knee flexion angle. Furthermore, depression and fear of falling decreased significantly. [Conclusion] CSE can have a positive effect on the improvement of physical and psychological performances of older women who are vulnerable to falls as they negotiate everyday obstacles.

  4. Physical Research Program: research contracts and statistical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The physical research program consists of fundamental theoretical and experimental investigations designed to support the objectives of ERDA. The program is directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall ERDA effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood and new principles, formulated. The physical research program is organized into four functional subprograms, high-energy physics, nuclear sciences, materials sciences, and molecular sciences. Approximately four-fifths of the total physical research program costs are associated with research conducted in ERDA-owned, contractor-operated federally funded research and development centers. A little less than one-fifth of the costs are associated with the support of research conducted in other laboratories

  5. Participation restrictions in ambulatory amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: Physical and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Groenestijn, Annerieke C; Schröder, Carin D; Kruitwagen-Van Reenen, Esther T; Van Den Berg, Leonard H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of participation restrictions in ambulatory patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to identify physical and psychological contributory factors. In this cross-sectional study, self-reported participation restrictions of 72 ambulatory ALS patients were assessed using the social health status dimension (SIPSOC) of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-68). Associations between SIPSOC and physical functioning, psychological factors, and demographic factors were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. Ninety-two percent of the patients reported participation restrictions; 54.9% could be explained by physical functioning; psychological factors accounted for 8.1% of the variance. Lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and helplessness were independently associated with participation restrictions. Ambulatory ALS patients have participation restrictions, which may be influenced if early ALS care is directed toward lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and feelings of helplessness. Muscle Nerve 56: 912-918, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome in female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awanish Kumar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-menstrual syndrome is a group of physical and psychological symptoms that appears before the menstrual bleeding. The study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome among female students of technical institution in Gorakhpur. Two hundred students aged between 15 to 30 years participated in the study and revealed that all the participants of study experienced at least 1 symptom of PMS. The most common physical symptom was joint\\muscle pain (77.5%. Lethargy (83% was reported as most common psychological symptom in the study. The study concluded that prevalence of PMS is 100%, and most of the participants (42.5% have more than 5 symptoms of PMS.

  7. Interdisciplinary applications of statistical physics to complex systems: Seismic physics, econophysics, and sociophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel

    This thesis applies statistical physics concepts and methods to quantitatively analyze complex systems. This thesis is separated into four parts: (i) characteristics of earthquake systems (ii) memory and volatility in data time series (iii) the application of part (ii) to world financial markets, and (iv) statistical observations on the evolution of word usage. In Part I, we observe statistical patterns in the occurrence of earthquakes. We select a 14-year earthquake catalog covering the archipelago of Japan. We find that regions traditionally thought of as being too distant from one another for causal contact display remarkably high correlations, and the networks that result have a tendency to link highly connected areas with other highly connected areas. In Part II, we introduce and apply the concept of "volatility asymmetry", the primary use of which is in financial data. We explain the relation between memory and "volatility asymmetry" in terms of an asymmetry parameter lambda. We define a litmus test for determining whether lambda is statistically significant and propose a stochastic model based on this parameter and use the model to further explain empirical data. In Part III, we expand on volatility asymmetry. Importing the concepts of time dependence and universality from physics, we explore the aspects of emerging (or "transition") economies in Eastern Europe as they relate to asymmetry. We find that these emerging markets in some instances behave like developed markets and in other instances do not, and that the distinction is a matter both of country and a matter of time period, crisis periods showing different asymmetry characteristics than "healthy" periods. In Part IV, we take note of a series of findings in econophysics, showing statistical growth similarities between a variety of different areas that all have in common the fact of taking place in areas that are both (i) competing and (ii) dynamic. We show that this same growth distribution can be

  8. Behavioral and Psychological Phenotyping of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Implications for Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Angela D; Jakicic, John M; Hunter, Christine M; Evans, Mary E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Epstein, Leonard H

    2017-10-01

    Risk for obesity is determined by a complex mix of genetics and lifetime exposures at multiple levels, from the metabolic milieu to psychosocial and environmental influences. These phenotypic differences underlie the variability in risk for obesity and response to weight management interventions, including differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior. As part of a broader effort focused on behavioral and psychological phenotyping in obesity research, the National Institutes of Health convened a multidisciplinary workshop to explore the state of the science in behavioral and psychological phenotyping in humans to explain individual differences in physical activity, both as a risk factor for obesity development and in response to activity-enhancing interventions. Understanding the behavioral and psychological phenotypes that contribute to differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior could allow for improved treatment matching and inform new targets for tailored, innovative, and effective weight management interventions. This summary provides the rationale for identifying psychological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to physical activity and identifies opportunities for future research to better understand, define, measure, and validate putative phenotypic factors and characterize emerging phenotypes that are empirically associated with initiation of physical activity, response to intervention, and sustained changes in physical activity. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  9. Japanese care workers' perception of dementia-related physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Harvath, Theresa A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Japanese care workers' attributions, beliefs and cultural explanations of physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms. Physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms by older people with dementia have been associated with occupational stress among care workers in the United States and other Western countries and may contribute to staff turnover. However, few studies related to this issue have been conducted in Japan, where care worker reaction to physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms might be different because of cultural and customary differences in how care is provided for older people. This study reports on the results of three open-ended questions that were part of a larger study that explored Japanese care workers' experiences with aggressive behaviour symptoms in persons with dementia. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 137 care workers in 10 nursing homes in the northern and western areas of Japan. The answers to the open-ended questions were analysed using a content analysis. Most of the participants indicated that they believed that physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms came from residents' stress from dementia. Approximately, one-fourth of the participants responded that Japanese values such as chu (loyalty) and joge (hierarchy) influenced their work with residents with physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms. Seventeen participants (12%) commented either that they respected older people or that they respected older people as persons who had had many experiences in life. Interestingly, 43 responses (41.0%) indicated that physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms influenced quality of care positively, while, not surprisingly, about 30 responses indicated that those behaviour symptoms influenced quality of care negatively. Findings from this study indicate that the training and education needs to

  10. Windows, view, and office characteristics predict physical and psychological discomfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, M.B.C.; Veitch, J.A.; Newsham, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Office employees spend a lot of time inside buildings, where the physical conditions influence their well-being and indirectly influence their employers' business performance. With data from a field study conducted in the Netherlands in April to May 2003, we used path analysis to further elucidate

  11. Physical and psychological discomfort in the office environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Veitch, J.A.; Newsham, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Office employees spend a lot of time inside buildings, where the physical conditions influence their well-being and indirectþ influence their employers' business performance. With data from a field study conducted in the Netherlands in April-May 2003, we used path analysis to further elucidate the

  12. Psychological Benefits of Regular Physical Activity: Evidence from Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekin, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a transitional stage between late adolescence and young adulthood in life-span development that requires significant changes in people's lives. Therefore, identifying protective factors for this population is crucial. This study investigated the effects of regular physical activity on self-esteem, optimism, and happiness in…

  13. The Psychological and Social Benefits of Sport and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankel, Leonard M.; Berger, Bonnie G.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of research evidence pertaining to the contribution of sport and physical activity to personal enjoyment, growth, social integration, and social change. It is important to identify the prerequisite activity, leadership, organizational, and environmental conditions for facilitating positive outcomes. (JD)

  14. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, József; Nagy, Imre; Szirtes, László; Pórszász, János

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Continuous heart rate (HR) recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder - Bioport (ZAK, Germany). The work processes were simultaneously documented by video recording along with drawing up the traditional ergonomic workday schedule. All workers passed health evaluation for fitness for work. The effects of different psychological factors (simulated danger, "instrument stress," presence of managers, and effect of prior involvement in accidents as well as different mining technologies and work place illumination) on the work pulse were evaluated. The statistical analysis was completed using SPSS software (version 13.0, SPSS Inc., USA). The work-related physiological strain differed between work places with different mining technologies in groups of 12-18 workers. The work pulse was lowest in bauxite mining (ΔHR = 22±8.9 bpm) and highest in drift drilling in dead rock with electric drilling machine (ΔHR = 30±6.9 bpm). During sham alarm situation the work pulse was significantly higher than during normal activities with the same physical task (ΔHR = 36.7±4.8 bpm vs. 25.8±1.6 bpm, p < 0.001). When work was performed under different psychological stress, the work pulse was consistently higher, while improving the work place illumination decreased the physiological strain appreciably (ΔHR (median, 25-75 percentiles) = 23, 20-26 bmp vs. 28, 25-31.3 bpm, p < 0.001). Recording the heart rate during whole-shift work along with the work conditions gives reliable results and helps isolating factors that contribute to increased strain. The results can be used to implement preventive and health promotion measures. This

  15. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Varga

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Material and Methods: Continuous heart rate (HR recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder – Bioport (ZAK, Germany. The work processes were simultaneously documented by video recording along with drawing up the traditional ergonomic workday schedule. All workers passed health evaluation for fitness for work. The effects of different psychological factors (simulated danger, “instrument stress,” presence of managers, and effect of prior involvement in accidents as well as different mining technologies and work place illumination on the work pulse were evaluated. The statistical analysis was completed using SPSS software (version 13.0, SPSS Inc., USA. Results: The work-related physiological strain differed between work places with different mining technologies in groups of 12–18 workers. The work pulse was lowest in bauxite mining (ΔHR = 22±8.9 bpm and highest in drift drilling in dead rock with electric drilling machine (ΔHR = 30±6.9 bpm. During sham alarm situation the work pulse was significantly higher than during normal activities with the same physical task (ΔHR = 36.7±4.8 bpm vs. 25.8±1.6 bpm, p < 0.001. When work was performed under different psychological stress, the work pulse was consistently higher, while improving the work place illumination decreased the physiological strain appreciably (ΔHR (median, 25–75 percentiles = 23, 20–26 bmp vs. 28, 25–31.3 bpm, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Recording the heart rate during whole-shift work along with the work conditions gives reliable results and helps isolating factors that contribute to increased strain. The

  16. The relationship of sex role to physical and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, A; Teagno, L; Selz, K

    1980-08-01

    This study examined the relationship of sex-role typology, medical and psychiatric symptomatology, and personality functioning in adolescents. Seventy-nine males and 101 females with an average age of 18.3 were administered the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), Offer Self Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), Self Rating Depression Scale (SRDS), and Cornell Medical Index (CMI). In comparison to males, females reported significantly more medical and psychiatric symptomatology, including depression. Females were also found to have more concern and empathy for others and a better developed superego. They reported greater involvement in making future plans and were more conservative in their sexual attitudes. Sex-role typology yielded no significant differences on the medical and psychiatric scales, but consistent differences were found on the OSIQ, a measure of adolescent personality functioning. In general, the results indicated that androgynous teenagers in every case differed from the undifferentiated ones, with the masculine and feminine groups occupying a mid-position. Androgynous individuals always showed a more favorable adjustment. Undifferentiated individuals had a poorer defensive structure, less adequate coping mechanisms and affective integration, more confusion about body boundaries, and more difficulty in object relations. Androgynous individuals, in short, possessed adaptive capabilities and resources, such as effective coping techniques, emotional integration, communication skills, and a well-defined self-concept (i.e., ego strength and a high level of psychological integration). Since these results were obtained on a measure constructed solely to assess adolescent functioning, it seems possible to screen and identify adolescents who may be entering adulthood lacking the emotional, social, and occupational capacity to function in an optimal fashion.

  17. [Adiposity and psychological well-being: effects of physical activity on university students in Valencia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isabel; Molina-García, Javier

    2009-10-01

    To determine, through the use of a structural equation model, the relationships that exist between physical activity, body fat, perceived physical ability, and three indicators of psychological well-being, in a sample of Spanish university students. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 639 students 18-29 years of age representative of the universities of Valencia, Spain, during the 2005-2006 term. Physical exercise was rated by taking an inventory of healthy behaviors among students. The following scales were applied: self-perceived physical ability, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and subjective vitality. Body fat was expressed as the percentage of fat mass (PFM). A theoretical model was devised using six measured variables. The participants' level of physical activity was moderate; they perceived themselves to be physically competent; had high self-esteem; were satisfied with life; and had high vitality. Physical activity was negatively correlated with PFM in men and women alike; and negatively associated with perceived physical ability; while perceived physical ability was positively associated with self-esteem, life satisfaction, and subjective vitality. The effect of physical activity on perceived competence was mediated in part by PFM in men. In women, exercise was directly correlated to PFM, as well as perceived ability, without PFM mediation. Increased physical activity is of great value to public health because, in addition to helping to reduce body fat, it improves psychological well-being and self-image.

  18. Introduction to the basic concepts of modern physics special relativity, quantum and statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo Maria

    2007-01-01

    These notes are designed as a text book for a course on the Modern Physics Theory for undergraduate students. The purpose is providing a rigorous and self-contained presentation of the simplest theoretical framework using elementary mathematical tools. A number of examples of relevant applications and an appropriate list of exercises and answered questions are also given. The first part is devoted to Special Relativity concerning in particular space-time relativity and relativistic kinematics. The second part deals with Schroedinger's formulation of quantum mechanics. The presentation concerns mainly one dimensional problems, in particular tunnel effect, discrete energy levels and band spectra. The third part concerns the application of Gibbs statistical methods to quantum systems and in particular to Bose and Fermi gasses.

  19. Statistical physics of black holes as quantum-mechanical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Some basic features of black-hole statistical mechanics are investigated, assuming that black holes respect the principles of quantum mechanics. Care is needed in defining an entropy S_bh corresponding to the number of microstates of a black hole, given that the black hole interacts with its surroundings. An open question is then the relationship between this entropy and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S_BH. For a wide class of models with interactions needed to ensure unitary quantum evolutio...

  20. Psychology & pedagogy of physical activity for special students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ortega Caballero

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic study that attempts to envision this project in which the main objective is to seek a pragmatic reference for use by education professionals with useful and realistic, taking into account individual characteristics of each subject. This work elucidates some general measures that must be taken into account whenever we deal with a job as specific as these students with learning difficulties - learning in the field of physical activity. And they have been corroborated in several theoretical studies - academic and non-university studies

  1. Statistical Analysis of Questionnaire on Physical Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinková, Patrícia; Řasová, K.

    -, č. 3 (2010), S340 ISSN 1210-7859. [Obnovené neuroimunologickjé a likvorologické dny. 21.05.2010-22.05.2010, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : questionnaire * physical rehabilitation * multiple sclerosis Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  2. Some applications of multivariate statistics to physical anthropology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vark, GN

    This paper presents some of the results of the cooperation between the author, a physical anthropologist, and Willem Schaafsma. The subjects of study to be discussed in this paper all refer to human evolution, in particular to the process of hominisation. It is described how the interest of the

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almedina Numanović

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Excessive physical exercise combined with certain psychic and sociodemographic factors can lead to dependence. Objective: To examine which factors lead to the emergence of exercise dependence. Methods: Sample consisted of 103 men (mean age 27.3 years, SD 6.127 who performed exercises at gyms at least three times a week in the last year or more in Novi Pazar, Sjenica, Raska and Tutin, Serbia. Participants completed questionnaires and took appropriate tests. Results: Our results showed that there is no association between exercise dependence and financial status, number of siblings, level of education, family stability, health, and medication use among the interviewees. However, it was found that the degree of exercise dependence is associated with marital status and problems with the law. Regression analysis showed that body dysmorphia, body mass index and aggressiveness are better predictors of exercise dependence. Conclusion: People whose self-perception is dismorphic have lower self-esteem, and exercise in gyms to improve their physical appearance. If we consider other characteristics, such as unfavorable BMI, problems with the lаw and being single, it is hardly surprising these individuals cross the line between healthy exercise and exercise dependence. An important finding is that aggressiveness and exercise dependence are related to problems with the law due to aggression, and body dysmorphia. Level of Evidence; Diagnostic studies - Investigating a diagnostic test.

  4. Relationship between job dissatisfaction and physical and psychological health among Filipino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A B; Gee, Gilbert C; Takeuchi, David

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between job dissatisfaction and psychological and physical health among Filipino immigrants in the United States. Cross-sectional data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study were analyzed for 1,381 Filipino immigrants. The primary independent variable of interest was job dissatisfaction. Linear and negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to determine separate associations between job dissatisfaction and the outcomes of psychological distress and physical health conditions, respectively. Job dissatisfaction was positively associated with both psychological distress (beta = 0.32, p job category. This community-based study demonstrated that job dissatisfaction has implications for health and well-being among an understudied, immigrant group of workers. Findings also suggest that job-related experiences should be considered when examining disparate health for immigrant, minority populations.

  5. Leisure-time physical activity and psychological well-being in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, J; Castillo, I; Queralt, A

    2011-10-01

    An analysis of psychological well-being (self-esteem and subjective vitality) of 639 Spanish university students was performed, while accounting for the amount of leisure-time physical activity. The Spanish versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Subjective Vitality Scale were employed. Participants were divided into four groups (Low, Moderate, High, and Very high) depending on estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity. Men and women having higher physical activity rated higher mean subjective vitality; however, differences in self-esteem were observed only in men, specifically between Very high and the other physical activity groups.

  6. A new formalism for non extensive physical systems: Tsallis Thermo statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirnakli, U.; Bueyuekkilic, F.; Demirhan, D.

    1999-01-01

    Although Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) statistics provides a suitable tool which enables us to handle a large number of physical systems satisfactorily, it has some basic restrictions. Recently a non extensive thermo statistics has been proposed by C.Tsallis to handle the non extensive physical systems and up to now, besides the generalization of some of the conventional concepts, the formalism has been prosperous in some of the physical applications. In this study, our effort is to introduce Tsallis thermo statistics in some details and to emphasize its achievements on physical systems by noting the recent developments on this line

  7. Statistical Physics of Nanoparticles in the Gas Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    Thermal processes are ubiquitous and an understanding of thermal phenomena is essential for a complete description of the physics of nanoparticles, both for the purpose of modeling the dynamics of the particles and for the correct interpretation of experimental data. This book has the twofold aim to present coherently the relevant results coming from the recent scientific literature and to guide the readers through the process of deriving results, enabling them to explore the limits of the mathematical approximations and test the power of the method. The book is focused on the fundamental properties of nanosystems in the gas phase. For this reason there is a strong emphasis on microcanonical physics. Each chapter is enriched with exercises and 3 Appendices provide additional useful materials.

  8. The prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology (1985–2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.; Hartgerink, C.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Epskamp, S.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study documents reporting errors in a sample of over 250,000 p-values reported in eight major psychology journals from 1985 until 2013, using the new R package “statcheck.” statcheck retrieved null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) results from over half of the articles from this period.

  9. The prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology (1985-2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.; Hartgerink, C.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Epskamp, S.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study documents reporting errors in a sample of over 250,000 p-values reported in eight major psychology journals from 1985 until 2013, using the new R package “statcheck.” statcheck retrieved null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) results from over half of the articles from this period.

  10. Physical violence and psychological abuse among siblings :a theoretical and empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Kristi L.

    1996-01-01

    This study develops and evaluates a theoretical model based on social learning, conflict, and feminist perspectives to explain teenage sibling physical violence and psychological abuse. Using regression analysis and data from 796 young adults, considerable support is found for all three theoretical approaches and suggests an integrated model best predicts acts of violence and abuse among siblings. For physical violence, males and brothers had significantly higher rates. Spousal...

  11. The effect of various physical exercise modes on perceived psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhaes Das Neves, M K; Loots, J M; van Niekerk, R L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress is an integral part of daily living, but chronic activation of the stress response without the ability to express the physical response results in overloading of the physiological and psychological systems OBJECTIVE: To decrease perceived stress by means of one known and/or one relatively unknown physical activity, namely aerobic exercise and somatic awareness exercise METHODS: This investigation made use of a quantitative, comparative, experimental research design over an ...

  12. Impact of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence on Social Adjustment of School Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…

  13. Physical Activity and Psychological Correlates during an After-School Running Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: After-school programs (ASPs) have the potential to contribute to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), but there is limited empirical evidence to guide their development and implementation. Purpose: This study assessed the replication of an elementary school running program and identified psychological correlates of children's…

  14. Attachment as a Moderating Factor Between Social Support, Physical Health, and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rapoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.

  15. Leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress in female-dominated occupations in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-12-27

    Poor mental health, manifesting as psychological distress, has become a leading problem recently; therefore, determining associated factors is important, especially in female-dominated occupations, as women are more prone to psychological distress than men, in part due to demands of both professional and domestic tasks. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress, accounting for the possible relation of psychosocial factors at work (job demands, job control, social support at work, workplace bullying) and life events in representative samples of family physicians, internal medicine department nurses and secondary-school teachers in Lithuania. In total, 323 family physicians, 748 internal medicine department nurses and 517 secondary-school teachers were interviewed during 2012-2014 in Lithuania. Godin leisure-time exercise, Goldberg General Health, Job content, and Negative acts questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was used. A high proportion of family physicians, nurses and teachers were physically inactive during leisure. Leisure-time physical inactivity was strongly associated with psychological distress, adjusting for age, workplace bullying, job demands, job control, social support at work and traumatic life events in all three female-dominated occupations. Efforts to increase leisure-time physical activity level in medical occupations could be beneficial.

  16. "The effect of supervised exercise training on psychological characteristics and physical fitness after myocardial infarction "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Boshtam M

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD especially myocardial infarction (MI, and the insufficiency of information in the field of physical rehabilitation, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a course of physical rehabilitation on the psychological status and physical characteristics f cardiac patients. In this study, the effect of 8 weeks exercise training, 3 sessions of 45 minutes duration per week, on the physical and psychological function of MI patients was evaluated. Eighty patients who were referred to the rehabilitation unit of Isfahan cardiovascular Research Center were randomly divided into two groups of exercise and non-exercise. The data of pre and post exercise course were analyzed with the SPSS software using the two-sample t-test and multiple liner regression. The comparison of the mean changes of functional capacity. Weight, body mass index (BMI, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures between exercise and non-exercise groups after 8 weeks showed significant difference for all studied factors (P<0.05. Also, investigating the psychological characteristics such as depression, anxiety and hostility scores indicated a significant change after exercise training (P<0.05. Personality and behavior showed no significant difference. This study suggests the functional has a significant effect on improving the function capacity and psychological behavior in post MI patients.

  17. Cochrane review abstracts: The psychological effects of the physical healthcare environment on healthcare personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, K.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The physical healthcare environment is capable of affecting patients. This concept of 'healing environments' refers to the psychological impact of environmental stimuli through sensory perceptions. It excludes more physiological effects such as those produced by ergonomic (i.e. fall

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  19. Psychological Well-Being and Motivation in a Turkish Physical Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    Using Self Determination as a framework, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between basic psychological needs, motivational regulations, self-esteem, subjective vitality, and social physique anxiety in physical education. One thousand and eighty two high school students aged between 14 and 19 [mean (M) = 15.89 ± 0.95 years]…

  20. Street greenery and its physical and psychological impact on outdoor thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Lenzholzer, S.; Hove, van B.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the benefits of street greenery for creating thermally comfortable streetscapes in moderate climates. It reports on investigations on the impact of street greenery on outdoor thermal comfort from a physical and psychological perspective. For this purpose, we examined nine

  1. The psychological effects of the physical healthcare environment on healthcare personnel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2011-01-01

    The physical healthcare environment is capable of affecting patients. This concept of 'healing environments' refers to the psychological impact of environmental stimuli through sensory perceptions. It excludes more physiological effects such as those produced by ergonomic (i.e. fall prevention) or

  2. Integrative Evaluation of Automated Massage Combined with Thermotherapy: Physical, Physiological, and Psychological Viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Won Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of massages are reported to relieve stress, pain, and anxiety which are beneficial for rehabilitation; however, more comprehensive studies are needed to understand the mechanism of massage therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of massage therapy, alone or in combination with infrared heating, on 3 different aspects: physical, physiological, and psychological. Twenty-eight healthy university students were subjected to 3 different treatment conditions on separate days, one condition per day: control, massage only, or massage with infrared heating. Physical (trunk extension [TE]; maximum power of erector spinae, physiological (heart-rate variability [HRV]; electroencephalogram [EEG], and psychological (state-trait anxiety inventory [STAI]; visual analogue scale [VAS] measurements were evaluated and recorded before and after each treatment condition. The results showed that massage therapy, especially when combined with infrared heating, significantly improved physical functioning, increased parasympathetic response, and decreased psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we observed that massage therapy contributes to various physical, physiological, and psychological changes, where the effect increases with thermotherapy.

  3. Physical and Psychological Health in Persons with Deafblindness that Is due to Usher Syndrome Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Moa; Moller, Claes; Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the study reported here were to describe the physical and psychological health of persons with Usher syndrome Type II (USH2) and to explore any differences in terms of gender. Methods: The participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. In the first step, 122 persons received the questionnaire by mail,…

  4. Integrative Evaluation of Automated Massage Combined with Thermotherapy: Physical, Physiological, and Psychological Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Won; Lee, Dae Woon; Schreiber, Joergen; Im, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Hansung

    2016-01-01

    Various types of massages are reported to relieve stress, pain, and anxiety which are beneficial for rehabilitation; however, more comprehensive studies are needed to understand the mechanism of massage therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of massage therapy, alone or in combination with infrared heating, on 3 different aspects: physical, physiological, and psychological. Twenty-eight healthy university students were subjected to 3 different treatment conditions on separate days, one condition per day: control, massage only, or massage with infrared heating. Physical (trunk extension [TE]; maximum power of erector spinae), physiological (heart-rate variability [HRV]; electroencephalogram [EEG]), and psychological (state-trait anxiety inventory [STAI]; visual analogue scale [VAS]) measurements were evaluated and recorded before and after each treatment condition. The results showed that massage therapy, especially when combined with infrared heating, significantly improved physical functioning, increased parasympathetic response, and decreased psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we observed that massage therapy contributes to various physical, physiological, and psychological changes, where the effect increases with thermotherapy.

  5. Long-term physical, psychological and social consequences of a fracture of the ankle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.K.; Eisma, W.H.; Groothoff, J.W.; Ten Duis, H.J.

    The long-term physical, psychological and social outcomes of 68 patients with an ankle fracture were investigated by using a postal questionnaire 6 years after injury. Patients were treated at a level I Trauma Centre between January 1989 and December 1989. Where applicable the outcomes were compared

  6. The psychological effects of the physical healthcare environment on healthcare personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, K.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The physical healthcare environment is capable of affecting patients. This concept of 'healing environments' refers to the psychological impact of environmental stimuli through sensory perceptions. It excludes more physiological effects such as those produced by ergonomic (i.e. fall

  7. [Role of physical, psychological and sexual abuse in functional digestive disorders. A case-controls trial.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes-Troche, J M; Cid-Juárez, S; Campos-Ramos, I; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Galmiche, A; Schmulson-Wasserman, M; Roesch-Dietlen, F

    2008-01-01

    Abuse has been considered a significant factor on the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), especially for severe and treatment-refractory patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of all FGID according to Rome II criteria, in a group of women with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse. A cross sectional study was performed in 96 women (37 +/- 12 years of age) with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse (cases); and 96 open population women (36 +/- 14 years of age) (controls). The following evaluations were administered: Rome II questionnaire, a self-administered instrument to evaluate history of physical (beating), psychological(insults, public humiliation) and/or sexual abuse (rape, coercion), and HAD questionnaire. Among 96 women with history of abuse,91 (95%) reported to have suffered psychological abuse, 72 (75%) physical abuse, and 24 (25%)sexual abuse. Women with history of abuse had a higher prevalence of rumination (6% vs. 0%, p= 0.02), functional heartburn (26% vs. 13%, p =0.04), aerofagia (17% vs. 5%, p = 0.019), irritable bowel syndrome (38% vs. 18%, p = 0.002), fecalin continence (16% vs. 4%, p = 0.01), elevator anisyndrome (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.05), and proctalgia fugax (29% vs. 15%, p = 0.02) compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between anxiety (r = 0.5, p = 0.001) and depression scores(r = 0.45, p = 0.001), and the number of FGID. We demonstrated a high prevalence of FGID among women with history of physical,psychological, and/or sexual abuse. In this association,concomitant anxiety and depression play a significant role.

  8. Statistical physics of learning from examples: a brief introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeck, C. van den

    1994-01-01

    The problem of how one can learn from examples is illustrated on the case of a student perception trained by the Hebb rule on examples generated by a teacher perception. Two basic quantities are calculated: the training error and the generalization error. The obtained results are found to be typical. Other training rules are discussed. For the case of an Ising student with an Ising teacher, the existence of a first order phase transition is shown. Special effects such as dilution, queries, rejection, etc. are discussed and some results for multilayer networks are reviewed. In particular, the properties of a self-similar committee machine are derived. Finally, we discuss the statistic of generalization, with a review of the Hoeffding inequality, the Dvoretzky Kiefer Wolfowitz theorem and the Vapnik Chervonenkis theorem. (author). 29 refs, 6 figs

  9. Monte Carlo simulation in statistical physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is a computer simulation method which uses random numbers to simulate statistical fluctuations The method is used to model complex systems with many degrees of freedom Probability distributions for these systems are generated numerically and the method then yields numerically exact information on the models Such simulations may be used tosee how well a model system approximates a real one or to see how valid the assumptions are in an analyical theory A short and systematic theoretical introduction to the method forms the first part of this book The second part is a practical guide with plenty of examples and exercises for the student Problems treated by simple sampling (random and self-avoiding walks, percolation clusters, etc) are included, along with such topics as finite-size effects and guidelines for the analysis of Monte Carlo simulations The two parts together provide an excellent introduction to the theory and practice of Monte Carlo simulations

  10. Statistical and physical study of one-sided planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; El-Nawawy, M. S.; Pfleiderer, J.

    The authors have investigated the spatial orientation of one-sided planetary nebulae. Most of them if not all are interacting with the interstellar medium. Seventy percent of the nebulae in the sample have inclination angles larger than 45° to the Galactic plane and 30% of the inclination angles are less than 45°. Most of the selected objects are old, evolved planetary nebulae with large dimensions, and not far away from the Galactic plane. Seventy-five percent of the objects are within 160 pc from the Galactic plane. The enhanced concavity arc can be explained physically as a result of the 'planetary nebulae-interstellar matter' interaction. The authors discuss the possible effect of the interstellar magnetic field in the concavity regions.

  11. Excel 2013 for physical sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2016-01-01

    This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching physical sciences statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2010 for Physical Sciences Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2013 for Physical Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their ...

  12. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers’ well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment. PMID:28977041

  13. Preliminary validation of a questionnaire to measure basic psychological needs in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pires

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-determination theory is a psychological approach to motivation that focuses on causes and consequences of human behavior regulation. According several authors, this theoretical framework could provide important information about the student’s motivational process to physical education class, however, in Portugal does not exists any instrument to measure the basic psychological needs in this domain. So, the main propose of this study is the preliminary adaptation to physical education contexts of Basic Psychological Needs Exercise Scale (Portuguese version: BPNESp, and determine their initial psychometrics properties through an exploratory factor analysis. This propose was accomplished with a sample of 150 students (n=150 from de 2nd and 3rd CEB, aged from 11 to 16 years (M = 13.39, SD = 1.44 with different levels of sports practice. Results revealed a factorial structure just like the original model (12 items grouped in 3 factors, with 4 items hitch factor and presents acceptable values of validity and reliability. Those findings allow us to conclude, that questionnaire can be used in future investigations to measure the basic psychological needs in physical education.

  14. Psychological predictors of children' s recess physical activity motivation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina D

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between children's basic psychological needs satisfaction at recess, level of recess physical activity motivation (RPAM), and recess physical activity (RPA). Fifth-grade children (N = 203; 50.2% boys; 71.7% healthy-weight) completed measures of age, gender, basic psychological need satisfaction, and level of self-determined motivation for RPA. Children also wore pedometers during six consecutive 30-min mid-school-day recesses. Multiple regression analyses indicated unique significant predictors of RPAM and RPA according to gender and weight status. RPAM was significantly predicted by all three basic psychological needs for boys and only competence need satisfaction for girls and healthy-weight children. RPA was predicted by RPAM for girls, competence need satisfaction for overweight children, and autonomy need satisfaction for boys and healthy-weight children. Findings support self-determination theory and provide important insight into the variations in psychological predictors of motivation for RPA and actual physical activity behavior based on gender and weight status.

  15. Impact of Hypnosis Intervention in Alleviating Psychological and Physical Symptoms During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Zuhrah; Low, Wah Yun; Hassan, Jamiyah

    2016-04-01

    Physical symptoms (e.g., vomiting) and psychological symptoms (stress, anxiety, and depression) during pregnancy are common. Various strategies such as hypnosis are available to reduce these symptoms. The objective of the authors in this study is to investigate the impact of a hypnosis intervention in reducing physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design was employed in this study. The hypnosis intervention was given to the experimental group participants at weeks 16 (baseline), 20 (time point 1), 28 (time point 2), and 36 (time point 3) of their pregnancy. Participants in the control group received only the traditional antenatal care. Participants from both groups completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and a Pregnancy Symptoms Checklist at weeks 16, 20, 28 and 36 of pregnancy. Results indicated that stress and anxiety symptoms were significantly reduced for the experimental group, but not for the control group. Although mean differences for the depressive symptoms were not significant, the experimental group had lower symptoms at time point 3. The physical symptoms' results showed significant group differences at time point 3, indicating a reduction in the experience of physical symptoms for the experimental group participants. Our study showed that hypnosis intervention during pregnancy aided in reducing physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy.

  16. In the company of wolves: the physical, social, and psychological benefits of dog ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Sarah; Edwards, Victoria

    2008-06-01

    The increase in aging populations has implications for the provision of health and social services. A preventative approach is taken to address this problem by examining a mechanism that can enhance physical health and reduce minor ailments. Participants in 10 focus groups discussed physical, psychological, and social benefits associated with human-dog interactions. Interaction between humans and dogs is a mechanism that can enhance the physical and psychological health of elderly citizens and promote a social support network between dog owners. In turn, dependence and impact on health and social services are alleviated. The social and community consequences of promoting dog ownership in the elderly are addressed, and it is concluded that the benefits of dog ownership should be promoted among the elderly and acknowledged by relevant agencies.

  17. Psychological contract breach and employee health: The relevance of unmet obligations for mental and physical health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Reimann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB on employee mental and physical health (SF-12 using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of PCB on physical health. Also, the findings of this study show that the relative importance of obligations not met by employers differs according to the specific contents of the psychological contract. In conclusion, the results of this study support the idea that PCB works as a psychosocial stressor at work that represents a crucial risk to employee health.

  18. Statistical Uncertainty Quantification of Physical Models during Reflood of LBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Deog Yeon; Seul, Kwang Won; Woo, Sweng Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The use of the best-estimate (BE) computer codes in safety analysis for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is the major trend in many countries to reduce the significant conservatism. A key feature of this BE evaluation requires the licensee to quantify the uncertainty of the calculations. So, it is very important how to determine the uncertainty distribution before conducting the uncertainty evaluation. Uncertainty includes those of physical model and correlation, plant operational parameters, and so forth. The quantification process is often performed mainly by subjective expert judgment or obtained from reference documents of computer code. In this respect, more mathematical methods are needed to reasonably determine the uncertainty ranges. The first uncertainty quantification are performed with the various increments for two influential uncertainty parameters to get the calculated responses and their derivatives. The different data set with two influential uncertainty parameters for FEBA tests, are chosen applying more strict criteria for selecting responses and their derivatives, which may be considered as the user’s effect in the CIRCÉ applications. Finally, three influential uncertainty parameters are considered to study the effect on the number of uncertainty parameters due to the limitation of CIRCÉ method. With the determined uncertainty ranges, uncertainty evaluations for FEBA tests are performed to check whether the experimental responses such as the cladding temperature or pressure drop are inside the limits of calculated uncertainty bounds. A confirmation step will be performed to evaluate the quality of the information in the case of the different reflooding PERICLES experiments. The uncertainty ranges of physical model in MARS-KS thermal-hydraulic code during the reflooding were quantified by CIRCÉ method using FEBA experiment tests, instead of expert judgment. Also, through the uncertainty evaluation for FEBA and PERICLES tests, it was confirmed

  19. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  20. Long-term physical and psychological effects of the Vajont disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaetta, Cristina; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Few studies to date investigated the long-term consequences of disasters on physical health. The aim of the present report was to study the consequence on physical health of exposure to the Vajont disaster after 40 years. We also explored the effects of severity of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depression disorder on physical health and health-related quality of life. Sixty survivors of the Vajont disaster and 48 control subjects of similar gender, education, and age participated in the study. Physician-reported and subjective measures of physical health have been employed. Survivors reported a greater number of physical complaints than controls (pVajont one may have deleterious effects on both psychological and physical health.

  1. Steam generators clogging diagnosis through physical and statistical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, S.

    2012-01-01

    Steam generators are massive heat exchangers feeding the turbines of pressurised water nuclear power plants. Internal parts of steam generators foul up with iron oxides which gradually close some holes aimed for the passing of the fluid. This phenomenon called clogging causes safety issues and means to assess it are needed to optimise the maintenance strategy. The approach investigated in this thesis is the analysis of steam generators dynamic behaviour during power transients with a mono dimensional physical model. Two improvements to the model have been implemented. One was taking into account flows orthogonal to the modelling axis, the other was introducing a slip between phases accounting for velocity difference between liquid water and steam. These two elements increased the model's degrees of freedom and improved the adequacy of the simulation to plant data. A new calibration and validation methodology has been proposed to assess the robustness of the model. The initial inverse problem was ill posed: different clogging spatial configurations can produce identical responses. The relative importance of clogging, depending on its localisation, has been estimated by sensitivity analysis with the Sobol' method. The dimension of the model functional output had been previously reduced by principal components analysis. Finally, the input dimension has been reduced by a technique called sliced inverse regression. Based on this new framework, a new diagnosis methodology, more robust and better understood than the existing one, has been proposed. (author)

  2. Difficult decisions: A qualitative exploration of the statistical decision making process from the perspectives of psychology students and academics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter James Allen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these ‘experts’ were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in

  3. Difficult Decisions: A Qualitative Exploration of the Statistical Decision Making Process from the Perspectives of Psychology Students and Academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J; Dorozenko, Kate P; Roberts, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course) with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these "experts" were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible, and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in particular, this aid

  4. Difficult Decisions: A Qualitative Exploration of the Statistical Decision Making Process from the Perspectives of Psychology Students and Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J.; Dorozenko, Kate P.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course) with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these “experts” were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible, and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in particular, this aid

  5. A Meta-Meta-Analysis: Empirical Review of Statistical Power, Type I Error Rates, Effect Sizes, and Model Selection of Meta-Analyses Published in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Brannick, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses meta-analyses published in "Psychological Bulletin" from 1995 to 2005 to describe meta-analyses in psychology, including examination of statistical power, Type I errors resulting from multiple comparisons, and model choice. Retrospective power estimates indicated that univariate categorical and continuous moderators, individual…

  6. Adaptation and Validation of the Psychological Need Thwarting Scale in Spanish Physical Education Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Ricardo; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; García-Calvo, Tomás

    2015-07-20

    Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2002), the aim of the study was to adapt and validate a Spanish version of the Psychological Need Thwarting Scale (PNTS; Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, Ryan, & Thørgersen-Ntoumani, 2011) in the educational domain. Psychological need thwarting and burnout were assessed in 619 physical education teachers from several high schools in Spain. Overall, the adapted measure demonstrated good content, factorial (χ2/gl = 4.87, p < .01, CFI = .95, IFI = .96, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .08, SRMR = .05), and external validity, as well as internal consistency (α ≥ .81) and invariance across gender. Moreover, burnout was strongly predicted by teachers' perceptions of competence (β = .53, p ≤ .01), autonomy (β = .34, p ≤ .01), and relatedness (β = .31, p ≤ .01) need thwarting. In conclusion, these results support the Spanish version of the PNTS as a valid and reliable instrument for assessing the understudied concept of psychological need thwarting in teachers.

  7. The Innermost Kernel Depth Psychology and Quantum Physics. Wolfgang Pauli's Dialogue with C.G Jung

    CERN Document Server

    Gieser, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    "The Innermost Kernel" recounts the physicist and Nobel Laureate Wolfgang Pauli and his interest in Jungian psychology, philosophy and western world-view. It is also an exploration of the intellectual setting and context of Pauli's thinking, which has its starting point in the cultural and intellectual climate of fin-de-siècle Europe. As a contribution to the general history of quantum physics this study has a special focus on the psychological and philosophical issues discussed by physicists belonging to the Copenhagen school. The work is mainly based on the correspondence of the principle characters and explores some of the central issues discussed there, as for instance the subject-object relation, complementarity, the relation of conscious and unconscious, the process underlying concept-formation, the psychology of scientific discovery, the symbolic world of alchemy, the theories of archetypes and of synchronicity. Ultimately this book is about a remarkable scientist searching for a new understanding of ...

  8. Feminist Psychology and the "Body Problem": Sexuality, Physical Appearance, and Women's Physical and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    2011-01-01

    Reductionistic, misogynistic, and heterosexist views of women's bodies have been often expressed and widely shared, and psychology has not been immune to those views. Second-wave feminist psychologists had plenty of work to do to normalize and destigmatize women's bodies and to point out that cultural pressures, social constructions, and…

  9. Associations of Physical and Psychologic Symptom Burden in Patients With Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Shaffer, Kelly M; Polizzi, Heather; Mascarenhas, John; Kremyanskaya, Marina; Holland, Jimmie; Hoffman, Ronald

    2018-01-31

    The physical symptom burden of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) may last for extended periods during their disease trajectories and lead to psychologic distress, anxiety, or depression or all of these. This study evaluated the relationship between physical symptom burden captured by the Physical Problem List (PPL) on the Distress Thermometer and Problem List and psychologic outcomes (distress, anxiety, and depression) in the MPN setting. Patients (N = 117) with MPNs completed questionnaires containing the Distress Thermometer and Problem List and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in a dedicated MPN clinic within an academic medical center. They reported symptoms from any of 22 physical problems on the PPL. Items endorsed by more than 10% of participants were assessed for their associations with distress (Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety), and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression). The total number of endorsed PPL items per participant was also evaluated. Nine of 22 PPL items (fatigue, sleep, pain, dry skin/pruritus, memory/concentration, feeling swollen, breathing, and sexual) were reported by >10% of participants. In univariate analyses, all PPL items but one were associated with distress and depression, and all but 2 were associated with anxiety. In multivariate analyses, the total number of PPL items was associated with depression only (p symptom burden in MPN patients was clearly associated with psychologic symptoms. Depression was uniquely associated with overall physical symptom burden. As such, the endorsement of multiple PPL items on the Distress Thermometer and Problem List should prompt an evaluation for psychologic symptoms to improve MPN patients' overall morbidity and quality of life. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of prior rape on the psychological and physical health functioning of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A; Sheffler, Julia; Arce, Darleine; Rushing, Nicole C; Corsentino, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Older adults who have experienced traumatic events earlier in life may be especially vulnerable to additional challenges associated with aging. In a cross-sectional study of older females, the present study examines whether a history of rape is associated with current psychological and health problems. This study used existing data from the female respondents (N = 1228) in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a national probability sample of adults between the ages of 57 and 85 interviewed in their homes. It was determined whether or not the participant experienced forced sexual contact since the age of 18. Measures of psychological health (e.g., scales of depression, anxiety, and loneliness), the presence or absence of a number of serious health problems, and a one-item measure of self-esteem were obtained. Adult rape occurred in 7% of the sample. On average, 36 years had elapsed since the rape had occurred. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), rape was associated with lower self-esteem, psychological, and physical health functioning. Self-esteem partially mediated the association between rape and psychological functioning, but not health functioning. These associations were significant even after controlling for participant characteristics and risky health behaviors. Mechanisms linking prior rape to psychological and health problems in older age are discussed, as well as treatment recommendations for symptomatic older adults.

  11. Excel 2016 for physical sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2016-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical physical science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel is an effective learning tool for quantitative analyses in environmental science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Physical Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel 2016 to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chapter explains statistical formulas and directs the reader to use Excel commands to solve specific, easy-to-understand physical science problems. Practice problems are provided at the end of each chapter with their s...

  12. On estimating perturbative coefficients in quantum field theory and statistical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, M.A.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1994-05-01

    The authors present a method for estimating perturbative coefficients in quantum field theory and Statistical Physics. They are able to obtain reliable error-bars for each estimate. The results, in all cases, are excellent

  13. Statistical physics of non-thermal phase transitions from foundations to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abaimov, Sergey G

    2015-01-01

    Statistical physics can be used to better understand non-thermal complex systems—phenomena such as stock-market crashes, revolutions in society and in science, fractures in engineered materials and in the Earth’s crust, catastrophes, traffic jams, petroleum clusters, polymerization, self-organized criticality and many others exhibit behaviors resembling those of thermodynamic systems. In particular, many of these systems possess phase transitions identical to critical or spinodal phenomena in statistical physics. The application of the well-developed formalism of statistical physics to non-thermal complex systems may help to predict and prevent such catastrophes as earthquakes, snow-avalanches and landslides, failure of engineering structures, or economical crises. This book addresses the issue step-by-step, from phenomenological analogies between complex systems and statistical physics to more complex aspects, such as correlations, fluctuation-dissipation theorem, susceptibility, the concept of free ener...

  14. Objectively-measured outdoor time and physical and psychological function among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Bae, Seongryu; Harada, Kenji; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Objective measurements of outdoor time are essential to establishing evidence about the health benefits of going outdoors among older adults. To better understanding the health benefits of going outdoors, clarification of potential mediators to connect going outdoors with health benefits is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate associations of objectively-measured outdoor time with older adults' physical and psychological function, and examine the mediating role of physical activity on these associations. Baseline data from a randomized control trial of physical activity among older adults with global cognitive impairment was used. Data from 192 participants were analyzed. Measures included steps-per-day, objectively-measured outdoor time per day using global positioning systems, physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-extremity strength), psychological function (depression, well-being) and basic factors. Path analysis showed that outdoor time was significantly associated with steps-per-day (path coefficient = 0.23) and depression (path coefficient = -0.16). Outdoor time was not directly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-extremity strength and well-being. However, steps-per-day was associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (path coefficient = 0.18), lower-extremity strength (path coefficient = -0.22) and well-being (path coefficient = 0.14). We found that objectively-measured outdoor time was indirectly associated with physical function, and both directly and indirectly with psychological function through physical activity among older adults. This finding indicates that going outdoors influences older adults' health outcomes, and is mainly mediated by physical activity. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1455-1462. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Analyzing Statistical Mediation with Multiple Informants: A New Approach with an Application in Clinical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Lesther A; Litson, Kaylee; Lockhart, Ginger; Chassin, Laurie; Geiser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Testing mediation models is critical for identifying potential variables that need to be targeted to effectively change one or more outcome variables. In addition, it is now common practice for clinicians to use multiple informant (MI) data in studies of statistical mediation. By coupling the use of MI data with statistical mediation analysis, clinical researchers can combine the benefits of both techniques. Integrating the information from MIs into a statistical mediation model creates various methodological and practical challenges. The authors review prior methodological approaches to MI mediation analysis in clinical research and propose a new latent variable approach that overcomes some limitations of prior approaches. An application of the new approach to mother, father, and child reports of impulsivity, frustration tolerance, and externalizing problems (N = 454) is presented. The results showed that frustration tolerance mediated the relationship between impulsivity and externalizing problems. The new approach allows for a more comprehensive and effective use of MI data when testing mediation models.

  16. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  17. Psychological factors related to physical education classes as predictors of students' intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ponce-de-León-Elizondo, Ana; Sanz-Arazuri, Eva; Valdemoros-San-Emeterio, María de Los Ángeles; Martínez-Molina, Marina

    2016-04-01

    In view of the rise in sedentary lifestyle amongst young people, knowledge regarding their intention to partake in physical activity can be decisive when it comes to instilling physical activity habits to improve the current and future health of school students. Therefore, the object of this study was to find a predictive model of the intention to partake in leisure- time physical activity based on motivation, satisfaction and competence. The sample consisted of 347 Spanish, male, high school students and 411 female students aged between 13 and 18 years old. We used a questionnaire made up of the Sport Motivation Scale, Sport Satisfaction Instrument, and the competence factor in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Intention to Partake in Leisure-Time Physical Activity, all of them adapted to school Physical Education. We carried out confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation models. The intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity was predicted by competence and the latter by satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation was revealed to be the best predictor of satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation should be enhanced in order to predict an intention to partake in physical activity in Physical Education students.

  18. The impact of a 'green' building on employees' physical and psychological wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Milner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Multiple claims and some empirical findings suggest that 'green' buildings should be healthier (psychologically and physically) and promote greater productivity than conventional buildings. The empirical evidence in this regard over the last decade or so has been inconclusive suggesting either that the studies are flawed or that there are specific aspects of green buildings that promote wellbeing and productivity and others that do not. This study looks at a longitudinal comparison of two groups; a group that moved into South Africa's first GreenStar-accredited building and a group that did not. Measures were taken before the move and six months later. Results demonstrated that the 'green' building did not produce significantly better physical or psychological wellbeing, or higher perceived productivity. These results are discussed in relation to suggestions for what design features to focus on that may produce significant results.

  19. Disclosure of sexual victimization: the effects of Pennebaker's emotional disclosure paradigm on physical and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Megan C; Edwards, Katie M; Calhoun, Karen S; Gidycz, Christine A

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that many sexual assault survivors do not disclose their experience, which may increase associated distress. Pennebaker's emotional disclosure paradigm has been shown to ameliorate psychological and physical distress in individuals exposed to stressful events. The current study assessed the effectiveness of this paradigm with sexual assault survivors (N = 74). College women with a history of sexual assault wrote about their most severe victimization or about how they spend their time (control). Then 73 women (98.6%) completed a 1-month follow-up assessment. Results indicated that across writing sessions, the disclosure group reported greater reductions in negative mood immediately post-writing. However, both groups showed significant reductions in physical complaints, psychological distress, and traumatic stress symptoms at the 1-month follow-up, suggesting no added benefit to disclosure of a sexual assault using a brief written paradigm.

  20. Acute physical and psychological stress effects on visceral hypersensitivity in male rat: role of central nucleus of the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Afzali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute physical and psychological stress and temporary central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA block on stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Methods: Forty two male Wistar rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into 7 groups (n = 6; 1 – Control, 2 – physical stress, 3 – psychological stress, 4 – sham, 5 – lidocaine, 6 – lidocaine + physical stress and 7 – lidocaine + psychological stress. Stress induction was done using a communication box. Results: Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR score was monitored one hour after stress exposure. AWR score significantly heightened at 20, 40 and 60 mmHg in the psychological stress group compared with control (p < 0.05, while, it was almost unchanged in other groups. This score was strikingly decreased at 20, 40 and 60 mmHg in lidocaine + psychological stress group compared with psychological stress with no tangible response on physical stress. Total stool weight was significantly increased in psychological stress group compared with control (0.72 ± 0.15, 0.1 ± 0.06 g (p < 0.05, but it did not change in physical stress compared to control group (0.16 ± 0.12, 0.1 ± 0.06 g (p < 0.05. Concomitant use of lidocaine with stress followed the same results in psychological groups (0.18 ± 0.2, 0.72 ± 0.15 g (p < 0.05, while it did not have any effect on physical stress group (0.25 ± 0.1, 0.16 ± 0.12 g (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Psychological stress could strongly affect visceral hypersensitivity. This effect is statistically comparable with physical stress. Temporary CeA block could also reduce visceral hypersensitivity post-acute psychological stress. Resumen: Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar os efeitos do estresse físico e psicológico agudo e bloqueio temporário do núcleo central da amídala (CeA na hipersensibilidade visceral induzida por estresse. M

  1. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro

    2010-08-05

    An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status), psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons), social variables (social support), environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking and

  2. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Kaori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. Methods The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status, psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social variables (social support, environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Results Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. Conclusions The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on

  3. The Effects and Side-Effects of Statistics Education: Psychology Students' (Mis-)Conceptions of Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina; Chiesi, Francesca; Handley, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In three studies we looked at two typical misconceptions of probability: the representativeness heuristic, and the equiprobability bias. The literature on statistics education predicts that some typical errors and biases (e.g., the equiprobability bias) increase with education, whereas others decrease. This is in contrast with reasoning theorists'…

  4. Reducing Anxiety and Increasing Self-Efficacy within an Advanced Graduate Psychology Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, April L.; Ferns, Alyssa; Greiner, Leigh; Wanamaker, Kayla; Brown, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    In this study we assessed the usefulness of a multifaceted teaching framework in an advanced statistics course. We sought to expand on past findings by using this framework to assess changes in anxiety and self-efficacy, and we collected focus group data to ascertain whether students attribute such changes to a multifaceted teaching approach.…

  5. Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awat Feizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin′s parenting stress questionnaire was used and obtained data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance or covariance as appropriate. Results: Mothers of children with sensory-motor mental and chronic physical problems experience more stress than mothers of children with psychological disorders (P < 0.05. The stress score of mothers of children with psychological disorders was lower than the other two groups. Also there was a significant difference between the score of mothers of children with chronic physical problems and mothers of children with psychological disorders regarding parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P < 0.01. A significant difference was observed in terms of stress among mothers of children with sensory-motor mental problems with different number of children (P < 0.05; also mothers of children with chronic physical problems in different levels of education have experienced different levels of parenting stress (P < 0.05 Conclusion: Due to high level of parenting stress among our studied samples, special education and early intervention are needed for parents in our study population in order to deepening their diagnostic knowledge and professional consultation on stress management

  6. Integrative evaluation of automated massage combined with thermotherapy: physical, physiological, and psychological viewpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dowon; Lee, Daewoon; Schreiber, Jürgen; Im, Changhwan; Kim, Hansung

    2016-01-01

    Various types of massages are reported to relieve stress, pain, and anxiety which are beneficial for rehabilitation; however, more comprehensive studies are needed to understand the mechanism of massage therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of massage therapy, alone or in combination with infrared heating, on 3 different aspects: physical, physiological, and psychological. Twenty-eight healthy university students were subjected to 3 different treatment conditions on separate days...

  7. A physical/psychological and biological stress combine to enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Emeny, Rebecca T.; Gao, Donghong; Ault, Jeffrey G.; Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Lawrence, David A., E-mail: david.lawrence@health.ny.gov

    2015-12-01

    The generation of an immune response against infectious and other foreign agents is substantially modified by allostatic load, which is increased with chemical, physical and/or psychological stressors. The physical/psychological stress from cold-restraint (CR) inhibits host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), due to early effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves on β1-adrenoceptors (β1AR) of immune cells. Although CR activates innate immunity within 2 h, host defenses against bacterial growth are suppressed 2–3 days after infection (Cao and Lawrence 2002). CR enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The early innate activation leads to cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) changes of immune cells. Lymphocytes from CR-treated mice express fewer surface thiols. Splenic and hepatic immune cells also have fewer proteins with free thiols after CR and/or LM, and macrophages have less glutathione after the in vivo CR exposure or exposure to NE in vitro. The early induction of CR-induced oxidative stress elevates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which could interfere with keeping phagocytized LM within the phagosome or re-encapsuling LM by autophagy once they escape from the phagosome. ER stress-related proteins, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), have elevated expression with CR and LM. The results indicate that CR enhances the unfolded protein response (UPR), which interferes with host defenses against LM. Thus, it is postulated that increased stress, as exists with living conditions at low socioeconomic conditions, can lower host defenses against pathogens because of oxidative and ER stress processes. - Highlights: • Cold-restraint (physical/psychological stress) induces early oxidative stress. • The oxidative stress relates to catecholamine signaling beta-adrenoceptors. • Physical/psychological stress combines infection enhancing inflammation. • Endoplasmic reticulum

  8. Psychological interventions for mental health disorders in children with chronic physical illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sophie; Shafran, Roz; Coughtrey, Anna; Walker, Susan; Heyman, Isobel

    2015-04-01

    Children with chronic physical illness are significantly more likely to develop common psychiatric symptoms than otherwise healthy children. These children therefore warrant effective integrated healthcare yet it is not established whether the known, effective, psychological treatments for symptoms of common childhood mental health disorders work in children with chronic physical illness. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases were searched with predefined terms relating to evidence-based psychological interventions for psychiatric symptoms in children with chronic physical illness. We included all studies (randomised and non-randomised designs) investigating interventions aimed primarily at treating common psychiatric symptoms in children with a chronic physical illness in the review. Two reviewers independently assessed the relevance of abstracts identified, extracted data and undertook quality analysis. Ten studies (209 children, including 70 in control groups) met the criteria for inclusion in the review. All studies demonstrated some positive outcomes of cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms in children with chronic physical illness. Only two randomised controlled trials, both investigating interventions for symptoms of depression, were found. There is preliminary evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy has positive effects in the treatment of symptoms of depression and anxiety in children with chronic physical illness. However, the current evidence base is weak and fully powered randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the efficacy of psychological treatments in this vulnerable population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Psychological and Physical Health of Nonoffending Parents After Disclosure of Sexual Abuse of Their Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.

  10. Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Methods Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 ± 13.0 years, who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social (social support, health professional advice, environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area, and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs·hour per week, respondents were divided into two categories–recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive–according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. Results When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55–2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82–4.08 and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14–2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01–1.99 for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06–1.97 for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09–2.36 for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33–0.67 and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25–0.97 were negatively associated with meeting the physical

  11. Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro; Harada, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshio; Muraoka, Isao

    2009-08-28

    Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 +/- 13.0 years), who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons), social (social support, health professional advice), environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area), and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status) variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs.hour per week), respondents were divided into two categories-recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive)-according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55-2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82-4.08) and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14-2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01-1.99) for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06-1.97) for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09-2.36) for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33-0.67) and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.97) were negatively associated with meeting the physical activity recommendations. In the psychological, social, and

  12. Statistical issues in searches for new phenomena in High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Louis; Wardle, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    Many analyses of data in High Energy Physics are concerned with searches for New Physics. We review the statistical issues that arise in such searches, and then illustrate these using the specific example of the recent successful search for the Higgs boson, produced in collisions between high energy protons at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider.

  13. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    For the years 2004 and 2005 the figures shown in the tables of Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics published in Energy Review are presented in more detail in a publication called Energy Statistics that comes out yearly. Energy Statistics also includes historical time-series over a longer period of time (see e.g. Energy Statistics, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2004.) The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes, precautionary stock fees and oil pollution fees

  14. Psychological effects of acute physical inactivty during microgravitiy simulated by bed rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-duration weightlessness simulated by bed rest represents an important model to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. This study evaluated changes of mood status, psychological well-being, coping strategies and physical self in ten healthy young male subjects during a 35-day horizontal bed rest. Participants were asked to complete psychometrical inventories before and after the bed rest experiment. The preceived satisfaction with life and the physical self-concept did not change during bed rest period and mood states were relatively stable during the experiment according to the Emotional States Questionnaire. The neurotic level was enhanced during the bed rest period according to the Slovenian version of the General Health Questionnaire. However, even after the period of physical immobilization, the expression of these symptoms remains relatively low and does not represent a risk to the mental health of the subjects. The results from Coping Resources Inventory indicated a tendency toward an increase of emotion focused coping and a decrease of problem focused coping strategies. The importance of this research was to provide evidence that the provision of favourable habitability countermeasures can prevent deterioration in the psychological state under conditions of physical immobilisation. Our findings have applied value in the field of health prevention and rehabilitaion.

  15. Dyslexia in higher education: implications for maths anxiety, statistics anxiety and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Julie-Ann; McGladdery, Gary; Dyer, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    This study examined levels of mathematics and statistics anxiety, as well as general mental health amongst undergraduate students with dyslexia (n = 28) and those without dyslexia (n = 71). Students with dyslexia had higher levels of mathematics anxiety relative to those without dyslexia, while statistics anxiety and general mental health were comparable for both reading ability groups. In terms of coping strategies, undergraduates with dyslexia tended to use planning-based strategies and seek instrumental support more frequently than those without dyslexia. Higher mathematics anxiety was associated with having a dyslexia diagnosis, as well as greater levels of worrying, denial, seeking instrumental support and less use of the positive reinterpretation coping strategy. By contrast, statistics anxiety was not predicted by dyslexia diagnosis, but was instead predicted by overall worrying and the use of denial and emotion focused coping strategies. The results suggest that disability practitioners should be aware that university students with dyslexia are at risk of high mathematics anxiety. Additionally, effective anxiety reduction strategies such as positive reframing and thought challenging would form a useful addition to the support package delivered to many students with dyslexia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Analyzing Statistical Mediation with Multiple Informants: A New Approach with an Application in Clinical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesther ePapa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Testing mediation models is critical for identifying potential variables that need to be targeted to effectively change one or more outcome variables. In addition, it is now common practice for clinicians to use multiple informant (MI data in studies of statistical mediation. By coupling the use of MI data with statistical mediation analysis, clinical researchers can combine the benefits of both techniques. Integrating the information from MIs into a statistical mediation model creates various methodological and practical challenges. The authors review prior methodological approaches to MI mediation analysis in clinical research and propose a new latent variable approach that overcomes some limitations of prior approaches. An application of the new approach to mother, father, and child reports of impulsivity, frustration tolerance, and externalizing problems (N = 454 is presented. The results showed that frustration tolerance mediated the relationship between impulsivity and externalizing problems. Advantages and limitations of the new approach are discussed. The new approach can help clinical researchers overcome limitations of prior techniques. It allows for a more comprehensive and effective use of MI data when testing mediation models.

  17. SERC School on Computational Statistical Physics held at the Indian Institute of Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Purusattam

    2011-01-01

    The present book is an outcome of the SERC school on Computational Statistical Physics held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, in December 2008. Numerical experimentation has played an extremely important role in statistical physics in recent years. Lectures given at the School covered a large number of topics of current and continuing interest. Based on lectures by active researchers in the field- Bikas Chakrabarti, S Chaplot, Deepak Dhar, Sanjay Kumar, Prabal Maiti, Sanjay Puri, Purusattam Ray, Sitangshu Santra and Subir Sarkar- the nine chapters comprising the book deal with topics that range from the fundamentals of the field, to problems and questions that are at the very forefront of current research. This book aims to expose the graduate student to the basic as well as advanced techniques in computational statistical physics. Following a general introduction to statistical mechanics and critical phenomena, the various chapters cover Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation methodolog...

  18. Physics Teachers and Students: A Statistical and Historical Analysis of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Amanda

    2009-10-01

    Historically, women have been denied an education comparable to that available to men. Since women have been allowed into institutions of higher learning, they have been studying and earning physics degrees. The aim of this poster is to discuss the statistical relationship between the number of women enrolled in university physics programs and the number of female physics faculty members. Special care has been given to examining the statistical data in the context of the social climate at the time that these women were teaching or pursuing their education.

  19. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    For the year 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  20. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  1. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    For the year 1998 and the year 1999, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1999, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1999, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  2. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored. Methods A cross-sectional total geriatric population survey consisting of 254 elderly has been carried out at urban field practice area. A standard geriatric depression scale (Short form has been utilized to assess psychological status. Detailed physical examination and investigations with special reference to Diabetes, Hypertension and Visual defects was carried out. Data was analyzed to find out the relationship of various socio-demographic factors, physical morbidities with depression. Results Out of 254 elderly examined, 32 per cent females and 23 per cent males were found to be suffering from depressive disorders. When assessed for individual health status perception, 25 per cent felt to have good health. Out of 190 geriatric subjects perceiving fair to bad health, 110 were found to be suffering from depression (p<0.001. Depression was also found to be associated with history of hospital admission in the previous year (p<0.05, low vision (p<0.05, diabetes (p<0.01 and hypertension (p<0.01. Conclusion Depression among geriatric age group is associated with physical illness and perception of health.

  3. Physics-based statistical model and simulation method of RF propagation in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Dvorak, Steven L.

    2010-09-14

    A physics-based statistical model and simulation/modeling method and system of electromagnetic wave propagation (wireless communication) in urban environments. In particular, the model is a computationally efficient close-formed parametric model of RF propagation in an urban environment which is extracted from a physics-based statistical wireless channel simulation method and system. The simulation divides the complex urban environment into a network of interconnected urban canyon waveguides which can be analyzed individually; calculates spectral coefficients of modal fields in the waveguides excited by the propagation using a database of statistical impedance boundary conditions which incorporates the complexity of building walls in the propagation model; determines statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields; and determines a parametric propagation model based on the statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields from which predictions of communications capability may be made.

  4. The Practicality of Statistical Physics Handout Based on KKNI and the Constructivist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, S. Y.; Afrizon, R.

    2018-04-01

    Statistical physics lecture shows that: 1) the performance of lecturers, social climate, students’ competence and soft skills needed at work are in enough category, 2) students feel difficulties in following the lectures of statistical physics because it is abstract, 3) 40.72% of students needs more understanding in the form of repetition, practice questions and structured tasks, and 4) the depth of statistical physics material needs to be improved gradually and structured. This indicates that learning materials in accordance of The Indonesian National Qualification Framework or Kerangka Kualifikasi Nasional Indonesia (KKNI) with the appropriate learning approach are needed to help lecturers and students in lectures. The author has designed statistical physics handouts which have very valid criteria (90.89%) according to expert judgment. In addition, the practical level of handouts designed also needs to be considered in order to be easy to use, interesting and efficient in lectures. The purpose of this research is to know the practical level of statistical physics handout based on KKNI and a constructivist approach. This research is a part of research and development with 4-D model developed by Thiagarajan. This research activity has reached part of development test at Development stage. Data collection took place by using a questionnaire distributed to lecturers and students. Data analysis using descriptive data analysis techniques in the form of percentage. The analysis of the questionnaire shows that the handout of statistical physics has very practical criteria. The conclusion of this study is statistical physics handouts based on the KKNI and constructivist approach have been practically used in lectures.

  5. Multivariate statistical methods and data mining in particle physics (4/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The lectures will cover multivariate statistical methods and their applications in High Energy Physics. The methods will be viewed in the framework of a statistical test, as used e.g. to discriminate between signal and background events. Topics will include an introduction to the relevant statistical formalism, linear test variables, neural networks, probability density estimation (PDE) methods, kernel-based PDE, decision trees and support vector machines. The methods will be evaluated with respect to criteria relevant to HEP analyses such as statistical power, ease of computation and sensitivity to systematic effects. Simple computer examples that can be extended to more complex analyses will be presented.

  6. Multivariate statistical methods and data mining in particle physics (2/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The lectures will cover multivariate statistical methods and their applications in High Energy Physics. The methods will be viewed in the framework of a statistical test, as used e.g. to discriminate between signal and background events. Topics will include an introduction to the relevant statistical formalism, linear test variables, neural networks, probability density estimation (PDE) methods, kernel-based PDE, decision trees and support vector machines. The methods will be evaluated with respect to criteria relevant to HEP analyses such as statistical power, ease of computation and sensitivity to systematic effects. Simple computer examples that can be extended to more complex analyses will be presented.

  7. Multivariate statistical methods and data mining in particle physics (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The lectures will cover multivariate statistical methods and their applications in High Energy Physics. The methods will be viewed in the framework of a statistical test, as used e.g. to discriminate between signal and background events. Topics will include an introduction to the relevant statistical formalism, linear test variables, neural networks, probability density estimation (PDE) methods, kernel-based PDE, decision trees and support vector machines. The methods will be evaluated with respect to criteria relevant to HEP analyses such as statistical power, ease of computation and sensitivity to systematic effects. Simple computer examples that can be extended to more complex analyses will be presented.

  8. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Psychological/Physical Health among Malaysian Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    The workplace environment has a great influence on employees' health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees' psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological health and somatic complaints (i.e., sleep disorders, headache, gastro-intestinal and respiratory problems). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567 Malaysian women working in the public sector. Data collection was conducted using a series of self-administered questionnaires. The results of this study show that there is a link between job satisfaction and psychological distress as well as four somatic complaints. Satisfaction with the nature of work was the strongest predictor for psychological distress, sleep disorders, headaches and gastro-intestinal problems. From the results of this study, we conclude that there is a link between job satisfaction and the health status of employees. In addition, job satisfaction levels vary across different dimensions and can even differ from an individual's feelings of global job satisfaction. Policies and practices should focus on improving working conditions to enhance the fit of the job and the employee.

  9. Psychological and physical well-being of Lithuanian youth: Relation to emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinienė, Dalia; Lekavičienė, Rosita

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this article is to unveil the ways in which the emotional intelligence (EI) of a young person is linked with subjective assessment of physical state, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being, as well as to determine whether these factors are reliable predictors of EI constituents. The study was conducted using an original EI test (EI-DARL-V1/V2), which consisted of a traditional 73-item questionnaire; tasks of emotional, social and interpersonal situations; and identification of emotions in facial expressions (pictures). Questionnaire items were multiplexed into 5 subscales using multi-step factor analysis. Special questionnaires were devised and presented to participants together with the EI questionnaire in order to assess subjective assessment of physical and mental health, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being. There were 1430 participants from various regions of Lithuania who participated in the study. The age of participants varied from 17 to 27 years. Established inverse linear correlation showed that those participants who experienced certain somatic symptoms or unpleasant psychological states had lower EI; a particularly strong correlation was observed between poor subjective assessment of health and understanding and control of one's own emotions. Depressed and anxious participants possessed poorer understanding and ability to regulate emotions of others as well as their own. Also, these participants performed worse when resolving emotional, social, and interpersonal situations. A direct relationship between EI and psychological well-being was established according to three EI indexes i.e. (a) understanding of own emotions; (b) understanding of emotions of other people; (c) control of emotions of others. As perception of psychological well-being increased, participants were able to understand emotions of others better and demonstrated even better ability to understand and control their own emotions. The study

  10. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    For the year 2002, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 2001, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2002). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supply and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees on energy products

  11. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    For the year 2003 and 2004, the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2003, ISSN 0785-3165). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2004, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2004, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees

  12. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  13. Multiple sclerosis severity and concern about falling: Physical, cognitive and psychological mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Rob; Hoang, Phu; Lord, Stephen; Gandevia, Simon; Delbaere, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Concern about falling can have devastating physical and psychological consequences in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, little is known about physical and cognitive determinants for increased concern about falling inthis group. To investigate direct and indirect relationships between MS severity and concern about falling using structural equation modelling (SEM). Two hundred and ten community-dwelling people (21-73 years) with MS Disease Steps 0-5 completed several physical, cognitive and psychological assessments. Concern about falling was assessed using the Falls Efficacy Scale-International. Concern about falling was significantly associated with MS Disease Step and also balance, muscle strength, disability, previous falls, and executive functioning. SEM revealed a strong direct path between MS Disease Step and concern about falling (r = 0.31, p concern about falling in people with MS and had an excellent goodness-of-fit. The relationship between MS severity and increased concern about falling was primarily mediated by reduced physical ability (especially if this resulted in disability and falls) and less so by executive functioning. This suggests people with MS have a realistic appraisal of their concern about falling.

  14. Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: A neurophysicalmodel of the mind/brain interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey M.; Stapp, Henry P.; Beauregard, Mario

    2004-09-21

    Neuropsychological research on the neural basis of behavior generally posits that brain mechanisms will ultimately suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This assumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material particles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms relevant to neuroscience can therefore be formulated solely in terms of properties of these elements. Thus terms having intrinsic mentalistic and/or experiential content (e.g., ''feeling,'' ''knowing,'' and ''effort'') are not included as primary causal factors. This theoretical restriction is motivated primarily by ideas about the natural world that have been known to be fundamentally incorrect for more than three quarters of a century. Contemporary basic physical theory differs profoundly from classical physics on the important matter of how the consciousness of human agents enters into the structure of empirical phenomena. The new principles contradict the older idea that local mechanical processes alone can account for the structure of all observed empirical data. Contemporary physical theory brings directly and irreducibly into the overall causal structure certain psychologically described choices made by human agents about how they will act. This key development in basic physical theory is applicable to neuroscience, and it provides neuroscientists and psychologists with an alternative conceptual framework for describing neural processes. Indeed, due to certain structural features of ion channels critical to synaptic function, contemporary physical theory must in principle be used when analyzing human brain dynamics. The new framework, unlike its classical-physics-based predecessor is erected directly upon, and is compatible with, the prevailing principles of physics, and is able to represent more adequately than classical concepts the neuroplastic mechanisms relevant to the growing number of

  15. Relationship of Weight-Based Teasing and Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To date, research has focused primarily on psychological correlates of weight-based teasing. In this study, we extended previous work by also examining physical health-related variables (eg, physical self-concept and physical fitness [PF]). Methods: Participants included 1419 middle school students (637 boys and 782 girls). Of these,…

  16. Psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities in Zimbabwean inclusive community settings: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Mpofu

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study should enable inclusive communities’ policy-makers and researchers to better understand the psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities living in inclusive communities.

  17. The Relationship between Psychological Well-being and Mental Toughness Among Elders: Mediator Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sohrabi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion In accordance with the results of this study, the elders should be encouraged to perform physical activities, which in turn improves aspects of mental health such as psychological well-being and mental toughness

  18. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Sani SH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani,1 Zahra Fathirezaie,1 Serge Brand,2 Uwe Pühse,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,2 Markus Gerber,3 Siavash Talepasand4 1Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA and self-esteem (SE, while introducing body mass index (BMI, perceived physical fitness (PPF, and body image (BI in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years. The findings indicated that PA was directly and indirectly associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor indirectly, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and indirectly with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and indirectly associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE. Keywords: physical activity, self-esteem, physical fitness, body image, adults

  19. Hunting Solomonoff's Swans: Exploring the Boundary Between Physics and Statistics in Hydrological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Statistical models consistently out-perform conceptual models in the short term, however to account for a nonstationary future (or an unobserved past) scientists prefer to base predictions on unchanging and commutable properties of the universe - i.e., physics. The problem with physically-based hydrology models is, of course, that they aren't really based on physics - they are based on statistical approximations of physical interactions, and we almost uniformly lack an understanding of the entropy associated with these approximations. Thermodynamics is successful precisely because entropy statistics are computable for homogeneous (well-mixed) systems, and ergodic arguments explain the success of Newton's laws to describe systems that are fundamentally quantum in nature. Unfortunately, similar arguments do not hold for systems like watersheds that are heterogeneous at a wide range of scales. Ray Solomonoff formalized the situation in 1968 by showing that given infinite evidence, simultaneously minimizing model complexity and entropy in predictions always leads to the best possible model. The open question in hydrology is about what happens when we don't have infinite evidence - for example, when the future will not look like the past, or when one watershed does not behave like another. How do we isolate stationary and commutable components of watershed behavior? I propose that one possible answer to this dilemma lies in a formal combination of physics and statistics. In this talk I outline my recent analogue (Solomonoff's theorem was digital) of Solomonoff's idea that allows us to quantify the complexity/entropy tradeoff in a way that is intuitive to physical scientists. I show how to formally combine "physical" and statistical methods for model development in a way that allows us to derive the theoretically best possible model given any given physics approximation(s) and available observations. Finally, I apply an analogue of Solomonoff's theorem to evaluate the

  20. Generalized statistical criterion for distinguishing random optical groupings from physical multiple systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anosova, Z.P.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical criterion is proposed for distinguishing between random and physical groupings of stars and galaxies. The criterion is applied to nearby wide multiple stars, triplets of galaxies in the list of Karachentsev, Karachentseva, and Shcherbanovskii, and double galaxies in the list of Dahari, in which the principal components are Seyfert galaxies. Systems that are almost certainly physical, probably physical, probably optical, and almost certainly optical are identified. The limiting difference between the radial velocities of the components of physical multiple galaxies is estimated

  1. Long-term physical and psychological effects of the Vajont disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zaetta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies to date investigated the long-term consequences of disasters on physical health. Objective : The aim of the present report was to study the consequence on physical health of exposure to the Vajont disaster after 40 years. We also explored the effects of severity of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and major depression disorder on physical health and health-related quality of life. Method: Sixty survivors of the Vajont disaster and 48 control subjects of similar gender, education, and age participated in the study. Physician-reported and subjective measures of physical health have been employed. Results: Survivors reported a greater number of physical complaints than controls (p<0.001, and some type of diseases showed a significant relationship with PTSD or PTSD symptoms. Quality of life differed between the two groups as regards the perception of physical health. The number of intrusive PTSD symptoms showed a significant negative effect on the quality of life of survivors. Conclusions: Our study shows that large-scale disasters such as the Vajont one may have deleterious effects on both psychological and physical health.

  2. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lawton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262 aged 18–71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1 who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp. Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship.

  3. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Emma; Brymer, Eric; Clough, Peter; Denovan, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262) aged 18–71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1) who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp). Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship. PMID:28694788

  4. Safety bey statistics? A critical view on statistical methods applied in health physics; Sicherheit durch Statistik? Ein kritischer Blick auf die Anwendung statistischer Methoden im Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraut, W. [Duale Hochschule Baden-Wuerttemberg (DHBW), Karlsruhe (Germany). Studiengang Sicherheitswesen

    2016-07-01

    The only proper way to describe uncertainties in health physics is by statistical means. But statistics never can replace Your personal evaluation of effect, nor can statistics transmute randomness into certainty like an ''uncertainty laundry''. The paper discusses these problems in routine practical work.

  5. Classical Methods of Statistics With Applications in Fusion-Oriented Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kardaun, Otto J W F

    2005-01-01

    Classical Methods of Statistics is a blend of theory and practical statistical methods written for graduate students and researchers interested in applications to plasma physics and its experimental aspects. It can also fruitfully be used by students majoring in probability theory and statistics. In the first part, the mathematical framework and some of the history of the subject are described. Many exercises help readers to understand the underlying concepts. In the second part, two case studies are presented exemplifying discriminant analysis and multivariate profile analysis. The introductions of these case studies outline contextual magnetic plasma fusion research. In the third part, an overview of statistical software is given and, in particular, SAS and S-PLUS are discussed. In the last chapter, several datasets with guided exercises, predominantly from the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, are included and their physical background is concisely described. The book concludes with a list of essential keyword transl...

  6. Reducing psychological distress and obesity in Australian farmers by promoting physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoombe Scott

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have confirmed that the rate of mental illness is no higher in rural Australians than that of urban Australians. However, the rate of poor mental health outcomes, and in particular suicide, is significantly raised in rural populations. This is thought to be due to lack of early diagnosis, health service access, the distance-decay effect, poor physical health determinants and access to firearms. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 reveals that there is a correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community where suicide rates are recognised as high. Chronic stress overstimulates the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis that is associated with abdominal obesity. Increasing physical activity may block negative thoughts, increase social contact, positively influence brain chemistry and improve both physical and mental health. This paper describes the design of the Farming Fit study that aims to identify the effect of physical activity on psychological distress, obesity and health behaviours such as diet patterns and smoking in farm men and women. Methods/Design For this quasi-experimental (convenience sample control-intervention study, overweight (Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2 farm men and women will be recruited from Sustainable Farm Families™ (SFF programs held across Victoria, Australia. Baseline demographic data, health data, depression anxiety stress scale (DASS scores, dietary information, physical activity data, anthropometric data, blood pressure and biochemical analysis of plasma and salivary cortisol levels will be collected. The intervention group will receive an exercise program and regular phone coaching in order to increase their physical activity. Analysis will evaluate the impact of the intervention by longitudinal data (baseline and post intervention comparison of intervention and control groups. Discussion

  7. Identification of AE Bursts by Classification of Physical and Statistical Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieza, J.I.; Oliveto, M.E.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Armeite, M.; Ruzzante, J.E.; Piotrkowski, R.

    2005-01-01

    Physical and statistical parameters obtained with the Principal Components method, extracted from Acoustic Emission bursts coming from triaxial deformation tests were analyzed. The samples came from seamless steel tubes used in the petroleum industry and some of them were provided with a protective coating. The purpose of our work was to identify bursts originated in the breakage of the coating, from those originated in damage mechanisms in the bulk steel matrix. Analysis was performed by statistical distributions, fractal analysis and clustering methods

  8. Statistical Plasma Physics in a Strong Magnetic Field: Paradigms and Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Krommes

    2004-03-19

    An overview is given of certain aspects of fundamental statistical theories as applied to strongly magnetized plasmas. Emphasis is given to the gyrokinetic formalism, the historical development of realizable Markovian closures, and recent results in the statistical theory of turbulent generation of long-wavelength flows that generalize and provide further physical insight to classic calculations of eddy viscosity. A Hamiltonian formulation of turbulent flow generation is described and argued to be very useful.

  9. Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age.

  10. Introduction to modern theoretical physics. Volume II. Quantum theory and statistical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The topics discussed include the history and principles, some solvable problems, and symmetry in quantum mechanics, interference phenomena, approximation methods, some applications of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, relativistic wave equations, quantum theory of radiation, second quantization, elementary particles and their interactions, thermodynamics, equilibrium statistical mechanics and its applications, the kinetic theory of gases, and collective phenomena

  11. A new universality class in corpus of texts; A statistical physics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2018-05-01

    Text can be regarded as a complex system. There are some methods in statistical physics which can be used to study this system. In this work, by means of statistical physics methods, we reveal new universal behaviors of texts associating with the fractality values of words in a text. The fractality measure indicates the importance of words in a text by considering distribution pattern of words throughout the text. We observed a power law relation between fractality of text and vocabulary size for texts and corpora. We also observed this behavior in studying biological data.

  12. Information Theory - The Bridge Connecting Bounded Rational Game Theory and Statistical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    A long-running difficulty with conventional game theory has been how to modify it to accommodate the bounded rationality of all red-world players. A recurring issue in statistical physics is how best to approximate joint probability distributions with decoupled (and therefore far more tractable) distributions. This paper shows that the same information theoretic mathematical structure, known as Product Distribution (PD) theory, addresses both issues. In this, PD theory not only provides a principle formulation of bounded rationality and a set of new types of mean field theory in statistical physics; it also shows that those topics are fundamentally one and the same.

  13. Statistical physics inspired energy-efficient coded-modulation for optical communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2012-04-15

    Because Shannon's entropy can be obtained by Stirling's approximation of thermodynamics entropy, the statistical physics energy minimization methods are directly applicable to the signal constellation design. We demonstrate that statistical physics inspired energy-efficient (EE) signal constellation designs, in combination with large-girth low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, significantly outperform conventional LDPC-coded polarization-division multiplexed quadrature amplitude modulation schemes. We also describe an EE signal constellation design algorithm. Finally, we propose the discrete-time implementation of D-dimensional transceiver and corresponding EE polarization-division multiplexed system. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  14. Sexual activity and psychological health as mediators of the relationship between physical health and marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.

  15. Usage of social media and smartphone application in assessment of physical and psychological well-being of individuals in times of a major air pollution crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Ho, Cyrus Sh; Fang, Pan; Lu, Yanxia; Ho, Roger Cm

    2014-03-25

    Crisis situations bring about many challenges to researchers, public institutions, and governments in collecting data and conducting research in affected individuals. Recent developments in Web-based and smartphone technologies have offered government and nongovernment organizations a new system to disseminate and acquire information. However, research into this area is still lacking. The current study focuses largely on how new social networking websites and, in particular, smartphone technologies could have helped in the acquisition of crucial research data from the general population during the recent 2013 Southeast Asian Haze. This crisis lasted only for 1 week, and is unlike other crisis where there are large-scale consequential after-effects. To determine whether respondents will make use of Internet, social media, and smartphone technologies to provide feedback regarding their physical and psychological wellbeing during a crisis, and if so, will these new mechanisms be as effective as conventional, technological, Internet-based website technologies. A Web-based database and a smartphone application were developed. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling. The participants were recruited either via a self-sponsored Facebook post featuring a direct link to the questionnaire on physical and psychological wellbeing and also a smartphone Web-based application; or via dissemination of the questionnaire link by emails, directed to the same group of participants. Information pertaining to physical and psychological wellbeing was collated. A total of 298 respondents took part in the survey. Most of them were between the ages of 20 to 29 years and had a university education. More individuals preferred the option of accessing and providing feedback to a survey on physical and psychological wellbeing via direct access to a Web-based questionnaire. Statistical analysis showed that demographic variables like age, gender, and educational levels did not influence

  16. Suicidal ideation in prostate cancer survivors: understanding the role of physical and psychological health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recklitis, Christopher J; Zhou, Eric S; Zwemer, Eric K; Hu, Jim C; Kantoff, Philip W

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown prostate cancer (PC) survivors are at an increased risk of suicide compared with the general population, but to the authors' knowledge very little is known regarding what factors are associated with this increased risk. The current study examined the prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI) and its association with cancer treatment and posttreatment physical and emotional health in a cohort of long-term PC survivors. A total of 693 PC survivors (3-8 years after diagnosis) completed a mailed survey on physical and psychological functioning, including cancer treatments, the Short Form-12 (SF-12), the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite Instrument (EPIC-26), a depression rating scale, and 8 items regarding recent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A total of 86 PC survivors (12.4%) endorsed SI, with 10 individuals (1.4%) reporting serious SI. Serious SI was more common in this sample compared with age-adjusted and sex-adjusted normative data. SI was not associated with most demographic variables, or with PC stage or treatments. However, SI was found to be significantly associated with employment status, poor physical and emotional functioning, greater symptom burden on the EPIC-26, higher frequency of significant pain, and clinically significant depression (P physical and emotional function, including disability status and pain, were found to be associated with SI (P depression. A significant percentage of PC survivors report recent SI, which is associated with both physical and psychological dysfunction, but not PC treatments. The results of the current study help to explain the increased risk of suicide previously reported in PC survivors and have important implications for identifying and treating those survivors at greatest risk of suicidality. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  17. Elder mistreatment predicts later physical and psychological health: Results from a national longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jaclyn S; Waite, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    Stress process theory predicts that elder mistreatment leads to declines in health, and that social support buffers its ill effects. We test this theory using nationally representative, longitudinal data from 2,261 older adults in the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We regress psychological and physical health in 2010/2011 on verbal and financial mistreatment experience in 2005/2006 and find that the mistreated have more anxiety symptoms, greater feelings of loneliness, and worse physical and functional health 5 years later than those who did not report mistreatment. In particular, we show a novel association between financial mistreatment and functional health. Contrary to the stress buffering hypothesis, we find little evidence that social support moderates the relationship between mistreatment and health. Our findings point to the lasting impact of mistreatment on health but show little evidence of a buffering role of social support in this process.

  18. Applying cognitive developmental psychology to middle school physics learning: The rule assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinen, Nicole R.; Chi, Min; Chin, Doris B.; Prempeh, Joe; Blair, Kristen P.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive developmental psychology often describes children's growing qualitative understanding of the physical world. Physics educators may be able to use the relevant methods to advantage for characterizing changes in students' qualitative reasoning. Siegler developed the "rule assessment" method for characterizing levels of qualitative understanding for two factor situations (e.g., volume and mass for density). The method assigns children to rule levels that correspond to the degree they notice and coordinate the two factors. Here, we provide a brief tutorial plus a demonstration of how we have used this method to evaluate instructional outcomes with middle-school students who learned about torque, projectile motion, and collisions using different instructional methods with simulations.

  19. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors.Cross sectional survey.17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom.Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups.Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling.547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model.Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  20. Data Analysis and Graphing in an Introductory Physics Laboratory: Spreadsheet versus Statistics Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlin, Primoz

    2010-01-01

    Two methods of data analysis are compared: spreadsheet software and a statistics software suite. Their use is compared analysing data collected in three selected experiments taken from an introductory physics laboratory, which include a linear dependence, a nonlinear dependence and a histogram. The merits of each method are compared. (Contains 7…

  1. Data analysis and graphing in an introductory physics laboratory: spreadsheet versus statistics suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterlin, Primoz

    2010-01-01

    Two methods of data analysis are compared: spreadsheet software and a statistics software suite. Their use is compared analysing data collected in three selected experiments taken from an introductory physics laboratory, which include a linear dependence, a nonlinear dependence and a histogram. The merits of each method are compared.

  2. Efficient pan-European river flood hazard modelling through a combination of statistical and physical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paprotny, D.; Morales Napoles, O.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    Flood hazard is currently being researched on continental and global scales, using models of increasing complexity. In this paper we investigate a different, simplified approach, which combines statistical and physical models in place of conventional rainfall-run-off models to carry out flood

  3. Competitive agents in a market: Statistical physics of the minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrington, David

    2007-10-01

    A brief review is presented of the minority game, a simple frustrated many-body system stimulated by considerations of a market of competitive speculative agents. Its cooperative behaviour exhibits phase transitions and both ergodic and non-ergodic regimes. It provides novel challenges to statistical physics, reminiscent of those of mean-field spin glasses.

  4. Parenting styles and bullying. The mediating role of parental psychological aggression and physical punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Romera, Eva María; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Studies concerning parenting styles and disciplinary practices have shown a relationship between both factors and bullying involvement in adolescence. The scarce available evidence suggests that abusive disciplinary practices increase teenagers' vulnerability to abuse in school or the likelihood of them becoming abusers of their peers in the same context. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the indirect effect of parenting styles in adolescents' bullying involvement through disciplinary practices, although a relationship between parenting styles and disciplinary practices has been shown. The aim of this research was to determine the mediating role of punitive parental discipline (physical punishment and psychological aggression) between the dimensions of parents' parenting styles and their children's involvement in bullying victimization and aggression. We used a sample comprising 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age=14.34). Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. The results confirmed the mediating role of parental discipline between the parenting practices analyzed and students' aggression and victimization. Significant gender-related differences were found for aggression involvement, where boys were for the most part linked to psychological aggression disciplinary practices and girls to physical punishment. Victimization directly correlated with parental psychological aggression discipline behavior across both sexes. In conclusion, the results seem to suggest that non-democratic parenting styles favor the use of punitive discipline, which increases the risk of adolescents' bullying involvement. Therefore, intervention programs must involve parents to make them aware about the important role they play in this process and to improve their parenting styles. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechberger, Elke Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

  6. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI, mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  7. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T C; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2017-01-12

    With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  8. Physical work load and psychological stress of daily activities as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-06-01

    Physical work loading and psychological stress commonly co-occur in working life, hence potentially having an interrelationship that may affect work incapacity. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of stability and change in physical work loading and stress on the risk of disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD), while accounting for familial confounding in these associations. Data on 12,455 twins born before 1958 were surveyed of their physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data was collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the follow up, 893 participants were granted DP due to MSD. Stable high (hazard ratio, HR, 2.21), but also increased physical work loading (HR 2.05) and high psychological stress (HR 2.22) were associated with increased risk for DP, and had significant interaction (p=0.032). The associations were confirmed when accounting for several confounding factors. Stable high but also increased physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities between two timepoints with 6 years apart confirms their predictive role for an increased risk of DP. Both physical work loading and psychological stress seem to be independent from various confounding factors hence suggesting direct effect on risk for DP providing potential for occupational health care to early identification of persons at risk. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. Methods and applications of statistics in engineering, quality control, and the physical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, Second Edition (ESS2e), this volume presents a concise, well-rounded focus on the statistical concepts and applications that are essential for understanding gathered data in the fields of engineering, quality control, and the physical sciences. The book successfully upholds the goals of ESS2e by combining both previously-published and newly developed contributions written by over 100 leading academics, researchers, and practitioner in a comprehensive, approachable format. The result is a succinct reference that unveils modern, cutting-edge approaches to acquiring and analyzing data across diverse subject areas within these three disciplines, including operations research, chemistry, physics, the earth sciences, electrical engineering, and quality assurance. In addition, techniques related to survey methodology, computational statistics, and operations research are discussed, where applicable. Topics of coverage include: optimal and stochastic control, arti...

  10. Combination of statistical and physically based methods to assess shallow slide susceptibility at the basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Zêzere, José L.; Lajas, Sara; Melo, Raquel

    2017-07-01

    Approaches used to assess shallow slide susceptibility at the basin scale are conceptually different depending on the use of statistical or physically based methods. The former are based on the assumption that the same causes are more likely to produce the same effects, whereas the latter are based on the comparison between forces which tend to promote movement along the slope and the counteracting forces that are resistant to motion. Within this general framework, this work tests two hypotheses: (i) although conceptually and methodologically distinct, the statistical and deterministic methods generate similar shallow slide susceptibility results regarding the model's predictive capacity and spatial agreement; and (ii) the combination of shallow slide susceptibility maps obtained with statistical and physically based methods, for the same study area, generate a more reliable susceptibility model for shallow slide occurrence. These hypotheses were tested at a small test site (13.9 km2) located north of Lisbon (Portugal), using a statistical method (the information value method, IV) and a physically based method (the infinite slope method, IS). The landslide susceptibility maps produced with the statistical and deterministic methods were combined into a new landslide susceptibility map. The latter was based on a set of integration rules defined by the cross tabulation of the susceptibility classes of both maps and analysis of the corresponding contingency tables. The results demonstrate a higher predictive capacity of the new shallow slide susceptibility map, which combines the independent results obtained with statistical and physically based models. Moreover, the combination of the two models allowed the identification of areas where the results of the information value and the infinite slope methods are contradictory. Thus, these areas were classified as uncertain and deserve additional investigation at a more detailed scale.

  11. Does Physical Environment Contribute to Basic Psychological Needs? A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…

  12. Changes in productivity, psychological wellbeing and physical wellbeing from working in a 'green' building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Milner, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Based on improvements in indoor environmental quality claims are that 'green' buildings are healthier and promote greater productivity than conventional buildings. However, the empirical evidence over the last decade has been inconclusive, usually with flawed study designs. This study explored whether a 'green' building leads to a healthier, more productive work environment. A one-year, longitudinal comparison of two groups of employees of a large commercial bank; a group that moved into a GreenStar-accredited building and a group that stayed in a conventional building, was conducted. Measures of psychological wellbeing, physical wellbeing, productivity, and perceptions of the physical environment were taken before the move, six months later, and one year later. Results indicate that the 'green' building group had significantly increased self-reported productivity and physical wellbeing. The perceptions of the physical work environment indicate that respondents in the 'green' building group experienced significant air quality improvements (specifically, reduced stale air, better ventilation, improved air movement, reduced humidity, and conditions that were not too drafty) but perceived the lighting conditions as dimmer. Despite positive findings 'green' building rating tools require amendment to focus on those qualities that actually lead to improved wellbeing and productivity.

  13. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind” in offspring of mothers with psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka Maróthi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28 and bipolar disorder (n = 23 to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind” and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics. Compared with healthy controls (n = 29, the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.

  14. Physical versus psychological social stress in male rats reveals distinct cardiovascular, inflammatory and behavioral consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padi, Akhila R.; Moffitt, Casey M.; Wilson, L. Britt; Wood, Christopher S.; Wood, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular

  15. Leisure-Time Physical Activity Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Dementia-Related Mortality in Adults With and Without Psychological Distress: The Cohort of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotcheva, Ekaterina; Selbæk, Geir; Bjertness, Espen; Ernstsen, Linda; Strand, Bjørn H

    2018-01-01

    Background: Leisure-time physical activity (PA) has been proposed as a protective factor against dementia, whereas psychological distress is associated with an increased risk of dementia. We investigated the associations of leisure-time PA and psychological distress with dementia-related mortality, and whether the association between leisure-time PA and dementia-related mortality differs according to level of psychological distress. Methods: 36,945 individuals from the Cohort of Norway aged 50-74 years at baseline (1994-2002) were included and followed up until January 1st 2015. Leisure-time PA and psychological distress were assessed through questionnaires, whereas dementia-related mortality was obtained through the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Adjusted Cox regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: Compared to inactivity, leisure-time PA was associated with a decreased risk of dementia-related mortality; low intensity leisure-time PA (HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.89); high intensity leisure-time PA (HR = 0.61, 95%CI 0.49-0.77). A statistically significant difference in dementia-related mortality risk was observed between low and high intensity leisure-time PA ( p leisure-time PA was associated with a decreased dementia-related mortality risk; low intensity leisure-time PA (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.97); high intensity leisure-time PA (HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.51-0.84). The same applied for those with psychological distress; low intensity leisure-time PA (HR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.35-0.94); high intensity leisure-time PA (HR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.22-0.82). The interaction between leisure-time PA and psychological distress on dementia-related mortality was not statistically significant ( p = 0.38). Conclusions: Participating in leisure-time PA was associated with a reduced risk of dementia-related mortality, whereas psychological distress was associated with an increased risk of dementia-related mortality. Leisure

  16. Reflections on Gibbs: From Statistical Physics to the Amistad V3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadanoff, Leo P.

    2014-07-01

    This note is based upon a talk given at an APS meeting in celebration of the achievements of J. Willard Gibbs. J. Willard Gibbs, the younger, was the first American physical sciences theorist. He was one of the inventors of statistical physics. He introduced and developed the concepts of phase space, phase transitions, and thermodynamic surfaces in a remarkably correct and elegant manner. These three concepts form the basis of different areas of physics. The connection among these areas has been a subject of deep reflection from Gibbs' time to our own. This talk therefore celebrated Gibbs by describing modern ideas about how different parts of physics fit together. I finished with a more personal note. Our own J. Willard Gibbs had all his many achievements concentrated in science. His father, also J. Willard Gibbs, also a Professor at Yale, had one great non-academic achievement that remains unmatched in our day. I describe it.

  17. Statistical panorama of female physics graduate students for 2000-2010 in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón Loayza, María Luisa; Bravo Cabrejos, Jorge Aurelio

    2013-03-01

    We report the results of a statistical study on the number of women entering the undergraduate and master's programs of physics at Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Peru. From 2006 through 2010, 13 female students entered the master's degree program but no females graduated with the degree. Considering that Peru is a developing country, a career in physics is not considered an attractive professional choice even for male students because it is thought that there are no work centers to practice this profession. We recommend that the causes preventing female physics students from completing their studies and research work be analyzed, and that strategies be planned to help women complete their academic work. We are considering getting help from the Peruvian Physics Society (SOPERFI) in order to draw more attention for our plan.

  18. Synthetic Earthquake Statistics From Physical Fault Models for the Lower Rhine Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brietzke, G. B.; Hainzl, S.; Zöller, G.

    2012-04-01

    As of today, seismic risk and hazard estimates mostly use pure empirical, stochastic models of earthquake fault systems tuned specifically to the vulnerable areas of interest. Although such models allow for reasonable risk estimates they fail to provide a link between the observed seismicity and the underlying physical processes. Solving a state-of-the-art fully dynamic description set of all relevant physical processes related to earthquake fault systems is likely not useful since it comes with a large number of degrees of freedom, poor constraints on its model parameters and a huge computational effort. Here, quasi-static and quasi-dynamic physical fault simulators provide a compromise between physical completeness and computational affordability and aim at providing a link between basic physical concepts and statistics of seismicity. Within the framework of quasi-static and quasi-dynamic earthquake simulators we investigate a model of the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE) that is based upon seismological and geological data. We present and discuss statistics of the spatio-temporal behavior of generated synthetic earthquake catalogs with respect to simplification (e.g. simple two-fault cases) as well as to complication (e.g. hidden faults, geometric complexity, heterogeneities of constitutive parameters).

  19. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes.

  20. Micro-foundations for macroeconomics: New set-up based on statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Modern macroeconomics is built on "micro foundations." Namely, optimization of micro agent such as consumer and firm is explicitly analyzed in model. Toward this goal, standard model presumes "the representative" consumer/firm, and analyzes its behavior in detail. However, the macroeconomy consists of 107 consumers and 106 firms. For the purpose of analyzing such macro system, it is meaningless to pursue the micro behavior in detail. In this respect, there is no essential difference between economics and physics. The method of statistical physics can be usefully applied to the macroeconomy, and provides Keynesian economics with correct micro-foundations.

  1. Perspectives and challenges in statistical physics and complex systems for the next decade

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, Ernesto P; Gomes Eleutério da Luz, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Physics (SP) has followed an unusual evolutionary path in science. Originally aiming to provide a fundamental basis for another important branch of Physics, namely Thermodynamics, SP gradually became an independent field of research in its own right. But despite more than a century of steady progress, there are still plenty of challenges and open questions in the SP realm. In fact, the area is still rapidly evolving, in contrast to other branches of science, which already have well defined scopes and borderlines of applicability. This difference is due to the steadily expanding num

  2. Changes in Physical Activity and Psychological Variables Following a Web-Based Motivational Interviewing Intervention: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Sasha L; Meyer, Barbara B; Berger, Lisa M; Brondino, Michael J

    2015-10-29

    Web-based interventions for enhancing physical activity participation are in demand for application in health care settings. Recent research suggests Web-based interventions that are based on motivational interviewing are effective to increase physical activity. It is unclear whether motivational interviewing can influence targeted psychological variables such as perceived readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in physical activity. The aims of this study were to determine whether there were changes in physical activity and psychological variables associated with readiness, willingness, and perceived ability to participate in physical activity following completion of a novel Web-based intervention. The goal of the motivational interviewing-based intervention was to increase physical activity. Twenty-three underactive or inactive urban dwelling adults were recruited at a medical office for participation in a 4-session Web-based intervention lasting approximately 15 minutes per week. Sessions were based on principles of motivational interviewing. Assessment of physical activity was conducted using pedometers immediately prior to intervention participation (pre) and immediately post intervention (post1). Self-report assessments of physical activity and psychological variables were conducted using online surveys at pre, post1, and again at one month following intervention participation (post2). Comparisons of pre and post1 pedometer recordings revealed significant increases in steps per day (t22=2.09, P=.049). There were also significant changes in total physical activity energy expenditure per week (χ(2) 2=8.4, P=.02) and in moderate intensity physical activity energy expenditure per week (χ(2) 2=13.9, Ptool to promote physical activity in health care settings. Additional research is needed to test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing compared to a control condition and to refine content by considering mediation by psychological variables in a

  3. Occupational health hazards in veterinary medicine: physical, psychological, and chemical hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports physical, psychological, and chemical hazards relevant to western Canadian veterinarians as obtained by a self-administered mailed questionnaire. Nine-three percent (750/806) of veterinarians reported some form of injury during the previous 5 years; 17% of respondents (131/791) indicated injuries that resulted in 1 or more days off work. Median stress levels were similar across work environments; overall, 7% (57/813) indicated either no stress or severe stress, while 53% (428/813) indicated moderate stress. Twenty percent (3/15) of food animal practitioners and 37% (114/308) of companion animal practitioners who took X-rays reported accidental exposure. Accidental exposure to gas anesthetic was reported by 69% (394/570) of those in private practice. Exposure to chemicals occurred in all work environments. Veterinarians in western Canada are at risk of minor to severe injury due to both animal and non-animal related causes.

  4. Effects of Physical Exercise on Cognitive Functioning and Wellbeing: Biological and Psychological Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mandolesi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence shows that physical exercise (PE is a strong gene modulator that induces structural and functional changes in the brain, determining enormous benefit on both cognitive functioning and wellbeing. PE is also a protective factor for neurodegeneration. However, it is unclear if such protection is granted through modifications to the biological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration or through better compensation against attacks. This concise review addresses the biological and psychological positive effects of PE describing the results obtained on brain plasticity and epigenetic mechanisms in animal and human studies, in order to clarify how to maximize the positive effects of PE while avoiding negative consequences, as in the case of exercise addiction.

  5. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matzka

    Full Text Available Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships.A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10, social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL. Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables.Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163 = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]. Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59, and positively associated with activity level (β = .20. The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33 but not social support (β = .10, p = .12.Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  6. Psychological functioning and adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity in later life: results from a national health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netz, Yael; Dunsky, Ayelet; Zach, Sima; Goldsmith, Rebecca; Shimony, Tal; Goldbourt, Uri; Zeev, Aviva

    2012-12-01

    Official health organizations have established the dose of physical activity needed for preserving both physical and psychological health in old age. The objective of this study was to explore whether adherence to the recommended criterion of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning in older adults in Israel. A random sample of 1,663 (799 men) Israelis reported their physical activity routine, and based on official guidelines were divided into sufficiently active, insufficiently active, and inactive groups. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used for assessing mental health and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for assessing cognitive functioning. Factor analysis performed on the GHQ yielded two factors - positive and negative. Logistic regressions for the GHQ factors and for the MMSE were conducted for explaining their variance, with demographic variables entered first, followed by health and then physical activity. The explained variance in the three steps was Cox and Snell R2 = 0.022, 0.023, 0.039 for the positive factor, 0.066, 0.093, 0.101 for the negative factor, and 0.204, 0.206, 0.209 for the MMSE. Adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning beyond demographic and health variables; however, the additional explained variance was small. More specific guidelines of physical activity may elucidate a stronger relationship, but only randomized controlled trials can reveal cause-effect relationship between physical activity and psychological functioning. More studies are needed focusing on the positive factor of psychological functioning.

  7. Examples of the Application of Nonparametric Information Geometry to Statistical Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pistone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We review a nonparametric version of Amari’s information geometry in which the set of positive probability densities on a given sample space is endowed with an atlas of charts to form a differentiable manifold modeled on Orlicz Banach spaces. This nonparametric setting is used to discuss the setting of typical problems in machine learning and statistical physics, such as black-box optimization, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and the Boltzmann equation.

  8. New exponential, logarithm and q-probability in the non-extensive statistical physics

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Won Sang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new exponential and logarithm related to the non-extensive statistical physics is proposed by using the q-sum and q-product which satisfy the distributivity. And we discuss the q-mapping from an ordinary probability to q-probability. The q-entropy defined by the idea of q-probability is shown to be q-additive.

  9. Quantum Entropy and Its Applications to Quantum Communication and Statistical Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Ohya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entropy is a fundamental concept for quantum information recently developed in various directions. We will review the mathematical aspects of quantum entropy (entropies and discuss some applications to quantum communication, statistical physics. All topics taken here are somehow related to the quantum entropy that the present authors have been studied. Many other fields recently developed in quantum information theory, such as quantum algorithm, quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, etc., are totally discussed in the book (reference number 60.

  10. Psychological changes among Muslim students participating in a faith-based school physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David

    2013-12-01

    Some religions espouse doctrines that (in)directly impact physical activity (PA) behavior. Yet limited PA interventions have been tailored to religious minorities. Thus, a formative study was conducted to examine the effect of a faith-based pedometer program (Virtual Umra) on psychological correlates of PA behavior and their contribution to school-time changes in PA among Muslim adolescents. Forty-three (27 girls, 16 boys; M(age) = 12.3 +/- 1.0 years) students at 1 Islamic middle school participated. Prebaseline and postprogram enjoyment and motivation were measured using the shortened PA Enjoyment Scale and the Situational Motivation Scale, respectively. Pedometer step counts were measured daily during a 2-week baseline and 8 weeks of Virtual Umra. The Reliable Change Index and Cohen's d were used to analyze individual- and group-level changes in enjoyment and motivation, respectively. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) was used to analyze program and gender effects over time. Partial correlations examined the relationships between psychological correlates and PA change. One third of the sample expressed greater enjoyment postprogram (p motivation was unaffected (p > .05; range, d = - 0.02 to 0.32). RM-MANOVA revealed that boys increased their steps, whereas girls reduced their step number through the program. Enjoyment increased and extrinsic motivation and amotivation decreased. Partial correlations revealed that enjoyment and more self-determined behavioral regulations were positively associated with non-physical education (PE)-day PA change; only intrinsic motivation was positively associated with PE-day PA change. Virtual Umra was associated with increased enjoyment of PA but needs further modification to more positively impact girls' PA.

  11. Demonstration of fundamental statistics by studying timing of electronics signals in a physics-based laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Shaun E.; Semkow, Thomas M.; Remling, David J.; Bradt, Clayton J.

    2017-07-01

    We have developed accessible methods to demonstrate fundamental statistics in several phenomena, in the context of teaching electronic signal processing in a physics-based college-level curriculum. A relationship between the exponential time-interval distribution and Poisson counting distribution for a Markov process with constant rate is derived in a novel way and demonstrated using nuclear counting. Negative binomial statistics is demonstrated as a model for overdispersion and justified by the effect of electronic noise in nuclear counting. The statistics of digital packets on a computer network are shown to be compatible with the fractal-point stochastic process leading to a power-law as well as generalized inverse Gaussian density distributions of time intervals between packets.

  12. Physical activity and psychological well-being in obese pregnant and postpartum women attending a weight-gain restriction programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Ing-Marie; Klein, Sofia; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Josefsson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    the objective of the study was to compare the differences in psychological well-being and quality of life during pregnancy and post partum of obese physically active women and obese physically inactive women enroled in a weight gain restriction programme. We also wanted to explore whether physical activity influences weight change or health status during pregnancy. a prospective intervention study. antenatal care clinic. a total of 74 obese pregnant women in a physically active group and 79 obese women in a physically inactive group. the women kept diaries of their physical activity during pregnancy and answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Medical Study Short-Form Health Survey in gestational weeks 15 and 35 and 11 weeks post partum. Physical activity was measured in metabolic equivalents. the physically active women experienced fewer depressive symptoms and estimated an improved quality of life during their pregnancies as measured by physical functioning, bodily pain, social functioning, role limitations due to emotional problems and general mental health as compared with the physically inactive women. There were no differences between the groups in gestational weight gain or weight change from early pregnancy to post partum or in prevalence of complications. physical activity among obese pregnant women provides better psychological well-being and improved quality of life, but does not prevent weight change. staff at Antenatal Care Clinics that face obese pregnant women, should encourage and emphasise the benefits of being physically active throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On the Quantum Mechanical Wave Function as a Link Between Cognition and the Physical World A Role for Psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, D

    2002-01-01

    A straightforward explanation of fundamental tenets of quantum mechanics concerning the wave function results in the thesis that the quantum mechanical wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world. The reticence on the part of physicists to adopt this thesis is discussed. A comparison is made to the behaviorists' consideration of mind, and the historical roots of how the problem concerning the quantum mechanical wave function arose are discussed. The basis for an empirical demonstration that the wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world is provided through developing an experiment using methodology from psychology and physics. Based on research in psychology and physics that relied on this methodology, it is likely that Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's theoretical result that mutually exclusive wave functions can simultaneously apply to the same concrete physical circumstances can be implemented on an empirical level.

  14. Comparisons between physics-based, engineering, and statistical learning models for outdoor sound propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Carl R; Reznicek, Nathan J; Wilson, D Keith; Pettit, Chris L; Nykaza, Edward T

    2016-05-01

    Many outdoor sound propagation models exist, ranging from highly complex physics-based simulations to simplified engineering calculations, and more recently, highly flexible statistical learning methods. Several engineering and statistical learning models are evaluated by using a particular physics-based model, namely, a Crank-Nicholson parabolic equation (CNPE), as a benchmark. Narrowband transmission loss values predicted with the CNPE, based upon a simulated data set of meteorological, boundary, and source conditions, act as simulated observations. In the simulated data set sound propagation conditions span from downward refracting to upward refracting, for acoustically hard and soft boundaries, and low frequencies. Engineering models used in the comparisons include the ISO 9613-2 method, Harmonoise, and Nord2000 propagation models. Statistical learning methods used in the comparisons include bagged decision tree regression, random forest regression, boosting regression, and artificial neural network models. Computed skill scores are relative to sound propagation in a homogeneous atmosphere over a rigid ground. Overall skill scores for the engineering noise models are 0.6%, -7.1%, and 83.8% for the ISO 9613-2, Harmonoise, and Nord2000 models, respectively. Overall skill scores for the statistical learning models are 99.5%, 99.5%, 99.6%, and 99.6% for bagged decision tree, random forest, boosting, and artificial neural network regression models, respectively.

  15. Does social desirability influence psychological well-being: perceived physical health and religiosity of Italian elders? A developmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Hitchcott, Paul Kenneth; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    2017-04-01

    This study was mainly aimed at exploring the relationship between psychological well-being and lifestyle, religion, perceived physical health and social desirability of Italian elders. Four hundred and six cognitively healthy 65-99 years old participants were recruited from the Italian isle of Sardinia, where a high prevalence of centenarians is registered. Participants were presented with several tools assessing psychological well-being, lifestyle, social desirability, religiosity and subjective physical health. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the social desirability measure is the best predictor of general subjective well-being, whereas further predictors are age, perceived physical health and gardening. A significant but moderate relationship was also found between psychological well-being, subjective physical health and religiosity, while controlling for social desirability. Social desirability seems to contaminate the self-rating of psychological well-being in late adulthood. Moreover, from a developmental perspective, age-related factors, life style and perceived physical health are strictly related to and therefore influence the perception of life quality in the third and fourth age.

  16. Plenary lectures of the divisions semiconductor physics, thin films, dynamics and statistical physics, magnetism, metal physics, surface physics, low temperature physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, U.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of plenary and invited lectures of the Solid State Division spring meeting of the DPG (Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft) 1992 in Regensburg. The constribution come mainly from five fields of the physics of condensed matter: doped fullerenes and high Tc superconductors, surfaces, time-resolved on nonlinear optics, polymer melts, and low-dimensional semiconductor systems. (orig.)

  17. Effect of physical and psychological puberty training on general well being and its dimensions in girl students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrban Mehrabi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behavior and emotion. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of training puberty (physical and psychological matters in general well being and its dimensions in girl adolescents. This was a quasi-experimental study in which the target population included all girl students at the first grade of high school in Jiroft, Iran. 40 students (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group was selected using multi stage sampling method. The experimental group was educated in twelve-90- minute sessions. The content of the educational course included physical signs of puberty, physiologic change in menstrual period, hygiene, nutrition, and psychological changes of puberty. The participants completed the Skehill's general well being questionnaire before and after the intervention. Covariance analysis revealed the efficacy of education on the enhancement of psychological well being and psychological distress reduction. Therefore, it is recommended to implement health educational programs about physical and psychological matters during puberty to elementary and secondary school students to improve their mental health

  18. The impact of shift work on the psychological and physical health of nurses in a general hospital: a comparison between rotating night shifts and day shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Paola; Guadi, Matteo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Balduzzi, Sara; Magnani, Daniela; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance. The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the "Standard Shift Work Index," validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed. The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way. Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects.

  19. The usefulness of descriptive statistics in the interpretation of data on occupational physical activity of Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to assess whether basic descriptive statistics is sufficient to interpret the data on physical activity of Poles within occupational domain of life. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 964 randomly selected Polish working professionals. The long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was used. Descriptive statistics included characteristics of variables using: mean (M, median (Me, maximal and minimal values (max–min., standard deviation (SD and percentile values. Statistical inference was based on the comparison of variables with the significance level of 0.05 (Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson’s Chi2 tests. Results: Occupational physical activity (OPA was declared by 46.4% of respondents (vigorous – 23.5%, moderate – 30.2%, walking – 39.5%. The total OPA amounted to 2751.1 MET-min/week (Metabolic Equivalent of Task with very high standard deviation (SD = 5302.8 and max = 35 511 MET-min/week. It concerned different types of activities. Approximately 10% (90th percentile overstated the average. However, there was no significant difference depended on the character of the profession, or the type of activity. The average time of sitting was 256 min/day. As many as 39% of the respondents met the World Health Organization standards only due to OPA (42.5% of white-collar workers, 38% of administrative and technical employees and only 37.9% of physical workers. Conclusions: In the data analysis it is necessary to define quantiles to provide a fuller picture of the distributions of OPA in MET-min/week. It is also crucial to update the guidelines for data processing and analysis of long version of IPAQ. It seems that 16 h of activity/day is not a sufficient criterion for excluding the results from further analysis. Med Pr 2014;65(6:743–753

  20. Association of Enjoyable Leisure Activities With Psychological and Physical Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Sarah D.; Matthews, Karen A.; Cohen, Sheldon; Martire, Lynn M.; Scheier, Michael; Baum, Andrew; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether engaging in multiple enjoyable activities was associated with better psychological and physiological functioning. Few studies have examined the health benefits of the enjoyable activities that individuals participate in voluntarily in their free time. Method Participants from four different studies (n = 1399 total, 74% female, age = 19–89 years) completed a self-report measure (Pittsburgh Enjoyable Activities Test (PEAT)) assessing their participation in ten different types of leisure activities as well as measures assessing positive and negative psychosocial states. Resting blood pressure, cortisol (over 2 days), body mass index, waist circumference, and perceived physiological functioning were assessed. Results Higher PEAT scores were associated with lower blood pressure, total cortisol, waist circumference, and body mass index, and perceptions of better physical function. These associations withstood controlling for demographic measures. The PEAT was correlated with higher levels of positive psychosocial states and lower levels of depression and negative affect. Conclusion Enjoyable leisure activities, taken in the aggregate, are associated with psychosocial and physical measures relevant for health and well-being. Future studies should determine the extent that these behaviors in the aggregate are useful predictors of disease and other health outcomes. PMID:19592515

  1. Association of enjoyable leisure activities with psychological and physical well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Sarah D; Matthews, Karen A; Cohen, Sheldon; Martire, Lynn M; Scheier, Michael; Baum, Andrew; Schulz, Richard

    2009-09-01

    To examine whether engaging in multiple enjoyable activities was associated with better psychological and physiological functioning. Few studies have examined the health benefits of the enjoyable activities that individuals participate in voluntarily in their free time. Participants from four different studies (n = 1399 total, 74% female, age = 19-89 years) completed a self-report measure (Pittsburgh Enjoyable Activities Test (PEAT)) assessing their participation in ten different types of leisure activities as well as measures assessing positive and negative psychosocial states. Resting blood pressure, cortisol (over 2 days), body mass index, waist circumference, and perceived physiological functioning were assessed. Higher PEAT scores were associated with lower blood pressure, total cortisol, waist circumference, and body mass index, and perceptions of better physical function. These associations withstood controlling for demographic measures. The PEAT was correlated with higher levels of positive psychosocial states and lower levels of depression and negative affect. Enjoyable leisure activities, taken in the aggregate, are associated with psychosocial and physical measures relevant for health and well-being. Future studies should determine the extent that these behaviors in the aggregate are useful predictors of disease and other health outcomes.

  2. The Field Concept in Psychology, Gestalt Theory, Physics, and Epic Theatre – Brecht’s Adaptations of Kurt Lewin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langemeyer, Ines

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the 20th century, the field concept was part of theoretical and methodological innovations in physics, gestalt theory as well as epic theatre as introduced by Bertolt Brecht. Another reference is the psychology of Kurt Lewin. In what ways Brecht took notice of Lewin’s research, especially his demand of a transition from Aristotelian to Galileian thought is reconstructed within the context of paradigm shifts fostered by logical empiricism, gestalt theory and physics. Lewin’s argumentation of an advanced understanding of the lawfulness of societal and psychological processes is placed in the center and traced back as an inspiration to Brecht’s writings. Vice versa, the article investigates in what ways Brecht’s theoretical writings and adaptations of Lewin’s approach can be reconsidered as a source for psychological theorizing.

  3. Physical and Psychological Health of Family Carers Co-Residing with an Adult Relative with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Jillian M.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Providing long-term care to an adult relative with intellectual disability can impact negatively on caregivers' health and well-being. Methods: Data were collected via online and postal questionnaires on 110 family carers' physical and psychological health, family stress and perceived positive gains from caring. Psychological…

  4. Examining the Job-Related, Psychological, and Physical Outcomes of Workplace Sexual Harassment: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Darius K-S.; Lam, Chun Bun; Chow, Suk Yee; Cheung, Shu Fai

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace. Using a meta-analytic approach, we analyzed findings from 49 primary studies, with a total sample size of 89,382, to obtain estimates of the population mean effect size of the association between sexual harassment and…

  5. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  6. Review: Understanding barriers to online experience for people with physical and sensory disabilities using discursive social psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    2010-01-01

    A significant number of Internet users have physical or sensory disabilities. Work that addresses this group of users, as Bowker’s does, is rare. Bowker founded her work on philosophical, psychological, and linguistic theories, and conducted a qualitative analysis on her data. The paper presents the

  7. Psychological wellbeing, physical impairments and rural aging in a developing country setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangchonlatip Kanchana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been very little research on wellbeing, physical impairments and disability in older people in developing countries. Methods A community survey of 1147 older parents, one per household, aged sixty and over in rural Thailand. We used the Burvill scale of physical impairment, the Thai Psychological Wellbeing Scale and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. We rated received and perceived social support separately from children and from others and rated support to children. We used weighted analyses to take account of the sampling design. Results Impairments due to arthritis, pain, paralysis, vision, stomach problems or breathing were all associated with lower wellbeing. After adjusting for disability, only impairment due to paralysis was independently associated with lowered wellbeing. The effect of having two or more impairments compared to none was associated with lowered wellbeing after adjusting for demographic factors and social support (adjusted difference -2.37 on the well-being scale with SD = 7.9, p Conclusion In this Thai setting, as found in western settings, most of the association between physical impairments and lower wellbeing is explained by disability. Disability is potentially mediating the association between impairment and low wellbeing. Received support may buffer the impact of some impairments on wellbeing in this setting. Giving actual support to children is associated with less wellbeing unless the support being given to children is perceived as good, perhaps reflecting parental obligation to support adult children in need. Improving community disability services for older people and optimizing received social support will be vital in rural areas in developing countries.

  8. Psychological wellbeing, physical impairments and rural aging in a developing country setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Melanie A; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Jirapramupitak, Tawanchai; Tangchonlatip, Kanchana; Leese, Morven

    2009-07-16

    There has been very little research on wellbeing, physical impairments and disability in older people in developing countries. A community survey of 1147 older parents, one per household, aged sixty and over in rural Thailand. We used the Burvill scale of physical impairment, the Thai Psychological Wellbeing Scale and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. We rated received and perceived social support separately from children and from others and rated support to children. We used weighted analyses to take account of the sampling design. Impairments due to arthritis, pain, paralysis, vision, stomach problems or breathing were all associated with lower wellbeing. After adjusting for disability, only impairment due to paralysis was independently associated with lowered wellbeing. The effect of having two or more impairments compared to none was associated with lowered wellbeing after adjusting for demographic factors and social support (adjusted difference -2.37 on the well-being scale with SD = 7.9, p effect of paralysis was -2.97, p = 0.001). In this Thai setting, received support from children and from others and perceived good support from and to children were all independently associated with greater wellbeing whereas actual support to children was associated with lower wellbeing. Low received support from children interacted with paralysis in being especially associated with low wellbeing. In this Thai setting, as found in western settings, most of the association between physical impairments and lower wellbeing is explained by disability. Disability is potentially mediating the association between impairment and low wellbeing. Received support may buffer the impact of some impairments on wellbeing in this setting. Giving actual support to children is associated with less wellbeing unless the support being given to children is perceived as good, perhaps reflecting parental obligation to support adult children in need. Improving community disability

  9. Psychological sequelae of the station nightclub fire: Comparing survivors with and without physical injuries using a mixed-methods analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi-Ha T Trinh

    Full Text Available Surveying survivors from a large fire provides an opportunity to explore the impact of emotional trauma on psychological outcomes.This is a cross-sectional survey of survivors of The Station Fire. Primary outcomes were post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale - Revised and depressive (Beck Depression Inventory symptoms. Linear regression was used to examine differences in symptom profiles between those with and without physical injuries. The free-response section of the survey was analyzed qualitatively to compare psychological sequelae of survivors with and without physical injuries.104 participants completed the study survey; 47% experienced a burn injury. There was a 42% to 72% response rate range. The mean age of respondents was 32 years, 62% were male, and 47% experienced a physical injury. No significant relationships were found between physical injury and depressive or post-traumatic stress symptom profiles. In the qualitative analysis, the emotional trauma that survivors experienced was a major, common theme regardless of physical injury. Survivors without physical injuries were more likely to experience survivor guilt, helplessness, self-blame, and bitterness. Despite the post-fire challenges described, most survivors wrote about themes of recovery and renewal.All survivors of this large fire experienced significant psychological sequelae. These findings reinforce the importance of mental health care for all survivors and suggest a need to understand factors influencing positive outcomes.

  10. PHYSICS OF NON-GAUSSIAN FIELDS AND THE COSMOLOGICAL GENUS STATISTIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J. Berian

    2012-01-01

    We report a technique to calculate the impact of distinct physical processes inducing non-Gaussianity on the cosmological density field. A natural decomposition of the cosmic genus statistic into an orthogonal polynomial sequence allows complete expression of the scale-dependent evolution of the topology of large-scale structure, in which effects including galaxy bias, nonlinear gravitational evolution, and primordial non-Gaussianity may be delineated. The relationship of this decomposition to previous methods for analyzing the genus statistic is briefly considered and the following applications are made: (1) the expression of certain systematics affecting topological measurements, (2) the quantification of broad deformations from Gaussianity that appear in the genus statistic as measured in the Horizon Run simulation, and (3) the study of the evolution of the genus curve for simulations with primordial non-Gaussianity. These advances improve the treatment of flux-limited galaxy catalogs for use with this measurement and further the use of the genus statistic as a tool for exploring non-Gaussianity.

  11. Nonlinear Fluctuation Behavior of Financial Time Series Model by Statistical Physics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a random financial time series model of stock market by one of statistical physics systems, the stochastic contact interacting system. Contact process is a continuous time Markov process; one interpretation of this model is as a model for the spread of an infection, where the epidemic spreading mimics the interplay of local infections and recovery of individuals. From this financial model, we study the statistical behaviors of return time series, and the corresponding behaviors of returns for Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SSECI and Hang Seng Index (HSI are also comparatively studied. Further, we investigate the Zipf distribution and multifractal phenomenon of returns and price changes. Zipf analysis and MF-DFA analysis are applied to investigate the natures of fluctuations for the stock market.

  12. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ybarra Sagarduy JL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy,1 Dacia Yurima Camacho Mata,1 José Moral de la Rubia,2 Julio Alfonso Piña López,3 José Luis Masud Yunes Zárraga4 1Unit of Social Work and Human Development, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, 2School of Psychology, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, 3Independent Researcher, Hermosillo, 4Institute of Health and Safety Services for State Workers, Clinic for the Study and Prevention of the Chilhood Obesity, Ciudad Victoria, Mexico Background: It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension.Purpose: This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior.Results: Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data (pBS =0.235, χ2/gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom’s Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen’s Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053.Conclusion: The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so

  13. Mode of birth and women’s psychological and physical wellbeing in the postnatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands Ingrid J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical and psychological problems after childbirth are common, and may have a significant negative and long-term impact on women’s wellbeing and daily functioning. The method of birth may be a particularly important factor influencing women’s health and wellbeing following birth, however, population-wide evidence is limited. This study uses data from 5,332 women who responded to a national survey of women’s experiences of maternity care in England. We examined women’s postnatal wellbeing in the first three months after birth, and whether these varied by mode of birth. Methods This is a secondary analysis of survey data using a random sample of women selected from birth registration. We used multinomial logistic regression models to examine the association between women’s self-reported psychological symptoms, health problems and mode of birth. Results Women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births and unplanned caesarean section births reported the poorest health and wellbeing, while those of women who had unassisted vaginal births and planned caesarean section births were less affected by the birth process. Most women’s physical and emotional health appeared to improve with time, however, those who had a forceps-assisted vaginal birth were more likely to report ongoing posttraumatic-type symptoms several months after the birth. Conclusions Mode of birth was associated with differences in outcomes at three months. By comparison to women who had unassisted vaginal births, the risk of reduced postnatal health and wellbeing was higher amongst the women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births but not amongst women who had ventouse-assisted vaginal births. This would suggest that it is important to differentiate the different types of instrumental birth in outcome studies. Of concern was the higher rate of posttraumatic-type symptoms among women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births relative to the other modes of

  14. Data analysis in high energy physics. A practical guide to statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Olaf; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Kroeninger, Kevin; Schott, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This practical guide covers the essential tasks in statistical data analysis encountered in high energy physics and provides comprehensive advice for typical questions and problems. The basic methods for inferring results from data are presented as well as tools for advanced tasks such as improving the signal-to-background ratio, correcting detector effects, determining systematics and many others. Concrete applications are discussed in analysis walkthroughs. Each chapter is supplemented by numerous examples and exercises and by a list of literature and relevant links. The book targets a broad readership at all career levels - from students to senior researchers.

  15. Computing physical properties with quantum Monte Carlo methods with statistical fluctuations independent of system size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Roland

    2014-12-01

    We show that the recently proposed correlated sampling without reweighting procedure extends the locality (asymptotic independence of the system size) of a physical property to the statistical fluctuations of its estimator. This makes the approach potentially vastly more efficient for computing space-localized properties in large systems compared with standard correlated methods. A proof is given for a large collection of noninteracting fragments. Calculations on hydrogen chains suggest that this behavior holds not only for systems displaying short-range correlations, but also for systems with long-range correlations.

  16. Geant4 electromagnetic physics for high statistic simulation of LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, J; Bagulya, A; Champion, C; Elles, S; Garay, F; Grichine, V; Howard, A; Incerti, S; Ivanchenko, V; Jacquemier, J; Maire, M; Mantero, A; Nieminen, P; Pandola, L; Santin, G; Sawkey, D; Schalicke, A; Urban, L

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of electromagnetic physics (EM) of the Geant4 toolkit is presented. Recent improvements are focused on the performance of large scale production for LHC and on the precision of simulation results over a wide energy range. Significant efforts have been made to improve the accuracy without compromising of CPU speed for EM particle transport. New biasing options have been introduced, which are applicable to any EM process. These include algorithms to enhance and suppress processes, force interactions or splitting of secondary particles. It is shown that the performance of the EM sub-package is improved. We will report extensions of the testing suite allowing high statistics validation of EM physics. It includes validation of multiple scattering, bremsstrahlung and other models. Cross checks between standard and low-energy EM models have been performed using evaluated data libraries and reference benchmark results.

  17. Supermathematics and its applications in statistical physics Grassmann variables and the method of supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Wegner, Franz

    2016-01-01

    This text presents the mathematical concepts of Grassmann variables and the method of supersymmetry to a broad audience of physicists interested in applying these tools to disordered and critical systems, as well as related topics in statistical physics. Based on many courses and seminars held by the author, one of the pioneers in this field, the reader is given a systematic and tutorial introduction to the subject matter. The algebra and analysis of Grassmann variables is presented in part I. The mathematics of these variables is applied to a random matrix model, path integrals for fermions, dimer models and the Ising model in two dimensions. Supermathematics - the use of commuting and anticommuting variables on an equal footing - is the subject of part II. The properties of supervectors and supermatrices, which contain both commuting and Grassmann components, are treated in great detail, including the derivation of integral theorems. In part III, supersymmetric physical models are considered. While supersym...

  18. Tropical limit and a micro-macro correspondence in statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelelli, Mario

    2017-10-01

    Tropical mathematics is used to establish a correspondence between certain microscopic and macroscopic objects in statistical models. Tropical algebra gives a common framework for macrosystems (subsets) and their elementary constituents (elements) that is well-behaved with respect to composition. This kind of connection is studied with maps that preserve a monoid structure. The approach highlights an underlying order relation that is explored through the concepts of filter and ideal. Particular attention is paid to asymmetry and duality between max- and min-criteria. Physical implementations are presented through simple examples in thermodynamics and non-equilibrium physics. The phenomenon of ultrametricity, the notion of tropical equilibrium and the role of ground energy in non-equilibrium models are discussed. Tropical symmetry, i.e. idempotence, is investigated.

  19. Data analysis in high energy physics a practical guide to statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Olaf; Kröninger, Kevin; Schott, Grégory; Schörner-Sadenius, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This practical guide covers the most essential statistics-related tasks and problems encountered in high-energy physics data analyses. It addresses both advanced students entering the field of particle physics as well as researchers looking for a reliable source on optimal separation of signal and background, determining signals or estimating upper limits, correcting the data for detector effects and evaluating systematic uncertainties. Each chapter is dedicated to a single topic and supplemented by a substantial number of both paper and computer exercises related to real experiments, with the solutions provided at the end of the book along with references. A special feature of the book are the analysis walk-throughs used to illustrate the application of the methods discussed beforehand. The authors give examples of data analysis, referring to real problems in HEP, and display the different stages of data analysis in a descriptive manner. The accompanying website provides more algorithms as well as up-to-date...

  20. Physical fitness and perceived psychological pressure at work: 30-year ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Investigate if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from regular psychological work pressure.......Investigate if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from regular psychological work pressure....

  1. Psychological determinants of physical activity across the life course: A "DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity" (DEDIPAC umbrella systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cortis

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity (PA are reported to contribute to the occurrence of non-communicable diseases over the life course. Although psychological factors have been identified as an important category concerning PA behavior, knowledge on psychological determinants of PA is still inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this umbrella systematic literature review (SLR was to summarize and synthesize the scientific evidence on psychological determinants of PA behavior across the life course. A systematic online search was conducted on MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases. The search was limited to studies published in English from January 2004 to April 2016. SLRs and meta-analyses (MAs of observational studies investigating the association of psychological variables and PA were considered eligible. Extracted data were evaluated based on importance of determinants, strength of evidence, and methodological quality. The full protocol is available from PROSPERO (Record ID: CRD42015010616. Twenty reviews (14 SLRs and 6 MAs, mostly of moderate methodological quality, were found eligible. Convincing evidence was found for self-efficacy (positive association with PA in children and adolescents, and stress (negative association with PA regardless of age. Most of the evidence revealing an association between psychological determinants and PA is probable and limited, mainly due to differences in the definition of PA and of psychological determinants across reviews. Thus, scholars are urged to reach a consensus on clear definitions of relevant psychological determinants of PA, subsuming cultural biases and allowing the possibility to obtain clear interpretations and generalizability of findings. Finally, most psychological determinants should be considered within a larger framework of other multi-level determinants that may interact or mediate some of the effects.

  2. Fundamental properties of fracture and seismicity in a non extensive statistical physics framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallianatos, Filippos

    2010-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in many scientific disciplines concerns upscaling, that is, of determining the regularities and laws of evolution at some large scale, from those known at a lower scale. Earthquake physics is no exception, with the challenge of understanding the transition from the laboratory scale to the scale of fault networks and large earthquakes. In this context, statistical physics has a remarkably successful work record in addressing the upscaling problem in physics. It is natural then to consider that the physics of many earthquakes has to be studied with a different approach than the physics of one earthquake and in this sense we can consider the use of statistical physics not only appropriate but necessary to understand the collective properties of earthquakes [see Corral 2004, 2005a,b,c;]. A significant attempt is given in a series of works [Main 1996; Rundle et al., 1997; Main et al., 2000; Main and Al-Kindy, 2002; Rundle et al., 2003; Vallianatos and Triantis, 2008a] that uses classical statistical physics to describe seismicity. Then a natural question arises. What type of statistical physics is appropriate to commonly describe effects from fracture level to seismicity scale?? The application of non extensive statistical physics offers a consistent theoretical framework, based on a generalization of entropy, to analyze the behavior of natural systems with fractal or multi-fractal distribution of their elements. Such natural systems where long - range interactions or intermittency are important, lead to power law behavior. We note that this is consistent with a classical thermodynamic approach to natural systems that rapidly attain equilibrium, leading to exponential-law behavior. In the frame of non extensive statistical physics approach, the probability function p(X) is calculated using the maximum entropy formulation of Tsallis entropy which involves the introduction of at least two constraints (Tsallis et al., 1998). The first one is the

  3. Consequences of Job Insecurity on the Psychological and Physical Health of Greek Civil Servants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Nella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the short term consequences of job insecurity associated with a newly introduced mobility framework in Greece. In specific, the study examined the impact of job insecurity on anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic and musculoskeletal symptoms, two months after the announcement of the mobility framework. In addition the study also examined the “spill over” effects of job insecurity on employees not directly affected by the mobility framework. Personal interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted for 36 university administrative employees awaiting repositioning, 36 coworkers not at risk, and 28 administrative employees of a local hospital not at risk. Compared to both control groups the employees in the anticipation phase of labor mobility had significantly worse scores for perceived stress, anxiety, depression, positive affect, negative affect, social support, marital discord, common somatic symptoms, and frequency of musculoskeletal pain. This study highlights the immediate detrimental effects of job insecurity on the physical, psychological, and social functioning of employees. There is a need for the development of front line interventions to prevent these effects from developing into chronic conditions with considerable cost for the individual and society in general.

  4. Psychological and Physical Impacts of Extreme Events on Older Adults: Implications for Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Erin; Amlôt, Richard; Rogers, M Brooke; Rubin, G James; Tesh, John; Pearce, Julia M

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, a series of large-scale, high-profile natural disasters and terrorist attacks have demonstrated the need for thorough and effective disaster preparedness. While these extreme events affect communities and societies as a whole, they also carry specific risks for particular population groups. Crises such as Hurricane Katrina and the 2011 earthquake and tsunami disaster in Japan have illustrated the risk of significant and disproportionate morbidity and mortality among older adults during disasters. Age does not necessarily equate to vulnerability, but many physical and psychological consequences of the aging process can increase the risk of adverse outcomes. As the older population grows, so too does the need to ensure that adequate, practical, and appropriate measures exist to offset the specific risks from extreme events associated with this subpopulation. Effective risk and crisis communication plays a key role in mitigating the extent to which older adults are differentially affected during extreme events. By identifying the specific issues affecting older adults, this review highlights important areas for action for practitioners and policy-makers, particularly in the realm of crisis communication. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:127-134).

  5. Statistical physics of community ecology: a cavity solution to MacArthur’s consumer resource model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Madhu; Bunin, Guy; Mehta, Pankaj

    2018-03-01

    A central question in ecology is to understand the ecological processes that shape community structure. Niche-based theories have emphasized the important role played by competition for maintaining species diversity. Many of these insights have been derived using MacArthur’s consumer resource model (MCRM) or its generalizations. Most theoretical work on the MCRM has focused on small ecosystems with a few species and resources. However theoretical insights derived from small ecosystems many not scale up to large ecosystems with many resources and species because large systems with many interacting components often display new emergent behaviors that cannot be understood or deduced from analyzing smaller systems. To address these shortcomings, we develop a statistical physics inspired cavity method to analyze MCRM when both the number of species and the number of resources is large. Unlike previous work in this limit, our theory addresses resource dynamics and resource depletion and demonstrates that species generically and consistently perturb their environments and significantly modify available ecological niches. We show how our cavity approach naturally generalizes niche theory to large ecosystems by accounting for the effect of collective phenomena on species invasion and ecological stability. Our theory suggests that such phenomena are a generic feature of large, natural ecosystems and must be taken into account when analyzing and interpreting community structure. It also highlights the important role that statistical-physics inspired approaches can play in furthering our understanding of ecology.

  6. Quantifying fluctuations in economic systems by adapting methods of statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Gopikrishnan, P.; Plerou, V.; Amaral, L. A. N.

    2000-12-01

    The emerging subfield of econophysics explores the degree to which certain concepts and methods from statistical physics can be appropriately modified and adapted to provide new insights into questions that have been the focus of interest in the economics community. Here we give a brief overview of two examples of research topics that are receiving recent attention. A first topic is the characterization of the dynamics of stock price fluctuations. For example, we investigate the relation between trading activity - measured by the number of transactions NΔ t - and the price change GΔ t for a given stock, over a time interval [t, t+ Δt] . We relate the time-dependent standard deviation of price fluctuations - volatility - to two microscopic quantities: the number of transactions NΔ t in Δ t and the variance WΔ t2 of the price changes for all transactions in Δ t. Our work indicates that while the pronounced tails in the distribution of price fluctuations arise from WΔ t, the long-range correlations found in ∣ GΔ t∣ are largely due to NΔ t. We also investigate the relation between price fluctuations and the number of shares QΔ t traded in Δ t. We find that the distribution of QΔ t is consistent with a stable Lévy distribution, suggesting a Lévy scaling relationship between QΔ t and NΔ t, which would provide one explanation for volume-volatility co-movement. A second topic concerns cross-correlations between the price fluctuations of different stocks. We adapt a conceptual framework, random matrix theory (RMT), first used in physics to interpret statistical properties of nuclear energy spectra. RMT makes predictions for the statistical properties of matrices that are universal, that is, do not depend on the interactions between the elements comprising the system. In physics systems, deviations from the predictions of RMT provide clues regarding the mechanisms controlling the dynamics of a given system, so this framework can be of potential value if

  7. The Physical Models and Statistical Procedures Used in the RACER Monte Carlo Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, T.M.; Brown, F.B.; Bischoff, F.G.; MacMillan, D.B.; Ellis, C.L.; Ward, J.T.; Ballinger, C.T.; Kelly, D.J.; Schindler, L.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the MCV (Monte Carlo - Vectorized)Monte Carlo neutron transport code [Brown, 1982, 1983; Brown and Mendelson, 1984a]. MCV is a module in the RACER system of codes that is used for Monte Carlo reactor physics analysis. The MCV module contains all of the neutron transport and statistical analysis functions of the system, while other modules perform various input-related functions such as geometry description, material assignment, output edit specification, etc. MCV is very closely related to the 05R neutron Monte Carlo code [Irving et al., 1965] developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 05R evolved into the 05RR module of the STEMB system, which was the forerunner of the RACER system. Much of the overall logic and physics treatment of 05RR has been retained and, indeed, the original verification of MCV was achieved through comparison with STEMB results. MCV has been designed to be very computationally efficient [Brown, 1981, Brown and Martin, 1984b; Brown, 1986]. It was originally programmed to make use of vector-computing architectures such as those of the CDC Cyber- 205 and Cray X-MP. MCV was the first full-scale production Monte Carlo code to effectively utilize vector-processing capabilities. Subsequently, MCV was modified to utilize both distributed-memory [Sutton and Brown, 1994] and shared memory parallelism. The code has been compiled and run on platforms ranging from 32-bit UNIX workstations to clusters of 64-bit vector-parallel supercomputers. The computational efficiency of the code allows the analyst to perform calculations using many more neutron histories than is practical with most other Monte Carlo codes, thereby yielding results with smaller statistical uncertainties. MCV also utilizes variance reduction techniques such as survival biasing, splitting, and rouletting to permit additional reduction in uncertainties. While a general-purpose neutron Monte Carlo code, MCV is optimized for reactor physics calculations. It has the

  8. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  9. New Hybrid Monte Carlo methods for efficient sampling. From physics to biology and statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a class of novel hybrid methods for detailed simulations of large complex systems in physics, biology, materials science and statistics. These generalized shadow Hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) methods combine the advantages of stochastic and deterministic simulation techniques. They utilize a partial momentum update to retain some of the dynamical information, employ modified Hamiltonians to overcome exponential performance degradation with the system’s size and make use of multi-scale nature of complex systems. Variants of GSHMCs were developed for atomistic simulation, particle simulation and statistics: GSHMC (thermodynamically consistent implementation of constant-temperature molecular dynamics), MTS-GSHMC (multiple-time-stepping GSHMC), meso-GSHMC (Metropolis corrected dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method), and a generalized shadow Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, GSHmMC (a GSHMC for statistical simulations). All of these are compatible with other enhanced sampling techniques and suitable for massively parallel computing allowing for a range of multi-level parallel strategies. A brief description of the GSHMC approach, examples of its application on high performance computers and comparison with other existing techniques are given. Our approach is shown to resolve such problems as resonance instabilities of the MTS methods and non-preservation of thermodynamic equilibrium properties in DPD, and to outperform known methods in sampling efficiency by an order of magnitude. (author)

  10. Are lower levels of physical activity and self-rated fitness associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Croatian young adults? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Štefan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Although previous evidence has shown that physical activity and physical fitness lower the level of psychological distress, little is known of simultaneous associations between of physical activity and physical fitness and with psychological distress, especially in young adults. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to explore both separate and simultaneous association between physical activity and physical fitness with psychological distress. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study were 2,100 university students (1,041 men and 1,059 women chosen from eight faculties in the city of Zagreb. Physical activity, physical fitness and psychological distress were assessed using structured questionnaires. The associations were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results After adjusting for gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, material status, binge drinking, chronic disease/s and sleep quality, “insufficient” physical activity (OR = 2.60; 95% CI [1.92–3.52] and “lower” levels of physical fitness (tertile 2; OR = 1.94; 95% CI [1.25–3.01] and tertile 1; OR = 2.59; 95% CI [1.65–4.08] remained associated with “high” psychological distress. When physical activity and physical fitness were entered simultaneously into the model, “insufficient” physical activity (OR = 2.35; 95% CI [1.72–3.21] and “lower” levels of physical fitness (tertile 2; OR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.24–2.77] and tertile 1; OR = 2.00; 95% CI [1.26–3.20] remained associated with “high” psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that both “insufficient” physical activity and “lower” levels of physical fitness are associated with “high” psychological distress, even after adjusting for numerous covariates. Therefore, special policies aiming to increase the levels of physical activity and fitness are warranted.

  11. THE CHANGES OF PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SEXUAL COMPLAINS IN WOMEN WITH POST TREATMENT CERVICAL CANCER AFTER SEXUAL NURSING INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiyanti Afiyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite increasing awareness related to sexual health for cervical cancer survivors, health care providers are passive in addressing their sexual issues. The objectives were to develop and investigate the effect of a sexual nursing intervention packet to mitigate sexual dysfunction among cervical cancer survivors. Method: A sample of 104 survivors were participated consecutively based on required inclusive criteria in this quasi-experimental study. The sexual nursing intervention packet focused on the physical, psychological, and care of relational aspects of sexual health elements. The packet consisted of 6 weekly 2-hour sessions. Results: The participants reported poor sexual satisfaction and sexual function. There were no statistically signi fi cant differences in sexual interest, sexual arousal, orgasm, and vaginal lubrication improvement following the intervention, although all the variables in the intervention group were improved clinically. The sexual nursing intervention packet was effective in increasing sexual satisfaction and decreasing dispareunia among cervical cancer survivors. Discussion: This study suggests that the quality of life in cervical cancer survivors could be improved with the sexual nursing intervention packet provided as part of supportive group care. This program may be more effective if delivered earlier and for a longer period. Implications for Practice: The sexual nursing intervention packet offers an opportunity to facilitate small-group dynamics that lay the ground for further contacts leading to earlier recognition of sexual problems and active involvement for sexual health improvement for cervical cancer survivors and nurses. It could be utilized for survivor education or support groups to increase sexual satisfaction following cancer treatment.

  12. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayurskii, Dmitrii; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Alexandre Wang, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS2012) was held between 25-30 August at Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation. This workshop was jointly organized by Kazan Federal University and Institut Supérieur des Matériaux et Mécaniques Avancées (ISMANS), France. The series of SPMCS workshops was created in 2008 with the aim to be an interdisciplinary incubator for the worldwide exchange of innovative ideas and information about the latest results. The first workshop was held at ISMANS, Le Mans (France) in 2008, and the third at Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China) in 2010. At SPMCS2012, we wished to bring together a broad community of researchers from the different branches of the rapidly developing complexity science to discuss the fundamental theoretical challenges (geometry/topology, number theory, statistical physics, dynamical systems, etc) as well as experimental and applied aspects of many practical problems (condensed matter, disordered systems, financial markets, chemistry, biology, geoscience, etc). The program of SPMCS2012 was prepared based on three categories: (i) physical and mathematical studies (quantum mechanics, generalized nonequilibrium thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, condensed matter physics, nanoscience); (ii) natural complex systems (physical, geophysical, chemical and biological); (iii) social, economical, political agent systems and man-made complex systems. The conference attracted 64 participants from 10 countries. There were 10 invited lectures, 12 invited talks and 28 regular oral talks in the morning and afternoon sessions. The book of Abstracts is available from the conference website (http://www.ksu.ru/conf/spmcs2012/?id=3). A round table was also held, the topic of which was 'Recent and Anticipated Future Progress in Science of Complexity', discussing a variety of questions and opinions important for the understanding of the concept of

  13. BOOK REVIEW: New Directions in Statistical Physics: Econophysics, Bioinformatics, and Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, P.

    2004-10-01

    This book contains 18 contributions from different authors. Its subtitle `Econophysics, Bioinformatics, and Pattern Recognition' says more precisely what it is about: not so much about central problems of conventional statistical physics like equilibrium phase transitions and critical phenomena, but about its interdisciplinary applications. After a long period of specialization, physicists have, over the last few decades, found more and more satisfaction in breaking out of the limitations set by the traditional classification of sciences. Indeed, this classification had never been strict, and physicists in particular had always ventured into other fields. Helmholtz, in the middle of the 19th century, had considered himself a physicist when working on physiology, stressing that the physics of animate nature is as much a legitimate field of activity as the physics of inanimate nature. Later, Max Delbrück and Francis Crick did for experimental biology what Schrödinger did for its theoretical foundation. And many of the experimental techniques used in chemistry, biology, and medicine were developed by a steady stream of talented physicists who left their proper discipline to venture out into the wider world of science. The development we have witnessed over the last thirty years or so is different. It started with neural networks where methods could be applied which had been developed for spin glasses, but todays list includes vehicular traffic (driven lattice gases), geology (self-organized criticality), economy (fractal stochastic processes and large scale simulations), engineering (dynamical chaos), and many others. By staying in the physics departments, these activities have transformed the physics curriculum and the view physicists have of themselves. In many departments there are now courses on econophysics or on biological physics, and some universities offer degrees in the physics of traffic or in econophysics. In order to document this change of attitude

  14. Physical and psychological benefits of once-a-week Pilates exercises in young sedentary women: A 10-week longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Nóra; Szabó, Zsófia; Köteles, Ferenc; Szabo, Attila

    2016-09-01

    Pilates exercises have several demonstrated physical and psychological benefits. To date, most research in this context was conducted with symptomatic or elderly people with few dependent measures. The current study examined the chronic or longitudinal effects of very low frequency, once a week, Pilates training on several physical and psychological measures, over a 10-week intervention, in young, healthy, and sedentary women. Further, the study gauged the acute effects of Pilates exercises on positive- and negative affect in 10 exercise sessions. Compared to a control group, the Pilates group exhibited significant improvements in skeletal muscle mass, flexibility, balance, core- and abdominal muscle strength, body awareness, and negative affect. This group also showed favorable changes in positive (22.5% increase) and negative affect (12.2% decrease) in nine out of ten exercise sessions. This work clearly demonstrates the acute and chronic benefits of Pilates training on both physical and psychological measures. It also reveals that even only once a week Pilates training is enough to trigger detectable benefits in young sedentary women. While this frequency is below the required levels of exercise for health, it may overcome the 'lack of time' excuse for not exercising and subsequently its tangible benefits may positively influence one's engagement in more physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Subjective health complaints in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD. Relationships with physical, psychological, and collision associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ihlebæk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism

  16. Using Psychology in the Physics Classroom: Five Steps to Improving Classroom Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jo-Anne

    2018-01-01

    Psychology has been an avocation of mine for almost 20 years, and over the past decade I have begun integrating this knowledge into my classroom. My first introduction to psychology was through the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®. MBTI looks at preferences in how people interact with the world around them. By recognizing how different students…

  17. Statistical Physics, Optimization, Inference, and Message-Passing Algorithms : Lecture Notes of the Les Houches School of Physics : Special Issue, October 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico; Zdeborova, Lenka; Zecchina, Riccardo; Tramel, Eric W; Cugliandolo, Leticia F

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a collection of the presentations that were given in October 2013 at the Les Houches Autumn School on statistical physics, optimization, inference, and message-passing algorithms. In the last decade, there has been increasing convergence of interest and methods between theoretical physics and fields as diverse as probability, machine learning, optimization, and inference problems. In particular, much theoretical and applied work in statistical physics and computer science has relied on the use of message-passing algorithms and their connection to the statistical physics of glasses and spin glasses. For example, both the replica and cavity methods have led to recent advances in compressed sensing, sparse estimation, and random constraint satisfaction, to name a few. This book’s detailed pedagogical lectures on statistical inference, computational complexity, the replica and cavity methods, and belief propagation are aimed particularly at PhD students, post-docs, and young researchers desir...

  18. Statistical physics as an approximate method of many-body quantum mechanics in the representation of occupation numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushnirenko, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt was made to substantiate statistical physics from the viewpoint of many-body quantum mechanics in the representation of occupation numbers. This approach enabled to develop the variation method for solution of stationary and nonstationary nonequilibrium problems

  19. Psychological wellbeing of Turkish university students with physical impairments: an evaluation within the stress-vulnerability paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca-Atabey, Mujde; Karanci, A Nuray; Dirik, Gulay; Aydemir, Deniz

    2011-04-01

    Generally, universities in developing countries offer little in the way of provisions and support (material, emotional, etc.) for disabled students. Therefore, disabled students experience considerable burdens and barriers in their educational life. This study investigated the psychological wellbeing of disabled Turkish university students by examining influences on stress-related growth and psychological distress. Disability is defined within the framework of a social model. According to this view, impairment refers to the functional limitation(s) that affect(s) a person's body, whereas disability refers to the loss or limitation of opportunities owing to social, physical or psychological obstacles. Seventy disabled university students with physical impairments were administered a questionnaire package, including a sociodemographic information sheet, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Stress-Related Growth Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Social Support, Life Events Inventory, and Brief Symptom Inventory. Snowball sampling was used and voluntary participation was essential. The results showed that disability burden, daily hassles, and helplessness coping were significant predictors of psychological symptoms. For stress-related growth the only variable that appeared significant was problem-solving coping. The results pointed out that there may be different pathways to distress and growth. In order to decrease psychological distress and enhance growth in disabled university students, disability awareness programs, changes in the barriers in the academic and physical environments of the university campuses, and coping skills training to increase problem-focused coping and to combat helplessness may prove to be effective. Reducing daily hassles for the disabled students is likely to contribute to their wellbeing by decreasing their burdens. Also, a more disability-friendly environment is likely to be empowering for disabled university students.

  20. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health of Korean older adults with hypertension: effect of an empowerment intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Fritschi, Cynthia; Kim, Mi Ja

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week empowerment intervention on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Using a quasi-experimental design, older adults participated in either an experimental group (n = 27) or control group (n = 21). The experimental group received an empowerment intervention including lifestyle modification education, group discussion, and exercise training for 8 weeks, and the control group received standard hypertension education. After 8 weeks, participants in the experimental group had significantly decreased sedentary behavior, increased physical activity, increased self-efficacy for physical activity, and increased perceived health (p decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and perceived health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Physical and psychologic effects of aromatherapy inhalation on pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toshiko

    2013-10-01

    Stress reduction care is important for pregnant women to decrease obstetric complications and children's health problems after birth. The aim of this study is to clarify the physical and psychologic effects of inhalation aromatherapy on pregnant women. Essential oils with high linalool and linalyl acetate content that may be used during pregnancy were selected and among these, and the one preferred by the participant was used. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. This trial was performed at a gynecology outpatient department in a hospital in Kyoto, Japan. The study included pregnant women in week 28 of a single pregnancy with a normal course. Participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group and a control group. They were seated in the resting, seated position for 10 minutes. During the latter 5 minutes of each 10-minute session, aromatherapy inhalation was performed for the aromatherapy group. Before and after the intervention, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was measured. During the trial, the heart-rate fluctuations were measured for the autonomic nervous system regulation. A total of 13 pregnant women participated in the trial. Seven (7) participants were assigned to the aromatherapy group and 6 participants to the control group. The results of the POMS were such that based on an intragroup comparison, significant differences were observed in the Tension-Anxiety score (paromatherapy. The results of the autonomic nervous system regulation were such that based on an intragroup comparison within the aromatherapy group, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly (pAromatherapy inhalation using essential oils containing linalyl acetate and linalool was found to be effective for the POMS and parasympathetic nerve activity, based on an intragroup comparison. However, based on a comparison between the groups, no substantial difference was observed; hence, further study is necessary in the future.

  2. A Pilot Study to Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating Deployed U.S. Sailors and Marines with Musculoskeletal Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Department of Population Health , NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY. ****Department of Physical Therapy, Naval Medical Center Portsmouth...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0146 TITLE: A Pilot Study to Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating...Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating Deployed U.S. Sailors and Marines with Musculoskeletal Injuries 5b

  3. The Dark Side of Forgiveness: The Tendency to Forgive Predicts Continued Psychological and Physical Aggression in Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a burgeoning literature that documents numerous positive implications of forgiveness, scholars know very little about the potential negative implications of forgiveness. In particular, the tendency to express forgiveness may lead offenders to feel free to offend again by removing unwanted consequences for their behavior (e.g., anger, criticism, rejection, loneliness) that would otherwise discourage reoffending. Consistent with this possibility, the current longitudinal study of newlywed couples revealed a positive association between spouses’ reports of their tendencies to express forgiveness to their partners and those partners’ reports of psychological and physical aggression. Specifically, although spouses who reported being relatively more forgiving experienced psychological and physical aggression that remained stable over the first 4 years of marriage, spouses who reported being relatively less forgiving experienced declines in both forms of aggression over time. These findings join just a few others in demonstrating that forgiveness is not a panacea. PMID:21558557

  4. Dance/movement therapy for improving psychological and physical outcomes in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Shim, Minjung; Goodill, Sherry W

    2015-01-07

    Current cancer care increasingly incorporates psychosocial interventions. Cancer patients use dance/movement therapy to learn to accept and reconnect with their bodies, build new self-confidence, enhance self-expression, address feelings of isolation, depression, anger and fear and to strengthen personal resources. To update the previously published review that examined the effects of dance/movement therapy and standard care versus standard care alone or standard care and other interventions on psychological and physical outcomes in patients with cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (OvidSP, 1950 to June week 4, 2014), EMBASE (OvidSP, 1980 to 2014 week 26), CINAHL (EBSCOhost, 1982 to July 15 2014), PsycINFO (EBSCOhost, 1806 to July 15 2014), LILACS (Virual Health Library, 1982 to July 15 2014), Science Citation Index (ISI, 1974 to July 15 2014), CancerLit (1983 to 2003), International Bibliography of Theatre and Dance (1989 to July 15 2014), the National Research Register (2000 to September 2007), Proquest Digital Dissertations, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Current Controlled Trials (all to July 15 2014). We handsearched dance/movement therapy and related topics journals, reviewed reference lists and contacted experts. There was no language restriction. We included all randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of dance/movement therapy interventions for improving psychological and physical outcomes in patients with cancer. We considered studies only if dance/movement therapy was provided by a formally trained dance/movement therapist or by trainees in a formal dance/movement therapy program. Two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality, seeking additional information from the trial researchers when necessary. Results were presented using standardized mean differences. We identified one new trial for inclusion in this update. In

  5. Physics colloquium: Single-electron counting in quantum metrology and in statistical mechanics

    CERN Multimedia

    Geneva University

    2011-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92olé   Lundi 17 octobre 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM « Single-electron counting in quantum metrology and in statistical mechanics » Prof. Jukka Pekola Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University Helsinki, Finland   First I discuss the basics of single-electron tunneling and its potential applications in metrology. My main focus is in developing an accurate source of single-electron current for the realization of the unit ampere. I discuss the principle and the present status of the so-called single- electron turnstile. Investigation of errors in transporting electrons one by one has revealed a wealth of observations on fundamental phenomena in mesoscopic superconductivity, including individual Andreev...

  6. Asymptotics of elliptic and parabolic pdes and their applications in statistical physics, computational neuroscience, and biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Holcman, David

    2018-01-01

    This is a monograph on the emerging branch of mathematical biophysics combining asymptotic analysis with numerical and stochastic methods to analyze partial differential equations arising in biological and physical sciences. In more detail, the book presents the analytic methods and tools for approximating solutions of mixed boundary value problems, with particular emphasis on the narrow escape problem. Informed throughout by real-world applications, the book includes topics such as the Fokker-Planck equation, boundary layer analysis, WKB approximation, applications of spectral theory, as well as recent results in narrow escape theory. Numerical and stochastic aspects, including mean first passage time and extreme statistics, are discussed in detail and relevant applications are presented in parallel with the theory. Including background on the classical asymptotic theory of differential equations, this book is written for scientists of various backgrounds interested in deriving solutions to real-world proble...

  7. Solving Large-Scale Computational Problems Using Insights from Statistical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selman, Bart [Cornell University

    2012-02-29

    Many challenging problems in computer science and related fields can be formulated as constraint satisfaction problems. Such problems consist of a set of discrete variables and a set of constraints between those variables, and represent a general class of so-called NP-complete problems. The goal is to find a value assignment to the variables that satisfies all constraints, generally requiring a search through and exponentially large space of variable-value assignments. Models for disordered systems, as studied in statistical physics, can provide important new insights into the nature of constraint satisfaction problems. Recently, work in this area has resulted in the discovery of a new method for solving such problems, called the survey propagation (SP) method. With SP, we can solve problems with millions of variables and constraints, an improvement of two orders of magnitude over previous methods.

  8. Adsorption of diclofenac and nimesulide on activated carbon: Statistical physics modeling and effect of adsorbate size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaoui, Lotfi; Mechi, Nesrine; Lima, Éder Cláudio; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz; Ben Lamine, Abdelmottaleb

    2017-10-01

    Based on statistical physics elements, the equilibrium adsorption of diclofenac (DFC) and nimesulide (NM) on activated carbon was analyzed by a multilayer model with saturation. The paper aimed to describe experimentally and theoretically the adsorption process and study the effect of adsorbate size using the model parameters. From numerical simulation, the number of molecules per site showed that the adsorbate molecules (DFC and NM) were mostly anchored in both sides of the pore walls. The receptor sites density increase suggested that additional sites appeared during the process, to participate in DFC and NM adsorption. The description of the adsorption energy behavior indicated that the process was physisorption. Finally, by a model parameters correlation, the size effect of the adsorbate was deduced indicating that the molecule dimension has a negligible effect on the DFC and NM adsorption.

  9. Stevens’ forgotten crossroads: The divergent measurement traditions in the physical and psychological sciences from the mid-20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A McGrane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The late 19th and early 20th Centuries saw the consolidation in physics of the three main traditions that predominate in discussions of measurement theory. These are: (i the systematic tradition pioneered by Maxwell; (ii the representational tradition pioneered by Campbell; and (iii the operational tradition pioneered by Bridgman (1927. These divergent approaches created uncertainty about the nature of measurement in the physical sciences and provided Stevens (1946 with an opportunity and rationale to, in effect, reinvent the definition of scientific measurement. Stevens appropriated the representational and operational traditions as the sole basis for his definition of measurement, excluding any place for the systematic approach. In committing to Stevens’ path, the psychological sciences were blinded to the advances made in metrology, the establishment of the International System (SI and the standard units contained within this system. These advances were only possible due to the deep conceptual and instrumental connections between the system of physical units and the body of physical theory and laws developed over the preceding centuries. It is argued that if the psychological sciences are to ever achieve equivalent methodological advances, they must bridge this ‘metrological gap’ created by Stevens’ measurement crossroads and understand the ways in which the systematic approach advanced measurement. This means that psychological measurement needs to be de-abstracted, rid of operational rules for numerical assignment and set upon a foundation of quantitative theory, definition and law. In the absence of such theoretical foundations, claims of measurement in the psychological sciences remain a methodological chimera.

  10. Behaviour of medical students in seeking mental and physical health care: exploration and comparison with psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimstone, Renee; Thistlethwaite, Jill E; Quirk, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Doctors are often reluctant to seek health care through the usual channels and tend to self-diagnose and prescribe. Medical students learn attitudes and values from clinician role models and may also adopt behaviour patterns that lead them to seek help for physical and mental health problems from informal sources. This study aimed to explore the behaviour of students in seeking health care for physical and mental health problems, comparing medical with psychology students, and to understand what barriers to conventional routes of seeking health care may affect this. We administered a questionnaire asking for demographic details and responses to 2 vignettes in which a student from the respondent's discipline was experiencing firstly symptoms of a mental health problem and secondly symptoms of a physical health problem. Data were analysed with spss and univariate anovas to examine differences between respondents. A total of 172 students at the psychology and medical schools at James Cook University in Australia participated. We identified a number of barriers affecting student behaviour in seeking help, which included worries about knowing the doctor they could consult at the university health centre or having future dealings with him or her, and cost of treatment. There were differences between the 2 groups of students. There are several barriers for both psychology and medical students to accessing appropriate professional mental health care. Medical students also experience barriers to attaining appropriate physical health care when needed. Psychology and medical students were more likely to seek advice informally from friends and/or family with regard to mental health care.

  11. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    M?nnikk?, Niko; Billieux, Jo?l; K??ri?inen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measur...

  12. An ensemble Kalman filter for statistical estimation of physics constrained nonlinear regression models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlim, John; Mahdi, Adam; Majda, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    A central issue in contemporary science is the development of nonlinear data driven statistical–dynamical models for time series of noisy partial observations from nature or a complex model. It has been established recently that ad-hoc quadratic multi-level regression models can have finite-time blow-up of statistical solutions and/or pathological behavior of their invariant measure. Recently, a new class of physics constrained nonlinear regression models were developed to ameliorate this pathological behavior. Here a new finite ensemble Kalman filtering algorithm is developed for estimating the state, the linear and nonlinear model coefficients, the model and the observation noise covariances from available partial noisy observations of the state. Several stringent tests and applications of the method are developed here. In the most complex application, the perfect model has 57 degrees of freedom involving a zonal (east–west) jet, two topographic Rossby waves, and 54 nonlinearly interacting Rossby waves; the perfect model has significant non-Gaussian statistics in the zonal jet with blocked and unblocked regimes and a non-Gaussian skewed distribution due to interaction with the other 56 modes. We only observe the zonal jet contaminated by noise and apply the ensemble filter algorithm for estimation. Numerically, we find that a three dimensional nonlinear stochastic model with one level of memory mimics the statistical effect of the other 56 modes on the zonal jet in an accurate fashion, including the skew non-Gaussian distribution and autocorrelation decay. On the other hand, a similar stochastic model with zero memory levels fails to capture the crucial non-Gaussian behavior of the zonal jet from the perfect 57-mode model

  13. Theoretical approaches to the steady-state statistical physics of interacting dissipative units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Eric

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a concise overview of some of the generic approaches that have been developed to deal with the statistical description of large systems of interacting dissipative ‘units’. The latter notion includes, e.g. inelastic grains, active or self-propelled particles, bubbles in a foam, low-dimensional dynamical systems like driven oscillators, or even spatially extended modes like Fourier modes of the velocity field in a fluid. We first review methods based on the statistical properties of a single unit, starting with elementary mean-field approximations, either static or dynamic, that describe a unit embedded in a ‘self-consistent’ environment. We then discuss how this basic mean-field approach can be extended to account for spatial dependences, in the form of space-dependent mean-field Fokker-Planck equations, for example. We also briefly review the use of kinetic theory in the framework of the Boltzmann equation, which is an appropriate description for dilute systems. We then turn to descriptions in terms of the full N-body distribution, starting from exact solutions of one-dimensional models, using a matrix-product ansatz method when correlations are present. Since exactly solvable models are scarce, we also present some approximation methods which can be used to determine the N-body distribution in a large system of dissipative units. These methods include the Edwards approach for dense granular matter and the approximate treatment of multiparticle Langevin equations with colored noise, which models systems of self-propelled particles. Throughout this review, emphasis is put on methodological aspects of the statistical modeling and on formal similarities between different physical problems, rather than on the specific behavior of a given system.

  14. Partner aggression among men and women in substance use disorder treatment: correlates of psychological and physical aggression and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Stephen T; Murray, Regan L; Walton, Maureen A; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C

    2008-11-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proximal risk factors, including demographics, history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and family history of problems with alcohol, drugs and depression, as well as recent substance use and symptoms of depression. Overall rates of participant-partner psychological aggression (77%), physical aggression (54%) and injuring partners (33%) were high, as were rates of partner-to-participant psychological aggression (73%), physical aggression (51%), and injury (33%). Several distal (family history variables, physical abuse) and proximal factors (binge drinking, several different drugs, depressive symptoms) were bivariately related to most of the aggression measures. However, according to multivariate analyses predicting aggression and injury measures, binge drinking and cocaine use were the drugs significantly associated with most measures, depression symptoms also were related to most aggression and injury measures, and a history of reported childhood physical abuse was related to all frequency of aggression and injury measures among those reporting such behaviors. Overall, the high rates of aggression among both men and women observed in this study further illustrate the need for interventions targeting substance use and aggression, and for further research regarding the inter-relationships among substance, aggression and depressive symptoms.

  15. Unemployment among women: examining the relationship of physical and psychological intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P; Smith, Mark W; Baumrind, Nikki

    2009-03-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of physical violence, psychological violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as predictors of unemployment. Results indicated substantial rates of unemployment among women who reported IPV, with rates of 20% among women who experienced psychological violence, 18% among women who experienced physical violence, and 19% among women with PTSD symptoms. When the relationship was adjusted for demographic characteristics and educational attainment, PTSD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.09) and psychological violence (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.32), but not physical violence, were associated with unemployment. Implications for supported employment programs and workplace responses to IPV are discussed.

  16. Properties of the patient administered questionnaires: new scales measuring physical and psychological symptoms of hip and knee disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Carol A; Ranawat, Amar S; Meftah, Morteza; Koob, Trevor W; Ranawat, Chitranjan S

    2012-04-01

    The Patient Administered Questionnaires (PAQ) incorporate physical and psychological symptoms into one scale and permit more comprehensive self-reports for hip and knee disorders. We tested the psychometric properties of the PAQ-Hip and PAQ-Knee. Correlations between baseline PAQ-Hip and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were .39 to .72 (n = 102), .39 to .69 for score change (n = 68 post-total hip arthroplasty), and most κ values > .60 (n = 50). Correlations between baseline PAQ-Knee and WOMAC were .35 to .64 (n = 100), .62 to .79 for score change (n = 43 post-total knee arthroplasty), and most κ values >.60 (n = 51). For both scales, effect sizes were higher than for the WOMAC, and there was modest correlation between physical and psychological questions, indicating these concepts are not completely interchangeable. Thus, the PAQ scales have strong psychometric properties and are unique compared with existing scales by including physical and psychological symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effects of a Physical Education Intervention to Support the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs on the Motivation and Intentions to Be Physically Active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Evelia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (nexperimental = 30; ncontrol = 23 of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62 by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.

  18. The Effects of a Physical Education Intervention to Support the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs on the Motivation and Intentions to be Physically Active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Evelia; Coterón, Javier

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012) in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (n experimental = 30; n control = 23) of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62) by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012) to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.

  19. Developing Statistical Physics Course Handout on Distribution Function Materials Based on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riandry, M. A.; Ismet, I.; Akhsan, H.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to produce a valid and practical statistical physics course handout on distribution function materials based on STEM. Rowntree development model is used to produce this handout. The model consists of three stages: planning, development and evaluation stages. In this study, the evaluation stage used Tessmer formative evaluation. It consists of 5 stages: self-evaluation, expert review, one-to-one evaluation, small group evaluation and field test stages. However, the handout is limited to be tested on validity and practicality aspects, so the field test stage is not implemented. The data collection technique used walkthroughs and questionnaires. Subjects of this study are students of 6th and 8th semester of academic year 2016/2017 Physics Education Study Program of Sriwijaya University. The average result of expert review is 87.31% (very valid category). One-to-one evaluation obtained the average result is 89.42%. The result of small group evaluation is 85.92%. From one-to-one and small group evaluation stages, averagestudent response to this handout is 87,67% (very practical category). Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the handout is valid and practical.

  20. Music interventions for improving psychological and physical outcomes in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Dileo, Cheryl; Magill, Lucanne; Teague, Aaron

    2016-08-15

    Having cancer may result in extensive emotional, physical and social suffering. Music interventions have been used to alleviate symptoms and treatment side effects in cancer patients. To assess and compare the effects of music therapy and music medicine interventions for psychological and physical outcomes in people with cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS, Science Citation Index, CancerLit, CAIRSS, Proquest Digital Dissertations, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, the RILM Abstracts of Music Literature, http://www.wfmt.info/Musictherapyworld/ and the National Research Register. We searched all databases, except for the last two, from their inception to January 2016; the other two are no longer functional, so we searched them until their termination date. We handsearched music therapy journals, reviewed reference lists and contacted experts. There was no language restriction. We included all randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of music interventions for improving psychological and physical outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with cancer. We excluded participants undergoing biopsy and aspiration for diagnostic purposes. Two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Where possible, we presented results in meta-analyses using mean differences and standardized mean differences. We used post-test scores. In cases of significant baseline difference, we used change scores. We identified 22 new trials for inclusion in this update. In total, the evidence of this review rests on 52 trials with a total of 3731 participants. We included music therapy interventions offered by trained music therapists, as well as music medicine interventions, which are defined as listening to pre-recorded music, offered by medical staff. We categorized 23 trials as music therapy trials and 29 as music medicine trials

  1. Trends and changes in research on the psychology of physical activity across 20 years: a quantitative analysis of 10 journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Nasuti, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    To investigate content of the psychology of physical activity research over the past 20 years. Volumes of 10 journals, identified by impact factor and relevance to physical activity were audited every other year, during the period of 1990-2008. Inclusion criteria were studies that measured a physical activity outcome, and/or a psychological outcome as a result of physical activity. Data were extracted and coded based on 15 factors. The review yielded 889 studies for analysis. Total volume of studies (from 127 in the 1990s to 762 in the 2000s), and the proportionate content space allotted to journals has increased significantly across 20 years (effect size w=0.24) (Cohen, 1992). Many study characteristics (assessment of minority/high-risk groups, self-report measurement, cross-sectional designs) have not changed. There was evidence, however, of less growth in research among older adults and young children (effect size w=0.15) compared to other age groups (effect size w=0.24), a move from pure measurement studies (effect size w=0.21) to descriptive research (effect size w=0.27), and considerable growth in environmental correlates research across time (effect size w=0.41) in the 10 journals sampled. The behavioral science of physical activity has clearly increased in prominence and volume among the 10 journals sampled, but methodological characteristics of research could be improved in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical after-effects of colposcopy and related procedures, and their inter-relationship with psychological distress: a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M; O'Brien, K; Waller, J; Gallagher, P; D'Arcy, T; Flannelly, G; Martin, C M; McRae, J; Prendiville, W; Ruttle, C; White, C; Pilkington, L; O'Leary, J J; Sharp, L

    2017-08-01

    To estimate prevalence of post-colposcopy physical after-effects and investigate associations between these and subsequent psychological distress. Longitudinal survey. Two hospital-based colposcopy clinics. Women with abnormal cytology who underwent colposcopy (±related procedures). Questionnaires were mailed to women 4, 8 and 12 months post-colposcopy. Details of physical after-effects (pain, bleeding and discharge) experienced post-colposcopy were collected at 4 months. Colposcopy-specific distress was measured using the Process Outcome-Specific Measure at all time-points. Linear mixed-effects regression was used to identify associations between physical after-effects and distress over 12 months, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical variables. Prevalence of post-colposcopy physical after-effects. Associations between the presence of any physical after-effects, awareness of after-effects, and number of after-effects and distress. Five-hundred and eighty-four women were recruited (response rate = 73, 59 and 52% at 4, 8 and 12 months, respectively). Eighty-two percent of women reported one or more physical after-effect(s). Multiple physical after-effects were common (two after-effects = 25%; three after-effects = 25%). Psychological distress scores declined significantly over time. In adjusted analyses, women who experienced all three physical after-effects had on average a 4.58 (95% CI: 1.10-8.05) higher distress scored than those who experienced no after-effects. Women who were unaware of the possibility of experiencing after-effects scored significantly higher for distress during follow-up. The prevalence of physical after-effects of colposcopy and related procedures is high. The novel findings of inter-relationships between awareness of the possibility of after-effects and experiencing multiple after-effects, and post-colposcopy distress may be relevant to the development of interventions to alleviate post-colposcopy distress. Experiencing multiple

  3. Modulation of Cervical Facet Joint Nociception and Pain Attenuates Physical and Psychological Features of Chronic Whiplash: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley Dean; Jull, Gwendolen; Schneider, Geoff M; Frizzell, Bevan; Hooper, Robert A; Sterling, Michele

    2015-09-01

    To investigate changes in clinical (physical and psychological) features of individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder who had previously undergone cervical radiofrequency neurotomy at the time point when the effects of radiofrequency neurotomy had dissipated and pain returned. Prospective cohort observational trial of consecutive patients. Tertiary spinal intervention centre in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. A total of 53 consecutive individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder. Individuals underwent radiofrequency neurotomy and were assessed before radiofrequency neurotomy, at 1 and 3 months postprocedure, and then after the return of pain (approximately 10 months postprocedure). Quantitative sensory tests (pressure; thermal pain thresholds; brachial plexus provocation test), nociceptive flexion reflex, and motor function (cervical range of movement; craniocervical flexion test) were measured. Self-reported disability, psychological distress, pain catastrophization, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms also were measured. Upon the return of pain after radiofrequency neurotomy, levels of disability increased (P .22). There were no significant changes in pressure hyperalgesia (P > .054) or craniocervical flexion test performance (P > .07) after the return of pain. Psychological distress and pain catastrophizing increased significantly after the return of pain (P .13). However, there was no difference in number or severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms after the return of pain (P > .30). Physical and psychological features of chronic whiplash-associated disorder are modulated dynamically with cervical radiofrequency neurotomy. These findings indicate that peripheral nociception is involved in the manifestations of chronic whiplash-associated disorder in this cohort of individuals. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mental and physical health-related functioning mediates between psychological job demands and sickness absence among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné; van Rhenen, Willem; Schaufeli, Wilmar; van der Klink, Jac; Magerøy, Nils; Moen, Bente; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether health-related functioning mediates the effect of psychological job demands on sickness absence in nurses. Nurses face high job demands that can have adverse health effects resulting in sickness absence. Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Data for 2964 Norwegian nurses were collected in the period 2008-2010. At baseline, psychological job demands were measured with the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Health-related functioning was assessed by the Mental Composite Score and the Physical Composite Score of the SF-12 Health Survey (2nd version). Sickness absence (no = 0, yes = 1) was self-reported at 1-year follow-up. Interaction and mediation analyses were conducted stratified by tenure (6 years) as a registered nurse. A total of 2180 nurses (74%) with complete data were eligible for analysis. A significant three-way interaction between job demands, control and support was found in newly licensed nurses (tenure sickness absence at 1-year follow-up. This association was substantially weakened when Mental Composite Score and Physical Composite Score were introduced as mediator variables, indicating a partial mediation effect that was particularly pronounced in newly licensed nurses. Psychological job demands did not modify the effect of health-related functioning on sickness absence. Both mental and physical health-related functioning mediated between psychological job demands and sickness absence. Nurse managers should pay attention to health-related functioning, because poor health-related functioning may predict sickness absence, especially in newly licensed nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. From Random Walks to Brownian Motion, from Diffusion to Entropy: Statistical Principles in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Entropy changes underlie the physics that dominates biological interactions. Indeed, introductory biology courses often begin with an exploration of the qualities of water that are important to living systems. However, one idea that is not explicitly addressed in most introductory physics or biology textbooks is dominant contribution of the entropy in driving important biological processes towards equilibrium. From diffusion to cell-membrane formation, to electrostatic binding in protein folding, to the functioning of nerve cells, entropic effects often act to counterbalance deterministic forces such as electrostatic attraction and in so doing, allow for effective molecular signaling. A small group of biology, biophysics and computer science faculty have worked together for the past five years to develop curricular modules (based on SCALEUP pedagogy) that enable students to create models of stochastic and deterministic processes. Our students are first-year engineering and science students in the calculus-based physics course and they are not expected to know biology beyond the high-school level. In our class, they learn to reduce seemingly complex biological processes and structures to be described by tractable models that include deterministic processes and simple probabilistic inference. The students test these models in simulations and in laboratory experiments that are biologically relevant. The students are challenged to bridge the gap between statistical parameterization of their data (mean and standard deviation) and simple model-building by inference. This allows the students to quantitatively describe realistic cellular processes such as diffusion, ionic transport, and ligand-receptor binding. Moreover, the students confront ``random'' forces and traditional forces in problems, simulations, and in laboratory exploration throughout the year-long course as they move from traditional kinematics through thermodynamics to electrostatic interactions. This talk

  7. Physical fitness and psychological health in overweight/obese children : A cross-sectional study from the ActiveBrains project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Ayllon, M.; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Esteban-Cornejo, I; Migueles, Jairo H; Mora-Gonzalez, J; Henriksson, P; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Mena-Molina, Alejandra; Molina-García, P; Estévez-López, F; Enriquez, Gala María; Perales, José C; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Catena, Andrés; Ortega, Francisco B

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of physical fitness (i.e. cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and speed/agility) with psychological distress and psychological well-being in overweight/obese pre-adolescent children. DESIGN: 110 overweight/obese children (10.0±1.1years old, 61 boys)

  8. Physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants of pain intensity, pain disability, and the number of pain locations in depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Denise J C; Naarding, Paul; Collard, Rose M; Comijs, Hannie C; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-10-01

    Late-life depression and pain more often co-occur than can be explained by chance. Determinants of pain in late-life depression are unknown, even though knowledge on possible determinants of pain in depression is important for clinical practice. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were 1) to describe pain characteristics of depressed older adults and a nondepressed comparison group, and 2) to explore physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants of acute and chronic pain intensity, disability, and multisite pain in depressed older adults. Data from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons cohort, consisting of 378 depressed persons, diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria, and 132 nondepressed persons aged 60 years and older, were used in a cross-sectional design. Pain characteristics were measured by the Chronic Graded Pain Scale. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the contribution of physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants to outcomes pain intensity, disability, and the number of pain locations. Depressed older adults more often reported chronic pain and experienced their pain as more intense and disabling compared to nondepressed older adults. Adjusted for demographic, physical, and lifestyle characteristics, multinomial logistic regression analyses showed increased odds ratios (OR) for depression in acute pain (OR 3.010; P=0.005) and chronic pain (OR 4.544, Presearch could focus on the temporal relationship between anxiety, late-life depression, and pain. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress from daily hassles in couples: its effects on intradyadic stress, relationship satisfaction, and physical and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconier, Mariana K; Nussbeck, Fridtjof; Bodenmann, Guy; Schneider, Hulka; Bradbury, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    According to the systemic-transactional stress model (STM; G. Bodenmann, European Review of Applied Psychology, 1997; 47: 137), extradyadic stress from daily hassles can have a negative impact on the individual psychological and physical health and the couple's relationship. This study is the first one to test the STM propositions in a model that includes both partners' individual and relational outcomes simultaneously. The model also includes actor and partner effects as well as the interdependence between partners' processes. Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from 110 community couples in Switzerland. Consistent with STM predictions, results from the path model analysis indicate that for actor effects extradyadic stress from daily hassles relates directly to lower psychological (increase in anxiety symptoms) and physical well-being and only indirectly to lower relationship satisfaction through increased intradyadic stress from relationship problems and also through more depressive symptomatology in men. The female extradyadic stress and intradyadic stress had partner effects on the male intradyadic stress and the male relationship satisfaction, respectively. Limitations as well as research and clinical implications for marriage and family therapists are discussed. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  10. Testing the dualistic model of passion using a novel quadripartite approach: A look at physical and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Benjamin J I; Verner-Filion, Jérémie; Gaudreau, Patrick; Bailis, Daniel S; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Vallerand, Robert J

    2018-03-10

    Passion research has focused extensively on the unique effects of both harmonious passion and obsessive passion (Vallerand, 2015). We adopted a quadripartite approach (Gaudreau & Thompson, 2010) to test whether physical and psychological well-being are distinctly related to subtypes of passion with varying within-person passion combinations: pure harmonious passion, pure obsessive passion, mixed passion, and non-passion. In four studies (total N = 3,122), we tested whether passion subtypes were differentially associated with self-reported general health (Study 1; N = 1,218 undergraduates), health symptoms in video gamers (Study 2; N = 269 video game players), global psychological well-being (Study 3; N = 1,192 undergraduates), and academic burnout (Study 4; N = 443 undergraduates) using latent moderated structural equation modeling. Pure harmonious passion was generally associated with more positive levels of physical health and psychological well-being compared to pure obsessive passion, mixed passion, and non-passion. In contrast, outcomes were more negative for pure obsessive passion compared to both mixed passion and non-passion subtypes. This research underscores the theoretical and empirical usefulness of a quadripartite approach for the study of passion. Overall, the results demonstrate the benefits of having harmonious passion, even when obsessive passion is also high (i.e., mixed passion), and highlight the costs associated with a pure obsessive passion. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents: Changes between 2001 and 2009 and associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppang, Annette Løvheim; Thurston, Miranda; Hartz, Ingeborg; Hagquist, Curt

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to examine psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents in relation to changes over time and the associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. This cross-sectional study was based on data retrieved from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys in 2001 and 2009 in Hedmark County. Adolescents aged 15-16 years old completed a questionnaire regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, psychological distress and other health and lifestyle variables. The self-report Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to assess psychological distress. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between psychological distress, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Self-reported psychological distress increased significantly from 2001 to 2009 (from 19.4 to 28.2%), with the proportion of girls reporting psychological distress being twice as large as the proportion of boys. The proportion of adolescents who were physically active for ⩾11 hours per week increased significantly over the same period (from 6.0 to 10.4%). Sedentary behaviour ⩾6 hours per school day increased significantly among both sexes between 2001 and 2009. Physical activity (⩾11 hours) and sedentary behaviour (⩾6 hours) were both significantly associated with psychological distress. The association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological distress was weak; only high amounts of physical activity and high amounts of screen-based sedentary behaviour were associated with psychological distress. Longitudinal studies are needed to provide further insights into these associations and to understand the extent to which these variables might be causally related.

  12. Applications of modern statistical methods to analysis of data in physical science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, James Eric

    Modern methods of statistical and computational analysis offer solutions to dilemmas confronting researchers in physical science. Although the ideas behind modern statistical and computational analysis methods were originally introduced in the 1970's, most scientists still rely on methods written during the early era of computing. These researchers, who analyze increasingly voluminous and multivariate data sets, need modern analysis methods to extract the best results from their studies. The first section of this work showcases applications of modern linear regression. Since the 1960's, many researchers in spectroscopy have used classical stepwise regression techniques to derive molecular constants. However, problems with thresholds of entry and exit for model variables plagues this analysis method. Other criticisms of this kind of stepwise procedure include its inefficient searching method, the order in which variables enter or leave the model and problems with overfitting data. We implement an information scoring technique that overcomes the assumptions inherent in the stepwise regression process to calculate molecular model parameters. We believe that this kind of information based model evaluation can be applied to more general analysis situations in physical science. The second section proposes new methods of multivariate cluster analysis. The K-means algorithm and the EM algorithm, introduced in the 1960's and 1970's respectively, formed the basis of multivariate cluster analysis methodology for many years. However, several shortcomings of these methods include strong dependence on initial seed values and inaccurate results when the data seriously depart from hypersphericity. We propose new cluster analysis methods based on genetic algorithms that overcomes the strong dependence on initial seed values. In addition, we propose a generalization of the Genetic K-means algorithm which can accurately identify clusters with complex hyperellipsoidal covariance

  13. Developing self-regulation for dietary temptations: intervention effects on physical, self-regulatory and psychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Heather C; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to investigate whether a self-regulatory skills intervention can improve weight loss-related outcomes. Fifty-five participants (M BMI = 32.60 ± 4.86) were randomized into self-regulation training and advice groups and received two training workshops and weekly practice tasks. The self-regulation training group was trained to use six self-regulatory skills: Delayed gratification, thought control, goal setting, self-monitoring, mindfulness, and coping. The advice group received dietary and physical activity advice for weight loss. Physical, self-regulatory, and psychological measures were taken at baseline, end of intervention (week 8) and at follow-up (week 12). Using intention-to-treat analysis, weight, waist circumference, body fat and body mass index (BMI) were significantly reduced at follow-up for both groups. There were significant increases in all six self-regulatory skills and the psychological measures of self-efficacy, self-regulatory success, and physical self-worth for both groups. Results indicate that self-regulatory skills training might be as effective as dietary and physical activity advice in terms of weight loss and related outcomes.

  14. Barriers to Mindfulness: a Path Analytic Model Exploring the Role of Rumination and Worry in Predicting Psychological and Physical Engagement in an Online Mindfulness-Based Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Moitree; Cavanagh, Kate; Strauss, Clara

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with engagement in mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Moreover, engagement in MBIs is usually defined in terms of class attendance ('physical engagement') only. However, in the psychotherapy literature, there is increasing emphasis on measuring participants' involvement with interventions ('psychological engagement'). This study tests a model that rumination and worry act as barriers to physical and psychological engagement in MBIs and that this in turn impedes learning mindfulness. One hundred and twenty-four participants were given access to a 2-week online mindfulness-based self-help (MBSH) intervention. Self-report measures of mindfulness, rumination, worry, positive beliefs about rumination, positive beliefs about worry and physical and psychological engagement were administered. A path analysis was used to test the linear relationships between the variables. Physical and psychological engagement were identified as two distinct constructs. Findings were that rumination and worry both predicted psychological disengagement in MBSH. Psychological engagement predicted change in the describe, act with awareness, non-judge and non-react facets of mindfulness while physical engagement only predicted changes in the non-react facet of mindfulness. Thus, rumination and worry may increase risk of psychological disengagement from MBSH which may in turn hinder cultivating mindfulness. Future suggestions for practice are discussed.

  15. A statistical methodology for quantification of uncertainty in best estimate code physical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinai, Paolo; Macian-Juan, Rafael; Chawla, Rakesh

    2007-01-01

    A novel uncertainty assessment methodology, based on a statistical non-parametric approach, is presented in this paper. It achieves quantification of code physical model uncertainty by making use of model performance information obtained from studies of appropriate separate-effect tests. Uncertainties are quantified in the form of estimated probability density functions (pdf's), calculated with a newly developed non-parametric estimator. The new estimator objectively predicts the probability distribution of the model's 'error' (its uncertainty) from databases reflecting the model's accuracy on the basis of available experiments. The methodology is completed by applying a novel multi-dimensional clustering technique based on the comparison of model error samples with the Kruskall-Wallis test. This takes into account the fact that a model's uncertainty depends on system conditions, since a best estimate code can give predictions for which the accuracy is affected by the regions of the physical space in which the experiments occur. The final result is an objective, rigorous and accurate manner of assigning uncertainty to coded models, i.e. the input information needed by code uncertainty propagation methodologies used for assessing the accuracy of best estimate codes in nuclear systems analysis. The new methodology has been applied to the quantification of the uncertainty in the RETRAN-3D void model and then used in the analysis of an independent separate-effect experiment. This has clearly demonstrated the basic feasibility of the approach, as well as its advantages in yielding narrower uncertainty bands in quantifying the code's accuracy for void fraction predictions

  16. Assessment of the Impact of Pre-military and Military Trauma on the Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Female and Male Active Duty Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knudson, Kathryn

    1996-01-01

    ...-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The analyses examined the relationships between trauma, social support/unit cohesion, health risks and a history of reported symptoms of PTSD and other psychological and physical problems...

  17. Do positive psychological characteristics modify associations of physical performance with functional decline and institutionalization? Findings from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, R.; Huisman, M.; Kuh, D; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether 3 positive psychological characteristics, related to sense of control, modify the associations of physical performance levels with subsequent functional decline and institutionalization. Method. One thousand five hundred and thirty-two men and women participating

  18. Effects of nutritional and psychological status of the patients with advanced stomach cancer on physical performance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Chen, Zhen-chun; Hang, Li-Fang

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the associations between coping mode, nutritional status, and psychological status and performance status of the patients with advanced stomach cancer. An epidemiological survey was conducted among 233 patients with advanced stomach cancer in Fujian, China. In-person interviews were performed for the participants with respect to information of psychological status prior to chemotherapy, nutritional status during chemotherapy, and physical performance status after chemotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the level of hemoglobin (HB), level of daily calorie intake, score of Depression Status Inventory (DSI), and score of confrontation subscale of Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire had a significant influence on performance status (P or =40 versus DSI score confrontation versus high score of confrontation, respectively. Depression, low score of "Confrontation", low levels of HB, and low level of daily calorie intake may be the risk factors of poor performance status of the patients with advanced stomach cancer.

  19. The importance of psychological and social factors in influencing the uptake and maintenance of physical activity after stroke: a structured review of the empirical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqui; Oliver, Tracey; Kroll, Thilo; Macgillivray, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background. People with stroke are not maintaining adequate engagement in physical activity (PA) for health and functional benefit. This paper sought to describe any psychological and social factors that may influence physical activity engagement after stroke. Methods. A structured literature review of studies indexed in MEDLINE, CinAHL, P&BSC, and PsycINFO using search terms relevant to stroke, physical disabilities, and PA. Publications reporting empirical findings (quantitative or qualitative) regarding psychological and/or social factors were included. Results. Twenty studies from 19 publications (9 surveys, 1 RCT, and 10 qualitative studies) were included. Seventeen studies reported findings pertinent to psychological factors and fourteen findings pertinent to social factors. Conclusion. Self-efficacy, physical activity beliefs, and social support appear particularly relevant to physical activity behaviour after stroke and should be included in theoretically based physical interventions. The Transtheoretical Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour are candidate behavioural models that may support intervention development.

  20. Tsunami vs Infragravity Surge: Statistics and Physical Character of Extreme Runup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.; Montoya, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by recent observations of energetic and impulsive infragravity (IG) flooding events - also known as sneaker waves - we will present recent work on the relative probabilities and dynamics of extreme flooding events from tsunamis and long period wind wave events. The discussion will be founded on videos and records of coastal flooding by both recent tsunamis and IG, such as those in the Philippines during Typhoon Haiyan. From these observations, it is evident that IG surges may approach the coast as breaking bores with periods of minutes; a very tsunami-like character. Numerical simulations will be used to estimate flow elevations and speeds from potential IG surges, and these will be compared with similar values from tsunamis, over a range of different beach profiles. We will examine the relative rareness of each type of flooding event, which for large values of IG runup is a particularly challenging topic. For example, for a given runup elevation or flooding speed, the related tsunami return period may be longer than that associated with IG, implying that deposit information associated with such elevations or speeds are more likely to be caused by IG. Our purpose is to provide a statistical and physical discriminant between tsunami and IG, such that in areas exposed to both, a proper interpretation of overland transport, deposition, and damage is possible.