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Sample records for psychology sociology child

  1. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  2. [Psychological theory and implicit sociology.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, R

    1983-01-01

    This text is based on the hypothesis that every theory on the psychology of personality must inevitably, in one manner or another, have a sociological referent, that is to say, it must refer to a body of knowledge which deals with a diversity of social contexts and their relations to individuals. According to this working hypothesis, such a sociology is implicit. This text then discusses a group of theoretical approaches in an effort to verify this hypothesis. This approach allows the extrication of diverse forms or diverse expressions of this implicit sociology within this context several currents are rapidly explored : psychoanalysis, behaviorism, gestalt, classical theory of needs. The author also comments on the approach, inspired by oriental techniques or philosophies, which employs the notion of myth to deepen self awareness. Finally, from the same perspective, he comments at greater length on the work of Carl Rogers, highlighting the diverse form of implicit sociology. In addition to Carl Rogers, this text refers to Freud, Jung, Adler, Reich, Perls, Goodman, Skinner as well as to Ginette Paris and various analysts of Taoism. In conclusion, the author indicates the significance of his analysis from double viewpoint of psychological theory and practice.

  3. Psychological and Sociological Determinants of Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the psychological and sociological determinants of academic achievement of school-going adolescents. Six self-report measures were administered randomly to 280 senior secondary III students in Ibadan. Results showed that the six psychological and sociological factors (motivation, anxiety, and ...

  4. The Influence of psychological-sociological factors on self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Remeikienė, Rita; Startienė, Gražina; Vasauskaitė, Jovita

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the influence of psychological-sociological factors on a self-employed person, which is little explored in business literature. Analysis of scientific literature revealed that the psychological-sociological factors of self-employment can be divided into groups based on certain personal characteristics and individual psychological states, and the influence of psychological-sociological factors of self-employment is threefold: positive, negative, and unclear (both positiv...

  5. Psychological and sociological approaches to study risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Programmgruppe Technik und Gesellschaft; Swaton, E [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint IAEA-IIASA Risk Assessment Group

    1984-01-01

    Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed.

  6. Psychological and sociological approaches to study risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Swaton, E.

    1984-01-01

    Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed. (author)

  7. Psychological Inflexibility and Child Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ellin; Verboon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Psychological flexibility is the main outcome of acceptance commitment therapy. Insight into the usefulness of measuring psychological flexibility is an important step to enable studies on the effectiveness of acceptance commitment therapy in middle-aged children (8-10 years). For this purpose, we examined the factor structure, the construct validity and the reliability of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth taps psychological inflexibility (the opposite of psychological flexibility) in children and adolescents. Although the questionnaire has been extensively validated in older children, this is not the case for middle-aged children. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth contains 17 items and is constituted of the subscales cognitive fusion, experiential avoidance and behavioral ineffectiveness. A shortened 8-item version also exists, the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth-8, which does not distinguish between these subscales. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally, we assessed the relationship between psychological flexibility and child anxiety. Children, aged 8-10 years, were recruited via regular primary schools. Of the 459 approached children, 267 (58 %) parents signed informed consents for their children (Age: M  = 9.18; SD  = .79; Sex: n boys  = 137, 51 %). Children completed the questionnaires during regular classes. In this sample, the 17-item version of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth was less appropriate for measuring psychological inflexibility than the 8-item version. Furthermore, we found a significant positive relationship between psychological inflexibility and child anxiety. We argue that acceptance commitment therapy would be an interesting candidate for intervening early on in dysfunctional child anxiety, as acceptance commitment therapy's cognitive elements require cognitive skills that children are likely to

  8. Cyberbullying and Primary-School Aged Children: The Psychological Literature and the Challenge for Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Ey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is an international issue for schools, young people and their families. Whilst many research domains have explored this phenomenon, and bullying more generally, the majority of reported studies appear in the psychological and educational literatures, where bullying, and more recently, cyberbullying has been examined primarily at the individual level: amongst adolescents and young people, with a focus on the definition, its prevalence, behaviours, and impact. There also is growing evidence that younger children are increasingly accessing technology and engaging with social media, yet there is limited research dedicated to this younger age group. The purpose of this paper is to report on a systematic literature review from the psychological and educational research domains related to this younger age group, to inform future research across the disciplines. Younger children require different methods of engagement. This review highlights the methodological challenges associated with this age group present in the psychological literature, and argues for a greater use of sociological, child-centred approaches to data collection. This review examined studies published in English, between 2009 and 2014, and conducted with children aged 5–12 years, about their experiences with cyberbullying. Searches were conducted on seven key databases using keywords associated with cyberbullying and age of children. A Google Scholar search also examined published and unpublished reports. A total of 966 articles and reports were retrieved. A random peer review process was employed to establish inter-rater reliability and veracity of the review. Findings revealed 38 studies reported specifically on children aged 5–12 years. The dominant focus of these articles was on prevalence of cyberbullying, established through survey methodology. Few studies noted impacts, understanding and behaviours or engaged children’s independent voice. This review

  9. Team Dynamics. Essays in the Sociology and Social Psychology of Sport Including Methodological and Epistemological Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Hans

    This document contains nine essays on the sociology and social psychology of team dynamics, including methodological and epistemological issues involved in such study. Essay titles are: (1) Conflict and Achievement in Top Athletic Teams--Sociometric Structures of Racing Eight Oar Crews; (2) Top Performance Despite Internal Conflict--An Antithesis…

  10. Understanding the Disproportionately Low Marriage Rate among African Americans: An Amalgam of Sociological and Psychological Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza

    2011-01-01

    African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…

  11. Movie portrayals of juvenile delinquency: Part II--Sociology and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, S

    1995-01-01

    The visual media, especially movies, are appealing to youth with their rapid presentation of visual images of immediate gratification and unbridled pursuit of materialism. As social class differences in America widen, movies may serve both as a reflection of the social psychology of juvenile delinquency and as an etiologic factor in the development of such wayward youth. This paper examines some current aspects of the sociology and psychology of juvenile delinquency, and presents the historical significance of movies since the 1930s as both a visual representation and causative factor in the social psychology of delinquent youth.

  12. A conceptual framework of impression management: new insights from psychology, sociology, and critical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Niamh; Merkl-Davies, Doris M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a conceptual framework, based on the concepts of rationality and motivation, which uses theories and empirical research from psychology/behavioural finance, sociology and critical accounting to systematise, advance and challenge research on impression management. The paper focuses on research which departs from economic concepts of impression management as opportunistic managerial discretionary disclosure behaviour resulting in reporting bias or as ‘cheap talk’. Using...

  13. Connecting a sociology of childhood perspective with the study of child health, illness and wellbeing: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Geraldine; Lowe, Pam; Olin Lauritzen, Sonja

    2015-02-01

    In the last decades we have seen a growing interest in research into children's own experiences and understandings of health and illness. This development, we would argue, is much stimulated by the sociology of childhood which has drawn our attention to how children as a social group are placed and perceived within the structure of society, and within inter-generational relations, as well as how children are social agents and co-constructors of their social world. Drawing on this tradition, we here address some cross-cutting themes that we think are important to further the study of child health: situating children within health policy, drawing attention to practices around children's health and well-being and a focus on children as health actors. The paper contributes to a critical analysis of child health policy and notions of child health and normality, pointing to theoretical and empirical research potential for the sociology of children's health and illness. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Therapy for Child Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to…

  15. Psychology and the Handicapped Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrick, Carl E., Ed.; And Others

    Reviewed in seven author contributed chapters are findings of experimental psychology relevant to the education of handicapped children in the areas of sensory processes, visual perception, memory, cognition and language development, sustained attention and impulse control, and personality and social development. Noted in an introductory chapter…

  16. Gender, Education and Child Labour: A Sociological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    In all societies, boys and girls are assigned different societal roles and experience different perspectives of life as a result of their being male or female. Such differences have a gigantic impact on their lives. The importance of gender perspective is very important in understanding the convolution of child labour. Gender, as opposed to sex,…

  17. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.

  18. [Neuropsychological issues in child psychology and child psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepach, Anja C; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects are of relevance to a variety of psychological concerns, especially in assessments. But is this trend represented in journals which do not explicitly refer to neuropsychologists? To investigate this question, publications in 2008 and 2009 editions of representative German journals on child psychology and psychiatry were bibliometrically analyzed. Main topics of neuropsychological publications were attention disorders and diagnostic issues. Neuropsychological findings support the development of assessment instruments and interventions and help improve the basic understanding of disorders and treatment limitations. For example, reduced attention or memory resources are possible hindrances for individual progress in cognitive behavioral intervention. An intensified dialogue of the disciplines is essential for developing advanced guidelines for diagnostics and therapy.

  19. THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE TRIAD ECONOMICS, SOCIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu\tSorin\tBAICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Underground economy, in view of researchers, economists and jurists, is a theoretical complex construct, a phenomenon with profound social and economic reverberations. This study argues multidisciplinary integrative the sociological, psychological and socio-psychological approach of underground economy. The premises of this study are given by methodological individualism and rational choice theory through building in neoclassical version of Homo economicus able to interact in a multidisciplinary and multifaceted manner with the area of social sciences. For the nonce, we submit to analysis an integrative model of Homo Oeconimicus with Homo Sociologicus, aggregated with elements of social psychology. Synergistic effects of this integrative approach consist of the ability to give an answer as relevant on symptoms and forms of deviant behavior and thus to explain the development of underground economy. The finality of this paper, starting from the stated premises, resides in the explanation and analysis of deviant behavior in the framework of the morphology and causality of underground economy. Deviant behavior in the context of our analysis reveals the coherence perspective on the following issues: anatomy and etiology of underground economy (informal and underground activities, illegal labor, tax fraud, etc.; attitude towards rules, society and the state (tax mentality, tax morality, moral conscience; tax compliance or non-compliance (willingness to pay tax liabilities. This paper is intended to constitute a pleading for an interdependent approach, multi-causal and interdisciplinary of underground economy

  20. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA: RESULTS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Alfirević, Nikša; Petković, Saša; Gutović, Tea

    2017-01-01

    In this study, authors analyze the practices and effectiveness of educational management and leadership, according to the selected psychological and sociological characteristics of school principals in Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. The selected psychological traits have been already analyzed in the case of entrepreneurial orientation and proved to be relevant for differentiation of schools and principals, according to their inclination to entrepreneurship. In this paper, more comprehensiv...

  1. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  2. Compulsory Schooling, Child Study, Clinical Psychology, and Special Education: Origins of School Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history of school psychology, emphasizing the work of L. Witmer (1897, 1907, 1910, 1922) and G. S. Hall (1911, 1923). Providing psychological services in the schools is among the earliest instances of applied psychology. School psychology was one of many child-saving services originating from 1890 to 1920. (SLD)

  3. Psychological Adjustment of Siblings to a Child with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollidge, Colin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the psychological adjustment of well child siblings living with siblings with diabetes. Psychological adjustment was assessed by measuring self-concept; behavioral difficulties; competence; anxiety; and depression on standardized tests. The well siblings demonstrated significant internal psychological stressors and maintained high levels…

  4. Child Psychological Maltreatment and Its Correlated Factors in Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Yating; Chen, Jingqi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the prevalence and frequency of child psychological maltreatment and its correlated factors in Chinese families. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted among 1,002 parents of primary school students in Yuncheng City, China. Data were collected using the self-report questionnaire anonymously. Results showed that 696 (69.5%) surveyed parents had different extents of psychological maltreatment toward their children in the past 3 months. The high prevalence of parental psychology maltreatment was significantly associated with high scores on parental over-reactivity and low scores on recognition of child psychology maltreatment. These findings indicate that it is urgent to develop cultural interventions to raise parents' awareness of preventing child psychological maltreatment and to help parents use nonviolent child rearing in China.

  5. Child Psychological Maltreatment in the Family: Definition and Severity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ignacia Arruabarrena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological maltreatment is one of the main and potentially more destructive forms of child maltreatment. It is difficult to identify, assess and treat. Compared to other forms of child maltreatment such as sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect, attention received from researchers, child protection service managers and practitioners has been scarce. A review of available knowledge about psychological maltreatment reveals challenges to define the concept in ways useful to policy makers and practitioners. This paper presents a review of definitions of child psychological maltreatment and several measures available for assessing its severity. The review has been used in the Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (Spain to develop more specific criteria for the identification and severity assessment of child psychological maltreatment in Spanish children services. This paper develops these criteria.

  6. A child of the empire: British sociology and colonialism, 1940s-1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, George

    2013-01-01

    British sociology was established as an academic discipline between 1945 and 1965, just as the British Empire was gearing up for a new phase of developmental colonialism backed by the social and other sciences. Many parts of the emerging sociological discipline became entangled with colonialism. Key themes and methods in sociology and the staff of sociology departments emerged from this colonial context. Historians have tended to place postwar British sociology in the context of expanding higher education and the welfare state, and have overlooked this colonial constellation. The article reconstructs this forgotten moment of disciplinary founding and explores three of the factors that promoted colonial sociology: the Colonial Social Science Research Council, the so-called Asquith universities, and the social research institutes in the colonies; and the involvement of sociologists from the London School of Economics in training colonial officials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Psychological repercussions of parental divorce on child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangyseghem, S; Appelboom, J

    2004-10-01

    The parental divorce is an experience with traumatic risk for child. The child's adaptation depends on many factors : his age, his personality and his parent's one, his life context. Those aspects are developed. As the parental separation moves forward, the symptoms that appear in the child are essentially linked to anxiety and feeling of loss. None of these is specific to the parental separation and are, most of the time, temporary. Divorce has to be considered as a factor of vulnerability rather than one precise etiology. The conflicts' persistence between parents seems to be the factor the most important in the worst influence for child's adaptation.

  8. Parental perceptions of child vulnerability, overprotection, and parental psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M

    1998-01-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that these constructs are independent. Distinct parental psychological characteristics were hypothesized for each construct. The parents of 871 children, ages 22-72 months, completed a four-part protocol (clinical background data, Child Vulnerability Scale, Parent Protection Scale, and Brief Symptom Inventory). A distinct parent symptom profile was found for perceived child vulnerability (somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, and anxiety). Overprotection was associated with phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and paranoid ideation. These findings provide further support for the differentiation of these constructs.

  9. Guidelines for psychological evaluations in child protection matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The problems of abused and neglected children are epidemic in our society (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, 2008) and create issues that psychologists may be called upon to address. Psychologists are positioned to contribute significantly to decision making in child protection matters. Psychological data and expertise may provide sources of information and a perspective not otherwise available to courts regarding the functioning of parties, and thus may increase the fairness of decisions by the court, state agency, or other party. such matters. These guidelines are a revision of the 1999 "Guidelines for Psychological Evaluations in Child Protection Matters" (American Psychological Association [APA], 1999). These guidelines are informed by APA's "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct" ("APA Ethics Code"; APA, 2002a, 2010).

  10. APPLICATION OF THE BATTERY OF TESTS IN EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOMOTOR STATUS OF THE WATER POLO PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A huge international success of the Montenegrin national water polo team incre- ased the interest rate for this sport among the young people in our country. Announced construction of at least five pools in Podgorica, as well as reconstruction of already exi- sting ones in Niksic and some of the coastal cities will offer a new perspective for the de- velopment of this sport in Montenegro. Water Polo World League Super Final which is, according to announcements, to be held at the pools in Podgorica will probably enhance the interest in this sport even more. Due to the reasons mentioned above, the intensifying of the expert selection is more popular than ever. This paper lists some of the tests for the evaluation of psychological, sociological and anthropomotor status of younger age categories that are adequate in the process of systematic selection for doing water polo

  11. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudson, Rex A

    1999-01-01

    ...) and the new recruitment patterns of some groups, such as recruiting suicide commandos, female and child terrorists, and scientists capable of developing weapons of mass destruction, provide a measure...

  12. Practitioner review: maternal mood in pregnancy and child development--implications for child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    The empirical base suggesting a link between prenatal maternal anxiety, stress or depression and cognitive, behavioral, and biological outcomes in the infant and child has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. In this review, we consider the relevance of prenatal maternal mood for child mental health practitioners; the empirical base for a likely causal impact of the link between prenatal anxiety, depression, or stress and child outcomes; the degree to which the available evidence is sufficient for informing or altering clinical practice; and the possible role of prenatal interventions for promoting child health and development. A selective review of PubMed, Cochrane Library and other sources was undertaken. Clinically significant links between maternal prenatal distress and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes have been reported; predictions to stress physiology, immunology, and neurodevelopment have been reported but the effect sizes and clinical significance is less clear. Several candidate mechanisms have been proposed, with some supporting evidence. Many behavioral treatments for prenatal maternal distress exist, but their application to promoting child health is largely unknown. Research on maternal prenatal distress is a good example of translational research and offers a strong paradigm for promoting interdisciplinary clinical research on child health and development. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Local Environmental Grassroots Activism: Contributions from Environmental Psychology, Sociology and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Nikolay L.; Perkins, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast “Not in My Back Yard” (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated. PMID:25806672

  14. Local environmental grassroots activism: contributions from environmental psychology, sociology and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Nikolay L; Perkins, Douglas D

    2015-03-23

    Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast "Not in My Back Yard" (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated.

  15. Maternal psychological distress and child decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Ioakeimidi, Sofia; Midouhas, Emily; Ploubidis, George B

    2017-08-15

    There is much research to suggest that maternal psychological distress is associated with many adverse outcomes in children. This study examined, for the first time, if it is related to children's affective decision-making. Using data from 12,080 families of the Millennium Cohort Study, we modelled the effect of trajectories of maternal psychological distress in early-to-middle childhood (3-11 years) on child affective decision-making, measured with a gambling task at age 11. Latent class analysis showed four longitudinal types of maternal psychological distress (chronically high, consistently low, moderate-accelerating and moderate-decelerating). Maternal distress typology predicted decision-making but only in girls. Specifically, compared to girls growing up in families with never-distressed mothers, those exposed to chronically high maternal psychological distress showed more risk-taking, bet more and exhibited poorer risk-adjustment, even after correction for confounding. Most of these effects on girls' decision-making were not robust to additional controls for concurrent internalising and externalising problems, but chronically high maternal psychological distress was associated positively with risk-taking even after this adjustment. Importantly, this association was similar for those who had reached puberty and those who had not. Given the study design, causality cannot be inferred. Therefore, we cannot propose that treating chronic maternal psychological distress will reduce decision-making pathology in young females. Our study suggests that young daughters of chronically distressed mothers tend to be particularly reckless decision-makers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Editorial: Bayesian benefits for child psychology and psychiatry researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-09-01

    For many scientists, performing statistical tests has become an almost automated routine. However, p-values are frequently used and interpreted incorrectly; and even when used appropriately, p-values tend to provide answers that do not match researchers' questions and hypotheses well. Bayesian statistics present an elegant and often more suitable alternative. The Bayesian approach has rarely been applied in child psychology and psychiatry research so far, but the development of user-friendly software packages and tutorials has placed it well within reach now. Because Bayesian analyses require a more refined definition of hypothesized probabilities of possible outcomes than the classical approach, going Bayesian may offer the additional benefit of sparkling the development and refinement of theoretical models in our field. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Psychological well-being and workability in child abuse investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, N

    2018-05-17

    Working with victims and offenders of child abuse can impact on the health and well-being of police officers and staff. To identify the effects of tenure, work ability, gender and a personal experience of child abuse on symptoms of anxiety, depression and primary and secondary trauma in child abuse investigators (CAIs). Screening questionnaires were sent to police officers and staff. The officers and staff worked in child protection in seven police forces. The surveillance was undertaken online and the data were encrypted and personal identifiers removed. The four clinical measures were Goldberg Anxiety/Depression Scale, Professional Quality of Life and Impact of Events (extended). Eighty-two per cent of 2798 CAIs returned questionnaires. There was a statistically significant relationship between all four clinical symptoms and workability (P < 0.001), between tenure and primary trauma (P < 0.01) and between anxiety, depression, primary trauma and workability and adverse childhood experience (ACE) scores (P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that workability, tenure and ACE scores explained between 12 and 23% of the variance. There were gender differences with women having higher levels of symptoms; however, the effect size and clinical significance were negligible for all but the primary trauma scores. Psychological surveillance can provide an important source of evidence for occupational health practitioners working with CAIs in informing them of the factors which could be considered in selecting, training, supporting and retaining officers and staff. Psychological surveillance can also help police management to identify ways to monitor the long-term effectiveness and well-being of CAIs.

  18. Sociological Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Charles; Middleton, Mike

    This monograph examines sociological perspectives and their applications. It is intended to help the college student coming to sociology for the first time to recognize that there are several perspectives within sociology and to disentangle the mass of terms associated with each. The first distinctive sociological perspective came from the work of…

  19. Criteria Based Case Review: The Parent Child Psychological Support Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Bujia-Couso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Parent Child Psychological Support Program (PCPS was established in an area of South West Dublin in 2001. Since then until May 2008 it has offered its services to over 700 children and their parents. This preventative, parenting support service is available to all parents of children aged 3 to 18 months within its catchment area. During periodical visits, the infant’s development and growth are measured and parents receive specific information about their child’s progress. Parents are empowered in their parenting practices, thus promoting consistency and synchrony in parent-child interaction. Between 2001 and 2006, 538 parents and their infants participated in the Program. Out of these cases, 130 (24.16% were considered to require additional support and were included in the Monthly Meeting Case Review (MM based on initial concerns The aims of this study were: 1. to review the first five years of MM cases and to explore the socio-demographic profile of the MM cases in comparison to those not in need of additional support (non-MM and 2. To illustrate an approach to refining the case review process which will inform practice and provides the service providers with better understanding of the early detection of parent-child relation difficulties. In pursuing this goal the cases screened over five years of practice were analyzed to explore the structure of the different factors by using statistical techniques of data reduction, i.e. factor analysis. The results showed that the MM group differed on several socio-demographic dimensions from the non-MM group and there was a four factor structure underlying the case review decision process. Implications of this research are discussed.

  20. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  1. Who is to Blame on July 22, 2011? Psychological and Sociological Blame Frames in the Reporting of Anders Breivik in the Dutch Speaking Broadsheet Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertens Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On July 22, 2011 Anders Breivik murdered a large amount of people in Norway. In this study we investigate a sample of articles that were published about Breivik and his deeds in the Flemish and Dutch press. We will investigate these articles looking for the so-called “attribution of responsibility frame.” The murders from Breivik could be explained psychologically (“he is insane” as well as sociologically (far-right political parties are responsible because of having spread hate speech. We present a typology of subtypes of frames. We will furthermore investigate how many times these types of frames occur in different media outlets.

  2. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    by the media? Does the choice of public sociology mean the relinquishment of scientific integrity and critical conviction? These questions will also be addressed in this book - together with a host of others related to the topic of public sociology.   The chapters included in this book are all manuscripts......What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...

  3. Pathways between profiles of family functioning, child security in the interparental subsystem, and child psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Cummings, E Mark; Winter, Marcia A

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to delineate pathways between systems profiles of family functioning, children's emotional insecurity in the interparental relationship, and their psychological adjustment in a sample of 221 children and their parents. Consistent with family systems theory, cluster analyses conducted with assessments of marital, coparental, and parent-child functioning indicated that families fit into one of four profiles: (a) cohesive families, characterized by warmth, affection, and flexible well-defined boundaries in family relationships; (b) disengaged families, reflected in high levels of adversity and low levels of support across family subsystems; (c) enmeshed families, evidenced by high levels of discord and weak maintenance of relationship boundaries in the family unit; and (d) adequate families, defined by elevated parental psychological control within a larger family context of low discord and high warmth. In comparison to children in cohesive families, children in enmeshed and disengaged families exhibited greater signs of insecurity in the interparental relationship concurrently and internalizing and externalizing symptoms both concurrently and 1 year later. Structural equation models revealed that a latent, multimethod measure of insecurity in the interparental relationship partially mediated associations between family enmeshment and disengagement and children's psychological symptoms 1 year later. Results are discussed in relation to how they inform and refine a family-wide model of the emotional security hypothesis.

  4. Divorce or Continue Marriage for Child? An Important Question about Psychological Adjustment of Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Ongider Gregory

    Full Text Available This study focused on finding answers about an important question that parents are recently asking psychological professionals. This question has become more relevant in the last couple of decades as there are increasing divorce rates in Turkey and the rest of the world. Because of this reason, parents are asking the important question: is it better for our child to divorce or continue our marriage? Researchers come up with very different results to this question. They need to not only focus on the effects of divorce itself but also need to examine the quality of the relationship between the parents. Parents need to remember this very important point that divorce is not the only thing that effects children's psychological adjustment by itself. So, the answer of the question to divorce or stay together is answered by the amount of parental conflict and the quality of the parent's relationship. As a result, the ideal environment for children's psychological development is living with both parents in the same household and having a low-conflict parents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(3.000: 275-289

  5. Consultation for and identification of child and adolescent psychological problems in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Ende, J. van der; Bensing, J.M.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent psychological problems are rarely brought to the attention of GPs. Children and adolescents with psychological problems who do visit their GP are seldom identified as such by GPs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate in a general population sample of 2,449 Dutch children and

  6. Effective Consultation in Educational and Child Psychology Practice: Professional Training for Both Competence and Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emma Kate; Cameron, R. J.; Monsen, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    How should applied psychology practitioners be prepared to meet an increasingly challenging and unpredictable working context? This article explores some of the key current issues for educational and child psychology practitioners and their professional trainers in the UK with regard to the topic of effective consultation. The article argues that…

  7. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes the psychological and pedagogical factors of effective implementation and use of electronic educational tools in secondary schools. Determination of individual development by complex of psychological and pedagogical, ergonomic, aesthetic and hygienic factors of information technology use is grounded. The basic psychological and educational factors that influence child development are considered. Main groups of ergonomic requirements, which should emphasize the development and evaluation of electronic tools to maximize development and mental and physical health of the child, are described.

  9. Brief report: reporting practices of methodological information in four journals of pediatric and child psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, Jennifer M; Bellinger, Skylar; McCormick, Erica; Roberts, Michael C; Steele, Ric G

    2008-08-01

    To replicate Sifers, Puddy, Warren, and Roberts (2002) examining reporting rates of demographic, methodological, and ethical information in articles published during 1997, and to compare these rates to those found in articles published during 2005, in order to determine whether and how reporting practices of these variables have changed over time. We examined reporting demographic, methodological, and ethical information in articles in four journals: Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, and Child Development. Reporting rates during 2005 were compared to articles published during 1997. These four journals improved on many of the 23 variables compared to Sifers et al. including increases in the reporting of ethnicity, attrition, child assent procedures, socioeconomic status, reliability, and reward/incentive offered to participants. Improvements in descriptive information have implications for interpretation, replication, and generalizability of research findings.

  10. The World of Child Psychology in Early Mussorgsky's Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, Iza A.; Bakshi, Lyudmila S.; Gromova, Olga V.; Korsakova, Irina A.; Bazikov, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The world of a child as a topic gave birth to a number of Mussorgsky's decisions concerning figurative modes, music style systems, principles of composition and music poetics. The master captured the microcosm of passions, that originally inhabit the soul of a child, and his works presented an embodiment of the deep, ontological nature of any…

  11. Psychological control by parents is associated with a higher child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2011-10-01

    In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (β = 0.074, p parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.

  12. Parental Psychological Control and Autonomy Granting: Distinctions and Associations with Child and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study utilized an observational coding scheme to identify parenting behavior reflecting psychological control and autonomy granting and examined relations between these parenting dimensions and indices of child and family functioning. Design A community sample of 90 preadolescents (aged 10.5 to 12 years) and both of their parents engaged in a triadic interaction that was coded for parental psychological control and autonomy granting. Participants also completed measures of child adjustment, interparental conflict, and triangulation. Results Factor analyses indicated that a two-factor model better fit the data than a one-factor model, suggesting that psychological control and autonomy granting are best conceptualized as independent but related constructs. Parental psychological control and autonomy granting exhibited some shared and some unique correlates with indices of child and family functioning. Hierarchical regressions revealed significant interactions between these dimensions, suggesting that the strength of some associations between parents’ use of psychological control and youth adjustment problems depends on the level of autonomy granting exhibited by the parent. Conclusions By examining psychological control and autonomy granting simultaneously as unique constructs, this study identifies patterns of psychological control and autonomy granting that undermine youth adjustment. Findings inform targeted intervention efforts for families of preadolescent youth. PMID:23418403

  13. The connection of socio-demographic factors and child-parent relationships to the psychological aspects of children’s development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobkin V. S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschool childhood is a time of rapid development. During this period a child`s interaction with significant adults plays a very important role. The parent, as a mediator, defines the “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1984. The common assumption is that to determine a parent’s position, it is important to acknowledge both socio-demographic factors and the parameters which define the socio-psychological aspects of parent-child relationship. Hence, the type of research where a child’s psychological development is studied in the context of the socio-demographic and socio-psychological factors which determine the social situation of development, is very promising. Based on our previous research (Sobkin, Marich, 2002; Cheie, Veraksa, 2015, a program of experimental research intended to determine the interconnections between the socio-demographic and socio-psychological parameters of parent-child relationships, and the level of a child’s psychic development, was designed. The research was based upon the material obtained through testing 59 children between 5 and 7 years old with specially collected psychological testing methods (Veraksa A.N. etc, as well as from the results of a special sociological questionnaire presented to their mothers (Sobkin V.S. etc. The research was carried out in 2014-2015 in municipal kindergartens of Moscow. Among the socio-demographic factors analyzed, the most significant results were related to the child’s gender, the family structure, and the mother’s education. Thus, boys showed higher results on visual memory tests, and girls scored better on tests for self-control and social intelligence (higher ability to detect the reason for someone else’s negative emotions. Children from single-parent families had better results on verbal memory tests, but scored lower on those for self-control. Also they had less ability for decentration. The differences in mothers’ educational levels influenced the

  14. The psychological impact of child sexual abuse on primary caregivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symptoms of psychological distress experienced by caregivers after an incident of CSA included anxiety, fear, depression, anger, insomnia, and functional impairment. About half the care givers in the study (n= 19, 55.88%) showed support and protection for their children; others (n = 15, 44.12%) were hostile toward and ...

  15. Rubella Deaf-Blind Child: Implications of Psychological Assessment. Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouin, Carole

    Presented are proceedings of a conference involving authorities in testing and evaluating the blind, deaf, and deaf-blind. In a paper titled "Psychological Implications of Assessing the Deaf", C. Goetzinger discusses references used in audiology, anatomy and physiology of the ear, degrees of hearing impairment, and implications of the various…

  16. 6. The Psychological Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    school functioning, emotional reactions to the abuse were found to have ... feelings toward the perpetrator were negative or the ... When the child discloses sexual abuse, the parent's reaction .... divorced (n= 2, 5.88%) and single (n= 2, 5.88%).

  17. Relationship between Child and Parental Dental Anxiety with Child's Psychological Functioning and Behavior during the Administration of Local Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boka, Vasiliki; Arapostathis, Konstantinos; Kotsanos, Nikolaos; Karagiannis, Vassilis; van Loveren, Cor; Veerkamp, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the relationship between children's psychological functioning, dental anxiety and cooperative behavior before and during local anesthesia, 2) the relationship of parental dental anxiety with all the above child characteristics. There was a convenient sample of 100 children (4-12 years). Child dental anxiety and psychological functioning were measured using the "Children's Fear Survey Schedule" (CFSS-DS) and the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ) respectively. Parental dental anxiety was measured using the "Modified Dental Anxiety Scale" (MDAS). All questionnaires were completed by parents. Before and during local anesthesia, the child behavior was scored by one experienced examiner, using the Venham scale. Non-parametric tests and correlations (Mann-Whitney, Spearman's rho) were used for the analysis. The mean SDQ score was 10±5.6 for boys (n=60) and 8.3±4.8 for girls (n=40) (p=0.038), but there was no correlation with children's age. The mean CFSS-DS score was 33.1±11.86 and there was no correlation with age or gender. Children with higher levels in the pro-social subscale of the SDQ had significantly less anxiety and better behavior before local anesthesia. Higher mean CFSS-DS scores were significantly associated with uncooperative behavior during local anesthesia (p=0.04). There was no correlation between parents' and their children's dental anxiety, psychological functioning and behavior. 46% of the children had previous dental experience in the last 6 months. As time since the last dental treatment increased, an improvement was found in children's behavior during local anesthesia. Child psychological functioning was related to dental anxiety and behavior during dental appointment involving local anesthesia.

  18. Editorial: Looking beyond the horizon--innovation in child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco Fearon, R M

    2016-03-01

    As readers will no doubt be well aware, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry dedicates an entire issue, once a year, to state-of-the-art authoritative reviews of research on some of the central issues in our field.(1) I like to think that in doing so we have been quietly undertaking a giant Pavlovian conditioning experiment: every year, as the spring flowers start to blossom (in the northern hemisphere at least), the nucleus accumbens of child psychologists and psychiatrists around the world begin to glow in anticipation of intellectual reward. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Giving Children Security: Mamie Phipps Clark and the Racialization of Child Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shafali

    2002-01-01

    Examines the individual and social contexts of the life of Mamie Clark (wife of African American psychologist Kenneth Clark), whose work at the Harlem Northside Center for Child Development helped define an increasing interest in the psychology of children of color. Urges greater attention to the dynamics of race and gender in history of…

  20. Multisystemic Therapy for Child Non-Externalizing Psychological and Health Problems: A Preliminary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…

  1. Finding Genes in Child Psychology and Psychiatry: When Are We Going to Be There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: The seven papers in this special section chart where we are in the quest for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in key areas of child psychology and psychiatry such as reading and hyperactivity. But we are not there yet. Methods: This commentary considers some new developments that are likely to accelerate the journey towards the…

  2. Advancing Child Protection through Respecting Children's Rights: A Shifting Emphasis for School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorvanti, Christina M.; Brassard, Marla R.

    2014-01-01

    The moral imperative of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, backed by robust empirical findings, leads to the conclusion that the protection of children from violence and neglect and the promotion of their well-being should be major priorities in every society. This article argues that "School Psychology: A Blueprint for…

  3. Parent-child communication and psychological adjustment in children with a brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adduci, Annarita; Jankovic, Momcilo; Strazzer, Sandra; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo; Poggi, Geraldina

    2012-08-01

    Internalizing problems, anxiety, depression, withdrawal, and consequent social problems are frequently observed in children with brain tumors. The objective of this work is to describe the relationship between these psychological problems and the type of parent-child communication established about the disease. A group of 64 children surviving a brain tumor (aged 4-18 years) underwent psychological assessment by means of parent reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). A semi-structured interview with each child and their parents enabled us to classify the method of communication regarding the disease as "avoidance," "ineffective," and "effective." Demographic, clinical, and functional data relating to the disease were also collected. A significant relationship between the onset of Internalizing problems, withdrawal, anxiety-depression, and social problems and the presence of avoidance or ineffective communication about the disease was observed (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.01, respectively). These psychological problems did not prove to be associated to demographic or clinical variables; however, they were found to be related to the children's residual functional problems. By contrast, the method of communication proved to be unrelated to clinical or functional variables, but it was associated to demographic variables such as sex and age at assessment. Effective (complete, truthful, consistent, comprehensible, gradual and continuous, and tailored) communication to the child about his/her condition proved to be associated with a better psychological outcome. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 50 How can informal support impact child PTSD symptoms following a psychological trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    An estimated 20% of children who present to hospital emergency departments following potentially traumatic events (e.g., serious injuries, road traffic accidents, assaults) will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence. The development of PTSD can have a substantial impact on a child's developmental trajectory, including their emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Despite this, only a small proportion will access mental health services, with the majority relying on informal sources of support. Parents, in particular, are often the primary source of support. However, it remains unclear what types of parental responses may be effective, and parents themselves report experiencing uncertainty about the best approach. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the capacity for specific aspects of parental responding in the aftermath of child trauma to facilitate or hinder children's psychological recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study of 132 parent-child pairs, recruited following the child's experience of trauma and subsequent attendance at one of four regional emergency departments. At an initial assessment, within 1 month post-trauma, we examined how parents appraised and responded to their child following the event, using both questionnaires and direct observations. Child-report questionnaires were used to assess PTSD symptom severity at 1 month, and at a follow up 6 months later. Children also reported on their own appraisals of the trauma and their coping behaviours, which were considered as potential mediators between parental support and later child symptoms. Controlling for relevant covariates and initial PTSD symptoms, parent negative appraisals of the trauma and encouragement of avoidant coping in children were associated with higher child-reported PTSD symptoms at 6 month follow-up. There was some evidence that children's own trauma related appraisals and coping styles mediated these effects. Findings indicate that

  5. [Parental Alienation (Syndrome) - A serious form of child psychological abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Boch-Galhau, Wilfrid

    2018-04-13

    Induced parental alienation is a specific form of psychological child abuse, which is listed in DSM-5, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), under diagnostic code V 995.51 "child psychological abuse". Untreated induced parental alienation can lead to long-term traumatic psychological and physical effects in the children concerned. This fact is still not given sufficient attention in family court cases. The article gives a condensed overview of parental alienation, summarising its definition, the symptoms and the various levels of severity. It also describes some major alienation techniques and possible psychosomatic and psychiatric effects of induced parental alienation. Finally, attention is drawn to programmes of prevention and intervention now used and evaluated in some countries. The article concludes with two real-life examples from psychiatric practice, and a comprehensive list of international references.

  6. Annual Research Review: Threats to the validity of child psychiatry and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael; Pickles, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Suggestions have been made that many claims concern false-positive findings in the field of child psychology and psychiatry. The literature was searched for concepts and findings on the validity of child psychiatry and psychology. Substantial progress has been made in some, but not all, areas and considerable challenges remain in all. The two major threats to validity concern the inability to examine brain tissues in life and the evidence that there is a high overlap among disorders. We emphasize the need to follow published guidelines on preplanned analyses and we note the dangers associated with unregulated flexibility in data analysis. We note the very important clinical and developmental findings that have been ignored, perhaps partly because of an excessive focus on technologies. Nevertheless, we are positive about both the accomplishments and the ways in which challenges are being met. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. [Prevalence and influencing factors on psychological violence from parents to child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Q; Jin, Y C; Li, J Y; Feng, Y N; Zhao, X X; Yu, B Y; Zhang, W J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of psychological violence against children by parents and to explore possible influencing factors. In two primary schools from a city, located in the northeast part of China, 1 164 parents of the pupils from grade 1 to 6, were anonymously surveyed by a self-administered questionnaire, to analyze the situation of psychological violence and influencing factors. Of the 1 164 parents, 78.1% reported that they practised psychological violence towards their children. Compared with girls, boys were more psychologically maltreated by their parents (81.3% vs. 74.7%,Pchildren: child being male (OR=1.684); initiated by the mother (OR=1.640), parents experiences of psychologically violent victimization (OR=2.064) during their childhood, supportive or tolerant attitudes towards corporal punishment (OR=2.618) from the parents, low awareness of the harmfulness of psychological violence against children (OR=1.666) of the parents, and lower social economic status (OR=1.745) of the family, etc. Psychological violence experienced by the parents appeared very common. Prevention programs on psychological violence should be strengthened to increase the awareness of parents on this serious problem.

  8. Another sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carleheden, Mikael

    1998-01-01

    contributing dianostics of the social pathologies of the modern state. Such an approach can find inspiration in classical sociology, but it is also important to realize that, today, we are living in another modernity. A liberation from social technology must thus include a liberation from objectivistic methods....

  9. Syringe sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellone, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    In this article I consider the impact of social epistemologies for understanding the object of the syringe. My aim is to examine the process through which the syringe transforms from an injecting device to a tool of social and political inquiry. Paying particular attention to the uses of Foucault, Becker, Bourdieu, Freud and Latour in empirical studies of injecting heroin use, I examine the sociology of the syringe through the lens of habit and habitus, discourse and deviance, mourning and melancholia, attachment and agencement. In pursuing the theory behind the object my goal is to address a sociological object in the making. In so doing I show how the syringe has been significant for social research, social theory, and sociology. It is the difference the object makes that this article seeks to describe. In tracing the epistemology of the syringe I show how the object is important not just for knowledge of addiction but sociology itself. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  10. [Pinocchio and the unattained identity: Jervis' contribution to child clinical psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacci, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis is mainly known as a psychiatrist, but he also worked on psychological methodology and tackled important issues in clinical psychology. This essay describes the concept of personal identity elaborated by Jervis and its importance in Child Clinical Psychology. The problems related to personal identity appear very early in Jervis' work, influenced by the ethnologist Ernesto De Martino. His first considerations are found in his Preface to The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi (1968), in which Jervis describes the unhappy upbringing, the anti-social behaviour, and the unattained identity of the wooden puppet. Subsequently, in Presenza e identith (1984), Fondamenti di Psicologia Dinamica (1993) and La conquista dell'identith (1997), Jervis dealt with the theme of identity from a Dynamic Psychology perspective, showing that the formation of personal identity is a basic aspect of the development of the individual that starts in early childhood.

  11. The transition from pediatric to adult care for youth with epilepsy: Basic biological, sociological, and psychological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol; Busiah, Kanetee; Cohen, David; Pack, Alison; Nabbout, Rima

    2017-04-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult health care for adolescents with epilepsy is challenging for the patient, family, and health care workers. This paper is the first of three that summarize the main findings from the 2nd Symposium on Transition in Epilepsies, held in Paris from June 14-25, 2016. In this paper we describe five basic themes that have an important effect on transition. First, there are important brain changes in adolescence that leave an imbalance between risk taking and pleasure seeking behaviors and frontal executive function compared with adults. Second, puberty is a major change during the transition age. The three most important but separate neuroendocrine axes involved in puberty are gonadarche (activation of the gonads), adrenarche (activation of adrenal androgen production), and activation of the growth hormone-insulin like growth factor. Third, sexual debut occurs during the transition years, and at an earlier age in adolescents with epilepsy than controls. Adult sexual performance is often unsatisfactory. Although AED-induced alterations in sexual hormones and temporal lobe epilepsy may play a role in hyposexuality, depression, anxiety, and other social factors appear most important. Fourth, psychological development is very important with an evolution from an early stage (ages 10-13years) with concrete thinking, to a middle stage (ages 14-17) with analytic and more abstract introspective thinking, and then to a late stage (ages 18-21) with at least the beginnings of adult reasoning. Epilepsy may derail this relatively orderly progression. Adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder may present with severe behavior problems that are sometimes related to undiagnosed epilepsy. Fifth, bone health in adolescence is critical to establish adequate mineralization for all of adult life. While AED interference with Vitamin D metabolism is important, there is evidence that the effects of AEDs on bone are more complex and involve changes in remodeling

  12. Do no more harm: the psychological stress of the medical examination for alleged child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Susan; Lamb, Robyn; Tzioumi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Currently, there is some controversy that the medical examination following allegations of child sexual abuse may further traumatise the child. Access for children to appropriate care may be hindered if decisions about referral are influenced by personal beliefs, rather than by recognition of the potential health and psychological benefits of the assessment. We aimed to study the expectations and emotional responses of children and their parents to the medical examination. We conducted a prospective quantitative and qualitative study at the Children's Hospital at Westmead. Participants completed questionnaires pre-examination and post-examination, including Children's Anxiety and Pain Scales. Clinicians recorded a Genital Examination Distress Scale and a questionnaire about potentially prognostic variables. Parents found the medical examination significantly less stressful than they had anticipated. They highlighted the importance of being involved in the process, the child's reaction, staff attitudes and the doctor's explanations. Although most parents expected that the medical would be stressful for their child, this did not correlate with the children's reports of feeling scared beforehand. Increased parental and child distress were significantly associated with the child being 12 years or older. The type of abuse was not significantly linked to any of the parent or child self-reports. Our findings indicate that the medical examination is not as stressful as expected and support the recommendation that timely medical assessment by appropriately trained professionals should be offered for all children following allegations of sexual abuse.

  13. Psychological resilience: an approach to the concept, theoretical framework and relation with child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gustavo Pinto-Cortez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a serious public health problem and a violation of human rights from children and adolescents. A prolific research has been developed to determine the magnitude of the problem, psychological effects, risk factors and protective factors. In this context, resilience approach becomes important by explain the mechanisms that promote positive adaptation to adversity. In this paper, it is discussed in the first part, the analysis of the concept of resilience and its various stages of investigation over time. Finally, an integration of this model in understanding and approaching child and adolescent victimization is done.

  14. Editorial: Ingenious designs and causal inference in child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    The embryology of behavior--This title of a book by the great developmental psychologist Arnold Gesell (Gesell, 1945) continues nicely to encapsulate for me a core endeavour in child psychology and psychiatry; in the use of scientific method to tease out causes and processes within developmental science and psychopathology. This edition of JCPP includes some tremendous examples of the increasing rigour and sophistication with which such questions are being addressed. Particularly encouraging for me, as primarily an interventionist, is the use of well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for that end. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Editorial: Child psychology and psychiatry - using science to make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco

    2017-04-01

    The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry has, I think it is fair to say, a special place in the hearts of scientists and scientist-practitioners working broadly in the field of developmental psychopathology. How would you put into words what it is we all love about the journal? Answers on a postcard please! For me, in addition to the high quality of the science, there is something unique about JCPP's open-minded, eclectic yet rigorous and methodologically pluralistic style that makes it stand out from the rest. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. [Parental alienation, child psychological abuse and DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensussan, P

    2017-12-01

    Psychiatric experts find it is easier to deal with more horrible crimes than highly conflictual divorces. In the former, projections are impossible and "files" raise very interesting issues with regard to criminology; in contrast, in the latter the expert is confronted not just with a family but also and lest one forget, a couple that at one point in time had loved each other. However, the separation resembles a bloodbath. We will not detail the various psychiatric pathologies, which may further complicate a separation: they are well-known and, on a procedural level, do not raise any specific concerns. We will however address "pathological divorces" where although individuals, assessed on a case-by-case basis, are exempt from ascertainable or developing psychiatric pathologies, pathology permeates systemic relations, inextricably linked to hatred or disgust. In this light, fault-based divorces still remain rare: it is in this context, marked by defiance and doubt as to the parental competence of each member of the couple that the psychiatric expert intervenes, with a similar acknowledged mission to that of the court: recommendations to be offered regarding visitation and custody rights. Amongst the conflictual and inextricable situations the most often encountered in expert practice, the parental alienation syndrome (PAS) now known as parental alienation (PA) refers to all psychopathological manifestations observed in children subject to highly conflictual parental separations, and above all, the unjustified or inexplicable rejection of a parent by a child (or even by siblings). This recent entity has raised controversy: some even go so far as to deny the existence itself of this phenomenon claiming that it does not appear in the international classifications of psychiatric disorders. Consequently, it was not included in the last edition of the DSM and does not appear in the ICD classification of the OMS whose 11th edition is currently being prepared. The

  17. Family Functioning, Psychological Distress, and Well-Being in Parents with a Child Having ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyfrid Larsen Moen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Children with ADHD have difficulties regarding the regulation of their emotions and activities and of the maintenance of attention and impulse control. Families with children with ADHD encounter many challenges, and the public health nurse is highlighted as helping and supporting these families. The aim of this study was to investigate families with a child having ADHD from the parents’ perspective. A cross-sectional study was performed. In total, N = 264 parents of children with ADHD, 217 mothers and 47 fathers (48.2%, responded on a questionnaire regarding psychological distress, family sense of coherence, and family functioning. Parents with ADHD and parents with children not medicated for ADHD seemed most vulnerable. Parents’ well-being and psychological distress seem to influence family functioning the most, with the behavior of the child with ADHD and support from the community health services had importance.

  18. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W

    2016-07-19

    Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments.

  19. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling of the Influences of Family-Centered Care on Parent and Child Psychological Health

    OpenAIRE

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Family-centered care is now practiced throughout the world by physicians, nurses, and allied health care professionals. The call for adoption of family-centered care is based on the contention that the physical and psychological health of a child is influenced by parents' psychological health where family-centered care enhances parent well-being which in turn influences child well-being. We empirically assessed whether these relationships are supported by available evidence. M...

  1. Development of relative body mass (BMI of students from Łódź, depending on the selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruszkowska-Przybylska Paulina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human height-to-weight ratio is an important parameter of the body homeostasis. Currently, the most popular measurement determining the relationship between body mass and height is the Quetelet II indicator, called Body Mass Index (BMI. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the differences in the height-to-weight ratios, depending on selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors in people studying at higher education institutions in Łódź. The research was conducted among students of higher education institutions in Łódź, by electronic means or with the use of an anonymous survey. It consisted of 28 closed single or multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis was made of complete results of the research involving 135 people, both males and females, aged between 19-26. It was revealed that the factors related to higher BMI values in students are the following: the presence of a tendency in the students to gain weight themselves, and a tendency to gain weight present in their mothers, an evaluation of their own body mass as excessive, regularly smoking cigarettes and rarely undergoing medical check-ups. Among the factors connected with lower BMI values are: regular coffee consumption, perception of their own body mass as being too low, and also obtaining systolic pressure values below 110 mm Hg. Additionally, a positive correlation between taking up physical activity and higher values of systolic blood pressure (p<0.05 was shown. Among the subjects, it was found that 92% of the underweight women declared that their body mass and figure were normal. In the case of women with optimal BMI values, 40% stated that their body mass was excessive. In the case of men the problem was reverse: 50% of the subjects who were either overweight or obese claimed that their body mass was within the norm. The factors that significantly influence body proportion differences among students include the subject’s and the subject

  2. The effects of mother-child mediated learning strategies on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, David; Shomron, Vered

    2018-06-01

    The theoretical framework of the current study is based on mediated learning experience (MLE) theory, which is similar to the scaffolding concept. The main question of the current study was to what extent mother-child MLE strategies affect psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability (LD). Secondary questions were to what extent the home environment, severity of boy's LD, and mother's attitude towards her child's LD affect her MLE strategies and consequently the child's psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability. The main objectives of this study were the following: (a) to investigate the effects of mother-child MLE strategies on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability among 7- to 10-year-old boys with LD, (b) to study the causal effects of distal factors (i.e., socio-economic status [SES], home environment, severity of child's LD, mother's attitude towards LD) and proximal factors (i.e., MLE strategies) on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability. A sample of mother-child dyads (n = 100) were videotaped during a short teaching interaction. All children were boys diagnosed as children with LD. The interaction was analysed for MLE strategies by the Observation of Mediation Interaction scale. Children were administered psychological resilience tests and their cognitive modifiability was measured by dynamic assessment using the Analogies subtest from the Cognitive Modifiability Battery. Home environment was rated by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), and mothers answered a questionnaire of attitudes towards child's LD. The findings showed that mother-child MLE strategies, HOME, and socio-economic level contributed significantly to prediction of psychological resilience (78%) and cognitive modifiability (51%). Psychological resilience was positively correlated with cognitive modifiability (Rc = 0.67). Structural equation modelling analysis supported, in general

  3. Sluggish cognitive tempo in abnormal child psychology: an historical overview and introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Marshall, Stephen A; McBurnett, Keith

    2014-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) as an important construct in the field of abnormal child psychology. Characterized by drowsiness, daydreaming, lethargy, mental confusion, and slowed thinking/behavior, SCT has primarily been studied as a feature of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and namely the predominately inattentive subtype/presentation. Although SCT is strongly associated with ADHD inattention, research increasingly supports the possibility that SCT is distinct from ADHD or perhaps a different mental health condition altogether, with unique relations to child and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. This introductory article to the Special Section on SCT provides an historical overview of the SCT construct and briefly describes the contributions of the eight empirical papers included in the Special Section. Given the emerging importance of SCT for abnormal psychology and clinical science, there is a clear need for additional studies that examine (1) the measurement, structure, and multidimensional nature of SCT, (2) SCT as statistically distinct from not only ADHD-inattention but also other psychopathologies (particularly depression and anxiety), (3) genetic and environmental contributions to the development of SCT symptoms, and (4) functional impairments associated with SCT. This Special Section brings together papers to advance the current knowledge related to these issues as well as to spur research in this exciting and expanding area of abnormal psychology.

  4. Psychological and Physical Health of Nonoffending Parents After Disclosure of Sexual Abuse of Their Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.

  5. [A study on family pattern and psychological aspects of parent and child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, M H; Hong, M S

    1988-12-01

    This study reviews the relationship between family patterns and psychological aspects of the mother-child relationship. As the population increase in Korea will reach 50 million in 2020, population policy must deal with population quality. The data come from 118 5th and 6th grade students and their mothers. Survey results shows that the number of children and the family type are related to mothers' child rearing attitudes. Mothers in nuclear families tended to be warmer and freer towards their children than others. Family type was not related to the self-esteem of children, and the number of siblings showed a weak relationship. Children with siblings have stronger self-esteem. Birth order and younger sibling spacing had a stronger relationship with self-esteem. First borns and those who had younger siblings within a 2-year interval had the weakest self-esteem. Since families are becoming smaller, child quality is becoming more important. Not only family size but also family type, birth order, and spacing need to be considered for the psychological well-being of the population.

  6. Neuroticism in child sex offenders and its association with sexual dysfunctions, cognitive distortions, and psychological complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, Coralie; Deuring, Gunnar; Pflueger, Marlon O; Graf, Marc; Rosburg, Timm

    Studies in child sex offenders (CSO) often report deviant personality characteristics. In our study, we investigated neuroticism in CSO and tested the hypothesis that CSO with high neuroticism show more serious abuse behavior and are more likely to exhibit sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, as compared to CSO with low neuroticism. A sample of 40 CSO (both child sexual abusers and child sexual material users) was split into two subsamples based on their neuroticism scores, obtained by the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) questionnaire. Subsequently, we compared their scores in the Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI) questionnaire and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Our results show that CSO exhibited higher levels of neuroticism than controls, but were still in the normal range. In CSO, neuroticism was associated with sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, rather than with more severe abuse behavior. Moreover, neuroticism in this group was linked to a broad range of psychological problems and psychopathological symptoms, such as somatization or anxiety. Our findings suggest that neuroticism even below the level of personality disorder is associated with a broader range of psychological problems in CSO, which should be addressed in therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal and child psychological outcomes of HIV disclosure to young children in rural South Africa: the Amagugu intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen J; Arteche, Adriane X; Stein, Alan; Mitchell, Joanie; Bland, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    Increasingly, HIV-infected parents are surviving to nurture their children. Parental HIV disclosure is beneficial, but disclosure rates to younger children remain low. Previously, we demonstrated that the 'Amagugu' intervention increased disclosure to young children; however, effects on psychological outcomes have not been examined in detail. This study investigates the impact of the intervention on the maternal and child psychological outcomes. This pre-post evaluation design enrolled 281 HIV-infected women and their HIV-uninfected children (6-10 years) at the Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, in rural South Africa. The intervention included six home-based counselling sessions delivered by lay-counsellors. Psychological outcomes included maternal psychological functioning (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ12 using 0,1,2,3 scoring); parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index, PSI36); and child emotional and behavioural functioning (Child Behaviour Checklist, CBCL). The proportions of mothers with psychological distress reduced after intervention: GHQ threshold at least 12 (from 41.3 to 24.9%, P distress and parent-child relationship, showed significant improvement, while mothers' perception of 'child as difficult' was not significantly improved. Reductions in scores were not moderated by disclosure level (full/partial). There was a significant reduction in child emotional and behavioural problems (CBCL Pre M = 56.1; Post M = 48.9, P disclosure level, suggesting general nonspecific positive effects on family relationships. Findings require validation in a randomized control trial.

  8. On sociological catastrophe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, L.

    1974-01-01

    The present paper deals with standard terms of sociological catastrophe theory hitherto existing, collective behaviour during the catastrophe, and consequences for the empiric catastrophe sociology. (RW) [de

  9. Giving children security. Mamie Phipps Clark and the racialization of child psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shafali

    2002-01-01

    During the 1930s and 1940s, social psychologists became increasingly well-known among progressives battling race prejudice. By the early 1950s, African American psychologist Kenneth Bancroft Clark had become deeply involved with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's battle against segregated education in the South. By this time, his wife, who is less well-known in the annals of history, was developing her own reputation as the guiding spirit behind Harlem's Northside Center for Child Development. Her work at the center helped define an increasing interest in the psychology of children of color. This article examines the individual and social contexts of Mamie Phipps Clark's life and argues for greater attention to the dynamics of race and gender in the history of psychology.

  10. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S-1920S: "OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY"/"REFLEXOLOGY" AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20(th) century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled "objective psychology" and from the 1910s renamed "reflexology." The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's "objective psychology" and "reflexology" occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20(th) century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that "objective psychology" and "reflexology" had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, "experimental pedagogy" in the pre-revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet "pedology" during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned "objective psychology"/"reflexology" as a transformative scientific movement. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Psychological aspects and coping of parents with a haemophilic child: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviolo-Negrin, N; Cristante, F; Zanon, E; Canclini, M; Stocco, D; Girolami, A

    1999-01-01

    Although haemophilia is a relatively rare hereditary disease, and is curable by blood products, the psychological and social problems of haemophilic patients and of their families are always serious. Anxiety for the risks of bleedings and the fear for infections transmitted by blood products cause stress and difficulty in coping with the situation. The aim of this paper is to assess resources, stress, and coping in parents with a haemophilic child. In order to measure the dimensions related to family stress and resources, social desirability, tendency to depression, and anxiety, the subjects were administered the short-form of the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress by Friedrich et al. revised by Saviolo & Cristante, along with the Social Desirability Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Ipat Anxiety Scale. The subjects of this study were 20 couples who were the parents of haemophilic sons. We analysed how the parents perceived the behavioural characteristics of their child, the differences between mothers and fathers in the questionnaire scores, and the correlation among the considered dimensions. The results show that the parents paid great attention to the problems of their sons, but mothers were more depressed and anxious about the disease of their child.

  12. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  13. Parental Emotion Socialization and Child Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Urban Families: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Dyadic Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuyun Jin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical model of emotion regulation and many empirical findings have suggested that children’s emotion regulation may mediate the association between parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment. However, limited research has been conducted on moderators of these relations, despite the argument that the associations between parenting practices and children’s psychological adjustment are probabilistic rather than deterministic. This study examined the mediating role of children’s emotion regulation in linking parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment, and whether dyadic collaboration could moderate the proposed mediation model in a sample of Chinese parents and their children in their middle childhood. Participants were 150 Chinese children (87 boys and 63 girls, Mage = 8.54, SD = 1.67 and their parents (Mage = 39.22, SD = 4.07. Parent–child dyadic collaboration was videotaped and coded from an interaction task. Parents reported on their emotion socialization, children’s emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms. Results indicated that child emotion regulation mediated the links between parental emotion socialization and child’s psychopathological symptoms. Evidence of moderated mediation was also found: supportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation were positively correlated only at high and medium levels of dyadic collaboration, with child’s psychopathological symptoms as the dependent variables. Our findings suggested that higher-level parent–child collaboration might further potentiate the protective effect of parental supportive emotion socialization practices against child psychopathological symptoms.

  14. Parental Emotion Socialization and Child Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Urban Families: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Dyadic Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhuyun; Zhang, Xutong; Han, Zhuo Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The theoretical model of emotion regulation and many empirical findings have suggested that children’s emotion regulation may mediate the association between parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment. However, limited research has been conducted on moderators of these relations, despite the argument that the associations between parenting practices and children’s psychological adjustment are probabilistic rather than deterministic. This study examined the mediating role of children’s emotion regulation in linking parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment, and whether dyadic collaboration could moderate the proposed mediation model in a sample of Chinese parents and their children in their middle childhood. Participants were 150 Chinese children (87 boys and 63 girls, Mage = 8.54, SD = 1.67) and their parents (Mage = 39.22, SD = 4.07). Parent–child dyadic collaboration was videotaped and coded from an interaction task. Parents reported on their emotion socialization, children’s emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms. Results indicated that child emotion regulation mediated the links between parental emotion socialization and child’s psychopathological symptoms. Evidence of moderated mediation was also found: supportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation were positively correlated only at high and medium levels of dyadic collaboration, with child’s psychopathological symptoms as the dependent variables. Our findings suggested that higher-level parent–child collaboration might further potentiate the protective effect of parental supportive emotion socialization practices against child psychopathological symptoms. PMID:29326629

  15. Editorial: Illuminating the dark matter of developmental neuropsychiatric genetics - strategic focus for future research in child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2014-03-01

    Research on genetic factors influencing cognitive and behavioural traits or which are central to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric diseases has been complicated by a furtive discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. This 'missing heritability' has been either euphemised as the 'dark matter' of gene-trait association or aggravated as the 'looming crisis in behavioural genetics'. Nevertheless, in recognising the importance of this topic for our understanding of child psychiatric conditions and highlighting its commitment to the field, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (JCPP) has for the first time appointed an editor with special responsibility for molecular (epi)genetics. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Surrogate mothers 10 years on: A longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing and relationships with the parents and child

    OpenAIRE

    Jadva, Vasanti Harish; Imrie, S; Golombok, Susan Esther

    2014-01-01

    Study Question: How do surrogates psychological health and experiences of surrogacy change from one year to ten years following the birth of the surrogacy child? Summary answer: Surrogates’ psychological well-being did not change ten years following the birth, with the majority continuing to report good mental health andall surrogates remained positive about the surrogacy arrangement. What is known already: Studies have found that surrogates may find the weeks following the birth difficu...

  17. Psychological stress and rheumatoid arthritis in parents after death of a child: a national follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Olsen, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in parents after the death of a child. METHODS: All 21,062 parents whose child had died (younger than 18 years) between 1980 and 1996 in Denmark were included in the bereaved (exposed) cohort, and 293 745 parents matched on family.......63-1.24]. The RR was close to 1 throughout the 18 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support an association between severe psychological stress and RA....

  18. Family income, maternal psychological distress and child socio-emotional behaviour: Longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Katharine; Burns, Richéal; Violato, Mara

    2018-04-01

    The association between low family income and socio-emotional behaviour problems in early childhood has been well-documented, and maternal psychological distress is highlighted as central in mediating this relationship. However, whether this relationship holds for older children, and the precise mechanisms by which income may influence child behaviour is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between family income and child socio-emotional behaviour at 11 years of age, and examined the mediating role of maternal psychological distress over time using the UK Millennium Cohort Study. The primary outcome was parent-reported behavioural problems, as captured by the Total Difficulties Score (TDS), derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Secondary outcomes were the emotional, peer-related, conduct, and hyperactivity/inattention problems subscales of the SDQ; and teacher-reported TDS. Permanent family income was the primary exposure variable; frequency of poverty up to age 11 years was the secondary exposure variable. Maternal psychological distress was operationalised to reflect the trajectory from child birth to age 11. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of permanent family income on child behaviour at age 11, controlling for maternal psychological distress and other relevant covariates. Results showed a statistically significant protective effect of increased permanent family income on the likelihood of behavioural problems at age 11. This finding was consistent for all SDQ subscales apart from emotional problems, and was strongest for teacher-reported behavioural problems. Maternal distress was an important mediator in the income-child behaviour relationship for parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, behavioural problems. The results of this study strengthen empirical evidence that the child behaviour-income gradient is maintained in older childhood. Mother's psychological distress

  19. Latent classes of resilience and psychological response among only-child loss parents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Ni; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Huang, Fei-Fei; Ye, Man; Yao, Shu-Yu; Luo, Yuan-Hui; Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Jie; Su, Pan

    2017-10-01

    Only-child loss parents in China recently gained extensive attention as a newly defined social group. Resilience could be a probable solution out of the psychological dilemma. Using a sample of 185 only-child loss people, this study employed latent class analysis (a) to explore whether different classes of resilience could be identified, (b) to determine socio-demographic characteristics of each class, and (c) to compare the depression and the subjective well-being of each class. The results supported a three-class solution, defined as 'high tenacity-strength but moderate optimism class', 'moderate resilience but low self-efficacy class' and 'low tenacity but moderate adaption-dependence class'. Parents with low income and medical insurance of low reimbursement type and without endowment insurance occupied more proportions in the latter two classes. The latter two classes also had a significant higher depression scores and lower subjective well-being scores than high tenacity-strength but moderate optimism class. Future work should care those socio-economically vulnerable bereaved parents, and an elastic economic assistance policy was needed. To develop targeted resilience interventions, the emphasis of high tenacity-strength but moderate optimism class should be the optimism. Moderate resilience but low self-efficacy class should be self-efficacy, and low tenacity but moderate adaption-dependence class should be tenacity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The handicapped child: psychological effects of parental, marital, and sibling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisman, S; Wolf, L

    1991-03-01

    Although the nature and severity of a handicapping condition are not the sole determinants of family functioning, the presence of a child with a pervasive developmental disorder has a significant effect on family members. Maternal mental health suffers, and the resulting depression affects her role as mother and marriage partner. Unlike other handicapping conditions with obvious physical stigmata, the invisible handicap of the autistic child and the frequent delay in diagnosis contribute to the mother's self-doubt about her parental competence. While the impact on paternal psychological health is less, the fathers of autistic children are nevertheless highly stressed and appear to be particularly vulnerable to the stress generated by these difficult children. Living within this family climate, the risks for emotional and behavioral problems for siblings must be evaluated, along with their intrinsic strengths, to plan preventive interventions for these children. Effective work with these families requires an understanding of the evolution of family system problems and their dynamic and reciprocal interaction over time.

  1. The Impact of Child-Related Stressors on the Psychological Functioning of Lower-Income Mothers after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the role of child-related stressors in the psychological adjustment of lower-income, primarily unmarried and African American, mothers (N = 386). All participants lived in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, and about a third were also exposed to Hurricane Rita (30.3%, n = 117). Lacking knowledge of a…

  2. Racism, empire and sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Reviews of Gurminder K Bhambra, Connected Sociologies; Peo Hansen and Stefan Jonsson, Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism; Wulf D. Hund, Alana Lentin (eds) Racism and Sociology

  3. Introduktion til klassisk sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas......Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas...

  4. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  5. Sociology as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the meaning of practicing sociology, claiming to "commit a social science" still makes sense. Accepts Max Weber's arguments that sociology clarifies human affairs and is oriented to certain virtues. Suggests, however, that sociology is a passion as well as a profession, something Weber recognized but did not elaborate. (NL)

  6. Family income, maternal psychological distress and child socio-emotional behaviour: Longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Noonan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The association between low family income and socio-emotional behaviour problems in early childhood has been well-documented, and maternal psychological distress is highlighted as central in mediating this relationship. However, whether this relationship holds for older children, and the precise mechanisms by which income may influence child behaviour is unclear.This study investigated the relationship between family income and child socio-emotional behaviour at 11 years of age, and examined the mediating role of maternal psychological distress over time using the UK Millennium Cohort Study.The primary outcome was parent-reported behavioural problems, as captured by the Total Difficulties Score (TDS, derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Secondary outcomes were the emotional, peer-related, conduct, and hyperactivity/inattention problems subscales of the SDQ; and teacher-reported TDS. Permanent family income was the primary exposure variable; frequency of poverty up to age 11 years was the secondary exposure variable. Maternal psychological distress was operationalised to reflect the trajectory from child birth to age 11. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of permanent family income on child behaviour at age 11, controlling for maternal psychological distress and other relevant covariates.Results showed a statistically significant protective effect of increased permanent family income on the likelihood of behavioural problems at age 11. This finding was consistent for all SDQ subscales apart from emotional problems, and was strongest for teacher-reported behavioural problems. Maternal distress was an important mediator in the income-child behaviour relationship for parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, behavioural problems.The results of this study strengthen empirical evidence that the child behaviour-income gradient is maintained in older childhood. Mother’s psychological

  7. Sport and Society: An Introduction to Sociology of Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hilmi

    A theoretical framework for the study of sport sociology is provided in this text. It is intended for students of sport, arts and humanities, sociology, and social psychology. Sport and social organization are discussed first. Three models of societies and six theories of social organization are presented which form the basis of the eclectic…

  8. Psychologiczne bariery udzielania pomocy medycznej dziecku = Psychological barriers in delivering first help for child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Czyż

    2016-05-01

      Abstrakt Udzielanie pierwszej pomocy niejednokrotnie wymaga od potencjalnego ratownika przełamywania wielu wewnętrznych barier. Gdy dochodzi do zagrożenia życia lub zdrowia dziecka czynniki te w szczególności nasilają się i w istotnym stopniu determinują dalsze działania osoby niosącej pomoc na miejscu zdarzenia.   Celem pracy była próba identyfikacji czynników psychologicznych, mogących wpływać na chęć udzielania pomocy dziecku w stanie nagłym.   W badaniu wzięło udział 114 studentów w wieku 22,1±1,6 lat. Użyto autorskiej ankiety, składającej się z pytań, próbujących określić owe czynniki oraz testu wiedzy z zakresu pierwszej pomocy.   Większość(65% ankietowanych deklaruje ukończenie szkolenia z zakresu pierwszej pomocy osobie dorosłej, natomiast dziecka – zaledwie 42% studentów. Zaskakującym jest fakt, iż w ponad 80% szkoleń nie podjęto tematu dotyczącego pediatrycznej wersji AED. Wysoki odsetek studentów(60% deklaruje podjęcie pomocy dziecku w sytuacji zagrożenia jego życia. Pozostała część ankietowanych, jako największą barierę w udzielaniu pomocy dziecku, określa obawę przed pogłębieniem istniejącego już urazu(54%. Dodatkowo częstymi powodami odstąpienia od pomocy są: brak wiedzy i umiejętności udzielania pomocy(30%, strach związany z zaistniałą sytuacją(21% oraz obawa przed pociągnięciem do odpowiedzialności prawnej za wyrządzenie krzywdy(20%. W porównaniu płci, kobiety uzyskały wyższy średni wynik testu wiedzy niż mężczyźni (5,10±1,6vs.4,86±1,6, aczkolwiek zdecydowanie częściej w ankiecie wskazują jej brak jako czynnik ograniczający niesienie pomocy.   Występowanie wielu czynników ograniczających studentów w udzielaniu pomocy dzieciom niesie za sobą konieczność organizowania systematycznych szkoleń z zakresu pierwszej pomocy.   Słowa kluczowe: pierwsza pomoc, bariery psychologiczne.     Psychological barriers in delivering first help for child

  9. Perfiles Latinoamericanos: Regional sociology, connected sociologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of sociology published in the 48 numbers of the Perfiles Latinoamericanos magazineis analyzed. The diversity of topics, perspectives, and methodologies of the articles define aseries of fields of reflection around civil society, collective action, subjectivities and social identities,cities, media, violence, and theory. The essay suggests how the sociology that is producedin Latin America is not isolated but connected with international debates. It converges forms ofdoing theory and research with resonances on a global scale.

  10. 2015 Hans O. Mauksch Address: How Departments Can Respond to the Changing Popularity of the Sociology Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    While the popularity of the psychology major and the sociology major were comparable in 1970, sociology witnessed a decline while psychology witnessed expansion. This article considers strategies of expanding the popularity of the sociology major, considering data from a variety of sources. Primary recommendations are to configure programs to…

  11. [The positive psychological impact of rich childbirth experiences on child-rearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Kenji; Noguchi, Makiko; Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological implications of emotionally enriching childbirth experiences for problems such as awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress among women after childbirth. All women who gave birth at five study centers (four birthing homes and one maternity hospital) during May 2002 and August 2003 were asked to participate in the cohort study. All 2314 women were approached and 1004 eligible women agreed to take part. Analyses were conducted using a baseline survey and four follow-up surveys conducted at 4 months, 9 months, 2 and a half years, and 3 years after childbirth. The questionnaire included four scales to evaluate the subjects' childbirth experiences, awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress and difficulties. Data were collected via structured interviews and transcription from medical records. Bivariate and multivariate analysis indicated that women who had good childbirth experiences had positive feelings concerning motherhood and parenting stress and anxiety were lower. Bivariate analysis also indicated that childbirth experience had an inverse relationship with postnatal depression. This study revealed that having good childbirth experiences inhibits negative awareness of motherhood and abusive behavior towards children. These results show that it is important for mothers to be provided with appropriate care during pregnancy and labor for preventing child abuse and parenting stress and anxiety. More research is needed to identify the determinants of childbirth

  12. Techniques Used in Forensic Psychological Examinations in Cases of Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Lages Gava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no standardized protocol for the evaluation of situations of sexual abuse. Thus, this study investigated the techniques used by psychologists in forensic examinations in cases of suspected child and adolescent sexual abuse in the context of the criminal investigation. Semi-structured interviews, which were qualitatively analyzed using the WebQDA software, were applied with twelve psychologists who work as expert witnesses in the Medical-Legal Institute of six Brazilian capitals. The results showed a diversity of actions taken in the forensic examination practice, as well as consensus and controversy regarding the use of psychological testing and the credibility assessment of the report. Flexibility in conducting the forensic examinations by the teams was also observed, with the techniques used adapted according to the needs. The importance of the diversity of techniques was highlighted, as these aim to assist the expert witness to come to reliable conclusions, as well as maintain the rigor and technical quality of the evaluation.

  13. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  14. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... Eurocentrism, sociology of religion, inter-religious dialogue, Ibn. Khaldun, paper read at ... Unpublished Master's Thesis. University of South Africa. ... Journal of Investigative Psychology, 1(3): 191-206. Lebakeng, T.J., 2000.

  15. The case for a sociology of dying, death, and bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil; Allan, June; Carverhill, Philip A; Cox, Gerry R; Davies, Betty; Doka, Kenneth; Granek, Leeat; Harris, Darcy; Ho, Andy; Klass, Dennis; Small, Neil; Wittkowski, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Dying, death, and bereavement do not occur in a social vacuum. How individuals and groups experience these phenomena will be largely influenced by the social context in which they occur. To develop an adequate understanding of dying, death, and bereavement we therefore need to incorporate a sociological perspective into our analysis. This article examines why a sociological perspective is necessary and explores various ways in which sociology can be of practical value in both intellectual and professional contexts. A case study comparing psychological and sociological perspectives is offered by way of illustration.

  16. The order of social sciences: sociology in dialogue with neighbouring disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Bögenhold

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing sociology with economics, psychology or history shows that borderlines between disciplines have become fluent and always newly oscillating. Economists, especially prominent positions awarded with Nobel prizes, are increasingly discussing items as motivation, rationality, norms or culture which belong to the domain of sociology. Sociology should acknowledge this kind of ‘imperialism’ and claim own competencies.

  17. Ear for recovery: protocol for a prospective study on parent-child communication and psychological recovery after paediatric injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisic, Eva; Barrett, Anna; Bowles, Peter; Babl, Franz E; Conroy, Rowena; McClure, Roderick J; Anderson, Vicki; Mehl, Matthias R

    2015-02-04

    One in six children who have been admitted to hospital with an injury develop persistent stress symptoms that put their development at risk. Parents play a crucial role in children's psychological recovery, however, it is unknown how specific parenting behaviours can help or hinder. We aim to describe the nature and quantity of parent-child communication after a child has been injured, and to examine how these interactions are related to children's psychological recovery. We are conducting a prospective observational study among children aged 3-16 years, who have been admitted to a tertiary children's hospital with a serious injury. Data collection involves a naturalistic observation of spontaneous, everyday parent-child communication at home, shortly after discharge, and an assessment of children's psychological recovery at 6 weeks and 3 months post-injury. Main analyses comprise descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and analyses of variance. This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne (33103) and Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (CF13/2515-2013001322). We aim to disseminate the findings through international peer-reviewed journals, international conferences and social media. Participants will be sent a summary of the overall study findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Adoptive gay father families: parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. A cohort study on full breastfeeding and child neuropsychological development: the role of maternal social, psychological, and nutritional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julvez, Jordi; Guxens, Monica; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Forns, Joan; Mendez, Michelle; Turner, Michelle C; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated whether duration of full breastfeeding is associated with child neuropsychological development and whether this association is explained by social, psychological, and nutritional factors within families. Participants in this study were a population-based birth cohort in the city of Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain). Females were recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy between July 2004 and July 2006. Information about parental characteristics and breastfeeding was obtained through questionnaires. Full breastfeeding was categorized as never, short term (≤4mo), long term (4-6mo), or very long term (>6mo). A trained psychologist assessed the neuropsychological development of children at 4 years of age (n=434) using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Full breastfeeding showed an independent association with child general MSCA scores after adjusting for a range of social, psychological, and nutritional factors (>6mo, coefficient=7.4 [95% confidence interval=2.8-12.0], p=0.011). Maternal social class, education level, and IQ were also associated with child neuropsychological scores, but did not explain breastfeeding associations. Omega-3 (n3) fatty acid levels were not associated with child neuropsychological scores. Very long-term full breastfeeding was independently associated with neuropsychological functions of children at 4 years of age. Maternal indicators of intelligence, psychopathology, and colostrum n3 fatty acids did not explain this association. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse.

  1. Psychological outcomes in midadulthood associated with mother's child-rearing attitudes in early childhood--evidence from the 1970 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2004-02-01

    This study used longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) to examine the role of mother's child-rearing attitudes assessed when cohort members were aged 5 in children's psychological well-being (psychological functioning, psychological distress, life satisfaction and self-efficacy) at age 30. Although at the multivariate level mother's childrearing attitudes were not related to sons' psychological well-being in adult life, in daughters self-efficacy and life satisfaction at age 30 were related to mother's anti-child autonomy attitudes and mother's non-authoritarian child-rearing attitudes, respectively. In addition, mother's non-authoritarian childrearing attitudes had a protective effect against later psychological distress and low self-efficacy in daughters who had experienced significant material disadvantage in early childhood.

  2. The Psychological Essence of the Child Prodigy Phenomenon: Sensitive Periods and Cognitive Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa V.

    1999-01-01

    Examination of the child prodigy phenomenon suggests it is a result of extremely accelerated mental development during sensitive periods that leads to the rapid growth of a child's cognitive resources and their construction into specific exceptional achievements. (Author/DB)

  3. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent?Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families com...

  4. A prospective study of the impact of child maltreatment and friend support on psychological distress trajectory: From adolescence to emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Matte-Gagné, Célia; Daigneault, Isabelle; Blackburn, Marie-Eve; Hébert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre; Auclair, Julie; Veillette, Suzanne; Perron, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Transition into adulthood is a critical developmental period that may be influenced by adverse life events as well as by protective factors. This study aimed at investigating the effect of different forms of child maltreatment experienced prior to age 14 (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence), and of friend support at age 14 on the psychological distress trajectory from age 14 to 24. Participants were 605 adolescents from the general population involved in a 10-year longitudinal study. Psychological distress was evaluated at ages 14, 16, 18 and 24. Child maltreatment prior to 14 years was retrospectively assessed at 14 and 24 years while perception of support from friends was evaluated at age 14. Multilevel growth modeling indicated that psychological distress followed a significant decreasing curvilinear trajectory, with participants reporting fewer distressing psychological symptoms after 18 years. All three forms of child maltreatment, as well as their cumulative effect, predicted more psychological distress over 10 years above and beyond the protective effect of support from friends. Higher support from friends at age 14 was related to lower distress at baseline andover 10 years, beyond the effect of child maltreatment. Self-report nature of all measures, attrition, and measures of child maltreatment forms. Psychological distress decreased during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Results also revealed the detrimental impact of child maltreatment and the promotive role of friend support, which underscore the importance of early intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sociology of Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greendorfer, Susan L.

    1985-01-01

    The author describes the issues which created the schism between physical education and sociology. If the subdiscipline of sports sociology is to survive, these misunderstandings must be erased. Current investigations of relevant topics are of interest to both physical educators and coaches and could begin to bridge the gap. (MT)

  6. Sociology through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how photography can inspire and cultivate sociological mindfulness. One set of assignments uses self-portraiture to highlight the complexity of visual representations of social identity. Another uses photography to guide sociological inquiry. Both sets of assignments draw on the Literacy Through Photography methodology,…

  7. Neurobehaviour between birth and 40 weeks' gestation in infants born parental psychological wellbeing: predictors of brain development and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J; Thompson, Deanne K; Brown, Nisha C; Treyvaud, Karli; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Lee, Katherine J; Pace, Carmen C; Olsen, Joy; Allinson, Leesa G; Morgan, Angela T; Seal, Marc; Eeles, Abbey; Judd, Fiona; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-04-24

    Infants born long term neurodevelopmental problems compared with term born peers. The predictive value of neurobehavioural examinations at term equivalent age in very preterm infants has been reported for subsequent impairment. Yet there is little knowledge surrounding earlier neurobehavioural development in preterm infants prior to term equivalent age, and how it relates to perinatal factors, cerebral structure, and later developmental outcomes. In addition, maternal psychological wellbeing has been associated with child development. Given the high rate of psychological distress reported by parents of preterm children, it is vital we understand maternal and paternal wellbeing in the early weeks and months after preterm birth and how this influences the parent-child relationship and children's outcomes. Therefore this study aims to examine how 1) early neurobehaviour and 2) parental mental health relate to developmental outcomes for infants born preterm compared with infants born at term. This prospective cohort study will describe the neurobehaviour of 150 infants born at term equivalent age, and explore how early neurobehavioural deficits relate to brain growth or injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging, perinatal factors, parental mental health and later developmental outcomes measured using standardised assessment tools at term, one and two years' corrected age. A control group of 150 healthy term-born infants will also be recruited for comparison of outcomes. To examine the effects of parental mental health on developmental outcomes, both parents of preterm and term-born infants will complete standardised questionnaires related to symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress at regular intervals from the first week of their child's birth until their child's second birthday. The parent-child relationship will be assessed at one and two years' corrected age. Detailing the trajectory of infant neurobehaviour and parental psychological

  8. Comparison of Cognitive, Psychological and Social Characteristics, between Parents Who Have More Than One Exceptional Child with Parents of Normal Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mousavy-Khatat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal" mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0 mso-tstyle-colband-size:0 mso-style-noshow:yes mso-style-priority:99 mso-style-parent:"" mso-padding-alt:0mm 5.4pt 0mm 5.4pt mso-para-margin-top:0mm mso-para-margin-right:0mm mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt mso-para-margin-left:0mm line-height:115% mso-pagination:widow-orphan font-size:11.0pt font-family:"Times New Roman","serif" mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman" mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman" mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin mso-bidi-font-family:"XB Niloofar" mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi} Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive, psychological and social characteristics between parents who have more than one exceptional child and those parents with normal child. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and comparative study, 80 families who had more than one exceptional child were conveniently selected and 53 families with normal child were selected using multi-stage sampling in schools of Uromia city, western Iran. The Cognitive, Psychological and Social Characteristics of Parents with more than One Special Child Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Evaluation and Nurturing Relationship Issues Communication and Happiness (ENRICH were used. Compromise Xi Chi, Yu-Man Whitney and t tests were used for data analysis. Results: Among cognitive, psychological and social variables, job (Father and Mother (P<0.001 education (Father & Mother time of disability awareness (P<0.001 parents' level of interest to marriage (P<0.001 parents' relationship before birth (P<0.001 parents' relationship during pregnancy (P<0.001 Mothers' mental health (physical symptoms P=0.037, depression P=0.041, social dysfunction P=0.04, anxiety and insomnia P=0.001 and marital satisfaction (P=0.030 were statistically significant between the two

  9. Adaptation to the Birth of a Child with a Congenital Anomaly: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Maternal Well-Being and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nes, Ragnhild B.; Røysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J.; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A.; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants…

  10. Practicing Sociological Imagination through Writing Sociological Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Alem

    2009-01-01

    Sociological imagination is a quality of mind that cannot be adopted by simply teaching students its discursive assumptions. Rather, it is a disposition, in competition with other forms of sensibility, which can be acquired only when it is practiced. Adhering to this important pedagogical assumption, students were assigned to write their…

  11. Surrogate mothers 10 years on: a longitudinal study of psychological well-being and relationships with the parents and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Imrie, S; Golombok, S

    2015-02-01

    How do the psychological health and experiences of surrogate mothers change from 1 year to 10 years following the birth of the surrogacy child? The psychological well-being of surrogate mothers did not change 10 years following the birth, with all remaining positive about the surrogacy arrangement and the majority continuing to report good mental health. Studies have found that surrogates may find the weeks following the birth difficult, but do not experience psychological problems 6 months or 1 year later. Research has also shown that surrogates can form close relationships with the intended parents during the pregnancy which may continue after the birth. This study used a prospective longitudinal design, in which 20 surrogates were seen at two time points: 1 year following the birth of the surrogacy child and 10 years later. The 20 surrogates (representing 59% of the original sample) participated in a semi-structured interview and completed self-report questionnaires. Eleven surrogates were gestational carriers and nine surrogates had used their own oocyte (genetic surrogacy). Four were previously known to the intended parents and 16 were previously not known. Ten years following the birth of the surrogacy child, surrogate mothers scored within the normal range for self-esteem and did not show signs of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Marital quality remained positive over time. All surrogates reported that their expectations of their relationship with the intended parents had been either met or exceeded and most reported positive feelings towards the child. In terms of expectations for the future, most surrogates reported that they would like to maintain contact or would be available to the child if the child wished to contact them. None expressed regrets about their involvement in surrogacy. The sample size of this study was small and the women may not be representative of all surrogates. Therefore the extent to which these findings can

  12. Sociological aspects of rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuccu, Orhan; Latifoğlu, Osman; Atabay, Kenan; Oral, Nursen; Coşan, Behçet

    2003-01-01

    Although the psychological aspect of the rhinoplasty operation has been a subject of interest for a long time, with the exception of a few studies, sociological factors have been almost totally ignored. In this prospective study the personality characteristics and socioeconomic backgrounds of 216 rhinoplasty patients were evaluated. Between 1994 and 2000, a questionnaire and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) were given preoperatively to 157 females and 59 males. The MMPI was also given to age-matched people as a control. Six months after surgery, patients were called on the telephone and asked to rate their satisfaction. According to questionnaire, a great majority of the rhinoplasty patients were young, unmarried women with high education levels. In the rhinoplasty group, one or more scales of the inventory were not in the normal ranges in 45% of the patients, whereas this proportion in the control group was 28% (p childish, highly active, impulsive, competitive, reactive, perfectionistic about themselves, talkative, and emotionally superficial. Male patients could be described as rigid, stubborn, over-sensitive, suspicious, perfectionistic, pessimistic, over-reactive, and having somatizations. Tension and anxiety with feelings of inferiority were found to be characteristics of the male patients. The satisfaction rate after six months was reported as 72%. There was no significant correlation between MMPI results and demographic variables, nor satisfaction rate. In conclusion, the rhinoplasty patients in our study are young people at the very beginning of their careers. It could be that their personalities and socioeconomic backgrounds combine to make aesthetic surgery rewarding enough, both socially and personally, to encourage them to follow through.

  13. Birth Order, Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick M. Emerson; Andre Portela Souza

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of birth order on the child labor incidence and school attendance of Brazilian children. Evidence from the psychology and sociology literature suggests that earlier-born children tend to have higher innate abilities. The economic implications of these findings are that earlier-born children may have more intra-household resources directed to them when they are young, and better outcomes as adults in areas such as education and earnings. However, in the context ...

  14. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mobile sociology. 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, John

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to develop a manifesto for a sociology concerned with the diverse mobilities of peoples, objects, images, information, and wastes; and of the complex interdependencies between, and social consequences of, such diverse mobilities. A number of key concepts relevant for such a sociology are elaborated: 'gamekeeping', networks, fluids, scapes, flows, complexity and iteration. The article concludes by suggesting that a 'global civil society' might constitute the social base of a sociology of mobilities as we move into the twenty-first century.

  16. Child-rearing practices and psychological disorders in children: cross-cultural comparison of Korea and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Shin, Yee Jin; Moon, Kyung Joo; Hudson, Jennifer L; Rapee, Ronald M

    2002-08-01

    The present study was designed to explore cultural differences in the relationship between parenting behaviors and psychological adjustment of the child. Mother-son interaction behaviors of 37 Korean boys (11 with Anxiety Disorder, 10 with Externalizing Disorders and 16 Non-clinical boys) and 54 Australian boys (20 with Anxiety Disorder, 17 with Externalizing Disorders and 17 Non-clinical boys) between the ages of 7 and 15 were compared in terms of parental negativity and involvement. The results indicated that Korean mothers displayed more overall negativity and lower overall involvement than Australian mothers. Furthermore, anxiety diagnosis was associated with low maternal involvement in the Korean subjects, while in the Australian subjects, high maternal involvement was associated with clinical status in the child.

  17. The role of maternal communication patterns about interparental disputes in associations between interparental conflict and child psychological maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomulak-Cavicchio, Beata M; Davies, Patrick T; Cummings, E Mark

    2006-12-01

    The present study examined the role of mothers' communication with children about interparental disputes in associations between interparental conflict and child psychological maladjustment in a sample of 227 children and their parents followed over a one-year span. Most of the time (i.e., 79.8%) mothers reported that they would communicate with their children following interparental disputes, with the vast majority of those communications containing relatively constructive depictions of interparental conflict. Post-conflict communications were not associated with children's adjustment above and beyond the impact of interparental conflict. However, maternal communications underscoring family cohesion and warmth, emphasizing remorse for engaging in the interparental disagreement, and denying the occurrence of the dispute each moderated associations between interparental conflict and child externalizing symptoms in distinct, complex ways. The findings in general suggest that not all positive communications have the beneficial impact on children that parents may have intended.

  18. Coverage of child maltreatment in abnormal psychology textbooks: Reviewing the adequacy of the content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgus, Sam J; Packer, Mary M; Lile-King, Rachel; Miller-Perrin, Cindy L; Brand, Bethany L

    2016-03-01

    Abnormal psychology courses introduce undergraduate students to the range, causes, and treatments of psychological disorders. These courses present important opportunities to instruct students about disorders and treatments associated with childhood maltreatment (CM) as well as its prevalence. Little research has examined the adequacy with which abnormal psychology textbooks present information about CM. The present study reviewed the CM content of 10 abnormal psychology textbooks. The content was assessed in terms of the number of times CM was mentioned, the number of psychological disorders linked to CM, and the number of CM-related research citations. In addition, the authors conducted a content analysis to examine the significance, depth of detail, and organizational structure of the information provided within the sections of text addressing CM. There were significant differences in scores and the accuracy of coverage of CM across textbooks. Most of the textbooks lack key information on CM. The information presented in many textbooks is not consistent with current research and is overly focused on controversies. These findings are concerning because research has linked many psychological disorders and problematic outcomes to CM, but this information is not adequately conveyed to students via abnormal psychology textbooks. The authors make recommendations for improving the coverage of CM in abnormal psychology textbooks. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Parent and Child Psychological Factors in Pediatric Syncope and Other Somatic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Ronald L.; Morris, Julie A. B.; Cheng, Patricia S.; Campbell, Robert M.; Brown, Ronald T.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined associations among parental and child adjustment, child syncope, somatic, and school problems. Participants were children (N = 56) ages 7-18 years with syncope. Measures included syncope severity, parental distress, and children's internalizing symptoms. For children diagnosed negative for neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), their…

  20. The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Appearance of Psychological Symptomatology in Adult Women Victims of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Jauregui, Paula; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2017-01-01

    Child abuse affects people's ways of thinking, feeling, and observing the world, resulting in dysfunctional beliefs and maladaptive schemas. Thus, consequences of child abuse may persist during adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychological consequences (anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression, and hopelessness) of different types of maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect) and to study the role of early maladaptive schemas in the onset of symptomatology in adult female victims of child abuse. The sample consisted of 75 women referred by associations for treatment of abuse and maltreatment in childhood. Sexual abuse was the type of maltreatment that was most strongly related to most dysfunctional symptomatology, followed by emotional abuse and physical abuse, whereas physical neglect was the least related. Also, early maladaptive schemas were found to correlate with child abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology. Finally, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology when the effect of other types of abuse was controlled. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention.

  1. Sociology Back to the Publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a reading of the `new sociology' that is mainly identified with the works of C. Wright Mills and Alvin Gouldner. Its main argument is that during the past 40 years the new sociology gave back a public face to sociology. This distinguishes it from the `old sociology' that had not been

  2. Sociology of Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    Sociology of Discourse takes the perspective that collective actors like social movements are capable of creating social change from below by creating new institutions through alternative discourses. Institutionalization becomes a process of moving away from existing institutions towards creating...

  3. Medical sociology for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaska, N L

    1977-12-01

    This article defines the role of a medical sociologist in a medical institution concerned with health care delivery. The role in applied research and teaching is also discussed. The distinction is made between sociology in medicine and sociology of medicine. Five broad areas of research included under the category of sociology of medicine are the consumer of health care; the social, cultural, and economic enviroments as they relate to health and illness; health and illness behavior; patient education; and the evaluation of services provided to the consumer. Research methodologies utilized by sociologists are briefly presented, and research issues of concern in the sociology of medicine are outlined. The knowledge and information provided by a medical sociologist are supplemental to the physician's practice and are expressed ultimately as a benefit for the patient.

  4. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption) are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual...

  5. The Child's Demystification of Psychological Defense Mechanisms: A Structural and Developmental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michael J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Explored the relationships between the cognitive developmental level of preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational children (N=10) and their success in interpreting and explaining each of eight commonly described mechanisms of psychological defense. (JMB)

  6. Reaching the Problem Child Through Psychological Techniques as an Aid to Elementary School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelle, Thomas; Hawkey, Helen

    1973-01-01

    This discussion outlines the techniques used in play therapy. Play therapy helps children to express verbally their innermost concerns, thus offering the counselor a way of understanding and helping the child who may have emotional or learning problems. (JC)

  7. Colour attitude test: the possibility of application in sociology

    OpenAIRE

    V P Tkach

    2009-01-01

    The article provides the analysis of the cognitive potential of colour tests in sociology. Nowadays colour tests which are extensively used in the framework of psychology find practically no application in sociological research due to a number of their peculiarities. However, it should be recognized that such tests as colour attitude test demonstrate the richest cognitive potential for the identification of value preferences and social attitudes system at the level of the unconscious of vario...

  8. Colour attitude test: the possibility of application in sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Tkach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the analysis of the cognitive potential of colour tests in sociology. Nowadays colour tests which are extensively used in the framework of psychology find practically no application in sociological research due to a number of their peculiarities. However, it should be recognized that such tests as colour attitude test demonstrate the richest cognitive potential for the identification of value preferences and social attitudes system at the level of the unconscious of various social groups. The methodological experiment carried out by the author has proved demonstratively the feasibility and high efficiency of colour attitude tests application in the framework of empirical sociological research.

  9. The Role of Spiritual Attitude in Child-Rearing in Predicting the Psychological Hardiness of Mothers with Handicapped Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Bahmani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Providing care to children who have disability is often a stressful experience, yet spiritual beliefs may help mothers to be patient, tolerant and  hard in coping with child-rearing difficulties. This study examined the relationship between the spiritual attitudes of mothers of handicapped children to child-rearing and psychological hardiness. Methods: In a descriptive correlational study, 120 mothers of handicapped children who were referred to the rehabilitation clinics of the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (Rofeideh, Akhavan and Sina clinics were selected through purposeful sampling and answered the Sanctification of Parents Scale (SPS, and Personal Views Survey (PVS. Data were analyzed by SPSS-20 software and statistical procedures including Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used. Results: Results showed that spiritual attitudes to child-rearing are significant predictors of hardiness in mothers. Discussion: It seems like having spiritual attitudes in difficult situations such as providing care for disabled children plays a significant role in mother’s patience and hardiness.

  10. Sociology of Hidden Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of hidden curriculum in the sociological theories and wants to explain sociological aspects of formation of hidden curriculum. The main question concentrates on the theoretical approaches in which hidden curriculum is explained sociologically.For this purpose it was applied qualitative research methodology. The relevant data include various sociological concepts and theories of hidden curriculum collected by the documentary method. The study showed a set of rules, procedures, relationships and social structure of education have decisive role in the formation of hidden curriculum. A hidden curriculum reinforces by existed inequalities among learners (based on their social classes or statues. There is, in fact, a balance between the learner's "knowledge receptions" with their "inequality proportion".The hidden curriculum studies from different major sociological theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and critical theory, Symbolic internationalism and Feminism. According to the functionalist perspective a hidden curriculum has a social function because it transmits social values. Marxists and critical thinkers correlate between hidden curriculum and the totality of social structure. They depicts that curriculum prepares learners for the exploitation in the work markets. Symbolic internationalism rejects absolute hegemony of hidden curriculum on education and looks to the socialization as a result of interaction between learner and instructor. Feminism theory also considers hidden curriculum as a vehicle which legitimates gender stereotypes.

  11. Applying Repertory Grids in Complex Psychological and Psychiatric Expertise in Parents' Legal Disputes over Child Rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of dysfunctional families causes the increasing number of civil litigation on the parenting (upbringing of the child. In these families the relationship between the partners are high conflict. The actual problem is the study of the emotional-semantic reactions of wives and husbands on the family traumatic situations. 20 parents of harmonious families and 30 parents of disharmonious families (which are in the process of divorce and determination of the place of residence of the child or the order of meetings of the child with the noncustodial parent were surveyed by the rank grid test. It is shown that the application of the rank grid test in the study of high conflict and harmonious families allows to identify some features of the relationship of spouses to each other and the parents to the child. The specific of emotional response of adult family members to the traumatic situations associated with the behavior of a marriage partner and child is revealed. Types of the selected response: sthenic, ambivalent and asthenic, the latter two types have their substantial options.

  12. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage.

  13. Psychological adjustment among left-behind children in rural China: the role of parental migration and parent-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S; Li, X; Lin, D; Xu, X; Zhu, M

    2013-03-01

    Left-behind children refer to those rural children who are under 18 years of age and are left at home when both or one of their parents migrate to urban area for work. Recent findings showed that left-behind children were disadvantaged by developmental, emotional and social problems. A sample of 1165 rural children and adolescents were recruited to examine the characteristics of left-behind children and explore the differences in psychological adjustment (including satisfaction, loneliness and happiness) by patterns of parental migration (i.e. no parent migrating, one parent migrating or two parents migrating) and the level of parent-child communication in rural China. (1) Compared with children with one parent migrating, children with two parents migrating were separated from their parents at younger ages, for longer periods, and saw their migrant parents less frequently. (2) Children with two parents migrating reported the lowest level of satisfaction among the three groups of rural children. Both groups of children with one or two parents migrating experienced more loneliness compared with children with no parent migrating. There were no significant differences in school satisfaction and happiness among the three groups. (3) The children who reported a higher level of parent-child communication also reported a higher level of life and school satisfaction and happiness, and no differences in loneliness were found by levels of parent-child communication. These results indicate that loneliness was the most common and important experience of left-behind children. Parent-child communication is important for the development of all rural children, including those who were left behind by their migrant parents. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Language and Psychological Dimensions: The Inner World of the Immigrant Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoa, Cristina

    To help immigrant children succeed academically, the teacher must seek to ease the pain of the uprooting experience and find ways to awaken the power within the children to help themselves. This paper describes teaching experiences that led one teacher to understand immigrant children's psychology and the interventions necessary for giving self…

  15. The Orthopedically Disabled Child: Psychological Implications with an Individual Basis. July 1984 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…

  16. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  17. Young Children's Psychological Selves: Convergence with Maternal Reports of Child Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Agathen, Jean M.; Ho, Moon-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The present research examined five-year-old children's psychological self-concepts. Non-linear factor analysis was used to model the latent structure of the children's self-view questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), a measure of children's self-concepts. The coherence and reliability of the emerging factor structure indicated that young children are…

  18. Non-genetic and non-gestational parenthood: consequences for parent-child relationships and the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers and children at age 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, S; Murray, C; Jadva, V; Lycett, E; MacCallum, F; Rust, J

    2006-07-01

    Findings are presented of the third phase of a longitudinal study of children conceived by assisted reproduction procedures involving surrogacy and/or donor conception. At the time of the child's third birthday, 34 surrogacy families, 41 donor insemination families and 41 oocyte donation families were compared with 67 natural conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of the parents, mother-child relationships and the psychological well-being of the child. The differences found between family types reflected higher levels of warmth and interaction between mothers and their 3-year-old children in assisted reproduction families than in families with a naturally conceived child. A higher proportion of surrogacy parents than donor conception parents had told their children about the nature of their birth. It appears that the absence of a genetic and/or gestational link between parents and their child does not have a negative impact on parent-child relationships or the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers or children at age 3.

  19. Child Development in Cultural Contexts: Implications of Cultural Psychology for Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghwa; Johnson, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…

  20. Surrogacy Families: Parental Functioning, Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Development at Age 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Murray, Clare; Lycett, Emma; Jadva, Vasanti

    2006-01-01

    Background: Findings are presented of the second phase of a longitudinal study of families created through surrogacy. Methods: At the time of the child's 2nd birthday, 37 surrogacy families were compared with 48 egg donation families and 68 natural conception families on standardised interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological…

  1. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  2. Persuasion through artifacts: Sociological and psychological dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroe Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that applicants use various impression management tactics during employment interviews to influence interviewers' evaluations of their performance. Yet, little research has examined inteviewers/perceptions of applicant's impression management and their degree of nonverbal influence. This PhD study examines these questions, using both quantitative and qualitative data: Do interviewers accurately perceive applicant's impression management tactics? How are these perceptions integrated into their evaluations of applicant's nonverbal behaviour? Is perception accuracy influenced by artifacts (professional clothing that interviewees wear? It has cross-cultural design, because describes the differences in European Commission interviewers' social perceptions and Romanian human resources managers on one hand, and between social perceptions of European Commission public servants and Romanian employees on the other hand, concerning 12 key concepts: persuasion, first impressions, professional image, credibility, authenticity, competence, self- confidence, self-management, self-presentation, self-promotion, impression management tactics, professional appearance.

  3. Physical Education, Sociology, and Sociology of Sport: Points of Intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, George H.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the rise of sociology and physical education (PE), discussing linkages that initially existed and the separation that transpired between them. Also examines connections between social theory and PE before the sociology of sport was formally developed. Details the rise of sociology of sport, highlighting roles of physical educators. (SM)

  4. Sociology, environment and health: a materialist approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N J; Alldred, P

    2016-12-01

    This paper reviews the sociology of environment and health and makes the case for a postanthropocentric approach based on new materialist theory. This perspective fully incorporates humans and their health into 'the environment', and in place of human-centred concerns considers the forces that constrain or enhance environmental capacities. This is not an empirical study. The paper uses a hypothetical vignette concerning child health and air pollution to explore the new materialist model advocated in the paper. This paper used sociological analysis. A new materialist and postanthropocentric sociology of environment and health are possible. This radically reconfigures both sociological theory and its application to research and associated policies on health and the environment. Theoretically, human health is rethought as one among a number of capacities emerging from humans interactions with the social and natural world. Practically, the focus of intervention and policy shifts towards fostering social and natural interactions that enhance environmental (and in the process, human) potentiality. This approach to research and policy development has relevance for public health practice and policy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.

  6. Evaluating the Aboriginal child's mind: assimilation and cross-cultural psychology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David

    2018-06-01

    This article examines two psychological interventions with Australian Aboriginal children in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The first involved evaluating the cognitive maturation of Aboriginal adolescents using a series of Piagetian interviews. The second, a more extensive educational intervention, used a variety of quantitative tests to measure and intervene in the intellectual performance of Aboriginal preschoolers. In both of these interventions the viability of the psychological instruments in the cross-cultural encounter created ongoing ambiguity as to the value of the research outcomes. Ultimately, the resolution of this ambiguity in favour of notions of Aboriginal 'cultural deprivation' reflected the broader political context of debates over Aboriginal self-governance during this period.

  7. Treatment of psychological factors in a child with difficult asthma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Ran D; Sachdeva, Shagun

    2011-07-01

    Difficult asthma is defined as the persistence of asthma symptoms, abnormal pulmonary function showing airway obstruction, and continued requirement for short-acting bronchodilator therapy, despite adequate treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. It calls for a thorough evaluation of the patient to look into alternate and complicating diagnoses. The authors report a case of a 9-year-old patient with difficult asthma who failed to respond to conventional therapy. Although it was recognized that he had a number of potential medical complicating factors including allergies, chronic sinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux, a psychological intervention using hypnosis ultimately appeared to help alleviate his symptoms completely. Thus, psychological evaluation and intervention should be considered early in the course of management of a patient with difficult asthma, because it may help avoid time-consuming and expensive investigations of potential complicating factors, and it may yield rapid improvement in the patient's clinical condition.

  8. Sport Sociology: Contemporary Themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakis, Andrew, Ed.; And Others

    Intended for beginning and intermediate level students of sport and society, this anthology of 43 articles is organized into twelve, self-contained teaching units with unit introductions and study questions. Topics addressed include: (1) the sociological study of sport; (2) sport and American society; (3) the interdependence of sport, politics,…

  9. Perceived Parental Control Processes, Parent-Child Relational Qualities, and Psychological Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…

  10. Corporal punishment: mother's disciplinary behavior and child's psychological profile in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; El-Bourgy, Mohamed D; Seif El Din, Amira G; Mehanna, Azza A

    2009-01-01

    Although all professionals oppose abusive physical punishment, nonabusive physical punishment is still controversial. The aim of the present study was (i) to determine parents' behavior regarding the discipline of their children using corporal punishment or other alternative disciplinary methods, (ii) to identify the different associated factors for corporal punishment, and (iii) to determine the association between exposure of the child to corporal punishment and his or her psychosocial well-being. A representative sample of 400 fifth-grade primary school children and their mothers were subjected to a cross-sectional survey. Mothers were subjected to a questionnaire to assess their behavior on corporal punishment and other disciplinary methods. The children were subjected to Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to assess their self-esteem, and a questionnaire to assess their relationship with others. About three-quarter of children (76.3%) were corporally punished, and about half of them (46.2%) were punished on sites other than the extremities or buttocks. In 59.3% of them the frequency of the punishment ranged from once or twice/week to more than once/day, and it left marks in about 20%. Other disciplinary methods used by mothers were yelling/insulting (43.5%), taking away a toy or privilege (39.3%), discussing/explaining (9.5%), and time out (2.8%). The significant predictors of mothers' use of corporal punishment were male gender of the child (p corporal punishment of children and their self-esteem was not statistically significant; however, corporally punished children scored lower on their relationship with others than noncorporally punished ones (Z= 2.60, p Corporal punishment is a widespread disciplinary method in Alexandria. The use of corporal punishment could have adverse effects on the child especially on his or her relationship with others. Planning an awareness-raising educational program for current and expectant parents is recommended, to promote

  11. Regional Sociological Research Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Morev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS in conducting sociological research on the territory of the Vologda Oblast and the Northwestern Federal District. It describes the historical aspects of formation of the system for public opinion monitoring and examines its theoretical and methodological foundations. The author of the article analyzes the structure of monitoring indicators and provides a brief interpretation of research findings that reflect social wellbeing and social perception trends. In addition, the paper analyzes people’s attitude toward the activities of federal and regional authorities, trends in social well-being, consumer sentiment and also the complex indicator – the index of public sentiment in the region – developed by ISEDT RAS researchers. The results of sociological studies carried out at ISEDT RAS correlate with the dynamics of the all-Russian public opinion polls conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM, Levada-Center, etc. They indicate that Russian society gradually adapts to new conditions of life after the collapse of the USSR. Besides, opinion polls show the most important features of the post-Soviet Russian history at its present stage; they are associated with the intensification of international political relations, the consequences of the “Crimean spring” and the new challenges Russia’s economy is facing now. The article concludes that as global community, of which Russian society is part, is evolving, sociological knowledge begins to play an increasingly important role in administration and national security; this is associated with the greater importance attached to intangible development factors. Therefore, a necessary prerequisite for administration effectiveness in all its stages is to implement the results of sociological research on social

  12. The association between maternal serious psychological distress and child obesity at 3 years: a cross-sectional analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, L; Lane, S; Rahman, A

    2013-01-01

      The prevalence of child obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide. Early childhood has been identified as a critical time period for the development of obesity. Maternal mental health and early life environment are crucial factors and have been linked to adverse child outcomes. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between maternal serious psychological distress and obesity in early childhood.   A cross-sectional analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study was conducted. Subjects consisted of all natural mothers (n= 10 465) who had complete and plausible data for Kessler-6 scores, socio-demographic and anthropometric variables, and their children for whom anthropometric measurements were completed at age 3. Maternal serious psychological distress was defined as a score of 13 or more on the Kessler-6 scale. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥95th centile of the 1990 reference chart for age and sex in children. The data were analysed using spss 16. Maternal socio-demographic factors that are known to influence maternal mental health and child obesity were identified and adjusted using multivariate logistic regression.   Of the 10 465 mother-child dyads, 3.5% of mothers had serious psychological distress and 5.5% of children were obese at 3 years of age. Logistic regression analysis showed that maternal serious psychological distress was associated with early childhood obesity (P= 0.01; OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.11, 2.37). After adjusting for potential confounding factors using multivariate logistic regression, maternal serious psychological distress remained significantly associated with early childhood obesity (P= 0.01; OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.08, 2.34).   The results show that maternal serious psychological distress is independently associated with early childhood obesity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Facing Spousal Cancer During Child-Rearing Years: Do Social Support and Hardiness Moderate the Impact of Psychological Distress on Quality of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneseth, Mette; Hauken, May A; Matthiesen, Stig B; Gjestad, Rolf; Laberg, Jon C

    Partners of cancer patients report psychological distress and reduced quality of life. However, partners' mental health status and quality of life during child-rearing years and the influence of social support and hardiness on their well-being have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to describe psychological distress, quality of life, social support, and hardiness of the partners facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years and investigate whether social support or hardiness moderated the relationship between psychological distress and quality of life. Cross-sectional data were collected in Norway from December 2013 to July 2015 as part of the Cancer-PEPSONE study. Five questionnaires were administered to 14 females and 21 males (n = 35). Participants reported more psychological distress and lower quality-of-life scores than other healthy Norwegian populations. Psychological distress seemed to be associated with their not being in control of their futures. Received social support moderated the effect of psychological distress on quality of life. Facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years seemed to have a substantial impact on partners' mental health and an adverse impact on their quality of life. Accordingly, these partners' self-care abilities may be reduced. Received social support may reduce the multiple burdens and consequently allow for enhancement of self-care. Interventions should aim to improve the social support provided to child-rearing partners, which may improve their quality of life. Providing adequate information about their partner's cancer illness and treatment may enhance their feelings of control, which may be beneficial for their mental health status.

  14. Piketty's challenge for sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Mike

    2014-12-01

    This paper argues that Piketty's book should not simply be seen as that of an economist, but that it contains significant resources for sociologists to draw upon. These are firstly, this approach to social science and his use of visualizations which chime closely with recent claims about the power of description. Secondly I consider his conceptualization of time and history - which in rebutting epochal arguments about the speed of contemporary change allows for a much better appreciation of the 'long durée'; and finally his conceptualization of social classes and privilege through his elaboration of a sociology of accumulation and inheritance. In all these ways, Piketty's work assists in developing an account of elites and wealth which should be highly productive for future sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  15. Parental Concerns in 100th Year Anniversary of Sociology Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapoglu, Aytul

    2016-01-01

    Although sociology education is celebrating its 100th year anniversary in Turkish higher education, the field itself is not known quite well by the society. Familial worries in the context of emotional sociology are very important because families may have when they think of their child's future especially after graduation from university. Primary…

  16. The typological approach in child and family psychology: a review of theory, methods, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the theoretical underpinnings, major concepts, and methods of the typological approach. It was argued that the typological approach offers a systematic, empirically rigorous and reliable way to synthesize the nomothetic variable-centered approach with the idiographic case-centered approach. Recent advances in cluster analysis validation make it a promising method for uncovering natural typologies. This paper also reviewed findings from personality and family studies that have revealed 3 prototypical personalities and parenting styles: Adjusted/Authoritative, Overcontrolled/Authoritarian, and Undercontrolled/Permissive. These prototypes are theorized to be synonymous with attractor basins in psychological state space. The connection between family types and personality structure as well as future directions of typological research were also discussed.

  17. Play Room as an psychological assessment method in cases of alleged child sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelskjær, Marie

    2017-01-01

    of Play Room from prevention into clinical assessment, in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Taking its starting point in the theory of Jean Laplanche, this article will discuss how psychoanalytic concepts such as seduction, translation, asymmetry, absence, and listening to listening can be used......This article presents an example of how psychoanalytic theory can be implemented in practice. The aim is to introduce and discuss the semi-projective material ‘Play Room’ which was originally developed to support prevention of sexual abuse among vulnerable children in Denmark. However, a recent...... study has shown that, when measured with a scale called Ability to Answer, children exposed to sexual abuse talked about the illustrations in Play Room in a significantly different way than did a clinical sample and a normal control group. The finding indicates the potential for expanding the scope...

  18. The idea of philosophical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernilo, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This article introduces the idea of philosophical sociology as an enquiry into the relationships between implicit notions of human nature and explicit conceptualizations of social life within sociology. Philosophical sociology is also an invitation to reflect on the role of the normative in social life by looking at it sociologically and philosophically at the same: normative self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of sociology's scientific tasks because key sociological questions are, in the last instance, also philosophical ones. For the normative to emerge, we need to move away from the reductionism of hedonistic, essentialist or cynical conceptions of human nature and be able to grasp the conceptions of the good life, justice, democracy or freedom whose normative contents depend on more or less articulated conceptions of our shared humanity. The idea of philosophical sociology is then sustained on three main pillars and I use them to structure this article: (1) a revalorization of the relationships between sociology and philosophy; (2) a universalistic principle of humanity that works as a major regulative idea of sociological research, and; (3) an argument on the social (immanent) and pre-social (transcendental) sources of the normative in social life. As invitations to embrace posthuman cyborgs, non-human actants and material cultures proliferate, philosophical sociology offers the reminder that we still have to understand more fully who are the human beings that populate the social world. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  19. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Psychological Interventions in Child Sexual Abuse: Current Status and Emerging Needs in the Indian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Vandana; Satapathy, Sujata; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical, psychologically traumatic and sometimes life-threatening incident often associated with sequel of adverse physical, behavioral, and mental health consequences. Factors such as developmental age of the child, severity of abuse, closeness to the perpetrator, availability of medico-legal-social support network and family care, gender stereotypes in the community complicate the psychological trauma. Although the research on the effects of CSA as well as psychological intervention to reduce the victimization and promote the mental health of the child is in its infancy stage in India, the global research in the past three decades has progressed much ahead. A search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar from 1984 to 2015 and only 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of 96 potentially relevant studies were included. While nonspecific therapies covering a wide variety of outcome variables were prominent till 1999s, the trend changed to specific and focused forms of trauma-focused therapies in next one-and-half decades. Novel approaches to psychological interventions have also been witnessed. One intervention (non-RCT) study on effects on general counseling has been reported from India.

  20. Did Harriet Martineau's sociological methods influence Emile Durkheim's sociological methods?

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, Jon Eric

    1995-01-01

    Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) published How to Observe Morals and Manners in 1838. The book was perhaps the first sociological methodology text. Emile Durkheim (1855-1917) published The Rules of Sociological Method (1895) 57 years later. Durkheim's book has traditionally been labeled as the first sociological methodology text, while Martineau's book has been virtually forgotten by modern day sociologists. The author identifies significant similarities between the two tex...

  1. Tales of sociology and the nursing curriculum: revisiting the debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Kay; Law, Kate

    2007-08-01

    . Sociology and the nursing curriculum; editorial. Nurse Education in Practice 4, 81-82; Mowforth, G., Harrison, J., Morris, M., 2005. An investigation into adult nursing students' experience of the relevance and application of behavioural sciences (biology, psychology and sociology) across two different curricula. Nurse Education Today 25, 41-48]. Much attention has been given to the role, utility and value of sociology mostly within pre-registration but also post-registration nursing curricula. Through an initial analysis of a series of letters appearing in The Nursing Times over a 12 week period in 2004, and using an analytical framework of four tales (realist, critical, deconstructive and reflexive) we revisit this relationship. Unlike previous debates our argument is that this relationship is more usefully viewed as emblematic of the legitimation crisis inherent in all modern projects. We argue that in order to move beyond the 'utility' discussion, an interrogation of the knowledge claims of both nursing and sociology is required.

  2. Remembered parenting style and psychological well-being in young adults whose parents had experienced early child loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantke, Renate; Slade, Pauline

    2006-03-01

    Pre-, peri-, or postnatal childloss can have devastating consequences for bereaved families. This study explored the long-term sequelae of these experiences for the young adult siblings' psychological well-being and the perceived quality of parenting received during participants' first 16 years of life. A bereaved group of young adult siblings was compared to a non-bereaved group on the Parent Bonding Instrument, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Mental Health Index-5. The loss group reported their mothers, but not their fathers, to have been more protective/controlling than non-bereaved participants. No differences between the loss group and the comparison group were found for parental care, their own mental health or self-esteem. Those participants whose siblings died during the peri/post-natal period perceived their parents as more controlling than the miscarriage group as well as the non-bereaved group. Higher protection scores were evident among those born subsequent to the loss than those who were born before. Lower levels of protection were associated with better mental health across all groups. In the non-bereaved group lower levels of protection were associated with better self-esteem, but in the bereaved group a different even opposite pattern was shown. Young adults who lost a sibling when they themselves were under 5 recall their mothers as more protective/controlling than non-bereaved groups, although they do not report less care nor differ in mental health nor self-esteem. Higher levels of parental protection/control were found where the child was born subsequent to loss and for peri/post-natal loss rather than miscarriage. While high protection was associated with poorer mental health regardless of loss this may not be necessarily disadvantageous to the child's self-esteem. Differences with regard to parent gender were found.

  3. 2004 American Sociological Association Presidential address: for public sociology*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burawoy, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Responding to the growing gap between the sociological ethos and the world we study, the challenge of public sociology is to engage multiple publics in multiple ways. These public sociologies should not be left out in the cold, but brought into the framework of our discipline. In this way we make public sociology a visible and legitimate enterprise, and, thereby, invigorate the discipline as a whole. Accordingly, if we map out the division of sociological labor, we discover antagonistic interdependence among four types of knowledge: professional, critical, policy, and public. In the best of all worlds the flourishing of each type of sociology is a condition for the flourishing of all, but they can just as easily assume pathological forms or become victims of exclusion and subordination. This field of power beckons us to explore the relations among the four types of sociology as they vary historically and nationally, and as they provide the template for divergent individual careers. Finally, comparing disciplines points to the umbilical chord that connects sociology to the world of publics, underlining sociology's particular investment in the defense of civil society, itself beleaguered by the encroachment of markets and states.

  4. Family functioning, parental psychological distress, child behavioural problems, socio-economic disadvantage and fruit and vegetable consumption among 4-12 year-old Victorians, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, A M N; Kumanyika, S; Tucker, K L

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this analysis was to assess relationships between family functioning, parental psychological distress, child behaviour difficulties and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among 4-12-year-old children in Victoria, Australia. We used the 2006 Victorian Child's Health and wellbeing data set that included 3370 randomly selected primary caregivers of 4-12-year-old children interviewed between October 2005 and March 2006. Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; level of family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device-General Functioning Scale and parental psychological distress was measured using the Kessler-6 scale. The mean number of servings consumed per day was 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1, 2.3) for fruit and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.1) for vegetables. The proportion of children meeting the minimum daily age-specific recommendation was 87.8% (95% CI: 86.4, 89.1%) for fruit and 36.5% (95% CI: 34.5, 38.5) for vegetables. Children with behaviour difficulties, low levels of prosocial behaviours and from poorly functioning households consumed fewer servings of F&V than children who did not experience any environment stressors or behavioural problems. Although parental psychological distress was not associated with fruit intake, daughters of parents who reported higher levels of psychological distress consumed fewer servings of vegetables than daughters of parents who reported lower levels of psychological distress. Child behavioural problems and family functioning and to some extent parental psychological distress were associated with F&V consumption. Programmes aimed at promoting F&V consumption in children should target those families with children experiencing behavioural problems or poorly functioning households.

  5. Psychological injury in victims of child sexual abuse: A meta-analytic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara G. Amado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CSA/ASA on the victim's probability of developingsymptoms of depression and anxiety, to quantify injury in populational terms, to establish theprobability of injury, and to determine the different effects of moderators on the severity of injury, a meta-analysis was performed. Given the abundant literature, only studies indexed in the scientific databaseof reference, the Web of Science, were selected. A total of 78 studies met the inclusion criteria: they measuredCSA/ASA victimization or injury in terms of depression or anxiety symptoms, measured the effectsize or included data for computing them, and provided a description of the sample. The results showedthat CSA/ASA victims suffered significant injury, generally of a medium effect size and generalizable, victimshad 70% more probabilities of suffering from injury, and clinical diagnosis was significantly a moreadequate measure of injury than symptoms. The probability of chronic injury (dysthymia was greaterthan developing more severe injury, i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD. In the category of anxiety disorders,injury was expressed with a higher probability in specific phobia. In terms of the victim's gender,females had significantly higher rates of developing a depressive disorder (DD and/or an anxiety disorder(AD, quantified in a 42% and 24% over the baseline, for a DD and AD respectively. As for the type of abuse,the meta-analysis revealed that abuse involving penetration was linked to severe injury, whereas abusewith no contact was associated to less serious injury. The clinical, social, and legal implications of the resultsare discussed.

  6. Bridging psychological barriers between the child and the father after his returning from the war: Could group art therapy help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić-Gajić, Gordana

    2016-07-01

    War veterans with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have poorer family and parenting functioning, but little research has focused on these impairments. This paper presented how the series of drawings and the group art therapy process enhanced bridging the psychological barriers of a 33-year-old male PTSD war veteran to engagement with the child. After two years of deployment he returned home and suffered mostly from PTSD numbness and avoidance symptoms. The veteran had the family readjustment difficulties and felt guilty for being detached from his 3-year-old son. He under-went integrative treatment in the Day Unit Program. The drawings series were made by free associations. Clinical observations and group discussions were recorded in the group art therapy protocols. The presented patient got gratifications and support from the group members for his illustration of popular cartoon heroes, and decided to draw Mickey Mouse at home. On the next session he shared his satisfaction for bridging the gap between him and his son, having done the same drawings with his son at home. Beck's depression inventory (BDI) was used for self-rating of depression and a reduction of BDI score from 18 to 6 during the treatment course was recorded. Series of drawings illustrated shift from war related past toward current family life of the war veteran. Group art therapy gave him gratification and support with hope and a sense of belonging, thus facilitated his parenting readjustment.

  7. Bridging psychological barriers between the child and the father after his returning from the war: Could group art therapy help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Gajić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. War veterans with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD have poorer family and parenting functioning, but little research has focused on these impairments. Case re-port. This paper presented how the series of drawings and the group art therapy process enhanced bridging the psychological barriers of a 33-year-old male PTSD war veteran to engagement with the child. After two years of deployment he returned home and suffered mostly from PTSD numbness and avoidance symptoms. The veteran had the family readjustment difficulties and felt guilty for being detached from his 3-year-old son. He under-went integrative treatment in the Day Unit Program. The drawings series were made by free associations. Clinical observations and group discussions were recorded in the group art therapy protocols. The presented patient got gratifications and support from the group members for his illustration of popular cartoon heroes, and decided to draw Mickey Mouse at home. On the next session he shared his satisfaction for bridging the gap between him and his son, having done the same drawings with his son at home. Beck's depression inventory (BDI was used for self-rating of depression and a reduction of BDI score from 18 to 6 during the treatment course was recorded. Conclusions. Series of drawings illustrated shift from war related past toward current family life of the war veteran. Group art therapy gave him gratification and support with hope and a sense of belonging, thus facilitated his parenting readjustment.

  8. In Praise of Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Raewyn

    2017-08-01

    This reflection on the relevance of sociology starts with the different forms of social knowledge, and some autobiographical reflection on my engagement with the discipline. A research-based social science is made urgent by the prevalence of distortion and pseudoscience in the public realm. However, the research-based knowledge formation is embedded in a global economy of knowledge that centers on a privileged group of institutions and produces major imbalances on a world scale. Sociological data collection has important uses in policy and public discussion. But data need to be embedded in a larger project of understanding the world; this is what gives excitement to the work. Sociology has a potential future of marginality or triviality in the neoliberal economy and its university system. There are better trajectories into the future-but they have to be fought for. Cette réflexion sur l'utilité de la sociologie commence avec les différentes formes de savoir social, ainsi que quelques réflexions biographiques sur mon engagement avec la discipline. Le besoin d'une science sociale orientée vers la recherche est devenue nécessaire suite à la prédominance de la distorsion et de la pseudoscience dans la sphère publique. Par contre, ce savoir centré sur la recherche est lié à une économie globale de la connaissance qui est proche d'un groupe privilégié d'institutions et produit des déséquilibres majeurs au niveau mondial. La collecte de données sociologiques a une grande utilité en politique et dans les discussions publiques. Mais ces données doivent être liées à un projet plus large de compréhension du monde ; c'est ce qui rend ce travail excitant. La sociologie risque la marginalisation ou la trivialité dans une économie néo-libérale et son système universitaire. Il existe de meilleures trajectoires pour l'avenir - mais elles doivent être défendues. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  9. Toward Publicly Responsive Sociology Curricula: The Role of Introductory Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Introductory sociology casts a wide net with regard to its audience and plays an important role in capturing the public eye as well as helping students to make more informed choices in their lives and communities. I ask six questions that help us as sociologists to think about how introductory sociology can better serve our discipline, our…

  10. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  11. Child and family-related predictors of psychological outcomes in children adopted from abroad; what is the role of caregiver time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Niina; Elovainio, Marko; Raaska, Hanna; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Matomäki, Jaakko; Sinkkonen, Jari; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2017-08-01

    International adoptees need to cope with stressful transitions and to develop secure attachment with their caregivers at the same time. Although most children adopted from abroad adjust fine, they are at increased risk of psychological problems. We investigated whether both child and family-related factors are associated with later psychological problems and whether the length of time spent at home after adoption before daycare moderates these associations among internationally adopted children in Finland (FinAdo, Finnish Adoption Study). The sample consisted of 1,265 children (708 girls, 557 boys) who arrived in Finland before they started school (mean age 2 years at arrival). Later behavioral problems were measured using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL). According to our results, male gender, older age, child's early clinical symptoms (problems of sensory processing) and single parenthood were associated with later behavioral problems measured by CBCL scores. Longer stay at home before the start of daycare or school modified these results. Longer stay at home was associated with less later behavioral externalizing problems in girls but not in boys compared to those who spent a shorter time at home. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Teaching Sociology through Student Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepagnier, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    After several years of teaching Sociological Thought--an upper division course that focuses on classical, modern, and contemporary sociological theories--the author came across the idea of student portfolios. As a consequence, the course has undergone far-reaching changes. The content remains relatively intact; however, today the theory course…

  13. RESULTS OF 2011 STATE DUMA ELECTIONS: SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Fedotova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sociological forecasting of political processes arose as a powerful industry. Nevertheless, results of the polls conducted by the major agencies diverged significantly with the voting in 2011 State Duma elections. The article analyses major complications in forecasting results of elections using sociological data, including psychological factors, role of mass media and administrative resource. The author identifies strategies of the opposition, as well as proves predominant importance of Vladimir Putin for the electoral success of the ruling party on the basis of the polls.

  14. Influence of sociological determinants in consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Bujari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior belongs within the scope of delicate issues in theoretical marketing concepts of marketing. The main reason for such treatment of specific issues derives from human individuality in the decision making process for purchasing. From the complexity of human nature, arise challenges in their efforts to look at the internal motives of consumers, their psychological elements and conditions, the internal psychological determinants of behavior, but also the influence of culture, social class, family, lifestyle, as external sociological determinants, regardless of the particular autonomous characteristics of being socially exposed to certain environmental impacts that are undoubtedly of great importance to one’s behavior as a consumer. On the other hand, there is a series of hidden motifs for which their oversight is necessary because they are crucial to the decision-making process. Having this in mind, the researchers focused their objectives on analyzing the determinants of consumer behavior in the decision-making process to be marketed. Various sources of data have been used in the analysis and the theoretical processing of the work. Most of them have a secondary character and include domestic contemporary literature and foreign literature related to this issue. The basic concept of this paper, besides the introductory part and the conclusions, is also composed of interrelated parts. Given the analysis of different sociological determinants such as culture, social classes, reference groups and so on we understand their impact and their importance in bringing decisions in the market for personal consumption.

  15. Do Underachievers Need Sociology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aladin El-Mafaalani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a promising model for using sociological learning to support the education of young people who are socially disadvantaged or display behavioral problems. A great many of these students are trapped in patterns of negative behavior. The goal of the model is to enable these young people to think explicitly about the role they are playing and to encourage them to strike out in a new direction. To this end, Erving Goffman’s sociological insights are used to stage a theatrical performance about school. This approach is informed by the microsociological tradition of proceeding from the concrete to the abstract in order to facilitate inductive learning and self-reflection. Goffman’s theory of social action provides the social-theoretical background for the theatrical action, while also serving as a medium of contrast for the analysis of the individual, interaction, and institution in subsequent reflections about school. In this way, sociological theory not only serves as a theoretical foundation for the lesson, but is also explicitly its subject.Der Aufsatz zeigt eine erfolgversprechende Möglichkeit auf, soziologisches Lernen als Beitrag zur Förderung sozial benachteiligter und verhaltensauffälliger Jugendlicher in der Schule zu implementieren. Die meisten dieser Schüler sind in ihren Handlungsmustern gefangen. Ziel ist es, diesen Jugendlichen die Möglichkeit zu eröffnen, bewusst über ihre Rolle nachzudenken und einen anderen Weg einzuschlagen. Hierfür werden Erkenntnisse aus Erving Goffman‘s Soziologie für ein schulisches Schauspiel genutzt, um ganz im Sinne der mikrosoziologischen Tradition vom Konkreten auf das Abstrakte zu schließen und damit induktives Lernen sowie Selbstreflexion zu ermöglichen. Goffman‘s Theorie sozialen Handelns bildet für das szenische Spiel zunächst das sozialtheoretische Hintergrundrauschen, um schließlich in der Reflexion der sozialen Situation in der Schule als Kontrastmittel f

  16. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  17. Sociological interpretation of social problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Katsora

    2015-04-01

    The article considers such sociological approaches to social problems as social pathology, social disorganization, functional and critical approaches, the approach of value conflict, constructionsite approach and the approach of «labelling». Each approach has its own peculiarities of consideration of social problems, that is related with the historical period in which it arose and settled down, and the views of members of a particular sociological approach to social problems. Also, the article discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of sociological approaches to dealing the social problems.

  18. 'Stranger' child-murder: issues relating to causes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P R

    1988-02-01

    Most industrialised countries are concerned with a perceived increase in the killing of children and adolescents by strangers. Though reliable statistics are lacking, the growth of serial murder suggests that more young persons may be at risk than ever before. Explanations, either of a psychological or sociological kind, of child murder by strangers are inadequately developed. Despite the tendency to see such killers as psychiatrically ill a number of studies suggest that the majority of offenders do not differ significantly, at least in psychological traits, from non-offenders. Subcultural and other sociological perspectives stressing "social disadvantage" have low levels of exploratory power and do not assist greatly in understanding child killings. Despite sketchy and contradictory evidence on the effects of the media on sexual and violent crime case study material supports the view that pornography, including popular music, may increase the propensity of individuals to commit atrocities. Counter-measures to control stranger child killing lie in more sophisticated law enforcement (profiling and computer links between police forces) long periods of incarceration of the offender and more sophisticated analyses of the crimes.

  19. A sociological dilemma: Race, segregation and US sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    US sociology has been historically segregated in that, at least until the 1960s, there were two distinct institutionally organized traditions of sociological thought – one black and one white. For the most part, however, dominant historiographies have been silent on that segregation and, at best, reproduce it when addressing the US sociological tradition. This is evident in the rarity with which scholars such as WEB Du Bois, E Franklin Frazier, Oliver Cromwell Cox, or other ‘African American Pioneers of Sociology’, as Saint-Arnaud calls them, are presented as core sociological voices within histories of the discipline. This article addresses the absence of African American sociologists from the US sociological canon and, further, discusses the implications of this absence for our understanding of core sociological concepts. With regard to the latter, the article focuses in particular on the debates around equality and emancipation and discusses the ways in which our understanding of these concepts could be extended by taking into account the work of African American sociologists and their different interpretations of core themes. PMID:25418995

  20. Parental Emotion Socialization and Child Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Urban Families: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Dyadic Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuyun Jin; Xutong Zhang; Zhuo Rachel Han

    2017-01-01

    The theoretical model of emotion regulation and many empirical findings have suggested that children’s emotion regulation may mediate the association between parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment. However, limited research has been conducted on moderators of these relations, despite the argument that the associations between parenting practices and children’s psychological adjustment are probabilistic rather than deterministic. This study examined the mediatin...

  1. Methodological pluralism and structure of sociological theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Polyakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the historical-sociological analysis is used as a means to show the differences between theoretical and empirical sociology. There exist several, basic traditions in theoretical sociology. The investigation of their competing theoretical and methodological principles carried out in the paper; identify some fundamental features of sociological theory as a whole.

  2. A Life with the Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a life with the sociology of education. He begins by describing the "old" and "new" sociologies of education. Then, he discusses the sociology of education policy and the relevance of Basil Bernstein, who remained the dominant presence within the sociology of education in the UK until his…

  3. Catastrophes: sociological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babosov, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Various types of accidents - natural, ecological, technological and social are analysed. Consequences of accidents and co-operation of the people in extreme conditions of crises and accidents are considered. It is shown the social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident and ways of a decrease of negative consequences on the person

  4. The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Poder, Poul

    significant as well as some of the lesser known and overlooked contributions of Zygmunt Bauman to contemporary sociology - ethics, freedom, utopia, genocide, metaphors, ambivalence, politics, strangers, globalization, power and consumerism. In separate chapters Bauman inspired scholars from the United Kingdom...

  5. Følelser og sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind; Jacobsen, Michael Hviid

    2017-01-01

    En introduktion til bogen om følelsernes sociologi eller emotionssociologi - herunder om den ekspressive revolution og den affektive vending, om forskning i følelser og dens klassifikationer, tilgange, teorier og metoder....

  6. Sport Sociology and the Discipline of Sociology: Present Status and Speculations about the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Eldon E.; Spreitzer, Elmer

    The status of the sociology of sport within the discipline of sociology is explored. Review of the subfield since 1971 indicates an increase in the number of publications and communication relating to sport sociology topics. It is hypothesized, however, that sport sociology will not in the near future receive equal acceptance within sociology with…

  7. The opposition to nuclear energy: spychology, sociology, ethnology and psychoanalysis: four convergent approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timbal-Duclaux, Louis

    1979-01-01

    After tracing the psychological and social history of nuclear energy, the author analyzes the diverse approaches used by the social sciences to study the psychosocial repercussions of nuclear achievement. Psychology, sociology, ethnology and psychoanalysis, the four approaches cited, are complementary, not exclusive [fr

  8. Why the (dis)agreement? Family context and child-parent perspectives on health-related quality of life and psychological problems in paediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N; Crespo, C; Carona, C; Bullinger, M; Canavarro, M C

    2015-01-01

    Children's health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and psychological problems are important outcomes to consider in clinical decision making in paediatric asthma. However, children's and parents' reports often differ. The present study aimed to examine the levels of agreement/disagreement between children's and parents' reports of HrQoL and psychological problems and to identify socio-demographic, clinical and family variables associated with the extent and direction of (dis)agreement. The sample comprised 279 dyads of Portuguese children with asthma who were between 8 and 18 years of age (M = 12.13; SD = 2.56) and one of their parents. The participants completed self- and proxy-reported questionnaires on paediatric generic HrQoL (KIDSCREEN-10), chronic-generic HrQoL (DISABKIDS-37) and psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Children's and parents' perceptions of family relationships were measured with the Family Environment Scale and the caregiving burden was assessed using the Revised Burden Measure. The child-parent agreement on reported HrQoL and psychological problems was poor to moderate (intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.32 and 0.47). The rates of child-parent discrepancies ranged between 52.7% (psychological problems) and 68.8% (generic HrQoL), with 50.5% and 31.5% of the parents reporting worse generic and chronic-generic HrQoL, respectively, and 33.3% reporting more psychological problems than their children. The extent and direction of disagreement were better explained by family factors than by socio-demographic and clinical variables: a greater caregiving burden was associated with increased discrepancies in both directions and children's and parents' perceptions of less positive family relationships were associated with discrepancies in different directions. Routine assessment of paediatric HrQoL and psychological problems in healthcare and research contexts should include self- and parent-reported data as

  9. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism – particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann – stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  10. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism - particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann - stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  11. Regarding Bioethics: A Sociology of Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    C. Wright Mills said that when done well, sociology illuminates the intersection of biography and history. This essay examines how the author's vocational choices and career path were shaped by historical circumstance, leading him to a degree in sociology and to participation in the odd and interesting interdiscipline of bioethics. Drawing on a distinction between sociology in bioethics and sociology of bioethics, the essay considers the value of sociology to the bioethical project.

  12. Bibliometric assessment of publication output of child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological affiliations between 2005 and 2010 based on the databases PubMed and Scopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Ozgür; Föcker, Manuel; Wibker, Katrin; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to determine the quantitative scientific publication output of child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological affiliations during 2005-2010 by country based on both, "PubMed" and "Scopus" and performed a bibliometric qualitative evaluation for 2009 using "PubMed". We performed our search by affiliation related to child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological institutions using "PubMed". For the quantitative analysis for 2005-2010, we counted the number of abstracts. For the qualitative analysis for 2009 we derived the impact factor of each abstract's journal from "Journal Citation Reports". We related total impact factor scores to the gross domestic product (GDP) and population size of each country. Additionally, we used "Scopus" to determine the number of abstracts for each country that was identified via "PubMed" for 2009 and compared the ranking of countries between the two databases. 61 % of the publications between 2005 and 2010 originated from European countries and 26 % from the USA. After adjustment for GDP and population size, the ranking positions changed in favor of smaller European countries with a population size of less than 20 million inhabitants. The ranking of countries for the count of articles in 2009 as derived from "Scopus" was similar to that identified via the "PubMed" search. The performed search revealed only minor differences between "Scopus" and "PubMed" related to the ranking of countries. Our data indicate a sharp difference between countries with a high versus low GDP with regard to scientific publication output in child and adolescent psychiatry/psychology.

  13. Child-Rearing and Development: Comparisons between Japanese and Americans Based upon the Psychological-Anthropological Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Michio; Kajiwara, Yasuko

    Discussed are: (1) historical and cultural backgrounds of the Japanese style of child rearing; (2) differences of child rearing style between Japan and the United States; (3) the hidden curriculum at school and home. Content explores the recent controversy in Japan over "Amae," or the Japanese infant's craving for close contact with its…

  14. Sociological concept of morale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author first discusses the overall unity of the total normative regulation, from which it is separated in the late Roman empire the right, but only in the new century and the morale. There are analyzed the relationship between the moral and ethical reflection and Weber's distinction between pure ethics will (Gesinnungsethik and ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik. The morale is determined by the good as the highest value, as a specific form of social norms but also as a kind of human behavior. These three definitions can be combined in an integrative approach. There are examined the dimensions of moral statements, subjective and objective side of morality, as well as the difference between morale and morality. A general notion of morale can not be defined in substantive but only in formal way . The formal definition is a constituent of general as well as of sociological concept of morale and it is related to morality as a social phenomenon. Its essence is to define the morale by specific norms, the characteristics of the internal and external mandatory (with the pricks of conscience as the most distinctive moral sanction and control exercised by the formal not institutionalized or diffuse society , and in consideration of morality as a social process (actions of people associated moral norms . The basic types of social moral process - being, education, functioning and changing of morale are described. There are briefly analyzed the influence of society to the morale and social function of morale, with special emphasis on the relationship between law and morale.

  15. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects.

  16. What is analytical sociology? Towards sociology as 'normal science'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekić Milovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the basics of analytical sociology, relatively new and in our scientific community little known intellectual movement. In the introductory part I try to identify the general causes of its occurrence. In the second part I provide its preliminary definition. In the third part I reconstruct its prehistory. In the fourth and main part I discuss the basis of its scientific program. In the final part I try to establish implications of the adoption of this program as a guide for the sociological enterprise in the future.

  17. Medical sociology as a vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosk, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    This article extends Weber's discussion of science as a vocation by applying it to medical sociology. Having used qualitative methods for nearly 40 years to interpret problems of meaning as they arise in the context of health care, I describe how ethnography, in particular, and qualitative inquiry, more generally, may be used as a tool for understanding fundamental questions close to the heart but far from the mind of medical sociology. Such questions overlap with major policy questions such as how do we achieve a higher standard for quality of care and assure the safety of patients. Using my own research, I show how this engagement takes the form of showing how simple narratives of policy change fail to address the complexities of the problems that they are designed to remedy. I also attempt to explain how I balance objectivity with a commitment to creating a more equitable framework for health care. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  18. Latin american sociology's contribution to sociological imagination: analysis, criticism, and social commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Tavares-dos-Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the role played by sociology in the analysis of the transformation processes in the Latin American societies, in following the construction process of both State and Nation, and in questioning the social issues in Latin America. Six periods of sociology in Latin America and in the Caribbean Islands are analyzed: (i sociology's intellectual inheritance; (ii the authoritative-teaching sociology; (iii the "scientific sociology" period and the configuration of the "critical sociology"; (iv the institutional crisis, consolidation of the "critical sociology", and the diversification of sociology; (v the sociology of authoritarianism, of democracy, and of exclusion; and (vi the institutional consolidation and the worldization of sociology in Latin America (from the year 2000 on. It can be said that the distinctive features of the sociological knowledge in the continent have been: internationalism, hybridism, critical approach to the processes and conflicts in the Latin American societies, and social commitment on the part of the sociologist.

  19. Psychological screening in children with diabetes mellitus type-I at the Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Multan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, W.I.; Waqar, M.; Rabbani, M.W.; Afzal, E.; Adnan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of psychological problems in diabetic children. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Diabetic clinic of the Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan, from March to December 2011. Diabetic patients aged 7-15 years, who were on insulin therapy for at least one year were included in the study. Demographic data, history and physical examination were recorded. Glycosylated haemoglobin level was checked in all cases, and the Childhood Depression Inventory was used to assess the psychological well-being of the children. A minimum score of 13/54 was used to screen for depression. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 86 diabetic children, clinical depression was observed in 29 (33.7%). Poor socioeconomic status (21/29; 72.4%), longstanding disease (16/29; 55.1%) and adolescence age (20/29; 69%) were the major factors associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Depression is a commonly associated psychological disorder in diabetic children, and should be addressed along with medical and dietary management. (author)

  20. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  1. Editorial: Trials and tribulations in child psychology and psychiatry: what is needed for evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringaris, Argyris

    2014-11-01

    If your child had leukaemia you would be distraught. Yet, there would also be hope. Most children with a diagnosis of leukaemia start their treatment as part of ongoing trials. The clinical teams looking after such children are motivated, knowledgeable and work in centres that specialise in the treatment of this lethal illness. The results speak for themselves. Not only have the trials helped oncologists learn more about which treatments work best. For years we have known that those who enter trials do better than those patients with similar characteristics who don't. We have recently also learnt that trials improve survival rates in those cancers population wide: the annual reduction between 1978-2005 in risk of death from childhood cancers ranged from 2.7% to 12.0%. This cancer trial culture is a splendid example of British health care delivery. What is happening in child psychiatry, though? If your child had, say, depression you would have every reason to be distraught too. The mortality rate is higher than in the general population and the burden of disease in the long run heavier than that of cardiovascular illness or cancer. Yet, your child would not have access to a trial. Instead, you would probably struggle to have your child's depression recognised in the first place. The care you would get would be determined by extreme regional variations and by what resources are available to local services and often the ideology or preferences of practitioners. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Teaching Sociology and Womens’ Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Ali Zaki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sociology of Teaching sociology is seen as a fresh new place to explore the importance and role of critical thinking in the sociology of education has been one of the most important issues to consider.Principles of Sociology course ample opportunities for students to develop critical thinking skills and attitudes and serves as a missionary spirit, critical thinking has suggested an alternative,Areas has brought the development of critical thinking. Learn the basics of critical...

  3. Can sociology help to improve nursing practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, David

    The first in a five-part series on sociology offers an overview of the debate about the relationship between sociology and nursing. Although sociological education is currently limited within nurse education, there is a long-held argument for its relevance. With a growing emphasis on preventative and public healthcare, sociology may yet prove its usefulness. Subsequent articles cover four of the key social factors affecting health.

  4. The Corpus Status of Literature in Teaching Sociology: Novels as "Sociological Reconstruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Using fiction in teaching sociology involves what Harvey Sacks calls "sociological reconstruction". Numerous comments on teaching sociology provide advice and suggestions on the use of literature and "what counts" as "sociological" literature, including specific titles. This paper goes further: while the use of literature is a routine feature of…

  5. Should We Talk about the Pain? Personalizing Sociology in the Medical Sociology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Alexandra C. H.; Sumerau, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the potential of personalizing sociology curriculum, specifically in Medical Sociology courses, to increase student engagement and sociological awareness. Based on our experiences offering separate Medical Sociology courses at a large public research university and a small private teaching university, respectively, we…

  6. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-10-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve this goal, analytical sociologists demonstrate an unequivocal focus on the mechanism-based explanation grounded in action theory. In this article I attempt a critical appreciation of analytical sociology from the perspective of Mario Bunge's philosophical system, which I characterize as emergentist systemism. I submit that while the principles of analytical sociology and those of Bunge's approach share a lot in common, the latter brings to the fore the ontological status and explanatory importance of supra-individual actors (as concrete systems endowed with emergent causal powers) and macro-social mechanisms (as processes unfolding in and among social systems), and therefore it does not stipulate that every causal explanation of social facts has to include explicit references to individual-level actors and mechanisms. In this sense, Bunge's approach provides a reasonable middle course between the Scylla of sociological reification and the Charybdis of ontological individualism, and thus serves as an antidote to the untenable "strong program of microfoundations" to which some analytical sociologists are committed.

  7. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woock, Roger R.

    1981-12-01

    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  8. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  9. Sociological theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin

  10. Non-replication of the association between 5HTTLPR and response to psychological therapy for child anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Coleman, Jonathan R. I.; Breen, Gerome; Wong, Chloe C. Y.; Xu, Xiaohui; Arendt, Kristian; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Heiervang, Einar R.; Herren, Chantal; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Krause, Karen; Lyneham, Heidi J.; McKinnon, Anna; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Rey, Yasmin; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Smith, Patrick; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Eley, Thalia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and outcome following cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety (Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed results,

  11. Non-replication of the association between 5HTTLPR and response to psychological therapy for child anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lester, K.J.; Roberts, S.; Keers, R.; Coleman, J.R.I.; Breen, G.; Wong, C.C.Y.; Xu, X.; Arendt, K.; Blatter-Meunier, J.; Bögels, S.M.; Cooper, P.; Creswell, C.; Heiervang, E.R.; Herren, C.; Hogendoorn, S.M.; Hudson, J.L.; Krause, K.; Lyneham, H.J.; McKinnon, A.; Morris, T.; Nauta, M.H.; Rapee, R.M.; Rey, Y.; Schneider, S.; Schneider, S.C.; Silverman, W.K.; Smith, P.; Thastum, M.; Thirlwall, K.; Waite, P.; Wergeland, G.J.; Eley, T.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and outcome following cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety (Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed results,

  12. Non-replication of the association between 5HTTLPR and response to psychological therapy for child anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Coleman, Jonathan R I; Breen, Gerome; Wong, Chloe C Y; Xu, Xiaohui; Arendt, Kristian; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Heiervang, Einar R; Herren, Chantal; Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Hudson, Jennifer L; Krause, Karen; Lyneham, Heidi J; McKinnon, Anna; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H; Rapee, Ronald M; Rey, Yasmin; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C; Silverman, Wendy K; Smith, Patrick; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Eley, Thalia C

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundWe previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and outcome following cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety (Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed results,

  13. “IDENTITY” IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Polyakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of identity has come to the fore of contemporary societies in the conditions when the institutional structures of these societies their ascriptive statuses have become looser when modernity is “liquid”, “soft”. Varions conceptualizations of identity are becoming a basic part of contemporary sociological theory. The paper aims to reveal the key problems that sociology faces when striving to work out a theory of identity. The paper takes as its starting point the classic notion of identity. This notion was shaped by Erik Erikson on the basis of his dynamic psychology. The paper proves that the contemporary identity is connected with the process of individualization in modern societies. Numerous and varied studies of contemporary identity can be divided into three large groups according to three methodological approaches: constructivist, postmodern and interactionist. The paper compares the major theories based on these approaches and reveals their theoretical and methodological problems. The paper shows that the constructivist approach is based on the notion of reflexivity which is viewed as a mechanism of identity formation by an individual. Identity is a reflexive project which is being realized in a conscious manner. The postmodern theories of identity reveal the fragmentation incompleteness of ego-identitity and it’s narcissic decay. They also reveal the inability of the individual to solve the problem of continuity and unity of her (his own personality. Identity as a notion is replaced by the notion of identification which reduces identity to varions modes of repsentation. The interactionist methodology conld open up the way to tackle, the problem of individual’s unity and continuity as the main problem of human existence. This is the condition of the individual’s psychic and social health. 

  14. Toward a Sociology of Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John

    2017-02-01

    Despite covering around 70 percent of the earth's surface, the ocean has long been ignored by sociology or treated as merely an extension of land-based systems. Increasingly, however, oceans are assuming a higher profile, emerging both as a new resource frontier, a medium for geopolitical rivalry and conflict, and a unique and threatened ecological hot spot. In this article, I propose a new sociological specialty area, the "sociology of oceans" to be situated at the interface between environmental sociology and traditional maritime studies. After reviewing existing sociological research on maritime topics and the consideration of (or lack of consideration) the sea by classic sociological theorists, I briefly discuss several contemporary sociological approaches to the ocean that have attracted some notice. In the final section of the paper, I make the case for a distinct sociology of oceans and briefly sketch what this might look like. One possible trajectory for creating a shared vision or common paradigm, I argue, is to draw on Deleuze and Guattari's dialectical theory of the smooth and the striated. Même s'il couvre 70% de la surface de la Terre, l'océan a été longtemps ignoré en sociologie ou traité comme une extension des systèmes terrestres. De plus en plus, toutefois, l'océan retient l'attention, en étant vu comme une nouvelle frontière en termes de ressources, un médium pour les rivalités et les conflits géopolitiques, et un lieu écologique névralgique et unique. Dans cet article, je propose une nouvelle spécialisation sociologique, la 'sociologie des océans', se situant dans l'interface entre la sociologie environnementale et les études maritimes traditionnelles. Après une recension de la recherche sociologique existante sur les sujets maritimes et la prise en compte (ou l'absence de prise en compte) de l'océan par les théoriciens de la sociologie classique, je discute brièvement quelques approches sociologiques contemporaines de l

  15. Sociology, medicine and the construction of health-related sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nelson Filice de; Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2009-02-01

    Starting from a paper about closing the gap between sociology and medicine in Brazil and the United Kingdom that was published in 1971, a historical update was made with the aim of reflecting on the new shapes of health-related teaching and research within the social and human sciences, in these two countries. The methodology was qualitative and the study was developed using secondary data. The reflections were developed through the authors' immersion in Brazilian and British realities. It was concluded that the interface between sociology and health has expanded, although persistent old difficulties exist in relation to the structure and focus of the healthcare system, medical school power and medical student culture.

  16. John Foran’s sociology of revolution: From historical sociology to the sociological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yu Karasyev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers J. Foran’s sociology of revolution through the stages of evolution of his theoretical and methodological views and the works representing them. The trajectory of Foran’s sociology of revolution reflects in many respects the development of the contemporary comparative and historical sociology of revolution: from the fundamental historical research of a few classical cases to the quantitative study of an extremely wide range of examples and after that to the prediction of the ‘revolution-like’ events’ in future. According to Foran, there are three ways to consider the future of revolutions: 1 the analysis of the revolutions of the past, 2 the look into the future in terms of the existing theories, 3 the sources of sociological imagination. These three methods correspond to three stages in Foran’s sociology of revolution: after conducting the historical study of the situation and revolutions in Iran, the comparative analysis of 39 revolution events in the Third World countries and then an attempt to imagine patterns of future revolutions on the example of Zapatistas’ revolution in Mexico in 1994 and the struggle for global justice at the beginning of the XXI century. Despite the evolution of the subject and methodology of the theory, the concept ‘political culture of opposition’ remained the central category of Foran’s model. This complex notion describes such social process when under the influence of material and discursive elements the revolutionaries found out some common discourse that prescribed them to participate in collective actions to change their societies. Thus, Foran states that revolutions are the product of both structural conditions and human agency and the latter is due to both political-economic and cultural reasons. The cultural-structural character of Foran’s approach makes it relevant for the study of contemporary revolutionary events.

  17. Sociology: a view from the diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Richard

    2010-12-01

    From the vantage point of criminology, one of sociology's main export subject areas, the present and future of sociology appear a good deal more promising than John Holmwood's essay on the discipline's misfortune would suggest. Sociology remains in high demand by students and faculty hiring remains strong, even in its more critical sub-fields, such as race and ethnicity, sex and gender, and social inequality. Holmwood is correct that sociology is vulnerable to external pressures to demonstrate its relevance to social practice, but those pressures come from left-wing social movements as well as from centres of power. He is also correct that external pressures contribute to internal disagreement, but sociology has been at war with itself since the 1960s, with little evident decline in its academic standing or intellectual vitality. Those of us on the discipline's diaspora, who depend on sociology for both support and light, must remain hopeful about sociology's continued good fortune.

  18. Reflexive criteria of sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Ubaydullaeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the sociological criteria of explaining the way of thinking and actions of subjects, their spiritual and moral positions and intellectual forces that form the laws of social life. The author seeks to adapt such categories as ‘meaning of life’, ‘human dignity’, ‘rationality’ etc. for the purposes of sociological analysis by methodological construction of some real life dichotomies such as ‘subjective meaning and social function’, ‘the real and the ideal’, ‘the demanded and the excluded’. Thus, the author studies economic, political and technical processes in terms of both positivity and negativity of social interaction and states that given the increasing differentiation of the society and the contradictory trends of social development the reflexive criteria that take into account the socio-cultural nature of the man help to find one’s own model of development.

  19. The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Poder, Poul

    Zygmunt Bauman is one of the most inspirational and controversial thinkers on the scene of contemporary sociology. For several decades he has provided compelling analyses and diagnoses of a vast variety of aspects of modern and liquid modern living. His work is increasingly popularized, appraised...... life and intellectual trajectory published here for the first time in English. In this postscript aptly entitled "Pro Domo Sua" ("About Myself"), he describes the pushes and pulls that throughout the years have shaped his thinking....

  20. [A sociological approach to vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelège, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The term precarity covers many realities. It has become one of those "portmanteau words" which, as a resuIt of being constantly reassessed, is losing its meaning. In order to avoid an overly sectional approach to the mechanisms of social precarity, or exclusion, it is necessary to understand in more general terms the sociological processes around the concept of the social tie and its effects of rupture.

  1. Dementia: sociological and philosophical constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J

    2004-01-01

    This analysis presents a challenge to the biomedical view of dementia as a disease. This view is critiqued from two perspectives: those of sociology and philosophy. Because these domains inform the creation of the medical discourse, their analysis provides an important refinement to the apprehension of the phenomenon of dementia. From the work of Foucault, and in particular his analysis of the historical origins of modern medicine, the sociological construction of dementia is considered. Following this, the philosophical question of Being is discussed, considering particularly the positions of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Lastly aspects of dementia nursing that are damaging to those relatives forced to take on the role of primary carer are isolated, in the context of Kitwood's view that it is possible to maintain personhood at the extremes of this condition. It is suggested that this critique of sociological and philosophical foundations of dementia might offer a way of approaching the dismantling of the self and revise current conceptions of dementia care for the better.

  2. Sociology of bodies/emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Scribano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at pointing out that the division between a sociology of the bodies and the emotions is, to say the least, unnecessary. The basic idea that runs through this argument is very simple but needs to be justified: it is not possible to search and reflect on bodies/emotions separately, as if it were any chance of one not referring to the other and viceversa. The strategy of the exposition we have selected is as follows: 1 we outline in an introductory manner the existing approaches in the social studies on bodies and emotions, 2 we point out three kinds of reasons/motives to argue the inadequacy of the categorical/aporetic division of a sociology of the bodies and one of the emotions, 3 we put forward our perspective regarding a sociology of bodies/emotions, and 4 we analize the problem of hunger as an example of our viewpoint. Finally, we invite to reflect on the exposed as a means to open a possible discussion in methodological, theoretical, epistemological and political terms.

  3. Connecting Life Span Development with the Sociology of the Life Course: A New Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The life course has become a topic of growing interest within the social sciences. Attempts to link this sub-discipline with life span developmental psychology have been called for but with little sign of success. In this paper, we seek to address three interlinked issues concerning the potential for a more productive interchange between life course sociology and life span psychology. The first is to try to account for the failure of these two sub-disciplines to achieve any deepening engagement with each other, despite the long-expressed desirability of that goal; the second is to draw attention to the scope for enriching the sociology of the life course through Erik Erikson's model of life span development; and the last is the potential for linking Eriksonian theory with current debates within mainstream sociology about the processes involved in 'individualisation' and 'self-reflexivity' as an alternative entry point to bring together these two fields of work.

  4. Pure sociology and social geometry as an example of formal sociological theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škorić Marko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes pure sociology and social geometry of Donald Black as an example of formal sociological theory. Starting with the importance of formal and analytical theory in sociology, we present the bold theoretical strategy and/or the paradigm of the sociology of behavior of social life. The examples of pure sociology and social geometry concerning law, violence and homosexuality are presented as well. A review and critique of pure sociology as a scientific formal theory is offered in the end.

  5. Non-replication of the association between 5HTTLPR and response to psychological therapy for child anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Coleman, Jonathan R. I.; Breen, Gerome; Wong, Chloe C. Y.; Xu, Xiaohui; Arendt, Kristian; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Heiervang, Einar R.; Herren, Chantal; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Krause, Karen; Lyneham, Heidi J.; McKinnon, Anna; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Rey, Yasmin; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Smith, Patrick; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Eley, Thalia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety (Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT outcome. Aims To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2, n = 829). Method Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both cohorts were performed. Results There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2. Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45, P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder outcomes. Conclusions The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous samples. PMID:26294368

  6. Psychological adjustment to IDDM: 10-year follow-up of an onset cohort of child and adolescent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A M; Hauser, S T; Willett, J B; Wolfsdorf, J I; Dvorak, R; Herman, L; de Groot, M

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate the psychological adjustment of young adults with IDDM in comparison with similarly aged individuals without chronic illness. An onset cohort of young adults (n = 57), ages 19-26 years, who have been followed over a 10-year period since diagnosis, was compared with a similarly aged group of young adults identified at the time of a moderately severe, acute illness (n = 54) and followed over the same 10-year period. The groups were assessed at 10-year follow-up in terms of 1) sociodemographic indices (e.g., schooling, employment, delinquent activities, drug use), 2) psychiatric symptoms, and 3) perceived competence. In addition, IDDM patients were examined for longitudinal change in adjustment to diabetes. The groups differed only minimally in terms of sociodemographic indices, with similar rates of high school graduation, post-high school education, employment, and drug use. The IDDM group reported fewer criminal convictions and fewer non-diabetes-related illness episodes than the comparison group. There were no differences in psychiatric symptoms. However, IDDM patients reported lower perceived competence, with specific differences found on the global self-worth, sociability, physical appearance, being an adequate provider, and humor subscales. The IDDM patients reported improving adjustment to their diabetes over the course of the 10-year follow-up. Overall, the young adults with IDDM appeared to be as psychologically well adjusted as the young adults without a chronic illness. There were, however, indications of lower self-esteem in the IDDM patients that could either portend or predispose them to risk for future depression or other difficulties in adaptation.

  7. First Pregnancy, Somatic and Psychological Status of a 4-Year-Old Child Born following Annexin V TESA Sperm Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lukaszuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Sperm DNA integrity is a crucial paternal factor affecting fertilization and pregnancy rates, as well as embryo development. Case - The present case report describes the successful pregnancy after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI (TESA-ICSI in a couple where the male presented high sperm DNA fragmentation. In order to sort damaged sperm presenting DNA fragmentation, magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS with annexin V microbeads (MACS Miltenyi Biotec, Teterow, Germany was used. Conclusion - The authors present the first description of a successful medical case using TESA-ICSI annexin V sperm sorting. Additionally, a follow-up of the child at the age of 4 years old was done.

  8. Women's Feminist Consciousness, Anger, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Good, Glenn E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to bring together several lines of research and theory on women's feminist consciousness from psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Past literatures had suggested bivariate links between feminist identity development and psychological distress, feminist identity and anger, feminist identity and interpersonal conflict,…

  9. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

  10. Love, from a sociological point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Piazzesi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to examine erotic love and intimacy from a sociological point of view? Does this endeavour entail a definition of love, and, if so, is such a definition possible from a sociological perspective? This paper discusses the epistemological challenges implied by the task of constructing love as the object of sociological inquiry. We will start by giving a definition of the task itself and by detailing the peculiarities of a sociological inquiry on love. We will point out why it is imperative for such an inquiry to remain open to the historicity of love as an emotion and as a form of interaction. Finally we will explore love as the object of a sociological investigation in order to spell out what becomes visible to the sociological eye once the correct epistemological precautions are taken.

  11. Comparative education and the ?new? sociologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusz, Andrew R.; Parks-Trusz, Sandra L.

    1981-12-01

    The authors examine the impact of the `new' sociologies on comparative education by reviewing five comparative readers published during the past twenty years. While the `new' sociologies have had considerable impact within sociology and the sociology of education, minimal impact is found within comparative education. The authors further show that while critical new sociologies such as Marxism, neo-Marxism, and Critical theory have had some penetration into comparative education, use of the interpretative sociologies such as symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology, and semiotics has generally been absent. The authors conclude by suggesting that a synthesis of the critical and interpretative modes would prove fruitful for further work in comparative education. The five texts are: Halsey, Floud and Anderson (eds.), Education, Economy and Society (1961); Eckstein and Noah (eds.), Scientific Investigations in Comparative Education (1969); Beck, Perspectives on World Education (1970); Karabel and Halsey (eds.), Power and Ideology in Education (1977); and Altbach and Kelly (eds.), Education and Colonialism (1978).

  12. Fashion in the context of contemporary sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Voronkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the content of the various options of fashion’s theory and research strategies of national sociological schools is identified and analyzed in the article. To those schools belong scientists from the USA, France and Germany: R. Barthes, H. Blumer, J. Baudrillard, P. Bourdieu, Th. Veblen, G. Simmel, W. Sombart. In particular, representatives of American sociology study fashion, especially in the context of a definition of psychological factors affecting both the individual (Th. Veblen, and so on Collective (G. Bloomer behavior of members of modern society. French researchers P. Bourdieu, R. Barthes and J. Baudrillard offer analyze fashion as a social phenomenon that puts the functioning of all spheres of personality and needs, especially solid theoretical interpretations. German sociologists examined fashion, especially as one of many forms of life (G. Simmel, in which the trend towards social cohesion combined with the trend towards individual differences that are beginning to engage in the conditions of formation and development of capitalist society (W. Sombart. It is substantiated that the historical development of each country affected the establishment of national sociological schools. This reflected not only in the formation of the leading areas of research, but also on specificity of the analysis of other social phenomena and processes, particularly in the study of the problem field of fashion.

  13. Audiological rehabilitation in sociological perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    , or they can relate to particular situations. On entering the hearing clinic for the first time, many patients express discomfort when confronted with becoming partners in decision-making concerning the choice of hearing aid type. In the fitting room, the audiologist operates within a dominant medical...... as the 'truth'. By building on a sociological approach to hearing impairment that reaches beyond the medical definition, we see another picture emerging. Some patients embark on the process of getting a hearing aid and come to the hearing aid fitting as a response to social pressure from relatives or colleagues...

  14. Sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    I kapitlet diskuteres ud fra et sociologisk perspektiv brug af et screeningsinstrumentet til opsporing af depression efter indlæggelse for hjertesygdom. HADS – Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Det er en udbredt praksis at screene udskrevne hjertepatienter for depression. Som screeningsinstru...

  15. Toward a Sociology of Environmental Flows: A New Agenda for Twenty-First-Century Environmental Sociology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Spaargaren, G.

    2006-01-01

    The emerging sociology of networks and flows, as it can be found in the works of Castells and Urry among others, offers promising perspectives for environmental sociology in rethinking its principle object of study: nature and environment. The sociology of flow perspective takes us beyond the

  16. The Fourth Sociology and Music Education: Towards a Sociology of Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    By identifying three main sociologies that characterise broad movements in the field since its inception, this paper provides a background to considerations of music education from the perspective of sociology. A fourth sociology is then proposed that may be useful to interrogate the complexities of the field of 21st century music education. This…

  17. A Sociology "of" or a Sociology "for" Education? The New Zealand Experience of the Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rata, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The sociology of education in New Zealand, as in other countries, is affected by the dilemma inherent to the discipline, namely: is it a sociology "of" education or a sociology "for" education? In this article I analyse three factors in which the dilemma is played out: "cultural oppositionism" in the indigenous…

  18. Abuso físico infantil: avaliando fatores de risco psicológicos em cuidadores notificados Child physical abuse: evaluating psychological risk factors in accused caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Paula D. Bérgamo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se em que medida variáveis cognitivas e afetivas/emocionais diferenciariam cuidadores notificados por abusos físicos (G1 de cuidadores sem esse histórico (G2. O Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP foi utilizado para avaliar fatores de risco psicológicos em cuidadores. Um Questionário de Caracterização sócio-demográfica e outro econômico também foram empregados para equiparar os grupos. G1 apresentou um potencial de risco superior a G2, e maiores níveis de Angústia, Rigidez, Problemas com a Criança e Consigo, Problemas com os Outros, e um menor nível de Força do Ego. Essas variáveis se articulam para compor o risco de abuso físico, pois segundo o Modelo do Processamento da Informação Social, remeteriam a processos básicos cognitivos/afetivos subjacentes a percepções e avaliações/interpretações, associados ao comportamento parental abusivo.It was verified to what extent cognitive and affective/emotional variables could distinguish caregivers accused of committing physical abuse (G1 from those without physical abuse records (G2. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP, which is an instrument designed to assess psychological risk factors in caregivers, was used. A questionnaire on socio-demographic characterization and another on economic classification were also employed to equate the groups. G1 presented a greater potential risk than G2, higher levels of Distress, Rigidity, Problems with the Child and with Themselves, Problems with Others, and a lower level of Ego Strength. These variables contribute with the composition of physical abuse risk, since, in agreement with the Social Information Processing Model, they would be related to cognitive and affective basic processes which are veiled to the perceptions and evaluation/interpretations, associated to abusive parental behavior.

  19. Sociological theory and social reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Díez Nicolás

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper pretends to demonstrate the complementary relations between three relatively recent sociological theories, each one of which explains a different aspect of the same social object: the origin, diffusion and change of social and cultural values, aiming at demonstrating that there is not such a thing as a sociological theory that explains all, but rather diverse theories that offer partial explanations of social reality. To that effect, and on the basis of the necessary relationship between theory and research, three different theories are evaluated separately: Hawley’s and Duncan’s theory of the social ecosystem, Galtung’s centre-periphery theory, and Inglehart’s theory of values’ change in modern-industrial societies, offering theoretical and empirical evidence of their complementary relations, based on Spanish and international data. Social ecosystem and centre-periphery theories show a high level of generalization (through space and time and a high level of abstraction, though both can easily operationalize their main concepts through valid and reliable indicators. The theory of values’ change, however, though showing a high level of generalization, is limited in time to the historical period after World War II, and also shows a high level of abstraction. Centre-periphery theory and values’ change theory use individual and collective units of analysis, but social ecosystem theory only uses collective units, by definition. The three theories lead to the conclusion that ‘security’ values will gain a growing importance in present societies.

  20. The Association Between Adverse Child Health, Psychological, Educational and Social Outcomes, and Nondependent Parental Substance: A Rapid Evidence Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Ruth; Gilvarry, Eilish; Addison, Michelle; Alderson, Hayley; Geijer-Simpson, Emma; Lingam, Raghu; Smart, Debbie; Kaner, Eileen

    2018-01-01

    Between 5% and 30% of children in high-income countries live with a substance misusing parent, the majority of which is below dependent levels. However, little is understood about the impact of nondependent parental substance misuse upon children. We searched the international literature using rigorous systematic methods to identify studies examining parental substance misuse and adverse outcomes in children. The inclusion criteria were cross-sectional, longitudinal, case-control, and cohort studies; of children aged 0-18 years whose parents are high-risk substance misusers; reporting on their health, psychological, substance use, educational, and social outcomes. We identified 36 papers (from 33 unique studies), most of which were assessed as being of medium to high methodological quality ( N= 28). Parental nondependent substance misuse was found to be associated with adversity in children, with strong evidence of an association with externalizing difficulties ( N = 7 papers, all finding an association) and substance use ( N = 23 papers, all finding an association) in adolescents and some evidence of adverse health outcomes in early childhood ( N = 6/8 papers finding an association). There is less evidence of an association between parental substance misuse and adverse educational and social outcomes. The body of evidence was largest for parental alcohol misuse, with research examining the impact of parental illicit drug use being limited. Methodological limitations restrict our ability to make causal inference. Nonetheless, the prevalence of adverse outcomes in children whose parents are nondependent substance misusers highlights the need for practitioners to intervene with this population before a parent has developed substance dependency.

  1. Toward a Global Sociology of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Z. Fareen

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an example of a global approach to teaching the sociology of religion, a course that typically focuses on American religious phenomena. It builds on three interventions in the movement for a global sociology: connecting the local and global, moving beyond methodological nationalism, and developing an ethical orientation toward…

  2. One Hundred Years of Sociological Solitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    2005-01-01

    This Cuban-born author presents a narrative on the social events in the United States that marked his life as he embarked on a career in the field of sociology in the 1960s and 70s. He advocates for sociologists' awareness of social realities and the evolution of sociological studies from a socially-conscious perspective.

  3. [Where are we in general sociology ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, history and social sciences have experienced a kind of merging, and a vast number of specialized domains have emerged. Yet the durkheim - ian register of "general sociology" seems somehow neglected. Firstly, this article analyzes the reasons for this neglect, and secondly, it indicates how, through a long-term reflexivity, one can formulate a new agenda for general sociology.

  4. Sociology and Social Work in Nigeria: Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the evolution of sociology and social work in Nigeria and examines the current characteristics and areas of convergences and divergences in both fields. It was only in the 1960s that universities in Nigeria began to offer degree programmes in sociology with the. first sub-department and full department ...

  5. Parent-child conflict and psychological maladjustment: a mediational analysis with reciprocal filial belief and perceived threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Tsao, Wei-Chun; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2010-04-01

    Empirical research has shown that parent-child conflict is positively related to poor adjustment in adolescents; however, the underlying processes have not been adequately examined. To explore the possible mediating pathways, reciprocal filial belief and perceived threat were chosen to represent two likely mechanisms accounting for how parent-child conflict harms adolescents' perceptions of their relationship with their parents and their self-perceptions within their cognitive-appraisal framework. The former operates by attenuating children's affection towards their parents and the latter by lowering their self-perceptions. This study also distinguishes internalizing from externalizing problems in order to examine whether lower reciprocal filial belief more strongly mediates the relation between conflict with parents and adolescents' externalizing problems and whether perceived threat more strongly mediates the relation between conflict with parents and adolescents' internalizing problems. Hypotheses are as follows: (1) the more parent-child conflict adolescents report, the less reciprocal filial belief they recognize, which, in turn, leads to more maladjustments, especially externalizing ones; (2) the more parent-child conflicts adolescents report, the more threat they perceive, which, in turn, leads to more maladjustments, especially internalizing ones. Participants consisted of 603 Taiwanese adolescents (226 males and 377 females) aged 15 to 19 (average age = 16.95; SD = 0.78). Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed the hypotheses. However, the three direct effects of conflict on internalizing problems, aggression, and deviant behaviour were still significant. In addition, a greater effect of the paternal than the maternal role on the link between conflict and attenuated reciprocal filial belief, and between perceived threat and internalizing problems, was identified. Implications for understanding the mediation processes responsible for all indirect

  6. Violence in soccer: a socio-psychological review

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Christiano Barreto Fensterseifer; Nivia Marcia Velho; Mário Luiz C. Barroso

    2005-01-01

    Violence in Soccer has been worrying specialists in Physical Education, Psychology, Sociology, Law and Press for many years. Despite their best efforts to reduce it, violence continues to increase. The purpose of this review study is to verify what the above-mentioned sciences have to say about violence in soccer. The literature suggests that there are two big theories about this problem: an internal and psychological one, and an external and sociological one. Therefore, data analyses suggest...

  7. The young child in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, A

    1974-01-01

    4 surveys were undertaken in Yemen through interviews with women in their homes in an effort to obtain information on the sociological and psychological aspects of young children and their mothers, the conditions of working mothers with young children, and traditional midwives and midwifery practices. The survey on child socialization and upbringing included 30 families. The survey on working mothers included 54 women selected at random among more than 300 women employed in a textile factory. 40 midwives were also interviewed; most were of the traditional type but the group also included 6 with 4 years of nursing school training and some hospital and midwifery experience. Focus is on ecological and economic background; social organization; housing, water supply and sanitation; the role of women; family planning; pregnancy and delivery; infant feeding and care; childhood; attitude of parents to education; weaning foods; swaddling babies; working mothers; health conditions and services; education; and the future for families in Yemen. There is a marked preference for sons in Yemen which is explained by the patriarchal character of the society and the place of defense in tribal unity and integration. Childbearing and rearing are heavy physical burdens for women. Among the families interviewed, 70% of the mothers did not want more children after the 4th child. During pregnancy mothers did not receive supplementary nutrition nor did they change their pattern of work or take any other special precautions. The social environment for child bearing is favorable, but conditions of delivery are primitive and even dangerous in the event of complications.

  8. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved......The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...

  9. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  10. Sociology as Moral Philosophy (and Vice Versa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    In this article, I want to make an attempt to reconnect sociology to moral philosophy and moral philosophy to sociology. The thesis I want to defend is that sociology continues by other means the venerable tradition of practical and moral philosophy. Like its forebears, it stands and falls with a defense of "practical wisdom" (Aristotle) and "practical reason" (Kant). The development of a moral sociology presupposes, however, that one recognizes and rejects Max Weber's theory of axiological neutrality as an extremist position and that one carefully articulates prescriptive and descriptive, internal and external, as well as observer and actor positions. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  11. The Sociology and Entrenchment. A Cystic Fibrosis Test for Everyone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Lene; Stemerding, Dirk

    1994-01-01

    Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology......Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology...

  12. African Journals Online: Sociology & Anthropology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 41 of 41 ... It welcomes articles and other academic communications from scholars in Africa and elsewhere ... Creative Artist: A Journal of Theatre and Media Studies ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics.

  13. The Phenomenological, Sociological, and Psychological Understanding of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Pompe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When trying to investigate the understanding of music, there are a number of epistemologically and methodologically diverse perspectives, and this is associated with the fairly vague definition of music. Firstly, music exists in the form of a waving motion as a physical-acoustic dimension that reaches the listener’s/receiver’s ear. At the time of the »reception« of music, the human neuropsychological mechanism is triggered, which causes the process of semiosis – when we imbue music with meaning strongly exceeding the basic, physical characteristics of music as a sound. In the history of music studies, one can discern the periodical shifting of scientific methodologies that have placed now this and later the other perspective in the center of their research. Meanwhile the author of the article claims that for a holistic understanding of music one needs to employ all the different methodological starting points. Music must be understood as a “two-sided” process: it is possible to investigate the “path” that leads from the creation of music to the emergence of listener’s meaning or to begin with the latter and try to connect it with the intentionality of the author.

  14. Giving and volunteering in the Netherlands : Sociological and psychological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Volunteer work, membership of voluntary associations, philanthropy and donation of blood and organs are studied by scholars from a wide range of disciplines. Sociologists and economists assume that good intentions are universal, but that some people have a stock of human and social capital that

  15. Crisis Management: Psychological and Sociological Factors in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    Section A. Cognitive Prooeaes While what has been a Ued the " rational model" of decision - making may not adequately account for the operation of the...obstacles blocking rational decision - making . 7. What part does fatigue play in reacting to a crisis? Fatigue results from two factors. First...further important question of the impact of these variables on decision - making . It is a difficult theoretical problem to link the maladaptive emotional

  16. Unification and mechanistic detail as drivers of model construction: models of networks in economics and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuorikoski, Jaakko; Marchionni, Caterina

    2014-12-01

    We examine the diversity of strategies of modelling networks in (micro) economics and (analytical) sociology. Field-specific conceptions of what explaining (with) networks amounts to or systematic preference for certain kinds of explanatory factors are not sufficient to account for differences in modelling methodologies. We argue that network models in both sociology and economics are abstract models of network mechanisms and that differences in their modelling strategies derive to a large extent from field-specific conceptions of the way in which a good model should be a general one. Whereas the economics models aim at unification, the sociological models aim at a set of mechanism schemas that are extrapolatable to the extent that the underlying psychological mechanisms are general. These conceptions of generality induce specific biases in mechanistic explanation and are related to different views of when knowledge from different fields should be seen as relevant.

  17. Principles of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Larsen, Jordan A.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, often with different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated with all relevant information informing system decisions. Robert K. Merton studied the sociological principles of the sciences and the sociological principles he developed apply to systems engineering. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, common terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that should be employed by the systems engineer. In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, insider-outsider behavior, unintended consequences, and the self-fulfilling prophecy. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information. This also helps identify key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss this theoretical basis for the application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  18. Metaphor of society (a sociological essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii Vasil’evich Osipov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay by Academician G.V. Osipov, who is the patriarch of Russian sociology, is dedicated to one of the most cognitive topics of modern sociology – identification of sociological metaphor as such and its application in research projects. This topic is avant-garde for the world sociological thought, and in Russia such kind of research is making its first steps. However, its future importance is difficult to overestimate. Sociological metaphor, if a methodology for its application is developed, can provide scientists with qualitatively new synthetic research tools. It can also bring together scientific structures and artifacts on the space of interdisciplinary and inter-subject borderland and give them qualitatively new intellectual and sensuous (system and mental technological capabilities for learning the surrounding world. The advantage of the following essay can be found in the fact that it is based on the objective analysis of the real embodiment of social metaphor in the work of art – a pictorial triptych “The Mystery of the 21st Century”. This is the first such experience in domestic sociological and artistic-painting practice. The authors of the final product are a scientist of great scientific and life experience and a young artist, who received in-depth sociological training and defended his Ph.D. in Sociology dissertation. But the main result of their collaboration is a product that combines scientific (sociological knowledge and insight and intuitive-creative artistic perception in a qualitatively new perception of the world and world outlook

  19. Psychological Impact of AIDS on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Myron L.

    There are at least three aspects to the psychological impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on children. First is the psychological response of the child with AIDS; second, the response of the child in a group at high risk for AIDS; and third, the psychological response of children in general to the perceived threat from AIDS.…

  20. Music Education for Every Child – Idea or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Bačlija Susić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary pedagogical, psychological and sociological research highlight the need for music education available to every child. Starting from the fundamental point of view according to which music affects the development of the child's whole personality, this idea stands out in history since the 17th century. Various educators in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century emphasized the importance of music education for every child. With historical and theoretical overview of this idea, this paper tries to examine the possibility of its realization in contemporary educational practice. The Venezuelan music education program El Sistema, that promotes humanistic idea of changing society through classical music education stands out as a unique example of a good practice. As a form of music education which particularly promotes the idea of availability of music to every child, the conception of Functional Music Pedagogy by the Croatian music pedagogue Elly Bašić (1908-1998 was shown as well. Considering the status of music in American educational policy, it is indicated as a significant change, in which the music is recognized as an educational priority for the first time in the history of education and it became the basic academic subject in the American federal education policy plan, as well as unprecedentedly incorporated in the federal law.

  1. First Contact: Teaching and Learning in Introductory Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Introduction to Sociology course is usually the first contact that students have with the discipline of sociology. This course can determine whether students take other sociology courses or learn to use sociology in their lives as adults and citizens. "First Contact" identifies important issues facing instructors in introducing students to the…

  2. Social inequality: philosophical and sociological reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Victorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social inequality is the phenomena that is hypothetically the base for first human communities genesis. Modern model for capitalist society as market relations form fails to satisfy the needs of society’s social development, and strongly requires to create new social knowledge structure and new approach for inequality sociology theory development. Our study conceptual logic comprises routine, philosophic and ideological reflexions analysis to create new social inequality definition in the context of new sociologic knowledge structure. Social inequality is the one of key problems in global sociology; the need is obvious to extract social inequality into separate discipline. Inequality sociology target is the decision of theoretical and practical problems in the formation of comprehensive knowledge about inequality phenomena in modern community, and in the development of common and specialized theoretical-methodological base for inequality study.

  3. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  4. Sociological Discourse(s) on Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    The concept of freedom is often thought of as antithetical to sociology. The discipline is more prone to detect and unveil forms of unfreedom, as Zygmunt Bauman (1988) has pointed out. The question remains if any academic discipline, however, including sociology can do away with the concept...... of freedom al together! In matters of science, the problem of determinism vs. chance and spontaneity is essential. Hence, freedom, in one sense or the other, is necessarily at bottom also of sociological discourse. This text is an attempt to map the predominant forms of freedom found in sociological...... discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...

  5. The sociology of innovation in modern astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes some of the main features of the development of astronomy since 1945, stressing sociological factors, and drawing examples mainly from the history of radio astronomy. Particular attention is given to aspects which appear to distinguish astronomy from other recently-studied sciences - notably, the prevalence of serendipitous discoveries, and the lack of any general resistance from the 'parent' discipline. The work of Kuhn and Hagstrom is used to illuminate these features, and also to indicate how a sociological analysis can be advanced of individual research decisions, and of the nature of disputes within science. Common misconceptions about the nature and scope of sociology are briefly discussed; in particular, it is emphasized that the kind of sociology of science under discussion cannot be normative. (author)

  6. The Challenge of Training in Applied Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doyle Paul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explores the challenge of expanding nonacademic employment opportunities for sociologists and training sociology students for such employment. Suggests several interrelated strategies for these students that address issues of marketing and public relations as well as curriculum revision. (Author/BSR)

  7. The Reflexive Principle of Sociological Theorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Ubaidullayeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to describe the reflexive principle in theory-making, which integrates the basic modern methodological paradigms and lays the foundation for the development of sociology. On the basis of the theoretical ideas of P. Bourdieu, A. Giddens and P. Ricoeur the author defines the concept of social reflexion and reveals its peculiarities in sociology as compared to reflexion in philosophy. According to the author, the fulfillment of reflexive functions in sociology is connected with the task of analyzing the complex structure of the polysemantic object, considering the specific quality of the subjects and their various trends of development. The presence of the poles — objectivity-subjectivity, rationality-irrationality, consciousness-unconsciousness etc, requires a reproduction of the dichotomies engendering them in social life and development of cognitive methods for their study in sociology.

  8. EDITORIAL: | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Book Review | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Editorial | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Editorial | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Third Worldism | Nash | African Sociological Review / Revue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Editorial | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Brazilian environmental sociology: a provisional review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Leila da Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims firstly at the reconstitution and analysis of history within the scope of international environmental sociology situated in the context of contemporary sociology. It also discusses - from the standpoint of literature (Buttel, Dunlap, Hanning, among others - its theoretical-methodological and institutional aspects as well in order to understand the obstacles encountered to legitimate and consolidate a set of problems which, until recently, were not dealt with by social sciences. Secondly, it analyses the Brazilian case. Environmental sociology in Brazil is strongly influenced by American empirical sociology, the precursor of the institutionalization process for the themes. On the other hand, further analysis of this case is relevant to understand the relationship between the scientific sphere, and the creation of environmental policies and social movements.

  18. Knowledge networking on Sociology: network analysis of blogs, YouTube videos and tweets about Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Cárdenas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While mainstream scientific knowledge production have been widely studied in recent years with the development of scientometrics and bibliometrics, an emergent number of studies have focused on alternative sources of production and dissemination of knowledge such as blogs, YouTube videos and comments on Twitter. These online sources of knowledge become relevant in fields such as Sociology, where some academics seek to bring the sociological knowledge to the general population. To explore which knowledge on Sociology is produced and disseminated, and how is organized in these online sources, we analyze the knowledge networking of blogs, YouTube videos and tweets on Twitter using network analysis approach. Specifically, the present research analyzes the hyperlink network of the main blogs on Sociology, the networks of tags used to classify videos on Sociology hosted on YouTube, and the network of hashtags linked to #sociología on Twitter. The main results point out the existence of a cohesive and strongly connected community of blogs on Sociology, the very low presence of YouTube videos on Sociology in Spanish, and Sociology on Twitter is linked to others social sciences, classical scholars and social media

  19. Sociological explanations of economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, R M

    1988-01-01

    Even if questions of how resources are distributed within and between societies are the main concern, it is necessary to continue to grapple with the issue of the causes of economic growth since economic growth and level of development continue to be among the most important causes of inequality, poverty, unemployment, and the quality of life. This paper's dependent variable is the economic growth rate of 55 less developed countries (LDCs) over 2 time periods. 1970-78 and 1965-84. The causal model consists of control variables--level of development and domestic investment in 1965--and a variety of independent variables drawn from major sociological theories of economic growth published during the last 3 decades. Multiple regression analysis shows that, net of the effects of the 2 control variables, the variables which have the strongest effect on economic growth are: 1) direct foreign investment, which has a negative effect, 2) the proportion of the population in military service, and 3) the primary school enrollment ratio, both of which have positive effects on economic growth. On the other hand, variables drawn from some theories receive no empirical support. The mass media of communications, ethnolinguistic heterogeneity, democracy and human rights, income inequality, and state-centric theory's key variable, state strength, all fail to show any significant impact on economic growth rates when the control variables and the significant independent variables are held constant. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Towards a Sociological Model of Corporate Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Dingsdale, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to establish a sociological grounding for the field of Corporate Entrepreneurship (CE) through the development of an organic sociological model. I argue that there are four key problems underlying the CE literature 1) no unifying theoretical base 2) no multi-dimensional, organic model 3) no multi-dimensional analysis 3) no easily implementable model and 4) no identification of critical antecedents. Scholars have failed to understand that without a unifyin...

  1. Socialkonstruktivismer i klassisk og moderne sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasborg, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    En videnskabsteoretisk diskussion af socialkonstruktivismens genealogi, samt af en række fremtrædende socialkonstruktivistiske positioner i klassisk og moderne sociologi (Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Berger & Luckmann, Goffman og Bourdieu)......En videnskabsteoretisk diskussion af socialkonstruktivismens genealogi, samt af en række fremtrædende socialkonstruktivistiske positioner i klassisk og moderne sociologi (Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Berger & Luckmann, Goffman og Bourdieu)...

  2. Remembering a sociology of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Daniel; Sznaider, Natan

    2014-01-01

    A sociology of human rights sounds almost like a contradiction in terms. Sociology is about social groups, about particular experiences, about how people, embedded in space and time, make sense of their lives and give meaning to their world. It deals with power and interest and the social bases of our experiences. On the other hand, human rights are about human beings in general, without temporal or spatial references, not about groups and their boundaries. Human rights are about humanity, lo...

  3. The Impact of Feminism on Sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Walby

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the impact of feminism on British sociology over the last 60 years. It focuses on changes in the intellectual content of the discipline, including epistemology, methodology, theory, concepts and the fields of economy, polity, violence and civil society. It situates these changes in the context of changes in gendered organisation of sociology, the rise of women's/gender studies, the ecology of social sciences and societal changes, especially the transformation of the gen...

  4. The Institution of Sociological Theory in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Cinthya; Silver, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Using theory syllabi and departmental data collected for three academic years, this paper investigates the institutional practice of theory in sociology departments across Canada. In particular, it examines the position of theory within the sociological curriculum, and how this varies among universities. Taken together, our analyses indicate that theory remains deeply institutionalized at the core of sociological education and Canadian sociologists' self-understanding; that theorists as a whole show some coherence in how they define themselves, but differ in various ways, especially along lines of region, intellectual background, and gender; that despite these differences, the classical versus contemporary heuristic largely cuts across these divides, as does the strongly ingrained position of a small group of European authors as classics of the discipline as a whole. Nevertheless, who is a classic remains an unsettled question, alternatives to the "classical versus contemporary" heuristic do exist, and theorists' syllabi reveal diverse "others" as potential candidates. Our findings show that the field of sociology is neither marked by universal agreement nor by absolute division when it comes to its theoretical underpinnings. To the extent that they reveal a unified field, the findings suggest that unity lies more in a distinctive form than in a distinctive content, which defines the space and structure of the field of sociology. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  5. On the nature and sociology of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Dunn, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Much has been written in the last decade about how we should understand the value of the sociology of bioethics. Increasingly the value of the sociology of bioethics is interpreted by its advocates directly in terms of its relationship to bioethics. It is claimed that the sociology of bioethics (and related disciplinary approaches) should be seen as an important component of work in bioethics. In this paper we wish to examine whether, and how, the sociology of bioethics can be defended as a valid and justified research activity, in the context of debates about the nature of bioethics. We begin by presenting and arguing for an account of bioethics that does justice to the content of the field, the range of questions that belong within this field, and the justificatory standards (and methodological orientations) that can provide convincing answers to these questions. We then consider the role of sociology in bioethics and show how and under what conditions it can contribute to answering questions within bioethics. In the final section, we return to the sociology of bioethics to show that it can make only a limited contribution to the field.

  6. Practical Application of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Eckley, Jeri Cassel; Culver, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, who often have different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated will all relevant information informing system decisions. The practical application of the sociology in systems engineering brings in various organizational development concepts including the principles of planned renegotiation and the application of principles to address information barriers created by organizational culture. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, consistent terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that help address the organizational social structure (culture). In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, and insider-outsider behavior. Unintended consequences can result when these social issues are present. These issues can occur when localized subcultures shift from the overarching organizational culture, or when the organizational culture prevents achievement of system goals. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information and provides key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss the practical application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  7. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  8. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  9. Political sociology of human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Kazemi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dominant approach in the field of human rights is Legal attitude. Legal attitude more than anything else on the identification and recognition of human rights by the government is focused. At the same time, governments are the biggest violators of human rights norms. Despite the gap between the legal obligations of states and the real world, legal analysis of this gap is not possible. Therefore, in the era of inflation of rights, according to Louis Henkin , transition needs based approach to the protection of human rights is justified. Social sciences, especially political sociology may be, to identify obstacles to the realization of human rights in different societies and operate it is used. Since the main subject of political sociology "explores the relationship between state and society" is, knowledge can be produced in the field of political sociology in understanding the inability of governments establishing human rights norms and effective ways to fix it. Therefore, it can be said that human rights political sociology focus on: how to advance the state of human rights in a society and its institutionalization and consolidation within all relationships and political processes. رهیافت مسلط در حوزه مطالعات حقوق بشر، نگرش حقوقی است.نگرش حقوقی بیش از هرچیز بر شناسایی و به رسمیت شناختن حقوق بشر توسط دولت‌ها متمرکز است.در عین حال، دولت‌ها خود بزرگترین ناقضین هنجارهای حقوق بشری می‌باشند. با وجود شکاف میان تعهدات حقوقی دولت‌ها و جهان واقعی، تحلیل حقوقی از این شکاف ممکن نیست. لذا، در عصر تورم حقوق به تعبیر هنکین، نیازمند گذار از رهیافت مبتنی بر توجیه به حفاظت از حقوق بشر هستیم. علوم اجتماعی بویژه جامعه

  10. "Moral Ecology" and "Moral Capital": Tools towards a Sociology of Moral Education from a South African Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    Research and pedagogy in the field of morality and moral education has long been dominated by philosophical and psychological disciplines. Although sociological studies and theorising in the field have not been absent, it has been limited and non-systematic. Drawing on a study that investigated the lived morality of a group of young South Africans…

  11. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  12. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have been excluded from the terms of reference of the Royal Commission but nonetheless continue to surface in media reports. In 2013, twelve children were permanently removed from an extended family living in rural NSW in what has been described as one of the worst cases of child abuse in Australia, involving intergenerational incest going back at least three generations (Auebach 2014. Another recent high-profile case involved the use of the Internet to facilitate the sexual exploitation of an adopted child by his parents in Queensland (Ralston 2013. These cases challenge the received wisdom that child sexual abuse is characterised by the victimisation of one child by one opportunistic offender. Such incidents suggest instead that child sexual abuse takes varied and systemic forms, and can operate to perpetuate and entrench toxic cultures and power structures.   This special issue on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation is a timely contribution to ongoing efforts to understand the multiplicity of child sexual abuse. It is an interdisciplinary collection of insights drawn from criminology, sociology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, and includes papers from academic researchers alongside academic practitioners whose writing is grounded in their work with affected individuals and communities. A key aim of the special issue is to contextualise the diversity of child sexual abuse socially, politically and historically, recognising the dynamic and iterative

  13. Synthesizing Proximate and Distal Levels of Explanation: Toward an Evolution-Informed Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence H. Williams

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue that despite the growing acceptance of psychological research by mainstream sociologists, the discipline of sociology remains largely averse to biology. This is because the kind of psychological research that sociologists now utilize tends to rely on the same assumptions of thought, action, and human behavior—broadly construed—that sociologists have on the whole tacitly endorsed since Durkheim's seminal criticism of Kantian categories in The Elementary Forms of Religious Life: Namely, that fundamental categories of perception, though naturally experienced, are socially constructed. This assumption is present in both psychological work on schemas and the dual-process model, which continue to be incorporated into sociological analysis at a growing pace. We further demonstrate how sociologists' overall positive reception of this kind of psychological research was facilitated by two factors: the rejection of biological explanations of human behavior and the tacit commitment to social causes by many sociologists in the field throughout the twentieth century. We demonstrate how synthesizing biological research with sociological research can extend existing sociological work by focusing on the study of parenting and crime and deviance. In these subfields, we believe sociologists can gain better understanding of their topics by moving from relatively proximate concerns to more distal ones. We conclude by asserting that seeing individuals' decision-making styles and capacities as a product of both evolved and social processes can lead to the development of more robust and yet parsimonious models of action in the discipline. Doing so need not make sociologists blindly endorse evolutionary approaches to human behavior, but start our theories with a view to both long and short history.

  14. "It's Not Rocket Science!": High School Sociology Teachers' Conceptions of Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesare, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Since academic sociology's birth in this country, sociologists have not been shy about publicly praising and ridiculing the discipline. Though sociologists have been the primary participants in the seemingly endless debates about sociology's proper subject matter, methods, and purpose, there is another group that has also struggled over the past…

  15. Sociology of the Prison Classroom: Marginalized Identities and Sociological Imaginations behind Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrotta, Kylie L.; Thompson, Gretchen H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors use sociology of the college classroom to analyze their experiences as feminists teaching sociology courses in the "unconventional setting" of prison. Reflective writing was used to chronicle experiences in the classes. They apply the concepts of doing gender, interaction order, and emotion work to the prison classroom. Based on their…

  16. Why, Where, and How to Infuse the Atlanta Sociological Laboratory into the Sociology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Earl, II

    2012-01-01

    The Atlanta Sociological Laboratory is the moniker bestowed on scholars engaged in sociological research at Atlanta University between 1895 and 1924. Under the leadership of W. E. B. Du Bois, 1897-1914, this school made substantive yet marginalized contributions to the discipline. Its accomplishments include, but are not limited to, its…

  17. Towards a Sociological Understanding of Robots as Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oost, Ellen; Reed, Darren

    While Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) have, in the past, primarily mediated or facilitated emotional bonding between humans, contemporary robot technologies are increasingly making the bond between human and robots the core issue. Thinking of robots as companions is not only a development that opens up huge potential for new applications, it also raises social and ethical issues. In this paper we will argue that current conceptions of human-robot companionship are primarily rooted in cognitive psychological traditions and provide important, yet limited understanding of the companion relationship. Elaborating on a sociological perspective on the appropriation of new technology, we will argue for a richer understanding of companionship that takes the situatedness (in location, network and time) of the use-context into account.

  18. [From sociology in medicine to the sociology of collective health: contributions toward a necessary reflexivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    This text looks at the difference between sociology in medicine (collaborator of health institutions) and the sociology of medicine (independent of health institutions). If consistent, sociology in medicine should become a sociology of medicine. As an example, it is shown how the study of the social determinants of health and illness begins by assuming non-problematically the ontological reality of health and illness, but ends up problematizing the very concept of health-disease, demonstrating that the study of health determinants also requires the study of the determinants of the social construction of disease. The urgent necessity of objectifying collective health itself is argued. By applying sociological tools we can examine the so-called objective factors in the determination of health and disease, the socially constructed nature of these categories of knowledge, and the struggles and power relations that determine whether or not such categories are viable.

  19. Review Essay: "Personal Relations" as a Sociological Category?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schützeichel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This review essay discusses the question raised by the handbook "Personal Relations": whether and to what extent personal relations can be understood as a fundamental sociological category, one that is uniform and covers social relations such as pair relationships, brother-sister and parent-child relationships, family relations, friendships, neighbourhoods or informal working groups. It examines the different criteria which—according to the publishers—plead for establishing personal relations as a joint structural form. However, it also considers further aspects, such as the ways in which these forms of personal relations differ from other social relations, and raises the question of whether these differences can only be reconstructed through the means of an a-historical, systematic comparison of social relations—as suggested by the handbook. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003187

  20. Validation of the Spanish Version of the CAPES: A Brief Instrument for Assessing Child Psychological Difficulties and Parental Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Anilena; Filus, Ania; Calam, Rachel; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the factor structure as well as validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale (CAPES) suitable for assessing child behavioural and emotional difficulties (Intensity Scale) and parental self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale) among Spanish-speaking parents from the…

  1. Children's Rights and School Psychology: An Introduction to the Multiple Journal Series Honoring the 25th Anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcloughlin, Caven S.; Hart, Stuart N.

    2014-01-01

    This year, 2014, is the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child--the world's "positive ideology" and its clearest statement of commitments to and respect and aspirations for the dignity of the child. To commemorate this landmark, a program of articles by respected experts has been organized to advance…

  2. Clinical Observation on EEG Biofeedback combined with Psychological Treatment to Child Tic Disorder%生物反馈结合心理治疗儿童抽动障碍疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 刘红英; 郭鑫

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨脑电生物反馈结合心理干预治疗儿童抽动障碍的疗效。方法对2012年1月-2014年8月我院儿童保健康复门诊的39例抽动障碍患儿进行脑电生物反馈和心理干预治疗,并采用耶鲁抽动症整体严重度量表(YGTSS)评分进行疗效评定。结果39例患儿经生物反馈结合心理治疗,显效12例,好转24例,无效3例,有效率达92.3%。结论脑电生物反馈结合心理干预是治疗儿童抽动障碍一种安全有效的治疗方法。%Objective To discuss the curative effect of EEG biofeedback combined with psychological treatment to 39 child tic disorder. Methods EEG biofeedback combined with psychological treatment was applied to children with tic disorder received by Children's health care and rehabilitation departments from Jan 2012 to Aug 2014, and therapeutic evaluation with YGTSS was made before and after the treatments. Result Among 39 children with EEG biofeedback combined with psychological treatment 12 cases were effective, 24 cases got better, 3 cases were of no effects, the total effective ratio was 92.3%.Conclusion EEG biofeedback combined with psychological treatment is a safe and effective method to cure child tic disorder.

  3. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices.

  4. Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2010-01-01

    Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…

  5. Vocation in Theology and Psychology: Conflicting Approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Recent contributions in the fields of psychology, sociology, and theology reveal opposing attitudes about the subject of calling or vocation with regard to one's work. Whereas psychologists have rediscovered the concept, theologians increasingly show reluctance to accept a vocational view of work. In offering an alternative perspective, this…

  6. Feminist Encounters with Evolutionary Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This Section of Australian Feminist Studies is the product of an event that took place at King’s College London in January 2015, hosted as part of the UK-based ‘Critical Sexology’ seminar series. Participants at this event – feminist scholars working across the fields of lin- guistics, cultural studies, sociology, and psychology – were invited to reflect on their encounters with evolutionary psychology (EP). As the event organiser, I was interested to prompt a discussion about how EP shapes t...

  7. The sociological knowledge and problematic behaviors’ prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Serjanaj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the importance of sociology knowledge in students attending teaching Master Program, specialists in education, experienced teachers, as well as high school graduates who study sociology in high school. The issues discussed involve not only the role of teacher on recording and straightening such problematic behaviors but even the ways of changing the situation on the future. Phenomena such as: culture, subculture, ethnicity, religion, race and gender diversity, prejudices and discrimination which derive by these kinds of diversities; inequality of social strata, the understanding of social role, cultural norms practicing and their respecting are present in our schools environment. These are reasons why teachers and students must have information about above-mentioned phenomena. Ministry of Education and Sport must add Sociology as a subject of core curricula of high school and teachers programs’ studies.

  8. Introduction: why a Sociology of Pandemics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Robert; Hoffman, Lily M; Staniland, Karen

    2013-02-01

    Infectious disease has re-emerged as a public health threat in an increasingly globalised era, adding trans-national actors to traditional national and local government actors. This special issue showcases new sociological work in response to this challenge. The contributors have investigated the social construction of new and re-emerging diseases; the development of surveillance systems, public health governance; the impact of scientific/technical modalities on uncertainty and risk, the interplay of infectious disease, public health and national security concerns, and public and media responses. The case studies range broadly across North America, Europe and Asia and define new agendas for medical sociologists and public health policymakers. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Desperately seeking sociology: nursing student perceptions of sociology on nursing courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgley, Alison; Timmons, Stephen; Crosbie, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present the findings of a qualitative study exploring the perceptions of students confronted by a requirement to learn sociology within a nursing curriculum. Those teaching sociology have a variety of explanations (more or less desperate), seeking to justify its place on the nursing curriculum. While there may be no resolution to the debate, the dispute thus far, has largely been between sociology and nursing academics. Absent from this debate are the voices of students 'required' to learn both nursing and sociology. What do students make of this contested territory? When students are trying to learn their trade, and know how to practice safely and efficaciously what do they make of the sociological imagination? How realistic is it to expect students to grasp both the concrete and practical with the imaginative and critical? Findings from this qualitative, focus group study suggest that students do indeed find learning sociology within a nursing curriculum "unsettling". It would seem that students cope in a number of ways. They fragment and compartmentalise knowledge(s); they privilege the interception of experiential learning on the path between theory and practice; and yet they appear to employ sociological understanding to account for nursing's gendered and developing professional status.

  10. Sociology of Knowledge Perspective on Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter addresses one of the enduring questions in sociology of knowledge: how is it possible that subjective meanings become objective facticities? It adopts this question to understand the entrepreneurship phenomenon, and, more specifically, to understand how new business or venture ideas...... and new sectors or industries (as subjective meanings) are legitimated and institutionalized (become socially established as reality). Building on Berger and Luckmann’s Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, the chapter suggests an alternative order objectivation of meaning to understand entrepreneurship...

  11. Does infant cognition research undermine sociological theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how the results of infant research challenge the assumptions of the classical sciences of social behaviour. According to A.J. Bergesen, the findings of infant research invalidate Durkheim's theory of mental categories, thus requiring a re-theorizing of sociology. This article...... argues that Bergesen's reading of Emile Durkheim is incorrect, and his review of the infant research in fact invalidates his argument. Reviewing the assumptions of sociology in the light of the findings of infant research, it is argued that the real challenge is to formulate a research strategy...

  12. Effects of a parenting intervention to address maternal psychological wellbeing and child development and growth in rural Uganda: a community-based, cluster-randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Daisy R Singla, PhD; Elias Kumbakumba, MMed; Prof. Frances E Aboud, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting interventions have been implemented to improve the compromised developmental potential among 39% of children younger than 5 years living in low-income and middle-income countries. Maternal wellbeing is important for child development, especially in children younger than 3 years who are vulnerable and dependent on their mothers for nutrition and stimulation. We assessed an integrated, community-based parenting intervention that targeted both child development and maternal...

  13. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie: About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie: About this journal. Journal Home > African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. The Correlation of Sociology, Historical and Dialectical Materialism - USSR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NARSKIY, I

    1960-01-01

    .... 5, 1957, has brought many responses. This is because the article touched not only on the question of the correction of sociology and historical materialism, but inevitably raised the problem of the correction of sociology...

  15. The sociology of medical screening: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Natalie; Eborall, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Medical screening raises fundamental issues for sociological inquiry, but at present a well-developed sociology of medical screening is lacking. This special issue on the sociology of screening brings together an exciting collection of new work that tackles medical screening from a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches. In this opening paper, we begin by explaining what we mean by screening, and why we believe screening merits sociological attention. Secondly, we reflect on the sociology of screening to date and provide an introduction for those new to this area. We then provide an overview of the papers in this collection, highlighting links and contrasts between papers. We conclude by reflecting on sociology's potential contribution to wider debates about screening, and propose future research directions. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. A Socio-Psychological Exploration of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwasomba, Chijioke

    2009-01-01

    Using a socio-psychological approach, the essay explores Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment. The exploration highlights Dostoyevsky's heavy reliance on the use of psychological realism, showing in the process the intricate interplay between psychology, sociology and literature. In the novel, the reader comes across the merging of the…

  17. Community factors supporting child mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earls, F

    2001-10-01

    A principal purpose of this article has been to examine the gap between research and practice in relation to community factors in child mental health. Two caveats were introduced in preparation for this assessment. First, it was pointed out that the definition of communities has been expanded by considering the organizing properties of social aggregates that are not simply a function of the race, ethnicity, or social class of individuals who compose them. Having these definitions grounded in theory substantially advances the needs of research and the design and goals of community-level interventions. The second caveat relates to the boundaries of the disciplines that cater to the needs of children. During the same era when child psychiatry is largely occupied with placing psychotropic medications at the center of clinical approaches, there is an important effort in child psychology and sociology to cut across their disciplinary confines to form more comprehensive designs that are sensitive to experiences and circumstances that emerge from specific aspects of community context. Research from the PHDCN was used as an example of this new interdisciplinary approach. Several community-based research projects were selected for review based on their clear implications to improve context-sensitive assessment of child mental health and design effective community-based interventions to improve child mental health. The Healthy Start and CATCH programs indicate that involving child professionals at the grassroots of community life requires skill and patience but that the effort is satisfying and potentially effective. Other examples, exemplified by North Carolina's Smart Start initiative and the program of developmental assets from the Search Institute, demonstrate coherent approaches that provide a foundation for long-term capacity building in assessment, local decision making, and the design and evaluation of interventions. Three conclusions are warranted from this

  18. Scientific Discovery in Deep Social Space: Sociology without Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Michalski

    2008-01-01

    Globalization affords an excellent opportunity to develop a genuinely universal, scientific sociology. In recent decades the politicization of the discipline has undermined the central mission of sociology: scientific discovery and explanation. The paper identifies several intellectual shifts that will facilitate the expansion and communication of such a science in an emerging global village of sociological analysts: 1) breaking with classical sociology to build upon innovative theoretical id...

  19. The Continuation of the Dialectic in Sociology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2010-01-01

    A rapidly changing ‘society’ that requires ‘new units of analysis’, ‘new roles for sociology’, and new democratic commitment to ‘the publics’ has implications for the identity and calling of sociology. In this so-called ‘identity crisis’, some sociologists have introduced the so-called ‘after

  20. Time for creative integration in medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S

    1995-01-01

    The burgeoning of medical sociology has sometimes been accompanied by unfortunate parochialism and the presence of opposing intellectual camps that ignore and even impugn each other's work. We have lost opportunities to achieve creative discourse and integration of different perspectives, methods, and findings. At this stage we should consider how we can foster creative integration within our field.

  1. Sociology of religion in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Kees; Sengers, Erik; Blasi, Anthony J.; Giordan, Giuseppe

    In 1960, the Dutch journal of the Catholic Social-Ecclesial Institute (Kaski) Sociaal Kompas became Social Compass. This shift rounded off a period now considered as the heyday of Dutch sociology of religion. Ironically, in those years, Catholic sociologists in particular contested the legitimacy of

  2. New Biological Sciences, Sociology and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdell, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Since the Human Genome Project mapped the gene sequence, new biological sciences have been generating a raft of new knowledges about the mechanisms and functions of the molecular body. One area of work that has particular potential to speak to sociology of education, is the emerging field of epigenetics. Epigenetics moves away from the mapped…

  3. Human Right for Fair Wage: sociological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomareva T. M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the results of sociological research devoted to the analysis of the fair wage problem. The authors analyze the dynamics of labor load and the level of wages in the economic market conditions taking as an example the Omsk Region

  4. The Sociology of Family Health. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumba-Masagazi, A. H. K., Comp.

    This unannotated bibliography is on man, his family, the society he makes and lives in, and his health. It is about man and his East African environment. It attempts to bring together both the applied and social sciences as they affect the family. Among the disciplines drawn from are: anthropology, sociology, medicine, religion, economics, labor…

  5. Teaching the Sociology of Gender and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffre, Patti; Anderson, Cynthia; Bird, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes two teaching strategies from our workshop, "Teaching the Sociology of Gender and Work," that can help students understand the mechanisms and consequences of workplace gender inequality at the macro- and micro-levels. Cynthia Anderson's class project uses wage and sex composition data that allows students to learn actively how…

  6. introductory concepts on sociological jurisprudence: jhering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    sociological theory whose main and pervasive message is that “law is a social .... content of law is infinitely varied and relative to the different societies. There is thus ... All legal principles for Jhering can be reduced to the security of condition of.

  7. Regression Analysis and the Sociological Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Regression analysis is an important aspect of most introductory statistics courses in sociology but is often presented in contexts divorced from the central concerns that bring students into the discipline. Consequently, we present five lesson ideas that emerge from a regression analysis of income inequality and mortality in the USA and Canada.

  8. On the New Approach in Sociological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian Education and Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    A roundtable was held in April 2010, by correspondence and with participants in attendance; it was organized by the editorial board of "Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniia" jointly with the faculty of sociology of the Russian State University of the Humanities [RGGU]. The focus of the proceedings was a discussion (taking account of…

  9. The Sociological Imagination and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hironimus-Wendt, Robert J.; Wallace, Lora Ebert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we maintain that sociologists should deliberately teach social responsibility as a means of fulfilling the promise that C. Wright Mills envisioned. A key aspect of the sociological imagination includes a sense of social responsibility, but that aspect is best learned through a combination of experience and academic knowledge.…

  10. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  11. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  12. One Hundred Years of Sociological Solitude?

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG

    2005-01-01

    On the occasion of the American Sociological Association's centennial, The Chronicle asked seven sociologists to discuss what attracted them to the field, what they consider to be the discipline's fortes and failings, and where they'd like to see it go from here.

  13. Xenophobia In Contemporary Society: A Sociological Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This chapter examines the problem of xenophobia from a sociological perspective. The chapter discusses the problematique of xenophobia as a subject of study and includes an assessment of the incidence/prevalence of xenophobia in contemporary society, as well as indicators of xenophobia. The chapter also provides ...

  14. Reflections on Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Sociology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the original ambition of sociology to constitute itself into an encyclopaedia of the social sciences has largely failed (because of the obligation to restrict its scope through disciplinary specialization), the discipline has been more successful as a key actor in interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary encounters that cover a wide ...

  15. Social kapital og økonomisk sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    Hvad er social kapital? Vi søger at besvare dette spørgsmål i en tværvidenskabelig tilgang, som forener økonomi og sociologi. Dette sker i tre dele. Det generelle økonomiske udgangspunkt er hentet fra New Institutional Economics (NIE) med dets fokus på asymmetrisk information og deraf følgende...

  16. "World Religions" in Introductory Sociology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    A section on "world religions" (WRs) is now routinely included in the religion chapters of introductory sociology textbooks. Looking carefully at these WR sections, however, two things seem puzzling. The first is that the criteria for defining a WR varies considerably from textbook to textbook; the second is that these WRs sections…

  17. Sociological and medical aspects of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyarov, I.V.; Terebov, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    The sociological survey data, the results of the state of health service in some districts of Gomel and Mogilev regions as well as of the completeness of the fulfillment of state resolutions concerning the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident after effects are given

  18. From Medicalisation to Pharmaceuticalisation - A Sociological Overview. New Scenarios for the Sociology of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordogna Mara Tognetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the sociological literature on pharmaceuticalisation and see how sociology helps us understand and explain the phenomenon. We then discuss how sociology, especially in Anglo-Saxon countries, defines the process of pharmaceuticalisation and how this last is evolving. The paper points out that, while medicalisation remains a key concept for health sociology, it is increasingly being queried and/or extended to allow for a techno-scientific era of biomedicalisation (Clarke et al. 2003 and to acknowledge the importance of the pharmaceutical industry in this process (Williams, Martin and Gabe 2011a, 2011b. Particular attention will be paid to the process of pharmaceuticalisation as brought about not just by doctors and their prescriptions, but by the central role of pharmaceutical promoters and the marketing of drugs.

  19. American Sociology in a Transnational World: Against Parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, John

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, in spite of its cosmopolitan origins, U.S. sociology is regarded widely as parochial in its outlook and concerns. Discusses factors contributing to the intellectual isolationism of U.S. sociological research and pedagogy. Provides suggestions for internationalizing the sociology curriculum. (CFR)

  20. Toward a Buddhist Sociology: Theories, Methods, and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janine

    2012-01-01

    This article explores potential links between Buddhism and sociology, highlighting the many commonalities between sociology and Buddhism, with an emphasis on ways that Buddhist thought and practice may contribute to the field of sociology. What could Buddhism offer to our understanding of social institutions, social problems, and to the dynamics…

  1. Durkheim's Sociology of Education: Interpretations of Social Change Through Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Marc A.

    1976-01-01

    Three questions are examined: (1) Why have contemporary American educators generally ignored Durkheim's sociology of education? (2) What were Durkheim's contributions to the sociology of education as his analysis related to social change through education? and (3) What is the relationship between Durkheim's sociology of education, social change,…

  2. Polish Qualitative Sociology: The General Features and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The article explores the development of Polish qualitative sociology in Poland by presenting its main intellectual routes and some of the general features of Polish sociology. Romanticism and inductionmethod are crucial elements for the development of this discipline in Poland and contribute to its. unigueness. The role of Florian Znaniecki in creating the Polish qualitative sociology is also underlined. Krzysztof Konecki

  3. Enriching Sociology 100: Using the Novel "Things Fall Apart"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Cheryl J.

    2005-01-01

    The author has been teaching Introduction to Sociology for several years, and each semester new students bring their own perspectives to the study of sociology, making the content fresh and new. In order to help students understand sociological concepts in more experiential ways and to give them a glimpse into a culture that may be different from…

  4. Simulating Secularization: A Pedagogical Strategy for the Sociology of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Instructing students in sociological theory is a foundational part of the discipline, but it can also be a challenge. Readers of "Teaching Sociology" can find a number of activities designed to improve students' understanding of sociological theory in their general theory courses, but there are fewer activities designed to improve…

  5. Herding, social influence and economic decision-making: socio-psychological and neuroscientific analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Typically, modern economics has steered away from the analysis of sociological and psychological factors and has focused on narrow behavioural assumptions in which expectations are formed on the basis of mathematical algorithms. Blending together ideas from the social and behavioural sciences, this paper argues that the behavioural approach adopted in most economic analysis, in its neglect of sociological and psychological forces and its simplistically dichotomous categorization of behaviour ...

  6. Origins and canons: medicine and the history of sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Fran

    2010-01-01

    Differing accounts are conventionally given of the origins of medical sociology and its parent discipline sociology. These distinct "histories" are justified on the basis that the sociological founders were uninterested in medicine, mortality and disease. This article challenges these "constructions" of the past, proposing the theorization of health not as a "late development of sociology" but an integral part of its formation. Drawing on a selection of key sociological texts, it is argued that evidence of the founders' sustained interest in the infirmities of the individual, of mortality, and in medicine, have been expunged from the historical record through processes of "canonization" and "medicalization."

  7. Self-inflicted violence: a sociological concern and a public health problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo

    1998-04-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first is to reflect on the meaning of suicide as a sociological issue, commenting on an article by E.D. Nunes (1988) on the famous work by Durkheim. The second is to discuss the same issue within the field of public health, analyzing the contributions by the father of sociology and approaches by the fields of epidemiology, psychology, psychiatry, and psychoanalysis, highlighting the work of Brazilian authors. The paper presents information on the Brazilian epidemiological context and concludes by demonstrating that only from an analytical point of view can violent causes as a whole can be studied separately. Thus, they constantly require epistemological and epidemiological surveillance to construct indicators capable of contributing to change. This is all the more true because data on current violence need to be viewed within the context of the social crisis and changes Brazil is undergoing.

  8. The denial of death thesis: sociological critique and implications for palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Camilla; Rodin, Gary

    2004-03-01

    It has become commonplace to say that contemporary western society is 'death-denying'. This characterization, which sociologists have termed the 'denial of death thesis', first arose in the social science, psychological and clinical medical literature in the period between 1955 and 1985. During the same time period, the hospice and palliative care movements were developing and in part directed themselves against the perceived cultural denial of death in western society. While the denial of death has been taken for granted by the lay public as well as by clinicians, in the sociological literature it has been increasingly questioned. In this paper we use sociological critiques of the denial of death thesis to raise critical questions about the theory and practice of contemporary palliative care. In particular, we argue that the emphasis of palliative care should not be on extinguishing the denial of death but on the relief of suffering.

  9. A Potential Psychological Mechanism Linking Disaster-Related Prenatal Maternal Stress with Child Cognitive and Motor Development at 16 Months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katrina M.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P.; King, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has…

  10. Can parents adjust to the idea that their child is at risk for a sudden death?: Psychological impact of risk for Long QT Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Karin S. W. H.; Grosfeld, F. J. M.; van Tintelen, J. P.; van Langen, I. M.; Wilde, A. A. M.; van den Bout, J.; ten Kroode, H. F. J.

    2005-01-01

    Can a parent adjust to the idea that its child is at risk for a sudden death? This question is raised by a diagnostic procedure in which children were tested for an inherited Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). This potentially life-threatening but treatable cardiac arrhythmia syndrome may cause sudden death,

  11. Can parents adjust to the idea that their child is at risk for a sudden death? : Psychological impact of risk for Long QT Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Karin S. W. H.; Grosfeld, FJM; van Tintelen, JP; van Langen, IM; Wilde, AAM; van den Bout, J; ten Kroode, HFJ

    2005-01-01

    Can a parent adjust to the idea that its child is at risk for a sudden death? This question is raised by a diagnostic procedure in which children were tested for an inherited Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). This potentially life-threatening but treatable cardiac arrhythmia syndrome may cause sudden death,

  12. Recherches Sur La Psychologie de L'enfant de Milieu Defavorise. Rapport- synthese. (Research Relating to the Psychology of the Child in Disadvantaged Environments. Summary Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Charles E.; Bourbeau, Gerald

    Thirteen doctoral dissertations and five masters theses are summarized in this report of research on the disadvantaged child. Contained in each individual summary are the detailed descriptions of the experimental task, the results obtained and the analysis of these results. The eighteen individual theses are concerned with topics such as:…

  13. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur Pj; Oosterveer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology's contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology's strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change.

  14. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.

  15. Effects of a parenting intervention to address maternal psychological wellbeing and child development and growth in rural Uganda: a community-based, cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Daisy R; Kumbakumba, Elias; Aboud, Frances E

    2015-08-01

    Parenting interventions have been implemented to improve the compromised developmental potential among 39% of children younger than 5 years living in low-income and middle-income countries. Maternal wellbeing is important for child development, especially in children younger than 3 years who are vulnerable and dependent on their mothers for nutrition and stimulation. We assessed an integrated, community-based parenting intervention that targeted both child development and maternal wellbeing in rural Uganda. In this community-based, cluster randomised trial, we assessed the effectiveness of a manualised, parenting intervention in Lira, Uganda. We selected and randomly assigned 12 parishes (1:1) to either parenting intervention or control (inclusion on a waitlist with a brief message on nutrition) groups using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Within each parish, we selected two to three eligible communities that had a parish office or a primary school in which a preschool could be established, more than 75 households with children younger than 6 years, and at least 15 socially disadvantaged families (ie, maternal education of primary school level or lower) with at least one child younger than 36 months. Participants within communities were mother-child dyads, where the child was 12-36 months of age at enrollment, and the mother had low maternal education. In the parenting intervention group, participants attended 12 fortnightly peer-led group sessions focusing on child care and maternal wellbeing. The primary outcomes were cognitive and receptive language development, as measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edn. Secondary outcomes included self-reported maternal depressive symptoms, using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and child growth. Theoretically-relevant parenting practices, including the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment inventory, and mother-care variables, such as perceived spousal

  16. Economics and sociology: Between cooperation and intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialization and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticeable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an increasingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be inspiring for the research in other sciences, particularly sociology and political science. Applying the results he got by analyzing the logic of collective action, Olson managed to attain significant insight concerning the functioning of economics and society as a whole.

  17. Sociological perspectives for the study of nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Cruz-Doimeadios

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to explain the society-nature relationship from the disciplines Environmental Sociologyand Cultural Sociology which reveal the arranging function of culture in the orientation of the everyday social doing with respect to the management of novel because it, passes over the thesis that Sociology of Culture states, which is centered in the role of the institucional component a as regulator of the social doing so as to stop the deterioration of the natural spaces. The result consist of the systematization of the theoretical grounds of the disciplines the allow to understand the meaning of culture in social organization around the individuals and groups doing on the nature as objest of analysis.

  18. Why Economists Should Pay Heed to Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman

    2015-01-01

    Gintis and Helbing suggest that certain elements from classical sociological theory can be usefully incorporated into a general equilibrium model, thereby providing a superior explanation of social behavior. Although the paper seemingly is addressed to sociologists, I argue that their message...... is likely to fall on deaf ears. Instead, their paper should properly be addressed to economists. Whether economists are prepared to listen, however, is an open question....

  19. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-12

    discord or hatred are fermented in connection with religious cults. CSO: 1809/15 72 JPRS-ÜPS-85-071 12 September 1985 SOCIOLOGY TV VIEWERS ON...is forbidden to bring viticulture products acquired from retail enterprises to canteens and cafes, and the sale of beer in cultural-entertainment...fact that it is planned to open two beer bars, two beer restaurants and a beer -hall on Zelenyy Islands, while Selenyy Island, as the author of the

  20. Sociological perspectives on self-help groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L; Rasmussen, J M

    2001-01-01

    and significance of self-help groups. FINDINGS: New empirical sociological evidence shows that health care professionals - nurses, psychologists, social workers - have become an integrated part and thus essential actors in self-help groups within as well as outside the framework of the formal health care system...... that it is necessary to introduce new aspects and themes for discussion in the health care debate and the work that goes beyond the predominantly individual orientated treatment and care function....

  1. Happiness and Memory: Some Sociological Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Hyman

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to consider, in an exploratory fashion, the relationship between happiness and memory. Both of these areas of investigation are relative newcomers to sociology, and have rarely, if at all, been studied in tandem. The article draws upon data from qualitative interviews with British adults that formed part of an empirical study of people’s experiences and perceptions of happiness. In doing so, it suggests that people identify their memories and reflections on the past as so...

  2. Mod en pragmatisk sociologi om fysisk vold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønck, Mikkel Kronborg

    2017-01-01

    . Som et delvist svar på denne forsømmelse introduceres til den franske sociolog Luc Boltanskis »tilnærmede udkast« til en handlingsteori om vold, som er en del af en større handlingssociologi, der præsenteres i bogen Love and Justice as Competences. Der peges dog på et grundlæggende konceptuelt problem...

  3. Preconditions for Citizen Journalism: A Sociological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley Watson

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the citizen journalist and increased attention to this phenomenon requires a sociological assessment that seeks to develop an understanding of how citizen journalism has emerged in contemporary society. This article makes a distinction between two different subcategories of citizen journalism, that is independent and dependent citizen journalism. The purpose of this article is to present four preconditions for citizen journalism to emerge in contemporary society: advanced technolo...

  4. Implicit Discourse: Contributions to a Sociological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Espluga Trenc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the variety of types or dimensions of implicit discourse. Specifically, a typological characterisation is proposed, based on the intentions of the producer of the discourse, including a distinction between four basic dimensions: insinuated discourse, hidden discourse, ?failed? discourse and underlying discourse. Some examples are provided of each dimension, and then it is held that the proposed typology is useful for the sociological analysis of implicit discourse, that is, for its detection and interpretation.

  5. Economics and sociology: Between cooperation and intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Božo

    2007-01-01

    In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialization and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticeable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an increasingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be...

  6. ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY: BETWEN COOPERATION AND INTOLERANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Božo Stojanović

    2007-01-01

    In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialisation and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an incresingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be i...

  7. Towards a sociological analysis of London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, I focus on a number of productive scholarly avenues to which sociological analysis of London 2012 might want to attend. Understanding major sporting events - and thus the Olympic Games - as inextricably entangled with the media-industrial complex, I suggest London 2012 as a commodity spectacle that will emphasize gleaming aesthetics, a (sporting) city and nation collapsed into (simple) tourist images, and the presentation of a particular expression of self within the logi...

  8. Physiological Sociology. Endocrine Correlates of Status Behaviors,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    affiliative bonding. One psychiatric illness which manifests itself in social structural relationships in a profound was is sociopathic behavior. By the...very nature of the sociopathic individual, persons with the disorder display altered social behavior (Robins, 1966). The question as to whether such...Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971. Goldman, H., Lindner, L., Dinitz, S., and Allen, H. The simple sociopath : Physiologic and sociologic

  9. Single Motherhood and Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Life Course Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Clark, S.; Hamplová, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2013), s. 1521-1549 ISSN 0070-3370 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Child mortality * single motherhood * Africa Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 2.631, year: 2013

  10. Debate on class issue in contemporary sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary debate on class issue within the sociology in English speaking countries focuses on two questions. The first question is whether the crisis of the Marxist class analysis, which arose as a consequence of weakening of class identity and class behavior, is at the same time a sign of crisis of sociological class conception. There are American, British and Australian sociologists whose answer to this question is affirmative. However, others have been claiming that the Marxist class analysis could be replaced by the Weberian concept of stratification. The second question in this debate is on the exploratory importance of class for sociological analysis. Some sociologists have been claiming that its explanatory capacity is exhausted. However, there are others who argue that classes remain one of the most important tools a modern sociologist has. Finally, this paper points to the third way of saving the class analysis. It is about focusing on collective identity and collective action of the members of "developed" professions, as a kind of "small" classes or "proto-classes".

  11. Psychological characteristics, stressful life events and deliberate self-harm: findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Nicola; Hawton, Keith; McMahon, Elaine M; Corcoran, Paul; De Leo, Diego; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; Ystgaard, Mette; Arensman, Ella

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest that both psychological characteristics and stressful life events are contributory factors in deliberate self-harm among young people. These links, and the possibility of a dose-response relationship between self-harm and both psychological health and life events, were investigated in the context of a seven-country school-based study. Over 30,000, mainly 15 and 16 year olds, completed anonymous questionnaires at secondary schools in Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Australia. Pupils were asked to report on thoughts and episodes of self-harm, complete scales on depression and anxiety symptoms, impulsivity and self-esteem and indicate stressful events in their lives. Level and frequency of self-harm was judged according to whether they had thought about harming themselves or reported single or multiple self-harm episodes. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the extent to which psychological characteristics and stressful life events distinguished between adolescents with different self-harm histories. Increased severity of self-harm history was associated with greater depression, anxiety and impulsivity and lower self-esteem and an increased prevalence of all ten life event categories. Female gender, higher impulsivity and experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, physical or sexual abuse and worries about sexual orientation independently differentiated single-episode self-harmers from adolescents with self-harm thoughts only. Female gender, higher depression, lower self-esteem, experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, and trouble with the police independently distinguished multiple- from single-episode self-harmers. The findings reinforce the importance of psychological characteristics and stressful life events in adolescent self-harm but nonetheless suggest that some factors are more likely than others to be implicated.

  12. Effect of an Empowerment Program on Self-Efficacy of Epileptic Child's Mothers in Psychological Adaptation, Gaining Support and Receiving Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gholami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent childhood neurological disorders. As the primary caregivers, the mothers of epileptic children undergo different psychological pressures. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of empowerment on the self-efficacy of the mothers of the epileptic children, concerning psychological adaptation, gaining support, and receiving information. Materials & Methods: In the controlled two-group random clinical trial with pretest and posttest steps, 100 mothers of epileptic children hospitalized in the Neurology Ward of Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad were studied in 2014. The subjects, selected via convenience sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including experimental (n=50 and control (n=50 groups. Data was collected using the caregiver’s self-efficacy questionnaire. Only experimental group received the empowerment program, and no intervention was conducted in control group. The mothers’ self-efficacy was measured before and after the intervention in both groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software using independent T, paired T, Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and covariance tests. Findings: The mean scores of self-efficacy, including psychological adjustment, gain a support, and receiving information, were not significantly different between the groups before the intervention (p>0.05. Nevertheless, the groups were significantly different after the intervention (p<0.001. In addition, the mean score after the intervention in experimental group was significantly higher than the score in the same group before the intervention (p<0.001. Conclusion: The empowerment program enhances the self-efficacy of the mothers of the epileptic children in psychological adjustment, gain a support, and receiving information.

  13. THE NURSE'S ROLE IN THE REALIZATION OF THE «SONATAL» SYSTEM — MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL PEDAGOGIC MANAGEMENT OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT BEFORE AND AFTER BIRTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Lazarev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Much work aimed at the development and health improvement of children is now being done at all levels of children's healthcare and education. One of the essential organizational issues in solving this problem is the provision of interconnection between specialists, children and parents. A modern nurse may play a system administrator role managing processes of continuous monitoring of child's development and health improvement on all children's ontogenesis stages starting from prenatal age. 

  14. Remembering a sociology of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociology of human rights sounds almost like a contradiction in terms. Sociology is about social groups, about particular experiences, about how people, embedded in space and time, make sense of their lives and give meaning to their world. It deals with power and interest and the social bases of our experiences. On the other hand, human rights are about human beings in general, without temporal or spatial references, not about groups and their boundaries. Human rights are about humanity, located in the world and connected to an inviolable nature. Global media representations, among others, create new cosmopolitan memories, providing new epistemological vantage points and emerging moral-political interdependencies. As such, memories of the Holocaust contribute to the creation of a common European cultural memory based on the abstract notion of human rights. Sociologically, a theory of human rights has to show how universal and particular memories co-exist, are reconciled etc. and what it means for the recognition of the “other”, and the broadening of circles of solidarity.Una sociología de los derechos humans suena casi como un oxímoron. La sociología se fija en los grupos sociales, en las experiencias particulares, y en cómo las personas, marcadas por el espacio y el tiempo, dan sentido a sus vidas y atribuyen un significado al mundo. Trata del poder, el interés y la base social de nuestras experiencias. Contrariamente, los derechos humanos se refieren a humanos en general, sin referencias temporales ni espaciales, y no a grupos y sus límites. Los derechos humanos tratan de la humanidad, ubicado en el mundo y conectado con su naturaleza inviolable. Representaciones mediáticas globales, entre otras, crean memorias cosmopólitas nuevas, disponiendo nuevos puntos de vista epistemológicos y interdependencias morales-políticas emergentes. Así, las memorias del Holocausto contribuyen a la creación de una memoria cultural europea com

  15. Child Maltreatment: An Ecological Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay

    1980-01-01

    Draws from works by Bronfenbrenner, Tinbergen, and Burgess to conceptualize child maltreatment as a social-psychological phenomenon that is multiply determined by individual, family, community, and cultural forces. (Author/GC)

  16. A Critical Review of Child Labour in Nigeria and The Case for Child Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Akpa AjaNwachuku

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria and the world over condemn forced or exploitative labour of a child, for the obvious reason of the adverse physical, psychological, mental and emotional effect of it on children. What is condemned is not child labour per se, but child forced or exploitative labour. This paper analyses the condemnable child forced or exploitative labour, distinguishes it from the accepted child labour and makes a case for the advancement from child labour to child entrepreneurship. It posits that the advancement to child entrepreneurship shall enable the Nigerian child to contribute their bit to the financial wellbeing of their family and the economic development of Nigeria.

  17. ABOUT THE FOUNDERS OF LEGAL SOCIOLOGY AND THEIR IDEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA CRISTIANA NILĂ STRATONE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main founders of the juridical sociology are considered to be Eugen Ehrlich, Max Weber, Theodor Geiger and Georges Gurvitch, The researches of juridical sociology from Romania are demonstrating the existence of a real tradition in this domain at a national standard. Some roumanian explores of formation jurists have practicated in the cognitive demarche a sociologycal abordation about the law, what have been fatal conduced to the fixing of the base of the juridical sociology in Romania.

  18. Polish Qualitative Sociology: The General Features and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz; Kacperczyk, Anna; Marciniak, Łukasz

    2005-01-01

    Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research,2005, 6(3) The article explores the development of Polish qualitative sociology in Poland by presenting its main intellectual routes and some of the general features of Polish sociology. Romanticism and inductionmethod are crucial elements for the development of this discipline in Poland and contribute to its. unigueness. The role of Florian Znaniecki in creating the Polish qualitative sociology is also underlined.

  19. PSYCHO-SOCIOLOGICAL PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SEXUAL OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SlobodankaTodoroska-Gjurchevska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Criminality is an extremely heterogeneous social phenomenon that includes various kinds of deviant behavior. It also includes sexual criminality (crimes against sexual freedom and moral, which has highly negative impact on society and endangers the most intimate parts of a person’s life. The aim of this survey is to outline a structure of psychological features of sexual offenders, to determine the degree of their development and the way in which they are connected, as well as to describe certain social and sociological phenomena that are typical of sexual offenders. The results that have been achieved during this survey will successfully be implemented into the practical work of penal institutions in the Republic of Macedonia in order to ensure successful resocialisation and reintegration of sexual offenders in the society. Our experience and knowledge are compatible with world-wide trends saying that sexual offenders are mentally healthy people and that they cannot be included in any diagnostic category. The main results of this survey can be summed up into several points: in general, sexual offenders are male, aged between 26 and 33, with minimal education and without profession or employment. Usually, they do not behave in pathological manner and they are mentally healthy people. It is believed that resocialisation as well as a complex treatment will be necessary for people convicted of sexual offenses: not only will it represent prevention from committing new crimes, it will also be a breeding ground for their active participation in life out of the penal institutions

  20. PSYCHO-SOCIOLOGICAL PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SEXUAL OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SlobodankaTodoroska-Gjurchevska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Criminality is an extremely heterogeneous social phenomenon that includes various kinds of deviant behavior. It also includes sexual criminality (crimes against sexual freedom and moral, which has highly negative impact on society and endangers the most intimate parts of a person’s life. The aim of this survey is to outline a structure of psychological features of sexual offenders, to determine the degree of their development and the way in which they are connected, as well as to describe certain social and sociological phenomena that are typical of sexual offenders. The results that have been achieved during this survey will successfully be implemented into the practical work of penal institutions in the Republic of Macedonia in order to ensure successful resocialisation and reintegration of sexual offenders in the society. Our experience and knowledge are compatible with world-wide trends saying that sexual offenders are mentally healthy people and that they cannot be included in any diagnostic category. The main results of this survey can be summed up into several points: in general, sexual offenders are male, aged between 26 and 33, with minimal education and without profession or employment. Usually, they do not behave in pathological manner and they are mentally healthy people. It is believed that resocialisation as well asa complex treatment will be necessary for people convicted of sexual offences: not only will it represent prevention from committing new crimes, it will also be a breeding ground for their active participation in life out of the penal institutions

  1. Biotechnologies that empower transgender persons to self-actualize as individuals, partners, spouses, and parents are defining new ways to conceive a child: psychological considerations and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condat, Agnès; Mendes, Nicolas; Drouineaud, Véronique; Gründler, Nouria; Lagrange, Chrystelle; Chiland, Colette; Wolf, Jean-Philippe; Ansermet, François; Cohen, David

    2018-01-17

    Today, thanks to biomedical technologies advances, some persons with fertility issues can conceive. Transgender persons benefit also from these advances and can not only actualize their self-identified sexual identities but also experience parenthood. Based on clinical multidisciplinary seminars that gathered child psychiatrists and psychoanalysts interested in the fields of assisted reproduction technology (ART) and gender dysphoria, philosophers interested in bioethics, biologists interested in ART, and endocrinologists interested in pubertal suppression, we explore how new biotechnical advances, whether in gender transition or procreation, could create new ways to conceive a child possible. After reviewing the various medical/surgical techniques for physical gender transition and the current ART options, we discuss how these new ways for persons to self-actualize and to experience parenthood can not only improve the condition of transgender persons (and the human condition as a whole through greater equity) but also introduce some elements of change in the habitual patterns of thinking especially in France. Finally, we discuss the ethical issues that accompany the arrival of these children and provide creative solutions to help society handle, accept, and support the advances made in this area.

  2. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur PJ; Oosterveer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology’s contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology’s strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change. PMID:25937642

  3. Classical sociology and cosmopolitanism: a critical defence of the social.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S

    2006-03-01

    It is frequently argued that classical sociology, if not sociology as a whole, cannot provide any significant insight into globalization, primarily because its assumptions about the nation-state, national cultures and national societies are no longer relevant to a global world. Sociology cannot consequently contribute to a normative debate about cosmopolitanism, which invites us to consider loyalties and identities that reach beyond the nation-state. My argument considers four principal topics. First, I defend the classical legacy by arguing that classical sociology involved the study of 'the social' not national societies. This argument is illustration by reference to Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons. Secondly, Durkheim specifically developed the notion of a cosmopolitan sociology to challenge the nationalist assumptions of his day. Thirdly, I attempt to develop a critical version of Max Weber's verstehende soziologie to consider the conditions for critical recognition theory in sociology as a necessary precondition of cosmopolitanism. Finally, I consider the limitations of some contemporary versions of global sociology in the example of 'flexible citizenship' to provide an empirical case study of the limitations of globalization processes and 'sociology beyond society'. While many institutions have become global, some cannot make this transition. Hence, we should consider the limitations on as well as the opportunities for cosmopolitan sociology.

  4. The Sociological Imagination and Community-Based Learning: Using an Asset-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoutte, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Fostering a sociological imagination in students is a central goal for most introductory sociology courses and sociology departments generally, yet success is difficult to achieve. This project suggests that using elements of asset-based community development can be used in sociology classrooms to develop a sociological perspective. After…

  5. Gangs and a global sociological imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Alistair; Hagedorn, John M

    2018-02-01

    Across the globe, the phenomenon of youth gangs has become an important and sensitive public issue. In this context, an increasing level of research attention has focused on the development of universalized definitions of gangs in a global context. In this article, we argue that this search for similarity has resulted in a failure to recognize and understand difference. Drawing on an alternative methodology we call a 'global exchange', this article suggests three concepts-homologies of habitus, vectors of difference and transnational reflexivity-that seek to re-engage the sociological imagination in the study of gangs and globalization.

  6. Assessing the sociology of sport : On critical sport sociology and sport management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    On the 50th anniversary of the ISSA and IRSS, Annelies Knoppers, one of the leading scholars in understanding the culture of sport in organizational settings, considers how the critical lens of sociology can enhance and mesh with research on sport management. Knoppers argues that there have been

  7. Choices and Chances: The Sociology Role-Playing Game--The Sociological Imagination in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joseph M.; Elias, Vicky L.

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a sociology role-playing game (RPG) used to demonstrate the broad range of social forces, institutions, and structures in a semester-long series of in-class and homework assignments. RPGs and other simulation games have been frequently suggested as a useful teaching methodology because of their unique ability to allow…

  8. Sociology and the public understanding of science: from rationalization to rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S

    2001-03-01

    This paper contributes to the reappraisal of sociological theories of modernity inspired by the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK). As much as these theories rely on received ideas about the nature of science that SSK has called into doubt, so do they rely on ideas about the public understanding of science. Public understanding of science has been assumed to conform to the monolithic logic and perception of science associated with rationalization, leading to an impoverished view of the cognitive outlook of the modern individual. Rationalization has become the basis for the construction of theoretical critique of science divorced from any clear reference to public understanding, with the result that theory has encountered considerable problems in accounting for public scepticism towards science. However, rather than question rationalization, the more typical strategy has been to propose radical changes in the modernization process, such as postmodernism and the risk society. Against this, an alternative view of public understanding is advanced drawn from SSK and rhetorical psychology. The existence of the sociological critique of science, and SSK in particular, suggests that the meaning of science in modernity is not monolithic but multiple, arising out of a central dilemma over the universal form of knowledge-claims and their necessarily particular, human and social grounding. This dilemma plays out not only in intellectual discourses about science, but also in the public's understanding of science. This argument is used to call for further sociological research into public understanding and to encourage sociologists to recognize the central importance of the topic to a proper understanding of modernity.

  9. AGROFORESTRY KALIWU IN SUMBA: A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyanto Dwi Prasetyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is one of the popular land management systems in Indonesia. The system helps the farmers to increase agricultural production, social life, and ecological stability. Traditional community in Sumba had been implementing agroforestry for a long time, known as Kaliwu and as a part of the indigenous knowledge. Kaliwu as a system is constructed socially through an intensive interaction between local people and its environment and transmitted from generation to generation. This study aimed to asses sociological aspects in behind Kaliwu practices, which allegedly become key factor the sustainability of this system socially, exist until now. The study was conducted for a year in 2009 in the Waimangura Village, Sumba Island. As social research, data was collected through social survey on 30 respondents, in-depth interview, observation, and literature review. Data was analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative procedures. The results indicated that sociologically, Kaliwu as an authentic knowledge of land management system passed on from generation to generation and constructed along with the socio-historical practices by the local people of Sumba. Social norms (adherence to traditional values, arrangement of labour systems, conflict management and social institution of farmer group became social factors that play significant role to make kaliwu sustainable.

  10. Sociological Theory and Social Reality [ENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN DÍEZ NICOLÁS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pretends to demonstrate the complementary relations between three relatively recent sociological theories, each one of which explains a different aspect of the same social object: the origin, diffusion and change of social and cultural values, aiming at demonstrating that there is not such a thing as a sociological theory that explains all, but rather diverse theories that offer partial explanations of social reality. To that effect, and on the basis of the necessary relationship between theory and research, three different theories are evaluated separately: Hawley?s and Duncan?s theory of the social ecosystem, Galtung?s centre-periphery theory, and Inglehart?s theory of values? change in modern-industrial societies, offering theoretical and empirical evidence of their complementary relations, based on Spanish and international data. Social ecosystem and centre-periphery theories show a high level of generalization (through space and time and a high level of abstraction, though both can easily operationalize their main concepts through valid and reliable indicators. The theory of values? change, however, though showing a high level of generalization, is limited in time to the historical period after World War II, and also shows a high level of abstraction. Centre-periphery theory and values? change theory use individual and collective units of analysis, but social ecosystem theory only uses collective units, by definition. The three theories lead to the conclusion that ?security? values will gain a growing importance in present societies.

  11. Why Sociology Is Silent Concerning Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Nikolov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Border in sociological sense means a barrier that separates social groups, strata, their values, and the difference between ways of life between particular social groups. Such groups may be separated by many dividing lines, or borders: social/living conditions, opportunities/prospects, legal rights/customs, viewpoints, and so on. Sometimes mobility does not permit other than individual, or small-group, crossing of these borders. It seems really strange why border topic is almost completely absent from the sociology. It is so pertinent to the fate and shaping of various social groups, depending from the location of the border. We think of a boundary whenever we think of an entity demarcated from its surroundings. Events, too, have boundaries – temporal ones: their beginning, climax, final. All our lives are bounded in the continuum between our births and our deaths. A philosopher would imply also that even imaginary, abstract entities, such as concepts or layouts, have boundaries of their own. One may say that condition for all this boundary/border talk is coherent, and whether it reproduces the world around us’ structure, or the organizing activity of our intellect, are matters of deep philosophical controversy. Borders are difficult to disappear totally even within the European Union, providing some obstacles to the freedom of movement to those left still outside the Schengen agreement.

  12. Recent Developments in Sociological Risk Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief overview of the main streams and recent developments of sociological research and theorising on risk. It outlines shifts in cultural theory on risk, from risk society to reflexive modernisation, from governmentality on risk to governmentality on uncertainty and adds the often neglected systems theory approach. Some important insights result from these developments: Risk and uncertainty should be interpreted as systematically linked to each other because there are different ways beyond instrumental rationality how risk can be managed. Furthermore, risk understood as rational calculation is an uncertain business, too. Risks are at the same time both real and socially constructed. Risks and uncertainties have to be managed case by case. When ignorance or uncertainty is too big there are no general rationalities available to make reasonable decisions. Finally, it is argued for more theoretical integration of the outlined approaches. The article finishes with some considerations regarding the contribution of sociology to risk research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601301

  13. Towards a Sociology of the Mobile Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McGuigan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the mobile phone is an immensely significant social and cultural phenomenon. However, market hype and utopian dreams greatly exaggerate its importance. The fundamental issue for sociology is the process of change. Bound up with contemporary issues of change, the mobile phone is a prime object for sociological attention both at the macro and micro levels of analysis. This article considers the strengths and weaknesses of four methods for studying the sociality of the mobile phone (social demography; political economy; conversation, discourse and text analysis; and ethnography, the different kinds of knowledge they produce, and the interests they represent. Recent ethnographic research on the mobile phone, particularly motivated by issues around the uncertain transition from 2G to the 3G technology, has examined the actual experience of routine use. Interpretative research is now supplementing purely instrumental research, thereby giving a much more nuanced understanding of mobile communications. Critical research on the mobile phone, of which there is little, is beginning to ask skeptical questions that should be pursued further.

  14. CHILD PORNOGRAPHY ON THE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Negredo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Downloading, exchanging and producing child pornography is a criminal behaviour of growing relevance. The cruel exploitation of minors and its link with child sexual abuse raise great social and academic concern. The current paper approaches the nature of the phenomenon, the characteristics of the materials labelled as “child pornography”, the psychological traits of the users and the existing treatment programs

  15. International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics: Advanced Search ... of characters; e.g., soci* morality would match documents containing "sociological" or "societal" .... Journal of Development and Communication Studies, Journal of East African Natural ...

  16. phenomenon of child abuse based on studies of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kasznia-Kocot

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon of child abuse is considered to be voluntary or involuntary action of an adult which has a detrimental effect on child’s health and/or his psychophysical development. The concept of child abuse syndrome includes physical, mental and emotional maltreatment and negligence of physical, medical and emotional needs and also rape and sexual abuse. The authors conducted a questionnaire survey in order to assess children mistreatment by parents, caretakers and school environment. Studies included 228 high school students aged 14– 16 out of which 44,3% were girls and 55,7% were boys. 84% of the children were brought up by full families, 13% by mothers only, and 3% by fathers only. The most common form of mistreatment of children was physical violence (20,3%, psychological violence (12,1% and negligence (6,5%. Violence in the form of bad touch was experienced by 7,9% of girls and 0,8% of boys. High school students often suffered emotional violence from peers (22,9%, siblings (5,2% and teachers (4,8%. Results of the surveys were discussed paying attention to sociological context and legal conditions. The need for cooperation between many organizations and sectors of public life was highlighted to prevent the phenomenon of child abuse.

  17. The Emergence and Development of the Sociology of Sport as an Academic Specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, John W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Sport sociology as an academic specialty and its stages of development are described. Problems confronting future developments in sport sociology include critical mass, academic status, and ideological orientation, both in physical education and in sociology. (CJ)

  18. Goffman Meets Bauman at the Shopping Mall - en diakron konfrontation om selv, samfund og sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid

    2008-01-01

      This article offers a diachronic confrontation between the sociological perspectives of Erving Goffman and Zygmunt Bauman respectively. Due to their different locations in the history of sociology as well as their diametrically opposed locations regarding substantial discussions within sociolog...

  19. Algunos factores psicosociales del maltrato infantil en escolares de la enseñanza primaria Some psychological and social factors of child abuse in scholars from primary teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Lidia Arce Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de una muestra de 32 estudiantes de sexto grado, escogidos al azar de un total de 100 que cursaban ese nivel de enseñanza en el Seminternado "Carlos García Castillo", ubicado en el reparto Versalles de Santiago de Cuba, durante el bimestre enero-febrero del curso académico 2010-2011. A los educandos se les aplicó una encuesta anónima individualizada, previo consentimiento de padres y profesores, así como también 2 tests: uno para determinar la existencia de maltrato infantil (físico, verbal y por descuido y otro para identificar el funcionamiento familiar. Los resultados revelaron que Cuba no escapa del crecimiento mundial del maltrato infantil y que aunque es un país pequeño y con grandes dificultades económicas, invierte cuantiosos recursos en la atención educacional y médico-sanitaria de la población pediátrica; pero como la violencia intrafamiliar es un asunto social y sanitario de gran prioridad, requiere inmediata atención, mayor conocimiento del fenómeno e intervenciones eficaces para prever su ocurrencia o disminuir sus efectos.A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 32 students of sixth grade, randomly selected from a total of 100 who studied in that level in "Carlos García Castillo" day boarding school, located in Versalles neighborhood from Santiago de Cuba was carried out during the bimestre January- February of the academic year 2010-2011. An individualized anonymous survey was applied to the students, with the previous consent of parents and professors, as well as 2 tests: one to determine the existence of child abuse (physically, verbally and caused by negligence and another to identify the family functionability. The results revealed that Cuba does not escape from the world growth of child abuse and that although it is a small country and with great economic difficulties, it invests considerable resources in the educational care as well as in the health of the

  20. Sociologie de la lecture et de la bibliotheque: Choix de dix ans de la litterature speciale hongroise 1978-1987. Contribution a la Base de donnees internationale de Bibliologie (Sociology of Reading and Library Sociology: A Selection from the Hungarian Literature of a Decade 1978-1987. Contribution to the International Database of Bibliology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposvari-Danyi, Eva, Comp.; Lorincz, Judit, Comp.

    This 175-item bibliography was compiled as the Hungarian contribution to an international database. It includes books, chapters of books, periodical articles, manuscripts, and dissertations that deal with bibliology (i.e., the sociology and psychology of book and library use). Citations are restricted to works of Hungarian authors published in…

  1. History, Science And The Dilemma Of Contemporary Sociology: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    History and natural sciences are two important fields of study that have informed and influenced sociology as a discipline. Traditionally common to these influences on sociology is the need to generalise. Today, however only the natural sciences can still lay claim to this principle. In generalising, the natural science ...

  2. Avoiding Chaos in the Sociology of Sport Brickyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Barry D.

    1978-01-01

    If the sociology of sport is to flourish as a legitimate field of inquiry which can contribute valid knowledge rather than an array of bits of knowledge, a sociological perspective based on a sound philosophy of science must be adopted. (Author/LH)

  3. Guidelines for Teaching Undergraduate Sport Sociology. Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Jay; Riemer, Brenda; Sailes, Gary; Harrison, Louis; Pittman, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Sport sociology is a subdiscipline of sociology that, since the late 1960s, has produced knowledge about sports as social phenomena in a wide range of societies. It may be included as a major specialization area in graduate programs in kinesiology, sports studies and physical education departments, and is widely offered as a single undergraduate…

  4. The Development of Visual Sociology: A view from the inside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Harper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reflection by one of the founding members of the IVSA (International Visual Sociology Association about the events, ideas, social trends and revolutions within sociology that contributed to development of visual sociology. In 2016 the IVSA entered its 34th year and the author has been a participant in the organization for its full duration. The paper details the importance of documentary photography in the early era of visual sociology. During this era key papers by Howard Becker contributed to the intellectual movement’s original intellectual definition and created a pedagogical model that has served as a model for teaching visual sociology to this day. Moving from visual sociology as a method based on black and white photography, the discipline embraced and developed collaborative methods including photo elicitation and photovoice. A parallel track of visual sociology focused on the analysis of the visual dimension of society, drawing on semiotics and cultural studies. More recently visual sociology has begun to explore the rapidly changing meaning and social function of photographic imagery, as cameras and images have become ubiquitous in the cell phone era.

  5. Teaching Writing in Sociology: A Social Constructionist Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leon; Holt, Mara

    1990-01-01

    Provides an overview of the "social constructionist" approach to teaching composition in sociology courses. Describes a course that is team taught by the authors and is based on the social constructionist paradigm. Stresses that sociological writing is a special type of discourse that can be taught most effectively by sociologists who…

  6. Rural Sociology in Brazil: Institutional Growth (1965-1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David O.; And Others

    Growth and present status of graduate programs, major research interests, and potential for US-Brazilian collaboration indicate the present state of rural sociology in Brazil. In contrast to US rural sociology's identity crisis of the past decade, the field in Brazil has blossomed. Graduate programs are underway at universities of Rio Grande do…

  7. The Structure of Sociology in the Educational Activities of Unesco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, B. Y.

    1974-01-01

    An exploration of the structure of sociology in Unesco's educational activities during 1970-1971 reveals that Unesco has dual political and cultural bureaucratic structures that are complementary for contributions in sociology. Journal is available from Mouton & Co., 5 Herder Street, The Hague, Netherlands. (ND)

  8. Pour une Sociologie des Apprentissages (Toward a Sociology of Learning)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcher, Louis

    1977-01-01

    A language, a social practice, cannot be taught or learned apart from determining sociological factors. The effect of this sociological understanding on foreign language methodology, particularly the functional approach, and learner-centered education is discussed. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  9. Labor Economics and Sociology of Labor: Demarkation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with important economic and sociological problems taking into account their relevance to economics and sociology of labor as two independent sciences. The author suggests some demarcation boundaries of the concepts relevant to contemporary life within these two disciplines.

  10. Towards a Realist Sociology of Education: A Polyphonic Review Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Michael; Hood, Susan; Barrett, Brian D.; Schubert, Dan

    2017-01-01

    This review essay evaluates Karl Maton's "Knowledge and Knowers: Towards a Realist Sociology of Education" as a recent examination of the sociological causes and effects of education in the tradition of the French social theorist Pierre Bourdieu and the British educational sociologist Basil Bernstein. Maton's book synthesizes the…

  11. Using the Sociological Imagination to Teach about Academic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell Trautner, Mary; Borland, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The sociological imagination is a useful tool for teaching about plagiarism and academic integrity, and, in turn, academic integrity is a good case to help students learn about the sociological imagination. ?We present an exercise in which the class discusses reasons for and consequences of dishonest academic behavior and then examines a series of…

  12. Representing the Other in Sociology of the Family Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Charlotte Chorn; Cannon, Julie Harms; Dietz, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of otherness as it applies to the content of sociology of the family texts. We conducted a study of the content of the indexes and the body of texts on sociology of the family, examining the way in which the experiences of whites were addressed relative to families of color. We found that whites…

  13. Polish Qualitative Sociology. Insight into the future of postdisciplinary research

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The paper desctibes the definitions of following concepts: multidisiplinarity, interdisciplinarity, transdysciplinarity, postdisciplinarity. MOreover it discuss the meanings of a concept of discipline. It describes the place of the Polish qualitative sociology in the context of postdisciplinary research. The main question of paper is: Does the POlish Qualitative Sociology has entered the postdisciplinary phase of research? DGS, UL Krzysztof Konecki

  14. The Empty Shops Project: Developing Rural Students' Sociological Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Evan; Burns, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    An informal research project with high local relevance was developed for a first-year sociology course at an Australian rural university campus. The project developed students' sociological insight by challenging them to investigate "truths" about their own region, rather than immediately pushing them to comprehend new and different…

  15. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically evaluates the epistemological basis of the academic discipline of sociology in South Africa. In particular, it contextualises, and therefore subjects to critical scrutiny, the assumptions made (and not made) by South African sociologists in their writings about the discipline of sociology in South Africa.

  16. The Challenges of Teaching and Learning Sociology of Religion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The teaching and learning of Sociology of Religion in Nigeria face some grave challenges. As an academic discipline in religious studies, many who teach this specialized discipline are not experts. This makes Sociology of. Religion anybody's game which does not promote sound scholarship, creativity and intellectual ...

  17. Revisiting the Utility of Industrial Sociology in National Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociology as an academic discipline has been entrenched in many Nigerian universities, however, not much is known about how the discipline has contributed or has been contributing to the national development. Although some scholars have discussed some contributions of sociology in the emerging economy like ...

  18. The Educational Imagination and the Sociology of Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Julie

    2013-01-01

    A remarkable feature of the sociology of education is its proliferation under a broad gamut of research themes and topics. Understanding the relationship of education to social reproduction and social change are pivotal to the sociology of education, and have fruitfully informed research in fields such as gender and education, vocational education…

  19. The "Biographical Turn" in University Sociology Teaching: A Bernsteinian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Monica; Abbas, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about what happens to disciplinary knowledge when it is taught in contemporary UK universities of different status. Here, Basil Bernstein's theories are applied to what sociology lecturers say about teaching, demonstrating that in conditions in which students are less likely to engage with sociological theory, lecturers,…

  20. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  1. How Mental Health Interviews Conducted Alone, in the Presence of an Adult, a Child or Both Affects Adolescents' Reporting of Psychological Symptoms and Risky Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Aubrey V; Benjet, Corina; Méndez, Enrique; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2017-02-01

    The normative process of autonomy development in adolescence involves changes in adolescents' information management typically characterized by decreasing disclosure and increasing concealment. These changes may have an important impact on the early detection and timely treatment of mental health conditions and risky behavior. Therefore, the objective was to extend our understanding of how these developmental changes in adolescent disclosure might impact adolescent mental health interviews. Specifically, we estimated the effects of third party presence and type of third party presence (adult, child, or both) on adolescents' reports of psychiatric symptoms, substance use, suicidal behavior, and childhood adversity. In this representative sample of 3005 adolescents from Mexico City (52.1 % female), administered the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-A), adult presence influenced reporting the most; in their presence, adolescents reported more ADHD, parental mental illness and economic adversity, but less panic disorder, PTSD, drug use and disorder, and suicidal behavior. The presence of children was associated with increased odds of reporting conduct disorder, opportunity for drug use, parental criminal behavior, neglect, and the death of a parent. While adolescent information management strategies are normative and even desirable as a means of gaining emotional autonomy, they may also interfere with timely detection and treatment or intervention for mental health conditions and risky behaviors. Research and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Zamyšlení nad soudobou českou sociologií

    OpenAIRE

    Musil, Jiri

    2002-01-01

    The following comments compare the present orientations of Czech sociology with recent developments in European sociology. The analysis of sociology in Europe shows that the attention of European sociologists has shifted to social theory & social philosophy, sociology of culture, media, gender & feminism, political sociology, nationalism, ethnicity, & racism. Czech sociology, in the opinion of the author, still does not pay sufficient attention to such pressing issues of Czech society as nati...

  3. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  4. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  5. Child slavery and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    McKinney, Stephen J.; Hill, R.J.; Hania, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Child slavery and child labour deny children their God-given dignity and freedom, and their right to education. Catholic Social Teaching is unequivocal in resolute condemnation of child slavery and child labour, in all of their forms.

  6. [Current status and problems of regional maternal and child health education in the curriculum of midwifery education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, I

    1989-01-01

    According to the evaluations made by medical Technical Junior Colleges in Japan, general objectives in midwifery education are met, but their curriculum does not cater to each region's health care needs sufficiently. Japanese midwifery students can either attend a 6 month training program offered at 80 different locations, or enroll in a 1 year special-major program at one of the 10 Medical Technical Junior Colleges affiliated with National Universities. According to the curriculum revised in 1971, midwifery students are required to take the following courses and hours in 6 months. Intro. to Maternal and Child Health (15 hours), Maternal and Child Health Medicine (60 hours), Lecture on Midwifery (105 hrs), Practice in Midwifery (135 hrs), Midwifery Business Administration (60 hrs), Maternal and Child Health Administration including internship (225 hrs), Regional Maternal and Child Health including internship (105 hrs) and Family Sociology (15 hours). Regional Maternal and Child Health course (RMCH) is effectively taught only if all the maternal and child health courses and lecture on midwifery are taken beforehand. Objectives for RMCH course are becoming able to assess the state of maternal and child health care in the region and give constructive criticism and suggestions for improvement including legal aspects, acquiring positive attitudes and necessary skills for advancing and having understanding of regional health care and that of midwives' role of it. While the curriculum prepares the students for meeting the patients' physical needs, the students are not ready to cope with their psychological and socio-physiological problems surrounding individuals, families and communities. Changes and diversification of regional communities should be taken into consideration also in the curriculum. Increase in nuclear families, increase in working wives, isolation and/or over-crowding of high rise apartment living are some of the examples. Midwifery activity is also

  7. Psychology of anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Benbenaste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.

  8. Sociologia e literatura Sociology and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Leonel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Propomos discutir como Os sertões foi incorporado, pela crítica, como obra de literatura e como, posteriormente, o romance Grande sertão: veredas passou a ser lido como ensaio. Para tanto, examina-se, de um lado, em vários estudos, como o primeiro foi consagrado como obra compósita, pertencendo, ao mesmo tempo, ao campo da literatura, da sociologia e da ciência, o que se tornou moeda corrente e cânone quase inquestionável, sobrevivendo por mais de um século. De outro lado, investiga-se como a narrativa rosiana passou a ser vista, por uma determinada vertente da crítica, como ensaio ou estudo das relações de poder no Brasil. É essa indistinção, paradoxal, entre sociologia e literatura, ciência e fi cção que nos propomos investigar e problematizar, buscando compreender tal embaralhamento de gêneros. Palavras-chave: Grande sertão: veredas. Os sertões. Ficção. Sociologia. Ensaio. Crítica. The purpose is to discuss how Os sertões has been incorporated, by the critics, as literary work and how, after that, the novel Grande sertão: veredas started to be read as an essay. In order to achieve that, there is the examination, from one side, of several studies, on how the fi rst has been consecrated as composite work belonging, at the same time, to the literature, sociology and science fi elds, what has come as currency and unquestionable standard, surviving for over a century. On the other hand, there is the investigation of how the narrative of Rosa started to be seen, by a determined share of the critics, as essay or study of the power relationships in Brazil. It is this non-distinction, this paradox, between sociology and literature, science and fi ction, that we propose to investigate and put into matter, searching for comprehension in this gender mixture. Keywords: Grande sertão: veredas. Os sertões. Fiction. Sociology. Essay. Critics.

  9. Renewing Sociology of Education? Knowledge Spaces, Situated Enactments, and Sociological Practice in a World on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Sociology of education is caught in a dilemma. The study of education and society that unfolded through the twentieth century produced educational vocabularies that spoke into education policy and practice about inequality and social justice. Now that sociologically informed educational discourse is marginalised by individualistic…

  10. All about science philosophy, history, sociology & communication

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Liu

    2014-01-01

    There is a lot of confusion and misconception concerning science. The nature and contents of science is an unsettled problem. For example, Thales of 2,600 years ago is recognized as the father of science but the word science was introduced only in the 14th century; the definition of science is often avoided in books about philosophy of science. This book aims to clear up all these confusions and present new developments in the philosophy, history, sociology and communication of science. It also aims to showcase the achievement of China's top scholars in these areas. The 18 chapters, divided into five parts, are written by prominent scholars including the Nobel laureate Robin Warren, sociologist Harry Collins, and physicist-turned-historian Dietrich Stauffer.

  11. 'Material' in Adorno's sociology of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić-Molnar Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors are dealing with the musical 'material' as the key concept of Theodor Adorno's sociology of music. Being a synthesis of two, ideologically opposite - Schonberg's and Marx's - legacies, Adorno's 'material' combines also quite opposite meanings. On the one side, it echoes Schonberg's theory of relationship between tone (as natural phenomena and unconscious 'instinct' (that transforms composer into some kind of the tool of nature, and whole mankind as well. On the other side, Adorno was following Karl Marx general theory of capitalism (all cultural phenomena are determined by the material production, with one crucial innovation. Adorno's 'material' was reflecting the lack of virtual communist revolution, instead of its preparation (in the bosom of totalitarian capitalism. As the result of Adorno's 'negative dialectics' in the field of music, it was carrying the message of the suppressed apocalypse. .

  12. Sociologies of energy. Towards a research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ariztía

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a panoramic view of the field of the social studies of energy while introducing the articles of the special issue. It begins by discussing the progressive interest on studying the social aspects of energy. We relate this interest to the increasing challenges imposed by global climate change as well as the growing sociological attention to the material dimension of social life. The article suggests understanding energy and energy related phenomena as a socio-technical object which involve material, social, cultural and technical elements. The article then briefly describes different research areas concerning the intersection between energy and society and present the contributions to the monograph. We suggest that the articles comprised in this special issue are not only relevant for social scientist interested on energy related issues; they might also help energy professionals and researchers from outside the social sciences to further problematize the social aspects and challenges of energy.

  13. [A sociological approach to the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschini, C

    1989-01-01

    "This paper discusses the range and limits of some concepts of the family, related to theoretical perspectives and to possibilities of an empirical approach to this social group. It argues that in recent studies of the family one can find the symbolic outlook of anthropology on the one hand, which deepens the analysis of dynamics of family relationships, but is limited to strict segments of society. On the other hand, one can find demography and sociology surveys, capable of framing broad portraits which, although liable to generalization, are static and limited to family relations within the household. As an example of possible methodology, the paper describes the proceedings and results of [a study on] family structure and daily life in the city of Sao Paulo [Brazil], in which the author assembles some of the commented approaches, trying to overcome their limitations." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  14. Sociological aspects of meat in meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2009-01-01

    Health professionals and environmental experts advocate reduced consumption of meat in industrialized regions. On this background, and in light of a number of sociological studies of food practices and meal formats among consumers, this paper examines some aspects of the cultural entrenchment...... and vulnerability of meat consumption. Tacit meanings of meat products are seen as arising from the human tendency to rank and grade objects relative to each other, a process that is intrinsic to consumption practices. Examples of the ways in which gradient meanings of meat products are entrenched in food practices...... and of ways in which this consumption is vulnerable to change, are presented. On this basis, the likelihood that current levels of meat consumption in industrialized societies will remain relatively stable or tend to decrease are briefly discussed....

  15. THE SOCIOLOGIC APPROACH OF FEMININE CRIMINALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA CRISTIANA NILA STRATONE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study is part of a much more cognitive approach, which tries to study resocialization and the social reinsertion of women who are under freedom privation penalty. The present material contains a short historical evolution of the sociologic theories of crime, then plunging towards feminist theories, in order to approach the gender problematic concerning the delinquent woman.. The first objective is to demonstrate the necessity of a wider approach in analyzing the genesis of the crime, through the re-evaluation and reconsidering the factors with a crime risk and placing them in an equal position in the social environment. Another objective of this study is to emphasize the importance of the gender role concerning the expectations of the society from the feminine population’s side. The present study is focused on the contribution of placing the research of feminine crime research on a basis characterized by unprecedented generality, under total influencing conditions, with orientation towards gender problematic.

  16. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  18. Regionalization and multiculturalism in sociological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripković Milan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to deal with current and also controversial problems of regionalization and multiculturality together, by putting them in a broader sociological perspective, and then questioning them on the example of the current position of Vojvodina and growing demands for democratization, deregulation and decentralization of Serbia. Starting with a question how to harmonize very strong need of modern societies for homogenization with the equally strong and legitimate need for heterogeneity, which was one of the first and basic questions that sociology posed to itself, the author points out that regionalization and multiculturality solve nothing by themselves alone, if they are not put in the context of the crisis of modernity, which opens space for constructing essentially different pluralistic society. Process of regionalization in general, and in Serbia particularly, appears as a rational choice only if it goes together with already mentioned processes of democratization deregulation and decentralization, which should provide relatively fast transformation of old structures through development of the new ones. In other words, regionalization must be looked upon as one of the moments of the process of foundation of new pluralistic society, which contributes to opening and development, and not to closing, stagnation or regress, which eliminates or alleviates old conflicts and prevents creation of the new ones, which eliminates harmful consequences of stiff centralization and at the same time does not call for equally harmful unreasonable fragmentation which encourages demands for autonomy of parts and at the same time does not prevent integration and solidarity, which respects differences and does not endanger the social unity.

  19. History and Sociology: A genealogical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan UNGUREAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available What could we possibly learn from a 70 year correspondence from the years of the Second World War, when the course of subsequent history has already been known? The sociologist is interested in seeing how an event unfolds, how it generates other actions, how the actors are driven by, what their strategies are and how they interact. The aim of the present essay is to identify those sociological concepts, that could lead us to explanations of the geopolitical, regarding the way Germany built up its hegemony, by starting from a genealogical perspective, that is, by identifying the logics of a situation and by understanding the reasoning behind individual decision while taking into consideration the analysis of the discourse. We take into account how enforcing a drastic peace treaty on Germany has lead to high surveillance costs that could not be sustained by the victors because of their path dependence, which ultimately led to the fact of the ‘good’ being sacrificed for the sake of the ‘comfortable’. We understand how military successes represent the test of truth for an ideology and provide the Nazi leaders with their legitimacy, inciting a group phantasm. We discern, in the relations between Germany, Soviet Union and the French-English duo, all the elements of a triad and, implicitly, all elements of power that are generated by a game based on imposing and accepting uncertainties. All of the above bare evidence to the fact that sociological notions and concepts can produce revelations when taken into new domains, such as geopolitics and war.

  20. The sociology of popular music, interdisciplinarity and aesthetic autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lee

    2011-03-01

    This paper considers the impact of interdisciplinarity upon sociological research, focusing on one particular case: the academic study of popular music. 'Popular music studies' is an area of research characterized by interdisciplinarity and, in keeping with broader intellectual trends, this approach is assumed to offer significant advantages. As such, popular music studies is broadly typical of contemporary intellectual and governmental attitudes regarding the best way to research specific topics. Such interdisciplinarity, however, has potential costs and this paper highlights one of the most significant: an over-emphasis upon shared substantive interests and subsequent undervaluation of shared epistemological understandings. The end result is a form of 'ghettoization' within sociology itself, with residents of any particular ghetto displaying little awareness of developments in neighbouring ghettos. Reporting from one such ghetto, this paper considers some of the ways in which the sociology of popular music has been limited by its positioning within an interdisciplinary environment and suggests two strategies for developing a more fully-realized sociology of popular music. First, based on the assumption that a sociological understanding of popular music shares much in common with a sociological understanding of everything else, this paper calls for increased intradisciplinary research between sociologists of varying specialisms. The second strategy, however, involves a reconceptualization of the disciplinary limits of sociology, as it argues that a sociology of popular music needs to accept musical specificity as part of its remit. Such acceptance has thus far been limited not only by an interdisciplinary context but also by the long-standing sociological scepticism toward the analysis of aesthetic objects. As such, this paper offers an intervention into wider debates concerning the remit of sociological enquiry, and whether it is ever appropriate for sociological

  1. The sociological imagination in a time of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Kari Marie

    2018-04-01

    Despite rising calls for social science knowledge in the face of climate change, too few sociologists have been engaged in the conversations about how we have arrived at such perilous climatic circumstances, or how society can change course. With its attention to the interactive dimensions of social order between individuals, social norms, cultural systems and political economy, the discipline of sociology is uniquely positioned to be an important leader in this conversation. In this paper I suggest that in order to understand and respond to climate change we need two kinds of imagination: 1) to see the relationships between human actions and their impacts on earth's biophysical system (ecological imagination) and 2) to see the relationships within society that make up this environmentally damaging social structure (sociological imagination). The scientific community has made good progress in developing our ecological imagination but still need to develop a sociological imagination. The application of a sociological imagination allows for a powerfully reframing of four key problems in the current interdisciplinary conversation on climate change: why climate change is happening, how we are being impacted, why we have failed to successfully respond so far, and how we might be able to effectively do so. I visit each of these four questions describing the current understanding and show the importance of the sociological imagination and other insights from the field of sociology. I close with reflections on current limitations in sociology's potential to engage climate change and the Anthropocene.

  2. Back to Hegel? On Gillian Rose's critique of sociological reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian W

    2017-08-22

    Thirty-five years ago, Gillian Rose articulated a significant critique of classical sociological reason, emphasizing its relationship to its philosophical forebears. In a series of works, but most significantly in her Hegel contra Sociology, Rose worked to specify the implications of sociology's failure, both in its critical Marxist and its 'scientific' forms, to move beyond Kant and to fully come to terms with the thought of Hegel. In this article, I unpack and explain the substance of her criticisms, developing the necessary Hegelian philosophical background on which she founded them. I argue that Rose's attempted recuperation of 'speculative reason' for social theory remains little understood, despite its continued relevance to contemporary debates concerning the nature and scope of sociological reason. As an illustration, I employ Rose to critique Chernilo's recent call for a more philosophically sophisticated sociology. From the vantage point of Rose, this particular account of a 'philosophical sociology' remains abstract and rooted in the neo-Kantian contradictions that continue to characterize sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  3. Fifty years of sociological leadership at Social Science and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Stefan; Tietbohl, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    In this review article, we examine some of the conceptual contributions of sociology of health and illness over the past fifty years. Specifically, we focus on research dealing with medicalization, the management of stigma, research on adherence and compliance, and patient-doctor interaction. We show how these themes that originated within sociology, diffused in other disciplines. Sociology in Social Science and Medicine started as an applied research tradition but morphed into a robust, stand-alone social science tradition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bringing the immigrant back into the sociology of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Krishnendu

    2017-12-01

    The sociology of food consumption has emerged as a robust field with rich empirical material and engaged theorization about taste, omnivorousness, distinction, and practice theory. Nevertheless, there are continuing empirical and conceptual lacunae. Although transnational and rural-to-urban migrants play a crucial role in food businesses in many global cities, they are mostly unaccounted for in the sociology of taste. Taking the American case, in particular based on data from New York City, this article provides reasons for that gap and shows what might be gained if migrants were accounted for in the urban sociology of taste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence and canonical supremacy: an analysis of how George Herbert Mead demoted Charles Horton Cooley in the sociological canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    This analysis assesses the factors underlying Charles Horton Cooley's place in the sociological canon as they relate to George Herbert Mead's puzzling diatribe-echoed in secondary accounts-against Cooley's social psychology and view of the self published scarcely a year after his death. The illocutionary act of publishing his critique stands as an effort to project the image of Mead's intellectual self and enhance his standing among sociologists within and outside the orbit of the University of Chicago. It expressed Mead's ambivalence toward his precursor Cooley, whose influence he never fully acknowledged. In addition, it typifies the contending fractal distinctions of the scientifically discursive versus literary styles of Mead and Cooley, who both founded the interpretive sociological tradition. The contrasting styles and attitudes toward writing of the two figures are discussed, and their implications for the problems of scale that have stymied the symbolic interactionist tradition are explored.

  6. Towards a Comprehensive Socio-Psychological Perspective: A Critique of Social Dominance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tunçgenç, Bahar

    2010-01-01

    Psychology aims to understand human cognition and behavior, which necessitates making use of sociological-political theories. Social Dominance Theory (SDT) is one of the psychological theories that try to explain the individual-society relationship from a broad perspective. Yet, this theory has its shortcomings too. In an attempt to contribute to a well-grounded theory for psychological research, the paper at hand will discuss the shortcomings of SDT. The main discussion concerns following ap...

  7. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  8. An Environmental Sociology for the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Attention to the relationship between nature and society has been a defining feature of environmental sociology since its inception. Early research, incorporating insights from ecology, argued for the need to (1) theorize the causal connections between nature and society and (2) contextualize those connections in terms of biophysical limits resulting from resource scarcity. Over the past two decades, partly in response to new forms of existential threat such as climate change, the treatment of nature and society as distinct entities has given way to a focus on socio-natural assemblages. Using the Anthropocene as a lens to explore this emerging view, it is argued (1) that current theorizing on the socio-natural assemblage needs to pay more attention to the issues of temporality and complexity, (2) that taking these factors into account reconceptualizes the nature-society relationship as a complex, evolving socio-natural assemblage, (3) that this evolutionary process needs to be understood in the context of cosmic evolution and the tension between entropy and the emergence of local complexity, and (4) that constraints on human development arise from the tension between these two tendencies, not from resource scarcity. An environmental sociology for the Anthropocene, one based on assumptions about the nature of causal dynamics and context consistent with our understanding of current earth system science, is proposed. L'attention portée à la relation entre la nature et la société a été un trait caractéristique de la sociologie de l'environnement depuis sa création. La recherche initiale, intégrant les connaissances de l'écologie, a soutenu la nécessité de (1) théoriser les liens causaux entre la nature et la société et (2) contextualiser ces connexions en termes de limites biophysiques résultant de la pénurie de ressources. Au cours des deux derniéres décennies, en partie en réponse à de nouvelles formes de menace existentielle telles que le

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GIFTED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Nikola Stankovska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giftedness is a multidimensional phenomenon that despite numerous studies and different approaches remains underexplored. It is known that there is different views about gifted children in psychological theory and practice. Giftedness represents general intellectual ability, general creative ability, productive and creative ability, the sum of specific skills, the ability of thinking, specific area of intelligence and creativity.Gifted child is a child who has above average skills and specific characteristics, which play an important role in the growth, development and education of these children. Researchers confirm the importance of early socialization, family and the primary teachers in the continually development of the gifted child on intellectual, social, emotional and somatic plan.It is known that e gifted child has specific characteristics and properties, such as originality, individuality, emotional stability, a high degree of intellectual capacity, independence, verbal fluency, perfectionism.Development and manifestation of creativity in gifted children depends of their cognitive component, personality traits, motivation. Gifted child early showed a specific interest in a particular area.This kind of child has a positive self-image, high self-esteem, self-confidence, high goals, a sense of self-worth, greater independence which manifests across the non-conformism and initiative.Every child deserves the special attention of parents, school and society, especially a gifted child which is a child with special needs about their average ability and special educational needs.

  10. What Is a Child? Children's Perceptions, the Cambridge Primary Review and Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Debate about the definition of a "child" occurs in multi-disciplinary contexts, most recently located in the new sociology of childhood where social constructionism is the dominant discourse. Given that the child's voice has become an increasingly valued component of research, this paper reports on one aspect of a study which explored…

  11. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Simona; Emer, Alessandra; Martini, Laura; Rigo, Paola; Pruner, Sonia; Venuti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  12. Teaching Sociology of Education in Canada: A Comparative Study of the "Two Solitudes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the fields of sociology of education and Canadian sociological teaching. English and French Canadian sociology of education course outlines were systematically analysed in order to assess how national context, language and internal divisions influence the undergraduate teaching of sociology of education. The…

  13. Global Interconnectedness and Multiculturalism in Undergraduate Sociology Courses in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to explain a process of inserting global transnational elements into an undergraduate sociology course. After a review of global themes covered in introductory sociology textbooks, the author administered two projects (Global Multiculturalism and Sociology of Wal-Mart) in an undergraduate sociology course. The current study…

  14. Herding, social influence and economic decision-making: socio-psychological and neuroscientific analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2010-01-27

    Typically, modern economics has steered away from the analysis of sociological and psychological factors and has focused on narrow behavioural assumptions in which expectations are formed on the basis of mathematical algorithms. Blending together ideas from the social and behavioural sciences, this paper argues that the behavioural approach adopted in most economic analysis, in its neglect of sociological and psychological forces and its simplistically dichotomous categorization of behaviour as either rational or not rational, is too narrow and stark. Behaviour may reflect an interaction of cognitive and emotional factors and this can be captured more effectively using an approach that focuses on the interplay of different decision-making systems. In understanding the mechanisms affecting economic and financial decision-making, an interdisciplinary approach is needed which incorporates ideas from a range of disciplines including sociology, economic psychology, evolutionary biology and neuroeconomics.

  15. The Challenges of Teaching and Learning Sociology of Religion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    proper learning, training and research in Sociological theories, Research. Methods in ... There is need to shade light on the basic terms used in the title of this paper. ..... examination of their theses and dissertations are frustrating due to the.

  16. Standardization in measurement philosophical, historical and sociological issues

    CERN Document Server

    Schlaudt, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The application of standard measurement is a cornerstone of modern science. In this collection of essays, standardization of procedure, units of measurement and the epistemology of standardization are addressed by specialists from sociology, history and the philosophy of science.

  17. Evolutionary epistemology, rationality, and the sociology of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bartley, W W

    1993-01-01

    This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.

  18. Three General Theoretical Models in Sociology: An Articulated ?(Disunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís García-Pereiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After merely a brief, comparative reconstruction of the three most general theoretical models underlying contemporary Sociology (atomic, systemic, and fluid it becomes necessary to review the question about the unity or plurality of Sociology, which is the main objective of this paper. To do so, the basic terms of the question are firstly updated by following the hegemonic trends in current studies of science. Secondly the convergences and divergences among the three models discussed are shown. Following some additional discussion, the conclusion is reached that contemporary Sociology is not unitary, and need not be so. It is plural, but its plurality is limited and articulated by those very models. It may therefore be portrayed as integrated and commensurable, to the extent that a partial and unstable (disunity may be said to exist in Sociology, which is not too far off from what happens in the natural sciences.

  19. THE CULTURE AND ARTS ORGANIZATION: MACRO-SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rasimovna Pashaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The subject of research is reputation policy and communication technologies in  macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The target is the research the effects of macro-sociological aspect in the activities of such organization. In the study were used such methods of research: theoretical study and  synthesis; quantative method of elicitation: questionnaire; information processing methods of primary analysis; interpretation. The results of research can be applied in the activities of different culture and arts organization. The research identified the negative and positive tendencies in the context of the macro-sociological aspect.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-49

  20. Sociology and Complexity Science A New Field of Inquiry

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This book is the first to identify and review the new field of study, sociology and complexity science—or SACS for short. SACS is comprised of five cutting-edge areas of research: computational sociology, the British-based School of Complexity (BBC), complex social network analysis (CSNA), sociocybernetics and the Luhmann School of Complexity (LSC). Together, these five areas represent the latest development in complexity science and sociological systems thinking, offering researchers a powerful, new set of tools for addressing the growing complexity of sociological inquiry. This book also showcases a new method for modeling social systems, called the SACS Toolkit. The SACS Toolkit comes with a theoretical framework (social complexity theory), procedural algorithm (assemblage) and recommended toolset for modeling social systems (qualitatively, historically or numerically) from the ground-up. In fact, this book uses the SACS Toolkit to review the new field of SACS. The third feature of this book is its compe...

  1. Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of translation in development contexts in Africa. ... Abstract. Drawing from Game Theory, the article conceptualises language practice as games, that is ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Johann Graaff. What is Sociology? Cape Town. Oxford University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, R; Strijker, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    The representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs, a specific kind of semantic network, is discussed. Knowledge it systematically searched this reveals. inconsistencies, reducing superfluous research and knowledge, and showing gaps in a theory. This representation

  4. [Margot Jefferys: the British voice of medical sociology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2011-03-01

    Margot Jefferys (1916-1999) was not only the person who introduced medical sociology into Great Britain, but also the researcher and professor who, during thirty years, exerted the most deep influence on the teaching of health social sciences either in undergraduate or especially graduate studies, since the beginning of her career, in 1953, at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. In addition to create a global panorama concerning the Jefferys' works, this study highlights two texts, which are situated into the field we are researching: the history of health sociology. The first one, published in 1991, discusses the relationships between epidemiology and sociology; and the second, published in 1996, discusses the field of medical sociology. Both texts are a series of considerations regarding the Jefferys' thought and the more recent questions of the field in Great Britain.

  5. What has become of critique? Reassembling sociology after Latour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Tom

    2017-09-06

    This paper offers a defence of sociology through an engagement with Actor Network Theory (ANT) and particularly the critique of 'critical' and politically engaged social science developed by Bruno Latour. It argues that ANT identifies some weaknesses in more conventional sociology and social theory, and suggests that 'critical' and 'public' orientated sociologists can learn from the analytical precision and ethnographic sensibilities that characterize ANT as a framework of analysis and a research programme. It argues, however, that Latour et al. have too hastily dispensed with 'critique' in favour of a value neutral descriptive sociology, and that the symmetrical and horizontalist approach adopted in ANT is particularly ill-suited to the development of scientific knowledge about social structures. It argues that a more straightforwardly realist sociology would share many of the strengths of ANT whilst being better able to interrogate, empirically and normatively, the centres of contemporary social power. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  6. Sociología y alimentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Méndez, Cecilia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents briefly the relationship between sociology and food matters. In the first place, we point out some of the reasons by which we might explain why sociology has only lately started to systematically tackle this aspect of social life and we also point out what conditions have brought about this recent interest of this discipline in food. Secondly, we include an outline of the attention paid to food by some of the most important sociology scholars. Then we present an outline of the main theories underlying food sociology (and anthropology and we end up with a proposal to define the field of food sociology, starting from the analysis of the content of some of the most important current works on the sociology of food.

    En este trabajo, se exponen las relaciones entre la sociología y el fenómeno alimentario. En primer lugar, se apuntan algunas de las razones que podrían explicar el retraso con que la sociología se ha ocupado de forma sistemática de este ámbito de la vida social y las condiciones que han despertado el interés reciente de esta disciplina por el fenómeno alimentario. En segundo lugar, se presenta un esquema de la atención prestada por los clásicos de la sociología a la alimentación, de modo que se pueda contrastar la naturaleza de esta atención con el análisis sociológico actual. En tercer lugar, se presenta un esquema de las principales orientaciones teóricas que han marcado la sociología (y la antropología de la alimentación, para terminar con una propuesta de definición del campo de la sociología de la alimentación a partir de la consideración de los contenidos de algunos textos actuales de este campo de estudio.

  7. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  8. Sociological and ethical issues in transplant commercialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Miran

    2009-04-01

    'Global transplant commercialism' (practices and policies involving international trade in organs from living vendors, e.g., 'transplant tourism') is currently subjected to unprecedented criticism. In parallel, the debate around 'local transplant commercialism' (practices and policies that confine trade in organs from living vendors to national markets or economic unions) is heating up. In an attempt to assess the potential outcomes of these trends, this article reviews and discusses some sociological and ethical issues, ending with a proposal for a reinvigorated anticommercialist strategy. The current international campaign against global transplant commercialism is conducted by an ad hoc alliance between strange bedfellows, proponents of local transplant commercialism on the one hand and opponents of any transplant commercialism on the other. Disparities in the rigor of the respective ethical discourses, the expanding list of precedents of legitimized commerce in the human body, and the political economy of transplantation, all suggest that the former have the upper hand. Recent achievements in the struggle against international organ trafficking may not herald the abolition of transplant commercialism but rather presage its reconfiguration in deglobalized forms. In light of such a prospect, those who wish to prevent the pervasive commodification of the human body from entering the gates of transplant medicine should consider devising a new, perhaps more radical, strategy.

  9. The History and Sociology of Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Veselov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history and sociology of food in the context of discussion about Boris Mironov’s monograph, “The Russian Empire: From Tradition to Modernity.” According to Veselov, Mironov was among the first researchers to study nutrition in Russian history. For the first time in Russian historiography, he analyzed the fundamentally important questions of the nutrition of all social classes in the period of the Empire from the point of view of quantity, quality, and conformity with the physiological needs of human beings. Veselov considers that Mironov’s approach has an integrative and systematic character. It is not limited to the study of cultural practices and rituals, or to the symbolic meanings of food. Mironov also analyzes what, when, and how much people ate, evaluates the adequacy of nutrition, its impact on human health and labor efficiency, and also the modernization of consumption. Veselov suggests that Mironov’s findings, according to which the nutrition of the urban and rural population in the Imperial period was more or less satisfactory, are thoroughly and convincingly substantiated, and that this became possible due to the fact that the modernization of consumption and production of food products took place in close interaction.

  10. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  11. G. H. Mead in the History of Sociological Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Filipe Carreira da

    2006-01-01

    My aim is to discuss the history of the reception of George Herbert Mead’s ideas in sociology. After discussing the methodological debate between presentism and historicism, I address the interpretations of those responsible for Mead’s inclusion in the sociological canon: Herbert Blumer, Jürgen Habermas, and Hans Joas. In the concluding section, I as- sess these reconstructions of Mead’s thought and suggest an alternative more consistent with my initial methodological remarks. In particular, ...

  12. PHENOMENOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF BIOETHICAL REALITY (THE SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulina Marina Alekseevna

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of social reality is a classical problem of sociology, which solution helps perception and understanding of social phenomena. In the article phenomenological interpretation of bioethical reality is shown. Phenomenological sociology, being one of the perspective directions of development of social knowledge, it is characterized by aspiration to show «artificial», that is designed, nature of bioethical reality, its semantic structure, and thus, to «humanize» bioethical realit...

  13. The Hidden Battle that Shaped the History of Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    This article engages the so far neglected intellectual dispute between Emile Durkheim and Arnold van Gennep. It revisits the most salient points of van Gennep’s critique of Durkheim’s sociology, especially as relates to the study of religion. In this context, the article also discusses the possible...... influence of van Gennep’s work on Marcel Mauss. The article ends by indicating why a revisitation of van Gennep’s critique of Durkheim might matter for contemporary sociology....

  14. A sociological Analysis on the Modes of Science Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani Khorasgani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was sociological Analysis on the modes of science, survey of new Approaches in this context, description of available Approaches relevant to Application of Indigenous paradigm in prodvetion of knowledge and conclusion to attain imitated Approaches from Analysis and mentioned discussions for planning in space of science production in society of Iran. After Analysis of propound Approaches in sociology of science concreted that sociology of science three generation transitioned yet : classic sociology of science (OSS [ Theories of Merton ] , New sociology of science ( NSS [Theories of Thomas kuhn and others ] and Third generation sociology of science that consisted of non - Marxist composinal and processive Approaches for example: Actor - Network theory (ANT, Triple Helix Theory life eyeles, mode 2 and Mode 3. On the other hand , because science production is encompass process in social structures and social communications , allowance for Analysis of Recent Development in mode of science production , three paradigm Analysis and critiqued titles mode 1 , 2 , 3 production of knowledge . Also, Application of Indigenous paradigm studied in production of knowledge and introduced two groups: A - External Approaches B - Internal Approaches that each of two groups propounded Ideas relevant to Indigenous knowledge and Indigenization of knowledge. In the final section, mode an efforted to answered this question that what doctrines can be concluded from these discourse in order to improve the conditions in Iran.

  15. Reduction of risk factors for nuclear power plants due to personnel psychological data, including attitude, morale and motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities of reduction of risk factors for personnel activity and performance due to attitudes, motivation and moral are presented. Methodology and experience in psychology, sociopsychology, psychophisiology and sociology mistake sources are discussed. Authorization to job, stages of estimating occupational fitness and modules system of personnel psychological and sociopsychological training probabilistic are explained. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  16. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  17. A sociological stance on fatigue and tiredness: Social inequalities, norms and representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriol, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Fatigue is complex, representing simultaneously a physiological, psychological and social phenomenon. The sociological approach attempts to understand the experience of fatigue and its characterization at diverse periods and in various social contexts. After giving a sociological history of different forms of fatigue through the ages (acedia, melancholy, neurasthenia, chronic fatigue syndrome, etc.), this article proposes a social epidemiology of fatigue in the current period. Objectification of working and living conditions allows us to illustrate social inequalities in fatigue and exhaustion, but seems to contradict dominant social representations of fatigue today. It invites a critical discussion of contemporary theories of fatigue (such those of Alain Ehrenberg or Byung-Chul Han), which consider that fatigue is a condition of modern man, overwhelmed by his freedom. More modestly, analysis of the fatigue presented here rests on the capacity to be able to find a good balance between too much investment in work or life (which is exhausting) and not enough investment (which leads to boredom and lack of self-fulfillment). This balance depends on fragile and specific social norms in different professional or social circles and cannot be defined a priori. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sociological researches in the region of Ignalina nuclear power plant: stages and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiuzhas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The article examines the sociological researches made by the scientific researchers of the Lithuanian Institute of Philosophy and Sociology during the period of 1989-1997. The investigation in this region was started on the eve of Lithuanian independence restoration. The scientists wanted to find out the integration problems and difficulties of Visaginas population to the transformational life of Lithuania. Another reason of the research set for the first time in Lithuania was the investigation of the attitudes of Visaginas inhabitants to the influence of Ignalina NPP upon people and environment, economic and social development. In 1993 the research was started in accordance with the State's program T he Atomic Energetic and Environment a nd last up to 1997. It included three stages. In the first place the examination of the experts a survey about the evaluation of living environment, ecological and social state was done. The second stage surveyed the work conditions and the social psychological atmosphere in the Ignalina NPP. The investigation of the living and activity conditions of the regional population was done in the third stage. (author)

  19. Sociología de la salud en México Medical Sociology in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Castro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se realiza un análisis del campo de la sociología médica en México en los últimos 30 años. Se inicia con una descripción de las tres escuelas que fundaron el campo en este país: a la antropología médica, de larga tradición en este país, anclada en la Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia, el Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas (UNAM, y el Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social;b la medicina social, impulsada principalmente desde la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, y que tuvo como punto de partida la creación de la Maestría en Medicina Social en 1975; y c la sociología de la salud pública, impulsada desde el Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública a partir de su fundación en 1987. Tras revisar los principales aportes de cada corriente, así como los debates más importantes que tuvieron lugar entre ellas –y que sirvieron para delimitar el espacio de acción e influencia de cada una– se describen los desarrollos más trascendentes en este campo, mismos que contribuyeron a desarrollar la “segunda generación” de la sociología médica mexicana. Dentro de esta segunda generación, se señalan las principales contribuciones de orden teórico, metodológico y sustantivo. Éstas últimas, a su vez, se dividen en áreas específicas: salud reproductiva, violencia contra las mujeres, subjetividad y salud, y políticas, práctica médica y utilización de servicios de salud.

    In this paper the field of medical sociology in México during the last 30 years is analyzed. First, a description is made of the three founding schools in this country: a the tradition of medical anthropology, based on the National School of Anthropology and History, the Institute of Anthropological Research (National Autonomous University of Mexico, and the Center of Research and Graduate Studies in Social Anthropology; b the tradition of social medicine, prompted by the

  20. The False Consensus Bias as Applied to Psychologically Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Lillian M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twelve adolescents who described themselves as depressed or suicidal and 43 nondisturbed adolescents read article about child's suicidal or viral illness death. Both groups viewed suicidal child and family more negatively than family and child with viral illness. Consistent with false consensus hypothesis, psychologically disturbed adolescents…