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Sample records for psychology sociology philosophy

  1. All about science philosophy, history, sociology & communication

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    Lam, Liu

    2014-01-01

    There is a lot of confusion and misconception concerning science. The nature and contents of science is an unsettled problem. For example, Thales of 2,600 years ago is recognized as the father of science but the word science was introduced only in the 14th century; the definition of science is often avoided in books about philosophy of science. This book aims to clear up all these confusions and present new developments in the philosophy, history, sociology and communication of science. It also aims to showcase the achievement of China's top scholars in these areas. The 18 chapters, divided into five parts, are written by prominent scholars including the Nobel laureate Robin Warren, sociologist Harry Collins, and physicist-turned-historian Dietrich Stauffer.

  2. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  3. Sociology: a lost connection in social psychology.

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    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin; Snyder, Benjamin H

    2009-11-01

    For the first half of the 20th century, sociology was one of the closest allies of social psychology. Over the past four decades, however, the connection with sociology has weakened, whereas new connections with neighboring disciplines (e.g., biology, economics, political science) have formed. Along the way, the sociological perspective has been largely lost in mainstream social psychology in the United States. Most social psychologists today are not concerned with collective phenomena and do not investigate social structural factors (e.g., residential mobility, socioeconomic status, dominant religion, political systems). Even when the social structural factors are included in the analysis, psychologists typically treat them as individual difference variables. Sociologist C. Wright Mills famously promoted sociological imagination, or the ability to see distal yet important social forces operating in a larger societal context. By comparing sociological perspectives to psychological perspectives, this article highlights the insights that the sociological perspective and sociological imagination can bring to social psychology.

  4. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

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    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  5. Moral education for the elite of democracy: the classe de philosophie between sociology and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Daniela S

    2002-01-01

    In this article, I address the issues at stake in the relationship between sociology and philosophy in the second half of the nineteenth century by focusing on a debate between two parties: Emile Durkheim, who was attempting to found an independent scientific sociology, and the editors and collaborators of the Revue de métaphysique et de morale (RMM), one of the central philosophical journals of the period. This debate focused on the role of philosophy in secondary school education, but at its heart, this was a struggle between two disciplines over which ought to direct the formation of good citizens for Third Republic France.

  6. Critical issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of astrobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Fifty years after serious scientific research began in the field of exobiology, and forty years after serious historical research began on the subject of extraterrestrial life, this paper identifies and examines some of the most important issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of what is today known as astrobiology. As in the philosophy of science in general, and in the philosophies of particular sciences, critical issues in the philosophy and sociology of astrobiology are both stimulated and illuminated by history. Among those issues are (1) epistemological issues such as the status of astrobiology as a science, the problematic nature of evidence and inference, and the limits of science; (2) metaphysical/scientific issues, including the question of defining the fundamental concepts of life, mind, intelligence, and culture in a universal context; the role of contingency and necessity in the origin of these fundamental phenomena; and whether or not the universe is in some sense fine-tuned for life and perhaps biocentric; (3) societal issues such as the theological, ethical, and worldview impacts of the discovery of microbial or intelligent life; and the question of whether the search for extraterrestrial life should be pursued at all, and with what precautions; and (4) issues related to the sociology of scientific knowledge, including the diverse attitudes and assumptions of different scientific communities and different cultures to the problem of life beyond Earth, the public "will to believe," and the formation of the discipline of astrobiology. All these overlapping issues are framed by the concept of cosmic evolution-the 13.7 billion year Master Narrative of the Universe-which may result in a physical, biological, or postbiological universe and determine the long-term destiny of humanity.

  7. On the strained relationship between philosophy and sociology

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    Franco Ferrarotti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main contention of this article is the following: sociology, like all the modern sciences, was born out of philosophy. But, ungratefully enough and perhaps because of a deepseated inferiority complex vis-à-vis the older well established sciences, sociology tends to forget or at least to blurr its philosophical foundation. Thus it turns out to be “social engineering”. The sociologist becomes a technical expert, rather indifferent to a synoptic or global view of society, and ready to offer his or her services to the best offer in the open market. Social theory is reduced to “model building” according to the changing needs of the economic agencies, from government bodies to private entrepreneurs. Contrary to social theory, a model is a purely intellectual arbitrary construct and, although conditioned by a basic congruity among its different parts, it is not historically rooted but essentially a “fictio mentis”. In this way sociology loses inevitably its problem awareness and it runs the risk of “quantifying the qualitative”, that is to say to accumulate bits of knowledge without knowing for what purpose.

  8. Psychology, philosophy and nuclear science

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    Edwards, M.; Byrne, A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)

  9. Relationship between Philosophy and Sociology in Durkheim as Continuity and Rapture

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    Kardeş, M. Ertan; Turhan, Özden

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the relationship between Émile Durkheim's sociology and its philosophical contexts. Departing from Durkheim's book Sociology and Philosophy, a collection of Durkheim's essays, the article proposes a lecture on Durkheim's thought underlining  the tension and the mutual interaction between normativity and descriptivity. This article also provides a deeper examination on whether the “social philosophy” [philosophie du social] or “sociolo...

  10. Philosophy, history and sociology of science: interdisciplinary relations and complex social identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Hauke

    2014-12-01

    Sociology and philosophy of science have an uneasy relationship, while the marriage of history and philosophy of science has--on the surface at least--been more successful I will take a sociological look at the history of the relationships between philosophy and history as well as philosophy and sociology of science. Interdisciplinary relations between these disciplines will be analysed through social identity complexity theory in oider to draw out some conclusions on how the disciplines interact and how they might develop. I will use the relationships between the disciplines as a pointer for a more general social theory of interdisciplinarity which will then be used to sound a caution on how interdisciplinary relations between the three disciplines might be managed.

  11. Philosophy, psychology, physics and practice of ki.

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    Ohnishi, S Tsuyoshi; Ohnishi, Tomoko

    2009-06-01

    Ki (in Japanese) or Qi (in Chinese) is the key concept in Eastern medicine, Eastern philosophy, as well as in martial arts. We explain the philosophical and psychological background of Ki. We emphasize that the unique aspects of Eastern philosophy are 'non-linearity' and 'holistic' approach. We then present physics aspect of Ki. Our experiments demonstrated that a 'Ki-beam' carries 'entropy' (or information), which is different from 'energy'. We introduce our experience of having taught Ki to 37 beginners in the United States through the Nishino Breathing Method. If beginners had martial arts training or a strong background in music or dance, about half of them could sense Ki within 10 weeks (1 h class per week) of practice.

  12. Philosophy, Psychology, Physics and Practice of Ki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tsuyoshi Ohnishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ki (in Japanese or Qi (in Chinese is the key concept in Eastern medicine, Eastern philosophy, as well as in martial arts. We explain the philosophical and psychological background of Ki. We emphasize that the unique aspects of Eastern philosophy are ‘non-linearity’ and ‘holistic’ approach. We then present physics aspect of Ki. Our experiments demonstrated that a ‘Ki-beam’ carries ‘entropy’ (or information, which is different from ‘energy’. We introduce our experience of having taught Ki to 37 beginners in the United States through the Nishino Breathing Method. If beginners had martial arts training or a strong background in music or dance, about half of them could sense Ki within 10 weeks (1 h class per week of practice.

  13. ACCOUNTING AND CREATIVITY: A SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH

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    Balaciu Diana Elisabeta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents aspects related to creativity in accounting. In our approach we started from theoretical aspects regarding the position of accounting in the field of scientific knowledge. The paper aims to justify these positions (as a language of communication, communication tool, social game, and from there to mirror the way of expressing creativity in accounting. In terms of research methodology, we have appealed to a qualitative research inspired by sociology and psychology. The sociological survey shows the vision of society related to creators, the way in which it admits or rejects them. The sociological approach allows us to understand the importance of collective consciousness in assessing and maintaining the creation. The psychological study regarding the creator describes a creature endowed with an excessive sensitivity, accompanied by a worker with permanent activity, but who is constantly gripped by an existential doubt. In conclusion, the consultant or the researcher will have to recognise the creator's right to be wrong and surround him with a climate of confidence. This paper shows that there is a path where the one who talks to numbers (and does not have the skill of words and those who possess the mastery of words actually meet. This paper is part of the PhD research entitled: Identifying and motivation of creative accounting practices the case of Romanian listed companies, carried out under the guidance of PhD Prof. Feleaga Liliana, research carried out within the framework of the Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies.

  14. Perspectives on mathematical practices bringing together philosophy of mathematics, sociology of mathematics, and mathematics education

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    van Kerkhove, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Philosophy of mathematics today has transformed into a very complex network of diverse ideas, viewpoints, and theories. Sometimes the emphasis is on the ""classical"" foundational work (often connected with the use of formal logical methods), sometimes on the sociological dimension of the mathematical research community and the ""products"" it produces, then again on the education of future mathematicians and the problem of how knowledge is or should be transmitted from one generation to the next. The editors of this book felt the urge, first of all, to bring together the widest variety of aut

  15. Jung's Psychology and Deleuze's Philosophy: The Unconscious in Learning

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    Semetsky, Inna; Delpech-Ramey, Joshua A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the unconscious dimension as articulated in Carl Jung's depth psychology and in Gilles Deleuze's philosophy. Jung's theory of the archetypes and Deleuze's pedagogy of the concept are two complementary resources that posit individuation as the goal of human development and self-education in practice. The paper asserts that…

  16. Critical Analysis: A Comparison of Critical Thinking Changes in Psychology and Philosophy Classes

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    Burke, Brian L.; Sears, Sharon R.; Kraus, Sue; Roberts-Cady, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study compared changes in psychology and philosophy classes in two distinct components of critical thinking (CT): general skills and personal beliefs. Participants were 128 undergraduates enrolled in CT in psychology, other psychology courses, or philosophy courses. CT and philosophy students significantly reduced beliefs in paranormal…

  17. Critical Analysis: A Comparison of Critical Thinking Changes in Psychology and Philosophy Classes

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    Burke, Brian L.; Sears, Sharon R.; Kraus, Sue; Roberts-Cady, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study compared changes in psychology and philosophy classes in two distinct components of critical thinking (CT): general skills and personal beliefs. Participants were 128 undergraduates enrolled in CT in psychology, other psychology courses, or philosophy courses. CT and philosophy students significantly reduced beliefs in paranormal…

  18. Conception of one through the implied sense of Philosophy, Sociology, Psychoanalisis and Logotherapy

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    Carlos Eduardo Freitas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this current article is identifying the conception of the one in the disciplines of philosophy, sociology, psychoanalisis and logotherapy; in the perspective of the subject’s objective choice. In order to accomplish the study of such conceptions, one and its choice, besides the specialists from each discipline already mentioned, distinct author’s conceptions have also been considered. Their overlay contributes to a better understanding of current interests concerning the process of choice by each person, as well as the basic principles which lead one. As result, the standpoint that leads one to choose an object, isn’t necessarily identical to the objective importance that the object has itself: an object of choice such as vocation, may be not only a value itself, but also chosen by deeply personal reasons and interests.

  19. Laudan's normative naturalism: a useful philosophy of science for psychology.

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    Capaldi, E J; Proctor, R W

    2000-01-01

    Logical positivism, widely regarded as the received epistemology of psychology in the first half of the 20th century, was supplanted in the 1960s by various postpositivistic, relativistic philosophies of science, most notably that of Kuhn. Recently, Laudan, a major figure in the philosophy of science, developed a novel approach called normative naturalism that provides an alternative to positivism and relativism. His central thesis is that the two are not always on opposite ends of a continuum but rather have many assumptions in common. This article brings Laudan's important views to the attention of psychologists and describes some of the unique implications of these views for the conduct of research and theory in psychology. These implications, which follow from a number of closely reasoned pragmatic arguments, include more realistic and appropriate evaluation of theory and methodology than has been suggested by logical positivism or relativism.

  20. Integrating Climate Change Science and Sustainability in Environmental Science, Sociology, Philosophy and Business Courses.

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    Boudrias, M. A.; Cantzler, J.; Croom, S.; Huston, C.; Woods, M.

    2015-12-01

    Courses on sustainability can be taught from multiple perspectives with some focused on specific areas (environmental, socio-cultural, economic, ethics) and others taking a more integrated approach across areas of sustainability and academic disciplines. In conjunction with the Climate Change Education Program efforts to enhance climate change literacy with innovative approaches, resources and communication strategies developed by Climate Education Partners were used in two distinct ways to integrate climate change science and impacts into undergraduate and graduate level courses. At the graduate level, the first lecture in the MBA program in Sustainable Supply Chain Management is entirely dedicated to climate change science, local and global impacts and discussions about key messages to communicate to the business community. Basic science concepts are integrated with discussions about mitigation and adaptation focused on business leaders. The concepts learned are then applied to the semester-long business plan project for the students. At the undergraduate level, a new model of comprehensive integration across disciplines was implemented in Spring 2015 across three courses on Sustainability each with a specific lens: Natural Science, Sociology and Philosophy. All three courses used climate change as the 'big picture' framing concept and had similar learning objectives creating a framework where lens-specific topics, focusing on depth in a discipline, were balanced with integrated exercises across disciplines providing breadth and possibilities for integration. The comprehensive integration project was the creation of the climate action plan for the university with each team focused on key areas of action (water, energy, transportation, etc.) and each team built with at least one member from each class ensuring a natural science, sociological and philosophical perspective. The final project was presented orally to all three classes and an integrated paper included

  1. Refining moral agency: Insights from moral psychology and moral philosophy.

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    Milliken, Aimee

    2017-08-11

    Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory. In this paper, I review some of Paley's (Nursing Philosophy, 13, 2012, 80) critique, focusing on the argument that theories of nursing ethics have failed to account for the role of context; both in terms of its impact on the way nurses make moral judgements and in terms of the environment's influence on the way the mind works. I then examine nursing literature on moral agency, and focus on the role of the environment and context play within existing theory. I argue that theories of moral agency have often accounted for the role of context on the way nurses make decisions; however, less attention has been paid to its impact on the mind. With this background, I use insights from the fields of moral philosophy and moral psychology to refine the conceptualization of nurse moral agency in a way that is reflective of current cognitive, philosophical and nursing practice-based science. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Just truth? Carefully applying history, philosophy and sociology of science to the forensic use of CCTV images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Gary

    2013-03-01

    Using as a case study the forensic comparison of images for purposes of identification, this essay considers how the history, philosophy and sociology of science might help courts to improve their responses to scientific and technical forms of expert opinion evidence in ways that are more consistent with legal system goals and values. It places an emphasis on the need for more sophisticated models of science and expertise that are capable of helping judges to identify sufficiently reliable types of expert evidence and to reflexively incorporate the weakness of trial safeguards and personnel into their admissibility decision making. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Mathematical knowledge: a case study in empirical philosophy of mathematics

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    Löwe, B.; Müller, T.; Wilhelmus, E.; Van Kerkhove, B.; De Vuyst, J.; Van Bendegem, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a paradigm for the philosopher of mathematics who takes mathematical practice seriously: Empirical Philosophy of Mathematics. In this philosophical paradigm, we use empirical methods (from sociology, psychology, cognitive science, didactics) to evaluate empirical questions

  4. Understanding the Disproportionately Low Marriage Rate among African Americans: An Amalgam of Sociological and Psychological Constraints

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    Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza

    2011-01-01

    African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…

  5. On the Knowledge-sociological Problems in using Philosophy of Science Methods to solve Transdisciplinary Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    and got a Gold medal in psychology, which helped me getting three years of research in comparative psychology at Psychological Laboratory Coph. U. My main interdisciplinary problem was how to conceptualize the causal role of experience in cognitive and communicative behavior. At the time the dialectical...

  6. [Neurobiological, psychological and sociological approach to sexual desire and sexual satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Ammar, Nadia; Bolmont, Mylène; Dosch, Alessandra; Favez, Nicolas; Van der Linden, Martial; Widmer, Eric

    2016-03-16

    In the last years, University Fund Maurice Chalumeau (FUMC) launched a dynamic of research designed to promote scientific excellence and the development of Sexology with particular interest regarding sexual desire. The FUMC has supported a research project entitled "Neurobiological, psychological and sociological approach to sexual desire and sexual satisfaction". This project, sampled on 600 people (300 men and 300 women) aged between 25 and 46 years, was structured around three studies: a broad sociological study and two more specific ones, focused on some psychological mechanisms and neurobiological factors involved in sexual desire. The results show how the secondary socialization, personal expectations, beliefs and values in sexuality, sexual motivations, body image, as well as the neurobiological foundations and visual patterns, are of vital importance in the dynamics of sexual desire.

  7. The idea of a moral psychology: the impact of psychoanalysis on philosophy in Britain.

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    Lear, Jonathan

    2003-10-01

    In this paper the author addresses the question of the significance of psychoanalysis for moral psychology via a more specific question: the impact of psychoanalysis on British philosophy in the twentieth century. He argues that there has been no influence of any real significance, and offers intellectual reasons why not. However, he also argues that there has recently emerged the possibility for a future engagement between psychoanalysis and philosophy, and he offers a history of the emergence of this possibility. In particular, the author discusses how the emerging interest within philosophy to work out a satisfying approach to naturalist moral psychology leads it to a concern with internal mental structure and, most importantly, to transformations of intrapsychic structures. He believes that this will lead philosophy to take a greater interest in psychoanalysis.

  8. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology

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    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent—based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus–response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  9. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-05-05

    Human behaviour is context-dependent-based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus-response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world.

  10. Thinking in early modernity and the separation process between philosophy and psychology.

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    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-03-01

    One of the big questions in psychology is when and how psychology disentangled from philosophy. Usually it is referred to the laboratory Wundt established in Leipzig in 1879 as the birth for psychology as an independent science. However this separation process can also be traced in other ways, like by focusing on how the two sciences approach and understand thinking. Although thinking and language were not included in the research in this laboratory, Wundt (1897) regarded thinking as the core of psychology. As a commentary to Papanicolaou (Integr Psychol Behav Sci doi:10.1007/s12124-014-9273-3, 2014), this paper investigates the differences in how psychology and philosophy conceptualized thinking in early Western modernity. Thus one of the findings is that the separation process between the two was more or less initiated by Immanuel Kant. By defining thinking in terms of the pure reason he excluded the psychological understanding of thinking because psychology basically defined thinking in terms of ideas derived from qualia and sensation. Another finding is that psychology itself has not completely realized the differences between the philosophical and the psychological understanding of thinking by having been influenced by Kant's ideal of the pure reason. This may also explain some of the crises psychology went through during the twentieth century.

  11. Johns Hopkins's first professorship in philosophy: a critical pivot point in the history of American psychology.

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    Green, Christopher D

    2007-01-01

    The first professorship in philosophy at Johns Hopkins University was contested in the early 1880s by two of the most prominent and influential scholars in America: Charles Sanders Peirce and George Sylvester Morris. A third figure also vied for the position, although he was much less well known at the time: Granville Stanley Hall. Through a series of unexpected circumstances, Hall ultimately won the professorship and then used it to leverage an extraordinary career that included his opening the first American research laboratory in psychology, establishing the American Journal of Psychology, becoming president of Clark University, founding the American Psychological Association, and profoundly affecting the character of developmental psychology in America.

  12. Philosophy of science and DSM-III. Philosophical, idea-historical and sociological perspectives on diagnoses.

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    Malt, U F

    1986-01-01

    The validity of a classification system is primarily a question of philosophical premise. DSM-III is from this point of view a theoretical classification system based on hypotheses currently considered reliable and interesting and which--as presupposed--could not be rejected by empirical methods. The relevance or validity of this empirical approach depends on the aim of the DSM-III. An empirical approach may facilitate communication but can only have limited success as a help for planning treatment of psychiatric disorders where motives and meaning are important factors. The choice of hypotheses and the empirically derived concepts used to construct the classification system neglects other important ways of comprehension. Although aspects of rational philosophy may be found in the DSM-III system too, important ways of comprehension like the metaphysical approach is lacking. It is showed how this fact reflects a philosophical trend in the Western world following the Renaissance. By considering the Myth of Faust it is demonstrated how a metaphysical comprehension of life would lead to a different understanding of states of mind currently assumed to be a reflection of individual psychopathology according to empirical or rational comprehension. Thus in the end the validity of a classification system depends on the basic philosophical assumptions chosen. A choice which may be determined more by irrational and cultural forces than conscious contemplation. The content of DSM-III or ICD is also influenced by professional interests; the needs of the society and international political factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Libertus Fromondus' Christian Psychology. Medicine and Natural Philosophy in the Philosophia christiana de anima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cellamare, D.; Bakker, P.J.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Libertus Fromondus’ strictly hylomorphic account of the human soul. At a time when psychology (the study of the soul) was dominated by the erosion of Aristotelianism and the dawning of Cartesian philosophy, Fromondus sought to reconcile hylomorphism with new philosophical

  14. Dialectical Philosophy and Developmental Psychology: Hegel and Piaget on Contradiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that although Piaget's psychological theory is developmental and dialectical in a general way, the lack of a developed philosophical basis leads to the subordination of a dialectical approach to static, anti-dialectical concepts. Hegel's theory of interaction and contradiction is examined to show that dialectical theory has a precise…

  15. Dialectical Philosophy and Developmental Psychology: Hegel and Piaget on Contradiction

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    Lawler, James

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that although Piaget's psychological theory is developmental and dialectical in a general way, the lack of a developed philosophical basis leads to the subordination of a dialectical approach to static, anti-dialectical concepts. Hegel's theory of interaction and contradiction is examined to show that dialectical theory has a precise…

  16. The Neglected 95%, a Challenge to Psychology's Philosophy of Science

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    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Responds to the comments of LoSchiavo F. M. and Shatz M. A.; Webster G. D., Nichols A. L., and Schember T. O.; Stroebe W. and Nijstad B.; and Haeffel et al. on the author's original article regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The author…

  17. Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

  18. Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

  19. THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE TRIAD ECONOMICS, SOCIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu\tSorin\tBAICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Underground economy, in view of researchers, economists and jurists, is a theoretical complex construct, a phenomenon with profound social and economic reverberations. This study argues multidisciplinary integrative the sociological, psychological and socio-psychological approach of underground economy. The premises of this study are given by methodological individualism and rational choice theory through building in neoclassical version of Homo economicus able to interact in a multidisciplinary and multifaceted manner with the area of social sciences. For the nonce, we submit to analysis an integrative model of Homo Oeconimicus with Homo Sociologicus, aggregated with elements of social psychology. Synergistic effects of this integrative approach consist of the ability to give an answer as relevant on symptoms and forms of deviant behavior and thus to explain the development of underground economy. The finality of this paper, starting from the stated premises, resides in the explanation and analysis of deviant behavior in the framework of the morphology and causality of underground economy. Deviant behavior in the context of our analysis reveals the coherence perspective on the following issues: anatomy and etiology of underground economy (informal and underground activities, illegal labor, tax fraud, etc.; attitude towards rules, society and the state (tax mentality, tax morality, moral conscience; tax compliance or non-compliance (willingness to pay tax liabilities. This paper is intended to constitute a pleading for an interdependent approach, multi-causal and interdisciplinary of underground economy

  20. MEDIA: CAUSES AND STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME ISLAMOPHOBIA (PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Istriyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A stereotype appears and describes that Islam is the cause of a series of terror. Therefore, some states are worried and suspicious toward Muslims (Islamophobia up to the present. Islamophobia associated with negative prejudices against Muslims and Islam, and lead to construction of anti-Islam. Prejudice is based on a claim that Islam is an inferior religion and can threat the dominant values in society. The phenomenon of Islamophobia can be assessed by two perspectives: sociological and psychological. In the case of Islamophobia, media became the object of analysis because it has the dichotomy function. They become the cause for the outbreak of Islamophobia symptoms (latent functions. On the other hand, the media is an information agent which has role to provide education and social change effects (manifest functions. Thus, the media can be an instrument or strategy to overcome the turmoil of Islamophobia by involving a synergy of government, Islamic organizations, and institutions of higher education.

  1. Psychology and the Notion of the Spirit: Implications of Max Scheler's Anthropological Philosophy in Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Olga V; Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-09-01

    After many decades with neglect Max Scheler and his anthropological contributions to the understanding of human existence, have gotten  more attention in psychology and other humanities. One factor is the actuality of his main project of revaluating the roles of values in philosophy and science. Yet another is the way individual scholars have applied Scheler's philosophy and terms on different fields and arenas. Viktor Frankl was one of these, and he brought Scheler's philosophical anthropology into psychotherapeutic practice, offering theoretical and empirical arguments for considering the notion of the spirit as an interdependent -yet separate- entity in regards to the psyche and the soma. During this commentary on Allyushin (Integrative Psychology Behaviour, 48, 503-523, 2014), we will discuss some general aspects of Scheler's contribution to phenomenology, but focus specifically on the implication of his notion of the spirit for psychological theory, acknowledging the work that has been done in the field for at least 60 years in logotherapy and existential analysis. With this purpose, we will highlight four other notions interrelated with the motivational quality of the notion of the spirit: resentment, axiology of values; self-detachment and self-transcendence.

  2. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  3. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  4. The Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology and Francis Cecil Sumner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger K

    2011-01-01

    In 1939, a psychologist could become a member of the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology (SSPP) automatically with the endorsement of two members, payment of dues, and membership in the American Psychological Association (APA). Non-APA members with endorsements and payment of dues had to be voted in by the membership. In 1940, the rules for admission were changed to eliminate the automatic membership for APA members. Francis Cecil Sumner, the first African American PhD in psychology, qualified for SSPP membership as a member of the APA in 1939, but the SSPP's council delayed his membership and introduced the amendment to its constitution that eliminated Sumner's route to membership. This article examines the circumstances surrounding council's actions and the role that Sumner's application for membership played in it as an example of the role that race and discrimination played in the decision to change the route to SSPP membership for members of the APA.

  5. Sexual assault and posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the biological, psychological and sociological factors and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers-Wilson, Kaitlin A

    2006-07-01

    Sexual assault occurs with alarming frequency in Canada. The prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in assault survivors is drastically higher than the national prevalence of the disorder, which is a strong indication that the current therapies for sexual-assault-related PTSD are in need of improvement. Increasing knowledge and understanding of the pathologies associated with rape trauma in biological, psychological and sociological domains will help to develop more effective treatments for survivors. A dysregulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is observed in survivors of sexual assault and this may be a fundamental cause of the structural and functional abnormalities contributing to PTSD symptoms. Pharmacotherapies are available to treat PTSD; however, they are often inadequate or unwanted by the survivor. Psychological health is compromised following interpersonal trauma and many psychological therapies are available, but with varying efficacy. A person's cognitions have a dramatic effect on the onset, severity, and progress of PTSD following sexual assault. Sociological impacts of assault influence the development of PTSD through victim-blaming attitudes and the perpetuation of rape myths. Perceived positive regard and early social support is shown to be important to successful recovery. Education is vital in rape prevention and to foster a supportive environment for survivors. The biological, psychological and sociological impacts and treatments should not remain mutually exclusive. A better appreciation of the biopsychosocial repercussions of sexual assault will aid in developing a more holistic and individualized therapy to help alleviate the physical and emotional pain following the trauma of rape.

  6. Cyberbullying and Primary-School Aged Children: The Psychological Literature and the Challenge for Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Ey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is an international issue for schools, young people and their families. Whilst many research domains have explored this phenomenon, and bullying more generally, the majority of reported studies appear in the psychological and educational literatures, where bullying, and more recently, cyberbullying has been examined primarily at the individual level: amongst adolescents and young people, with a focus on the definition, its prevalence, behaviours, and impact. There also is growing evidence that younger children are increasingly accessing technology and engaging with social media, yet there is limited research dedicated to this younger age group. The purpose of this paper is to report on a systematic literature review from the psychological and educational research domains related to this younger age group, to inform future research across the disciplines. Younger children require different methods of engagement. This review highlights the methodological challenges associated with this age group present in the psychological literature, and argues for a greater use of sociological, child-centred approaches to data collection. This review examined studies published in English, between 2009 and 2014, and conducted with children aged 5–12 years, about their experiences with cyberbullying. Searches were conducted on seven key databases using keywords associated with cyberbullying and age of children. A Google Scholar search also examined published and unpublished reports. A total of 966 articles and reports were retrieved. A random peer review process was employed to establish inter-rater reliability and veracity of the review. Findings revealed 38 studies reported specifically on children aged 5–12 years. The dominant focus of these articles was on prevalence of cyberbullying, established through survey methodology. Few studies noted impacts, understanding and behaviours or engaged children’s independent voice. This review

  7. ANTI-PSYCHOLOGISM IN WITTGENSTEIN’S PHILOSOPHY IN REFERENCE TO THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wendland

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the validity of criticism of what is known as psychologist-transmission communication  theory. It is accepted that theories which support the idea that communication is a process of conveying  (transmitting psychological content of the mental states between participants (e.g. theories of Jakobson, Hovland, Newcomb et al. are examples of the approach. There are doubts about such views, which arise from the assumptions of anti-psychologism and anti-mentalism (such as Frege, Husserl, as well as the rejection of traditional notions of subjectivity in philosophy after the linguistic turn. In order to justify the criticism the position of the “late” Wittgenstein is invoked, according to which communication activities (as well as thinking, understanding etc. need not be considered as correlated to mental acts.

  8. Sexual assault and posttraumatic stress disorder: A review of the biological, psychological and sociological factors and treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Chivers-Wilson, Kaitlin A.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual assault occurs with alarming frequency in Canada. The prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in assault survivors is drastically higher than the national prevalence of the disorder, which is a strong indication that the current therapies for sexual-assault-related PTSD are in need of improvement. Increasing knowledge and understanding of the pathologies associated with rape trauma in biological, psychological and sociological domains will help to develop more effective trea...

  9. Unforgivable Sinners? Epistemological and Psychological Naturalism in Husserl’s Philosophy as a Rigorous Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sebastiano Staiti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present and assess Husserl's arguments against epistomological and psychological naturalism in his essay Philosophy as a Rigorous Science. I show that his critique is directed against positions that are generally more extreme than most currently debated variants of naturalism. However, Husserl has interesting thoughts to contribute to philosophy today. First, he shows that there is an important connection between naturalism in epistemology (which in his view amounts to the position that the validity of logic can be reduced to the validity natural laws of thinking and naturalism in psychology (which in his view amounts to the position that all psychic occurrences are merely parallel accompaniments of physiological occurrences. Second, he shows that a strong version of epistemological naturalism is self-undermining and fails to translate the cogency of logic in psychological terms. Third, and most importantly for current debates, he attacks Cartesianism as a form of psychological naturalism because of its construal of the psyche as a substance. Against this position, Husserl defends the necessity to formulate new epistemic aims for the investigation of consciousness. He contends that what is most interesting about consciousness is not its empirical fact but its transcendental function of granting cognitive access to all kinds of objects (both empirical and ideal. The study of this function requires a specific method (eidetics that cannot be conflated with empirical methods. I conclude that Husserl's analyses offer much-needed insight into the fabric of consciousness and compelling arguments against unwarranted metaphysical speculations about the relationship between mind and body.

  10. Understanding suicide among older adults: a review of psychological and sociological theories of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Rogers, Megan L; Hagan, Christopher R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Older adults die by suicide at a higher rate than any other age group in nearly every country globally. Suicide among older adults has been an intractable clinical and epidemiological problem for decades, due in part to an incomplete understanding of the causes of suicide, as well as imprecision in the prediction and prevention of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in later life. Theory-driven investigations hold promise in addressing these gaps by systematically identifying testable, and thus falsifiable, mechanisms that may better explain this phenomenon and also point to specific interventions. In this article, we comprehensively review key extant psychological and sociological theories of suicide and discuss each theory's applicability to the understanding and prevention of suicide among older adults. Despite a modest number of theories of suicide, few have undergone extensive empirical investigation and scrutiny, and even fewer have been applied specifically to older adults. To advance the science and contribute findings with a measurable clinical and public health impact, future research in this area, from conceptual to applied, must draw from and integrate theory.

  11. THE CONTRIBUTION OF PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY IN THE ETHICAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA LIVIA DOLTU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore the relationship between morality and organizational culture with reference to the process of ethical decision making and to the cooperation between philosopher and psychologist for the improvement of ethical climate within a public institution. Firstly, we introduce the notion of organizational culture emphasizing the importance of moral values and their role in building a true ethical climate. Secondly, we focus on the study of ethical decision making. The process is examined from the perspective of the interaction between human personality and different elements of organizational culture. Philosophy and psychology differently approach this problem. Our intention is to bridge the gap between the two perspectives, by demonstrating their belonging to the same continuum as well as the need for knowledge from both fields in order to have a complete overview of its internal mechanisms. Deontological and utilitarian theories fail to explain by themselves the decision making process and so psychology does: moral development theories, the leadership type, and emotions have on their basis a personal moral philosophy. We will also consider the influence of social groups on individual decision making.

  12. Relevance of philosophy of life and optimism for psychological distress among individuals in a stage where death is approaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterling, Jeanette; Wasteson, Elisabet; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Sidenvall, Erik; Glimelius, Bengt; Sjödén, Per-Olow; Nordin, Karin

    2006-04-01

    The purpose was to investigate the relevance of philosophy of life as well as optimism for the psychological distress among Swedish individuals in a stage where death is approaching. Sixty-nine persons were included; of these were 42 patients newly diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer and 26 were partners to these patients. The participants' philosophy of life was studied through a semi-structured interview. The interview statements were subjected to content analysis. Optimism was measured by the Life Orientation Test and psychological distress by the Hospitality and Depression Scale. The results showed that optimistic respondents had less psychological distress. Two aspects of philosophy of life had relevance for such distress. These were wondering about why the cancer had occurred and having a feeling of being able to live a good life having or living near a person with advanced cancer. In conclusion, the above-mentioned aspects of philosophy of life as well as optimism have relevance for psychological distress among these individuals, which stress the importance that health-care staff address both patients' and their partners' concerns about their philosophy of life.

  13. A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Jan Kyrre Berg O.; Pedersen, Stig Andur; Hendricks, Vincent F.

    The aim of philosophy of technology is to help us understand technology's complex interrelationships with the environment, society, culture - and with our very existence. A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is the first comprehensive, authoritative reference source for this burgeoning...... and increasingly important field. Drawing on groundbreaking new essays by a distinguished team of multi-disciplinary experts, A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology delves deeply into technology's impact on our lives and on society. The essays both represent a variety of epistemological approaches, including...... those of the humanities, social studies, natural science, sociology, psychology, and engineering sciences and reflect a diversity of philosophical traditions such as pragmatism, analytical philosophy, and phenomenology. Erudite and authoritative, A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is a major...

  14. BRIDGE OVER TROUBLED WATERS? THE MOST "CENTRAL" MEMBERS OF PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY ASSOCIATIONS CA. 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D; Heidari, Crystal; Chiacchia, Daniel; Martin, Shane M

    2016-07-01

    There are many different ways to assess the significance of historical figures. Often we look at the influence of their writings, or at the important offices they held with disciplinary institutions such as universities, journals, and scholarly societies. In this study, however, we took a novel approach: we took the complete memberships, ca. 1900, of four organizations-the American Psychological Association, the Western Philosophical Association, the American Philosophical Association, and the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology-and visualized them as a network. We then identified individuals who "bridged" between two or more of these groups and considered what might be termed their "centrality" to the psychological-philosophical community of their time. First, we examined these figures qualitatively, briefly describing their lives and careers. Then we approached the problem mathematically, considering several alternative technical realizations of "centrality" and then explaining our reasons for choosing eigenvector centrality as the best for our purposes. We found a great deal of overlap among the results of the qualitative and quantitative approaches, but also some telling differences. J. Mark Baldwin, Edward Buchner, Christine Ladd Franklin, and Frank Thilly consistently emerged as highly central figures. Some more marginal figures such as Max Meyer, and Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, Edward A. Pace, Edward H. Griffin played interesting roles as well. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The emergence of "scientific" psychology in Italy between positivist philosophy and psychiatric tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Guido

    2006-01-01

    In Italy, the emergence of a psychology that can be considered "scientific" is not an event that can be easily ascribed to a precise date. It involves instead a general shift of ideas, gradual initiatives of a cultural and institutional nature, and new approaches to research, all of which together, in the course of the last thirty years of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth century, form a "critical mass" that identifies psychology as an autonomous science, distinct from both philosophy and from neurophysiology and psychiatry. This event is embedded in--and favoured by--a matrix of positivist and evolutionist thought, which gives rise to the necessity and to the problem of confronting the study of mental phenomena with a "positive method," and therefore of detaching such phenomena from their philosophical grounds in order to lead them within the sphere of science. Among the numerous elaborations upon this theme, the works that occupy a particularly prominent place are those of the positivist philosopher Roberto Ardigò and of the anthropologist Giuseppe Sergi, who in view of their theoretical proposal of a "new" science of the mind are considered the precursors or pioneers of "scientific" psychology in Italy. The same positivist philosophical-cultural background simultaneously induced some psychiatrists to open their mental health centres to the first researches of a strictly psychological nature to be conducted with the experimental method. In this regard, a particularly important figure is that of Gabriele Buccola, who was especially dedicated to these investigations and was the first Italian scholar to approach in a systematic way experimental research on mental phenomena. Little by little, in the years bridging the two centuries, a second generation of scholars, for the most part psychiatrists by formation (among whom Ferrari, De Sanctis, Kiesow, and De Sarlo), began to hold lessons of experimental psychology in the universities, to

  16. The Wilhelm Wundt Center and the first graduate program for the history and philosophy of psychology in Brazil: A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Saulo de Freitas; Caropreso, Fátima Siqueira; Simanke, Richard Theisen; Castañon, Gustavo Arja

    2013-08-01

    The expansion of Brazilian universities since 2009 has promoted a general growth and incentive of scientific activities throughout the country, not only in the so-called hard sciences, but also in the human sciences. In this brief report, we announce the creation of two new institutional spaces dedicated to the history and philosophy of psychology at the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF) in Brazil: the Wilhelm Wundt Center for the History and Philosophy of Psychology (NUHFIP) and the Graduate Program in History and Philosophy of Psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. How the launch of a new journal in 1904 may have changed the relationship between psychology and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D; Feinerer, Ingo

    2017-02-01

    Recent research has used networks of scholarly journal articles to investigate the intellectual structure of the discipline of psychology from the later 1880s to the early 1920s. Here, instead, we examined the networks of philosophical journals that were closely aligned with psychology-The Monist, Philosophical Review, and The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods-between 1890 and 1913. We discovered that, although the first 2 of these journals published a great deal of psychologically relevant material up to 1903, material of that sort seemed to evaporate after the launch of the third journal in 1904. It was not so much that material migrated from the old journals to the new one. It was rather that the new journal was able to attract new trends in American philosophical psychology, while interest in traditional approaches seemed to dry up. The result was that psychology moved into a new and expansive era, while America philosophy was left somewhat destabilized as it attempted to reconfigure its disciplinary identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A stale challenge to the philosophy of science: commentary on "Is psychology based on a methodological error?" by Michael Schwarz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Nora; Slunecko, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In his article "Is psychology based on a methodological error?" and based on a quite convincing empirical basis, Michael Schwarz offers a methodological critique of one of mainstream psychology's key test theoretical axioms, i.e., that of the in principle normal distribution of personality variables. It is characteristic of this paper--and at first seems to be a strength of it--that the author positions his critique within a frame of philosophy of science, particularly positioning himself in the tradition of Karl Popper's critical rationalism. When scrutinizing Schwarz's arguments, however, we find Schwarz's critique profound only as an immanent critique of test theoretical axioms. We raise doubts, however, as to Schwarz's alleged 'challenge' to the philosophy of science because the author not at all seems to be in touch with the state of the art of contemporary philosophy of science. Above all, we question the universalist undercurrent that Schwarz's 'bio-psycho-social model' of human judgment boils down to. In contrast to such position, we close our commentary with a plea for a context- and culture sensitive philosophy of science.

  19. Sociological Theory or Psychological Types: A Case Study of Attitudes to-wards Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Laura; Elliot, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Sociological theories can be viewed as models of (sub)-populations. In this paper we explore the possibility of representing social theories as attitudinal types rather than as descriptions of society at large. To test this idea we investigate the relevance of four different theories of couple relationships to the attitudes of 18 to 30 year olds. Rather than testing these theories via aggregate social trends, we investigate the plausibility of treating the four social theories as attitudinal ...

  20. MEDIA: CAUSES AND STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME ISLAMOPHOBIA (PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Istriyani

    2016-01-01

    A stereotype appears and describes that Islam is the cause of a series of terror. Therefore, some states are worried and suspicious toward Muslims (Islamophobia) up to the present. Islamophobia associated with negative prejudices against Muslims and Islam, and lead to construction of anti-Islam. Prejudice is based on a claim that Islam is an inferior religion and can threat the dominant values in society. The phenomenon of Islamophobia can be assessed by two perspectives: sociological and psy...

  1. Experimental philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  2. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...... is giving its own answer to questions such as: Why does the use of qualitative empirical methods benefit philosophical accounts of science? And how should these methods be used by the philosopher?...

  3. Sociological and psychological predictors of STD infection in homosexual men: a study of four countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, M W

    1984-01-01

    I investigated over 600 homosexual men in four countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, and Australia) regarding the number of times they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and several psychological variables including masculinity and feminity, sex role conservatism, relationships with parents, number of sexual partners, attitudes towards homosexuality, and involvement in the homosexual subculture. Using multiple linear regression in each country, it was found that 19-42% of the ...

  4. Divorce in Russian Sociological and Social Psychological Research on Family Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kletsina I.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents social psychоlogical analysis of publications that focus on divorce situations in official marriages and explore its causes and consequences both for spouses and children. It is argued that the key factor in separation is a socio-psychological phenomenon called 'unconstructive marital relationships'. The partnership model described in the article, on the contrary, may serve as a normative basis contributing to the stabilization of marital relationships. While most publications conceptualize divorce as a collapse and split of family relationship, the article suggests interpreting divorces rather as a transformation stage in spousal and parentchild relationships.

  5. Local environmental grassroots activism: contributions from environmental psychology, sociology and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Nikolay L; Perkins, Douglas D

    2015-03-23

    Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast "Not in My Back Yard" (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated.

  6. Local Environmental Grassroots Activism: Contributions from Environmental Psychology, Sociology and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Nikolay L.; Perkins, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast “Not in My Back Yard” (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated. PMID:25806672

  7. “自我的道德地形学” 一个具有心理学和社会学意涵的本体诠释学理论%"The Moral Topography of the Self":An Ontological Hermeneutical Theory with Psychological and Sociological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冰

    2012-01-01

    The introduction and application of hermeneutics by contemporary Chinese scholars mainly focus on the fields of philosophy, theology, law, and literary theory, while the psychological and sociological implications of this approach are often neglected. "The moral topography of the self" by CharlesTaylor, a representative of the hermeneutical approach in contemporary social theories, will correct the bias. The "topography" leads to the main parts of Taylor's great book Sources of the Self, and occupies a basic position in his hermeneutical thoughts. Earlier than Sources of the Self, this theory was first published in a collection about the relationships between hermeneutics and psychological theories. Its sociological implications were demonstrated in Taylor's famous political theoretical paper The Politics of Recognition, which took it as its theoretical basis. In this writing, Taylorabsorbed and revised the classical psychological and sociological thoughts of Freud, Weber, and Durkheim, turning the "topography" into an ontological hermeneutical theory with the power of interpreting complicated historical experiences in a clear way. This theory has extraordinary significance to the "cultural self-awareness" of Chinese Sociology and Psychology, because it can strongly stimulate the interest of "cultural self-awareness" in empirical studies, that is, to highlight the cultural subjectivity and communicate peacefully between cultures. Both psychology and sociology embedded in culture have integrative perspectives which make these two sciences being recognized as the fundamental disciplines of humanity and social sciences. And between the two, sociology is more outstanding in its integrative power. Taylor's discussion of "the moral topography of the self" originates from psychological issues but concludes with strong sociological implications. This way of thinking and its framework are helpful to psychology and sociology, the latter, in

  8. Where History, Philosophy, and Psychology Meet: An Interview with Wayne Viney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Wayne Viney is Professor of Psychology and University Distinguished Teaching Scholar at Colorado State University where he teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in the history of psychology. He is also inaugurating a new course, The Development of Scientific Thought, for the College of Natural Sciences at Colorado State. Earlier in his…

  9. Where History, Philosophy, and Psychology Meet: An Interview with Wayne Viney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Wayne Viney is Professor of Psychology and University Distinguished Teaching Scholar at Colorado State University where he teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in the history of psychology. He is also inaugurating a new course, The Development of Scientific Thought, for the College of Natural Sciences at Colorado State. Earlier in his…

  10. Philosophy of arithmetic psychological and logical investigations with supplementary texts from 1887–1901

    CERN Document Server

    Husserl, Edmund

    2003-01-01

    In his first book, Philosophy of Arithmetic, Edmund Husserl provides a carefully worked out account of number as a categorial or formal feature of the objective world, and of arithmetic as a symbolic technique for mastering the infinite field of numbers for knowledge. It is a realist account of numbers and number relations that interweaves them into the basic structure of the universe and into our knowledge of reality. It provides an answer to the question of how arithmetic applies to reality, and gives an account of how, in general, formalized systems of symbols work in providing access to the world. The "appendices" to this book provide some of Husserl's subsequent discussions of how formalisms work, involving David Hilbert's program of completeness for arithmetic. "Completeness" is integrated into Husserl's own problematic of the "imaginary", and allows him to move beyond the analysis of "representations" in his understanding of the logic of mathematics. Husserl's work here provides an alternative model of...

  11. Personal construct psychology: a theory to help understand professional development, a philosophy to support it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.

  12. Expanding the Dimensions of Epistemic Cognition: Arguments from Philosophy and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Clark A.; Buckland, Luke A.; Samarapungavan, Ala

    2011-01-01

    Psychological and educational researchers have developed a flourishing research program on epistemological dimensions of cognition (epistemic cognition). Contemporary philosophers investigate many epistemological topics that are highly relevant to this program but that have not featured in research on epistemic cognition. We argue that integrating…

  13. Who is to Blame on July 22, 2011? Psychological and Sociological Blame Frames in the Reporting of Anders Breivik in the Dutch Speaking Broadsheet Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertens Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On July 22, 2011 Anders Breivik murdered a large amount of people in Norway. In this study we investigate a sample of articles that were published about Breivik and his deeds in the Flemish and Dutch press. We will investigate these articles looking for the so-called “attribution of responsibility frame.” The murders from Breivik could be explained psychologically (“he is insane” as well as sociologically (far-right political parties are responsible because of having spread hate speech. We present a typology of subtypes of frames. We will furthermore investigate how many times these types of frames occur in different media outlets.

  14. The idea of philosophical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernilo, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This article introduces the idea of philosophical sociology as an enquiry into the relationships between implicit notions of human nature and explicit conceptualizations of social life within sociology. Philosophical sociology is also an invitation to reflect on the role of the normative in social life by looking at it sociologically and philosophically at the same: normative self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of sociology's scientific tasks because key sociological questions are, in the last instance, also philosophical ones. For the normative to emerge, we need to move away from the reductionism of hedonistic, essentialist or cynical conceptions of human nature and be able to grasp the conceptions of the good life, justice, democracy or freedom whose normative contents depend on more or less articulated conceptions of our shared humanity. The idea of philosophical sociology is then sustained on three main pillars and I use them to structure this article: (1) a revalorization of the relationships between sociology and philosophy; (2) a universalistic principle of humanity that works as a major regulative idea of sociological research, and; (3) an argument on the social (immanent) and pre-social (transcendental) sources of the normative in social life. As invitations to embrace posthuman cyborgs, non-human actants and material cultures proliferate, philosophical sociology offers the reminder that we still have to understand more fully who are the human beings that populate the social world. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  15. Productive Love Promotion Via Affective Technology: An Approach Based On Social Psychology And Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Solves Pujol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of social psychological and philosophical foundations for designing affective technology that promotes the experience of love. The adopted theoretical basis is the concept of productive love, which is heavily based on Enrich Fromm but also includes theories and scientific findings of numerous psychoanalysts, social psychologists, and philosophers. We conducted a review of the theory about the nature of love and found that social psychological and philosophical approaches differ regarding peoples' understandings. The findings were used to elaborate eight principles of productive love. Based on these principles, we derived criteria for designing affective technology when the objective is to promote productive love. We reviewed the existent studies on affective technologies and implemented the criteria into a system design, the Pictures' Call. A prototype of the system was pretested to illustrate how productive love technology could be based on established criteria.

  16. sources of African philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religion. 337. ON THE SOURCES ... myths, African languages, African symbols, African historical experience or social ..... African Symbols. The Dictionary of Sociology and Related Science (1965), .... Ropes of sand: Studies in Igbo history and culture. Ibadan:.

  17. Game theory in philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals

  18. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...... - will be addressed in this book.   Sociology, as the self-proclaimed ‘the science of society', finds itself in an exceptional position within the scientific community in that it studies a universe it itself is part and parcel of. This means that sociology and sociologists are inextricably connected and linked...

  19. Landscape and Health: Connecting Psychology, Aesthetics, and Philosophy through the Concept of Affordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menatti, Laura; Casado da Rocha, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address a frontier topic in the humanities, namely how the cultural and natural construction that we call landscape affects well-being and health. Following an updated review of evidence-based literature in the fields of medicine, psychology, and architecture, we propose a new theoretical framework called "processual landscape," which is able to explain both the health-landscape and the medical agency-structure binomial pairs. We provide a twofold analysis of landscape, from both the cultural and naturalist points of view: in order to take into account its relationship with health, the definition of landscape as a cultural product needs to be broadened through naturalization, grounding it in the scientific domain. Landscape cannot be distinguished from the ecological environment. For this reason, we naturalize the idea of landscape through the notion of affordance and Gibson's ecological psychology. In doing so, we stress the role of agency in the theory of perception and the health-landscape relationship. Since it is the result of continuous and co-creational interaction between the cultural agent, the biological agent and the affordances offered to the landscape perceiver, the processual landscape is, in our opinion, the most comprehensive framework for explaining the health-landscape relationship. The consequences of our framework are not only theoretical, but ethical also: insofar as health is greatly affected by landscape, this construction represents something more than just part of our heritage or a place to be preserved for the aesthetic pleasure it provides. Rather, we can talk about the right to landscape as something intrinsically linked to the well-being of present and future generations.

  20. Integrating the philosophy and psychology of aesthetic experience: development of the aesthetic experience scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulou, Despina

    2004-10-01

    This study assessed the dynamic relationship between person and object in aesthetic experience. Patterns of the structure of aesthetic experience were derived from a conceptual model based on philosophical and psychological ideas. These patterns were further informed by interviewing individuals with extensive involvement in aesthetic activities and 25 secondary students. Accordingly, patterns were tested by developing a large pool of items attempting to identify measurable structural components of aesthetic experience. Refined first in a pilot study, the 36-item questionnaire was administered to 652 Greek students, aged from 13 to 15 years. Correlation matrices and exploratory factor analyses on principal components were used to examine internal structural relationships. The obliquely rotated five-factor solution of the refined instrument accounted for the 44.1% of the total variance and was combatible with the conceptual model of aesthetic experience, indicating the plausibility of both. The internal consistency of the items was adequate and external correlational analysis offered preliminary support for subsequent development of a self-report measure that serves to operationalize the major constructs of aesthetic experience in the general adolescent population. The results also raise theoretical issues for those interested in empirical aesthetics, suggesting that in experiential functioning, expressive perception and affect may play a more constructive role in cognitive processes than is generally acknowledged.

  1. Reform of College Non-sociology Professional Introduction to Sociology Teaching Philosophy%高校非社会学专业社会学概论教学理念改革探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健娇

    2014-01-01

    良好的教学方法对于培养学生的思维创新能力,达到优良的教学效果,具有非常重要的作用。社会学课程教学活动中使用案例教学法作为一种创新性的教学方法,有利于改变传统的教学模式,发挥学生的主体地位,促进独立思考;同时也有助于教师自身素质的提高,最终提高教学质量。%Good teaching methods have a very important role for training students' innovative thinking ability, to achieve good teaching results. Using the case method teaching sociology courses as an innovative teaching methods in favor of chan-ging the traditional teaching mode, play a dominant position of students and promote independent thinking;while also hel-ping teachers improve their own quality, and ultimately improve teaching quality.

  2. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...... irrelevance and introversion and the Charybdis of public relevancy and extroversion. But what does it mean to be a ‘public sociologist' in contemporary society and are there really any other ways of doing sociology? What are the requirements of sociologists in a social world increasingly informed and shaped...

  3. Mario Bunge, Systematic Philosophy and Science Education: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2012-10-01

    Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in 1919 and is now in his mid-90s. He studied atomic physics and quantum mechanics with Guido Beck (1903-1988), an Austrian refugee and student of Heisenberg. Additionally he studied modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater becoming the first South American philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise on Philosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of the Enlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planks of the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, the value of rationality, and respect for individuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy of science, educational research and science teaching are recognised, and at a time when `grand narratives' are thought both undesirable and impossible—it is salutary to appraise the fruits of one person's pursuit of the `Big' scientific and philosophical picture or grand narrative. In doing so this special issue brings together philosophers, physicists, biologists, sociologists, logicians, cognitive scientists, economists and mathematicians to examine facets of Mario Bunge's systematic philosophy and to appraise its contribution to important issues in current philosophy and, by implication, education.

  4. Philosophy of Money

    CERN Document Server

    Simmel, Georg; Frisby, David; Bottomore, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In The Philosophy of Money, Georg Simmel provides us with a now classic discussion of the social, psychological and philosophical aspects of the money economy, full of brilliant insights into the forms that social relationships take.

  5. On the life philosophy and its relationship with psychology%浅析生命哲学与心理学的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 贾林祥

    2012-01-01

      生命哲学是一种把生命作为宇宙本源的非理性主义哲学思潮,直接渊源于叔本华、尼采的意志主义,代表人物主要有狄尔泰、齐美尔和柏格森。生命哲学作为一种早期的人本主义哲学思潮与很多人文主义取向的心理学流派都有着千丝万缕的联系。%  Life philosophy is a non-rational philosophy thought that life is treated as the origin of the universe.It directly originates from Schopenhauer and Nietzsche's Voluntarism.The main representatives are Dilthey, Simmel and Bergson. Life philosophy, as an early humanistic philosophy thought, and many schools of humanistic psychology are inextricably linked.

  6. Another sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carleheden, Mikael

    1998-01-01

    During the second half of the 20th century, sociology as a social technology in service of the welfare state has been the predominant form, especially in Scandinavia. The crisis of the welfare state has led this form of sociology into a crisis as well. Instead, I argue for a critical sociology...... contributing dianostics of the social pathologies of the modern state. Such an approach can find inspiration in classical sociology, but it is also important to realize that, today, we are living in another modernity. A liberation from social technology must thus include a liberation from objectivistic methods....

  7. SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    PAPER Sun Benwen and the Chinese Sociology in the First Half of the Twentieth Century Zhou Xiaohong 1 Abstract:As a representative of the comprehensive school of sociology, Sun Benwen occupied a mainstream position in the first half of the twentieth century, and contrib- uted remarkably to the early development of Chinese sociology during his nearly three-decade research. Being directly influenced by his learning experiences in Co- lumbia University and the University of Chicago, he started with cultural and psycho- logical factors in his endeavor to establish the comprehensive school of sociology, which endowed his theories with a significant touch of cultural determinism and psy- chological reductionism. In an age plagued by turmoil and wars, Sun Benwen played the dual role of constructor and reviewer of Chinese sociology. He took the initiative to advance social construction in tribulated China with sociological theories and devot- ed himself to estabhshing a Sinicized system of sociological theory. All these efforts not only reflected the intellectuals' naivety and helplessness in the face of crises, but also the sociologists' willfulness and unreconciledness in intervening in social real- ities. Meanwhile, Modern Chinese Sociology, his monograph written prior to the foun- dation of the PRC in 1949, virtually became the closing speech of all those Chinese sociologists who had outlived the Republic of China and who would have to accept a gloomy collective withdrawal.

  8. On the Influence of the Mind Turn of Western Philosophy on Psychology%西方哲学心智转向对心理学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炳全; 张旭东

    2015-01-01

    心智哲学是20世纪中末期西方哲学所发生的继语言(义)学转向和语用学转向之后的一次重要转向,它为心理学提供了新的元理论和方法论。(1)为心理学提供了“心智-语言-世界”新的世界观;(2)从哲学角度对人的心理进行了探讨,促进了哲学与心理学的结合并互哺;(3)促使人们对“人是什么”重新审视与理解;(4)引发了对以往心理学尤其是主流心理学的基石———身心二元论的质疑;(5)催生了第二代认知科学、活动主义、情境认知等新取向的兴起。它对心理学有很大启示:第一,人工智能、动物研究等研究是有限度的;第二,应重视身体的作用;第三,应重视人的意向性,注重隐喻分析;第四,应关注人的存在,尤其是生命的意义。%Philosophy of mind is an important turn after linguistic (semantic) and pragmatic turns in the mid or end of 20th century in western philosophy, which provided a new meta-theory and methodology for psychology. It has 1) provided a psychology new world view of ′mind-language-world′; 2) researched into human mind from the hori-zon of philosophy, which promoted philosophy and psychology to combine and feed each other; 3) prompted ′what is human being′ to be reviewed and explained again; 4) triggered the question to the body-mind dualism as the cornerstone of the past psychology especially the past mainstream psychology; 5) given rise to some new ap-proaches such as the second cognitive science and actionist cognitive psychology and Situated Cognition, etc. It is of great enlightenment to psychology: 1) It is limitations to study human mind by the research in artificial in-telligence and animal. 2) the role of body should be paid attention to. 3) Human intentionality and metaphor analysis should be paid great attention to. 4) Human existence, especially the meaning of life should be con-cerned about.

  9. Philosophy as Pharmakon : Towards the hermeneutics of healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy ... Abstract. The history of philosophy gives us an insight into what good life portends. Plato ... Hence, the interest of philosophy in other disciplines such as medicine and psychology is well known.

  10. Standardization in measurement philosophical, historical and sociological issues

    CERN Document Server

    Schlaudt, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The application of standard measurement is a cornerstone of modern science. In this collection of essays, standardization of procedure, units of measurement and the epistemology of standardization are addressed by specialists from sociology, history and the philosophy of science.

  11. Some Main Features of Wittgenstein´s Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Steen

    Two chapters from a book manuscript, where four parts of Wittgenstein´s philosophy are systematically interconnected, philosophy of language, mathematics, psychology and natural science......Two chapters from a book manuscript, where four parts of Wittgenstein´s philosophy are systematically interconnected, philosophy of language, mathematics, psychology and natural science...

  12. The origins of psychology in Italy: Themes and authors that emerge through a content analysis of the Rivista di Filosofia Scientifica [Journal of Scientific Philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro

    2012-08-01

    This article examines the scientific-cultural context of the second half of the 1800s, during which psychological science emerged in Italy. The article explores the contribution made by the emergence of the primary research traditions of that period, namely, physiological anthropology and phreniatry, by means of a methodology that combines content analysis with a classical historiographical study of the period. Themes and authors deriving from the various disciplines in the human and natural sciences were identified through a content analysis of the Rivista di Filosofia Scientifica [Journal of Scientific Philosophy], a periodical that is representative of Italian positivism. The analysis highlights the epistemological perspective held by scholars who, distancing themselves from the mechanistic reductionism of the proponents of positivism, integrated a naturalistic and evolutionary conceptualization with the neo-Kantian critique. A clearly delineated naturalistic and differential perspective of scientific research that brought about the birth of psychology as an experimental discipline in Italy in the 1900s emerges from the analysis, including psychology and psychopathology as studied by the phreniatrists Gabriele Buccola, Enrico Morselli, and Eugenio Tanzi; Tito Vignoli and Giuseppe Sergi's work in comparative anthropology; Giulio Fano's approach and contribution to physiology; and Enrico Ferri's contribution to criminology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. PHILOSOPHY GROUP COURSES TEACHING IN TURKISH SCHOOLS AND AMERICAN COLLEGES IN THE PREREPUBLICAN PERIOD IN TURKEY (1839-1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baykal BİÇER

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, it was aimed to analyze the philosophy group courses in Turkish schools and American colleges in the Ottoman period comparatively. In this period, philosophy courses were given with Islamic theology courses with the title ‘Wisdom’, and Logic and Ethics courses were given in various level and kind of schools. Psychology course was taken in the curriculum of Turkish schools after the 1st Constitutional Monarchy and sociology course with the 2nd Constitutional Monarchy. With the foundation of American colleges in Turkey, all the philosophy group courses were included in their curriculum. However, sociology course was put in the curriculum of Turkish schools earlier. While the content of the philosophy and psychology courses in Turkish and American schools are in correspondence, The thoughts of the philosophers were taught from the original texts in American colleges. The classes which are given in Turkish schools differ in the period of education. From time to time the education quantity was more than American schools, and the education quality was not behind of them.

  14. Neil Young representation of Hernán Cortés: a critical approach from the knowledge sociology to a paradigmatic case of cognitive distortion / Hernán Cortés según Neil Young: una aproximación desde la sociología del conocimiento a un caso paradigmático de distorsión cognitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Palacios Gómez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we realize a critical approach to the good savage myth as a cognitive distortion, paradigmatically represented by a Neil Young´s musical composition on Hernan Cortez figure. We use as a tool to do that criticism some relevant contributions from philosophy, social psychology and sociology of knowledge, specially that one elaborated by P.L. Berger. It’s shown myth inconsistence and their ideological supports and utilities and we conclude that one of the main functions of sociology is to unmask both descriptions and explanations of social world.

  15. Syringe sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellone, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    In this article I consider the impact of social epistemologies for understanding the object of the syringe. My aim is to examine the process through which the syringe transforms from an injecting device to a tool of social and political inquiry. Paying particular attention to the uses of Foucault, Becker, Bourdieu, Freud and Latour in empirical studies of injecting heroin use, I examine the sociology of the syringe through the lens of habit and habitus, discourse and deviance, mourning and melancholia, attachment and agencement. In pursuing the theory behind the object my goal is to address a sociological object in the making. In so doing I show how the syringe has been significant for social research, social theory, and sociology. It is the difference the object makes that this article seeks to describe. In tracing the epistemology of the syringe I show how the object is important not just for knowledge of addiction but sociology itself. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  16. Immanent philosophy of X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Robin Findlay

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I examine the relationship between historians, philosophers and sociologists of science, and indeed scientists themselves. I argue that (i) they co-habit a shared intellectual territory (science and its past); and (ii) they should be able to do so peacefully, and with mutual respect, even if they disagree radically about how to describe the methods and results of science. I then go on to explore some of the challenges to mutually respectful cohabitation between history, philosophy and sociology of science. I conclude by identifying a familiar kind of project in the philosophy of science which seeks to explore the worldview of a particular scientific discipline, and argue that it too has a right to explore the shared territory even though some historians and sociologists may find it methodologically suspect.

  17. The life and work of Ksenija Atanasijević (1894-1981)--psychology and anthropology as the inevitability and necessity of philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Milovanović, Srdan; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Cvetić, Tijana; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2014-06-01

    Ksenja Atanasijević (1894-1981) was the first woman in Serbia to obtain a Ph.D. in philosophy. Going through numerous psychological metamorphoses in her lifetime and confronted with numerous challenges, Ksenija Atanasijević developed a specific philosophical-psychological system of consolation prominently featuring the concepts of happiness, bliss, moderation, courage and wisdom. Modifying the original teachings of Democritus and Epicurus, Ksenija Atanasijević developed a distinctive anthropology based on confrontation with but equally the overcoming of obstacles, both internal (spiritual) as well as external ones. The philosopheress developed a reflexive and indeed metaphysical defensive psychotherapeutical skill at the root of which was cleansing the soul, as well as dedication to the realm of fancy, fantasy and imagination. Ksenija Atanasijević also had precious literary talent which was best expressed in her analyses of the poetry and prose of great Serbian writers (Pandurović, Njegos, Nastasijević, etc.). It is quite certain that this, with Anica Savić-Rebac, definitely greatest Serbian philosopheress, through personal suffering, creative solitude and shrouded desperation built an utterly authentic and harmonious system of philosophical comfort.

  18. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive psycholog

  19. Guide to Sources: American History, Anthropology, Folklore, Business Administration, Education, English, Food Science, French, German, Music, Philosophy, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Raymond H. Fogler Library.

    This group of 13 library guides, designed to introduce the student to some of the bibliographical tools available in various subject areas at Fogler Library, is not intended to be a complete listing, but rather a selective introduction to the many sources of information available to the beginning researcher. Information is provided on the use of…

  20. On the fundamental importance of the social psychology of research as a basic paradigm for the philosophy of science: A philosophical case study of the psychology of the Apollo moon scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroff, I. I.

    1972-01-01

    A combined philosophical and social psychological study of over 40 of the Apollo moon Scientists reveals that the Orthodox or Received View of Scientific Theories is found wanting in several respects: (1) observations are not theory-free; (2) scientific observations are not directly observable; and (3) observations are no less problematic than theories. The study also raises some severe criticisms of distinction between the context of discovery and the context of justification. Not only does this distinction fail to describe the actual practice of science but even more important it has the dangerous effect of excluding some of the strongest lines of evidence which could most effectively challenge the distinction. The distinction is harmful of efforts to found interdisciplinary theories and philosophies of science.

  1. Development of relative body mass (BMI of students from Łódź, depending on the selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruszkowska-Przybylska Paulina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human height-to-weight ratio is an important parameter of the body homeostasis. Currently, the most popular measurement determining the relationship between body mass and height is the Quetelet II indicator, called Body Mass Index (BMI. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the differences in the height-to-weight ratios, depending on selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors in people studying at higher education institutions in Łódź. The research was conducted among students of higher education institutions in Łódź, by electronic means or with the use of an anonymous survey. It consisted of 28 closed single or multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis was made of complete results of the research involving 135 people, both males and females, aged between 19-26. It was revealed that the factors related to higher BMI values in students are the following: the presence of a tendency in the students to gain weight themselves, and a tendency to gain weight present in their mothers, an evaluation of their own body mass as excessive, regularly smoking cigarettes and rarely undergoing medical check-ups. Among the factors connected with lower BMI values are: regular coffee consumption, perception of their own body mass as being too low, and also obtaining systolic pressure values below 110 mm Hg. Additionally, a positive correlation between taking up physical activity and higher values of systolic blood pressure (p<0.05 was shown. Among the subjects, it was found that 92% of the underweight women declared that their body mass and figure were normal. In the case of women with optimal BMI values, 40% stated that their body mass was excessive. In the case of men the problem was reverse: 50% of the subjects who were either overweight or obese claimed that their body mass was within the norm. The factors that significantly influence body proportion differences among students include the subject’s and the subject

  2. The Reflexive Principle of Sociological Theorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Ubaidullayeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to describe the reflexive principle in theory-making, which integrates the basic modern methodological paradigms and lays the foundation for the development of sociology. On the basis of the theoretical ideas of P. Bourdieu, A. Giddens and P. Ricoeur the author defines the concept of social reflexion and reveals its peculiarities in sociology as compared to reflexion in philosophy. According to the author, the fulfillment of reflexive functions in sociology is connected with the task of analyzing the complex structure of the polysemantic object, considering the specific quality of the subjects and their various trends of development. The presence of the poles — objectivity-subjectivity, rationality-irrationality, consciousness-unconsciousness etc, requires a reproduction of the dichotomies engendering them in social life and development of cognitive methods for their study in sociology.

  3. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woock, Roger R.

    1981-12-01

    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  4. Ética y filosofía de la psicología Ethics and Philosophy of psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Cincunegui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se enmarca en el contexto del actual debate entre los representantes de las disciplinas de la filosofía de la mente y las ciencias cognitivas, por un lado, y los fenomenólogos, por el otro, en torno al estatuto de la consciencia y la naturaleza de la acción. A partir de la recuperación de la obra crítica del filósofo canadiense Charles Taylor, quien en The Explanation of Behaviour (1964 se enfrentó a los presupuestos del conductismo psicológico, cuyos presupuestos modificados aún están presentes en buena medida en las doctrinas cognitivistas, se ofrecen argumentos (1 contra la pretensión reduccionista de explicar lo humano a partir de lo no humano, sin por ello minimizar la importancia de las investigaciones mecanicistas, pero atentos al carácter ineludiblemente teleológico de la acción; y (2 contra el olvido insistente en lo que respecta al estatuto de los animales no humanos y el reconocimiento de la necesidad de una demarcación más fluida entre la existencia humana, animal no humana e inanimada.This article is part of the current debate between representatives from the disciplines of philosophy of mind and cognitive sciences on one hand, and the phenomenologists, on the other, about the status of consciousness and the nature of action. The recovery of the critical work of Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor, who in The Explanation of Behaviour (1964 faced the behaviorist challenge to humanism, and whose principles are still largely present in the cognitivists doctrines, allows us to argue against the reductionist claim that the human can be explain through the non-human, without downplaying the importance of the mechanistic research in the relevant areas, but attentive to the inescapably teleological nature of action. And against the insistent forgetfulness in regard to the status of animals and nonhuman animal which means to recognize the need for a more fluid demarcation between the human, the non-human and

  5. Sociology and Moral Education: New Directions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    Past work in the field is examined at four levels: the social structural, the institutional, that of action and the social psychological in both the psychological and sociological traditions. Moral choice is analyzed into three components with each component applied to moral education in an attempt to indicate worthwhile future directions for…

  6. 信息立场:哲学和逻辑(之三)--从物理学到社会学%The Informational Stance:Philosophy and Logic (Third)--From Physics to Sociology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬焜; 约瑟夫·布伦纳; 邬天启(中英文互译)

    2014-01-01

    人类个体和社会的价值乃是物理世界自然活动的自然规律嵌入到人类现实活动的各个层面所形成的逻辑同构。人类个体的自然因素与社会因素,生理的、心理的和行为的多重维度具有内在统一的不可分割性。人的认识产生于主客体间的多级中介链的相互作用的过程之中,在这一过程中,人的主观模式信息和它认识的客观“对象”的信息之间存在着某种本质性的变换、重组和重建的相互“匹配”的建构和虚拟。人类社会的体外文化进化和体内基因所规定的能力是“相互协同”的,在作为特殊“信息体”的人的内在结构中,可以区分出两种不同层次的信息,一种是在遗传基因结构中深层编码的程序性信息,另一种是基于程序性信息之上具体展示着的表现型信息,后者的现实化需要凭借后天环境的信息中介而具体生成,由于环境信息的多样性和特定性,所以,后者的具体形式和内容也便具有了多样性和复杂性的特征。不同形式的人类文明经由信息创制、处理和传播的不同方式而发展。与信息创制和传播的网络模式的发展相伴的是国家集权和世界霸权的消解,这也是建立一个新兴民主社会的“技术前提”。邬焜的信息哲学基础理论和他关于信息社会的应用性观点实现了科学和哲学领域的重大创新。%The human individual and social value is the logic isomorphic formed by the law of nature from the natural activities in the physical world embedded in the activities at all levels of human reality. Natural factors and social factors of human individual, the physiological, psychological and multi-dimensions of behaviours cannot be divided with inherent unity. The cognition of human result of the process of interaction between the subject and object at multi-level of intermediary chain, in which there are certain essential

  7. [Neurosciences and philosophy of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Aarón

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the interaction between neurosciences and philosophy of the mind is on the way to understand consciousness, and to solve the mind-body or mind-brain problem. Naturalism is the view that mental processes are just brain processes and that consciousness is a natural phenomenon. It is possible to construct a theory about its nature by blending insights from neuroscience, philosophy of the mind, phenomenology, psychology and evolutionary biology.

  8. Sandbox Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Alexis

    1979-01-01

    The Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children, a nonprofit organization at Montclair State College in New Jersey, is dedicated to improving children's thinking skills and to training future elementary school teachers in the art of philosophical inquiry. (JMD)

  9. Dementia: sociological and philosophical constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J

    2004-01-01

    This analysis presents a challenge to the biomedical view of dementia as a disease. This view is critiqued from two perspectives: those of sociology and philosophy. Because these domains inform the creation of the medical discourse, their analysis provides an important refinement to the apprehension of the phenomenon of dementia. From the work of Foucault, and in particular his analysis of the historical origins of modern medicine, the sociological construction of dementia is considered. Following this, the philosophical question of Being is discussed, considering particularly the positions of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Lastly aspects of dementia nursing that are damaging to those relatives forced to take on the role of primary carer are isolated, in the context of Kitwood's view that it is possible to maintain personhood at the extremes of this condition. It is suggested that this critique of sociological and philosophical foundations of dementia might offer a way of approaching the dismantling of the self and revise current conceptions of dementia care for the better.

  10. Structurational aspect of Georg Simmel's sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Srđan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper attempt will be made in explaining some basic notions of Simmel's sociology, especially those regarding his very complex comprehension of money and causality in history. In analysis of his work, I will argue that Simmel stands very close to the contemporary structurational point of view, and that there are three levels of freedom and structural givens (overlapping each other in society. These are: meta-theoretical level, level of integration into the World, and the historical level. Besides that, less explicit aims of this paper are to show that in Simmlel's thought there are no disciplinary borders between sociology and philosophy, as well as to depict some of the potential benefits that sociology might get from this line of reasoning.

  11. 2015 Hans O. Mauksch Address: How Departments Can Respond to the Changing Popularity of the Sociology Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    While the popularity of the psychology major and the sociology major were comparable in 1970, sociology witnessed a decline while psychology witnessed expansion. This article considers strategies of expanding the popularity of the sociology major, considering data from a variety of sources. Primary recommendations are to configure programs to…

  12. 2015 Hans O. Mauksch Address: How Departments Can Respond to the Changing Popularity of the Sociology Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    While the popularity of the psychology major and the sociology major were comparable in 1970, sociology witnessed a decline while psychology witnessed expansion. This article considers strategies of expanding the popularity of the sociology major, considering data from a variety of sources. Primary recommendations are to configure programs to…

  13. Philosophy, Philosophy of Education, and Economic Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 Harvey Siegel edited "The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education." This article develops a theme, prompted by reflection on several essays in that volume, about the nature of philosophy of education and its relation to philosophy. Siegel's view that philosophy of education is a "branch" of philosophy is put to…

  14. Philosophy, Philosophy of Education, and Economic Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 Harvey Siegel edited "The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education." This article develops a theme, prompted by reflection on several essays in that volume, about the nature of philosophy of education and its relation to philosophy. Siegel's view that philosophy of education is a "branch" of philosophy is put to…

  15. Buddha philosophy and western psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and righ...

  16. Emotional genesis of philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyugashev E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the specificity of philosophy is considered as a path to spiritual-practical mastering of the world. The spiritual-practical structure of philosophy includes philosophic practice and philosophic consciousness. The latter actualizes in the forms of philosophic thinking and sensory-emotional reflection of reality. Philosophical sensuality has a wide range of manifestations, but its specificity is defined by the emotion of wonder. Wonder is a primal, basic emotion. Fear, curiosity (interest, joy and a number of other emotions also belong to the category of basic emotions. In religious studies the ’theory of fear’ attributes the origin of religion to experience of fear. In psychology of emotion the curiosity is considered as a source of cognitive interest and scientific cognition. Appropriately, it may be possible to propose the ‘theory of curiosity’ and the ‘theory of wonder’ to explain the origin of science and philosophy. In the context of the theories the science and the religion differ in their emotional sources from the philosophy. The status of wonder as a basic emotion defines the emotional sovereignty of philosophy, its independence from other ways of spiritual-practical mastering of the world. Author demonstrates the incapacity of interpretations of doubt and suffering (despair as emotional origins of philosophy. Doubt as uncertainty is a derivative of faith and lacks the status of basic emotion. The suffering is an emotional tone of every sensation, a pair of the emotional tone of pleasure. It is impossible to consider the suffering as an origin of philosophy due to both the effect of twoness of pleasure and suffering and their status of emotional tones. In addition, suffering (despair is an affect, the repetition and accumulation of which conduces to the emotional discharge, an affective explosion. Therefore, they cannot be the sources of cognitive motion. The cognitive potential of wonder is defined by its

  17. Racism, empire and sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Reviews of Gurminder K Bhambra, Connected Sociologies; Peo Hansen and Stefan Jonsson, Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism; Wulf D. Hund, Alana Lentin (eds) Racism and Sociology

  18. Introduktion til klassisk sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas......Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas...

  19. Introduktion til klassisk sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas......Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas...

  20. Sociology as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the meaning of practicing sociology, claiming to "commit a social science" still makes sense. Accepts Max Weber's arguments that sociology clarifies human affairs and is oriented to certain virtues. Suggests, however, that sociology is a passion as well as a profession, something Weber recognized but did not elaborate. (NL)

  1. Sociology of justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebig, S.; Sauer, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of the empirical justice research done so far within sociology and aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of what constitutes a sociological approach. In order to do so, we first introduce the multilevel model of sociological explanation and derive four

  2. Anthropology & Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The present book is no ordinary anthology, but rather a workroom in which anthropologists and philosophers initiate a dialogue on trust and hope, two important topics for both fields of study. The book combines work between scholars from different universities in the U.S. and Denmark. Thus, besid......, therefore, also inspire others to work in the productive intersection between anthropology and philosophy....

  3. Anthropology & Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The present book is no ordinary anthology, but rather a workroom in which anthropologists and philosophers initiate a dialogue on trust and hope, two important topics for both fields of study. The book combines work between scholars from different universities in the U.S. and Denmark. Thus, besid......, therefore, also inspire others to work in the productive intersection between anthropology and philosophy....

  4. The case for a sociology of dying, death, and bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil; Allan, June; Carverhill, Philip A; Cox, Gerry R; Davies, Betty; Doka, Kenneth; Granek, Leeat; Harris, Darcy; Ho, Andy; Klass, Dennis; Small, Neil; Wittkowski, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Dying, death, and bereavement do not occur in a social vacuum. How individuals and groups experience these phenomena will be largely influenced by the social context in which they occur. To develop an adequate understanding of dying, death, and bereavement we therefore need to incorporate a sociological perspective into our analysis. This article examines why a sociological perspective is necessary and explores various ways in which sociology can be of practical value in both intellectual and professional contexts. A case study comparing psychological and sociological perspectives is offered by way of illustration.

  5. What Is Our First Philosophy in Mathematics Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Paul

    2012-01-01

    What are the theoretical foundations of mathematics education? Recently disciplines other than mathematics and psychology have grown in importance, including philosophy. But which branch of philosophy is the most fundamental for mathematics education? In this article, I consider the claims of five branches of philosophy to be our "first…

  6. What Is Our First Philosophy in Mathematics Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Paul

    2012-01-01

    What are the theoretical foundations of mathematics education? Recently disciplines other than mathematics and psychology have grown in importance, including philosophy. But which branch of philosophy is the most fundamental for mathematics education? In this article, I consider the claims of five branches of philosophy to be our "first…

  7. Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology. ... paediatric and ethical aspects of the applied field of clinical and counselling psychology. ... which have a close bearing on psychology such as psychiatry, sociology, social work, ...

  8. Argument about Li and Desire in Confucian School of Philosophy of the Song and Ming Dynasties: a Psychological Review%从心理学角度再析理学中的理欲辨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凤炎

    2001-01-01

    The thesis tries to explore, in the light of psychology, the truth of argument abouy Li and desire in Confucian school of philosophy of the Song and Ming dynasties. Firstly, it thinks that Li is need that conform with etiquette. Secondly, it thinks that desire is the billow of water, because desire is more intense psychology than feeling, which is the wave of water. Thirdly, it thinks desire has three kinds of function, while bad desire has four kinds of function. Finally, it thinks the essence of argument about Li and desire in Confucian school of philosophy of the Song and Ming dynasties is controversy on connotation, relation and attitude of good desire and bad desire.%理可总称人合乎礼的诸种需要;从表现形态上看,欲是比情更为激烈的心理活动;欲具有促使人行动、情产生和“生百善”等方面的功能,人欲则具有“诱人为不善”、“害吾心”、使情变坏和损害身心健康等作用。理学中的理欲之辨也可看作是关于合理需要与不合理需要的内涵、相互关系及对待二者的态度之争。

  9. Epistemology, Sociology, and Learning and Teaching in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between epistemology, sociology, and learning and teaching in physics based on an examination of literature from research in science studies, history and philosophy of science, and physics pedagogic research. It reveals a mismatch between the positivist epistemological foundation which seems to underpin the…

  10. Epistemology, Sociology, and Learning and Teaching in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between epistemology, sociology, and learning and teaching in physics based on an examination of literature from research in science studies, history and philosophy of science, and physics pedagogic research. It reveals a mismatch between the positivist epistemological foundation which seems to underpin the…

  11. The Sociological Imagination -- A Basis for Teaching of Introductory Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1974-01-01

    The problem in teaching introductory sociology is to determine what can be extracted from the sociological tradition and the current crisis in sociology that will help students lead more meaningful lives. The answer lies in kindling the sociological imagination by the development of a sociology curriculum based upon the study of contemporary youth…

  12. Sociología

    OpenAIRE

    Agulló Calatayud, Víctor; Martínez Haro, Aurelio

    2005-01-01

    Voz Sociología. Gran Enciclopedia de la Comunitat Valenciana. Se define el concepto de Sociología situando sus orígenes, proceso de institucionalización, análisis de la situación actual, herramientas y finalidad de esta Ciencia Social prestando una especial atención al caso valenciano (España). Sociology. Gran Enciclopedia de la Comunitat Valenciana. The concept of Sociology is defined by placing its origins, institutionalization process, analysis of the current situation, tools and purpos...

  13. The Analysis on "Kidult" Phenomenon among Contemporary Youth --- Studied in Psychological and Sociological Views%当代青年kidult现象探析——以心理学和社会学为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠阳

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the "kiduh" phenomenon is a subculture among the youth. The phenomenon embodies young adults' regressing of childishness and their popular pursuit of nostalgia, by which the adults want to deal with the complex adult society. The phenomenon is caused by complicated reasons. Studied in psychological view, it can be explained as the awakening of sub-consciousness in childhood; while in sociological view, it can be understood as the relief of the pressure from adult society and the disadvantages of current education. We should make the phenomenon avoid disadvantages and develop with advantages by changing our education ideas and increasing education contents.%Kidult现象是当今社会流行的青年亚文化,它表现为成年青年人回归幼稚和追求怀旧,试图以此应对复杂的成人社会。这种现象的产生具有复杂的原因,从心理学的角度可以解读为童年潜意识的唤醒,从社会学的角度可以理解为缓解成人社会的压力和当今教育的缺失。为了使kidult文化现象趋利避害,必须在教育层面转变教育理念和增加教育内容。

  14. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  15. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  16. Sociology through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how photography can inspire and cultivate sociological mindfulness. One set of assignments uses self-portraiture to highlight the complexity of visual representations of social identity. Another uses photography to guide sociological inquiry. Both sets of assignments draw on the Literacy Through Photography methodology,…

  17. Følelsernes sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Følelsernes sociologi præsenterer en række toneangivende teorier om følelsernes sociale funktion og rummer bidrag om den klassiske sociologi hos blandet andet Marx, Weber og Durkheim samt nyere teorier. Fænomener som fremmedgørelse og blaserthed er klassiske i sociologien, men også frygt, skam...

  18. Sociology through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how photography can inspire and cultivate sociological mindfulness. One set of assignments uses self-portraiture to highlight the complexity of visual representations of social identity. Another uses photography to guide sociological inquiry. Both sets of assignments draw on the Literacy Through Photography methodology,…

  19. The Sociology of Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani Khorasghani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe sociology of emotions as one of the sub-disciplines of sociology received attention aroundthe late 70s and mid 80s in American sociology. During this period several important contributionstook place to make the roots of the sub-discipline robust. Drawing upon five theoretical discourses,this paper aimed at presenting a general picture of emotions in sociology. Among all, Shott’ssymbolic interactionist theory and Hochschild’s normative theory, which are labeled as socialconstructionist approaches, together with structural-relational theory of Kemper and Collins’sconflict theory, which are categorized as positivist approaches, are discussed. Having reviewedthese four theories, the paper goes on to consider synthetic approach introduced by Turner, which isknown as general sociological theory of emotions.

  20. Introductory Comments on Philosophy and Constructivism in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    1997-01-01

    Distinguishes educational constructivism, which has its origins in the theories of children's learning, from constructivism in the philosophy of science and from constructivism in the sociology of science. Notes the evolution of educational constructivism and identifies some theoretical problems concerning constructivist teaching of science…

  1. Introductory Comments on Philosophy and Constructivism in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    1997-01-01

    Distinguishes educational constructivism, which has its origins in the theories of children's learning, from constructivism in the philosophy of science and from constructivism in the sociology of science. Notes the evolution of educational constructivism and identifies some theoretical problems concerning constructivist teaching of science…

  2. Making Research Sociological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Mishra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a distinctive disciplinary vantage point is crucial to becoming a professional. Thesis writing at the Master's level allows the professional opportunity of thinking and writing independently. For students of Sociology in particular, it is fundamental to recognize that the social is everywhere. There is nothing that is not socially constituted. Further on, a Sociology student should develop the sociological vantage point in order to see how the social is constituted. This the student can do by engaging and ‘dialoguing' with well-known sociological theorists. The student will then be able to think about how and why societies are historically constituted, how and why societies are diverse, internally differentiated and hierarchized and how and why societies transform themselves. They will learn to unravel the relationship between different levels of a society. In addition, they will also learn the significance of the structure even as they visualize historical human agents change the structure. Keywords: Social; Sociological; Sociological Imagination; Thesis Writing; Social Relationship; Institutions DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2779 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 1-18

  3. Sociology Back to the Publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a reading of the `new sociology' that is mainly identified with the works of C. Wright Mills and Alvin Gouldner. Its main argument is that during the past 40 years the new sociology gave back a public face to sociology. This distinguishes it from the `old sociology' that had not been

  4. Rational emotive behavior therapy: disputing irrational philosophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Susan Bendersky

    2004-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the concepts and techniques of rational emotive behavior therapy to distinguish it from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Rational emotive behavior therapy proposes that psychological disturbance is largely created and maintained through irrational philosophies consisting of internal absolutistic demands. This therapy strives to produce sustained and profound cognitive, emotive, and behavioral change through active, vigorous disputation of underlying irrational philosophies.

  5. Mobile sociology. 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, John

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to develop a manifesto for a sociology concerned with the diverse mobilities of peoples, objects, images, information, and wastes; and of the complex interdependencies between, and social consequences of, such diverse mobilities. A number of key concepts relevant for such a sociology are elaborated: 'gamekeeping', networks, fluids, scapes, flows, complexity and iteration. The article concludes by suggesting that a 'global civil society' might constitute the social base of a sociology of mobilities as we move into the twenty-first century.

  6. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  7. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  8. Philosophy Rediscovered: Exploring the Connections between Teaching Philosophies, Educational Philosophies, and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Joy E.; Leigh, Jennifer S. A.; Dean, Kathy Lund

    2009-01-01

    Teaching philosophy statements reflect our personal values, connect us to those with shared values in the larger teaching community, and inform our classroom practices. In this article, we explore the often-overlooked foundations of teaching philosophies, specifically philosophy and historical educational philosophies. We review three elements of…

  9. Educational Non-Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The final lines of Deleuze and Guattari's What is Philosophy? call for a non-philosophy to balance and act as a counterweight to the task of philosophy that had been described by them in terms of concept creation. In a footnote, Deleuze and Guattari mention François Laruelle's project of non-philosophy, but dispute its efficacy in terms of the…

  10. Educational Non-Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The final lines of Deleuze and Guattari's What is Philosophy? call for a non-philosophy to balance and act as a counterweight to the task of philosophy that had been described by them in terms of concept creation. In a footnote, Deleuze and Guattari mention François Laruelle's project of non-philosophy, but dispute its efficacy in terms of the…

  11. Philosophy at Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Newsletter of the Philosophy Faculty. Articles by: Simon Blackburn, 'From the Chair' ; Nick Treanor, 'Inaugural lecture: What is distinctive about human thought?' ; Clare Chambers, 'Political Philosophy at Cambridge' ; Alexis Papazoglou,'Aspects of philosophy at Cambridge' ; Peter Smith, 'Principia at 100' ; Nigel Crisp, 'Turning the World Upside Down' ; Cain Todd, 'Fiction, Emotion, Imagination'; Fraser MacBride, 'Philosophy, St John's, Cambridge, 1986.'

  12. Project Management in Russia: Sociologic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Gomaleev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sociologic approach to project management allows to highlight the problems aroused by discrepancies between real management practices and ideal models; to determine basic socio-psychological barriers that impede project management in Russia; to classify real management practices on the basis of their correlation to project management; to single out basic types of projects implemented in Russian businesses; to work out practical recommendations on overcoming social barriers of developing the system of project management is Russia.

  13. Existential, theological, and psychological concepts of death: a personal retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawbaugh, William M

    2005-01-01

    Before Freud, the study of death belonged strictly in the contexts of religion and philosophy, but in the 20th Century, death and dying began to enter into dialogue with the social sciences of psychology and sociology. The existentialists began to portray death differently in their literary-based philosophy, and by the end of the century four major American writers had dealt squarely with death in a theological framework. The author's own personal experiences and academic endeavors frame this evolution in theories about death and dying, beginning with a Master's thesis in college and ending with a unit of Clinical Pastoral Education in a shock trauma hospital. In this article the mystery of death is examined from three distinct points of view: literary (including existentialism, a philosophy as literature), theological and psychological, based upon the author's career as a professor of literature, as seminary student, and as a recent participant in Clinical Pastoral Education. An attempt at a synthesis of these three strands of inquiry is made at the end of this personal and academic journey.

  14. Filozofia analityczna a filozofia transformacyjna (ANALYTIC AND TRANSFORMATIVE PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rorty

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper was written in 1998 for a symposium organized in conjunction with the 50th anniversary of the School of the Humanities at Stanford University, and first published in German translation in 2000. It is mostly devoted to the history and sociology of analytic philosophy in American universities after the Second World War. The author argues that analytic movement has failed to keep its promise of putting philosophy on the secure path of a science. Thus it may not have lived up to its pretensions. A permanent, extremely valuable contribution to philosophy has been made by those analytical thinkers who undermined the scientistic pretensions of the movement. The general lesson of the paper is that this particular failure of analytic philosophy and its various internal critiques give additional strong reasons to abandon the hope of making philosophy into some sort of science.

  15. [straus: The Two Medical Sociologies].

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Robert Straus' pioneer work, The nature and status of Medical Sociology, written in 1957, was reviewed. Straus, one of the founders of medical sociology, made major contributions to this field and created the first department of behavior sciences in a medical school. In the work reviewed, Straus establishes the differences between sociology in medicine and medical sociology. Comments are made on the current perspective of medical sociology and about the author.

  16. Sociology of Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    Sociology of Discourse takes the perspective that collective actors like social movements are capable of creating social change from below by creating new institutions through alternative discourses. Institutionalization becomes a process of moving away from existing institutions towards creating...

  17. The achievement of sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Giner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay begins saying that the contemporary conscience wouldn’t be the same without the presence of sociology – a human science and not only social – which is, in the group of the social sciences, the cognitive science that studies the human condition. Sociology is a multidimensional science, being its history that one of a discipline that cumulates objective knowledge. However, only the ethics of objectivity is not enough to cultivate the human sciences. They will encompass amplitude, as well as theoretical dignity, only if grounded on our moral competence. Finally it states that the continuity of the sociological mode in the modern culture and its current hegemony are justified only if sociology keeps faithful to the principles of rational intention on one hand, and to the humanism on the other, without losing, between them, the space of the social structure of liberty and the human dreams.

  18. SOCIOLOGICAL JURISPRUDENCE: ROSCOE POUND'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    identifiable in a lot of the older jurisprudential theory of insisting upon one ... information to be found in more than half a century's worth of academic work. .... 15 E. Nalbandian (2010) "Sociological Jurisprudence – General Introduction to.

  19. Sociología rural vs. Sociología pesquera. (Rural Sociology vs. Fishing Sociology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Marugán Pintos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available De forma recurrente, hasta hace no mucho tiempo, lo rural se ha conceptualizado como la dimensión espacial relativa a poblaciones pequeñas y homogéneas, dominadas por una cultura tradicional y un sentir comunitario. Partiendo de esta descripción, la sociología rural debería haberse ocupado de toda la población que habita este espacio y sin embargo, sólo se ha centrado en la agraria. Lo agrario ha absorbido a lo rural y la sociología rural ha olvidando a colectivos como el pesquero. Pero, ¿por qué la sociología rural no se ha ocupado de lo pesquero? La respuesta inicial fue valorar esta ausencia como una limitación de la sociología rural ya que algunas personas han compatibilizado la pesca y la agricultura y la mayoría de la población pesquera habita en espacios rurales, desarrolla un tipo de pesca artesanal y es partícipe de un modo de vida tradicional. Sin embargo, a medida que se profundiza en esta reflexión surge la idea de que el análisis de la pesca sería más pertinente desde una sociología propia e incluso de una sociología general que acabe con la excesiva especialización en esta disciplina. “Rural” has regularly been conceptualized in spatial terms relative to small towns and homogeneous populations, determined by their traditional culture and communitarian values. Following this definition, Rural Sociology should have concerned itself with all the populations living in these areas but, in fact, it only had been focused in agrarian populations. Why Rural Sociology didn’t pay any attention to fishermen and fisheries? The initial response may be to interpret as disciplinary limitation of Rural Sociology, but at the end this article concludes that sociological perspectives would be better oriented by a general sociological approach, which rejects excesive disciplinary specialization.

  20. Sociological concept of generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociological concept of generation should be distinguished from biological and statistical, and they discussed all three of its meaning. In a sociological sense, it is characterized by a common historical experience that has its own internal and external, subjective and objective dimension. In sociology it was introduced by Dilthey, one of the main representatives of historicism, and which is characterized by discontinuous conception of history and emphasizing specificity of cultural epochs. In contemporary sociology, this concept was reaffirmed under the strong influence of Mannheim who argued that the generation is in the range of analytical categories of class and nation. The major historical generations in our society are pointed. Four generations are considered as the main age groups but also as social constructs children, youth, middle aged and old people. Their status in the traditional and contemporary, especially in our society is pointed. In the research of generation and its main forms have formed a special sociological disciplines, except for the middle-aged who are, as a generation, at least sociologically studied.

  1. Classroom Demonstrations of Social Psychological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Royce Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Describes eight classroom activities which instruct college level sociology students about major concepts and principles of social psychology. Concepts include gestalt psychology, nonverbal communication, adaptation level, relative deprivation, selective exposure, labeling, sexism, and perceptual distortion. (Author/DB)

  2. História, filosofia e sociologia da educação matemática na formação do professor: um programa de pesquisa History, philosophy, and sociology of mathematical education in teachers training: a research program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresentamos e discutimos algumas princípios orientadores de um programa de pesquisa que toma como objeto central de investigação o modo como os campos emergentes de investigação em história, filosofia e sociologia da educação matemática poderiam vir a participar, de forma crítica e qualificadora, da formação inicial e continuada de professores de matemática. Defendemos o ponto de vista de que tais cursos deveriam orientar-se por uma nova concepção de especificidade que pudesse instaurar um projeto pedagógico em que esses campos emergentes viessem a participar, de forma orgânica e esclarecedora, da constituição de problematizações multidimensionais das práticas escolares nas quais a matemática estivesse, de algum modo, envolvida. Para isso, tais problematizações deveriam estar assentadas em investigações acadêmicas sobre questões que hoje desafiam os professores no trabalho crítico de apropriação, re-significação, produção e transmissão da cultura matemática sob os condicionamentos da instituição escolar.We present and discuss in this article some features of a research program whose central object of investigation is the way in which the recent fields of history, philosophy, and sociology of mathematical education could take part in a critical and qualified manner in the initial and continuing training of teachers in this area. For that, we endorse the viewpoint that the courses for mathematics teacher education should be based on a conception of specificity through which a new pedagogical project could be established. In such project those new fields of investigation would participate, in an organic and clarifying way, in the constitution of multidimensional problematizations of school practices, in which mathematics would be involved, and that would be guided by academic investigations about the issues that currently challenge teachers in the critical work of incorporation, resignification

  3. Individual from the Viewpoint of Psychology and Sociology in the Context of Leisure Time-Library Boş Zaman-Kütüphane Bağlamında Psikolojik ve Sosyolojik Açılardan Birey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atmaca

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, people are getting much stumbled with the changing conditions in such phenomena like rapid growth of cities, contemporary technologies and the relative growth of industry due to the latter requiring more and more information as ever before in order to recover themselves from this transition. Individuals can not reserve time for reading and thinking which is a prerequisite of knowledge due to lack of time created predominantly by the working conditions and some time-wasting traditions and customs especially they employ during their spare times. As being deprived of these activities fall individual to some certain psychological and sociological problems to some extent, the spare time option which have become the most necessary time interval for the individual to cover up his/her specific needs thereby to show progress in his characteristic components should be facilitated with the usage of libraries. Here that the libraries are for, especially outstanding as institutions to assist the individual in removing up both of the two problems mentioned above. It is a widely common fact that people who get to libraries and enhance their intellectual identity during their spare times have essentially provided a unity in their personalities from the physchological angle clenching their spiritual health as well as gaining new types of behaviors from the sociological approach also establishing permanent adaptation with others inside the community and with the nature and the giddy speed of technology. Günümüz dünyasında insanlar, sanayi ve teknolojinin gelişmesi, kentlerin hızla büyümesi gibi kimi olguların ortaya çıkardığı değişim karşısında bocalamakta; bu bocalamayı atlatabilmek için de bilgiye gereksinim duymaktadır. Bireyler bilginin temeli olan okuma ve düşünme kavramına; iş yaşamlarının zorunlu olarak aldığı zaman; boş zamanlarının da gereksiz kimi amaç ve araçlarla geçmesi yüzünden zaman ay

  4. Positivism in sociological research: USA and UK (1966-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, C David; Gartrell, John W

    2002-12-01

    Positivism has been declared dead in sociological theory circles, yet questions remain as to its viability among researchers. The authors present diagnostic evidence about positivism in sociological practice through a content analysis of journal articles published in the late 1960s and the late 1980s in the sociological journals of the USA and Britain. Using an index based on seven elements of positivism that were characteristic of the 'theory construction' movement of the late 1960s, the authors find evidence of the effects of time and nation on the use of positivism. Disaggregation of the index reveals that most of the observed change is associated with the elements of 'instrumental' positivism, particularly statistics. The results raise questions about the relationship between theory and research and about sociologists' philosophies of science.

  5. Philosophy and Sociology of Science Evolution and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Joe

    The following sections are included: * Concrete Versus Abstract Theoretical Models * Introduction: concrete and abstract in kepler's contribution * Einstein's theory of gravitation and mach's principle * Unitary symmetry and the structure of hadrons * Conclusion * Dedication * Symmetry, Entropy and Complexity * Introduction * Symmetry Implies Abstraction and Loss of Information * Broken Symmetries - Imposed or Spontaneous * Symmetry, Order and Information * References * Cosmological Surrealism: More Than "Eternal Reality" Is Needed * Pythagoreanism in atomic, nuclear and particle physics * Introduction: Pythagoreanism as part of the Greek scientific world view — and the three questions I will tackle * Point 1: the impact of Gersonides and Crescas, two scientific anti-Aristotelian rebels * Point 2: Kepler's spheres to Bohr's orbits — Pythagoreanisms at last! * Point 3: Aristotle to Maupertuis, Emmy Noether, Schwinger * References * Paradigm Completion For Generalized Evolutionary Theory With Application To Epistemology * Evolution Fully Generalized * Entropy: Gravity as Model * Evolution and Entropy: Measures of Complexity * Extinctions and a Balanced Evolutionary Paradigm * The Evolution of Human Society - the Age of Information as example * High-Energy Physics and the World Wide Web * Twentieth Century Epistemology has Strong (de facto) Evolutionary Elements * The discoveries towards the beginning of the XXth Century * Summary and Conclusions * References * Evolutionary Epistemology and Invalidation * Introduction * Extinctions and A New Evolutionary Paradigm * Evolutionary Epistemology - Active Mutations * Evolutionary Epistemology: Invalidation as An Extinction * References

  6. Renewing an Old Profession: Clinical Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, John

    1979-01-01

    Examines origins of clinical sociology as a behavioral science discipline in the humanist and normative tradition, stresses that clinical sociology is a form of sociological practice, and discusses training and employment in the field of clinical sociology. (Author/DB)

  7. Sociology and Social Work in Nigeria: Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    post-graduate levels. in discussing the characteristics of sociology and social work, ..... development, gender studies, political sociology and family studies. ... in the departments of sociology, there is considerable interaction between sociology.

  8. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Patil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Education Psychology is one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines which is concerned with the description, explanation and control of the educational processes arising from the interaction between the teacher and learner in the context of a specified or unspecified subject. The concept of educational psycology is changing as a result of the general impact of the disciplines such as sociology, anthropology,economics, political science and so on. The subject matter of educational psychology is also reflecting a diversity of structures and emphases in its connection.

  9. Philosophy of Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Walter

    2012-08-01

    This is a vast and vague topic. In order to do justice to it one has to write a book or maybe more than one. For it can be understood in quite different ways and on different levels For example you may think mainly of the historical aspect, that is how philosophy of science developed in the last hundred or so years and how its influence on education changed; you may think of quite different schools of philosophy, from Marxist or positivist to such exotic but at some places influential philosophic positions like that of Rudolph Steiner; of course, you may limit the subject to special fields like epistemology, theory of scientific methodology, or, what has become fashionable recently, sociology of knowledge which may have a considerable bearing on physics teaching (Collins and Shapin 1983; Jung 1985). Again we may think of the topic treated by a philosopher, a scientist, an educationalist, a teacher, which would mean quite a difference. I am trying here to speak as an educationalist, with the physics teacher in mind: this is my vocational perspective as someone who educates physics teachers. Of course, our main concern is the contribution of science, especially physics, to general education, which integrates many of the special topics mentioned. Philosophy of science comes in because it is not at all clear what science and physics is, and what of it should be taught, and how such chosen parts should be taught. I also take this opportunity to give an idea of the longstanding tradition of this discussion in Germany, connected with names like Wagenshein, Litt, Heisenberg and many others.

  10. Philosophy, Critical Thinking and Philosophy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Marie-France; Auriac, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the…

  11. The Importance of Teaching a Win-Win Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Alan J.

    Most people are raised in a traditional environment which teaches that someone-winning implies that someone-loses. However, psychology and the examples provided in the Watergate scandal demonstrate that such a philosophy is neither productive nor beneficial. A "win-win" philosophy of cooperation, not competition, is needed for…

  12. Data Visualization in Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Moody, James

    2014-07-01

    Visualizing data is central to social scientific work. Despite a promising early beginning, sociology has lagged in the use of visual tools. We review the history and current state of visualization in sociology. Using examples throughout, we discuss recent developments in ways of seeing raw data and presenting the results of statistical modeling. We make a general distinction between those methods and tools designed to help explore datasets, and those designed to help present results to others. We argue that recent advances should be seen as part of a broader shift towards easier sharing of the code and data both between researchers and with wider publics, and encourage practitioners and publishers to work toward a higher and more consistent standard for the graphical display of sociological insights.

  13. Reconstructing a lost tradition: the philosophy of medical education in an age of reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    At the 100th anniversary of Abraham Flexner's landmark report on medical education, critical reassessment of the direction of medical education reform evinced valuable interdisciplinary contributions from biomedicine, sociology, psychology and education theory. However, to date, philosophy has been absent from the discussion despite its long standing contribution to studies on education in other professions. This discussion paper examines how the philosophical tradition can contribute to scholarship in medical education. It begins with an explanation of the scholarly tradition of philosophy of education and its role in thinking in education more generally. It then makes links between this tradition and the context of medical education in the Flexner era of education reform. The paper then argues that this tradition is necessary to the understanding of medical education reform post-Flexner and that doctors must benefit from an education derived from this tradition in order to be able to carry out their work. These foundations are characterised as a hidden, but always present, tradition in medical education. Two ways in which this 'lost tradition' can inform medical education theory and practice are identified: firstly, by the establishment of a public canon of medical education texts that express such a tradition, and, secondly, by the incorporation of a variety of 'signature pedagogies' exemplary of liberal education. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  14. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  15. Philosophy of social science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Vergeer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mark Risjord. Philosophy of Social Science. A Contemporary Introduction. Serie: Routledge Contemporary Introductions to Philosophy. New York and London: Routledge, 2014, 288 p., €42,75. ISBN 978 0 415 89825 6

  16. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  17. Philosophy as Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Armelle

    2004-01-01

    "Philosophy as pedagogy" is a distinct approach to teaching and learning that is based on the original meaning of philosophy as a thoughtful life practice. In this thesis, I argue that limiting philosophy to an intellectual activity is a sophistic legacy, which has permeated all levels of education. I then discuss the need to practice philosophy as a means to deliberatively think and act. I subsequently present motherhood as an example of a philosophical practice based on dialogic relationshi...

  18. Masses of Formal Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions....

  19. Måltidets sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet introducerer den klassiske sociolog Georg Simmel og hans forståelse af samspillet mellem mad og måltider. Herefter sammenfattes en række udvalgte pointer, som er karakteristiske for den franske sociolog Claude Fischlers forståelse af begrebet commensality. Som led i diskussionen af de...... teoretiske positioner og den ’bekymringsdiskurs’, de siges at repræsentere, konfronteres disse med en mere empirisk baseret tilgang til måltidssociologien. Herunder udfordres begrebet commensality med henvisning til synspunkter hentet fra Ann Murcott. Som case inddrages Claude Fischlers forskning om...

  20. Merton and medical sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes E.D.

    2007-01-01

    The article is about the main contributions of the North-American sociologist Robert King Merton (1910-2003), particularly those related to the field of medical sociology. Merton was first to conduct research on medical education, and the working team he formed was fundamental for the introduction of social thought in the medicine field (Patrícia Kendall, Renée Fox, Samuel Bloom and others). Of particular importance are Merton's vocation for sociology and the unique trajectory of his research...

  1. Philosophy of the social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Kimelyev; N. L. Polyakova

    2014-01-01

    Philosophy of social science is a branch of philosophy where relations between philosophy and social sciences are traced and investigated. The main functions of philosophy of social science are: to work out social ontology, methodology and metatheory of social science.

  2. Philosophy in Primary Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2012-01-01

    The article is a critical discussion of the aims behind the teaching of philosophy in British primary schools. It begins by reviewing the recent Special Issue of the "Journal of Philosophy of Education" Vol 45 Issue 2 2011 on "Philosophy for Children in Transition", so as to see what light this might throw on the topic just…

  3. Philosophy in Primary Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2012-01-01

    The article is a critical discussion of the aims behind the teaching of philosophy in British primary schools. It begins by reviewing the recent Special Issue of the "Journal of Philosophy of Education" Vol 45 Issue 2 2011 on "Philosophy for Children in Transition", so as to see what light this might throw on the topic just mentioned. The result…

  4. Philosophy of Education Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    In this review essay J.J. Chambliss assesses the current state of the field of philosophy of education through analysis of four recent edited compilations: Randall Curren's "A Companion to Philosophy of Education"; Nigel Blake, Paul Smeyers, Richard Smith, and Paul Standish's "The Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Education"; Wilfred Carr's "The…

  5. Philosophy for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Rob; Onstenk, Jeroen; Veugelers, Wiel

    2016-01-01

    Philosophy for Democracy is a research project that aims to examine whether and how Philosophy with Children contributes to the development of democratic skills and attitudes. In the Netherlands, as in almost all Western countries, Philosophy with Children is linked with the movement for citizenship education. This article reports the research on…

  6. Teaching Philosophy Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the rationale for my teaching philosophy. Using a personal perspective, I explain my objectives, mission, and vision in writing my philosophy of teaching statements. This article also creates a road map and reference points for educators who want to write their own teaching philosophy statements to help them make informed…

  7. Psychological and Sociological Determinants of Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six self-report measures were administered randomly to 280 senior secondary ... and locus of control, self-esteem, parent's education, parental discipline, culture, and governance) could jointly determine academic achievement of adolescents.

  8. What Is Critical about Sociology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is often presented as a generic technique. This article develops an alternative that links critique more closely to the sociological perspective. I suggest three answers to the above question: that the sociological perspective is critical for comprehending complex issues, that all sociology is implicitly critical by virtue of its…

  9. Wolność egzystencjalna a psychologiczne rozumienia wolności (EXISTENTIAL FREEDOM AND A PSYCHOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF FREEDOM. CAN PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE ACCESS CATEGORIES OF EXISTENTIAL PHILOSOPHY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Trzópek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The range of issues presented in the article is centred around various perspectives of thinking about human freedom: existential freedom, freedom on the mental level as well as freedom in contemporary cognitive sciences. The first one is based on the philosophical (especially in K. Jaspers approach elaboration of the experience of a person. The second one pertains to our actual psychological capabilities and limitations; here the works of such doctors and therapists as K. G. Jung, E. Fromm, A. Kepinski and others have been adopted for the basis. Finally, the third one deals with the way which freedom is treated in within the cognitive trend dominating scientific psychology. Performed comparisons demonstrate that both the 'existential freedom' as well as the 'freedom on the mental level' seem to be phenomena resisting the investigation by naturalistically-oriented scientific psychology with its 'subjective' 'third person' methodology. Psychology which aspires to be counted among natural sciences, similarly to other sciences from this domain engages in the detection of relations, causative and functional laws and 'mechanism' belying investigated phenomena. 'Freedom' - if it is spoken about - is here rather 'perceived' or 'experienced' - awhile not real. At the same time it seems that psychology, as a detailed science should not - without venturing beyond its own competencies - explicitly formulate statements pertaining to the meaning of the experience of freedom or the existence of freedom 'as such'. The issues mentioned are relevant insofar as they pertain to the question regarding the possibility and a potential scope of changes which can occur in a subject at the participation of its will and its own work.

  10. Urban Sociology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  11. Development Sociology. Actor Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, Development Sociology focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and social constructionist form of analysis. This style of analysis is opposed to the traditional structuralist/institutional

  12. How can we help? From "sociology in" to "sociology of" bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Sociology and bioethics have an uneasy relationship. Bioethicists find sociology helpful for describing and analyzing ethical issues, but they are less enthusiastic when bioethics becomes the subject of sociological scrutiny. After review of different sociological approaches to bioethical topics -- descriptive, evaluative, and analytical -- I explain how bioethics will benefit by using the tools of sociology to answer its questions ("sociology in bioethics") and by allowing sociology to use bioethics to answer sociological questions ("sociology of bioethics").

  13. The Social Psychologies of Emotion: A Bridge That Is Not Too Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lovin, Lynn; Winkielman, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, emotion is a topic more central to psychology than to sociology. The "Annual Review of Psychology" has almost 400 articles that mention emotion since 1975, while the "Annual Review of Sociology" has roughly one-third as many in that period. Rather than bridging the two disciplinary canons, the early literature in sociology was…

  14. The purpose of philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gabriel Cristancho Altuzarra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is vital to ask what to teach in philosophy and how, but to address this question, we must first determine with what purpose to do it, but above all, to know what isthe purpose of philosophy. Perhaps by determining the essential basis it would be clearer to answer the question of teaching and learning, even more, all this will help to clarify the mission of the philosophy and the philosopher today. To resolve this ponder is a philosophical reflection on traditional academic practices. Then, from some authors, it is made a dissertation on what is philosophy, to deduce in which aspects of the current academic practices is present or distant the philosophy. Finally we propose some perspectives to extend the philosophy and teaching of philosophy.

  15. Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education through Lakatos's Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2014-01-01

    The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of…

  16. Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education through Lakatos's Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2014-01-01

    The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of…

  17. Tales of sociology and the nursing curriculum: revisiting the debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Kay; Law, Kate

    2007-08-01

    . Sociology and the nursing curriculum; editorial. Nurse Education in Practice 4, 81-82; Mowforth, G., Harrison, J., Morris, M., 2005. An investigation into adult nursing students' experience of the relevance and application of behavioural sciences (biology, psychology and sociology) across two different curricula. Nurse Education Today 25, 41-48]. Much attention has been given to the role, utility and value of sociology mostly within pre-registration but also post-registration nursing curricula. Through an initial analysis of a series of letters appearing in The Nursing Times over a 12 week period in 2004, and using an analytical framework of four tales (realist, critical, deconstructive and reflexive) we revisit this relationship. Unlike previous debates our argument is that this relationship is more usefully viewed as emblematic of the legitimation crisis inherent in all modern projects. We argue that in order to move beyond the 'utility' discussion, an interrogation of the knowledge claims of both nursing and sociology is required.

  18. The Three Faces of Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James S.

    1977-01-01

    Social psychology's current crisis largely reflects the division of the field into three increasingly isolated domains: psychological social psychology, symbolic interactionism, and psychological sociology. Brief critical discussion of these facets indicates that the strengths of each complement the weaknesses in the others, highlighting a need…

  19. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  20. Regional Sociological Research Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Morev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS in conducting sociological research on the territory of the Vologda Oblast and the Northwestern Federal District. It describes the historical aspects of formation of the system for public opinion monitoring and examines its theoretical and methodological foundations. The author of the article analyzes the structure of monitoring indicators and provides a brief interpretation of research findings that reflect social wellbeing and social perception trends. In addition, the paper analyzes people’s attitude toward the activities of federal and regional authorities, trends in social well-being, consumer sentiment and also the complex indicator – the index of public sentiment in the region – developed by ISEDT RAS researchers. The results of sociological studies carried out at ISEDT RAS correlate with the dynamics of the all-Russian public opinion polls conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM, Levada-Center, etc. They indicate that Russian society gradually adapts to new conditions of life after the collapse of the USSR. Besides, opinion polls show the most important features of the post-Soviet Russian history at its present stage; they are associated with the intensification of international political relations, the consequences of the “Crimean spring” and the new challenges Russia’s economy is facing now. The article concludes that as global community, of which Russian society is part, is evolving, sociological knowledge begins to play an increasingly important role in administration and national security; this is associated with the greater importance attached to intangible development factors. Therefore, a necessary prerequisite for administration effectiveness in all its stages is to implement the results of sociological research on social

  1. In the Shadow of Hegel: Toward a Methodology Appropriate to the Sociological Consciousness of Philosophic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In this theoretical essay, my primary task is to develop a methodology for engaging the conceptual normativity, or common sense ideas, at work in the popular discursive practices of modern society. To do so, I will draw upon theories associated with continental philosophy, Deweyan pragmatism, and sociological theory that trace their lineages to…

  2. In the Shadow of Hegel: Toward a Methodology Appropriate to the Sociological Consciousness of Philosophic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In this theoretical essay, my primary task is to develop a methodology for engaging the conceptual normativity, or common sense ideas, at work in the popular discursive practices of modern society. To do so, I will draw upon theories associated with continental philosophy, Deweyan pragmatism, and sociological theory that trace their lineages to…

  3. Schools That Make a Difference: A Sociological Perspective on Effective Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudford, Christine; Baker, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Argues for a sociological analysis of effective schools as opposed to the positivist paradigm. Maintains that the practice of schooling cannot be separated from the broader social, cultural, and political aspects of the local community. Profiles four high schools and their educational philosophies. (MJP)

  4. Pædagogisk sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    Denne bog giver overblik over teorier og begreber inden for pædagogisk sociologi. Bogen gør dig i stand til at overskue forskelle og ligheder mellem forskellige teorier, der behandler samspil og relationer i pædagogisk praksis, det indhold, som pædagogikken arbejder med og de samfundsstrukturer......, som påvirker den pædagogiske praksis. Forfatteren behandler i alt fem positioner, der i dag kan siges at tegne den pædagogiske sociologi i Danmark: • Interaktionens mikrostrukturer med fokus på undervisningens miljø. • Social epistemologi med fokus på læreprocessens elementer. • Samfundets...

  5. Piketty's challenge for sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Mike

    2014-12-01

    This paper argues that Piketty's book should not simply be seen as that of an economist, but that it contains significant resources for sociologists to draw upon. These are firstly, this approach to social science and his use of visualizations which chime closely with recent claims about the power of description. Secondly I consider his conceptualization of time and history - which in rebutting epochal arguments about the speed of contemporary change allows for a much better appreciation of the 'long durée'; and finally his conceptualization of social classes and privilege through his elaboration of a sociology of accumulation and inheritance. In all these ways, Piketty's work assists in developing an account of elites and wealth which should be highly productive for future sociology.

  6. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  7. But Is It Sociology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica J. Casper

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores issues of trandisciplinarity through an autobiographical lens. Specifically, the essay attends to tensions between the discipline of sociology and interdisciplinary science, knowledge, and technology studies, with an emphasis on differing epistemic cultures in each. The author suggests the promise of border-crossings outweighs the challenges, and advocates for a reflexive practice that names our intellectual and political commitments. Eschewing traditional notions of objectivity, the author calls for transdisciplinary and public engagement.

  8. Sociology of Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    Sociology of Discourse takes the perspective that collective actors like social movements are capable of creating social change from below by creating new institutions through alternative discourses. Institutionalization becomes a process of moving away from existing institutions towards creating...... points and concepts. Through the example of the Platform for People Affected by Mortgages, the book concludes by analyzing how social change from below is possible....

  9. [Merton and medical sociology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2007-01-01

    The article is about the main contributions of the North-American sociologist Robert King Merton (1910-2003), particularly those related to the field of medical sociology. Merton was first to conduct research on medical education, and the working team he formed was fundamental for the introduction of social thought in the medicine field (Patrícia Kendall, Renée Fox, Samuel Bloom and others). Of particular importance are Merton's vocation for sociology and the unique trajectory of his research, which was marked by studies on subjects that were not common in the early XX century, particularly the relationships between science, technology, and society. We provide the most important theoretical ad conceptual contribution brought by the author, as well as the expressions he created and which were soon adopted by researchers, such as 'focused interview', 'Matthew effects, 'Pygmalion effect', 'nonplanned consequences of social actions', 'manifest function', and 'latent function'. The highlight in the field of medical sociology is his work on the socialization process of the student of medicine.

  10. Formalization in Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of formalization in philosophy are summarized. It is concluded that formalized philosophy is an endangered speciality that needs to be revitalized and to increase its interactions with non-formalized philosophy. The enigmatic style that is common in philosophical logic must give way to explicit discussions of the problematic relationship between formal models and the philosophical concepts and issues that motivated their development.

  11. Scientific Shores for Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Konickis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A thesis that philosophy is not (and even cannot and has not to be science is posed and discussed. The main argument is that science investigates an object and forms a knowledge of it, while philosophy ponders over an object or the world on the whole but does not investigate anything. Contrast between science and philosophy becomes more and more distinct under conditions of postmodernism because of serious doubts as to the status of science. 

  12. 2004 American Sociological Association Presidential address: for public sociology*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burawoy, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Responding to the growing gap between the sociological ethos and the world we study, the challenge of public sociology is to engage multiple publics in multiple ways. These public sociologies should not be left out in the cold, but brought into the framework of our discipline. In this way we make public sociology a visible and legitimate enterprise, and, thereby, invigorate the discipline as a whole. Accordingly, if we map out the division of sociological labor, we discover antagonistic interdependence among four types of knowledge: professional, critical, policy, and public. In the best of all worlds the flourishing of each type of sociology is a condition for the flourishing of all, but they can just as easily assume pathological forms or become victims of exclusion and subordination. This field of power beckons us to explore the relations among the four types of sociology as they vary historically and nationally, and as they provide the template for divergent individual careers. Finally, comparing disciplines points to the umbilical chord that connects sociology to the world of publics, underlining sociology's particular investment in the defense of civil society, itself beleaguered by the encroachment of markets and states.

  13. Psychology and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsterburg, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    This essay considers the discipline of psychology as distinct from history, defining it as a science within philosophy dedicated to the study of the causal structure of the human mind. Although Hugo Munsterburg was considered an important figure in applied psychology, this essay represents an earlier epistemology. (SLD)

  14. John White on Philosophy of Education and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    John White offers a provocative characterization of philosophy of education. In this brief reaction, I evaluate the characterization and urge the maintenance of a strong connection between philosophy of education and philosophy.

  15. John White on Philosophy of Education and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    John White offers a provocative characterization of philosophy of education. In this brief reaction, I evaluate the characterization and urge the maintenance of a strong connection between philosophy of education and philosophy.

  16. RESULTS OF 2011 STATE DUMA ELECTIONS: SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Fedotova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sociological forecasting of political processes arose as a powerful industry. Nevertheless, results of the polls conducted by the major agencies diverged significantly with the voting in 2011 State Duma elections. The article analyses major complications in forecasting results of elections using sociological data, including psychological factors, role of mass media and administrative resource. The author identifies strategies of the opposition, as well as proves predominant importance of Vladimir Putin for the electoral success of the ruling party on the basis of the polls.

  17. Economic sociology: today and tomorrow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard Swedberg

    2004-01-01

    This article ponders over the contemporary rebirth of economic sociology, attempting to distinguish its American and European traits, emphasizing the works and conceptual models of its respective pioneers...

  18. Counseling and Transcendental Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donceel, Joseph

    1971-01-01

    An acquaintance with the different philosophies of human nature is an invaluable asset for counseling. The author presents a modern Christian concept of man with emphasis on contributions of Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas and elements from modern philosophy. Its two main concerns are man's spirit and man's knowledge and will. (Author/CG)

  19. Some Heterodox Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Analytic philosophy has been the most influential philosophical movement in 20th century philosophy. It has surely contributed like no other movement to the elucidation and demarcation of philosophical problems. Nonetheless, the empiricist and sometimes even nominalist convictions of orthodox analytic philosophers have served them to inadequately render even philosophers they consider their own and to propound very questionable conceptions.

  20. Philosophy with Guts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Western philosophy, from Plato on, has had the tendency to separate feeling and thought, affect and cognition. This article argues that a strong philosophy (metaphorically, with "guts") utilizes both in its work. In fact, a "complete act of thought" also will include action. Feeling motivates thought, which formulates ideas,…

  1. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  2. Philosophy of Data: Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furner, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Philosophy of data should not be dismissed as a cluster of scholastic puzzles whose solutions are of limited practical value. On the contrary, philosophy of data should be recognized as constituting the core of a field of data studies that is informed by, but far from equivalent to, statistics, computer science, and library and information studies.

  3. ADMINISTRATION, TEACHING AND RESEARCH PHILOSOPHIES

    OpenAIRE

    FLORENTIN SMARANDACHE

    2015-01-01

    A simple, direct, fast point of view regarding my perception of Administration Philosophy, Teaching Philosophy, Research Philosophy (including My Own Research), and What I Can Bring to This Institution

  4. Toward Publicly Responsive Sociology Curricula: The Role of Introductory Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Introductory sociology casts a wide net with regard to its audience and plays an important role in capturing the public eye as well as helping students to make more informed choices in their lives and communities. I ask six questions that help us as sociologists to think about how introductory sociology can better serve our discipline, our…

  5. Toward Publicly Responsive Sociology Curricula: The Role of Introductory Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Introductory sociology casts a wide net with regard to its audience and plays an important role in capturing the public eye as well as helping students to make more informed choices in their lives and communities. I ask six questions that help us as sociologists to think about how introductory sociology can better serve our discipline, our…

  6. The rise of a science in the early twentieth century: the forgotten voice of Gualtiero Sarfatti and the first "social psychology" volumes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensales, Gilda; Dal Secco, Alessandra

    2014-02-01

    Establishing social psychology as a distinct field of study has been the object of heated debate over the first decades of the 20th century. Entrenched in different theoretical traditions, such as philosophy, sociology, psychology, and criminology, the development of the conceptual boundaries of social psychology as an autonomous science was the result of a historic effort. Resulting from a negotiation process between competing stances, some voices relevant to the identity construction of social psychology have been lost over time. Within the framework of a "polycentric" historical perspective valorizing local histories, the present study aims to scrutinize those early voices, which were later marginalized. To this scope, we conducted a narrative analysis on the first volumes explicitly naming social psychology in their titles and identified the main themes, conceptual frameworks, and scientific advancements. The analysis illustrates the work of Gualtiero Sarfatti and articulates his forgotten contribution to drawing social psychology as a distinct discipline, built on the scientific method and positioned within the psychological sociocentric tradition. Our analysis reveals the leading role of Sarfatti in the disciplinary foundation of social psychology as a psychological science based on the concept of social psyche. Yet despite the fact his contribution was influential in the scholarly community of his time, our work highlights how his voice vanished from the subsequent disciplinary developments to date, and suggests some explanations behind this neglect.

  7. Sociology of Modern Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Corredoira, M.

    2009-08-01

    Certain results of observational cosmology cast critical doubt on the foundations of standard cosmology but leave most cosmologists untroubled. Alternative cosmological models that differ from the Big Bang have been published and defended by heterodox scientists; however, most cosmologists do not heed these. This may be because standard theory is correct and all other ideas and criticisms are incorrect, but it is also to a great extent due to sociological phenomena such as the ``snowball effect'' or ``groupthink''. We might wonder whether cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other branches of physics or just a dominant ideology.

  8. In Praise of Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Raewyn

    2017-08-01

    This reflection on the relevance of sociology starts with the different forms of social knowledge, and some autobiographical reflection on my engagement with the discipline. A research-based social science is made urgent by the prevalence of distortion and pseudoscience in the public realm. However, the research-based knowledge formation is embedded in a global economy of knowledge that centers on a privileged group of institutions and produces major imbalances on a world scale. Sociological data collection has important uses in policy and public discussion. But data need to be embedded in a larger project of understanding the world; this is what gives excitement to the work. Sociology has a potential future of marginality or triviality in the neoliberal economy and its university system. There are better trajectories into the future-but they have to be fought for. Cette réflexion sur l'utilité de la sociologie commence avec les différentes formes de savoir social, ainsi que quelques réflexions biographiques sur mon engagement avec la discipline. Le besoin d'une science sociale orientée vers la recherche est devenue nécessaire suite à la prédominance de la distorsion et de la pseudoscience dans la sphère publique. Par contre, ce savoir centré sur la recherche est lié à une économie globale de la connaissance qui est proche d'un groupe privilégié d'institutions et produit des déséquilibres majeurs au niveau mondial. La collecte de données sociologiques a une grande utilité en politique et dans les discussions publiques. Mais ces données doivent être liées à un projet plus large de compréhension du monde ; c'est ce qui rend ce travail excitant. La sociologie risque la marginalisation ou la trivialité dans une économie néo-libérale et son système universitaire. Il existe de meilleures trajectoires pour l'avenir - mais elles doivent être défendues. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  9. 'Hypotheses, everywhere only hypotheses!': on some contexts of Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feest, Uljana

    2007-03-01

    In 1894, Wilhelm Dilthey published an article in which he formulated a critique of what he called 'explanatory psychology', contrasting it with his own conception of 'descriptive psychology'. Dilthey's descriptive psychology, in turn, was to provide the basis for Dilthey's specific philosophy of the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften). In this paper, I contextualize Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology. I show that while this critique comes across as very broad and sweeping, he in fact had specific opponents in mind, namely, scholars who, like him, attempted to theorize about the relationship between the individual and society, between psychology and the other human sciences. Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology is the flipside of his critique of sociology, which he had already formulated. He challenged both because he felt that they gave the wrong kind of answer to the task of overcoming metaphysics within the human sciences. In particular, I identify the founders of Völkerpsychologie, Moritz Lazarus and Heymann Steinthal, and (more importantly) their student, Georg Simmel, as Dilthey's targets. I provide textual and historical evidence for this thesis.

  10. Psychology, philosophy, theology, epistemology: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Drobin

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the implication of the researcher's own world-view for his research; the relationship between theory and empiri. General questions concerning the formation of knowledge, its epistemological propositions and social functions, so much dis-cussed in the humanities and social sciences, have had little impact upon the history of religion, where the theoretical debate seems to remain more specific, more bound to the discipline. In the polarization between "positivists" vindicating the notion that theories are abstracted from "reality" and "relativists" maintaining that "reality" is selected and formed according to theories, most historians of religion belong in practice to the first camp, and many belong so exclusively that they do not even acknowledge the problem itself. The historian of religion is not concerned with metaphysics, but with faith in its human and cultural manifestations. The researcher' own atheistic or religious commitment has no bearing on the result of the investigation, nota bene provided that he adheres to strictly empirical principles. Is this credo not only a necessary ideal, but also a true description of research? Is an uncomplicated belief in its possible realisation a strength or a hindrance in the pursuit of a relative objectivity that might be attainable outside the predictions of natural sciences? Does the historian of religion have no metaphysical involvement in the material under investigation? Is it without interest whether he is a materialist or a devout religious person, whether he is a believer or non-believer in the physical reality of the gods and spirits he describes, and in the actual efficacy of the sacrifices and other rituals in which he partakes? Statements about human and social reality are mostly true or false from a certain point of view. Objectivity in a deeper sense must be multi-dimensional and complex. Both the object beheld and the beholder must be taken into consideration. Too strong a belief in objectivity, actual or pretended, might produce subjectivity of either a naive or a hypocritical kind.

  11. Psychology and Philosophy Meet in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamal, P. A.; Croy, Marvin

    1985-01-01

    A college course devoted to radical behaviorism and cognitivism as competing viewpoints is outlined. The course was team taught by a psychologist and a philosopher. Benefits and potential problems are discussed. (Author/RM)

  12. Psychology and Philosophy Meet in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamal, P. A.; Croy, Marvin

    1985-01-01

    A college course devoted to radical behaviorism and cognitivism as competing viewpoints is outlined. The course was team taught by a psychologist and a philosopher. Benefits and potential problems are discussed. (Author/RM)

  13. Developments in Scandinavian and American medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riska, Elianne

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the similarities and differences in Scandinavian and American medical sociology. First, the issue of medicalization has not been as important in Scandinavian as it has been in American medical sociology. Second, women's health has been less explored in Scandinavian than in American medical sociology. Third, research on social inequalities and health has been a major focus in Scandinavian medical sociology since the 1990s. Fourth, cultural sociology and the poststructuralist perspective have been part of mainstream theory building in European sociology and also European and Scandinavian medical sociology during the past decade, while American medical sociology has been characterized by social-role theory and a quantitative approach.

  14. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  15. Moral experience in Edith Stein's philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Janik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression “moral experience”, along with the concomitant notion of experience itself, seems to have been understood in divergent ways. Taking as a background three views currently operative in our culture - emotivism, the ethics of duty, and the notion of an ethics “beyond good and evil” - a conception of ethical experience will be presented based on the findings of Edith Stein as elaborated in her work "Philosophy of Psychology and the Humanities".

  16. The philosophy of chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Joachim

    2003-03-01

    Although chemistry is by far the largest scientific discipline according to any quantitative measure, it had, until recently, been virtually ignored by professional philosophers of science. They left both a vacuum and a one-sided picture of science tailored to physics. Since the early 1990s, the situation has changed drastically, such that philosophy of chemistry is now one of the most flourishing fields in the philosophy of science, like the philosophy of biology that emerged in the 1970s. This article narrates the development and provides a survey of the main topics and trends.

  17. Opening Philosophy to the World: Derrida and Education in Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burik, Steven

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Steven Burik discusses Jacques Derrida's position with regard to the place of education in philosophy within the university system, and then relates these thoughts to comparative philosophy. Philosophers find themselves constantly having to defend philosophy and the importance of teaching philosophy against pressure from the powers…

  18. Philosophy of Education as Philosophy: A Metaphilosophical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, George

    2007-01-01

    What is the philosophical status of the philosophy of education? Is it philosophy, no different from the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mind? Much depends on where these latter derive their philosophical bona fides from. There are two ways of viewing the matter. On one account, they are subdivisions of the veritable philosophy…

  19. A sociological dilemma: Race, segregation and US sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambra, Gurminder K

    2014-07-01

    US sociology has been historically segregated in that, at least until the 1960s, there were two distinct institutionally organized traditions of sociological thought - one black and one white. For the most part, however, dominant historiographies have been silent on that segregation and, at best, reproduce it when addressing the US sociological tradition. This is evident in the rarity with which scholars such as WEB Du Bois, E Franklin Frazier, Oliver Cromwell Cox, or other 'African American Pioneers of Sociology', as Saint-Arnaud calls them, are presented as core sociological voices within histories of the discipline. This article addresses the absence of African American sociologists from the US sociological canon and, further, discusses the implications of this absence for our understanding of core sociological concepts. With regard to the latter, the article focuses in particular on the debates around equality and emancipation and discusses the ways in which our understanding of these concepts could be extended by taking into account the work of African American sociologists and their different interpretations of core themes.

  20. From Environmental Sociologies to Environmental Sociology? A Comparison of U.S. and European Environmental Sociology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. environmental sociology has gone through a very different development path compared with its European counterpart. U.S. environmental sociology was dominant in establishing the field and setting the terms for the development and identity of this subdiscipline. Whereas U.S. environmental sociolo

  1. Do Underachievers Need Sociology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aladin El-Mafaalani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a promising model for using sociological learning to support the education of young people who are socially disadvantaged or display behavioral problems. A great many of these students are trapped in patterns of negative behavior. The goal of the model is to enable these young people to think explicitly about the role they are playing and to encourage them to strike out in a new direction. To this end, Erving Goffman’s sociological insights are used to stage a theatrical performance about school. This approach is informed by the microsociological tradition of proceeding from the concrete to the abstract in order to facilitate inductive learning and self-reflection. Goffman’s theory of social action provides the social-theoretical background for the theatrical action, while also serving as a medium of contrast for the analysis of the individual, interaction, and institution in subsequent reflections about school. In this way, sociological theory not only serves as a theoretical foundation for the lesson, but is also explicitly its subject.Der Aufsatz zeigt eine erfolgversprechende Möglichkeit auf, soziologisches Lernen als Beitrag zur Förderung sozial benachteiligter und verhaltensauffälliger Jugendlicher in der Schule zu implementieren. Die meisten dieser Schüler sind in ihren Handlungsmustern gefangen. Ziel ist es, diesen Jugendlichen die Möglichkeit zu eröffnen, bewusst über ihre Rolle nachzudenken und einen anderen Weg einzuschlagen. Hierfür werden Erkenntnisse aus Erving Goffman‘s Soziologie für ein schulisches Schauspiel genutzt, um ganz im Sinne der mikrosoziologischen Tradition vom Konkreten auf das Abstrakte zu schließen und damit induktives Lernen sowie Selbstreflexion zu ermöglichen. Goffman‘s Theorie sozialen Handelns bildet für das szenische Spiel zunächst das sozialtheoretische Hintergrundrauschen, um schließlich in der Reflexion der sozialen Situation in der Schule als Kontrastmittel f

  2. Philosophy at Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Newsletter of the Philosophy Faculty. Articles by: Tim Crane, 'From the Chair' ; Huw Price, "Erroneously supposed to do no harm"; Arthur Gibson, 'The Wittgenstein-Skinner Archive; Emily Thomas, 'Elizabeth Anscombe'.

  3. Wisdom Texts and Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Preus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The last essay of this issue concerns to a more "technical" subject: in many ancient cultures, literary monuments are mainly "wisdom literature". In these early works. Philosophy and Literature are more closely related than in many contemporary approaches. The author here tries to sketch the relationships between the ancient wisdom literatures of Egipt, Greece and Israel, and to show how this literary genre precedes "philosophy".

  4. Philosophy and Life

    OpenAIRE

    Weiberg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    To Ludwig Wittgenstein philosophy and life are inextricably linked, and ethical demands are made on both: the requirement for truthfulness in thought and action alike. According to Wittgenstein, truthfulness is the only means to prevent thought and life from becoming merely some artful trick, a Kunststück. To get an idea of Wittgenstein’s understanding of truthfulness, one first needs to go into various aspects of his later philosophy. Therefore, in the first part of this paper I will examine...

  5. Twentieth Century Moral Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, Rowland

    2008-01-01

    Despite being somewhat long in the tooth at the time, Aristotle, Hume and Kant were still dominating twentieth century moral philosophy. Much of the progress made in that century came from a detailed working through of each of their approaches by the expanding and increasingly professionalized corps of academic philosophers. And this progress can be measured not just by the quality and sophistication of moral philosophy at the end of that century, but also by the narrowing of s...

  6. Annual Review of Sociology. Volume 9, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ralph H., Ed.; Short, James F., Jr., Ed.

    Twenty-six essays describing current research in sociology are included in this publication. The essays fall into 10 categories: differentiation and stratification; political sociology; social processes; institutions; individual and society; formal organizations; urban sociology; theory and methods; sociology of world regions; and historical…

  7. A Life with the Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a life with the sociology of education. He begins by describing the "old" and "new" sociologies of education. Then, he discusses the sociology of education policy and the relevance of Basil Bernstein, who remained the dominant presence within the sociology of education in the UK until his…

  8. Reflections on the Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovskii, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author offers reflections on the sociology of education, beginning with a discussion on the trajectory of the rise of the sociology of education in Russia. The author examines how the sociology of education in Russia looks compared to the rest of the world. The sociological study of education in Russia and the Soviet Union has…

  9. A Life with the Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a life with the sociology of education. He begins by describing the "old" and "new" sociologies of education. Then, he discusses the sociology of education policy and the relevance of Basil Bernstein, who remained the dominant presence within the sociology of education in the UK until his…

  10. A Life with the Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a life with the sociology of education. He begins by describing the "old" and "new" sociologies of education. Then, he discusses the sociology of education policy and the relevance of Basil Bernstein, who remained the dominant presence within the sociology of education in the UK until his death in 2000 and…

  11. Facts, theories and ideologies: Viola Klein and Sociology of Scientific Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Pérez Sedeño

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on history, philosophy and sociology of science have demonstrated that science is not autonomous and value-neutral and its selfless search of truth is an ideal theoretical myth far from the real practice of science, which is an aggregate of social practices. Viola Klein was a pioneer in studying science using the same instruments and categories utilized in any other social practice. The aim of this work is to highlight her contributions to Sociology of Scientific Knowledge at a moment when this discipline was, at the most, incipient.

  12. A sociological dilemma: Race, segregation and US sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    US sociology has been historically segregated in that, at least until the 1960s, there were two distinct institutionally organized traditions of sociological thought – one black and one white. For the most part, however, dominant historiographies have been silent on that segregation and, at best, reproduce it when addressing the US sociological tradition. This is evident in the rarity with which scholars such as WEB Du Bois, E Franklin Frazier, Oliver Cromwell Cox, or other ‘African American Pioneers of Sociology’, as Saint-Arnaud calls them, are presented as core sociological voices within histories of the discipline. This article addresses the absence of African American sociologists from the US sociological canon and, further, discusses the implications of this absence for our understanding of core sociological concepts. With regard to the latter, the article focuses in particular on the debates around equality and emancipation and discusses the ways in which our understanding of these concepts could be extended by taking into account the work of African American sociologists and their different interpretations of core themes. PMID:25418995

  13. Regarding Bioethics: A Sociology of Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    C. Wright Mills said that when done well, sociology illuminates the intersection of biography and history. This essay examines how the author's vocational choices and career path were shaped by historical circumstance, leading him to a degree in sociology and to participation in the odd and interesting interdiscipline of bioethics. Drawing on a distinction between sociology in bioethics and sociology of bioethics, the essay considers the value of sociology to the bioethical project.

  14. The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Poder, Poul

    Zygmunt Bauman is one of the most inspirational and controversial thinkers on the scene of contemporary sociology. For several decades he has provided compelling analyses and diagnoses of a vast variety of aspects of modern and liquid modern living. His work is increasingly popularized, appraised...... and adopted. However, there can be reasons to discuss and take a critical stance towards his work while also considering the theoretical significance of his contribution to sociology. To do this is the aim of this book. The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman introduces and critically appraises some of the most...... significant as well as some of the lesser known and overlooked contributions of Zygmunt Bauman to contemporary sociology - ethics, freedom, utopia, genocide, metaphors, ambivalence, politics, strangers, globalization, power and consumerism. In separate chapters Bauman inspired scholars from the United Kingdom...

  15. Assessing the sociology of sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2015-01-01

    On the 50th anniversary of the ISSA and IRSS, a leading figure in the sociology of sport in Denmark, Gertrud Pfister, considers an important line of research on women and football (soccer). The analysis uses a diverse set of theoretical lenses to examine women’s participation and reception...... for the sociology of sport will be in stimulating understandings of women and football that can lead to policy change and more equitable allocation of resources to support and encourage participation....

  16. Philosophy as Estrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    I never became interested in philosophy primordially or originally. There is no source event or transformation that I can recall as being the defining moment. Stating ‘It began here!’ would be misleading… I am not even certain that I originally attained an interest, or even that I still am...... interested in philosophy as a privileged object of investigation and investment ‐ an aim in itself. There are, however, moments and situations in my life where an interest in philosophy has appeared or is necessarily forced upon me; these are times when philosophy appears as a seemingly unavoidable...... and essential questioning of fundamentals,– as a ‘basic’ need. This being said, it can be annoying as well as cumbersome. Philosophy as a ‘basic’ need makes itself felt as an estrangement that has always already taken place. It takes the form of a “Schritt zurück” in which one pulls away from, problematizes...

  17. USSR Report, Sociological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Later the need to supplement this work with the psycho- logical and sexological advising of couples and measures on the preparation of young people for...marriage (infer- tility, aggravated heredity, sexual disorders); psychological and sexological edu- cation, first of all of young people, the

  18. Blushing and the philosophy of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The introduction, an imaginary dialogue between a philosopher and a scientist, is followed by a brief discussion of the interactions between science, philosophy, and religion. Next comes an analysis of the three most popular philosophies of mind: classical mind-body dualism, computerism, and psychoneural monism. It is argued that the latter, held by medical psychologists since Hippocrates, and formulated explicitly by Cajal and Hebb, is the philosophy of mind that underlies contemporary cognitive and affective neuroscience. The standard objections to psychoneural monism (or materialism) are examined. Evolutionary psychology, though promissory, is judged to be more fancy than fact at its present stage. The conclusion is that the philosophy of mind is still in a poor shape, but that it can advance if it learns more from the science of mind. It would also help if scientific psychologists were to replace such tacitly dualistic expressions as "organ N instantiates (or subserves) mental function M" with "organ N performs mental function M", just as we say "the legs walk" instead of "walking is subserved by legs," and "the lungs breathe" instead of "the lungs instantiate breathing."

  19. Empirical Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2015-01-01

    knowledge takes place through the integration of the empirical or historical research into the philosophical studies, as Chang, Nersessian, Thagard and Schickore argue in their work. Building upon their contributions we will develop a blueprint for an Empirical Philosophy of Science that draws upon......Empirical insights are proven fruitful for the advancement of Philosophy of Science, but the integration of philosophical concepts and empirical data poses considerable methodological challenges. Debates in Integrated History and Philosophy of Science suggest that the advancement of philosophical...... qualitative methods from the social sciences in order to advance our philosophical understanding of science in practice. We will regard the relationship between philosophical conceptualization and empirical data as an iterative dialogue between theory and data, which is guided by a particular ‘feeling with...

  20. Philosophy of Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanæs, Dag

    2011-01-01

    This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker.......This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker....

  1. Philosophy and its History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. Gutiérrez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Socratic irony already stated that philosophy did not progress because it always devoted itself to the same matters; philosophical knowledge, besieged by the question of legitimacy, shows its regenerative capacity by always going back to its historical-conceptual foundations. Hence, whoever tried to define the essence of philosophy leaving history aside will be in danger of narrow dogmatism. In its factical situation philosophical reflection deals with issues referred to previous knowledge and opinions which determine the limits to the rationality claims of its knowledge. Philosophical truth is temporal, like any other human truth.

  2. Pragmatism and Existential Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lipps

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hans Lipps compares pragmatism (William James and John Dewey existentialism (Friedrich Nietzsche, Soren Kierkegaard, and Martin Heidegger in this 1936 article translated from French.  He claims that they aim at the same goals, e.g., a return to lived experience and a rejection of the Cartesian legacy in philosophy.  While summarizing the commonalities of each, he engages in a polemic against philosophy then that remains relevant now into the next century.

  3. The Revolutions in English Philosophy and Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article was first published in 1982 in "Educational Analysis" (4, 75-91) and republished in 1998 (Hirst, P. H., & White, P. (Eds.), "Philosophy of education: Major themes in the analytic tradition," Vol. 1, "Philosophy and education, Part 1," pp. 61-78. London: Routledge). I was then a lecturer in philosophy of education at Sheffield…

  4. A Sociological Critique of 'Grand Narratives' in the History of Hospice and Palliative Care

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a sociological history and critique of hospice and palliative care: their goals, narratives, and social, clinical and ethical practices. Hospice developed in Britain as a result of and challenge to interventionist biomedicine within hospitals where dying came to be viewed as medical failure. From the mid twentieth century hospice was promoted as a 'philosophy of care' that had at its locus a concept of 'whole' person family care for people who are dying. For the ...

  5. The philosophy of space and time

    CERN Document Server

    Reichenbach, Hans

    1958-01-01

    With unusual depth and clarity, the author covers the problem of the foundations of geometry, the theory of time, the theory and consequences of Einstein's relativity including: relations between theory and observations, coordinate definitions, relations between topological and metrical properties of space, the psychological problem of the possibility of a visual intuition of non-Euclidean structures, and many other important topics in modern science and philosophy. While some of the book utilizes mathematics of a somewhat advanced nature, the exposition is so careful and complete that most people familiar with the philosophy of science or some intermediate mathematics will understand the majority of the ideas and problems discussed. Partial contents: I. The Problem of Physical Geometry. Universal and Differential Forces. Visualization of Geometries. Spaces with non-Euclidean Topological Properties. Geometry as a Theory of Relations. II. The Difference between Space and Time. Simultaneity. Time Order. Unreal ...

  6. Latin american sociology's contribution to sociological imagination: analysis, criticism, and social commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Tavares-dos-Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the role played by sociology in the analysis of the transformation processes in the Latin American societies, in following the construction process of both State and Nation, and in questioning the social issues in Latin America. Six periods of sociology in Latin America and in the Caribbean Islands are analyzed: (i sociology's intellectual inheritance; (ii the authoritative-teaching sociology; (iii the "scientific sociology" period and the configuration of the "critical sociology"; (iv the institutional crisis, consolidation of the "critical sociology", and the diversification of sociology; (v the sociology of authoritarianism, of democracy, and of exclusion; and (vi the institutional consolidation and the worldization of sociology in Latin America (from the year 2000 on. It can be said that the distinctive features of the sociological knowledge in the continent have been: internationalism, hybridism, critical approach to the processes and conflicts in the Latin American societies, and social commitment on the part of the sociologist.

  7. CONTEMPORARY AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY: EMERGENT ISSUES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    undertaking, all philosophies remain context-dependent and culture- oriented. ..... of Africa, conceived as a resultant effect of Eurocentrism in both philosophy and science. ..... undue advantage of the historical importance of ancient Egypt and.

  8. Collective Consciousness and Idealist Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Randrup, Dr. Axel

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Descriptions of publications on collective consciousness, collective conscious experience, and idealist philosophy by Axel Randrup. The recognition of collective consciousness overcomes the problem of solipsism, which has been seen as an argument against idealist philosophy.

  9. Kierkegaard's Philosophy: Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopson, Lorraine; Gade, Eldon

    1981-01-01

    Discusses how the philosophy of Soren Kierkegaard can provide useful guidelines for the study of the counseling process. Compares Kierkegaard's philosophy with selected contributions of Freud, Skinner, Rogers, and May and with four common themes of counseling and psychotherapy. (Author)

  10. Investigating Talent Management Philosophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbancova Hana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study, motivated by the recognition that organizational performance and success always hinges on employee competencies and management’s skill in utilizing their potentials, focuses on one of the key factors in organizational efficiency: the possibilities of development of talented employees within Czech organizations. The data was collected via two quantitative studies. The first study involved 100 organizations from every economic sector with a main focus on the topic from the organization’s perspective. The second study explored the approach from employees’ perspective. Our analysis shows that different talent management philosophies are used in practice. Almost half of the sample use inclusive and stable philosophy, 11% inclusive and developable philosophy and almost 10% exclusive and developable philosophy. Employees are mostly developed in generally recommended areas without any consideration for the specific individual’s characteristics or related opportunities. It is a stable approach. Limitations of this study may be found in the focus on analysis outcomes - on practitioners in particular. The present findings provide a basis for future hypotheses and research in this area.

  11. Philosophy and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyum, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore different ways of picturing language learning in philosophy, all of them inspired by Wittgenstein and all of them concerned about scepticism of meaning. I start by outlining the two pictures of children and language learning that emerge from Kripke's famous reading of Wittgenstein. Next, I explore how social-pragmatic…

  12. Technology and Teaching Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges faced when integrating new technologies into the classroom. Viewing the experiences of teaching a first year learning community through the lens of the principles of the Reflective Teaching Portfolio, the author looks to answer the question: "How should Technology relate to our Teaching Philosophy?" While a…

  13. My Teaching Learning Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjani, Neelam Saleem

    2014-01-01

    The heart of teaching learning philosophy is the concept of nurturing students and teaching them in a way that creates passion and enthusiasm in them for a lifelong learning. According to Duke (1990) education is a practice of artful action where teaching learning process is considered as design and knowledge is considered as colours. Teaching…

  14. Technology and Teaching Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges faced when integrating new technologies into the classroom. Viewing the experiences of teaching a first year learning community through the lens of the principles of the Reflective Teaching Portfolio, the author looks to answer the question: "How should Technology relate to our Teaching Philosophy?"…

  15. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  16. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology.

  17. Operations and maintenance philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    1999-10-28

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Philosophy document is intended to establish a future O&M vision, with an increased focus on minimizing worker exposure, ensuring uninterrupted retrieval operations, and minimizing operation life-cycle cost. It is intended that this document would incorporate O&M lessons learned into on-going and future project upgrades.

  18. Philosophy of Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanæs, Dag

    2011-01-01

    This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker....

  19. Performance and Philosophy Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasoula Kallenou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Was Plato the first philosophical dramatist to explore philosophical ideas through dramatic content, introducing dramatic structures currently in line with contemporary theatre? If Plato was an influential figure for philosophers as well as theatre-makers, it can arguably be said that he was a silent pioneer in creating the newly defined discipline of Performance Philosophy. There is an obvious polarity between performance and philosophy since both disciplines are on the quest of exploring and presenting what life is. At least this can be said of ancient Greek and Roman philosophy. Conceived as “biou techne” the art of living, Greek and Roman philosophers, especially the Epicureans, Stoics and Skeptics, saw philosophy as a way of conceiving what a good life is (a life worth living and pursuing its practical realization for the attainment of eudemonia. Plato was arguably the first significant philosopher to explore philosophical ideas through dramatic content, introducing dramatic structures currently in line with contemporary theatre views. As such, he can be seen as an influential figure for theatre makers as well as for philosophers. Plato’s artistic intention was to uncover the artist that lacked substance and support the knowledgeable creative philosophical mind that besides instant emotional pleasure has to contribute in social development.

  20. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  1. Retooling Peace Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Hersh, Jacques; Petersen-Overton, Kristofer

    2010-01-01

    This book documents recent and historical events in the theoretically-based practice of peace development. Its diverse collection of essays describes different aspects of applied philosophy in peace action, commonly involving the contributors’ continual engagement in the field, while offering...

  2. Towards a sociology of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Stefan; Haas, Steven

    2008-07-01

    We argue for a sociology of health, illness, and disease. Under the influence of Talcott Parsons, the social study of health began as medical sociology and then morphed into sociology of health and illness, focusing largely on the social aspects of health-related topics. Social scientists have been reluctant to tackle disease in its physiological and biological manifestations. The result is an impoverishment of sociological analysis on at least three levels: social scientists have rarely made diseases central to their inquiries; they have been reluctant to include clinical endpoints in their analysis; and they have largely bracketed the normative purpose of health interventions. Consequently, social scientists tend to ignore what often matters most to patients and health care providers, and the social processes social scientists describe remain clinically unanchored. A sociology of disease explores the dialectic between social life and disease; aiming to examine whether and how social life matters for morbidity and mortality and vice versa. Drawing from specific advances in science and technology studies and social epidemiology, we point to ways that sociologists can participate as health researchers.

  3. Philosophy of Design: An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2007-01-01

    The relatively young field of research known as ‘the philosophy of design’ is briefly presented, by asking on behalf of the reader what the philosophy of design is about, and what its use may be.......The relatively young field of research known as ‘the philosophy of design’ is briefly presented, by asking on behalf of the reader what the philosophy of design is about, and what its use may be....

  4. Preliminary report on social psychological factors in long duration space flights: Review and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Group dynamics, sociological and psychological factors are examined. Crew composition and compatibility are studied. Group dynamics analysis includes: leadership; cohesiveness; conformity; and conflict.

  5. PHILOSOPHY IN CONTEMPORARY TIME: RELEVANCE VS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    philosophy has come to be perceived as having enjoyed its relevance in the past and ... students of philosophy do not understand what philosophy students do in their philosophy ..... interpersonal, inter-ethnic and international relationships.

  6. The Philosophy of University Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  7. Music Education Philosophy: Changing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Marie; Goble, J. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the changes in music philosophy over the past half-century. Discusses two main philosophical foundations within music education and reasons for the changes: (1) aesthetic education in the 1950s; and (2) praxial philosophy in the 1990s. Includes resources on music philosophy. (CMK)

  8. The Philosophy of University Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  9. De la sociología de la crisis a la crisis de la sociología. XVIII Conferencias Aranguren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotelo, Ignacio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Criticism and crisis are the key concepts in the emergence of sociology. The concept of crisis that shapes the beginning of sociology, when it fuses with philosophy of history, disappears during the reconstruction of sociology that takes place on the eve of World War One. It was the main purpose of Max Weber, its most outstanding representative, to overcome philosophy of history by removing any metaphysical residue in social science. The crisis of sociology is shown in its failure in attaining an identity that could be broadly shared by the scientific community of sociologists, despite last decades efforts. Sociologists are clearly divided between those who aim at a global vision of society and those who reject general approaches and try to integrate collected facts into middle range theories.

    Crítica y crisis son los dos conceptos claves en el emerger de la sociología. El concepto de crisis que informa a la sociología en su primera etapa, en la que ésta termina por fundirse con la filosofía de la historia, desaparece en la reconstitución de la sociología que se lleva a cabo en vísperas de la Primera Guerra Mundial y que tiene en Max Weber a su representante más conspicuo. El empeño principal de este autor es superar la filosofía de la historia, eliminando cualquier residuo metafísico en la ciencia social. La crisis de la sociología se evidencia en que, pese a los esfuerzos de los últimos decenios, no ha logrado una identidad ampliamente compartida por la comunidad científica de los que se llaman sociólogos, claramente divididos entre los que aspiran a una visión global de la sociedad y los que rechazan planteamientos generales y tratan de integrar los hechos recogidos en teorías de mediano alcance.

  10. The Sociology of Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Allman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at social inclusion from a sociological perspective. It argues that sociology complements biological and other natural order explanations of social stratification. The article interrogates a variety of forms of social integration, including ostracism within 5th century b.c. Greece, 19th-century solidarism, and Goffman’s mid-20th-century work on stigma. It does so to demonstrate how in each of these contexts, social inclusion and exclusion can function as apparati that problematize people on the margins, and by extension, contribute to their governance and control. The article proposes that sociology provides a valuable orientation from which to consider social inclusion because it illuminates how social integration maintains and manages the ways in which people move about and through their socially stratified worlds.

  11. Medical sociology as a vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosk, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    This article extends Weber's discussion of science as a vocation by applying it to medical sociology. Having used qualitative methods for nearly 40 years to interpret problems of meaning as they arise in the context of health care, I describe how ethnography, in particular, and qualitative inquiry, more generally, may be used as a tool for understanding fundamental questions close to the heart but far from the mind of medical sociology. Such questions overlap with major policy questions such as how do we achieve a higher standard for quality of care and assure the safety of patients. Using my own research, I show how this engagement takes the form of showing how simple narratives of policy change fail to address the complexities of the problems that they are designed to remedy. I also attempt to explain how I balance objectivity with a commitment to creating a more equitable framework for health care. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  12. The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Poder, Poul

    Zygmunt Bauman is one of the most inspirational and controversial thinkers on the scene of contemporary sociology. For several decades he has provided compelling analyses and diagnoses of a vast variety of aspects of modern and liquid modern living. His work is increasingly popularized, appraised...... life and intellectual trajectory published here for the first time in English. In this postscript aptly entitled "Pro Domo Sua" ("About Myself"), he describes the pushes and pulls that throughout the years have shaped his thinking......., Germany, Australia and Scandinavia delineate and discuss how Bauman's treatment of these themes challenges conventional wisdom in sociology thereby revising and revitalizing sociological theory. As a special feature, the book concludes with Bauman's intriguing reflections and contemplations on his own...

  13. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  14. Sociology and the Sociology of Higher Education: A Missed Call or a Disconnection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the relationship between sociology and sociology of education in the United Kingdom (UK), with specific reference to the development of a sociology of higher education. Though the article is mainly concerned with the UK, the broader issues raised, about the status and location of the sociology of education in relation to…

  15. The Corpus Status of Literature in Teaching Sociology: Novels as "Sociological Reconstruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Using fiction in teaching sociology involves what Harvey Sacks calls "sociological reconstruction". Numerous comments on teaching sociology provide advice and suggestions on the use of literature and "what counts" as "sociological" literature, including specific titles. This paper goes further: while the use of literature is a routine feature of…

  16. Should We Talk about the Pain? Personalizing Sociology in the Medical Sociology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Alexandra C. H.; Sumerau, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the potential of personalizing sociology curriculum, specifically in Medical Sociology courses, to increase student engagement and sociological awareness. Based on our experiences offering separate Medical Sociology courses at a large public research university and a small private teaching university, respectively, we…

  17. The Corpus Status of Literature in Teaching Sociology: Novels as "Sociological Reconstruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Using fiction in teaching sociology involves what Harvey Sacks calls "sociological reconstruction". Numerous comments on teaching sociology provide advice and suggestions on the use of literature and "what counts" as "sociological" literature, including specific titles. This paper goes further: while the use of literature is a routine feature of…

  18. Should We Talk about the Pain? Personalizing Sociology in the Medical Sociology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Alexandra C. H.; Sumerau, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the potential of personalizing sociology curriculum, specifically in Medical Sociology courses, to increase student engagement and sociological awareness. Based on our experiences offering separate Medical Sociology courses at a large public research university and a small private teaching university, respectively, we…

  19. 中国大陆社会心理学适应性重建初探--基于社会转型期知识社会学的视角%Social Psychology Reconstruction in Mainland China during Social Transition Period---From the Perspective of Sociology of Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曙光

    2016-01-01

    以社会转型为背景,以知识社会学为视角,梳理当前中国大陆社会心理学的两种主要范式———“实验社会心理学”与“本土(化)社会心理学”,揭示其与本土“历史—社会现实”的疏离状况,进而对其本体论的缺陷进行反思与批判,探讨以消解疏离为目标、以“本土(化)社会心理学”为基底、以“社会转型”为基本背景框架与研究内容、以本体论的重构为切入点与着力点的大陆社会心理学重建之路。%From the perspective of sociology of knowledge, This article makes a review of the two main paradigms of social psychology in mainland China during the social transition period, that�s “Experimental Social Psychology” and “Indigenous/Indigenized Social Psychology”. It reveals these two paradigms�alienation from the indigenous “historical⁃social reality”, and reflects on the faults of the ontology of them. Some suggestions of a social psychology reconstruction in mainland China are made: this kind of alienation should be got rid of, the reconstruction should be supported by the “indigenous/indigenized social psychology” under the background of “social transition”, and an ontology reconstruction could work as the starting point.

  20. Can sociology help to improve nursing practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, David

    The first in a five-part series on sociology offers an overview of the debate about the relationship between sociology and nursing. Although sociological education is currently limited within nurse education, there is a long-held argument for its relevance. With a growing emphasis on preventative and public healthcare, sociology may yet prove its usefulness. Subsequent articles cover four of the key social factors affecting health.

  1. The significance of neuroscience for philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Patricia Smith; Phil, B

    2008-01-01

    The ground is shifting under the traditional approaches to problems in the philosophy of mind. Earlier doctrines concerning the independence of cognition from the brain now appear untenable. As neuroscience uncovers more about the organization and dynamics of the brain, it becomes increasingly evident that theories about our nature must be informed by neuroscientific data. Consistent with this progress, we may expect that philosophical problems about the mind will be productively addressed and perhaps radically transformed by a convergence of neuroscientific, psychological and computational research.

  2. A Philosophy of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Horne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the homo sapiens sapiens species depends upon learning and passing on to future generations quality knowledge. Yet, we find to an increasing extent a corruption of the process, resulting in ignorance, environmental destruction, and breakdown of community. A fundamental shift in priorities is required to avert disaster. Articulating a solution depends upon a language, which, in turn, depends upon clarifying concepts. This paper identifies the dialectical (something existing because of what it is not interrelationship of episteme (theory and techné (practice within the framework of ethos, pathos, and logos. This structure and process as learning provides coherence in developing knowledge and can then be what in a generic sense is religion (to cohere, or bind. In a monk-like devotion to learning to generate quality knowledge humanity can appreciate its own meaning and make this world a better place in which to live. In this way religion becomes philosophy, and philosophy religion.

  3. A Philosophy of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Horne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the homo sapiens sapiens species depends upon learning and passing on to future generations quality knowledge. Yet, we find to an increasing extent a corruption of the process, resulting in ignorance, environmental destruction, and breakdown of community. A fundamental shift in priorities is required to avert disaster. Articulating a solution depends upon a language, which, in turn, depends upon clarifying concepts. This paper identifies the dialectical (something existing because of what it is not interrelationship of episteme (theory and techné (practice within the framework of ethos, pathos, and logos. This structure and process as learning provides coherence in developing knowledge and can then be what in a generic sense is religion (to cohere, or bind. In a monk-like devotion to learning to generate quality knowledge humanity can appreciate its own meaning and make this world a better place in which to live. In this way religion becomes philosophy, and philosophy religion.

  4. The philosophy of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D; Saunders, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.

  5. The philosophy of information

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Luciano Floridi presents a book that will set the agenda for the philosophy of information. Pi is the philosophical field concerned with (1) the critical investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics, utilisation, and sciences, and (2) the elaboration and application of information-theoretic and computational methodologies to philosophical problems. This book lays down, for the first time, the conceptual foundations for this new area of research. It does so systematically, by pursuing three goals. Its metatheoretical goal is to describe what the philosophy of information is, its problems, approaches, and methods. Its introductory goal is to help the reader to gain a better grasp of the complex and multifarious nature of the various concepts and phenomena related to information. Its analytic goal is to answer several key theoretical questions of great philosophical interest, arising from the investigation of semantic information.

  6. Retooling Peace Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Hersh, Jacques; Petersen-Overton, Kristofer

    2010-01-01

    This book documents recent and historical events in the theoretically-based practice of peace development. Its diverse collection of essays describes different aspects of applied philosophy in peace action, commonly involving the contributors’ continual engagement in the field, while offering...... support and optimal responses to conflict and violence. This study has never been timelier, as the omnipresence of conflict and the widespread opportunities to respond to them with nonviolence and peace practices....

  7. Wittgenstein's Clinical Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Ghirelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at drawing the principle boundaries of Wittgenstein's philosophy, by defining its operative area and strategic action. Firstly, it follows the changes in Wittgenstein's interpretation of language and of meaning. These changes will be used as a draft for sketching the equivalent reviews of goals, techniques and ways of doing philsophy that he proposed. Secondly, it analyses late Wittgenstein's philosophical practice, which will be interpreted as clinical.

  8. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

  9. PHILOSOPHY IN SEMINARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Tarasiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts to answer the question concerning whether or not philosophy is needed in seminaries. In light of his analysis, it can be concluded that philosophical studies for future priests are a serious alternative to the fideistic positions often adopted by Catholics. The presence of philosophy in the seminary curriculum is supported by: (1 the need for building intellectual foundations of the religious faith professed by a cleric; the faith which cannot do without reason and abstain from justifying the rationale of its content; (2 the need for introducing the alumnus to the mysteries of the classical philosophy of being which can equip him with a better understanding of human nature and the surrounding reality. In this way, the seminarian: (1 acquires a reasonable belief that the human mind is able to know the objective and universal truth, including the truth about God as the Ultimate Cause of all that exists; (2 is able to enter into an intelligent dialogue about the truth with an increasingly globalized world.

  10. The Philosophy of Science and Technology in China: Political and Ideological Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanlin

    2014-09-01

    In China, the philosophy of science and technology (PST) is derived from "Dialectics of Nature" (DN), which is based on Engels' unfinished book Dialektik der Natur. DN as a political ideology provides political guidance for scientists and engineers. Therefore, since 1981, "Introduction to Dialectics of Nature" (IDN) has been an obligatory course for master's degree students who study natural science or technology. In 1987, DN was renamed PST by the Chinese government in order to communicate and do research. The IDN teachers constitute most of the scholars who research PST. Nowadays, in China, PST includes philosophy of nature, philosophy of science, philosophy of technology, sociology of science, sociology of technology, "science, technology and society," history of science, history of technology, management of science, and management of technology due to having too many IDN teachers. In fact, it is neither a branch of philosophy, nor a subject. The number of the IDN teachers has been increasing since 1981, which makes PST a miscellaneous collection of many branches or subjects. Finally, PST is facing two new challenges: the reduction of IDN and academic corruption.

  11. Guide to Sources: Sociology. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, Libby P.

    This guide and annotated bibliography is designed to introduce sociology students to the basic research tools in their field that are available in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Brief explanations and examples are provided of the relevant Library of Congress subject headings and call numbers used in Fogler Library, as well as the…

  12. Audiological rehabilitation in sociological perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    as the 'truth'. By building on a sociological approach to hearing impairment that reaches beyond the medical definition, we see another picture emerging. Some patients embark on the process of getting a hearing aid and come to the hearing aid fitting as a response to social pressure from relatives or colleagues...

  13. Brazilian Sociology; Trends and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Neuma

    1995-01-01

    Delineates the historical and sociopolitical factors that influenced the educational development of sociology in Brazil. Discusses leading theorists, educational reformers, and the university's role in opposing the military regime. More recent crises have included shrinking academic budgets and declining enrollment. (MJP)

  14. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-01-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve…

  15. The Applied Connection for Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the 76 graduates of Kent State's applied sociology masters program, designed to prepare students for employment outside academe, found one graduate employed outside her field, four who continued their education and became practicing sociologists, and a majority who used their training as human service practitioners. (MSE)

  16. The Dialogic Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecha, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Reproduction theories emphasised the idea that schools reproduce relations of oppression. Later, postmodernism has increased the language of impossibility by analysing all educational actions in terms of power relations. Therefore, educational actions in line with any of those sociological approaches cannot act as tools that schools and…

  17. Race Relations in Sociological Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, John

    This book seeks to develop sociological theory adequate to deal with the various uses to which racism has been put. How particular political orders apply "scientific" rationalizations, including race, to disguise their true origins in force, violence, and usurpation is demonstrated. Analysis of exploitative conditions starts with an objective…

  18. The Dialogic Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecha, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Reproduction theories emphasised the idea that schools reproduce relations of oppression. Later, postmodernism has increased the language of impossibility by analysing all educational actions in terms of power relations. Therefore, educational actions in line with any of those sociological approaches cannot act as tools that schools and…

  19. Connecting Life Span Development with the Sociology of the Life Course: A New Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The life course has become a topic of growing interest within the social sciences. Attempts to link this sub-discipline with life span developmental psychology have been called for but with little sign of success. In this paper, we seek to address three interlinked issues concerning the potential for a more productive interchange between life course sociology and life span psychology. The first is to try to account for the failure of these two sub-disciplines to achieve any deepening engagement with each other, despite the long-expressed desirability of that goal; the second is to draw attention to the scope for enriching the sociology of the life course through Erik Erikson's model of life span development; and the last is the potential for linking Eriksonian theory with current debates within mainstream sociology about the processes involved in 'individualisation' and 'self-reflexivity' as an alternative entry point to bring together these two fields of work.

  20. An Analysis of LI Bai’s Creation Views Integrated in Literature, History and Philosophy and His Creation Psychology%李白文史哲一体的创作观及其创作心理探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳成龙

    2014-01-01

    中国本是文史哲三位一体的综合文化观,以此视角考察李白的诗文创作观可以发现,他在文学观上提倡清新自然、风骨兴寄之美,是一位以复古为革新者;他具有大历史观的思维倾向,一面多方汲取历史营养,一面将历史主观化;他的诗化哲学思维,又赋予了他深刻超迈的生命哲思意识。%There is the comprehensive cultural view in China in which literature,history and philosophy are integrated in one.When examining LI Bai’s creation of poems from this perspective,we can find that he was an innovator who advocated the return to the ancient style and the fresh and natural beauty with the unique comparison.His thinking tended to be macro-historical.On one hand,he absorbed nutrition from history;on the other hand,he subjectified history.His poetic philosophi-cal thinking endowed him with the profound philosophical awareness of life.

  1. Sociology: a view from the diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Richard

    2010-12-01

    From the vantage point of criminology, one of sociology's main export subject areas, the present and future of sociology appear a good deal more promising than John Holmwood's essay on the discipline's misfortune would suggest. Sociology remains in high demand by students and faculty hiring remains strong, even in its more critical sub-fields, such as race and ethnicity, sex and gender, and social inequality. Holmwood is correct that sociology is vulnerable to external pressures to demonstrate its relevance to social practice, but those pressures come from left-wing social movements as well as from centres of power. He is also correct that external pressures contribute to internal disagreement, but sociology has been at war with itself since the 1960s, with little evident decline in its academic standing or intellectual vitality. Those of us on the discipline's diaspora, who depend on sociology for both support and light, must remain hopeful about sociology's continued good fortune.

  2. Extending Sociological Theorising on High Ability: The Significance of Values and Lived Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli Smith, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Sociological work on high ability is framed by social constructionist theorising and/or takes a social justice approach, and hence particular analytical intellectual traditions are foregrounded. Whilst these approaches have contributed the main critique of essentialist psychological understandings of high ability, they can eclipse normative…

  3. Toward a Sociology of Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John

    2017-02-01

    Despite covering around 70 percent of the earth's surface, the ocean has long been ignored by sociology or treated as merely an extension of land-based systems. Increasingly, however, oceans are assuming a higher profile, emerging both as a new resource frontier, a medium for geopolitical rivalry and conflict, and a unique and threatened ecological hot spot. In this article, I propose a new sociological specialty area, the "sociology of oceans" to be situated at the interface between environmental sociology and traditional maritime studies. After reviewing existing sociological research on maritime topics and the consideration of (or lack of consideration) the sea by classic sociological theorists, I briefly discuss several contemporary sociological approaches to the ocean that have attracted some notice. In the final section of the paper, I make the case for a distinct sociology of oceans and briefly sketch what this might look like. One possible trajectory for creating a shared vision or common paradigm, I argue, is to draw on Deleuze and Guattari's dialectical theory of the smooth and the striated. Même s'il couvre 70% de la surface de la Terre, l'océan a été longtemps ignoré en sociologie ou traité comme une extension des systèmes terrestres. De plus en plus, toutefois, l'océan retient l'attention, en étant vu comme une nouvelle frontière en termes de ressources, un médium pour les rivalités et les conflits géopolitiques, et un lieu écologique névralgique et unique. Dans cet article, je propose une nouvelle spécialisation sociologique, la 'sociologie des océans', se situant dans l'interface entre la sociologie environnementale et les études maritimes traditionnelles. Après une recension de la recherche sociologique existante sur les sujets maritimes et la prise en compte (ou l'absence de prise en compte) de l'océan par les théoriciens de la sociologie classique, je discute brièvement quelques approches sociologiques contemporaines de l

  4. Sociology, medicine and the construction of health-related sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nelson Filice de; Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2009-02-01

    Starting from a paper about closing the gap between sociology and medicine in Brazil and the United Kingdom that was published in 1971, a historical update was made with the aim of reflecting on the new shapes of health-related teaching and research within the social and human sciences, in these two countries. The methodology was qualitative and the study was developed using secondary data. The reflections were developed through the authors' immersion in Brazilian and British realities. It was concluded that the interface between sociology and health has expanded, although persistent old difficulties exist in relation to the structure and focus of the healthcare system, medical school power and medical student culture.

  5. Sustentabilidad y racionalidad ambiental: hacia "otro" programa de sociología ambiental Sustainability and Environmental Rationality: towards "another" environmental sociology program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Leff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La crisis ambiental emerge como una crisis del conocimiento, lo que problematiza la lógica de las ciencias y el estatus teórico de las ciencias sociales, desvinculadas de las condiciones ecológicas de sustentabilidad de la sociedad. Cuestionando los marcos teóricos de la sociología tradicional y la lógica de las ciencias sociales -marxismo, estructural-funcionalismo, filosofía del lenguaje, constructivismo, hermenéutica-, se plantean las bases conceptuales y los principios ético-filosóficos de una sociología ambiental prospectiva, que al trascender la indagatoria de la crisis ambiental como construcción social, se constituye en un saber que acompaña la construcción de un futuro sustentable fundado en la categoría de racionalidad ambiental.The environmental crisis emerges as a crisis of knowledge, which problematizes the logic of sciences and the theoretical status of the social sciences, separated from society's ecological conditions of sustainability. Questioning the theoretical frameworks of traditional sociology and the logic of the social sciences -Marxism, structural-functionalism, the philosophy of language, constructivism, hermeneutics- the author proposes the conceptual bases and ethical-philosophical principles of a prospective environmental sociology which, by transcending the inquiry into the environmental crisis as a social construction, becomes a form of knowledge that accompanies the construction of a sustainable future based on the category of environmental rationality.

  6. The Philosophy of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamcham, Khalil; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.; Saunders, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Part I. Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology: 1. Cosmology, cosmologia and the testing of cosmological theories George F. R. Ellis; 2. Black holes, cosmology and the passage of time: three problems at the limits of science Bernard Carr; 3. Moving boundaries? – comments on the relationship between philosophy and cosmology Claus Beisbart; 4. On the question why there exists something rather than nothing Roderich Tumulka; Part II. Structures in the Universe and the Structure of Modern Cosmology: 5. Some generalities about generality John D. Barrow; 6. Emergent structures of effective field theories Jean-Philippe Uzan; 7. Cosmological structure formation Joel R. Primack; 8. Formation of galaxies Joseph Silk; Part III. Foundations of Cosmology: Gravity and the Quantum: 9. The observer strikes back James Hartle and Thomas Hertog; 10. Testing inflation Chris Smeenk; 11. Why Boltzmann brains do not fluctuate into existence from the de Sitter vacuum Kimberly K. Boddy, Sean M. Carroll and Jason Pollack; 12. Holographic inflation revised Tom Banks; 13. Progress and gravity: overcoming divisions between general relativity and particle physics and between physics and HPS J. Brian Pitts; Part IV. Quantum Foundations and Quantum Gravity: 14. Is time's arrow perspectival? Carlo Rovelli; 15. Relational quantum cosmology Francesca Vidotto; 16. Cosmological ontology and epistemology Don N. Page; 17. Quantum origin of cosmological structure and dynamical reduction theories Daniel Sudarsky; 18. Towards a novel approach to semi-classical gravity Ward Struyve; Part V. Methodological and Philosophical Issues: 19. Limits of time in cosmology Svend E. Rugh and Henrik Zinkernagel; 20. Self-locating priors and cosmological measures Cian Dorr and Frank Arntzenius; 21. On probability and cosmology: inference beyond data? Martin Sahlén; 22. Testing the multiverse: Bayes, fine-tuning and typicality Luke A. Barnes; 23. A new perspective on Einstein's philosophy of cosmology Cormac O

  7. The philosophy of creative writing

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan-Baker, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Philosophy concerns asking fundamental questions about practices: their meaning, how they function, what they presuppose and what makes them distinctive. Within CW, we often ask about the effectiveness of the workshop, classroom activities or we inquire about out subject's past and present distinctiveness. But the question of a philosophy or philosophies of CW has gone largely unasked. This paper considers a number of questions about how CW articulates itself in terms of its view of teaching...

  8. Rorty, Pragmatism, and Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Misak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of Richard Rorty's legacies is to have put a Jamesian version of pragmatism on the contemporary philosophical map. Part of his argument has been that pragmatism and analytic philosophy are set against each other, with pragmatism almost having been killed off by the reigning analytic philosophy. The argument of this paper is that there is a better and more interesting reading of both the history of pragmatism and the history of analytic philosophy.

  9. The End Times of Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Laruelle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from his recently translated book, Struggle and Utopia at the End Times of Philosophy (Univocal, Laruelle outlines a rigorous theoretical knowledge of philosophy as form of the World. Laruelle's non-philosophy is a mutation of the conservative discipline, capable of generating solutions to heretofore unaskable problems. A mutation of the field similar to that of non-Euclidean geometry. Presented here, the non-philosopher is a "heretic for the world," capable of utopia in action.

  10. About music, philosophy and science ...

    OpenAIRE

    Dankowska, Jagna

    2011-01-01

    The text attempts to answer the question whether musicians need a philosophy of music. The answer to the question of what music contributes to philosophy – a question superordinate in relation to the investigations of the links between philosophy and music – can be formulated clearly, since we find it in the texts of the most prominent representatives of European philosophical thought, including Schopenhauer, whose ideas are discussed in the paper. These issues are also discuss...

  11. A critique of relativism in the sociology of scientific knowledge%科学知识社会学相对主义知识观批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙思

    2007-01-01

    " The Strong Programme" is put forward as a metaphysical theory of sociology by the Edinburgh School (SSK) to study the social causes of knowledge.Barry Barnes and David Bloor are the proponents of the School.They call their programme "the Relativist View of Knowledge" and argue against rationalism in the philosophy of science.Does their relativist account of knowledge present a serious challenge to rationalism,which has dominated 20th century philosophy of science? I attempt to answer this question by criticizing the main ideas of SSK and defending rationalism theories in modem philosophy of science.

  12. A TQC philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sandrock

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent upsurge in the quest for world class manufacturing. Tremendous amounts of effort are being exerted to attain Total quality Control (TQC - so as to be able to produce "the best". The EEC has stated categorically that it will only support accredited suppliers, and this has been partly responsible for the recent fixation on techniques for excellence. These techniques often fail to produce results. This paper presents a systems based philosophy for working towards world class levels of manufacturing.

  13. Philosophy and Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, Olimpia

    2007-01-01

    With his General Theory of Relativity, Albert Einstein produced a revolution in our conception of reality and of the knowledge we can obtain from it. This revolution can be viewed from philosophy as leading to one of the great paradigms in the history of thought which, together with the Aristotelian and the Newtonian paradigms, embodied the different ways of conceiving the universe and our access to it. The comparison among these three paradigms allows us to understand how the human being has progressively lost his central place in the cosmos, not only in physical terms, but also in an epistemic sense, regarding his power of knowledge about reality.

  14. Philosophy of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Georges

    2010-09-01

    Philosophy of mind concerns questions about mental phenomena that empirical research alone can't settle, such as the nature of mental states and which sorts of things can have them-only living things, or also machines? Settling them requires reflection on such phenomena as consciousness, rationality, and intentionality; the 'explanatory gaps' that seem to exist between these; and underlying physical phenomena and the different strategies-dualist, eliminativist, physicalist, and functionalist-that have been proposed for dealing with them. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  15. Introducing philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Friend, Michele

    2014-01-01

    What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it seeks to strike a balance between conceptual acc

  16. Philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M; Woods, John

    2009-01-01

    One of the most striking features of mathematics is the fact that we are much more certain about the mathematical knowledge we have than about what mathematical knowledge is knowledge of. Are numbers, sets, functions and groups physical entities of some kind? Are they objectively existing objects in some non-physical, mathematical realm? Are they ideas that are present only in the mind? Or do mathematical truths not involve referents of any kind? It is these kinds of questions that have encouraged philosophers and mathematicians alike to focus their attention on issues in the philosophy of mat

  17. Philosophy and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Childers, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Probability is increasingly important for our understanding of the world. What is probability? How do we model it, and how do we use it? Timothy Childers presents a lively introduction to the foundations of probability and to philosophical issues it raises. He keeps technicalities to a minimum, and assumes no prior knowledge of the subject. He explains the main interpretations of probability-frequentist, propensity, classical, Bayesian, and objective Bayesian-and uses stimulatingexamples to bring the subject to life. All students of philosophy will benefit from an understanding of probability,

  18. Three Moments in Jewish Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Goltzberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available I would like to thank the following people for having proofread my text: Noémie Benchimol, Shemuel Lampronti and Georges-Elia Sarfati. The purpose of this article is to offer a new periodization of Jewish philosophy and to reflect on the definition of Jewish philosophy. It will therefore deal with the characteristic style of each Jewish philosophy rather than with their content. I shall identify three moments in the history of Jewish philosophy: the Arab moment, the German moment, and the an...

  19. An early work [1910-1913] in Biological Psychology by pioneer psychiatrist, criminologist and philosopher José Ingenieros, M.D. (1877-1925) of Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2006-04-01

    One of the earliest recorded works in Biological Psychology was published in 1910 by Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros (1877-1925), Professor of Experimental Psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires. Ingenieros, a multifaceted personality and prolific author and educator famous for his lapidary aphorisms, has been considered a 'luminary' for generations. Trained as a physician, he was the first scientist to establish a comprehensive psychological system in Latin America. His long list of publications includes more than 300 titles generally divided in two periods: studies in mental pathology and criminology (1897-1908) and studies in philosophy, psychology and sociology (1908-1925). His works were never made particularly available to English-speaking audiences, despite the fact that certain of his books are still best-sellers in the Spanish-speaking world. We present an overview of Ingenieros' life and work, and a detailed account of his profoundly interesting work Principios de Psicología Biológica, in which he analyzes the development, evolution and social context of mental functions. We also provide an English translation of the Introduction contributed by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) to the 1922 German edition of the work, pertinent to the energetic principles Ingenieros used and the study of Psychology as a natural science. It is a hope, 80 years after Ingenieros' parting, to bibliographically resurrect this champion of reason, who, until now, has not been given his due placement in the international psychological and biomedical literature.

  20. Philosophy of Mathematics, Mathematics Education and Philosophy of Mathematics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuxin

    1994-01-01

    Uses the modern development of mathematics education in the United States as background for the analysis of the influence of mathematics philosophy on mathematics education. Discusses the problem of how to develop the subject of philosophy of mathematics education, regarded as an impetus from mathematics education, to the further development of…

  1. The Revolutions in English Philosophy and Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article was first published in 1982 in "Educational Analysis" (4, 75-91) and republished in 1998 (Hirst, P. H., & White, P. (Eds.), "Philosophy of education: Major themes in the analytic tradition," Vol. 1, "Philosophy and education, Part 1," pp. 61-78. London: Routledge). I was then a lecturer in philosophy…

  2. The philosophy of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rickles, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Does the future exist already? What is space? Are time machines physically possible? What is quantum mechanical reality like? Are there many universes? Is there a 'true' geometry of the universe? Why does there appear to be an arrow of time? Do humans play a special role in the world? In this unique introductory book, Dean Rickles guides the reader through these and other core questions that keep philosophers of physics up at night. He discusses the three pillars of modern physics (quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and the theories of relativity), in addition to more cutting-edge themes such as econophysics, quantum gravity, quantum computers, and gauge theories. The book's approach is based on the idea that philosophy of physics is a kind of 'interpretation game' in which we try to map physical theories onto our world. But the rules of this game often lead to a multiplicity of possible victors: rarely do we encounter a simple answer. The Philosophy of Physics offers a highly accessible introduction...

  3. Debating "the Social": Towards a Critique of Sociological Nostalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Elliott

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sociology can be commonsensically and parsimoniously defined as the study of society, the problems of defining such terms as ‘society’, ‘the social’, and ‘the social system’ remain an ongoing irritant of sociological theory. In addition to these traditional conceptual problems, there is currently a strong sense that ‘society’ as an empirical reality and ‘society’ as a concept are in crisis. Given the contemporary view of ‘the end of the social’ there is also manifestly a potent and nostalgic interest in the past as a time of comforting solidarity and meaningfulness. To clarify this debate, we start by making a distinction between three approaches to society, namely structure, solidarity and creation. Nostalgia hinges around the certainties that followed from reliable social structures, and from the comfort of community. We illustrate these forms of nostalgia through an examination of the social philosophy of Alasdair MacIntyre. Recognizing that his criticisms of the loss of virtue represent a powerful indictment of modernity, we argue that past societies were also fractured by moral discord. More importantly, MacIntyre rules out the possibility of moral re-invention by excluding the rise of human rights as a moral framework. In conclusion, the forms of social creativity may not enjoy the ‘sticky’ solidarity of the past, but they do testify Georg Simmel’s idea of the social (Vergesellschaftung.

  4. Introduction: philosophy in and philosophy of cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Despite being there from the beginning, philosophical approaches have never had a settled place in cognitive research and few cognitive researchers not trained in philosophy have a clear sense of what its role has been or should be. We distinguish philosophy in cognitive research and philosophy of cognitive research. Concerning philosophy in cognitive research, after exploring some standard reactions to this work by nonphilosophers, we will pay particular attention to the methods that philosophers use. Being neither experimental nor computational, they can leave others bewildered. Thought experiments are the most striking example but not the only one. Concerning philosophy of cognitive research, we will pay particular attention to its power to generate and test normative claims, claims about what should and should not be done.

  5. Experimental Philosophy of Explanation Rising: The Case for a Plurality of Concepts of Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    This paper brings together results from the philosophy and the psychology of explanation to argue that there are multiple concepts of explanation in human psychology. Specifically, it is shown that pluralism about explanation coheres with the multiplicity of models of explanation available in the philosophy of science, and it is supported by evidence from the psychology of explanatory judgment. Focusing on the case of a norm of explanatory power, the paper concludes by responding to the worry that if there is a plurality of concepts of explanation, one will not be able to normatively evaluate what counts as good explanation. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Un programa para la sociología de la filosofía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Pestaña, José Luis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present, in the first place, the possible links between philosophy and social science, from, on the one hand, the auto-understanding ways of the philosophical work, and in the second hand, philosophical resources effects on the social scientific vocation. Subsequently, I analyse the philosophical protection against sociology. In third place, I study how sociology permits to improve the philosophical reflexivity from a thick description of the hierarchy that organizes the philosophical field: so, sociology of philosophy appears, not as an attack to philosophy, but as an increase of the philosophical work critical capacities. In fourth place, to finish, I explore philosophical nets as understanding criterion of intellectual creativity. The paper presents specific examples which came basically from the history of Spanish and French thought in the XX century.

    En este artículo se presentan, en primer lugar, los vínculos posibles entre la filosofía y las ciencias sociales, a partir de, por un lado, los modos de autocomprensión del trabajo filosófico y, por otro, los efectos de los recursos filosóficos en la vocación de científico social. Posteriormente, se analizan los modos de protección de la filosofía frente a la sociología. En tercer lugar, se estudia cómo la sociología permite mejorar la reflexividad filosófica a partir de una descripción densa de las jerarquías que organizan el espacio filosófico: la sociología de la filosofía aparece entonces no como un ataque a la filosofía sino como un incremento de la capacidad autocrítica del trabajo filosófico. En cuarto lugar y, para acabar, se exploran las redes filosóficas como criterio de comprensión de procesos de creatividad intelectual. el trabajo presenta en cada uno de sus momentos ejemplos concretos derivados fundamentalmente de la historia del pensamiento español y francés del siglo XX.

  7. Jacques Maritain's Philosophy of History and Philosophy of Education: A Relationship Secured Through Experience and Reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    Jacques Maritain's philosophy of history and philosophy of education both deal with the singularity of experience and the universality of reason. The philosophy of history is subordinated to moral philosophy; the philosophy of education is subordinated to metaphysics. Although Maritain's philosophies reflect a Christian world view, they can make a…

  8. The sociologically acceptable definition of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mirko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author has presented several important issues regarding the sociology of religion, but primarily the issue of the sociologically acceptable definition of religion both in theoretical and empirical research. Bearing in mind the sociology of religion in former Yugoslavia the author has first discussed the possibility of a general definition of the sociology of religion, but has stated the opposite view as well. Then he has dealt with the two basic approaches towards religion and two general definitions of sociology, namely substantial and functional ones. Finally the author has tried to define the religiousness in terms of sociological empirical research of human attachment to religion and church in post-socialism.

  9. Comparative education and the ?new? sociologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusz, Andrew R.; Parks-Trusz, Sandra L.

    1981-12-01

    The authors examine the impact of the `new' sociologies on comparative education by reviewing five comparative readers published during the past twenty years. While the `new' sociologies have had considerable impact within sociology and the sociology of education, minimal impact is found within comparative education. The authors further show that while critical new sociologies such as Marxism, neo-Marxism, and Critical theory have had some penetration into comparative education, use of the interpretative sociologies such as symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology, and semiotics has generally been absent. The authors conclude by suggesting that a synthesis of the critical and interpretative modes would prove fruitful for further work in comparative education. The five texts are: Halsey, Floud and Anderson (eds.), Education, Economy and Society (1961); Eckstein and Noah (eds.), Scientific Investigations in Comparative Education (1969); Beck, Perspectives on World Education (1970); Karabel and Halsey (eds.), Power and Ideology in Education (1977); and Altbach and Kelly (eds.), Education and Colonialism (1978).

  10. Elementary School Philosophy: A Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

  11. The Teacher and His Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John P.

    This book presents a case for educational philosophy and outlines the essentials of Idealism, Realism, Perennialism, Pragmatism, and Existentialism. Each system is described in detail with enough of its history to give it continuity and relate it to the classic subdivisions of philosophy, namely: metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, ethics,…

  12. Philosophy of Testing and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper considers several philosophies as they relate to student assessment. Realists believe that one can know the real world as it truly is. As a philosophy of testing and measurement, realism is characterized by behaviorally stated objectives, measurement-driven instruction, and report cards, along with the use of programmed materials.…

  13. Kaupapa Maori, Philosophy and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    Goals for adding philosophy to the school curriculum centre on the perceived need to improve the general quality of critical thinking found in society. School philosophy also provides a means for asking questions of value and purpose about curriculum content across and between subjects, and, furthermore, it affirms the capability of children to…

  14. Towards Intercultural Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Heesoon; Eppert, Claudia; Scott, Charles; Tait, Saskia; Nguyen, Tram

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an understanding of philosophy of education as cultural and intercultural work and philosophers of education as cultural and intercultural workers. In our view, the discipline of philosophy of education in North America is currently suffering from measures of insularity and singularity. It is vital that we justly and…

  15. THE ESSENTIAL CONNECTION BETWEEN COMMON SENSE PHILOSOPHY AND LEADERSHIP EXCELLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER A. REDPATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that, strictly speaking, from its inception with the ancient Greeks and for all time, philosophy and science are identical and consist in an essential relationship between a specific type of understanding of the human person as possessed of an intellectual soul capable of being habituated and a psychologically-independent composite whole, or organization. It maintains, further, that absence of either one of the extremes of this essential relationship cannot be philosophy/science and, if mistaken for such and applied to the workings of cultural institutions, will generate anarchy within human culture and make leadership excellence impossible to achieve. Finally, it argues that only a return to this “common sense” understanding of philosophy can generate the leadership excellence that can save the West from its current state of cultural and civilizational anarchy.

  16. History, philosophy, and science teaching: The present rapprochement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    1992-03-01

    This paper traces the use of, and arguments for, the history and philosophy of science in school science courses. Specific attention is paid to the British National Curriculum proposals and to the recommendations of the US Project 2061 curriculum guidelines. Some objections to the inclusion of historical material in science courses are outlined and answered. Mention is made of the Piagetian thesis that individual psychological development mirrors the development of concepts in the history of science. This introduces the topic of idealisation in science. Some significant instances are itemised where science education has, at its considerable cost, ignored work in philosophy of science. Arguments for the inclusion of the history and philosophy of science in science teacher education programmes are given. The paper finishes with a list of topical issues in present science education where collaboration between science teachers, historians, philosophers, and sociologists would be of considerable benefit.

  17. Is There a Canon in Economic Sociology?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the findings of a bibliometric analysis of 52 syllabi on economic sociology provided by the members of the American Sociological Association section “Economic Sociology” and scholars from the UK, France, Germany, and Russia. In addition, the initial collection was expanded to course syllabi submitted from outside of sociology, including management departments, policy programs and anthropology. The analysis aims at measuring to what extent economic sociologists are con...

  18. Systems Fragility: The Sociology of Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    THE SOCIOLOGY OF CHAOS by Lori R. Hodges March 2015 Thesis Advisor: Robert Josefek Second Reader: Wayne Porter THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBER S SYSTEMS FRAGILITY: THE SOCIOLOGY OF CHAOS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lori R. Hodges 7. PERFORMING OR GANIZATION NA:iVIE(S) AND...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK ii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited SYSTEMS FRAGILITY: THE SOCIOLOGY OF CHAOS Lori R. Hodges

  19. Is there a European medical sociology?

    OpenAIRE

    Henckes, Nicolas; Baszanger, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Is there a European sociology of health, illness and medicine – or, in short, a European medical sociology? While the answer to this question would certainly have been negative just a few years ago, this chapter argues that over the last thirty years a series of new analyses have emerged in the field which have laid the groundwork for a medical sociology at the European level. These examine how health issues are increasingly framed as consumer goods, public issues and ...

  20. Medical sociology: a personal fifty year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, R

    1999-06-01

    This paper reviews the author's experience in becoming a medical sociologist before the field had become formalized. The contributions to medical sociology of sociologist Selden D. Bacon and physician and medical educator William R. Willard are described. The relationship of medical sociology to medical behavioral science, as experienced at the University of Kentucky, is discussed. Finally, the thesis of the author's 1957 paper on the nature and status of medical sociology is re-examined.

  1. The Philosophy of Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This survey provides a brief and selective overview of research in the philosophy of mathematics education. It asks what makes up the philosophy of mathematics education, what it means, what questions it asks and answers, and what is its overall importance and use? It provides overviews of critical...... mathematics education, and the most relevant modern movements in the philosophy of mathematics. A case study is provided of an emerging research tradition in one country. This is the Hermeneutic strand of research in the philosophy of mathematics education in Brazil. This illustrates one orientation towards...... research inquiry in the philosophy of mathematics education. It is part of a broader practice of ‘philosophical archaeology’: the uncovering of hidden assumptions and buried ideologies within the concepts and methods of research and practice in mathematics education. An extensive bibliography is also...

  2. Frauen in Philosophie und Wissenschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Harzer

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Der von Brigitte Doetsch herausgegebene Band präsentiert die aktuelle Feministische Philosophie und sammelt Beiträge, die Einblick geben in den gegenwärtigen Forschungsstand, wie ihn „Philosophinnen im dritten Jahrtausend“ erreicht haben. Insgesamt neun, zum Teil interdisziplinär ausgerichtete Arbeiten werden vorgestellt. Das Themenspektrum ist weit: Geschichte der Philosophie; Politische Philosophie und Naturphilosophie; Epistemologie; Biopolitik und Bioethik als Bereiche praktischer Philosophie; Forschung über Geschlechterverhältnisse. Alle Beiträge gehen zurück auf eine Vortragsreihe des Braunschweiger Zentrums für Gender Studies (www.genderzentrum.de. Leser/-innen erhalten einen guten Überblick über die aktuelle Frauenforschung aus der Sicht theoretischer und praktischer Philosophie.

  3. Sociological functionalism, exchange theory and life-cycle analysis: a call for more explicit theoretical bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, V L; Dowd, J J

    There has been a notable lack of articulation between mainstream sociological theory and the work of social gerontologists. This paper suggests four reasons for this, and reviews the basic assumptions and applications to gerontology of two well-established frameworks in sociological theory: structural-functionalism and exchange. With more rigorous and systematic integration of gerontological data with social and social psychological theory, more comprehensive explanations of life course phenomena would result. Moreover, the age variable would be considerably by other sociologists as less of a control and more of a relevant variable in its own right.

  4. Philosophy of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Forster, Malcolm R

    2011-01-01

    Statisticians and philosophers of science have many common interests but restricted communication with each other. This volume aims to remedy these shortcomings. It provides state-of-the-art research in the area of philosophy of statistics by encouraging numerous experts to communicate with one another without feeling "restricted” by their disciplines or thinking "piecemeal” in their treatment of issues. A second goal of this book is to present work in the field without bias toward any particular statistical paradigm. Broadly speaking, the essays in this Handbook are concerned with problems of induction, statistics and probability. For centuries, foundational problems like induction have been among philosophers' favorite topics; recently, however, non-philosophers have increasingly taken a keen interest in these issues. This volume accordingly contains papers by both philosophers and non-philosophers, including scholars from nine academic disciplines.

  5. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  6. Gaming with Teaching Philosophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Christiansen, Birgitte Lund; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    are a well-known means for the individual teacher to develop a reflective approach to own teaching practice and the underlying values and presumptions, including a process of making tacit knowledge explicit (Smith and Tillema 2006). However, we see a need for methods for sharing, discussing and developing...... teaching philosophies in a collective process. The perspectives of introducing such methods are to support a team-oriented approach to teaching and to strengthen communities of practice (Wenger 2008)/ communities of learning among teachers. So how can we do this? The authors have conceived and designed...... students learn”, and “Blackboards are an overlooked method of teaching”. While the statements do not give the “solution” to what good teaching practice is, their purpose is to start a personal reflection. During the game, the players go through an individual reflection process leading to the selection...

  7. Philosophy of Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aatami Järvinen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and interdisciplinary of Computer Sciences, and the multiplicity of its uses in other sciences make it difficult to define them and prescribe how to perform them. Furthermore, also cause friction between computer scientists from different branches. Because of how they are structured, these sciences programs are criticized for not offer an adequate methodological training, or a deep understanding of different research traditions. To collaborate on a solution, some have decided to include in their curricula courses that enable students to gain awareness about epistemology and methodological issues in Computer Science, as well as give meaning to the practice of computer scientists. In this article the needs and objectives of the courses on the philosophy of Computer Science are analyzed, and its structure and management are explained.

  8. Physics and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Feyerabend, P K; Agassi, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This collection of the writings of Paul Feyerabend is focused on his philosophy of quantum physics, the hotbed of the key issues of his most debated ideas. Written between 1948 and 1970, these writings come from his first and most productive period. These early works are important for two main reasons. First, they document Feyerabend's deep concern with the philosophical implications of quantum physics and its interpretations. These ideas were paid less attention in the following two decades. Second, the writings provide the crucial background for Feyerabend's critiques of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn. Although rarely considered by scholars, Feyerabend's early work culminated in the first version of Against Method. These writings guided him on all the key issues of his most well-known and debated theses, such as the incommensurability thesis, the principles of proliferation and tenacity, and his particular version of relativism, and more specifically on quantum mechanics.

  9. Philosophy of clinical psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Massimiliano

    2013-03-01

    The renewal of the philosophical debate in psychiatry is one exciting news of recent years. However, its use in psychopharmacology may be problematic, ranging from self-confinement into the realm of values (which leaves the evidence-based domain unchallenged) to complete rejection of scientific evidence. In this paper philosophy is conceived as a conceptual audit of clinical psychopharmacology. Its function is to criticise the epistemological and methodological problems of current neopositivist, ingenuously realist and evidence-servant psychiatry from within the scientific stance and with the aim of aiding psychopharmacologists in practicing a more self-aware, critical and possibly useful clinical practice. Three examples are discussed to suggest that psychopharmacological practice needs conceptual clarification. At the diagnostic level it is shown that the crisis of the current diagnostic system and the problem of comorbidity strongly influence psychopharmacological results, new conceptualizations more respondent to the psychopharmacological requirements being needed. Heterogeneity of research samples, lack of specificity of psychotropic drugs, difficult generalizability of results, need of a phenomenological study of drug-induced psychopathological changes are discussed herein. At the methodological level the merits and limits of evidence-based practice are considered, arguing that clinicians should know the best available evidence but that guidelines should not be constrictive (due to several methodological biases and rhetorical tricks of which the clinician should be aware, sometimes respondent to extra-scientific, economical requests). At the epistemological level it is shown that the clinical stance is shaped by implicit philosophical beliefs about the mind/body problem (reductionism, dualism, interactionism, pragmatism), and that philosophy can aid physicians to be more aware of their beliefs in order to choose the most useful view and to practice coherently

  10. A Sociology "of" or a Sociology "for" Education? The New Zealand Experience of the Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rata, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The sociology of education in New Zealand, as in other countries, is affected by the dilemma inherent to the discipline, namely: is it a sociology "of" education or a sociology "for" education? In this article I analyse three factors in which the dilemma is played out: "cultural oppositionism" in the indigenous…

  11. The Fourth Sociology and Music Education: Towards a Sociology of Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    By identifying three main sociologies that characterise broad movements in the field since its inception, this paper provides a background to considerations of music education from the perspective of sociology. A fourth sociology is then proposed that may be useful to interrogate the complexities of the field of 21st century music education. This…

  12. Sociology by Any Other Name: Teaching the Sociological Perspective in Campus Diversity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan A.; Banks, Kira Hudson

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests that the way in to sociology may not always be through the front door. The authors demonstrate how students in a three-day campus diversity program develop a sociological imagination despite not having a formal affiliation with the sociology department. In particular, students demonstrate a move from color blindness into…

  13. Toward a Sociology of Environmental Flows: A New Agenda for Twenty-First-Century Environmental Sociology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Spaargaren, G.

    2006-01-01

    The emerging sociology of networks and flows, as it can be found in the works of Castells and Urry among others, offers promising perspectives for environmental sociology in rethinking its principle object of study: nature and environment. The sociology of flow perspective takes us beyond the nation

  14. Sociology by Any Other Name: Teaching the Sociological Perspective in Campus Diversity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan A.; Banks, Kira Hudson

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests that the way in to sociology may not always be through the front door. The authors demonstrate how students in a three-day campus diversity program develop a sociological imagination despite not having a formal affiliation with the sociology department. In particular, students demonstrate a move from color blindness into…

  15. The Fourth Sociology and Music Education: Towards a Sociology of Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    By identifying three main sociologies that characterise broad movements in the field since its inception, this paper provides a background to considerations of music education from the perspective of sociology. A fourth sociology is then proposed that may be useful to interrogate the complexities of the field of 21st century music education. This…

  16. Secrets and the Sociological Imagination: Using PostSecret.com to Illustrate Sociological Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Introductory sociology classes afford instructors an opportunity to expose students, often from a variety of backgrounds and majors, to the sociological imagination. In this article, I describe how the use of secrets from a popular website, PostSecret.com, can help teach students about the sociological imagination and incorporate biographical…

  17. A Sociology "of" or a Sociology "for" Education? The New Zealand Experience of the Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rata, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The sociology of education in New Zealand, as in other countries, is affected by the dilemma inherent to the discipline, namely: is it a sociology "of" education or a sociology "for" education? In this article I analyse three factors in which the dilemma is played out: "cultural oppositionism" in the indigenous…

  18. A Sociology "of" or a Sociology "for" Education? The New Zealand Experience of the Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rata, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The sociology of education in New Zealand, as in other countries, is affected by the dilemma inherent to the discipline, namely: is it a sociology "of" education or a sociology "for" education? In this article I analyse three factors in which the dilemma is played out: "cultural oppositionism" in the indigenous (kaupapa Maori) approach, critical…

  19. Toward a cogenetic cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way of build......The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way...... to account for developmental processes must emerge from a triadic system, rather than following the procedures of a binary logic, in order to have any correspondence between concept building and phenomenological world in psychology. Then, I sketch an epistemological approach called method of complementary...... negation that could help cultural psychology to build more developmental abstract models of very concrete human phenomena....

  20. The Unreasonable Destructiveness of Political Correctness in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Doria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available I submit that epistemic progress in key areas of contemporary academic philosophy has been compromised by politically correct (“PC” ideology. First, guided by an evolutionary account of ideology, results from social and cognitive psychology and formal philosophical methods, I expose evidence for political bias in contemporary Western academia and sketch a formalization for the contents of beliefs from the PC worldview taken to be of core importance, the theory of social oppression and the thesis of anthropological mental egalitarianism. Then, aided by discussions from contemporary epistemology on epistemic values, I model the problem of epistemic appraisal using the frameworks of multi-objective optimization theory and multi-criteria decision analysis and apply it to politically correct philosophy. I conclude that philosophy guided by politically correct values is bound to produce constructs that are less truth-conducive and that spurious values which are ideologically motivated should be abandoned. Objections to my framework stemming from contextual empiricism, the feminine voice in ethics and political philosophy are considered. I conclude by prescribing the epistemic value of epistemic adequacy, the contextual value of political diversity and the moral virtue of moral courage to reverse unwarranted trends in academic philosophy due to PC ideology.

  1. Sociological profiles of the candidate Turkish primary school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ali Arslan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Teachers define the tomorrow’s of the society. In order to know and predict about future of the society, It has to be known the sociological profiles of the educators. In other words, it should be helpful to plan the education and to define the socio-political decisions on issue, if the social and psychological characteristics of the todays’ teachers were known before. Therefore, It was aimed to examine and analyse the sociological and social-psychological backgrounds of the candidate teachers. What a kind of social profile do they have? What are their opinion on particular actual social and political issues of the society. Do they present a homogeneus group character? Do they have enough skill and knowledge to educate tomorrow’s Turkish individuals? What are their major problems as the primary school teachers and teacher candidates? The answers of the theese kind of questions were examined within the research.A compherensive field reserarch realised to achieve the aim. A questionnaire form was developed and used for the interviews. There were structured, semi structured and open-ended questions in the questionnaire. A data sets was created from the data that were gathered from the field. The computer program of the SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences was used for analysing the data sets.

  2. Sociología ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Gómez, José Andrés; Aledo Tur, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Este libro pretende ser un manual para los alumnos de las licenciaturas de sociología, ecología, ciencias ambientales o economía y profesionales de esas ramas que estén interesados en el estudio de las relaciones entre medio ambiente y sociedad desde una aproximación sociológica. El manual está divido en dos partes. La primera desarrolla las principales teorías sociológicas sobre el medio ambiente, así como el heterogéneo pensamiento ambiental. La segunda parte, ofrece capítulos diversos en l...

  3. Problems in Sociology of Sports

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo es una apuesta por reconstruir, articular y problematizar los aportes y los avances de investigación en torno a los estudios sociales del deporte y el tiempo libre, puestos en discusiones en el marco de la mesa de trabajo sobre problemáticas de la sociología del deporte, llevada a cabo durante el 9º Congreso Argentino y 4º Latinoamericano de Educación Física y Ciencias. La lectura holística e integral de las diferentes producciones académicas, y los diálogos que de ellas ...

  4. Audiological rehabilitation in sociological perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    as the 'truth'. By building on a sociological approach to hearing impairment that reaches beyond the medical definition, we see another picture emerging. Some patients embark on the process of getting a hearing aid and come to the hearing aid fitting as a response to social pressure from relatives or colleagues...... discourse, manifesting itself in the audiologist's spoken language, body language, and technologies in the room. Interaction rituals help explain why and how the patient complies with the way he or she is positioned by this discourse during that encounter....

  5. Soul, butterfly, mythological nymph: psyche in philosophy and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakou, Elena I; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2017-03-01

    The term "psyche" and its derivatives - including "Psychology" and "Psychiatry" - are rooted in classical philosophy and in mythology. Over the centuries, psyche has been the subject of discourse and contemplation, and of fable; it has also come to signify, in entomology, the order of Lepidoptera. In the current surge of research on brain and mind, there is a gradual transition from the psyche (or the "soul") to the specified descriptors defined by the fields of Behavioral, Cognitive and Integrative Neuroscience.

  6. Leibniz‘ Einfluss auf Wundts Psychologie, Philosophie und Ethik

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrenberg, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Leibniz‘s essential influence on Wundt’s thinking, so far, is not thoroughly examined. In the Introduction of his Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie, Wundt refers to Kant and Herbart being the most influential in shaping his philosophical standpoints. Taking this lead, however, it is noticeable that Wundt’s attitude is mostly critical, especially regarding Herbart. In comparison, Leibniz’s impact is essential and constructive in forming Wundt’s psychology, philosophy, epistemology, and...

  7. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  8. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  9. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...

  10. The Concept "System of Philosophy"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2005-01-01

    In this article I shall examine and discuss the concept ‘system of philosophy’ as a methodological tool in the history of philosophy. I shall do so in two moves. First I shall analyze the historical origin of the concept in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Thereafter I shall undertake...... a discussion of its methodological weaknesses — a discussion, which is not only relevant to the writing of history of philosophy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but also to the writing of history of philosophy in our times, where the concept remains an important methodological tool. My first move...

  11. Introduction to Positive Psychology in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Phillips, Brian; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology has received increasing attention in rehabilitation counseling research and practice. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis of personal assets and strengths, which provides a solid foundation for the integration of positive psychology into the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling. In…

  12. Gestalt Therapy: Its Inheritance from Gestalt Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yontef, Gary M.

    When adequately elaborated, the basic method of Gestalt therapy can be traced to the phenomenological field theory of Gestalt psychology. Gestalt therapy differs from Gestalt psychology not because of a difference in philosophy or method, but because of different contexts; the clinical context has different demands than those of basic research.…

  13. Introduction to Positive Psychology in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Phillips, Brian; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology has received increasing attention in rehabilitation counseling research and practice. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis of personal assets and strengths, which provides a solid foundation for the integration of positive psychology into the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling. In…

  14. Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wundt, Wilhelm; Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents an English translation of Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913, by James T. Lamiell in August, 2012. In his essay, Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Sociology and Entrenchment. A Cystic Fibrosis Test for Everyone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Lene; Stemerding, Dirk

    1994-01-01

    Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology......Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology...

  16. Unification and mechanistic detail as drivers of model construction: models of networks in economics and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuorikoski, Jaakko; Marchionni, Caterina

    2014-12-01

    We examine the diversity of strategies of modelling networks in (micro) economics and (analytical) sociology. Field-specific conceptions of what explaining (with) networks amounts to or systematic preference for certain kinds of explanatory factors are not sufficient to account for differences in modelling methodologies. We argue that network models in both sociology and economics are abstract models of network mechanisms and that differences in their modelling strategies derive to a large extent from field-specific conceptions of the way in which a good model should be a general one. Whereas the economics models aim at unification, the sociological models aim at a set of mechanism schemas that are extrapolatable to the extent that the underlying psychological mechanisms are general. These conceptions of generality induce specific biases in mechanistic explanation and are related to different views of when knowledge from different fields should be seen as relevant.

  17. [Where are we in general sociology ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, history and social sciences have experienced a kind of merging, and a vast number of specialized domains have emerged. Yet the durkheim - ian register of "general sociology" seems somehow neglected. Firstly, this article analyzes the reasons for this neglect, and secondly, it indicates how, through a long-term reflexivity, one can formulate a new agenda for general sociology.

  18. Incorporating Sociology into Community Service Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.; Farley, Matthew; Chee, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Sociologists and instructors who teach about community service share an affinity for understanding and addressing social problems. While many studies have demonstrated the benefits of incorporating community service into sociology courses, we examine the benefits of incorporating sociological content into community service classes. The authors…

  19. Sociology in U.S. High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesare, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In the interest of continuing the push toward understanding the status of sociology in high schools, this research note reports some results from the first national study of high school sociology to be carried out in more than 25 years. It is also only the second national study to ever be conducted. Specifically, the author examines the prevalence…

  20. Fænomenologisk sociologi og konstruktivisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind

    hvilke implikationer har pespektivet for forståelse af mennesket og dets omverden? Hvordan skal vi forstå den fænomenologiske sociologis videnskabsteoretiske tilgang? Som hovedleverandører til dette videnskabsteoretiske fundament er - foruden den østrisk-amerikanske sociolog Alfred Schutz også de...

  1. Fænomenologisk sociologi og konstruktivisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind

    hvilke implikationer har pespektivet for forståelse af mennesket og dets omverden? Hvordan skal vi forstå den fænomenologiske sociologis videnskabsteoretiske tilgang? Som hovedleverandører til dette videnskabsteoretiske fundament er - foruden den østrisk-amerikanske sociolog Alfred Schutz også de...

  2. The Sociology of Education. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The translation of a Russian college level textbook dealing with educational sociology is presented in this and the September issue. Chapters three to six are included in this issue. Discusses the sociological problems of Russian secondary education, vocational education, and pedagogical cadres and the research methodology of educational…

  3. The Sociology of Education. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The translation of a Russian college level textbook dealing with educational sociology is presented in this and the October issue. The textbook's introduction and first two chapters are included in this issue. The subject matter of educational sociology and the societal functions of education in a socialist society are discussed. (RM)

  4. A Capstone Course in Applied Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Richard Cheever

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the value of a capstone course in applied sociology as the culmination of the undergraduate sociology curriculum. Points out advantages of joint faculty-student projects for the course and presents the relative merits of two different formats: solo versus team projects. (Author/GEA)

  5. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...

  6. Medical Sociology: What's in a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Derek G.; Twaddle, Andrew C.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the development of medical sociology, which deals with sociological perspectives in relation to health care, from trends in Europe and the United States beginning in the early 20th century through the present. Available from: Unipub, Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York, New York 10016. (AV)

  7. Psychology Needs Realism, Not Instrumentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his comments on "Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a Search for Truth and the Discovery of Solutions" by John T. Cacioppo, Gun R. Semin and Gary G. Berntson. In the original article, the authors recommended the combined use of the philosophies of scientific realism and…

  8. A treatise for a new philosophy of chiropractic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtz, Timothy A

    2017-01-01

    The philosophy of chiropractic has been a much debated entity throughout the existence of the chiropractic profession. Much criticism has been passed upon the historical philosophy of chiropractic and propagated by contemporary adherents. To date, a new philosophy has not been detailed nor presented that demonstrates principles by which to follow. The purpose of this paper is to expand upon the work of Russell Kirk (b.1918, d. 1994), an American political theorist, as a basis for principles to guide the formation of a philosophy of chiropractic medicine (PCM). Each of Kirk's principles will be explained and expounded upon as applicable to a PCM. The addition of the term "medicine" to chiropractic is indicative of a new direction for the profession. The ten principles that provide a foundation for a PCM include: (a) moral order, (b) custom, convention and continuity, (c) prescription, (d) prudence, (e) variety, (f) imperfectability, (g) freedom and property linkage, (h) voluntary community and involuntary collectivism, (i) prudent restraints upon power and human passions, and (j) permanence and change. Each of these principles offers not a dogmatic approach but provides insight into the application of chiropractic medicine to the entire station of the patient and society at large especially that of the economic, social and political. These principles provide direction in not only the approach to the doctor-patient encounter but can be used to visualize the wider world and its potential impact. Instead, these principles examine many tangential issues worthy of discussion that may impact health, social, political, and economic policy and how the chiropractic profession can approach these issues. This paper provides the initial steps in formulating a PCM using principles from a sociological, political and economic standpoint which may impact on how chiropractic medicine approaches the patient and society in totality. In addition, these principles provide the necessary

  9. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...... foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved...

  10. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  11. Yoneda Philosophy in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambrini Seremeti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models, such as sets of equations, are used in engineering to represent and analyze the behaviour of physical systems. The conventional notations in formulating engineering models do not clearly provide all the details required in order to fully understand the equations, and, thus, artifacts such as ontologies, which are the building blocks of knowledge representation models, are used to fulfil this gap. Since ontologies are the outcome of an intersubjective agreement among a group of individuals about the same fragment of the objective world, their development and use are questions in debate with regard to their competencies and limitations to univocally conceptualize a domain of interest. This is related to the following question: “What is the criterion for delimiting the specification of the main identifiable entities in order to consistently build the conceptual framework of the domain in question?” This query motivates us to view the Yoneda philosophy as a fundamental concern of understanding the conceptualization phase of each ontology engineering methodology. In this way, we exploit the link between the notion of formal concepts of formal concept analysis and a concluding remark resulting from the Yoneda embedding lemma of category theory in order to establish a formal process.

  12. [Homeopathy and philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Patrice

    2006-11-01

    We are studying here the philosophical evolution of the homeopathy's inventor, Hahnemann, and the impact of philosophy on the foundation of his doctrine. As far back as 1777 he was, by studying medicine, introduced to animism through two critical Stahl's followers, Platner et Whytt, and to the vitalism of Montpellier's faculty. To found his theory he used the concept of "reaction" of living body on the body acting on it, that we can find as well in the nervous theory of animists as by vitalists like Hufeland, or by more mecanists thinkers like Haller and Cullen, and that corresponds to different representations of Nature medicatrix. As far back as 1801 Hahnemann imagined some morbid causes and medicinal actions as dynamic and immateriel. He will finally conceive the living being in the same way than the vitalists of Montpellier's school, and will adopt, from the Organon's second edition (1819), an immaterial conception of vital force. Nevertheless he distinguishs himself of this school by supporting from the same time the dynamic and immateriel nature of every morbid cause. His doctrine then became more and more spiritualistic and incoherent enough because his recognizing of something immateriel and sprirituel into the matter itself, even out of a living being, which makes us also suppose any esoteric or theosophical sources or influences on his doctrine.

  13. Crisis and Environmental Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolsing

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental ethics began in the 1960s with a growing awareness of coming environmental problems such as pollution and the projected shortage of resources caused by an acceleration in human’s technically based exploitation of nature. In addition to becoming an issue in public debate and in politics since the 1970s, the environmental crisis, which can be laid at the door of industrialization, calls for a more basic consideration of man’s attitude to nature. In this paper I give a short presentation of the concept of crisis in a selection of the principal classical critical philosophies of history and suggest that they all connect crisis to the oppression of man’s inner nature. I go on to sketch the idea of environmental crisis as an oppression of outer nature (the natural environment suggesting that a new, more nuanced organic concept of nature is needed as a condition for ascribing value to life on earth as a whole, which is what most non-anthropocentric ethical theories to some extent do.

  14. Sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    I kapitlet diskuteres ud fra et sociologisk perspektiv brug af et screeningsinstrumentet til opsporing af depression efter indlæggelse for hjertesygdom. HADS – Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Det er en udbredt praksis at screene udskrevne hjertepatienter for depression. Som screeningsinstru...

  15. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  16. The Christian voice in philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Fowler

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Rev. Stuart Fowler outlines a Christian voice in Philosophy and urges the Christian philosopher to investigate his position and his stance with integrity and honesty.

  17. Why still philosophy?: Once again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to revisit, once again the question asked by Adorno and Habermas and other contemporary thinkers under different headings few decades ago. The author is suggesting that nowadays philosophy requires a final departure from the idea of having single and perennial face, and that this would not only allow, but also enable philosophy to test its various faces freely, that is, without norm or limit set in advance. At the same time, by creating such ′liberal′ climate philosophy would no longer be frightened by the possible answer, and hence would no longer dramatize the very question of ′why still?′. Even if philosophy turns out to be far less than the mission it once bestowed upon itself.

  18. From structuralism to neutral monism in Arthur S. Eddington's philosophy of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherab-Martin, Karim J.

    2013-11-01

    Arthur S. Eddington is remembered as one of the best astrophysicists and popularizers of physics in the twentieth century. Nevertheless, his stimulating speculations in philosophy produced serious disputes among philosophers of his time, his philosophy remaining linked to idealism and mysticism. This paper shows this label to be misleading and argues for the identification of Eddington's philosophy with a kind of neutral monism regained from Bertrand Russell and influenced by the Gestalt psychology. The concept of structure is fundamental to our argument for the existence of a veiled neutral monism in Eddington's ideas.

  19. Chinese Traditional Philosophy and Indigenous Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    philosophy is a system of thought distinct from the Western philosophy; while the Western philosophy is mainly concerned about the True, i.e., the objective knowledge of the world, the aim of Chinese traditional philosophy is the pursuit of the Good, i.e., the unification of heaven and human....

  20. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪

    2016-01-01

    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  1. HOBBES’ POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHAI NOVAC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This is basically an attempt at an original conceptual reconstruction of Hobbes’ philosophy as set in Lehiathan, namely one in the view of which Hobbes was neither an atheist nor an absolutist, as the standard interpretation holds, but rather what we could call an agnostical pragmatist (fact which, quite surprisingly, places Hobbes in the company of Burke. More to the point, my basic claim within this paper is that Hobbes was not such an ‘enemy of individual freedom’ as we traditionally hold him to be and that his thought was just as attached to the notion of individual freedom as the later contractualist views. The difference however, arises from the fact that Hobbes, unlike Locke, Rousseau or Kant, was what we could call a voluntaristic determinist and consequently viewed human freedom not so much as ‘unhindered action derived from reflective choice’, but rather as what we could call ‘reasonable fulfillment of the basic human inclinations’ (self-interest. As such, I will analyze the three main focal points of Hobbes’ thought, namely (i human nature, (ii the principle of association and (iii the principle of authority. More specifically I will try to offer a perspective on the link between his voluntaristic determinism, his notion of legitimate absolute coercion (sovereignity and his political theology (the view that any form of political authority rests on a religious legitimacy in trying to demonstrate how all these were Hobbes’ specific way of seeking to find individual freedom a place under the sun.

  2. On Explaining Language Shift: Sociology or Social Psychology of Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the potentials and limits of sociolinguistic research on language shift. Starting from a position that the ultimate goal of the research must be to create a general theory of language shift of predictive power, the author examines the explanatory potential of current mainstream research methodology now regarded as canonical…

  3. Giving and Volunteering in the Netherlands : Sociological and Psychological Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René Henricus Franciscus Petrus

    2004-01-01

    Dissertation of the University of Utrecht Volunteer work, membership of voluntary associations, philanthropy and donation of blood and organs are studied by scholars from a wide range of disciplines. Sociologists and economists assume that good intentions are universal, but that some people have a s

  4. Revisiting College Predisposition: Integrating Sociological and Psychological Perspectives on Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Johanna C.; Perez, Rosemary J.; Posselt, Julie R.

    2010-01-01

    Student choice models from the higher education literature elucidate the psychosocial factors that are correlated with college enrollment. They do not, however, clarify how these factors interact to cultivate the inclination to pursue postsecondary education. This critical review integrates a Bourdieuian framework with research on academic domain…

  5. Giving and volunteering in the Netherlands : Sociological and psychological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Volunteer work, membership of voluntary associations, philanthropy and donation of blood and organs are studied by scholars from a wide range of disciplines. Sociologists and economists assume that good intentions are universal, but that some people have a stock of human and social capital that allo

  6. On Explaining Language Shift: Sociology or Social Psychology of Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the potentials and limits of sociolinguistic research on language shift. Starting from a position that the ultimate goal of the research must be to create a general theory of language shift of predictive power, the author examines the explanatory potential of current mainstream research methodology now regarded as canonical…

  7. Sociological establishment of 'normative facts'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Every science is searching for 'it's facts', it's concept and categorical decree, and by this defines specific subject of it's science researching. Here, the researching is steered on identification of ontological contents of 'normative fact' in the aim of comprehension of it's categorical entity and conceptual disposition.'The normative fact' refers to importance, significance and sense which norm has, in other words, which is attributed to the norm by man and society, and which in the air of importance influence on it's behavior. Exclusive term of sociological science is 'normative fact' as behavior of an individual, groups, institutions and society with regard to establishment, application and changes of social norms.

  8. Metaphor of society (a sociological essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii Vasil’evich Osipov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay by Academician G.V. Osipov, who is the patriarch of Russian sociology, is dedicated to one of the most cognitive topics of modern sociology – identification of sociological metaphor as such and its application in research projects. This topic is avant-garde for the world sociological thought, and in Russia such kind of research is making its first steps. However, its future importance is difficult to overestimate. Sociological metaphor, if a methodology for its application is developed, can provide scientists with qualitatively new synthetic research tools. It can also bring together scientific structures and artifacts on the space of interdisciplinary and inter-subject borderland and give them qualitatively new intellectual and sensuous (system and mental technological capabilities for learning the surrounding world. The advantage of the following essay can be found in the fact that it is based on the objective analysis of the real embodiment of social metaphor in the work of art – a pictorial triptych “The Mystery of the 21st Century”. This is the first such experience in domestic sociological and artistic-painting practice. The authors of the final product are a scientist of great scientific and life experience and a young artist, who received in-depth sociological training and defended his Ph.D. in Sociology dissertation. But the main result of their collaboration is a product that combines scientific (sociological knowledge and insight and intuitive-creative artistic perception in a qualitatively new perception of the world and world outlook

  9. A View from Above: The Evolving Sociological Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, James; Light, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    How has sociology evolved over the last 40 years? In this paper, we examine networks built on thousands of sociology-relevant papers to map sociology's position in the wider social sciences and identify changes in the most prominent research fronts in the discipline. We find first that sociology seems to have traded centrality in the field of…

  10. First Contact: Teaching and Learning in Introductory Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Introduction to Sociology course is usually the first contact that students have with the discipline of sociology. This course can determine whether students take other sociology courses or learn to use sociology in their lives as adults and citizens. "First Contact" identifies important issues facing instructors in introducing students to the…

  11. Sociology of Music and Ethnomusicology: Two Disciplines in Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Marcello Sorce

    1986-01-01

    Examines the history and structure of two interdisciplinary fields (sociology of music and ethnomusicology) and describes their relationship to each other. Looks at the sociology of music within the context of musical scholarship, describes four approaches to musical sociology, and contrasts sociology of music with ethnomusicology. (AYC)

  12. Comte Unplugged: Using a "Technology Fast" to Teach Sociological Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoop, Katrina C.

    2012-01-01

    Sociology majors learn that sociological theory is foundational to our field; it frames the way we look at the world and provides guiding questions for our social inquiry. But sociology instructors know that teaching theory is a challenge. A number of activities have been created to engage students in sociological theory courses. This note…

  13. First Contact: Teaching and Learning in Introductory Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Introduction to Sociology course is usually the first contact that students have with the discipline of sociology. This course can determine whether students take other sociology courses or learn to use sociology in their lives as adults and citizens. "First Contact" identifies important issues facing instructors in introducing students to the…

  14. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  15. Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2010-01-01

    Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…

  16. Vocation in Theology and Psychology: Conflicting Approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Recent contributions in the fields of psychology, sociology, and theology reveal opposing attitudes about the subject of calling or vocation with regard to one's work. Whereas psychologists have rediscovered the concept, theologians increasingly show reluctance to accept a vocational view of work. In offering an alternative perspective, this…

  17. Where Is the Sociology of Religion Heading? Some Comments to 'Three European Sociologies of Religion'

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Comments on Zdenek R. Nespor's article, 'Three European Sociologies of Religion: Beyond the Usual Agenda of the Discipline,' which reviews three new European overviews of the discipline that go beyond its traditional agenda. There is agreement with Nespor that there has been a merging of European & Anglo-American sociologies of religion; however, differences between European & American applications of the sociological study of religion are said to be an artificially created problem. Attention...

  18. From sociology in medicine to the sociology of collective health: contributions toward a necessary reflexivity

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Castro

    2016-01-01

    En este texto se aborda la distinción entre la sociología en la medicina (colaboradora de las instituciones de salud) y la sociología de la medicina (independiente de las instituciones de salud). Se argumenta que, si es consecuente, la sociología en la medicina deviene sociología de la medicina. Como ejemplo, se discute el caso de los determinantes sociales de la salud que, inicialmente, asumen como no problemática la realidad ontológica de la salud-enfermedad y luego problematizan el concept...

  19. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...... its role as a scientific discipline that contributes to making transparent the political, social, and interpersonal relations that define how our lives are shaped, if we want a discipline that provides value beyond the scientific realm....

  20. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  1. Teaching Sociology within the Speech and Language Therapy Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Earle, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists suggests that sociology should be included within the speech and language therapy curriculum. However, in spite of this, sociology is seldom given priority. Although the role of sociology with the curricula of other professions has been discussed, the role of sociology within speech and language therapy has not. Given the contemporary climate of competence-based training, the position of subjects such as sociology is b...

  2. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsephe M. Letseka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980 Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983 African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990 Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy, Shutte’s (1993 Philosophy for Africa, Masolo’s (1994 African philosophy in search of identity and Gyekye’s (1995 An essay of African philosophical thought: The Akan conceptual scheme. It has been over 60 years since the publication of Temples’s book and there continues to be serious debate about African philosophy. This article sought to contribute to the debate on the various conceptions of African philosophy, but with a focus on the challenges of teaching African philosophy to Philosophy of Education students at an open distance learning institution in South Africa. This article discussed the tendency amongst undergraduate Philosophy of Education students to conflate and reduce African philosophy to African cultures and traditions, and to the notion of ubuntu, and sought to understand the reasons for students’ inclination to treat African philosophy in this way. It examined students’ background knowledge of African philosophy, their critical thinking skills and whether their official study materials are selected and packaged in a manner that, in fact, adds to the challenges they face. Finally, the article explored the ways in which Philosophy of Education lecturers can adapt their pedagogy to provide students with a better understanding of African philosophy.

  3. A Socio-Psychological Exploration of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwasomba, Chijioke

    2009-01-01

    Using a socio-psychological approach, the essay explores Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment. The exploration highlights Dostoyevsky's heavy reliance on the use of psychological realism, showing in the process the intricate interplay between psychology, sociology and literature. In the novel, the reader comes across the merging of the…

  4. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  5. Soaps and the Sociology of the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood-Williams, John

    1986-01-01

    Using the television series "Dallas" as an example, this article describes how to use soap operas to illustrate common topics and increase students' interest in a sociology of the family course. (JDH)

  6. Feminism and the sociology of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Ivana A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influences of feminist thought on sociological theory and research, refracted through the conceptualization of the sphere of everyday life. It is argued that there are important theoretical affinities between feminism and the sociology of everyday life, as it has developed since mid-20th century. Main feminist contributions to sociological study of everyday life are identified at two levels: substantive (the study of formerly neglected social phenomena, particularly the private sphere, and epistemological (the questioning of positivistic ideals of objective and neutral social science. The position of the feminist theorist Dorothy Smith is selected for a more detailed critical discussion. In the concluding part of the paper some controversial points in the feminist concept of the sociology of everyday life are indicated.

  7. Teaching Sociology and Womens’ Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Zaki

    2013-08-01

    C. Wright Mills, leaning on approach, each student through the process of critical thinking in the sociology of education increases,Identification and analysis of practical realization of the society will be realized by most students.

  8. Teaching Sociological Research Methods to Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Stanford W.; O'Toole, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Reports the development of a three-course eight-week summer program for medical students. One course covers research methods and the other two involve research practicums in public health and medical sociology. (JDH)

  9. MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grednovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the experience of the Department of Philosophy of the South Ural State University (Russia on the use of media technology in the teaching of philosophy. Media technologies are examined not simply as tools of knowledge translation to students, but they are comprehended as a media reality, which sometimes completely dissolve a human. Media philosophy which appeared as a new philosophical trend that meets the today realities, contemplates the nowadays situation of influence of mass communications on human’s world outlook, on his selfidentification, also on his body and feelings. The students are possessed to analyze a visual media material, because the foundation of media reality is a visual image.

  10. Transcendental Philosophy and its Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishihara, Yuko

    There is an interesting overlap between Heidegger and Nishida that has not gained attention in the literature. During the late 1920s, both philosophers looked to transcendental philosophy as a way to overcome the Western metaphysical tradition. Neither philosopher, however,simply accepted...... traditional forms of transcendental philosophy. Rather, both attempted to transform it from within. In this work, I aim to articulate the extent to which Heidegger and Nishidastill worked within a traditional transcendental framework and also the ways in which they attempt to transform transcendental...... philosophy. I argue that while Heidegger’s “hermeneutic” and Nishida’s “chorological” (I employ this term from Plato’s chōra) transformations have much in common, the latter is more radical than the former. Specifically, Nishida reveals the pre-reflective origin of transcendental reflection not in the pre...

  11. How is a philosophy of photography possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchuk Valery

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the following question: how is philosophy of anything possible? Where lies the boundary of specialisation area beyond which the term “philosophy” loses not only its strength, but also its meaning? When we talk about specific genre, for example, graphic art or sculpture we use the term “philosophy” in a broader, metaphorical sense. Why then should philosophy of photography be any different? All of the abovementioned questions are discussed in the present article. Philosophy of photography is, indeed, a legitimate discipline, just as philosophy of language, philosophy of science and technology and philosophy of politics are.

  12. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  13. Post-Phenomenological Sociology of the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Krpič

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the works of two classic philosophic writers, Edmund Husserl and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, by focusing on the significance of both writers for the post-phenomenological nature of the sociology of the body. With their reflections on the “living body” and its position in the world, Husserl and Merleau-Ponty both pave the way to phenomenological thought and consolidate its place in the post-phenomenological sociology of the body.

  14. Socialkonstruktivismer i klassisk og moderne sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasborg, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    En videnskabsteoretisk diskussion af socialkonstruktivismens genealogi, samt af en række fremtrædende socialkonstruktivistiske positioner i klassisk og moderne sociologi (Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Berger & Luckmann, Goffman og Bourdieu)......En videnskabsteoretisk diskussion af socialkonstruktivismens genealogi, samt af en række fremtrædende socialkonstruktivistiske positioner i klassisk og moderne sociologi (Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Berger & Luckmann, Goffman og Bourdieu)...

  15. Socialkonstruktivismer i klassisk og moderne sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasborg, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    En videnskabsteoretisk diskussion af socialkonstruktivismens genealogi, samt af en række fremtrædende socialkonstruktivistiske positioner i klassisk og moderne sociologi (Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Berger & Luckmann, Goffman og Bourdieu)......En videnskabsteoretisk diskussion af socialkonstruktivismens genealogi, samt af en række fremtrædende socialkonstruktivistiske positioner i klassisk og moderne sociologi (Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Berger & Luckmann, Goffman og Bourdieu)...

  16. Review on Urban Sociology(2nd Edition)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Yuting; Li; Caige

    2016-01-01

    Urban Sociology(2nd Edition)Author:Gu Chaolin,Liu Jiayan,et al.Year:2013Publisher:Tsinghua University Press ISBN:9787302337591(446 pages,in Chinese)Urban Sociology is a textbook edited by Gu Chaolin,a wellk now n schola r of u rba n st udies i n Ch i na,a nd published by Tsinghua University Press in 2013.The first edition of this book,

  17. The Impact of Feminism on Sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Walby

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the impact of feminism on British sociology over the last 60 years. It focuses on changes in the intellectual content of the discipline, including epistemology, methodology, theory, concepts and the fields of economy, polity, violence and civil society. It situates these changes in the context of changes in gendered organisation of sociology, the rise of women's/gender studies, the ecology of social sciences and societal changes, especially the transformation of the gen...

  18. On Wittgenstein's philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Merker, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Mathematics cannot anymore be assimilated to a linguistic game, where formal proofs are strongly differentiated with conjectural thinking, without building any category of knowledge to understand the passage (Wittgenstein's gist). Nowadays, philosophy has to face with the growing, exponential ramified tree of speculative mathematical thinking. Our main (problematical) theses are: 1. In mathematics, there is no empirical automatism, and no separate, physical-like motricity. 2: The irreversible-synthetical must force to complexify the exegetical game of philosophy; numerical experiments in algebra and in number theory are a kind of letting blow up all possible problems; 4. The nature of mathematical questioning still remains in question.

  19. Impure Postmodernity – Philosophy Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David KOLB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the situation of philosophy today in an era of mixed modern, postmodern, and traditional values and social patterns. It argues, with reference to postmodern architecture and to the German philosophers Hegel and Heidegger, that we should reject polarizing conceptual dualities, and that we need to seek out new kinds of less centered and less hierarchical unities that take advantage of the internal tensions and spacings within intellectual and cultural formations. It concludes with a discussion of the promises and problems of dialogue between Eastern and Western philosophies in today’s world.

  20. On the nature and sociology of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Dunn, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Much has been written in the last decade about how we should understand the value of the sociology of bioethics. Increasingly the value of the sociology of bioethics is interpreted by its advocates directly in terms of its relationship to bioethics. It is claimed that the sociology of bioethics (and related disciplinary approaches) should be seen as an important component of work in bioethics. In this paper we wish to examine whether, and how, the sociology of bioethics can be defended as a valid and justified research activity, in the context of debates about the nature of bioethics. We begin by presenting and arguing for an account of bioethics that does justice to the content of the field, the range of questions that belong within this field, and the justificatory standards (and methodological orientations) that can provide convincing answers to these questions. We then consider the role of sociology in bioethics and show how and under what conditions it can contribute to answering questions within bioethics. In the final section, we return to the sociology of bioethics to show that it can make only a limited contribution to the field.

  1. 87 Philosophy and African Philosophy: A Conceptual Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    is to attempt a conceptual clarifications and meanings of ... its formal sense, let us see how nonprofessionals (that is, .... society”.xx According to B. Russell, philosophy is something .... making sense of their lives”.xxxviSo .... their theories based on their immediate experience, culture ... Hutchinson University Library, 1948), p.

  2. THE PHILOSOFICAL FRAME OF TRAIAN BRĂILEANU’S SOCIOLOGICAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU-OVIDIU VINTILĂ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at presenting the way in which is the philosophy of Traian Brăileanu structured. His work is unitary and is based on a clear idea, namely a sociology build on philosophy. Traian Brăileanu explained the term of moral community, key-concept of his social theory, a concept introduced in his human community paradigm. This paradigm can be compared with others proposed by Max Weber, Karl Marx, Robert Merton, Pierre Bourdieu, Ralph Dahrendorf or Jean Baudrillard. For the Romanian sociologist the supreme value of the community is morality. In the second part of his life the professor of Cernăuţi University dedicated his studies to a Christian sociology always situated between the logic of the mind and the logic of the soul, as Vasile Dem Zamfirescu stated. Traian Brăileanu felt that the rational factor was not enough for a real initiation of the ideal being. He was convinced that spirit is ever needed as well

  3. Social factors, mental illness, and psychiatric care: recent advances from a sociological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R

    1984-08-01

    The author reviews advances in the sociological perspective on mental health over the past four years. He examines research on such topics as community acceptance of the mentally ill, arrest rates among former psychiatric inpatients, and the effect of social factors on the type of mental health treatment received. Other research areas surveyed include the influence of social factors on service utilization and on life stress and psychological distress, sex differences in psychological problems, and the relationship between organization of service delivery systems and patient outcome.

  4. Towards a Sociological Understanding of Robots as Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oost, Ellen; Reed, Darren

    While Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) have, in the past, primarily mediated or facilitated emotional bonding between humans, contemporary robot technologies are increasingly making the bond between human and robots the core issue. Thinking of robots as companions is not only a development that opens up huge potential for new applications, it also raises social and ethical issues. In this paper we will argue that current conceptions of human-robot companionship are primarily rooted in cognitive psychological traditions and provide important, yet limited understanding of the companion relationship. Elaborating on a sociological perspective on the appropriation of new technology, we will argue for a richer understanding of companionship that takes the situatedness (in location, network and time) of the use-context into account.

  5. Sociology facing new scientistic attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Parra Saiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 Marradi drew the attention to the semantic expansion that have suffered some of the terms used in the social sciences because of an inferiority complex regarding the physical sciences. The cascade of conceptual components from “hard” sciences to the “soft” ones is certainly impressive. Obviously, the problem is not the blending of the human sciences, but the substitution of thought itself with slogans, without reflecting on its epistemological and ontological assumptions. In my note I want to extend the analysis of the consequences of inferiority complex in three directions: i extending the referents (imported terms, including another key part of social science term: the term indicator; ii analyzing the significance of the quantification in the development of sociological discipline in competition with economic discipline for public recognition; iii marking the importance of a successful image of science among the world of those who take political and economic decisions, which limits the possibilities of social research

  6. The sociology of superstring theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Brian Douglas

    This dissertation carefully tracks the historical origins of superstring theory in high energy particle physics, its subsequent decline under the guise of the "dual model" in the mid-1970s, and its reemergence in the mid-1980s in what came to be known as the "first superstring revolution." I then explore the scientific controversy that emerged after the first superstring revolution due to superstring theory's lack of contact with experiment, and the set of institutional pressures felt by string theorists that they refer to as the "sociology" of superstring theory. I employ and develop the concept of "scientific legitimacy" to organize the historical analysis of superstring theory and the subsequent scientific controversy. My study emphasizes the interpretive flexibility of theory selection, the role of scientific judgment in the acceptance of scientific knowledge, and the ways in which boundary work operates in scientific controversies. A careful analysis of the empirical case of superstring theory indicates some of the limitations associated with the ways in which the closure of scientific controversies has traditionally been conceptualized by social researchers. To help overcome these difficulties, I propose a four-fold typology that I refer to as the "epistemic space of rejected science."

  7. 2014 Hans O. Mauksch Address. Neoliberalism and Higher Education: How a Misguided Philosophy Undermines Teaching Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucal, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that neoliberalism is a critical public issue influencing the apparently private troubles of college students and teachers. For example, earning a college degree has become ever more important for success; yet, because of declining state support for public education, students are taking on extraordinary levels of debt. As a…

  8. Philosophy, Methodology and Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…

  9. Biology, Philosophy, and Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L.

    1985-01-01

    The limits of falsification are discussed and the historically based models of science described by Lakatos and Kuhn are shown to offer greater insights into the practice of science. The theory of natural selection is used to relate biology to philosophy and scientific method. (Author/JN)

  10. The Moral Value of Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoffen, Debra B.

    1980-01-01

    This essay develops the thesis that we can, by appealing to Socrates and Bertrand Russell as role models, counter the assumption that philosophy is an ivory tower enterprise and show students that an essential relationship exists between the process of rationale reflection and the living of a moral life. (Author)

  11. Experiential Education: Democratizing Educational Philosophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnich, Elizabeth Kamarck

    1999-01-01

    Looks at some of the philosophical positions, especially Pragmatism, that ground and inform the traditions of experiential education, examining hierarchical philosophy and experiential education, egalitarian pragmatism and experiential education (using Jane Addams as an example), and Dewey's theory of education as expressed in "Democracy and…

  12. Mathematical History, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Michael

    2007-01-01

    History of mathematics occupies itself describing processes of growth and development, whereas philosophy of mathematics is concerned with questions of justification. Both play an essential role within the educational context. But there is a problem because genuine historical studies necessitate ever greater particularity whereas mathematics and…

  13. Experiential Education: Democratizing Educational Philosophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnich, Elizabeth Kamarck

    1999-01-01

    Looks at some of the philosophical positions, especially Pragmatism, that ground and inform the traditions of experiential education, examining hierarchical philosophy and experiential education, egalitarian pragmatism and experiential education (using Jane Addams as an example), and Dewey's theory of education as expressed in "Democracy and…

  14. Academic Writing, Genres and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the underlying genres of philosophy focusing especially on their pedagogical forms to emphasize the materiality and historicity of genres, texts and writing. It focuses briefly on the history of the essay and its relation to the journal within the wider history of scientific communication, and comments on the standardized forms…

  15. Philosophy, Methodology and Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…

  16. Philosophy, computing and information science

    CERN Document Server

    Hagengruber, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades computers and the internet have become an intrinsic part of all our lives, but this speed of development has left related philosophical enquiry behind. Featuring the work of computer scientists and philosophers, these essays provide an overview of an exciting new area of philosophy that is still taking shape.

  17. Why, Where, and How to Infuse the Atlanta Sociological Laboratory into the Sociology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Earl, II

    2012-01-01

    The Atlanta Sociological Laboratory is the moniker bestowed on scholars engaged in sociological research at Atlanta University between 1895 and 1924. Under the leadership of W. E. B. Du Bois, 1897-1914, this school made substantive yet marginalized contributions to the discipline. Its accomplishments include, but are not limited to, its…

  18. Why, Where, and How to Infuse the Atlanta Sociological Laboratory into the Sociology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Earl, II

    2012-01-01

    The Atlanta Sociological Laboratory is the moniker bestowed on scholars engaged in sociological research at Atlanta University between 1895 and 1924. Under the leadership of W. E. B. Du Bois, 1897-1914, this school made substantive yet marginalized contributions to the discipline. Its accomplishments include, but are not limited to, its…

  19. A Sociology for the 21st Century? An Enquiry into Public Sociology Reading Zygmunt Bauman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Aidnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Burawoy’s public sociology presents a vision of engaged and political sociology that stands for critical debate and social justice. The article will consider public sociology in light of Zygmunt Bauman’s social thought, one of the most acclaimed sociologists whose writings transcend academic readership. It will identify the similarities and diff erences concerning their understanding of contemporary society and sociology’s tasks, as well as its shortcomings, which will sediment public sociology’s cause. The article will discuss Burawoy’s conception of public sociology through Bauman’s views on the tasks of sociology, which will be seen as illuminating for both political and ethical reasons. The aim of the paper is to interpret public sociology from the point of view of Bauman’s writings on liquid modernity, and thereby increase its awareness of the ways in which contemporary societies call for sociological engagement. It will be argued that ethics and dialogue are equally important to politics for public sociology

  20. Sociology of the College Classroom: Applying Sociological Theory at the Classroom Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Maxine P.; Buck, Alison R.; Hunt, Andrea N.

    2009-01-01

    "Teaching Sociology's" emphasis on the scholarship of teaching and learning has moved the field well beyond simple description of teaching methods. There is no doubt that the journal is more scholarly than in the past. Still, we do not take advantage of our rich theoretical disciplinary work. There is much to learn sociologically about the…

  1. Sociology of the Prison Classroom: Marginalized Identities and Sociological Imaginations behind Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrotta, Kylie L.; Thompson, Gretchen H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors use sociology of the college classroom to analyze their experiences as feminists teaching sociology courses in the "unconventional setting" of prison. Reflective writing was used to chronicle experiences in the classes. They apply the concepts of doing gender, interaction order, and emotion work to the prison classroom. Based on their…

  2. Philosophy and Literature; Philosophy as Literature: Call for Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plato wrote both stories and argument as a way of investigating philosophical problems. For Plato, the choice of literary form was essential to the quest for philosophical truth. Ever since, philosophical reflection has found expression in numerous literary forms, both creative and conventional. And so, we have Platonic and Humean dialogues, Cartesian meditations, Enlightenment fables, Kierkegaardian narratives, Nietzchean parables and aphorisms, Russellian mathematics, Wittgensteinian tractatuses and investigations, as well as all the standard literary forms of novels, novellas, poems, plays, and songs. Transnational Literature is seeking papers for a special edition of the journal which will be dedicated to the literary expression of philosophy. Rather than readings of philosophy in literature (of mapping particular philosophical frameworks onto works of literature, we invite explorations of philosophy as literature and we invite these explorations to also address the journal’s transnational focus by exploring the crossing of cultural, national and temporal boundaries. The following ideas are of particular interest: •\tPhilosophy and literature as ‘embattled adversaries’ (Calvino and the breaking down of boundaries between philosophy and literature. •\tPhilosophical fiction as an alternative mode of philosophical reflection and investigation and/or experimental method. (George Eliot’s novels, for example, as ‘a set of experiments in life… endeavour[s] to see what our thought and emotion may be capable of.’ •\tThe use of literary devices in philosophical writing to express philosophical facts / metaphysical truths. (Locke’s metaphorical ‘candle within us’ becomes the factual ‘intuition.’ •\tThe use of literary devices in creative fiction to do the work of philosophy. (Exposition as a way of interrupting narrative to keep reader attentive to the task of enquiry. Point-of-view as ethical device. Ellipsis as getting

  3. The place of philosophy in European culture

    OpenAIRE

    Dummett, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the author investigates the place of philosophy in European culture. Philosophy has taken a considerable time to be recognised, or to recognise itself, as distinct from other disciplines. Although philosophy gave birth to physics and, more recently, to other sciences, it is not seen as a “technical” subject, like mathematics and natural sciences, or even social sciences such as economics. Philosophy is available to the general (educated) public while the technical subjects ar...

  4. [From sociology in medicine to the sociology of collective health: contributions toward a necessary reflexivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    This text looks at the difference between sociology in medicine (collaborator of health institutions) and the sociology of medicine (independent of health institutions). If consistent, sociology in medicine should become a sociology of medicine. As an example, it is shown how the study of the social determinants of health and illness begins by assuming non-problematically the ontological reality of health and illness, but ends up problematizing the very concept of health-disease, demonstrating that the study of health determinants also requires the study of the determinants of the social construction of disease. The urgent necessity of objectifying collective health itself is argued. By applying sociological tools we can examine the so-called objective factors in the determination of health and disease, the socially constructed nature of these categories of knowledge, and the struggles and power relations that determine whether or not such categories are viable.

  5. Is Philosophy of Education a Historical Mistake? Connecting Philosophy and Education Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I suggest that the question whether the proper place for philosophy of education is in the domain of philosophy or the domain of education cannot be resolved as long as we think of the connection between philosophy and education in terms of the idea of "philosophy of education". To substantiate this point, I look into…

  6. Philosophical Questions about Teaching Philosophy: What's at Stake in High School Philosophy Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    What is at stake in high school philosophy education, and why? Why is it a good idea to teach philosophy at this level? This essay seeks to address some issues that arose in revising the Ontario grade 12 philosophy curriculum documents, significant insights from philosophy teacher education, and some early results of recent research funded by the…

  7. Is Philosophy of Education a Historical Mistake? Connecting Philosophy and Education Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I suggest that the question whether the proper place for philosophy of education is in the domain of philosophy or the domain of education cannot be resolved as long as we think of the connection between philosophy and education in terms of the idea of "philosophy of education". To substantiate this point, I look into…

  8. Philosophy, Exposure, and Children: How to Resist the Instrumentalisation of Philosophy in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2011-01-01

    The use of philosophy in educational programmes and practices under such names as philosophy for children, philosophy with children, or the community of philosophical enquiry, has become well established in many countries around the world. The main attraction of the educational use of philosophy seems to lie in the claim that it can help children…

  9. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  10. The Principal Assignment of Philosophy in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Tarasiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article is focused on the question of the primary task of philosophy in culture. The problem of philosophy itself is the starting point here. The author observes a chronic discord among philosophers on what philosophy is that undermines the identity of the afore-mentioned as well as disables it from determining its tasks in the culture. Thus, he attempts to determine the nature of philosophy indirectly. The author indicates what philosophy is not and has never been from its beginning, and can not be if it be itself. According to the author, myth is an effective negative criterion with which to determine the true character of philosophy. Philosophy’s aspiration to emancipate itself from myth’s influence justifies the effort to search the foundation of philosophy in contradistinction from myth, and enabling a determination of philosophy directly by indicating its constitutive factors. To philosophize is to know things as they are in the real world, or as they are related to the real world. A reflection on philosophy is not only possible, but also necessary. Since philosophy is part of human culture, the author concludes that the primary task of philosophy in culture consists in justifying the identity of philosophy as such.

  11. Philosophy of Education and Other Educational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    This article largely agrees with John White's characterizations of the relationships among philosophy of education, philosophy more generally, and the conventional world. It then extends what White identifies as the fundamental problem that should now be occupying philosophy of education--the irreconcilable opposition between education for…

  12. THE PRINCIPAL ASSIGNMENT OF PHILOSOPHY IN CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Tarasiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article is focused on the question of the primary task of philosophy in culture. The problem of philosophy itself is the starting point here. The author observes a chronic discord among philosophers on what philosophy is that undermines the identity of the afore-mentioned as well as disables it from determining its tasks in the culture. Thus, he attempts to determine the nature of philosophy indirectly. The author indicates what philosophy is not and has never been from its beginning, and can not be if it be itself. According to the author, myth is an effective negative criterion with which to determine the true character of philosophy. Philosophy’s aspiration to emancipate itself from myth’s influence justifies the effort to search the foundation of philosophy in contradistinction from myth, and enabling a determination of philosophy directly by indicating its constitutive factors. To philosophize is to know things as they are in the real world, or as they are related to the real world. A reflection on philosophy is not only possible, but also necessary. Since philosophy is part of human culture, the author concludes that the primary task of philosophy in culture consists in justifying the identity of philosophy as such.

  13. Public School Superintendent Philosophies and Their Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, John

    2012-01-01

    Postmodernism is a philosophical description that encompasses philosophy, the arts, a period of history, and many other aspects of today's existence. This dissertation examines the extent to which Indiana public school superintendents use postmodern philosophy as opposed to modern philosophy to inform their practice. This was accomplished by…

  14. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  15. Philosophy of Education and Other Educational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    This article largely agrees with John White's characterizations of the relationships among philosophy of education, philosophy more generally, and the conventional world. It then extends what White identifies as the fundamental problem that should now be occupying philosophy of education--the irreconcilable opposition between education for…

  16. Philosophy 323, Readings in Asian Thought. Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdle, Burton G., Jr.

    A survey course syllabus of Asian philosophy is presented. For each period of dates in the semester course, a reading assignment was made, discussion topics and questions proposed, and supplementary readings and sources suggested. The course focused on Indian philosophy, Buddhism and Hinduism, and Chinese philosophy, specifically Confucian…

  17. The importance of Franz Brentano's act-psychology / A importância da act-psychology de Franz Brentano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Pesquero Ramón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to redeem Franz Brentano's paternity of his Intentionality Theory, which sustains his act-psychology, which postulates, among other thesis, the indissociabitity between idea and action for explaining the specificity of human behavior. For that, he is considered one of the creators of modern psychology, as emancipated from philosophy. This assumption is subjacent to Psychoanalysis, Gestalt-Psychology and Cognitive-Phenomelogical Psychology.

  18. The Philosophy of War and Exile : From the Humanity of War to the Inhumanity of Peace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gertz, Nolen

    2014-01-01

    Arguing that the suffering of combatants is better understood through philosophy than psychology, as not trauma, but exile, this book investigates the experiences of torturers, UAV operators, cyberwarriors, and veterans to reveal not only the exile at the core of becoming a combatant, but the evasio

  19. Facts, theories and ideologies: Viola Klein and Sociology of Scientific Knowledge Hechos, teorías e ideología: Viola Klein y la sociología del conocimiento científico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Pérez Sedeño

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Several studies on history, philosophy and sociology of science have demonstrated that science is not autonomous and value-neutral and its selfless search of truth is an ideal theoretical myth far from the real practice of science, which is an aggregate of social practices. Viola Klein was a pioneer in studying science using the same instruments and categories utilized in any other social practice. The aim of this work is to highlight her contributions to Sociology of Scientific Knowledge at a moment when this discipline was, at the most, incipient.

    Diversos estudios en historia, filosofía y sociología de la ciencia han mostrado que el carácter autónomo y valorativamente neutro de la ciencia y su búsqueda desinteresada de la verdad es, en el mejor de los casos, un mito ideal alejado de la práctica científica real, que es un conjunto de prácticas sociales. Viola Klein fue una pionera en estudiar la ciencia con los mismos instrumentos y categorías utilizados para cualquier otra práctica social. El objetivo de este trabajo es sacar a la luz sus aportaciones a la sociología del conocimiento científico, en un momento en el que esa disciplina era, como mucho, incipiente.

  20. The use of quantitative medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blane, David

    2003-01-01

    The present article reviews, in relation to quantitative work on the social structure, papers published in Sociology of Health and Illness during its first 25 years. Each issue published during the years 1979-2002 has been examined; and quantitative papers, relating to various aspects of the social structure, have been identified. Such papers are found to have formed a minor but substantively significant theme within the Journal. These contributions situate the journal between sociology and social epidemiology. Articles in the Journal, for example, have been part of sociological debates about the measurement of social class, and of social epidemiological debates about the relationship between income distribution and population health. The contribution of Sociology of Health and Illness to a number of such debates is reviewed. The article concludes that the present situation, in particular the intellectual crisis in social epidemiology and social science investment in large data sets, gives the Journal the chance to build on this distinguished tradition by encouraging, through its publication policy, the further development of quantitative medical sociology.