WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychology psychological testing

  1. Psychological Test Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psychological test.

  2. Psychological Test Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Gessmann H.-W.; Sheronov E.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psycholo...

  3. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  4. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  5. Psychological testing of the psychiatrically injured worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, E S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide the occupational health worker with an overview of psychological testing, including the rationale for utilizing psychological testing, the psychometric foundations of psychological tests, the types of psychological tests, and the issues related to the psychological assessment of work-related psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Criminal tendencies and psychological testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobchik L. N.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods of psychological diagnostics closer to the psychology main research areas, which involve measuring the accuracy and statistical reliability. A set of methods that includes questionnaires should be complemented with projective tests in which the stimulus material is verbal in nature. The article presents the results of surveys of different groups of persons in conflict with the law, as well as screening tests contingent of youth groups and adolescents. High performance, spontaneously manifested aggressiveness, traits, emotional immaturity, low self-control and primitive-the requirement of the hierarchy of values at statistically significant level are identified in the data psychodiagnostic study, thus allowing to allocate the risk of wrongful conduct and to develop preventive measures of psycho-pedagogical and social nature. Psychological testing is an effective tool in the study of criminal predisposici and gives the key to a science-based approach in the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing crime.

  7. Standards for educational and psychological testing

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and employment. It includes changes in federal law and measurement trends affecting validity, testing individuals with disabilities or different linguistic backgrounds, and new types of tests, as well as new uses of existing tests.

  8. The GRE Psychology Test: A Useful but Poorly Understood Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.; Matlin, Margaret W.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Psychology test focusing on the scoring system for the GRE Psychology test, who prepares the test and how the test is prepared, and the usefulness of the GRE Psychology test. Explores some future directions for the test. (CMK)

  9. Video Games as Psychological Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marshall B.

    1984-01-01

    Briefly describes the characteristics of video games and discusses some advantages and disadvantages of their use to measure individual abilities. Relevant research is cited in the areas of stabilization with practice, predictive testing, performance testing, testing under extreme conditions, testing brain-injured persons, and differential…

  10. Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer: Psychological and Social Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic testing for breast cancer: Psychological and social impact Genetic testing to estimate breast and ovarian cancer risk may prompt many emotional and psychological reactions. How will getting the news that you' ...

  11. Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 2014 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2014

    2014-01-01

    Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and…

  12. Psychodiagnostic Testing in APA-Approved Clinical Psychology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris; Keller, John W.

    The utility and popularity of psychodiagnostic testing has been investigated in applied clinical settings, but little data exist concerning academicians' attitudes toward psychological testing. To assess attitudes toward psychodiagnostic training in doctoral, clinical psychology programs, all fully APA-approved (American Psychological Association)…

  13. Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 2014 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2014

    2014-01-01

    Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and…

  14. Using sport psychology in simulator testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primeau, T. [Bruce Power, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chandler, K. [Sport and Exercise Psychology Consulting, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The paper will cover the methods of simulator testing at Bruce Power and the recent trial of using a sport psychology consultant to help candidates deal with the mental, physiological and emotional responses to simulator examinations. Previous research has shown that mental skills training can enhance the performance of both cognitive and physical skills. As such, it was hypothesized that a structured mental skills program would assist candidates in achieving optimal performance during simulator testing. The paper will be written as a descriptive piece. The paper will offer insight into the benefits of using mental skills training in preparation for simulator testing and the drawbacks as experienced by the Authorized Nuclear Operator (ANO). (author)

  15. Slovenian psychologists about the use of psychological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Boben

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The Committee for Psychological Tests of the Slovenian Psychological Association (SPA is participating actively in the work of the Task Force for Tests and Testing of the European Federation of Professional Psychological Associations (EFPPA. This task force developed the questionnaire on tests and testing for psychologists, members of the national associations in the European states, which are members of EFPPA. 321 psychologists answered the questionnaire in Slovenia. We have collected the opinions of psychologists about various topics regarding the use of psychological tests: knowledge and competence, legal standards and control, missuse and abuse of tests and testing, testing procedures and their limitations, significance of tests and testing etc. In addition, psychologists named three psychological tests they use most frequently. The respondents also provided useful commentaries on test use. In our study, Slovenian results are also compared with answers of psychologists in Great Britain, Spain, Croatia and Germany.

  16. Foundations of Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Sandra A.; Miller, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    The second edition of "Foundations of Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach" is a text for undergraduate students new to the field of psychological testing. Using a conversational format, the authors aim to prepare students to be informed consumers as test users or test takers. Features new to the second edition include: (1) New Content; (2)…

  17. Impact of the Psychological Testing Assessment System (SATEPSI) for Scientific Publications in Psychological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur-Alves,Marcela; Silva, Renata Saldanha; Fernandes,Sthefanie Carvalho de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The strengthening of psychological assessment in Brazil in the twenty-first century can be understood as a result of the foundation of Psychological Test Evaluation System (SATEPSI, its Portuguese acronym) by Resolution 02/2003 of the Federal Council of Psychology. In this sense, the present study aimed to describe the impact of SATEPSI for research in the area. A survey of Brazilian researchers' publications was conducted in two periods in SciELO and BVS-Psi databases - 1993-2002 an...

  18. Psychological Testing: Trends in Masters-Level Counseling Psychology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris; Keller, John W.

    1984-01-01

    A survey that investigated the status of psychodiagnostic testing in masters level counseling (terminal) programs showed that whereas the majority of respondents felt that masters graduates should be familiar with projective techniques such as the Rorschach and TAT, few advocated projectives personality asessment as part of the required…

  19. The empirical foundations of psychoanalytic approaches to psychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L S

    1990-01-01

    The view that psychoanalytic approaches to psychological testing lack empirical foundations is disputed by systematically examining the ways in which psychoanalytic theory expands the sources of data available to the psychological tester at each step in the assessment process. The contention is made that it is unscientific to restrict the concept of what constitutes scientific rigor to formal experimentation with statistical analysis.

  20. The new Medical College Admission Test: Implications for teaching psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Karen; Lewis, Richard S; Satterfield, Jason; Hong, Barry A

    2016-01-01

    This year's applicants to medical school took a newly revised version of the Medical College Admission Test. Unlike applicants in the past, they were asked to demonstrate their knowledge and use of concepts commonly taught in introductory psychology courses. The new Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior Test asked applicants to demonstrate the ways in which psychological, social, and biological factors influence perceptions and reactions to the world; behavior and behavior change; what people think about themselves and others; the cultural and social differences that influence well-being; and the relationships among social stratification, access to resources, and well-being. Building from the classic biopsychosocial model, this article provides the rationale for testing psychology concepts in application to medical school. It describes the concepts and skills that the new exam tests and shows how they lay the foundation for learning in medical school about the behavioral and sociocultural determinants of health. This article discusses the implications of these changes for undergraduate psychology faculty and psychology curricula as well as their importance to the profession of psychology at large.

  1. Stressful events and psychological difficulties : Testing alternative candidates for sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364227885; O'Donnell, Kieran; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Ormel, Johan; Van Aken, Marcel A G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/081831218; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal, reciprocal associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties from early childhood to mid-adolescence. Child age, sex, prenatal maternal anxiety, and difficult temperament were tested as sources of sensitivity, that is, factors that

  2. Stressful events and psychological difficulties : testing alternative candidates for sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; O'Donnell, Kieran; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Ormel, Johan; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal, reciprocal associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties from early childhood to mid-adolescence. Child age, sex, prenatal maternal anxiety, and difficult temperament were tested as sources of sensitivity, that is, factors that

  3. Stressful events and psychological difficulties: testing alternative candidates for sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceulle, Odilia M; O'Donnell, Kieran; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Ormel, Johan; van Aken, Marcel A G; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-02-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal, reciprocal associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties from early childhood to mid-adolescence. Child age, sex, prenatal maternal anxiety, and difficult temperament were tested as sources of sensitivity, that is, factors that may make children more sensitive to stressful life events. Analyses were based on data from 10,417 children from a prospective, longitudinal study of child development. At ages 4, 7, 9, 11, and 16 years, stressful events and psychological difficulties were measured. Prenatal anxiety was measured at 32 weeks of gestation and difficult temperament was measured at 6 months. Children exposed to stressful events showed significantly increased psychological difficulties at ages 7 and 11 years; there was consistent evidence of a reciprocal pattern: psychological difficulties predicted stressful events at each stage. Analyses also indicated that the associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties were stronger in girls than in boys. We found no evidence for the hypothesis that prenatal anxiety or difficult temperament increased stress sensitivity, that is, moderated the link between life events and psychological difficulties. The findings extend prior work on stress exposure and psychological difficulties and highlight the need for additional research to investigate sources of sensitivity and the mechanisms that might underlie differences in sensitivity to stressful events.

  4. Preoperative psychological testing--another form of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, David; Favretti, Franco; Segato, Gianni

    2008-10-01

    Preoperative psychological screening of bariatric surgery candidates has become routine, and a significant proportion of patients have their surgery deferred as a consequence. If psychological testing is being used as a form of preoperative triage, both patients and surgeons are entitled to know whether there is sufficient evidence to justify its use in this way. We define the argument for psychological screening as consisting of four premises (p1-p4) and a conclusion (C) as follows: (p1) A significant minority of obese patients will not be successful in losing weight following bariatric surgery-the "failure" group; (p2) A significant minority of patients will exhibit abnormal psychological profiles during preoperative testing; (p3) The majority of individuals referred to in (p2) will be found in group (p1) i.e., abnormal psychological profiles identified preoperatively predict less favorable weight loss outcomes postoperatively; (p4) Identifying patients with adverse psychological profiles preoperatively would allow either exclusion of those at high risk of failure or provide a more secure rationale for targeted pre- and postoperative support; (C) Psychological screening should be part of the routine preoperative assessment for patients undergoing obesity surgery. We reviewed the literature to find evidence to support the premises and show that (p1) can be justified but that (p2) is problematic and can only be accepted in a heavily qualified version. We find no evidence for (p3) and since (p4) and (C) are predicated on (p3), the argument clearly fails. There is no evidence to suggest that preoperative psychological screening can predict postoperative outcomes and no justification for using such testing as a means of discriminating between candidates presenting themselves for bariatric surgery.

  5. Testing applied in Brazilian studies in sport psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Melina Becker da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sport Psychology is one of the areas of the expertise of psychologists that makes use assessment tools. Therefore depends on the construction and validation of instruments for this population. Examine the instruments cited in this literature can help in this process. This study examined the instruments validated for the Brazilian population, cited in national articles on Sport Psychology, from 2002 to 2012. The descriptors "validation", "test", "sport", and "Psychophysiology", were crossed with descriptors "anxiety", "stress", "depression", "motivation", "leadership", "aggression," "imagination," "humor," "self-esteem", and "self-efficacy" - on the electronic bases Periódicos/CAPES, SciELO-Brazil and PubMed, in January 2013. For 38 sports and other non-competitive, six instruments translated and validated in Brazil were found, but not yet assessed / approved by the Federal Council of Psychology. The inclusion of the psychophysiological measures in the evaluation process and the validation of the instruments applied to Sport Psychology are discusses.

  6. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  7. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive psycholog

  8. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  9. An Unassisted Method of Psychological Testing of Visually Impaired Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of a testing technique which might meet the need for a standardized, validated, and objective means of psychologically testing people with visual or reading impairments is reported. The test is intended to be administered via an audiocassette, with identical administration and response procedures for totally and partially…

  10. Psychological Testing of Black People; A Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Harold E.; Williams, Robert L.

    The psychological testing of blacks and other minorities inflicts dehumanization upon them by subjecting them to culturally-biased examinations. These tests are defended on "scientific" grounds, although it is evident that they are simply a form of institutionalized racism. Standardized tests of intelligence reflect a middle-class white bias that…

  11. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Rosenberg, Sharyn L.; Koons, Heather H.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of validity reflected in a large and diverse sample of published measures used in educational and psychological testing contexts. The current edition of "Mental Measurements Yearbook" served as the data source for this study. The validity aspects investigated included perspective on validity represented, number and…

  12. Computerized adaptive testing in industrial and organizational psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makransky, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The overarching goal of this dissertation is to increase the precision and efficiency of the measurement tools that are used to make selection decisions in industrial/organizational psychology, by introducing psychometric innovations in the framework of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Chapter 1

  13. Psychological Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Flohrer, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Instilling psychological empowerment in employees is one of the most important tasks of modern leadership. Building on quantitative research and the development of a new psychometric scale related to project management this thesis shows: First, individuals' characteristics and their work team environment influence perceptions of access to information and resources – two important antecedents of psychological empowerment. Second, while a project briefing strengthens the link of the psychologic...

  14. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  15. Contemporary ethical challenges in industrial psychological testing in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Phil. (Industrial Psychology) Psychometric testing in South Africa faces many challenges at present. Among these challenges is the fact that many individuals utilising psychometric tests are not professionally registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The key objective of this qualitative study was to gain a better understanding of the contemporary ethical challenges in psychometric testing in South Africa. A total of ten industrial psychologists participated in the...

  16. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  17. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  18. Executive function on the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Brian J; Li, Victoria; Eiwaz, Massarra A; Kobel, Yuliyana V; Benice, Ted S; Chu, Alex M; Olsen, Reid H J; Rice, Douglas Z; Gray, Hilary M; Mueller, Shane T; Raber, Jacob

    2012-03-01

    The measurement of executive function has a long history in clinical and experimental neuropsychology. The goal of the present report was to determine the profile of behavior across the lifespan on four computerized measures of executive function contained in the recently developed Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) test battery http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ and evaluate whether this pattern is comparable to data previously obtained with the non-PEBL versions of these tests. Participants (N = 1,223; ages, 5-89 years) completed the PEBL Trail Making Test (pTMT), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (pWCST; Berg, Journal of General Psychology, 39, 15-22, 1948; Grant & Berg, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 404-411, 1948), the Tower of London (pToL), or a time estimation task (Time-Wall). Age-related effects were found over all four tests, especially as age increased from young childhood through adulthood. For several tests and measures (including pToL and pTMT), age-related slowing was found as age increased in adulthood. Together, these findings indicate that the PEBL tests provide valid and versatile new research tools for measuring executive functions.

  19. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not interest

  20. The Individual Differences Tradition in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawis, Rene V.

    1992-01-01

    Traces historical development from individual differences psychology through psychological testing, vocational counseling, and student personnel work, to counseling psychology. Describes individual differences tradition in counseling psychology research and practice. Discusses how individual differences psychology has influenced counseling…

  1. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study associations between pregnant women's knowledge of prenatal screening and decisional conflict in deciding whether to participate in first trimester screening for Down's syndrome in a setting of required informed consent and to study associations between knowledge and personal...... level of knowledge for the pregnant women making choices about participation in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome in order to improve psychological management of test decisions. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  2. Psychology and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  3. Psychological testing and the German labor market, 1925 to 1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskill, David

    2015-11-01

    From the 1920s to the 1950s, the massive German Labor Administration used loosely standardized, pragmatic evaluations of personality to steer young people into appropriate jobs. Starting in the late 1950s, the Administration shifted to American scientific methods of trait and factor psychological testing. Behind this change lay not a change in academic psychology but a power shift in the German labor market. Originally, the Labor Administration had to appeal to employers, for whom pragmatic evaluations of personality seemed most convincing. Thanks to the Economic Miracle in the 1950s, the Administration had to gain the trust of young Germans, their parents, and the public, who, it was hoped, would be won over by science.

  4. Affirmative Psychological Testing and Neurocognitive Assessment with Transgender Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo-Meier, Colton L; Fitzgerald, Kara M

    2017-03-01

    Neither consensus on best practice nor validated neuropsychological, intelligence, or personality testing batteries exist for assessment and psychological testing on the transgender population. Historically, assessment has been used in a gate-keeping fashion with transgender clients. There are no firm standards of care when considering the content and appropriateness of evaluations conducted presurgically. These evaluations are discussed in the setting of other presurgical evaluations, with a recommendation to move toward a competency to make a medical decisions model. Additional considerations are discussed, such as effects of transition on mood and how to interpret scores in a field where normative data are often gender stratified.

  5. Handbook of Psychodiagnostic Testing: Analysis of Personality in the Psychological Report. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, Henry; Burry, Anthony

    This handbook offers psychology students, as well as professional psychologists, a central resource for the construction and organization of psychological test reports. It aims to help the reader conceptualize the theory of psychological report development by examining the integration of the concepts and data of personality analysis and the logic…

  6. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  7. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Patil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Education Psychology is one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines which is concerned with the description, explanation and control of the educational processes arising from the interaction between the teacher and learner in the context of a specified or unspecified subject. The concept of educational psycology is changing as a result of the general impact of the disciplines such as sociology, anthropology,economics, political science and so on. The subject matter of educational psychology is also reflecting a diversity of structures and emphases in its connection.

  8. Family-supportive work environments and psychological strain: a longitudinal test of two theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Herleman, Hailey A; Britt, Thomas W; Moore, Dewayne D; Castro, Carl A; McGurk, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JDR) model (E. Demerouti, A. B. Bakker, F. Nachreiner, & W. B. Schaufeli, 2001, The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512) and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory (S. E. Hobfoll, 2002, Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307-324), we tested three competing models that predict different directions of causation for relationships over time between family-supportive work environments (FSWE) and psychological strain, with two waves of data from a military sample. Results revealed support for both the JDR and COR theories, first in the static model where FSWE at Time 1 predicted psychological strain at Time 2 and when testing the opposite direction, where psychological strain at Time 1 predicted FSWE at Time 2. For change models, FSWE predicted changes in psychological strain across time, although the reverse causation model was not supported (psychological strain at Time 1 did not predict changes in FSWE). Also, changes in FSWE across time predicted psychological strain at Time 2, whereas changes in psychological strain did not predict FSWE at Time 2. Theoretically, these results are important for the work-family interface in that they demonstrate the application of a systems approach to studying work and family interactions, as support was obtained for both the JDR model with perceptions of FSWE predicting psychological strain (in both the static and change models), and for COR theory where psychological strain predicts FSWE across time.

  9. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  10. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  11. Psychology Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderssen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…

  12. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  13. Psychological testing and treatment implications: we can say more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bram, Anthony D

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists invest considerable time and labor in psychological testing and report writing. Patients and families expose vulnerabilities and make a significant financial and time investment in the hope that testing will make a difference in treatment. Frequently, though, handling of treatment implications in reports is generic, which might not justify the time, expense, and emotional investment involved in the evaluation. As diagnosticians, we have the responsibility and potential to contribute more meaningfully to the work of our referring colleagues and the treatment of the patients we assess. I review the psychotherapy research literature to highlight evidence-based findings that can serve as guideposts in formulating treatment implications. Subsequently, I illustrate how we can use test data to make nuanced inferences about therapeutic alliance, potential resistances, likely transferences and countertransferences, and conceptualizing treatment on the supportive-expressive continuum.

  14. Time-frequency Representations Application in Psychological Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIZ Romulus

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A psychological test is a test that is designed to measure one aspect of human behavior. These tests are usually designed to evaluate a person’s ability to complete tasks that were individual's performance on certain tasks that have usually been requested in advance. Usually a test score is used to compare with other results to measure the individual’s performance regarding cognitive ability, aptitude, personality, etc. One such test is the so called “finger tapping” test, designed to measure the integrity of the neuromuscular system and examine motor control. There are several ways to perform such a test. The purpose of this paper isn’t to study the finger tapping test which is well documented in the literature, but to develop if possible a simple way of performing such a test. Using the method presented in the paper a nonstationary signal was obtained and it was analyzed using the Short-time Fourier time frequency representation to obtain the signals frequency and its variation in time. The results presented in the paper show that this method can be used to perform the test and the frequency and spatial amplitude of the obtained tapping signal can be determined easily.

  15. Cultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Steven J; Ruby, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Humans are a cultural species, constantly navigating a complex web of culturally bound practices, norms, and worldviews. This article provides a brief overview of the relatively young field of cultural psychology, which investigates the many ways psychology and culture interweave with one another. Highlighting the cultural nature of the human species, it draws upon research on cultural evolution, enculturation, and developmental processes. This review further summarizes a number of cultural differences in how people perceive the self, and the behavioral consequences that follow from these differences, in the domains of internal and external attribution styles, motivations for self-enhancement, approach/avoidance, primary and secondary control, as well as motivations for distinctiveness and conformity. Additionally, the review discusses research on the intersection of culture and emotion, as well as cultural differences in cognition, perception, and reasoning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Artefacts of questionnaire-based psychological testing of drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łuczak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this article is to draw attention to a significant role of social approval variable in the qustionnairebased diagnosis of drivers' psychological aptitude. Material and Methods: Three questionnaires were used: Formal Characteristics of Behavior - Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R(S and Impulsiveness Questionnaire (Impulsiveness, Venturesomeness, Empathy - IVE. Three groups of drivers were analyzed: professional "without crashes" (N = 46, nonprofessional "without crashes" (N = 75, and nonprofessional "with crashes" (N = 75. Results: Nonprofessional drivers "without crashes" significantly stood up against other drivers. Their personality profile, indicating a significantly utmost perseveration, emotional reactivity, neuroticism, impulsiveness and the lowest endurance did not fit in to the requirements to be met by drivers. The driver safety profile was characteristic of professional drivers (the lowest level of perseveration, impulsiveness and neuroticism and the highest level of endurance. Similar profile occurred among nonprofessional drivers - the offenders of road crashes. Compared to the nonprofessional "without crashes" group, professional drivers and offenders of road crashes were also characterized by a significantly higher score on the Lie scale, determining the need for social approval. This is likely to result from the study procedure according to which the result of professional drivers testing had an impact on a possible continuity of their job and that of nonprofessional drivers "with crashes" decided about possible recovery of the driving license. Conclusions: The variable of social approval can be a significant artifact in the study of psychological drivers' testing and reduce the reliability of the results of questionnaire methods. Med Pr 2014;65(3:373–385

  17. Psychometric and psychological effects of review on computerized fixed and adaptive tests

    OpenAIRE

    Olea Díaz, Julio; Revuelta Menéndez, Javier; Ximénez, Carmen; Abad,Francisco José

    2000-01-01

    Two computerized versions of an English vocabulary test for Spanish speakers (an adaptive and a fixed one) were applied in a Spanish sample of first-year psychology undergraduate students. The effects of test type (computer-adaptive vs. computerized-fixed) and review condition (allowed vs. not allowed) on several psychological variables were examined. Withinsubject variables were measured both before and after review to study the effects of review on the psychological and psychometric variabl...

  18. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  19. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  20. The ethical significance of diagnostic test results in psychology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefler, Gaby; Ben Shakhar, Gershon; Bilu, Yoram

    2009-03-01

    "Psychologists base the opinions contained in their recommendations, reports and diagnostic or evaluative statements including forensic testimony on information and techniques sufficient to substantiate their findings". Do expert psychodiagnosticians rely in their professional final reports on the materials and raw data obtained from test materials? How ethical are they in their professional performances? In order to answer this question, expert clinical psychologists were given batteries of psychodiagnostic tests, accompanied by one of two different types of background information, suggesting either a Borderline Personality Disorder, or a Paranoid Personality Disorder. This background information was a full and strongly suggestive story in one experiment, and a mere hypothesis in another. All conditions manifested a confirmation bias: the psychodiagnostic reports were profoundly biased by the background suggestions. The present paper focuses on a content analysis of the reports, and shows that the experts referred very little if at all to the psychodiagnostic materials they received. They were found less professional and as a result- less ethical. The ethical relevance of these findings to the teaching and training of professional psychodiagnosticians is discussed, with an emphasis on the importance of teaching students and interns in clinical psychology to base their diagnostic reports on the test data.

  1. A Short Test for the Assessment of Basic Knowledge in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Johannes; Leichner, Nikolas; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a fixed-choice test for the assessment of basic knowledge in psychology, for use with undergraduate as well as graduate students. Test content is selected based on a core concepts approach and includes a sample of concepts which are indexed most frequently in common introductory psychology textbooks. In a…

  2. A Short Test for the Assessment of Basic Knowledge in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Johannes; Leichner, Nikolas; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a fixed-choice test for the assessment of basic knowledge in psychology, for use with undergraduate as well as graduate students. Test content is selected based on a core concepts approach and includes a sample of concepts which are indexed most frequently in common introductory psychology textbooks. In a…

  3. [Psychological containment put to the test by a crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison-Curinier, Juliete; Limongi, Marc; Bocoum, Amadou

    2014-01-01

    In the first-time admission unit, psychological containment is based essentially on receivingthe patient in crisis. While the management of the crisis is inseparable from containment, the drawing up of the patient's history, centred on observation, transfer and the clinical aspect, is a key stage in the patient's care. In an institution, the nursing team will, through its creativity, invent the care, seeking a possible alliance.

  4. A checklist to facilitate objective hypothesis testing in social psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Anthony N; Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Social psychology is not a very politically diverse area of inquiry, something that could negatively affect the objectivity of social psychological theory and research, as Duarte et al. argue in the target article. This commentary offers a number of checks to help researchers uncover possible biases and identify when they are engaging in hypothesis confirmation and advocacy instead of hypothesis testing.

  5. Structural Modeling on the Relationship between Basic Psychological Needs, Academic Engagement, and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maralani, Farnaz Mehdipour; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Hejazi, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Some of the key issues in educational psychology are the way of students' engagement at school, controlling anxiety, and academic achievement. In line with that, the purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between variables that are basic psychological needs, academic engagement, and test anxiety with regard to structural…

  6. Stress and Psychological Health: Testing the Mediating Role of Cognitive Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A Rui; Faria, Susana; Lopes, Heitor

    2016-06-21

    This study tested the mediating role of primary (e.g., threat and challenge perceptions) and secondary (e.g., coping potential and control perception) cognitive appraisal in the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health. This mediation was tested using a cross-sectional study based on self-reported measures. The total sample consisted of 2,302 nurses, 1,895 females (82.3%) and 407 males (17.7%), who completed an evaluation protocol with measures of occupational stress, cognitive appraisal, and psychological health. To test the mediating role of cognitive appraisal in the relationship between cognitive appraisal and psychological health, we used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results confirmed that primary and secondary cognitive appraisals partially mediated the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health; however, the direct effects of stress on psychological health cannot be ignored. The findings indicated that cognitive appraisal is an important underlying mechanism in explaining adaptation at work.

  7. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also addresses the future of psychology in Africa and the world over. ... simultaneous item bias test and logistic discriminant function analysis for detecting ... Types of examination malpractice as perceived by teachers of secondary schools in ...

  8. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  9. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  10. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  11. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  12. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  13. Neighborhood disorder, sleep quality, and psychological distress: testing a model of structural amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terrence D; Burdette, Amy M; Hale, Lauren

    2009-12-01

    Using data from the 2004 Survey of Texas Adults (n=1504), we examine the association between perceived neighborhood disorder and psychological distress. Building on previous research, we test whether the effect of neighborhood disorder is mediated and moderated by sleep quality. Our specific analytic strategy follows a two-stage theoretical model of structural amplification. In the first stage, perceptions of neighborhood disorder increase psychological distress indirectly by reducing sleep quality. In the second stage, the effect of neighborhood disorder on psychological distress is amplified by poor sleep quality. The results of our analyses are generally consistent with our theoretical model. We find that neighborhood disorder is associated with poorer sleep quality and greater psychological distress. We also observe that the positive association between neighborhood disorder and psychological distress is mediated (partially) and moderated (amplified) by poor sleep quality.

  14. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  15. The psychological impact of predictive genetic testing for Huntington's disease: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, S; Robertson, N; Dale, M

    2015-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic condition for which a predictive genetic test by mutation analysis has been available since 1993. However, whilst revealing the future presence of the disease, testing may have an adverse psychological impact given that the disease is progressive, incurable and ultimately fatal. This review seeks to systematically explore the psychological impact of genetic testing for individuals undergoing pre-symptomatic mutation analysis. Three databases (Medline, PsycInfo and Scopus) were interrogated for studies utilising standardised measures to assess psychological impact following predictive genetic testing for HD. From 100 papers initially identified, eight articles were eligible for inclusion. Psychological impact of predictive genetic testing was not found to be associated with test result. No detrimental effect of predictive genetic testing on non-carriers was found, although the process was not found to be psychologically neutral. Fluctuation in levels of distress was found over time for carriers and non-carriers alike. Methodological weaknesses of published literature were identified, notably the needs of individuals not requesting genetic testing, as well as inadequate support for individuals registering elevated distress and declining post-test follow-up. Further assessment of these vulnerable individuals is warranted to establish the extent and type of future psychological support.

  16. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  17. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  18. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  19. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  20. A modern artificial intelligence Playware art tool for psychological testing of group dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    and the psychological findings. We describe the modern artificial intelligence implementation of this instrument. Between an art piece and a psychological test, at a first cognitive analysis, it seems to be a promising research tool. In the discussion we speculate about potential industrial applications, as well.......We describe an artistic method used for the psychological analysis of group dynamics. The design of the artistic system, which mediates group dynamics, emerges from our studies of modular Playware and remixing Playware. Inspired from remixing modular Playware, where users remix samples in the form...

  1. Psychological distress in Rome III functional dyspepsia patients presenting for testing of gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibaise, J K; Islam, R S; Dueck, A C; Roarke, M C; Crowell, M D

    2016-02-01

    There have been conflicting results from studies that have evaluated psychological disturbances in functional dyspepsia (FD). We conducted a comprehensive survey of psychological measures in patients undergoing gastric emptying testing (GET) in order to determine the relationship among psychological distress, gastric emptying, and dyspeptic symptoms. Consecutive patients referred for GET were prospectively enrolled. Details regarding patient characteristics, health care utilization, dyspeptic symptoms, quality of life, and psychological dysfunction were obtained. Depression, anxiety, somatization, stress, positive and negative affect, and alexithymia were queried using validated questionnaires. We compared those dyspeptic patients who met Rome III criteria for FD to those who did not meet these criteria. Two hundred and nine patients (160 female; mean age 46.6 years ± 17.3 years) participated. Around 151 patients (72%) met Rome III criteria for FD. In the entire group, a high level of depression, anxiety, somatization, and perceived stress was present compared to population norms. Health care seeking behavior and symptom severity were greater in those with FD and quality of life was lower compared to non-FD. Gastric emptying did not differentiate the two groups and similar degrees of psychological distress were present whether emptying was delayed or normal. In patients referred for GET, substantial psychological distress is present. The degree of distress was similar regardless of whether the patient met Rome III FD criteria or not. Further evaluation of psychological dysfunction in FD patients may lead to improved diagnosis and determination of the most appropriate treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Discipline, subjectivity and personality : an analysis of the manuals of four psychological tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The administration of psychological tests is highly regulated. Test manuals prescribe the instructions to the test subject, the time the test should take, where it should take place, whether and hen; the test administrator should answer questions from the test subject, and other aspects of the testi

  3. Using drawing tests to explore the multidimensional psychological aspects of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yutaka; Yamada, Miwa; Nakagawa, Kanae; Nanri, Hiromi; Kawase, Masatoshi; Fukui, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    In seeking to understand how life-threatening illness affects children psychologically, projective testing may be beneficial, particularly when attempting to identify psychological problems in younger adolescents. The advantages of projective testing are that it does not depend on patients' verbal ability and is not invasive. Three cancer inpatients from Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, aged between 10 and 16 years old, participated in the study. Projective testing was used to measure the depth of participants' distress and included a tree-drawing test, a person-drawing test and a free drawing test. Results from the tree- and person-drawing tests indicated energy loss, anxiety and a sense of emptiness. However, results from the free drawing test suggested that the children had hope and a desire to recover from their illness. The combination of drawing tests in this study may increase the understanding of the internal psychological difficulties faced by children hospitalized with cancer.

  4. Psychological impact of genetic testing for Huntington's disease: an update of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, B; Dunn, S

    2000-11-01

    Genetic testing has been available for Huntington's disease for longer than any other adult onset genetic disorder. The discovery of the genetic mutation causing Huntington's disease made possible the use of predictive testing to identify currently unaffected carriers. Concerns have been raised that predictive testing may lead to an increase in deaths by suicide among identified carriers, and these concerns set in motion research to assess the psychological impact of predictive testing for Huntington's disease. This review article provides an overview of the literature and draws implications for clinical practice. About 10%-20% of people at risk request testing when approached by registries or testing centres. Most of the evidence suggests that non-carriers and carriers differ significantly in terms of short term, but not long term, general psychological distress. Adjustment to results was found to depend more on psychological adjustment before testing than the testing result itself. Although risk factors for psychological sequelae have been identified, few adverse events have been described and no obvious contraindications for testing people at risk have been identified. The psychological impact of testing may depend on whether testing was based on linkage analysis or mutation detection. Cohorts enrolled in mutation detection programmes have higher levels of depression before and after testing, compared with people who sought genetic testing when linkage analysis was available. There is evidence that people who choose to be tested are psychologically selected for a favourable response to testing. The impact of testing on people in settings where less intensive counselling protocols and eligibility criteria are used is unknown, and genetic testing is therefore best offered as part of comprehensive specialist counselling.

  5. Roy Schafer's contributions to psychological testing: from clinical sensibility to the analytic attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    The author reviews Schafer's contributions to psychological testing, emphasizing his development of the test battery, his significant contributions to psychoanalytically oriented Rorschach interpretation, and his understanding of the complex interpersonal dynamics involved in psychological test interpretation. The author also discusses his use of Schafer's writing in his own teaching and academic work, noting that Schafer's contributions have not only provided innovative methods for examining test data, but have also promoted a respectful, humanistic, and individualized approach to the patient in testing and treatment. The author asserts that Schafer's later seminal contributions to psychoanalysis had their origins in his early career as a psychologist applying psychoanalytic ideas to testing.

  6. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  7. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  8. The effects of monitoring and ability to achieve cognitive structure on the psychological distress during HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Eileen; O'Brien, William H

    2009-10-01

    Many people undergoing HIV testing experience substantial psychological distress. The psychological distress associated with testing may be influenced by monitoring. Monitoring refers to a strategy wherein a person tends to seek out information concerning threatening events. Furthermore, the ability to achieve cognitive structure (AACS) may influence the relationship between monitoring and psychological distress. The present study examined individuals who were undergoing HIV testing. Specifically, the researchers examined the association among monitoring and AACS on psychological distress during HIV testing. Results indicated that there was no interaction between monitoring and AACS on psychological distress. It was found that AACS was related to participants' level of psychological distress. However, the level of monitoring was not related to participants' psychological distress. Limitations of the study, clinical implications and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

  9. The predictive utility of neuropsychological symptom validity testing as it relates to psychological presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Gammada, Emnet; Jeffay, Eliyas

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between multiple neuropsychological symptom validity tests (SVTs) and psychological presentation. More formally, we set out to determine if performance on neuropsychological SVTs was related to psychological symptom credibility and which specific neuropsychological SVTs were most associated with noncredible psychological presentation. Archival records from 106 litigating examinees were utilized in this study. Our results illustrate that neuropsychological SVTs are modestly related to psychological symptom credibility and that specific neuropsychological SVTs are variably associated to this end. We conclude that when multiple, but not independent, neuropsychological SVTs are employed within the context of a neuropsychological examination, they do have clinical utility as it relates to credibility of psychological presentation and these constructs do share variance reciprocally in clinically meaningful ways. When independently employed, however, the observed relationship is modest at best. Hence, to place clinical opinion on firmer scientific grounds within the context of a neuropsychological examination, multiple cognitive SVTs, in hand with psychological test instruments that include validity indexes, are essential to derive opinion that is based on science rather than faith in the instance of litigation when an incentive to manifest disability for the sake of an external reward holds probable.

  10. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  11. Adaptive testing for psychological assessment: how many items are enough to run an adaptive testing algorithm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Menghin, Michaela M; Masters, Geoff N

    2013-01-01

    Although the principles of adaptive testing were established in the psychometric literature many years ago (e.g., Weiss, 1977), and practice of adaptive testing is established in educational assessment, it not yet widespread in psychological assessment. One obstacle to adaptive psychological testing is a lack of clarity about the necessary number of items to run an adaptive algorithm. The study explores the relationship between item bank size, test length and measurement precision. Simulated adaptive test runs (allowing a maximum of 30 items per person) out of an item bank with 10 items per ability level (covering .5 logits, 150 items total) yield a standard error of measurement (SEM) of .47 (.39) after an average of 20 (29) items for 85-93% (64-82%) of the simulated rectangular sample. Expanding the bank to 20 items per level (300 items total) did not improve the algorithm's performance significantly. With a small item bank (5 items per ability level, 75 items total) it is possible to reach the same SEM as with a conventional test, but with fewer items or a better SEM with the same number of items.

  12. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.

  13. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of ... Aviation Psychological Practice in the Nigerian Air Force: Challenges and ... Psychosocial Predictors of Quality of Life among Caregivers of Chronically Ill ...

  14. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  15. A Critical Look at Psychological Testing in Israel and Comparisons with Its European Neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Saul

    2013-01-01

    While psychological tests are used extensively in Israel, the current controls over testing practices in Israel deserve some attention. Specifically, unlike in some European countries and the United States, (a) no specific certifications are offered to Israeli psychologists in the area of testing; (b) Israeli psychologists are not obligated to…

  16. Steps toward More Effective Implementation of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretz, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing is to improve testing practices, but their impact on practice appears spotty. Self-regulation clearly fails in some instances. The establishment of an external agency to oversee testing practices and adherence to the Standards would face substantial hurdles, and the ambiguity of…

  17. Psychology of Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Ulu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter of book that entitled Science, Religion and Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Controversy has been given important informations about psychology of religion’s historical development as well as pioneer figures’ contributions. In this text some evaluations has been made by categorizing studies in field of psychology of religion. Finally some informations are provided about current status of the psychology of religion and position of the psychology of religion ...

  18. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-01-01

    Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in ...

  19. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  20. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  1. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…

  2. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  3. Procedures for successful data collection through psychological tests in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Moreira Diniz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the experience of sampling and assessing thousands of elders, who dwell both in rural and urban areas, from all socio-economic strata, we present data collection procedures recommended to assess elderly populations. Based on International Test Commission's Guidelines (2010 for test translation and adaptation, we propose the administration of psychological tests to older adults in an interview format arguing that it is better suited for such population. We provide and discuss practical examples and common problems of data collection regarding: the need of adapting the translation to make cultural and psychological sense; the lack of familiarity of most elders with the psychological assessment setting and process; and, ethical concerns for this specific population.

  4. Assessing bias against overweight individuals among nursing and psychology students: an implicit association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Tabitha; Lampman, Claudia; Lupfer-Johnson, Gwen

    2012-12-01

    To determine the implicit or unconscious attitudes of Nursing and Psychology majors towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. Obesity is a leading health concern today, which impacts both physical and psychological health. Overweight individuals confront social biases in many aspects of their lives including health care. Examining the views of Nursing and Psychology students may reveal implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals that may lead to prejudiced behaviours. A mixed design experiment with one between-subjects variable (student major: Nursing or Psychology) and one within-subjects variable (condition: congruent or incongruent) was used to assess implicit attitudes in two convenience samples of Nursing and Psychology students. A computerised implicit association test was used to determine implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. A total of 90 students from Nursing (n= 45) and Psychology (n = 45) were recruited to complete an implicit association test. Reaction times in milliseconds between the congruent trials (stereotype consistent) and incongruent trials (stereotype inconsistent) were compared with determine adherence to social stereotypes or weight bias. A statistically significant implicit bias towards overweight individuals was detected in both subject groups and in both target settings (medical vs. non-medical). Stronger weight bias was found when the stimulus targets were female than male. Findings from this study expand understanding of the implicit attitudes and social biases of Nursing and Psychology students. The views held by these future healthcare professionals may negatively impact patient care. Providing education and support to overweight individuals is central to Nursing practice in a society struggling to manage obesity. Negative stereotypes or beliefs about these individuals may result in poor patient care. Therefore, nurses and other healthcare professionals

  5. Credentialing high school psychology teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kenneth A

    2014-09-01

    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states.

  6. [Evaluation of psychological fear in children undergoing head-up tilt test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Hong; Wu, Li-Jia; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Ping; Li, Fang; Zhu, Li-Ping; Ran, Jing; Zou, Run-Mei; Liu, De-Yu

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of different tilt angles of head-up tilt test (HUTT) and different responses to HUTT on the psychological fear in children undergoing the test. HUTT was performed on children with unexplained syncope or pre-syncope (107 cases: 52 males and 55 females), aged 5.5-17.8 years (mean 12.0±2.8 years). All subjects were randomly assigned to undergo HUTT at an angle of 60°, 70° or 80°; the negative cases underwent sublingual nitroglycerin-provocation HUTT at the same tilt angle. The Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale was used for self-assessment of psychological fear in subjects during HUTT at the end point of the test. The positive rate, hemodynamic changes and distribution of response types showed no significant differences between children at tilt angles of 60°, 70° and 80° (P>0.05). The greater the tilt angle, the higher the degree of psychological fear in children undergoing the test, but there were no significant differences between them (P>0.05). The degree of psychological fear in children who showed a positive response to HUTT (n=76) was significantly higher than that in children who showed a negative response (n=31) (Ppsychological fear in children undergoing the test, and the degree of psychological fear increases in children tested at tilt angles from 60° to 80°, but the differences have no statistical significance. A positive response to HUTT can significantly increase the psychological fear in children.

  7. Inductive inference or inductive behavior: Fisher and Neyman-Pearson approaches to statistical testing in psychological research (1940-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Peter F; Stam, Henderikus J

    2006-01-01

    The application of statistical testing in psychological research over the period of 1940-1960 is examined in order to address psychologists' reconciliation of the extant controversy between the Fisher and Neyman-Pearson approaches. Textbooks of psychological statistics and the psychological journal literature are reviewed to examine the presence of what Gigerenzer (1993) called a hybrid model of statistical testing. Such a model is present in the textbooks, although the mathematically incomplete character of this model precludes the appearance of a similarly hybridized approach to statistical testing in the research literature. The implications of this hybrid model for psychological research and the statistical testing controversy are discussed.

  8. Is Psychological Testing Useful in Forensic Contexts that are Associated with Underreporting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Semel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The validity of self-report psychological test results in forensic contexts may be compromised as a result of examinee response style bias to over report or underreport psychological problems. This paper briefly discusses two forensic contexts associated with tendencies of examinees to underreport problems, i.e., child custody evaluations and juvenile delinquency evaluations for disposition. Despite the finding that most examinees in both of these populations obtain within normal limits scores on clinical scales, it is suggested that testing may be helpful in identifying potential problems in some segment of each of these forensic populations. This opinion is supported by findings in empirical studies.

  9. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  10. The Influence of Vocational Interest Inventories: Some Implications for Psychological Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    The impact of psychological testing on the public is explored. Topics discussed include a review of the controversy over interest inventories, what has been learned from the research and from the political activity that was enacted relative to employment/admission testing, and some ideas for increasing the ability to cope more readily with current…

  11. Psychological impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility: an update of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, Bettina

    2005-12-01

    This article presents an overview of the rapidly evolving body of literature on the psychological impact of genetic testing for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Uptake of genetic testing for BRCA1/2 and HNPCC-related mutations is more consistently related to psychological factors, rather than sociodemographic variables. Most studies on the psychological impact of genetic testing amongst individuals who have never been affected by cancer demonstrate that non-carriers derive significant psychological benefits from genetic testing, while no adverse effects have been observed amongst carriers. These benefits are more clear-cut for HNPCC, compared to hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, reflecting differences in risk management options. The few studies available on individuals affected with cancer indicate that the impact of genetic testing is mediated and amplified by their former experience of cancer. Future directions and challenges of research in this area are reviewed. In particular, more empirical data are needed on the broader impact of genetic testing on those with inconclusive results or results of uncertain significance. As genetic testing is becoming available for other types of familial cancer, additional investigations will be needed as there is evidence to suggest that the impact of genetic testing may be unique to each type of familial cancer.

  12. A Historical Perspective and Current Views on the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Wayne J.; Lane, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" have evolved in the breadth and depth of coverage of issues in educational testing and measurement since their first publication in 1954. There were a number of substantive changes in the 1999 revision that addressed validity, fairness, accommodations, and compliance with the…

  13. Multidimensional Adaptive Testing in Educational and Psychological Measurement: Current State and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Andreas; Seitz, Nicki-Nils

    2009-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) and evaluates its applicability in educational and psychological testing. The approach of Segall (1996) is described as a general framework for MAT. The main advantage of MAT is its capability to increase measurement efficiency. In simulation studies conceptualizing situations…

  14. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  15. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  16. Ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: testing basic assumptions of the developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Juang, Linda P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test three fundamental theoretical propositions from Phinney's (1990) developmental model about the relations among ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: (a) ethnic identity is more strongly related to identity coherence for ethnic minorities than for Whites; (b) ethnic identity is more strongly related to psychological functioning for ethnic minorities than for Whites; and (c) identity coherence mediates the association between ethnic identity and psychological functioning for ethnic minorities, but not for Whites. These hypotheses were tested in three independent samples of ethnically diverse youth. In general, we found weak to moderate support for these three hypotheses, suggesting that the theoretically proposed differences in ethnic identity between ethnic minorities and Whites may not be supported by data. Implications for theory and measurement of ethnic identity are discussed.

  17. Offering Parents Individualized Feedback on the Results of Psychological Testing Conducted for Research Purposes with Children: Ethical Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaivre, Marie-josee; Chambers, Christine T.; Fernandez, Conrad V.

    2007-01-01

    Research protocols involving children often include psychological testing as part of an assessment battery. Inclusion of such testing raises the question of whether parents (or others) should be offered the individualized results of their children's psychological testing conducted for research purposes. The purpose of this article is to provide a…

  18. Which Psychological Factors are Related to HIV Testing? A Quantitative Systematic Review of Global Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael; Pady, Kirsten; Wroe, Abigail L

    2016-04-01

    Deciding to test for HIV is necessary for receiving HIV treatment and care among those who are HIV-positive. This article presents a systematic review of quantitative studies on relationships between psychological (cognitive and affective) variables and HIV testing. Sixty two studies were included (fifty six cross sectional). Most measured lifetime testing. HIV knowledge, risk perception and stigma were the most commonly measured psychological variables. Meta-analysis was carried out on the relationships between HIV knowledge and testing, and HIV risk perception and testing. Both relationships were positive and significant, representing small effects (HIV knowledge, d = 0.22, 95 % CI 0.14-0.31, p testing included: perceived testing benefits, testing fear, perceived behavioural control/self-efficacy, knowledge of testing sites, prejudiced attitudes towards people living with HIV, and knowing someone with HIV. Research and practice implications are outlined.

  19. Taking purpose into account in experimental psychology: testing for controlled variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marken, Richard S

    2013-02-01

    Experimental research in psychology is based on a causal model--the General Linear Model (GLM)--that assumes behavior has causes but not purposes. Powers (1978) used a control theory analysis to show that the results of psychological experiments based on such a model can be misleading if the organisms being studied are purposeful (control) systems. In the same paper, Powers presented evidence that organisms are such systems. Nevertheless, psychologists continue to use methods that ignore purpose because the behavior in most experiments appears to be non-purposeful (a caused result of variations in the independent variable). The experiments described in this paper show how purposeful behavior can appear to be caused by the independent variable when an organism's purposes are ignored. The results show how taking purpose into account using the control theory-based "Test for the Controlled Variable" can provide a productive new methodological direction for experimental research in psychology.

  20. A systematic review of perceived risks, psychological and behavioral impacts of genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshka, Jodi T; Palleschi, Crystal; Howley, Heather; Wilson, Brenda; Wells, Philip S

    2008-01-01

    Genetic testing may enable early disease detection, targeted surveillance, and result in effective prevention strategies. Knowledge of genetic risk may also enable behavioral change. However, the impact of carrier status from the psychological, behavior, and perceived risk perspectives is not well understood. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the available literature on these elements. An extensive literature review was performed to identify studies that measured the perceived risk, psychological, and/or behavioral impacts of genetic testing on individuals. The search was not limited to specific diseases but excluded the impacts of testing for single gene disorders. A total of 35 articles and 30 studies were included. The studies evaluated hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, and Alzheimer disease. For affective outcomes, the majority of the studies reported negative effects on carriers but these were short-lived. For behavioral outcomes, an increase in screening behavior of varying rates was demonstrated in carriers but the change in behaviors was less than expected. With respect to perceived risk, there were generally no differences between carriers and noncarriers by 12 months after genetic testing and over time risk perception decreased. Overall, predispositional genetic testing has no significant impact on psychological outcomes, little effect on behavior, and did not change perceived risk. It seems as though better patient education strategies are required. Our data would suggest better knowledge among carriers would not have significant psychological impacts and therefore, it is worth pursuing improved educational strategies.

  1. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  2. Using the Implicit Association Test as an Unconsciousness Raising Tool in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Flores, Abdiel J.; Didway, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01

    People are reluctant to admit they harbor implicit biases. Students (N = 68) from four social psychology courses completed an assignment designed to raise awareness about implicit biases. After completing an Implicit Association Test (IAT), students answered six essay questions, read two articles on the IAT, and answered five additional essay…

  3. Developing the Psychological Strain Scales (PSS): Reliability, Validity, and Preliminary Hypothesis Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Juncheng; Zhao, Sibo; Lamis, Dorian A; Li, Ning; Kong, Yuanyuan; Jia, Cunxian; Zhou, Li; Ma, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception, the Strain Theory of Suicide has been tested and supported in a number of empirical studies. This social psychological theory can be employed as a complementary conceptualization to account for suicidal behaviors as well as mental disorders. However, the lack of consistent measurements of the strains limits the application of the theory in scientific research. Our research team has developed such scales for future testing of the Strain Theory of Suicide in a more systematic approach. For the initial items to measure the four strains (value, aspiration, deprivation, and coping), we solicited approximately 40 items for each strain with high face validity by about 30 fellow researchers. A preliminary examination of about 160 items for consistency and validity, with a sample of about 300 college students, yielded 20 consistent items for each of the four strain scales. Then, a second study was conducted at a different university with approximately 500 students to further streamline each of the four strain scales and test the validity of each with corresponding established scales and variables. As a result, 15 items were selected for each of the four Psychological Strain Scales (PSS). In correlation and multiple regression analyses, we found support for the hypotheses regarding the positive associations between psychological strains measured by the PSS and psychopathology including suicidal ideation. Follow up research with the new scales needs to be carried out in order to test the effects of psychological strains on suicide and mental disorders for various populations.

  4. Community Mental Health Service Providers' Codes of Ethics and the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacc, Nicholas A.; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Nilsen, Keith A.

    2001-01-01

    Compares the codes of ethics of 13 professional organizations for community mental health service providers. Results suggest that only two of the codes of ethics address many of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing." Provides implications and recommendations for professional organizations. (Contains 20 references and…

  5. A critical discussion of null hypothesis significance testing and statistical power analysis within psychological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Allan; Sommerlund, Bo

    2007-01-01

    The uses of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and statistical power analysis within psychological research are critically discussed. The article looks at the problems of relying solely on NHST when dealing with small and large sample sizes. The use of power-analysis in estimating...

  6. 688,112 statistical results : Content mining psychology articles for statistical test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartgerink, C.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this data deposit, I describe a dataset that is the result of content mining 167,318 published articles for statistical test results reported according to the standards prescribed by the American Psychological Association (APA). Articles published by the APA, Springer, Sage, and Taylor & Francis

  7. Psychological Correlates of School Bullying Victimization: Academic Self-Concept, Learning Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims at detecting the association between students' bullying victimization at school and some psychological dimensions, referred to academic self-concept (for both Mathematics and Reading), learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, commitment to study) and test anxiety. A questionnaire including these measures was…

  8. Is the psychological impact of genetic testing moderated by support and sharing of test results to family and friends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Julie; Dorval, Michel; Noguès, Catherine; Fabre, Roxane; Julian-Reynier, Claire

    2013-12-01

    Receiving the results of genetic tests for a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility can be a stressful experience. Here we studied the effects of social support (SS) and the sharing of test results on the psychological impact of BRCA1/2 test result disclosure. We also compared carriers and non-carriers on sharing, SS and psychological impact. Five-hundred and twenty-two unaffected women were followed prospectively for 2 years after receiving their test results. Psychological impact was measured on the impact of event scale. Multivariate multi-level models were used, and all the analyses were stratified depending on mutation status (carriers vs non-carriers). Two weeks after receiving their BRCA1/2 results, carriers had shared their test results less frequently than non-carriers (p test results was not significantly associated with psychological impact. Availability of SS was significantly associated with better psychological adjustment across time among carriers (p < 0.01), but not among non-carriers. For female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, the importance of SS should be stressed, and possible ways of enlisting people in their entourage for this purpose should be discussed in the context of clinical encounters.

  9. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  10. Spirituality and psychological well-being: testing a theory of family interdependence among family caregivers and their elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk-Sun; Reed, Pamela G; Hayward, R David; Kang, Youngmi; Koenig, Harold G

    2011-04-01

    The family spirituality-psychological well-being model was developed and tested to explore how spirituality influences psychological well-being among elders and caregivers in the context of Korean family caregiving. The sample consisted of 157 Korean elder-family caregiver dyads in Seoul, Korea. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the actor-partner interdependence statistical model were used to analyze the data. There were significant correlations between elders' and caregivers' spirituality and between elders' and caregivers' psychological well-being. Elders' and caregivers' spirituality significantly influenced their own psychological well-being. The caregiver's spirituality significantly influenced the elder's psychological well-being, but the elder's spirituality did not significantly influence the caregiver's psychological well-being. Findings suggest that elders' and caregivers' spirituality should be assessed within the family to provide holistic nursing interventions.

  11. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  12. Psychological violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  13. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  14. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  15. Toward the assessment of psychological empowerment in health promotion: initial tests of validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, C; Perry, C; Finnegan, J

    1996-08-01

    Because of the importance of empowerment in health promotion, the measurement of empowerment is a priority for health promotion research. The present study sought to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess psychological empowerment and to resolve the theoretical question of whether psychological empowerment is a topic-specific or general construct. University of Minnesota employees (n = 160) completed two different versions of empowerment questionnaires. One of the questionnaires measured general empowerment; the other was specific to alcohol use prevention. Reasonable reliability was demonstrated in a previously developed general empowerment instrument (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.84) and for an alcohol-specific instrument (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.78). Construct validity for the alcohol-specific instrument was demonstrated by appropriate significant correlations between subscales and overall scores for both instruments. Predictive validity tests partially supported the concept that psychological empowerment is topic-specific, although further testing with a more representative population may be needed to resolve this question. The results suggest that the alcohol-specific psychological empowerment instrument could be used in the evaluation of community alcohol abuse prevention programmes.

  16. Development of a psychological test to diagnose abilities required for successful learning medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Gessmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We substantiate the necessity of psychological tools aimed at diagnostics of the capabilities for successful learning in medical university, and show the progress of its development. The questionnaire is developed based on the U.S. and European success tests, and its design meets the famous “test for medical professions” (TMS. “Kostroma test for medical professions” (KTMP is not a translation or adaptation of TMS to Russian conditions. It will be re-designed with new test items based on the principles of classical test construction. Creating scientifically based methods of psychological diagnosis of general cognitive ability is a prerequisite for the successful solution of a wide range of research and practical issues related to improving the effectiveness of education and training programs.

  17. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  18. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  19. Psychological Component of Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  20. Test materials for discipline «Psychology of management». Section 3. Working group as an object of control

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshina I. G.

    2011-01-01

    The author has developed tests to test knowledge of students for the subject «Psychology of Management». Tests can be used as an intermediate or final control, as well as for students' independent work.

  1. Identification of patients at high risk of psychological distress after BRCA1 genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmański, Sławomir; Metcalfe, Kelly; Trempała, Janusz; Głowacka, Maria Danuta; Lubiński, Jan; Narod, Steven A; Gronwald, Jacek

    2009-06-01

    To predict which women might suffer from abnormally high levels of anxiety and depression after receiving a positive genetic BRCA1 test result, series of pregenetic testing and postgenetic testing psychological measurements were performed. Of 3524 women who returned the psychological test sheets before receiving their genetic test result, 111 women were found to carry a BRCA1 mutation. We found that overall, anxiety does not increase in women who receive a positive BRCA1 genetic test result; however, women who experience high levels of anxiety before genetic testing continue to experience high levels of anxiety up to 1 year posttesting. There were differences in cancer-related distress in affected and unaffected women. BRCA1 carriers with a previous diagnosis of cancer had significantly higher levels of cancer-related distress at 1 month posttest than those without cancer. Our findings suggest that healthcare providers should consider including a brief pretest psychological assessment before initiating genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2.

  2. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.

  3. Deaf genetic testing and psychological well-being in deaf adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Christina G S; Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E; Fox, Michelle; Deignan, Joshua L; Kobayashi, Yoko; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2013-08-01

    Limited data suggest that enhanced self-knowledge from genetic information related to non-medical traits can have a positive impact on psychological well-being. Deaf individuals undertake genetic testing for deaf genes to increase self-knowledge. Because deafness is considered a non-medical trait by many individuals, we hypothesized that deaf individuals receiving a genetic explanation for why they are deaf will experience increased psychological well-being. We report results from a prospective, longitudinal study to determine the impact of genetic testing (GJB2, Cx26; GJB6, Cx30) on perceived personal control (PPC), anxiety, and depression in deaf adults (N = 209) assessed following pre-test genetic counseling as well as 1-month and 6-months following test result disclosure. Participants were classified as Cx positive (n = 82) or Cx negative/inconclusive (n = 127). There was significant evidence for Cx group differences in PPC and anxiety over time (PPC: Cx group*time interaction p = 0.0007; anxiety: Cx group*time interaction p = 0.002), where PPC scores were significantly higher, and anxiety scores were significantly lower for the Cx positive group relative to the negative/inconclusive group following test result disclosure. Compared to pre-test, PPC scores increased at 1-month (p = 0.07) and anxiety scores decreased at 6-months (p = 0.03) for the Cx positive group. In contrast, PPC scores decreased (p = 0.009, p test result disclosure. Genetic testing for deaf genes affects the psychological well-being of deaf individuals. Increasing deaf adults' access to genetic testing may potentially enhance self-knowledge and increase psychological well-being for those who receive a genetic explanation, which could offer downstream health benefits.

  4. To resume a stalled psychotherapy? Psychological testing to understand an impasse and reevaluate treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bram, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    Clinical wisdom holds that psychological testing is a useful tool for consultation when there is a need to untangle and resolve a psychotherapeutic impasse. However, there has been a lack of empirical research in this area, and only a few cases have been published demonstrating how psychological testing can be used toward this end. In this article, the author offers a case illustration of the application of testing with a patient who sought to resume psychotherapy following a previous impasse and premature termination. Specific referral questions for the evaluation are explicated followed by discussion of the test data that answered each of them. The findings pointed not only to intrapsychic and object relational characteristics of the patient that contributed to the impasse but, importantly, alerted the author-therapist to his contributions as well. Treatment implications of the findings are also highlighted.

  5. A report on the psychological test results of battering parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, C A

    1977-09-01

    The short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Cattell's 16PF test have been given to patients attending the National Advisory Centre on the Battered Child (NSPCC) and in the case of the personality questionnaire the results compared to non-battering control adults' scores. The intelligence levels of battering parents conform to normal expectation although there is a non-significant trend to marginally lower than normal results especially in verbal tests. The 16PF test reveals immature impetuosity on the part of the mothers as a main finding and introversion in the fathers. The relevance of these findings to battering is discussed.

  6. Psychological distress related to BRCA testing in ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnslett, Merete; Dahl, Alv A; Sørebø, Øystein; Dørum, Anne

    2015-12-01

    An increasing demand for genetic testing has moved the procedure from highly selected at-risk individuals, now also including cancer patients for treatment associated testing. The heritable fraction of ovarian cancer is more than 10%, and our department has offered BRCA testing to such patients irrespective of family history since 2002. This study examined potential psychosocial distress associated with this procedure using The Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA) questionnaire and other patient-rated generic distress instruments. Patients were divided into four groups according to cancer risk: mutation carriers, own history of breast cancer and ovarian cancer, family history of breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer, and patients without family history. In a postal survey, 354 patients responded. Good acceptance of the MICRA was observed, and previously described good psychometric properties were confirmed. A significant association between MICRA total score and receiving a positive BRCA test result was found. No significant between-group differences were observed with generic distress instruments. Time since cancer diagnosis, test result, and survey showed no significant associations with MICRA scores. Internal consistencies of instruments were adequate. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed adequate fit indices for a three factor solution of the MICRA, but further refinement of the items should be considered. In conclusion, the specific types of worry and distress most relevant to receiving genetic testing irrespective of family history were not captured by the generic distress instruments. The MICRA was supported as a useful tool for detection of mental distress related to genetic testing and risk evaluation.

  7. Psychological Testing: Trends in Masters Level Counseling Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John W.; Piotrowski, Chris

    Masters level counseling graduates often provide clinical services in applied settings. To investigate the status of psychodiagnostic testing in masters level counseling (terminal) programs in the United States, all 48 masters level counseling training programs (excluding those with doctoral level training) received a one page questionnaire.…

  8. Genetic Testing and Psychology: New Roles, New Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Guttmacher, Alan E.; Collins, Francis S.

    2002-01-01

    Advances in genetics and genetic testing promise to catalyze a fundamental change in the practice of medicine. Psychologists have much to offer as psychotherapists, researchers, educators, and policymakers to a society heavily influenced by the genetic revolution. To make the most of new opportunities available to mental health professionals in…

  9. The Statistical Assessment of Latent Trait Dimensionality in Psychological Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    an upcoming memorial volumn in memory of David Wechsler, (1984). Lamperti, J., Probability, W. A. Benjamin , New York, (1966). Lawley, D.N...Dr. R. Darreli Bock Departissrit ot Education University of Chicago Chicago, IL 60637 » * 1 Dr. Robert Erennan • American CoiisgE Testing

  10. A psychology for pedagogy: intelligence testing in USSR in the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopoldoff, Irina

    2014-08-01

    This article examines a case of intelligence testing conducted in the mid-1920s, while considering the broader political and scientific context of Soviet life. Guided by questions about the status and influence of mental measurement in Russian society, previously and after the revolution, as well as asking about the main actors in the fields linked to testing, such as psychology, pedagogy, and pedology, during this tumultuous period. To answer these questions, journals and difficult-to-access archival sources were used, which provided evidence regarding the enthusiasm psychological testing had on scholars in the 1920s and the institutional support they received for their surveys. The article offers some hints concerning why this was so and why this situation changed completely a decade later. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  12. The Psychology of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, A.; Balasubramanian, P.; Nirmala, R. Sweety

    2007-01-01

    Psychology plays a significant role in the life of each and every human being. Starting from childhood, if psychology of learning is utilized positively it would play a vital role in the building up of a bright career of a child. The explosion of information technology has been exercising far reaching influence on the area of educational…

  13. The psychology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swencionis, Charles; Rendell, Sarah Litman

    2012-10-01

    G. Stanley Hall, the first person to earn a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States, did research on eating behaviors in the nineteenth century (Lepore in The New Yorker, 2011). Research on psychological aspects of obesity accelerated in the 1950s and there has been a great deal done at this point. We review areas of considerable activity and relevance.

  14. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  15. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  16. Psychology and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsterburg, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    This essay considers the discipline of psychology as distinct from history, defining it as a science within philosophy dedicated to the study of the causal structure of the human mind. Although Hugo Munsterburg was considered an important figure in applied psychology, this essay represents an earlier epistemology. (SLD)

  17. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  18. Psychology for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Nash

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical psychology…

  19. Child Psychology Experiences Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla Walla Coll., WA.

    Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

  20. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  1. Anthropomorphism in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, David

    This article presents an address on anthropomorphism in psychology. Anthropomorphism assures that human beings are given human characteristics when participating in psychological research. This is significant because the research community does not often report results of studies in the language of feelings, thoughts, or desires, which has led to…

  2. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  3. Psychological stress and infertility. Part 2: Psychometric test data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, H J

    1982-12-01

    The hypothesis tested in this study was that a group of female functional infertile patients would show significantly more personality maladjustment than a group with definite organic reproductive pathology and a normal fertile group. No significant differences between the functional and organic groups were found on any of the subscores of four personality questionnaires. The normal group (wives of sterile men) scored higher on extraversion than both the functional and organic groups. On self-control the normal group also scored lower (negative connotation) than the other two groups. In general no evidence for personality maladjustment in functional infertility was found.

  4. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  5. Historiography of Czech psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskovcová, Simona; Hoskovec, Jirí; Plháková, Alena; Sebek, Michael; Svancara, Josef; Voboril, Dalibor

    2010-08-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the development of the Czech historiography of psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychotherapy is mentioned as a special thematic development. Contemporary problems and perspectives in the field of the history of psychology in the Czech Republic are discussed, sources of information are given.

  6. Improving Construct Validity with Cognitive Psychology Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embretson, Susan; Gorin, Joanna

    2001-01-01

    Examines testing practices in: (1) the past, in which the traditional paradigm left little room for cognitive psychology principles; (2) the present, in which testing research is enhanced by principles of cognitive psychology; and (3) the future, in which the potential of cognitive psychology should be fully realized through item design.…

  7. Dopamine challenge tests as an indicator of psychological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netter, P

    2006-03-01

    After discussing some introductory considerations about the value of challenge tests in general for discriminating personality dimensions which are considered extrapolations of psychopathological diseases, the present paper outlines the matter of responsivity to agonistic and antagonistic dopaminergic drugs or drugs of different mechanisms of action in the dopaminergic system, and elucidates that different hormones elicited by dopaminergic substances (prolactin, growth hormone) may indicate personality related differences in susceptibility of different brain areas. A further point was to demonstrate not only the well known relationship of dopaminergic hyperactivity with reward seeking and motivational factors associated with extraversion and novelty seeking, but also the relationship of dopaminergic hypofunction with the personality dimension of depression which had already been reported in studies on animals and psychiatric patients. A final point was to demonstrate that besides size of hormone responses additional parameters like time of response onset and initial prolactin increase can be used as biochemical indicators for identifying certain personality types, like highly depressive neurotic persons characterized by lower and later dopamine responses as compared to low depressives, and extraverted sensation-seeking types responding by an initial prolactin peak as opposed to low sensation seekers.

  8. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C.M. Vorst

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of hu

  9. The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental

  10. The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental

  11. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  12. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  13. BRCA1/2 predictive testing and gender: uptake, motivation and psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denayer, L; Boogaerts, A; Philippe, K; Legius, E; Evers-Kiebooms, G

    2009-01-01

    BRCA1/2 predictive testing and gender: Uptake, motivation and psychological characteristics: Data on male uptake of BRCA1/2 predictive testing and psychological characteristics of males in comparison to females are scarce. We investigated gender differences in the cohort tested at the Center for Human Genetics in Leuven during a 10-year period (1998-2007). Males were significantly older than females. Breast cancer related distress (IES) was significantly lower in men and was not associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2. The groups of both males and females were psychologically stronger than average (SCL-90, UCL) and self-selected. Men were unanimously motivated (personal relevance of 12 motives rated on a Likert scale) by concern for their daughters, and significantly more so than women. One third of them (versus 12% women) referred to child-bearing decisions. Considering all unaffected siblings in the family of origin, uptake of predictive testing was significantly higher in females. Moreover, uptake was significantly higher in women belonging to a BRCA2 than to a BRCA1 family. In the descendants of identified carriers, uptake was predicted by gender and age, but not by the parent's gender or by BRCA1 or BRCA2 status.

  14. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  15. Psychological distress with direct-to-consumer genetic testing: a case report of an unexpected BRCA positive test result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohany, Lindsay; Gustafson, Shanna; Ducaine, Whitney; Zakalik, Dana

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of a client who discovered she had a BRCA mutation following direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing in the absence of genetic counseling. After testing she presented for genetic counseling with anxiety, distress, and a deficit of knowledge about what the DTC genetic testing revealed. Genetic counseling helped alleviate distress while empowering the client to apply the results of testing to improve medical management. Despite recent studies demonstrating no negative psychological impact of DTC genetic testing on the consumer, this case illustrates that significant psychological distress and confusion can occur as a result of DTC genetic testing for highly penetrant single gene disorders. Pre- and post-test genetic counseling in conjunction with DTC genetic testing may alleviate consumers' distress and empower clients to proactively utilize their result information.

  16. Test-enhanced learning versus errorless learning in aphasia rehabilitation: testing competing psychological principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Erica L; Schwartz, Myrna F; Rawson, Katherine A; Garvey, Kelly

    2015-07-01

    Because individuals with acquired language disorders are frequently unable to reliably access the names of common everyday objects (i.e., naming impairment), rehabilitation efforts often focus on improving naming. The present study compared 2 rehabilitation strategies for naming impairment, reflecting contradictory prescriptions derived from different theoretical principles. The prescription derived from psychological research on test-enhanced learning advocates providing patients opportunities to retrieve target names from long-term memory (i.e., retrieval practice) in the course of treatment. In contrast, the errorless learning approach derived from cognitive rehabilitation research eschews retrieval practice in favor of methods that minimize naming errors, and thus the potential for error learning, in the course of treatment. The present study directly compared these approaches and showed that, despite superior (and errorless) performance during errorless treatment, treatment that prioritized retrieval practice produced greater retention 1-day and 1-week following treatment. These findings have implications for clinical practice, as well as theoretical accounts of lexical access and test-enhanced learning.

  17. Relational health, alexithymia, and psychological distress in college women: testing a mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Belle; West, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Relational health refers to interpersonal interactions that are growth-fostering or mutually empathic and empowering. Poor relational health increases an individual's risk for developing psychological distress. Alexithymia is the inability to recognize and express one's own internal emotional experience. In this study, the associations of relational health, psychological distress, and alexithymia were examined by surveying 197 female undergraduate psychology students. Support was found for the hypothesis that alexithymic symptoms mediate the direct effect of poor relational health on psychological distress. The importance of assessing relational health and tailoring counseling interventions for people with low relational health and alexithymic symptoms is discussed.

  18. Discursive social psychology now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today.

  19. Discursive and scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Derek

    2012-09-01

    I begin with the origins of Loughborough University's Discourse and Rhetoric Group (DARG), and in particular discursive psychology (DP). Rather than attempting to summarize DP, versions of which are plentiful, the article attempts to clarify various relationships and tensions between DP and other kinds of social psychology, particularly experimental. Common sense psychology is defined as DP's topic rather than rival; the aim is to study how people deploy everyday psychological notions and manage psychological business within talk and text, and what they accomplish by such deployments, rather than trying, as experimental psychology is often characterized as doing, to replace it all with something purportedly better. Claims for DP being particularly interpretative rather than scientific are rejected, by appeal to an 'interpretative gap' between phenomena, data, analysis, and conclusions that all research must manage, that gap being often much larger in quantitative and experimental work. The importance of pursuing causal explanations of psychological phenomena is questioned, and the importance asserted, of discovering, through rigorous empirical and conceptual analysis, the normative bases of human conduct and accountability.

  20. From psychological need satisfaction to intentional behavior: testing a motivational sequence in two behavioral contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Harris, Jemma

    2006-02-01

    The present study tested a motivational sequence in which global-level psychological need satisfaction from self-determination theory influenced intentions and behavior directly and indirectly through contextual-level motivation and situational-level decision-making constructs from the theory of planned behavior. Two samples of university students (N = 511) completed measures of global-level psychological need satisfaction, contextual-level autonomous motivation, and situational-level attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behavior in two behavioral contexts: exercise and dieting. A structural equation model supported the proposed sequence in both samples. The indirect effect was present for exercise behavior, whereas both direct and indirect effects were found for dieting behavior. Findings independently supported the component theories and provided a comprehensive integrated explanation of volitional behavior.

  1. The psychological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tateo

    Full Text Available Abstract: The commentary presents an epistemological reflection about Dialogical Self theory. First, the theoretical issues of DS about the relationship between individuality, alterity and society are discussed, elaborating on the articles of this special issue. Then, it is presented the argument of psychologist's ontological fallacy, that is the attitude to moving from the study of processes to the study of psychological entities. Finally a development toward new research directions is proposed, focusing on the study of higher psychological functions and processes, taking into account complex symbolic products of human activity and developing psychological imagination.

  2. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  3. Psychological distress and quality of life associated with genetic testing for breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley Wilder; Dougall, Angela Liegey; Posluszny, Donna M; Somers, Tamara J; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Baum, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    This study investigated short- and long-term psychological outcomes associated with BRCA1/2 genetic testing in women with a personal or family history of breast cancer. Participants included 126 women considering genetic testing. Questionnaires were administered prior to testing, one week, three and six months after result disclosure. Results indicated no systematic effects of testing based on personal cancer history. Mutation carriers and women who elected not to be tested reported greater perceived risk and intrusive and avoidant thoughts at follow-up time points than did women who received negative (uninformative) or variant results. Mutation carriers reported more distress at the three-month follow-up but by six months the effects of test result on distress dissipated and groups were comparable. Cluster analyses identified two groups of individuals based on distress at baseline; these groups were used to predict psychological outcomes after testing. Distress remained constant in both groups: those who were high at baseline remained high and those who were low remained low. Test results did not moderate this effect. Results suggest that genetic testing for BRCA1/2 does not increase distress or have deleterious effects on quality of life over the long term. However, sub-groups of women may report more distress over time. These data indicate the need for more targeted counseling to individuals who report high levels of distress when considering genetic testing.

  4. 'Battling my biology': psychological effects of genetic testing for risk of weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, S F; Wardle, J

    2014-04-01

    The availability of genetic tests for multifactorial conditions such as obesity raises concerns that higher-risk results could lead to fatalistic reactions or lower-risk results to complacency. No study has investigated the effects of genetic test feedback for the risk of obesity in non-clinical samples. The present study explored psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test feedback for a weight related gene (FTO) in a volunteer sample (n = 18) using semi-structured interviews. Respondents perceived the gene test result as scientifically objective; removing some of the emotion attached to the issue of weight control. Those who were struggling with weight control reported relief of self-blame. There was no evidence for either complacency or fatalism; all respondents emphasized the importance of lifestyle choices in long-term weight management, although they recognized the role of both genes and environment. Regardless of the test result, respondents evaluated the testing positively and found it motivating and informative. Genetic test feedback for risk of weight gain may offer psychological benefits beyond its objectively limited clinical utility. As the role of genetic counselors is likely to expand, awareness of reasons for genetic testing for common, complex conditions and reactions to the test result is important.

  5. Distinct quantitative sensory testing profiles in nonspecific chronic back pain subjects with and without psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Eich, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Psychological trauma is associated with an increased risk for chronification of nonspecific chronic back pain (nsCLBP) independent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of psychological trauma in nsCLBP are less clear than in PTSD. Therefore, this study considered whether psychological trauma exposure (TE) is accompanied by specific alterations in pain perception. The study included 56 participants with nsCLBP and TE (nsCLBP-TE), 93 participants with nsCLBP without TE (nsCLBP-W-TE), and 31 pain-free controls. All participants underwent a thorough clinical evaluation. The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was used to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory functions in painful (back) and non-painful areas (hand). The protocol consisted of thermal and mechanical detection as well as pain thresholds, vibration thresholds, and pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli. Psychological trauma was validated by structured clinical interview. Trauma-associated symptom severity, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Differences in somatosensory function were seen only for pressure pain thresholds. Compared with controls, nsCLBP-TE revealed hyperalgesia generalized in space with lower thresholds in painful and non-painful areas, whereas nsCLBP-W-TE demonstrated localized alterations with decreased thresholds only in the pain-affected area of the back (P ≤ 0.006). Our findings suggest an augmented central pain processing in nsCLBP-TE (alterations in painful and non-painful areas), whereas nsCLBP-W-TE show only local changes (alterations only in the painful area) suggesting regional sensitization processes. This finding might explain why TE without PTSD is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic pain.

  6. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  7. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  8. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  10. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  11. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nigel Foreman

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space...

  12. Social Psychology as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  13. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    -induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition......We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal...

  14. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  15. Psychological intervention of murophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrie Yihun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Although phobia is more commonly observed during adolescence as compared to adulthood, its specific type of murophobia is uncommon. Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders are rarely reported to mental health clinicians. The present study is a case report of a 16-year old adolescent female with murophobia. The case was not registered in any general medical clinic and was sent to our department for further psychological assessment and intervention. The client was comprehensively examined through clinical interview, behavioural analysis and treated by cognitive-behaviour technique of psychological intervention and without the inclusion of psychiatric treatment. Details of the psychological assessment and intervention have been presented in this case report.

  16. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  17. Deconstructivism and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Mencin Čeplak

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In last ten, fifteen years, variety of disciplines literary throng the conceptualizations of identity. This plurality of discourses blurs the boundaries between disciplines and at the same time deepens them. The deconstruction positions in psychology, referring to Althusser's concept of interpellation, Lacanian psychoanalysis and Foucault's theorization of discourse and power relations do not try to define the boundaries and connections between the disciplines. However, in the analyses of the birth of psychological knowledge and their consequences the deconstruction position points out that psychological knowledge fatally reduces the factors constructing identity and subjectivity by limiting itself on individual and interpersonal. This article discusses two consequences of this reduction: this reduction leads to the conclusion that social differentiation is the effect of the individual differences in capacities and personal characteristics and at the same time this reduction impedes psychological knowledge in the analyses of its own role in the power relations.

  18. Internet research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter

    2015-01-03

    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  19. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  20. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  1. Psychological.pm6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa ..... inactivity and the avoidance of physical exercise in .... Mood and anxiety ... individuals with chronic pain: the moderating role of pain duration. Pain 2004 ...

  2. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...

  3. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  4. Eating, Psychology of

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to provide the reader with a brief guide to the psychology of eating. Biological, developmental, cognitive, social, eating disorders and obesity were all discussed and their relative contribution to the psychology of eating was described. This paper has also described how eating behaviourists have conceptualised hunger and fullness in order to understand human motivations to feed. It is hoped that interested readers will continue beyond this article to gain a...

  5. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouras, Harold; Faucherre, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  6. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  7. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...

  8. Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

  9. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  10. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  11. Stress and psychological health: testing the mediating role of cognitive appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, A. Rui; Faria, Susana; Lopes, Heitor

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the mediating role of primary (e.g., threat and challenge perceptions) and secondary (e.g., coping potential and control perception) cognitive appraisal in the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health. This mediation was tested using a cross-sectional study based on self-reported measures. The total sample consisted of 2,302 nurses, 1,895 females (82.3%) and 407 males (17.7%), who completed an evaluation protocol with measures of occupational stress,...

  12. Psychological distress and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R; Young, T B; Schoenherr, R A

    1982-04-01

    Psychologically distressed patients and clients of health care and social service organizations are found to report somewhat more dissatisfaction with services than do the nondistressed. Four explanations for this relationship are examined: 1) the psychologically distressed are generally dissatisfied; 2) service providers react negatively to the psychologically distressed; 3) psychologically distressed patients are dissatisfied when service providers do not respond to their psychological needs; and 4) patients who deny their psychological distress tend to be dissatisfied. The results show that the psychologically distressed report more dissatisfaction because of the very high levels of dissatisfaction found among patients who deny having personal problems.

  13. Psychological Assessment Training in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihura, Joni L; Roy, Manali; Graceffo, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed American Psychological Association-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs' (n = 83) training in psychological assessment-specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method-self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships' assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and (c) the American Psychological Association's requirements for preinternship assessment competencies.

  14. Psychological characteristics of Japanese patients with chronic pain assessed by the Rorschach test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Tetsuya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of patients with chronic pain in Japan has become a major issue in terms of the patient's quality of life, medical costs, and related social problems. Pain is a multi-dimensional experience with physiological, affective, cognitive, behavioral and social components, and recommended to be managed via a combination of bio-psycho-social aspects. However, a biomedical approach is still the dominant method of pain treatment in Japan. The current study aimed to evaluate comprehensive psychological functions and processes in Japanese chronic pain patients. Methods The Rorschach Comprehensive System was administered to 49 in-patients with non-malignant chronic pain. Major variables and frequencies from the test were then compared to normative data from non-patient Japanese adults by way of the t-test and chi-square test. Results Patients exhibited high levels of emotional distress with a sense of helplessness with regard to situational stress, confusion, and ambivalent feelings. These emotions were managed by the patients in an inappropriate manner. Cognitive functions resulted in moderate dysfunction in all stages. Information processing tended to focus upon minute features in an inflexible manner. Mediational dysfunction was likely to occur with unstable affective conditions. Ideation was marked by pessimistic and less effective thinking. Since patients exhibited negative self-perception, their interpersonal relationship skills tended to be ineffective. Originally, our patients displayed average psychological resources for control, stress tolerance, and social skills for interpersonal relationships. However, patient coping styles were either situation- or emotion-dependent, and patients were more likely to exhibit emotional instability influenced by external stimuli, resulting in increased vulnerability to pain. Conclusions Data gathered from the Rorschach test suggested psychological approaches to support

  15. Evidence-Based Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2016-11-03

    In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), and as is true in most health care professions, the primary focus of EBPP has been on treatment. Comparatively little attention has been devoted to applying the principles of EBPP to psychological assessment, despite the fact that assessment plays a central role in myriad domains of empirical and applied psychology (e.g., research, forensics, behavioral health, risk management, diagnosis and classification in mental health settings, documentation of neuropsychological impairment and recovery, personnel selection and placement in organizational contexts). This article outlines the central elements of evidence-based psychological assessment (EBPA), using the American Psychological Association's tripartite definition of EBPP as integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences. After discussing strategies for conceptualizing and operationalizing evidence-based testing and evidence-based assessment, 6 core skills and 3 meta-skills that underlie proficiency in psychological assessment are described. The integration of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences is discussed in terms of the complex interaction of patient and assessor identities and values throughout the assessment process. A preliminary framework for implementing EBPA is offered, and avenues for continued refinement and growth are described.

  16. Cyberfaking: I can, so I will? Intentions to fake in online psychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Rachel; Elliott, Jade

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intentions to fake online (cyberfaking) or in pencil-and-paper psychological testing differ. Participants (N=154) completed online questionnaires measuring attitudes toward faking, perceived behavioral control over faking, subjective norms regarding faking, and intentions to fake in future psychological assessment, with online and pencil-and-paper test administration scenarios compared. Participants showed similar intentions toward cyberfaking and faking in pencil-and-paper testing. However, participants held more positive attitudes toward cyberfaking than faking offline, greater perceived behavioral control over cyberfaking than offline faking, and more favorable subjective norms toward cyberfaking compared to offline faking. Analysis via multiple regression revealed that more positive attitudes toward cyberfaking, greater perceived behavioral control over cyberfaking, and more favorable subjective norms regarding cyberfaking were significantly related to the intention to cyberfake. In addition, more positive attitudes toward faking offline and greater perceived behavioral control over faking offline were significantly related to the intention to fake in offline tests. Overall, results indicated a similar pattern of relationship in the prediction of intentions to engage in faking regardless of the test administration modality scenario. Subjective norm, however, was not a significant predictor for faking offline. Future research could aim to include a behavioral faking outcome measure, as well as examine intentions to cyberfake in specific scenarios (for example, faking good or faking bad).

  17. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  18. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  19. School Culture, Basic Psychological Needs, Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Achievement: Testing a Casual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Badri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Culture is s common system of believes, values and artifacts that the members of a society use it in their relations, and it transfers from one generation to another. The school culture is a system of norms, meanings and values between school members. One of STD (self-determination theory components is basic psychological needs that emphasizes on Relatedness, Competence and Autonomy to accomplish the motivation. Motivation involves the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior. It seems that school culture, basic psychological needs and motivation has immense effect on academic achievement. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relation between students' perceived school culture, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation and academic achievement in a causal model. 296 high school students (159 females and 137 males in Tabriz, north - west of Iran, participated in this research and completed the students' perceived school culture questionnaire based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions (femininity, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism and power distance, basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. The results of the path analysis showed that fulfillment of basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation has positive effect on academic achievement. Uncertainty avoidance and power distance have also negative effect on fulfillment of psychological needs, but the influence of femininity on this variable was positive. Also, collectivism has no significant effect on it. In general, the findings showed that if school culture supports students' autonomy, they will experience fulfillment of their basic psychological needs, and attain higher intrinsic motivation and academic achievement.

  20. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  1. A critical discussion of null hypothesis significance testing and statistical power analysis within psychological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Allan; Sommerlund, Bo

    2007-01-01

    The uses of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and statistical power analysis within psychological research are critically discussed. The article looks at the problems of relying solely on NHST when dealing with small and large sample sizes. The use of power-analysis in estimating...... the potential error introduced by small and large samples is advocated. Power analysis is not recommended as a replacement to NHST but as an additional source of information about the phenomena under investigation. Moreover, the importance of conceptual analysis in relation to statistical analysis of hypothesis...

  2. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome in the first year of colorectal cancer: a review of the psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsbergen, Karin M; Prins, Judith B; Brunner, Han G; Kraaimaat, Floris W; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) receive genetic counselling within 1 year after diagnosis. Little is known whether specific subgroups are more vulnerable for genetic testing related distress. A literature review was conducted to identify the psychological impact of CRC in the first year, and the additional impact of genetic testing. The electronic databases of PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify all reports published between January 1997 and October 2007 on the psychological impact of (1) CRC-diagnosis up to 1 year after treatment and of (2) genetic testing for Lynch syndrome in patients with CRC. Studies on the psychological impact of genetic testing in newly diagnosed patient with CRC were not available. Either CRC patients diagnosed several years ago were studied and the focus was also often on the psychological impact of genetic testing prior to DNA-test disclosure. They show that limitations in emotional and social functioning can persist up to 1 year after CRC treatment, especially in those with a stoma or diagnosed before age 60. Female patients and male patients diagnosed before age 50 appear to be more vulnerable to genetic test-related distress. It is well known that being treated for CRC has great impact on psychological functioning. Little is known about the psychological impact during the first year after diagnosis and very little is known about the additional psychological effect of genetic testing for hereditary cancer in this period. We found presumptive evidence that specific subgroups of patients with CRC are more vulnerable for genetic-testing-related distress.

  3. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo E. Iso-Ahola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1 scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative; (2 non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3 statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4 psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance, not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.

  4. The psychological present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L J

    1992-01-01

    The present paper compares behavior-analytic and cognitive treatments of the concept of psychological history with regard to its role in current action. Both treatments take the position that the past bears some responsibility for the present, and are thereby obligated to find a means of actualizing the past in the present. Both do so by arguing that the past is brought to bear in the present via the organism. Although the arguments of the two positions differ on this issue, neither provides a complete account. An unconventional treatment of psychological history is proposed, the logic of which is exemplified in anthropological, biological, and psychological perspectives. The unconventional treatment in psychological perspective holds that (a) the organism's interaction with its environment, not the organism itself, changes with experience; and (b) the past interactions of an organism exist as, and only as, the present interactions of that organism. This solution to the problem of psychological history provides obligations and opportunities for analysis that are not available when the more conventional positions of cognitivism and behavior analysis are adopted.

  5. Evaluating the psychological effects of genetic testing in symptomatic patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansenne, Fleur; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; de Borgie, Corianne A J M

    2009-10-01

    Most research on the effects of genetic testing is performed in individuals at increased risk for a specific disease (presymptomatic subjects) but not in patients already affected by disease. If results of these studies in presymptomatic subjects can be applied to patients is unclear. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the effects of genetic testing in patients and describe the methodological instruments used. About 2611 articles were retrieved and 16 studies included. Studies reported great variety in designs, methods, and patient outcomes. In total, 2868 participants enrolled of which 62% were patients. Patients appeared to have a lower perceived general health and higher levels of anxiety and depression than presymptomatic subjects before genetic testing. In the long term no psychological impairment was shown. We conclude that patients differ from presymptomatic subjects and may be more vulnerable to negative effects of genetic testing. Conclusions from earlier research on presymptomatic genetic testing cannot be generalized to patients, and more standardized research is needed.

  6. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  7. Critical issues in psychological test use in the South African workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Paterson

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various factors in South African workplaces, ranging from unemployment and equity considerations to rapid occupational change driven by technological inputs, have placed greater emphasis on effective selection and development of human resources. This leads to greater demands on psychological assessment in the organizational setting with respect to ensuring responsible, ethical and equitable assessment. The study aims to investigate the extent and purposes of psychological test usage, the influence of the changing world of work on assessment, equity and cross-cultural applicability of tests and competence of test users in South Africa. The results are based on twenty two structured individual interviews, which were conducted with purposively sampled stakeholders from various economic sectors. Opsomming Verskeie faktore in Suid-Afrikaanse werkomgewing, wat wissel van werkloosheid en billikheidsoorwegings tot by vinnig veranderende beroepsomstandighede as gevolg van tegnologiese ontwikkeling, plaas toenemende druk op die doeltreffende keuring en ontwikkeling van menslike hulpbronne. Dit lei tot toenemende eise wat in die organisasie konteks aan sielkundige meting gestel word om verantwoordelike, etiese en billike assessering te verseker. Hierdie studie was daarop gerig om die doel met en omvang van die gebruik van sielkundige toetse, die invloed van die veranderende wêreld van werk op die assessering, billike en kruiskulturele toepaslikheid van toetse, asook die bevoegdheid van toetsgebruikers in Suid-Afrika te ondersoek. Die resultate is gebaseer op ’n doelgerigte steekproef van twee-en-twintig gestruktureerde onderhoude wat met belanghebbers uit verskillende ekonomiese sektore, gevoer is.

  8. Stereotypes Can "Get Under the Skin": Testing a Self-Stereotyping and Psychological Resource Model of Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Luis M; Paredez, Stefanie M

    2014-06-01

    The authors draw upon social, personality, and health psychology to propose and test a self-stereotyping and psychological resource model of overweight and obesity. The model contends that self-stereotyping depletes psychological resources, namely self-esteem, that help to prevent overweight and obesity. In support of the model, mediation analysis demonstrates that adult Hispanics who highly self-stereotype had lower levels of self-esteem than those who self-stereotype less, which in turn predicted higher levels of body mass index (overweight and obesity levels). Furthermore, the model did not hold for the referent sample, White participants, and an alternative mediation model was not supported. These data are the first to theoretically and empirically link self-stereotyping and self-esteem (a psychological resource) with a strong physiological risk factor for morbidity and short life expectancy in stigmatized individuals. Thus, this research contributes to understanding ethnic-racial health disparities in the United States and beyond.

  9. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology.

  10. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  11. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...... its role as a scientific discipline that contributes to making transparent the political, social, and interpersonal relations that define how our lives are shaped, if we want a discipline that provides value beyond the scientific realm....

  12. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  13. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.

  14. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year.

  15. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  16. Sociogenomic personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J

    2008-12-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology.

  17. Change in strategy of solving psychological tests: evidence of nitrogen narcosis in shallow air-diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, N M

    2003-01-01

    The depths from 10 to 30 m are usually not considered narcotic in scuba air-diving, and evidence of psychomotor disturbances attributable to nitrogen narcosis at these depths is weak and contradictory. 15 experienced male divers were tested in a chamber at 1, 2, 3, and 4 bars over five consecutive days using a battery of computer generated psychological tests-Computerized Reactionmeter Drenovac (CRD-series). Total test solving time, minimal single task solving time, total "ballast" time, and total number of errors were recorded. Nitrogen narcosis effects were evident at all hyperbaric pressures with marked performance differences among subjects. MANOVA revealed significant effects of nitrogen partial pressure for groups of the same variables as follows: total test solving time (p nitrogen narcosis at depths usually considered safe from its effects might be a problem in underwater operations that require accuracy, speed, limited time of performance, and complex psychomotor skills.

  18. Stressors, social support, and tests of the buffering hypothesis: effects on psychological responses of injured athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian; Evans, Lynne; Rees, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availability, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Study 2 utilized measures of stressors, received social support, and psychological responses of injured athletes. During physiotherapy clinic visits, injured athletes (Study 1, N = 319; Study 2, N = 302) completed measures of stressors, social support, and psychological responses to injury. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. In both studies, CFA suggested adequate model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed significant (p psychological responses; that is, the relationships between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may differ with regard to received or perceived available support. The findings have important implications for the design of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at alleviating the detrimental effects of injury stressors. What is already known on this subject? The health, social, and sport-injury related research suggests that social support has the potential to moderate (i.e., buffer) those psychological responses to stress that are detrimental to health and well-being. Despite what is a growing body of empirical research that has explored the role of social support in a sport injury context, there has been a paucity of research that has examined how social support functions in relation to injury-related stressors and psychological responses, particularly with regard to the effect of perceived and received support. In addition, there has been limited

  19. Genetics and educational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Walker, Sheila O

    2003-03-01

    Molecular genetics, one of the most energetic and exciting areas of science, is slowly but surely coming to educational psychology. We review recent molecular genetic research on learning disabilities as a sign of things to come in educational psychology. We also consider some misconceptions about genetics that have slowed the acceptance of genetics in educational psychology. Diverse samples of children with learning disabilities have been studied, primarily in the UK and the USA. Linkage analysis can detect genes that have large effects on learning disabilities. Association analysis can detect genes of much smaller effect size, which is important because common disorders such as learning disabilities are likely to be influenced by many genes as well as by many environmental factors. For reading disability, replicated linkages have been identified on chromosomes 6, 15 and 18. A gene responsible for a rare type of language impairment has recently been identified. For common language impairment, linkages on chromosomes 16 and 19 have recently been reported. More than 200 genetic disorders, most extremely rare, include mental retardation among their symptoms, and chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of mental retardation. Although finding specific genes associated with learning disabilities is unlikely to have much of a direct application for teachers in the classroom, such findings will have far-reaching implications for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of learning disabilities and for research in educational psychology. Educational psychology has been slower to accept evidence for the importance of genetics than other areas of psychology in part because of misconceptions about what it means to say that genetics is important for common complex disorders such as learning disabilities.

  20. The psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  1. The psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  2. The psychology of doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Barkoukis, Vassilis

    2017-08-01

    Doping is increasingly becoming a problem in both elite and recreational sports. It is therefore important to understand the psychological factors which can explain doping behavior in order to prevent it. The present paper briefly presents evidence on the prevalence of doping use in competitive sports and the measurement approaches to assess doping behavior and doping-related variables. Furthermore, the integrative theoretical approaches used to describe the psychological processes underlying doping use are discussed. Finally, the paper provides suggestions for appropriate measurement of doping behavior and doping-related variables, key preventive efforts against doping as well as avenues for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mindfulness and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, David

    2011-09-01

    Does mindfulness offer more to psychology than a useful therapeutic technique? This paper argues that it can also establish a state of presence which is understood in relation to the practice of phenomenology. Mindfulness is then both linked to a Western intellectual tradition and offers that tradition a systematic method. This is an opening for psychological investigation of the non-conceptual basis of everyday experience. The combination of this theoretical stance with the increasingly widespread practical training of clinical psychologists in mindfulness has broad implications for clinical practice; this is illustrated in relation to the descriptive approach to clinical problems, qualitative research, and reflective practice.

  4. Psychology of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hoc, J-M

    1991-01-01

    Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.

  5. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  6. [Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.

  7. [Importance of psychology in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaranda, P

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the venezuelan dentists express their necessities of knowing certain aspects of psychology that could be useful in the relations with their patients. In the investigation a 16 item questionnaire was elaborated, taking 5 areas in consideration: a. Psychological management of the dental patient. b. Psychological consequences of the dental disease. c. Dental disease psychogenesis. d. Patient first contact behavior. e. Aspects of work organization. 100 dentists and 100 dental students of the last 2 years were inquired, in order to compare these two populations at the XXXth Congress of the venezuelan dentists. The two proportion coefficient test was used with: P less than or equal to 0.01. As a result 4 groups of items had a significant difference: a. Patient dissertation. b. Children with problematic behavior. c. Anxious patients; and d. Professional fees. Quantitatively 16 items were recognized as items in with Psychology could be useful to be applied in dentistry. The article concludes with 6 recommendations underlining the important role of the dental psychology in the dental school as well as in private practice.

  8. Correlations between psychological tests and physiological responses during fear conditioning and renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Karen G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety disorders are characterized by specific emotions, thoughts and physiological responses. Little is known, however, about the relationship between psychological/personality indices of anxiety responses to fear stimuli. Methods We studied this relationship in healthy subjects by comparing scores on psychological and personality questionnaires with results of an experimental fear conditioning paradigm using a visual conditioned stimulus (CS. We measured skin conductance response (SCR during habituation, conditioning, and extinction; subsequently testing for recall and renewal of fear 24 hours later. Results We found that multiple regression models explained 45% of the variance during conditioning to the CS+, and 24% of the variance during renewal of fear to the CS+. Factors that explained conditioning included lower levels of conscientiousness, increased baseline reactivity (SCL, and response to the shock (UCR. Low levels of extraversion correlated with greater renewal. No model could be found to explain extinction learning or extinction recall to the CS+. Conclusions The lack of correlation of fear extinction with personality and neuropsychological indices suggests that extinction may be less determined by trait variables and cognitive state, and may depend more on the subject’s current emotional state. The negative correlation between fear renewal and extraversion suggests that this personality characteristic may protect against post-treatment relapse of symptoms of anxiety disorders.

  9. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  10. From Aesthetics to Psychology: Notes on Vygotsky's "Psychology of Art."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes Lima, Marcelo

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Vygotsky's ideas in art psychology on the role of emotion in art, the nature of the aesthetic experience, the semiotic nature of psychological processes, and the foundation of a Marxist psychology and a Marxist aesthetics. Central to all of his ideas was his critique of Russian formalism. (MMU)

  11. The Representation of Applied Psychology Areas in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselhuhn, Charlotte W.; Clopton, Kerri L.

    2008-01-01

    Many psychology majors indicate helping others as a reason for majoring in psychology, yet many enter positions not closely related to the field. This discrepancy may be due to a lack of student knowledge of the applied areas of psychology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coverage of clinical, counseling,…

  12. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  13. Core References in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…

  14. Sport Psychology: An Emerging Domain in the Counseling Psychology Profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Trent A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…

  15. Broadening the Boundaries of Psychology through Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues for community psychology to be included within the discipline boundaries of psychology. In doing this, it will enable psychology to begin to address some of the large scale social issues affecting people's well-being. It will be necessary, however, to incorporate aspects of other disciplines, make explicit the political…

  16. The Psychological Effect of Errors in Standardized Language Test Items on EFL Students' Responses to the Following Item

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksefidi, Saman

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the psychological effect of a wrong question with wrong items on answering to the next question in a test of structure. Forty students selected through stratified random sampling are given 15 questions of a standardized test namely a TOEFL structure test in which questions number 7 and number 11 are wrong and their answers…

  17. Psychological Factors Associated with Genetic Test Decision-Making among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Richman, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    Making decisions to undergo Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) genetic testing can be challenging. It is important to understand how the perceptions of affected individuals might influence testing decision-making. Although evidence has shown that psychological factors are important in predicting testing decisions, affect-type variables have been…

  18. Confronting Psychology's Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky (this issue, pp. 116-136) seeks to make community psychology a more effective force for social justice. His discussion of psychopolitical validity raises a number of questions: How perfect must the theoretical framework be to usefully oppose unjust power? In what way is the notion of "psychopolitical validity" most useful? How…

  19. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs;…

  20. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...

  1. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  2. Paediatric psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Allan; Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2014-04-01

    A 2011 BEACH-based study showed that over the past 40 years there has been increasing general practitioner (GP) involvement in the management of paediatric mental health in Australia. There has also been a changing mix of psychological conditions managed, including increased management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

  3. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs; and close…

  4. Rediscovering Differential Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…

  5. A Psychology of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…

  6. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  7. Advances in Environmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Nasar, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    When Plenum stopped publishing its edited series—Human Behavior and Environment and Advances in Environment, Behavior and Design—the field of environmental psychology suffered a loss. Scholars could go to one of the edited Plenum books to find state-of-the-art reviews on existing and emerging areas of research. [...

  8. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs;…

  9. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  10. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  11. American Psychologists and Psychology Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Virginia Staudt; Misiak, Henryk

    1984-01-01

    Describes the roots and consequences of the isolationism of American psychology. Argues that, as undergraduates, American psychology students should be enabled to develop a world view through exposure to foreign research and practices. Suggests means of implementing such exposure. (KH)

  12. African Journals Online: Psychology & Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... ... behaviour, relationship in the family, workplace, schools and organisations. ... education, health, religion, business, tourism, counselling and psychology. ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics.

  13. Psychological evaluation of children atopic dermatitis by Düss test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Polo Gascon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Atopic Dermatitis is a skin inflammatory disease, chronic and recurrent, characterized by intense itching and skin lesions with typical distribution. Besides the hereditary character, this disease can be influenced by environmental and psychological factors. The objective of this study was to discuss the use of the Fable of Duss test as a projective and psychodiagnostic instrument for children with AD, in order to understand the psychodinamic aspects. We evaluated 33 patients with atopic dermatitis on regular attendance at the Allergic Clinic of Dermatology Department of University Hospital, between 5 and 10 years of both sexes. Based on the results, it was possible to verify that the Fable of Duss test technique for expression emotional conflicts and discovery of the psychic functioning of these patients.

  14. The Psychological Impact of a Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis Following a Negative Fecal Occult Blood Test Result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Anne; McClements, Paula L; Steele, Robert J C; Redeker, Claudia; Sevdalis, Nick; Wardle, Jane

    2015-07-01

    Screening using fecal occult blood testing (FOBt) reduces colorectal cancer mortality, but the test has low sensitivity. A "missed" cancer may cause psychologic harms in the screened population that partially counteract the benefits of early detection. Three hundred and eleven people diagnosed with colorectal cancer (i) after a negative FOBt result (interval cancer), (ii) a positive result (screen-detected cancer), or (iii) in regions where screening was not offered, completed questions on quality of life (FACT-C), depression (CES-D), perceived diagnostic delay, and trust in the results of FOBt screening. Fifteen withheld consent to data matching with medical records, leaving a sample size of 296. Controlling for demographic and clinical variables, patients with an interval cancer reported poorer quality of life (difference in means = 6.16, P = 0.03) and more diagnostic delay (OR, 0.37; P = 0.02) than patients with screen-detected disease, with no differences in depression. No differences were observed between the interval cancer group and the group not offered screening on these measures. Patients with an interval cancer reported the lowest levels of trust in FOBt. An interval cancer has adverse effects on trust in FOBt, but does not result in worse psychologic outcomes compared with people diagnosed in areas with no screening program. People with an interval cancer report poorer quality of life than people with screen-detected disease. Improvements in test sensitivity could improve quality of life among people who complete an FOB test over and above any benefits already conferred by earlier detection. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. The Psychological Challenges of Replacing Conventional Karyotyping with Genomic SNP Array Analysis in Prenatal Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Riedijk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant couples tend to prefer a maximum of information about the health of their fetus. Therefore, we implemented whole genome microarray instead of conventional karyotyping (CK for all indications for prenatal diagnosis (PND. The array detects more clinically relevant anomalies, including early onset disorders, not related to the indication and more genetic anomalies of yet unquantifiable risk, so-called susceptibility loci (SL for mainly neurodevelopmental disorders. This manuscript highlights the psychological challenges in prenatal genetic counselling when using the array and provides counselling suggestions. First, we suggest that pre-test decision counselling should emphasize deliberation about what pregnant couples wish to learn about the future health of their fetus more than information about possible outcomes. Second, pregnant couples need support in dealing with SL. Therefore, in order to consider the SL in a proportionate perspective, the presence of phenotypes associated with SL in the family, the incidence of a particular SL in control populations and in postnatally ascertained patients needs highlighting during post-test genetic counselling. Finally, the decision that couples need to make about the course of their pregnancy is more complicated when the expected phenotype is variable and not quantifiable. Therefore, during post-test psychological counseling, couples should concretize the options of continuing and ending their pregnancy; all underlying feelings and thoughts should be made explicit, as well as the couple’s resources, in order to attain adequate decision-making. As such, pre- and post-test counselling aids pregnant couples in handling the uncertainties that may accompany offering a broader scope of genetic PND using the array.

  16. The Psychological Challenges of Replacing Conventional Karyotyping with Genomic SNP Array Analysis in Prenatal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedijk, Sam; Diderich, Karin E M; van der Steen, Sanne L; Govaerts, Lutgarde C P; Joosten, Marieke; Knapen, Maarten F C M; de Vries, Femke A T; van Opstal, Diane; Tibben, Aad; Galjaard, Robert-Jan H

    2014-07-03

    Pregnant couples tend to prefer a maximum of information about the health of their fetus. Therefore, we implemented whole genome microarray instead of conventional karyotyping (CK) for all indications for prenatal diagnosis (PND). The array detects more clinically relevant anomalies, including early onset disorders, not related to the indication and more genetic anomalies of yet unquantifiable risk, so-called susceptibility loci (SL) for mainly neurodevelopmental disorders. This manuscript highlights the psychological challenges in prenatal genetic counselling when using the array and provides counselling suggestions. First, we suggest that pre-test decision counselling should emphasize deliberation about what pregnant couples wish to learn about the future health of their fetus more than information about possible outcomes. Second, pregnant couples need support in dealing with SL. Therefore, in order to consider the SL in a proportionate perspective, the presence of phenotypes associated with SL in the family, the incidence of a particular SL in control populations and in postnatally ascertained patients needs highlighting during post-test genetic counselling. Finally, the decision that couples need to make about the course of their pregnancy is more complicated when the expected phenotype is variable and not quantifiable. Therefore, during post-test psychological counseling, couples should concretize the options of continuing and ending their pregnancy; all underlying feelings and thoughts should be made explicit, as well as the couple's resources, in order to attain adequate decision-making. As such, pre- and post-test counselling aids pregnant couples in handling the uncertainties that may accompany offering a broader scope of genetic PND using the array.

  17. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Health psychology: status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancarte, A L; Murphy, K J; Reilley, R R

    1991-08-01

    This study investigated the present status and suggested trends in health psychology as reported by American Psychological Association Division 38 (Health Psychology) members. A 25-item mail-in survey was developed to obtain these data from a randomly selected sample of 300. Information includes a demographic description of the respondents, their selection of influential books, journals, and individuals, and their opinions regarding the current status and desirable future trends in the field of health psychology.

  19. A Pilot Study to Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating Deployed U.S. Sailors and Marines with Musculoskeletal Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0146 TITLE: A Pilot Study to Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating...Study to Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating Deployed U.S. Sailors and Marines with Musculoskeletal...deployment in support of combat operations on a carrier. This includes testing the feasibility of the implementation and documenting psychological risk

  20. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfonso Piña López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.

  1. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  2. Social Justice and School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  3. Oedipal Issues in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes current status of counseling psychology from perspective of Freudian, drive-structure theory. Argues that counseling psychology has committed classical response to oedipal conflict in its treatment of counselor education by identifying with aggressor (psychiatry and clinical psychology). Recommends more unified relationship between…

  4. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  5. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  6. The Process of Psychological Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Anna; Moreland, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Consultation is a key means of service delivery in many psychological services. However, the "process" of consultation is little explored in Educational Psychology literature, particularly in the United Kingdom (UK). This paper focuses on a small-scale qualitative research study of psychological consultation provided by educational…

  7. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  8. Realism, Relativism, and Evolutionary Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with

  9. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  10. A Positive Psychology That Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.

    2006-01-01

    The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…

  11. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  12. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  13. Oedipal Issues in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes current status of counseling psychology from perspective of Freudian, drive-structure theory. Argues that counseling psychology has committed classical response to oedipal conflict in its treatment of counselor education by identifying with aggressor (psychiatry and clinical psychology). Recommends more unified relationship between…

  14. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  15. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  16. The impact of psychological testing on the patients suffering from stomatopyrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokupec, Josipa Sanja Gruden; Gruden, Zdenka; Gruden, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    Stomatopyrosis is commonly associated with stressful situations, which implies the importance of psychological conditions of the patients with this symptom. Patients suffering from burning mouth syndrome suffered from some psychical disturbances as well. The fact that depression and anxiety are closely connected with stomatopyrosis has been scientifically confirmed. The data which systematically led to this conclusion suggest the possibility of the existence of a psychogenic disturbance as an aetiological factor which leads to stomatopyrosis. Research which might be conducted in order to relate psychogenic disturbances with stomatopyrosis by means of various drugs and procedures, might provide an insight into the relatedness of these factors, which would enable us to treat the cause and not the consequence. This research has been directed towards establishing this "relatedness" by means of psychopharmatics and psychotherapy, and has been confirmed by means of psychological depression and anxiety tests. The research has been conducted on 120 respondents suffering from stomatopyrosis, who were also, as previously diagnosed, suffering from a psychical disturbance. The respondents were divided into 4 groups. Each group contained 30 respondents suffering from stomatopyrosis as the basic symptom, but with different psychogenic disturbances. These groups were: 1) antidepressants, 2) anxiolytics, 3) autogenic training and 4) control group. A detailed clinical and psychiatric check-up was conducted before the treatment started, and was repeated several times in different intervals: after a month, after two months and after four months. Respondents are still undergoing a therapy. Subjective assessment of the intensity of the burning sensation was obtained according to Visual analogue scale and two psychological questionnaires (depression test and anxiety test). Conclusion is: 1) Antidepressants and anxiolytic drugs have a prominent role in the treatment of stomatopyrosis

  17. 心理学视角下的犯罪心理测试技术访谈研究%A Research on the Interview of Criminal Psychological Testing Technology from the Perspective of Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾红梅

    2014-01-01

    犯罪心理测试是建立在大量心理学基础研究成果之上的心理实验的一种,属于应用心理学研究范畴。犯罪心理测试技术程序大多是在以测试方为主导的双方语言交流或者在测试方的语言指导下完成。访谈技术在犯罪心理测试技术中占有重要地位,其核心价值在于引导测试对象产生正确客观的认知。要想成功达到谈话的目的,主测人员要思考访谈关系构建的心理学基础、客观认知测试对象的心理行为反映、充分使用语言、恰当辅以访谈技巧等问题。%Criminal psychological testing technology is a kind of psychological experiment which is built on a large number of basic researches of psychology and falls into the category of applied psychology research. The criminal psychological testing technology program is mostly completed under the guidance of test-oriented language communication of two sides or the test language. Interview technology occupies an important position in the criminal psychological testing technology, and its core value is to guide the test object to produce correct objective cognition. To successfully achieve the purpose of conversation, the main test personnel should consider the psychological basis of building interview relationship, objectively cognize the psychological behavior relfection of the test object and make full use of language supplemented with appropriate interview skills and so on.

  18. What Is the Role and Importance of the Revised AERA, APA, NCME "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plake, Barbara S.; Wise, Lauress L.

    2014-01-01

    With the 2014 publication of the 5th revision of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing," the cochairs of the Joint Committee for the revision process were asked to consider the role and importance of the "Standards" for the educational testing community, and in particular for members of the National Council…

  19. Testing Multiple Psychological Processes for Common Neural Mechanisms Using EEG and Independent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2016-03-08

    Temporal independent component analysis (ICA) is applied to an electrophysiological signal mixture (such as an EEG recording) to disentangle the independent neural source signals-independent components-underlying said signal mixture. When applied to scalp EEG, ICA is most commonly used either as a pre-processing step (e.g., to isolate physiological processes from non-physiological artifacts), or as a data-reduction step (i.e., to focus on one specific neural process with increased signal-to-noise ratio). However, ICA can be used in an even more powerful way that fundamentally expands the inferential utility of scalp EEG. The core assumption of EEG-ICA-namely, that individual independent components represent separable neural processes-can be leveraged to derive the following inferential logic: If a specific independent component shows activity related to multiple psychological processes within the same dataset (e.g., elicited by different experimental events), it follows that those psychological processes involve a common, non-separable neural mechanism. As such, this logic allows testing a class of hypotheses that is beyond the reach of regular EEG analyses techniques, thereby crucially increasing the inferential utility of the EEG. In the current article, this logic will be referred to as the 'common independent process identification' (CIPI) approach. This article aims to provide a tutorial into the application of this powerful approach, targeted at researchers that have a basic understanding of standard EEG analysis. Furthermore, the article aims to exemplify the usage of CIPI by outlining recent studies that successfully applied this approach to test neural theories of mental functions.

  20. Which factors predict proposal and uptake of psychological counselling after BRCA1/2 test result disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Christine; Bouhnik, Anne-Deborah; Nogues, Catherine; Mouret-Fourme, Emmanuelle; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Lasset, Christine; Berthet, Pascaline; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Caron, Olivier; Luporsi, Elizabeth; Gladieff, Laurence; Julian-Reynier, Claire

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to prospectively determine the factors contributing to whether unaffected women from BRCA1/2 families reported that clinicians proposed psychological consultations and that they had attended these consultations during the genetic testing process. A prospective study was performed on a national cohort, using self-administered questionnaires to determine the rates of proposal and use of psychological services at the time of BRCA1/2 test result disclosure (N = 533) and during the first year after disclosure (N = 478) among unaffected French women from BRCA1/2 families who had undergone genetic testing for BRCA1/2. Multivariate adjustment was carried out using logistic regression models fitted using generalized estimation equations, with the genetic testing centre as the clustering variable. At the time of BRCA1/2 test result disclosure, a psychological consultation was proposed by cancer geneticists to 72% and 32% of the carriers (N = 232) and noncarriers (N = 301), respectively (p test results (proposal AOR: 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.03; uptake AOR: 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.06) CONCLUSIONS: Determinants of the proposal/uptake of psychological consultations in the BRCA1/2 testing process highlight the need for inventive strategies to reach the different types of women's profiles. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    of morality • Confronts the “naturalistic fallacy” in contemporary psychology. • Explains why moral science need not be separated from social science. • Addresses challenges and critiques to the author’s work from both formalist and relativist theories of morality. With its bold call to reason, Psychology......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...

  2. Psychobiological Assessment and Enhancement of Team Cohesion and Psychological Resilience in ROTC Cadets Using a Virtual-Reality Team Cohesion Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0042 TITLE: Psychobiological Assessment and Enhancement of Team Cohesion and Psychological Resilience in ROTC Cadets...Team Cohesion and Psychological Resilience in ROTC Cadets Using a Virtual-Reality Team Cohesion Test 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0042 5c. PROGRAM...and Enhancement of Team Cohesion and Psychological Resilience using a Virtual Team Cohesion Test JW140070, W81XWH-15-1-0042 PI: Dr. Josh Woolley

  3. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi.

  4. Normality in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  5. Loneliness and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J; Cochran, S D

    1991-05-01

    Research on relationships between loneliness and psychological symptoms has generally shown significant positive associations across a wide spectrum of psychopathologies. However, such results may be artificial, to some extent, given the high intercorrelations of typical psychopathology measures. In the current study, we examined associations between psychological symptoms, assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973) and loneliness, as measured by the UCLA-R Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), in college students. Using partial correlations to control for the confounding influence of generalized distress, relationships between loneliness and individual dimensions of distress were examined. Results indicate a significant association between loneliness and interpersonal sensitivity (low self-esteem) and depression. Other dimensions of distress were not significantly related to loneliness. In addition, no sex differences in patterns of association were observed. Results support the notion that self-blame and self-devaluation are strong correlates of loneliness.

  6. Environmental psychology matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters.

  7. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    and a longitudinal approach, differences and similarities in practices of care are identified. The care patterns are studied with a focus on young adults age 30-35. Quantitative as well as qualitative methods are employed. By utilising in-depth qualitative interview data the paper explores the interplay between...... institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the  life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults....... The paper analyses the discourses of intergenerational care as they intersect with everyday life practices and psychological realities of persons. The results indicate changes in the care pattern and deals with the dilemmas of solidarity, which are in contrast to dominant discourses of generations...

  8. Reasoning, logic, and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenning, Keith; van Lambalgen, Michiel

    2011-09-01

    We argue that reasoning has been conceptualized so narrowly in what is known as 'psychology of reasoning' that reasoning's relevance to cognitive science has become well-nigh invisible. Reasoning is identified with determining whether a conclusion follows validly from given premises, where 'valid' is taken to mean 'valid according to classical logic'. We show that there are other ways to conceptualize reasoning, more in line with current logical theorizing, which give it a role in psychological processes ranging from (verbal) discourse comprehension to (nonverbal) planning. En route we show that formal logic, at present marginalized in cognitive science, can be an extremely valuable modeling tool. In particular, there are cases in which probabilistic modeling must fail, whereas logical models do well. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 555-567 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.134 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates intergenerational care in family life in Denmark. It compares different patterns of care between three groups of families: 1) Monoethnic Danish Families (n=701), 2) Monoethnic South Asian Families (n =5) and 3) Multiethnic Families (n=15). Through the use of network analys...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation......This paper investigates intergenerational care in family life in Denmark. It compares different patterns of care between three groups of families: 1) Monoethnic Danish Families (n=701), 2) Monoethnic South Asian Families (n =5) and 3) Multiethnic Families (n=15). Through the use of network analysis...... institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the  life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults...

  10. Are elite cricketers more prone to suicide? A psychological autopsy study of Test cricketer suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Sava-Shah, Shrenik; Wijeratne, Chanaka; Draper, Brian

    2016-06-01

    It has been hypothesised that the very nature of the game predisposes elite cricketers to higher rates of suicide. We aim to estimate the suicide rate of male Test cricketers and to determine the reasons for suicide. The suicide rate in male Test cricketers was determined. A psychological autopsy was conducted using published biographical data. Twenty suicides amongst 2794 male Test cricketers from 1877 to 2014 yielded a suicide rate of 715.4 per 100,000 for that period. Health, financial and relationship issues were prominent; depression and alcohol misuse were common. Most suicides in Test cricketers occurred post-retirement in mid to late life with similar correlates to those found in the general male population. The idiosyncrasies of cricket are unlikely to contribute to suicide; however, the post-retirement welfare of Test cricketers should remain a focus of concern and the greater supports available to contemporary Test cricketers needs to extend beyond retirement. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  11. Psychology of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    1969) theory of the “conflict of generations,” which is based on a Freudian interpretation of terrorism as a psychological reaction of sons against...still rooted in psychodynamic theory (with less emphasis on stricter Freudians notions). -In a helpful review, Silke (1998) argued that ‘most serious...of social issues. This work is based on social language theory , on the behavioral analysis of cognition and language, on rule-government behavior

  12. Military Psychology for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Adelaide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available in trauma therapy is highlighted. 181 Chapter 8 follows on the previous chapter, as Loubsher emphasises the body in the context of trauma, providing the reader with insight into the importance of instinctual bodily responses to the process of healing... influence on the effectiveness of the military as well as the psychological consequences of the disease on factors like combat readiness. An explanation of African traditional approaches to healing provides valuable insight into how African individuals...

  13. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... and extensions" of BARTLETT's experiments, demonstrating how his methodology was progressively changed and misunderstood over time. An argument is made for re-introducing an open, qualitative and idiographic experimental method similar to the one BARTLETT practiced....

  14. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...

  15. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...

  16. Psychological strain between nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Obročníková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to identify differences in perception of work (mental workload among nurses providing acute and chronic nursing care. Design: Study design is cross-sectional and descriptive. Methods: The sample of respondents consisted of 97 nurses working in departments Neurology, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit of the hospital St. James in Bardejov, University Hospital of L. Pasteur in Košice and University Hospital J. A. Reiman in Prešov. To measure psychological strain, Meister's questionnaire for neuropsychological strain was used. Results: Increased psychological strain was observed in nurses providing acute care versus nurses providing chronic care, particularly in job satisfaction, long-term tolerance, time constraints, high responsibility, nervousness, fatigue and satiety. In comparison with the population norm, nurses in acute care achieved significantly higher indicators of factor I (strain and gross score as nurses in neurological care. A statistically significant relationship between psychological stress and age of nurses working in anesthesiology and intensive care departments was confirmed. Nurses with long term practical experience are exposed to intense mental stress (especially in the areas of strain and monotony. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest the reality that variable qualities of work related strain among nurses can lead to physical and emotional exhaustion.

  17. Psychology's epistemological identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Černigoj

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is first to present three different, mutually irreducible approaches to the study of human psyche, and then to offer a conceptual model that allows their meaningful integration. I begin the article with the common knowledge about three main determinants of human behavior: genetic inheritance, social environment, and one's own activity, which I then link with Stevens' (1998 conceptualization of three appropriate epistemologies in psychology. Nomothetic epistemology is adequate for the study of behavior rooted in our biological dispositions, hermeneutic epistemology for the study of behavior founded on symbolic meanings, and transformative epistemology for the study of behavior steaming from our capacity for reflexive awareness. I then interrelate these epistemologies using Gergen's (1973 idea about the continuum of temporal stability of events supplemented with the dimension of the abstractness of their treatment. I presuppose that nomothetic treatment of temporally less stable events demands a higher level of abstraction and vice versa. This is very important for psychology, because it acknowledges the possibility of psychology being a nomothetic science, but at the same time warns for the necessity of complementing its findings with the interpretive and phenomenological realizations.

  18. Evolutionary developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-02-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenetic effects that occur between humans and their environment in a way that attempts to explain how evolved psychological mechanisms become expressed in the phenotypes of adults. An evolutionary developmental perspective includes an appreciation of comparative research and we, among others, argue that contrasting the cognition of humans with that of nonhuman primates can provide a framework with which to understand how human cognitive abilities and intelligence evolved. Furthermore, we argue that several aspects of childhood (e.g., play and immature cognition) serve both as deferred adaptations as well as imparting immediate benefits. Intense selection pressure was surely exerted on childhood over human evolutionary history and, as a result, neglecting to consider the early developmental period of children when studying their later adulthood produces an incomplete picture of the evolved adaptations expressed through human behavior and cognition.

  19. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Foreman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include interface flexibility, the reproducibility of virtual experience, and the opportunity for on-line monitoring of performance. Applications of VEs are many and varied, but are especially beneficial where experience can be tailored via augmentation, and where dangerous training situations can be avoided. The use of programmable agents has great future potential in relation to training and interpersonal skill development, also perhaps in clinical diagnosis and therapy. Progress in VE usage in psychological education is limited by cost and availability, though VEs are being used increasingly in classroom and laboratory teaching exercises. Virtual Reality was said to be “an answer waiting for a question”, but questions are being recognized, so that applications of VEs within the behavioural sciences are likely to multiply.

  20. Conservation Psychology: A Gap in Current Australian Undergraduate Psychology Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa Pearson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human actions have contributed to numerous environmental challenges, including climate change and a significant loss of the world’s biodiversity. As the scientific study of human thought and behaviour, psychology has much to offer in better understanding these issues, as well as fostering greater sustainability in human actions. Yet, despite this recognition, and increasing calls from leaders in psychology education to produce graduates capable of applying their disciplinary knowledge to such real-world issues to solve worldwide behaviourally-based problems; this may not be adequately addressed in current psychology training. The present study assessed the content of all APAC (Australian Psychology Accreditation Council approved psychology programs within Australia to determine the proportion which offered a psychology-focused course (unit specifically in conservation or sustainability. Based on the data advertised through each university website, it appears that only one of 39 programs currently offers such a course, with one other university implementing a conservation psychology course in 2013. Thus 95% of current APAC-accredited programs in Australia do not have a strong focus on training psychology graduates to contribute to addressing these important issues. The need for greater integration of conservation psychology content into undergraduate psychology education in Australia and beyond is discussed.

  1. Ecological, psychological, and cognitive components of reading difficulties: testing the component model of reading in fourth graders across 38 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The authors tested the component model of reading (CMR) among 186,725 fourth grade students from 38 countries (45 regions) on five continents by analyzing the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study data using measures of ecological (country, family, school, teacher), psychological, and cognitive components. More than 91% of the differences in student difficulty occurred at the country (61%) and classroom (30%) levels (ecological), with less than 9% at the student level (cognitive and psychological). All three components were negatively associated with reading difficulties: cognitive (student's early literacy skills), ecological (family characteristics [socioeconomic status, number of books at home, and attitudes about reading], school characteristics [school climate and resources]), and psychological (students' attitudes about reading, reading self-concept, and being a girl). These results extend the CMR by demonstrating the importance of multiple levels of factors for reading deficits across diverse cultures.

  2. Psychological distress following fecal occult blood test in colorectal cancer screening--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Ladelund, Steen; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program.......To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program....

  3. Test Reviews: Euler, B. L. (2007). "Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree (EDDT) is a teacher-completed norm-referenced rating scale published by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., in Lutz, Florida. The 156-item EDDT was developed for use as part of a broader assessment process to screen and assist in the identification of 5- to 18-year-old children for the special…

  4. Diagnosing and Solving School Learning Disabilities in Epilepsy: Part 5, School and Psychological Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In the last article, the author covered the social and psychological causes to learning difficulty that can be created by epilepsy. Over the last two articles, the author gained a fairly complete picture of problems that may be due to the physical disorder of epilepsy and problems due to its unique impact on the social aspects of the classroom. In…

  5. Psychological Empowerment as a Multidimensional Construct: A Test of Construct Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraimer, Maria L.; Seibert, Scott E.; Liden, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the construct validity of scores on the Psychological Empowerment Scale of G. Spreitzer (1995). Confirmatory factor analysis of data from 160 nurses supported Spreitzer's four empowerment dimensions, and these findings were cross-validated with a subset from the same sample. Results also support the predictive validity of the scale.…

  6. Testing the Structure of Psychological Empowerment: Does Gender Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, Jean-Sebastien; Gaudreau, Patrick; Laschinger, Heather K. Spence

    2004-01-01

    Psychological empowerment (PE) is presumed to be a second-order latent construct composed of four dimensions: meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact. Based on the results of two validation studies, it has been hypothesized that loadings of the four dimensions on PE could vary across gender groups. A multiple-group second-order…

  7. Multidimensional Rasch Analysis of a Psychological Test with Multiple Subtests: A Statistical Solution for the Bandwidth-Fidelity Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying-Yao; Wang, Wen-Chung; Ho, Yi-Hui

    2009-01-01

    Educational and psychological tests are often composed of multiple short subtests, each measuring a distinct latent trait. Unfortunately, short subtests suffer from low measurement precision, which makes the bandwidth-fidelity dilemma inevitable. In this study, the authors demonstrate how a multidimensional Rasch analysis can be employed to take…

  8. The Meaning of Validity in the New "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing": Implications for Measurement Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura D.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of validity in the newest edition of "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" is quite different from coverage in earlier editions of the Standards and in most measurement textbooks. The view of validity in the 1999 Standards is discussed, and suggestions for instructors of measurement courses are offered. (Contains 56…

  9. Experience of parental cancer in childhood is a risk factor for psychological distress during genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    Background: This study explores the effect of age at the time of parental cancer diagnosis or death on psychological distress and cancer risk perception in individuals undergoing genetic testing for a specific cancer susceptibility. Patients and methods: Cancer-related distress, worry and risk

  10. Alternates to Psychological Testing or How We've Turned a Silk Purse into a Sow's Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersoff, Donald N.

    Psychological testing has recently fallen into disrepute because psychoanalysts have perpetuated a fraudulent theory of personality and because psychometrists have become overly concerned with psychometric esthetics to the neglect of validity. The theory subscribed to by psychoanalysts holds behavior as relatively independent of the situation the…

  11. Psychological emergency attendance as a psychological service in educational psychology: limits and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson do Nascimento Bezerra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The School Psychology Emergency Practices differs from others School Psychology practices, is more than type of psychology service and should have more institutional visibility. This paper reflects on these references from both the practice of the author and the currently literature in school psychology. To this purpose, we use as reference the concept of Extended Clinic and its relation with Psychology Emergency Service area. We discuss the opportunity of the school psychologist has, among other things, to be able to listen and to welcome spontaneously anyone in the school community seeking for support in case of emergency. In so doing, the author reflects on the condition of psychological emergency service as service and as a type of treatment at school, and school psychology as an area of expertise inserted in this complex environment different of views and perspectives.

  12. Counseling Psychology in China: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Timothy C.; Qiong, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Ancient Chinese philosophers were interested in ways to promote psychological development and they made significant contributions, particularly in the area of mental testing. In the twentieth century the Chinese focused on behavioral psychology, and the field suffered a great setback during Mao's Cultural Revolution. However, more recently,…

  13. The future of the application of the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test in Sports Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozerkan, Kemal Nuri

    2005-01-01

    The Bi-Digital O-Ring Test, originally developed by Dr. Omura, utilizes changes in the degree of strength of voluntary movements of muscles of the fingers under a definite muscle tonus, making Bi-Digital O-Rings, as an indicator of pathology in the body. Research in Sports Psychology can use the classical measurement methods and Bi-Digital O-Ring Test method comparatively and thus produce new findings regarding the reliability and certainty of the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test test. It seems probable that by using the non-invasive Bi-Digital O-Ring Test test, it is possible to measure enzymes, hormones and neuro-transmitters instantaneously and assess a sports person's actual psychological and physiological performance, and thereby help them reach their peak performance levels during both exercise and competitions.

  14. Testing a social psychological model of strategy use with students of english as a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tsung-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    This replication study tested MacIntyre's Social Psychological Model of Strategy Use. Participants were 137 first-year college students (100 men and 37 women), all in their late teens or early 20s, learning English as a foreign language in a university in Taiwan. McIntyre specified three conditions for use of language-learning strategies in his model: awareness of the strategy, having a reason to use it, and not having a reason not to use it. Stepwise multiple regression analyses of data measured by Oxford's 50-item Strategy Inventory for Language Learning partially support this model because only Knowledge about the Strategy (representing the first condition) and Difficulty about Using It (representing the third condition) made significant independent contributions to the prediction of use of most of the 50 strategies. Close examination of the results poses questions about MacIntyre and Noels' thesis, as implied in their revised model, that reason to use the strategy and reason not to use the strategy are independent. The present replication suggests a need for further revision of the model. Use of methods more advanced than the multiple regression is recommended to test and refine the model.

  15. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    meaning, and posits psychology as one of the critical methods of organizing normative values in society; at the same time it carefully notes the discipline’s history of being sidetracked by overemphasis on theoretical constructs and physical causes—what the author terms “the psychologizing of morality......What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...

  16. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  17. History of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. On applying cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding.

  19. The psychology of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Janse van Rensburg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the psychological experience of poor people and the pastoral responsibility to guide them towards poverty transition. A qualitative analysis of the narratives of three participants is compared to the enthralling history of Florcy Mabuza who in her book, Poverty mentality: The root of poverty, explains the dangers of a spiritual and emotional mindset that precipitates and feeds the plight of poverty. Using a literature study to interpret the narratives as well as a method of encoding, basic mindsets of poverty and factors that influence this mindset are identified. The study culminates in conclusions to encourage further research and pastoral involvement.

  20. Psychology and the soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, O

    1996-09-01

    Otto Rank (1884-1939) wrote the present work at the height of his creative powers, betweenWill Therapy andArt and Artist. Here he presents a sweeping history of psychology-individual and social-from the animistic era to psychoanalysis. An earlier translation (by William D. Turner, 1950) was incomplete and somewhat inaccurate. Unlike Sigmund Freud, his mentor, Rank viewed religion with respect and clarifies its role in individual and communal life through this study of soul-belief through the ages. The book contains important insights on immortality, will, dreams, Judaism and Christianity, Hamlet and Don Juan, Jung and Adler, and Freud himself.

  1. [Foucault's relevance for psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Juan

    2009-11-01

    In this article, we will attempt to address one of the most outstanding and influential thinkers of the past century: Michel Foucault, Philosopher, Psychologist, and above all (university) Professor. Michel Foucault is certainly versatile: Historian (of madness, clinical practice, imprisonment and sexuality), Archaeologist (of knowledge), Analyst (of discourse and power relations), Psychologist (genealogy of subjectivity) and Philosopher (of power and the subject). With this article, we eventually expect to offer some clues to be able to use the work of Michel Foucault for the problematization of Psychology.

  2. Psychological preparation in sport shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Ledecká, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Title: Psychological preparation in sport shooting Objectives: The objective of this thesis is usage of psychological preparation by sport shooting representation team in Czech Republic. How they are informed about psychological preparation. What it means to them. Which types of regulation they use and how they behave before and after a competition. Methods: A Questionnaire was used as a method for data obtaining. The questionnaire was compiled for the purposes of this Thesis. The researched ...

  3. Teaching psychology to computing students

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching Psychology to Computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where Psychology is relevant to Computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students’ education. The second aim is to consider findings from research investigating the characteristics of Computing and Psychology students. It is proposed that this information could be considered in the de...

  4. Transpersonal Psychology: Mapping Spiritual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight Judy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first Journal of Transpersonal Psychology was published in 1969. Since this signal event, transpersonal psychology has emerged as a field of theory and application. A way has been made in Western psychology for the appreciation and study of interior subjective awareness, the domain of spiritual experience. One of the most recent contributions, the Wilber-Combs Lattice, offers a typology to account for both developmental processes throughout the human life span, as well as different qualities of spiritual experience.

  5. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  6. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  7. Prostate specific antigen testing is associated with men's psychological and physical health and their healthcare utilisation in a nationally representative sample: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flahavan, Evelyn M; Drummond, Frances J; Bennett, Kathleen; Barron, Thomas I; Sharp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    ...) testing in primary care. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between PSA testing and the psychological and physical health, and healthcare utilisation of men in a population where PSA testing is widespread...

  8. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology.

  9. Psychological empowerment: issues and illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M A

    1995-10-01

    Discussed several issues related to psychological empowerment. The thesis of this paper is that the development of a universal and global measure of psychological empowerment may not be a feasible or appropriate goal. I begin by distinguishing between empowerment processes and outcomes. Underlying assumptions are discussed including the notion that empowerment differs across people, contexts, and times. A nomological network that includes intrapersonal, interactional, and behavioral components is also presented. Two examples of psychological empowerment for voluntary service organization members and members of a mutual help organization are described to help illustrate differences in the specific variables that may be used to measure psychological empowerment in different populations and settings.

  10. [Psychological aspects of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, L

    2016-12-01

    To propose recommendations for women's counseling in abortion request and the psychological experience of orthogenic teams. Bibliographic search in the Medline database, PubMed, Cochrane Database Library, EM Premium bases, ENT Unistra and Cairn from 1990 to 2016. During the pre-abortion consultations, it is recommended to respect the choice of the woman on to see or not the ultrasound images (gradeC) and determine with her the time it needs to perform abortion (professional agreement). Women's satisfaction seems greater when they have the possibility to choose the abortion method (grade B). It is therefore important that both methods are available to all gestational ages (professional agreement). There is no relationship between an increase in psychiatric disorders and induced abortion (NP2). Meetings for professionals are useful and should, to the extent possible, be established (professional agreement). Improving psychological support for women involve listening them and respect their choice. This also involves thinking as a team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychology of anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Benbenaste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.

  12. The psychology of humanness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Steve; Holland, Elise

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the ways in which the concept of "humanness" illuminates a wide and fascinating variety of psychological phenomena. After introducing the concept--everyday understandings of what it is to be human--we present a model of the diverse ways in which humanness can be denied to people. According to this model people may be perceived as lacking uniquely human characteristics, and thus likened to animals, or as lacking human nature, and thus likened to inanimate objects. Both of these forms of dehumanization occur with varying degrees of subtlety, from the explicit uses of derogatory animal metaphors, to stereotypes that ascribe lesser humanness or simpler minds to particular groups, to nonconscious associations between certain humans and nonhumans. After reviewing research on dehumanization through the lens of our model we examine additional topics that the psychology of humanness clarifies, notably the perception of nonhuman animals and the objectification of women. Humanness emerges as a concept that runs an integrating thread through a variety of research literatures.

  13. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  14. FEATURES OF STUDENT PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorina PASCA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Student psychological counseling is one of the means to acknowledge student identity by employing counseling tools that allow the psychologist to make use of a set of skills essential in achieving envisaged outcomes. To act as counseling psychologist for students is to guide actions by the five wh- questions: who (the client is, why (the counselor is approached, who (the counselor talks to, what (problem the student has to tackle, how (the problem can be solved. Some of the most important features that contribute to solving student problems are the counselor’s deontology, trustworthiness and attitude that are to be relied on without impeding the client’s personality traits. Thus, developing awareness of the features underlying student psychological counseling and acting accordingly is the real test for any professional in the field. Therefore, the real challenge is not being in the lion’s den, but living with it.

  15. [Psychological approaches in hypertension management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall-Barbry, Gaëlle; Consoli, Silla M

    2006-06-01

    Stress factors, especially high levels of occupational stress, are associated with hypertension. Several so-called psychological techniques have been applied to hypertension: biofeedback, relaxation techniques (Schultz' autogenic training, Jacobson's progressive relaxation), transcendental meditation, and cognitive behavioral techniques for stress management. Randomized studies show that the best results come from cognitive behavioral methods, whether or not they include relaxation techniques. Other forms of psychotherapy (such as psychoanalysis) may be useful, although their benefits for blood pressure have not been tested in controlled trials. Patients should be informed about the personal benefits they may obtain from psychological treatment. Indications are hyperreactivity to stress, high levels of occupational stress, and difficulty in tolerating or complying with antihypertensive drugs.

  16. The Psychology of Replication and Replication in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2012-11-01

    Like other scientists, psychologists believe experimental replication to be the final arbiter for determining the validity of an empirical finding. Reports in psychology journals often attempt to prove the validity of a hypothesis or theory with multiple experiments that replicate a finding. Unfortunately, these efforts are sometimes misguided because in a field like experimental psychology, ever more successful replication does not necessarily ensure the validity of an empirical finding. When psychological experiments are analyzed with statistics, the rules of probability dictate that random samples should sometimes be selected that do not reject the null hypothesis, even if an effect is real. As a result, it is possible for a set of experiments to have too many successful replications. When there are too many successful replications for a given set of experiments, a skeptical scientist should be suspicious that null or negative findings have been suppressed, the experiments were run improperly, or the experiments were analyzed improperly. This article describes the implications of this observation and demonstrates how to test for too much successful replication by using a set of experiments from a recent research paper.

  17. The Journey Towards Africanising Psychology in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychology has come a long way since its origin in Africa and Ghana in particular. In this paper, an attempt is made to explore the current state of psychological knowledge in Ghana as well as the associated problems in the application of such knowledge. It was concluded that the approach to the study and application of psychological knowledge and tests has been too Eurocentric and westernized. As a result, it limits the applicability of the approach to the African setting, and yet, Western theorists may expect African psychologists to apply the theories to Africans. On the basis of this criticism, the scope of Pan-African psychology is defined and suggestions for pursuing an Africanisation project are presented. It is expected that the strategies that this paper advocates for indigenizing psychology in Africa can equally be useful to psychologists in other developing regions of the world.

  18. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  19. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  20. Community psychology practice: expanding the impact of psychology's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom

    2014-11-01

    This article introduces the reader to community psychology practice by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology practice looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology practice. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology practice for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology practice offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making.

  1. Training in psychodiagnostic testing in APA-approved PsyD and PhD clinical psychology programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, C; Zalewski, C

    1993-10-01

    Fifty-one percent (N = 80) of directors of doctoral PhD and PsyD programs in clinical psychology, accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA), responded to a survey on assessment training. The study was a replication of an earlier survey by Piotrowski and Keller (1984b) on instruction, practices, and attitudes on testing. Our findings indicated that training emphasis in assessment coursework has changed very little over the past decade. Intelligence testing was emphasized in most programs, followed by objective and projective personality assessment. However, training in behavioral assessment techniques was required in only half of the responding programs. There were no significant differences between PhD and PsyD programs concerning required coursework in assessment. Factors that influence the perennial importance of testing in the clinical core curriculum are discussed.

  2. Psychological parameters of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, A; Platsidaki, E; Kouskoukis, C; Christodoulou, C

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory scaling dermatosis. The marked visible appearance of the lesions have a negative impact on body image that leads to decreased self-esteem, hence seriously compromising the patient's quality of life. The clinical picture critically affects the social well-being of the patient since the disease is commonly misunderstood and feared by the social environment as being contagious. The patient feels stigmatized and this further intensifies their lack of self-confidence and self-esteem. Feelings of shame and guilt increase the tendency toward suicidal ideation. The poor quality of life of psoriatic patients has been associated with excessive alcohol consumption, increased smoking and greater use of tranquilizers, sedatives and antidepressants. As far as mental impairment is concerned, a correlation has been found between psychological stress and the clinical severity of symptoms: the more mentally affected the patient, the more severe the dermatologic lesions. Similarly, stressful life events constitute a major risk for the occurrence and recurrence, exacerbating the severity and duration of the symptoms. Depression and anxiety can worsen the disease or cause resistance to treatment or patient's indifference, which in turn can lead to expensive and prolonged treatment. Not least, the disease itself contributes to anxiety, depression and psychological stress, thus creating a "vicious circle" that is difficult to manage. Given that women seem to invest more in their personal appearance than men, it is hardly surprising that female psoriatic patients report higher levels of depression. Similarly, the risk of mental disorders is also higher in younger patients for whom body image plays an equally significant role. The severity of the disease, side effects of therapy and mental disorders are among the causes that have been attributed to sexual dysfunction reported by some psoriatic patients. At the social level, stigma, social rejection

  3. The Psychology of Learning Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemp, Richard R.

    This book deals with the teaching of mathematical concepts through the use of the psychology of human learning. In the first part of the book, the thought processes which people adopt when they do mathematics are analyzed psychologically. Interpersonal and emotional factors affecting the learning of mathematics are discussed. The second part of…

  4. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  5. Psychological Factors in English Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴西

    2015-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction The psychological factor that influences English study is dynamic,complex,and flexible.Its influence is not immediately known,but it rather accumulates over a period of time.It is inevitable that students have some psychological factors in learning English.Therefore,in the process of teaching,teachers

  6. Counseling Psychology's Wide New Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold

    2003-01-01

    Is it truly important to "internationalize" counseling psychology? If so, how can we best do this? This reaction to Leong and Ponterotto (2003) documents four general points about international psychology today--its origins, growth, ethnocentrism, and diversity--and relates these to their bold and comprehensive proposal to…

  7. Disconnecting Positive Psychology and OBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyten, Cloyd

    2005-01-01

    This paper responds to the article by Wiegand and Geller which advocates broadening the content of OBM by assimilating content from non-behavioral psychologies. I argue that these psychologies have theories and aims so incompatible with OBM that no added value will be obtained by forming an interconnection. Specific problems with positive…

  8. Basketball Game as Psychology Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyson, James A.; Blick, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    To help undergraduate psychology students learn basic concepts in the experimental method, a basketball game is construed as a psychology experiment. Although no formal evaluation of the effectiveness of the basketball analogy as a learning device was conducted, students responded favorably. (RM)

  9. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  10. Reestablishing Clinical Psychology's Subjective Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Peter Hume

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author…

  11. [Representation models and clinical psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, P

    1993-01-01

    Clinical psychology often borrows vocabulary from medicine as well as its analysis schemes and explanation models. This survey will deal with all analysis schemes used by the clinical psychologist, explicitly or implicitly, to make it possible to understand the psychological functioning, and work on it as soon as a problem arises.

  12. Gestalt Psychology and Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Bob; And Others

    Several concepts detailed in Gestalt psychology/therapy appear to have a close relationship with many concepts being applied in bilingual education. The primary contribution of Gestalt psychology to learning theory in the U.S. is an emphasis on perception and reintegration of relationships within an organized whole. To the teacher this means that…

  13. Reestablishing Clinical Psychology's Subjective Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Peter Hume

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author…

  14. Psychology Practice: Design for Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a blueprint for modernizing the delivery of high-quality behavioral health care and for improving access to care by a public sorely in need of psychological services. The blueprint brings together disparate elements of psychology practice into a more unified structure, an updated house, based upon advances in the essential…

  15. What Comparative Psychology Is About.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewsbury, Donald A.

    1992-01-01

    Urges the inclusion of comparative psychology in the undergraduate curriculum. Defines zoological or comparative psychology as a field that explores the behavior patterns and minds of many animal species and the genesis, control, and consequences of a range of behavioral patterns. Traces the history and development of the discipline. Discusses…

  16. Mathematical modeling in psychological researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zyolko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the nature of mathematical modeling and its significance in psychological researches. The author distinguishes the types of mathematical models: deterministic, stochastic models and synergetic models. The system approach is proposed as an instrument of implementation of mathematical modelling in psychological research.

  17. Freud in Introductory Psychology Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Christian J.

    1976-01-01

    Discussed are presentations and evaluations of Freud found in psychology textbooks from 1908 to 1975 in terms of the empirical versus the nonempirical views about the proper subject matter of psychology. Findings indicate that psychologists remain divided in their attitudes toward Freud. (Author/DB)

  18. Teaching Psychology to Computing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching psychology to computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where psychology is relevant to computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students' education. The second aim is to consider findings…

  19. Holland Code Type and Psychological Reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Woller, Kevin M. P.; Pepper, Harry

    1999-01-01

    The Self-Directed Search and two measures of psychological reactance (motivation to restore loss or threatened loss of behavioral freedoms) were completed by 186 participants. Three of Holland's types (Social, Investigative, Enterprising) significantly predicted reactance for both tests. (SK)

  20. Existential Coaching Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Langdridge

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article I seek to elaborate a model of existential coaching psychology that is both grounded in existentialphenomenological philosophy but also informed by work in coaching. To date, many attempts to develop anexistential approach to coaching have – in my view – described an approach to coaching that is either indistinguishablefrom existential counselling and psychotherapy or a rather crude form of technical eclecticism.In this article, I discuss the key elements of existential coaching, as I understand it, and the need to modify theexistential therapeutic approach for coaching practise. To this end, I draw on extant work on coaching and,in particular, the need for both a goal and solution directed approach if an existential model of psychologicalcoaching is going to provide the basis for effective practise.

  1. Adolescent health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paula G; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Greenley, Rachel Neff

    2002-06-01

    In this article, a biopsychosocial model of adolescent development is used as an organizing framework for a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention research with adolescent populations. During adolescence many critical health behaviors emerge, affecting future disease outcomes in adulthood. In addition, most of the predominant causes of morbidity and mortality in adolescence are unique to this period of development, indicating that health-focused interventions must be tailored specifically to adolescents. Moreover, it is during adolescence that lifelong patterns of self-management of and adjustment to chronic health conditions are established. Thus, an increased focus on adolescence in health psychology research is important both to improve the health of adolescents per se and to optimize health trajectories into adulthood.

  2. Psychological diagnosis in sexology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, R

    2003-01-01

    The author presents a model based on verbal and non-verbal instruments in order to elaborate a psychological diagnosis in troubles of sexual behavior. The instruments usually employed are the following: the map aimed at verifying harmony or conflict with significant people; family drawing, another means to check harmony or conflict in the nuclear family; genogram, in order to reconstruct family myths; body drawing aimed at discovering the body parts that give pleasure, uneasiness, annoyance-tickle and the problems connected with genitals; questionnaire on the couple aimed at finding out areas of mutual dissatisfaction; the drawing of the shared space in the couple, represented by the WE area, in order to identify the relational/emotional deficiencies. Using this model we can simplify the anamnesis, focus on the problematic areas, quickly check the unconscious contents and define a diagnosis with the subsequent hypothesis of intervention.

  3. Psychology students' career expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Boštjančič

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Developing career expectations is a process through which young people get to know their own characteristics, skills, and values, assess their opportunities on the labor market, and develop various career plans and goals for themselves. In this study, 190 students completed the "Career Planning" questionnaire, which is composed of a series of open-response questions. The results showed that students have very little work experiences connected with psychology and more in administration, working with children, and volunteer work. They tend to evaluate their skills as high. Their career expectations are distributed by employment area, in which they draw attention to various obstacles in achieving their set goals, especially with regard to personality factors and financing. They primarily expect good interpersonal relations and working conditions from their future workplaces.

  4. [The psychology of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makselon, J

    1998-01-01

    Man's common experience interpreted in the humanities points to the inevitability of suffering. Suffering was even termed a basic border situation (C. Jaspers). The so-called scientific psychology hardly analyses human suffering. S. Freud regarded culture as a source of suffering and the behaviourists did not see the need for an analysis of man's inner experience. Radical change of the view on suffering was brought about in the works of V. E. Frankl who thought man to be homo patients (to be a man means to suffer). There are various sources and kinds of suffering. Based on his own vast researches the author characterizes three kinds of man's suffering: physical (pain, somatic diseases), psychical (hardships, mental disorders and illnesses) and spiritual (lack of a meaningful life, moral dilemmas). He also puts forward a hypothesis that a psychic suffering is a correlative between both mental and spiritual sufferings. Suffering fulfills a variety of functions in the life and personality of a human being; it can cause a personality degradation or can further a personality development. Therefore, we can speak of the ambivalent character of suffering. The elementary psychological problem, encountered in suffering, is to give suffering some meaning. In order to do this one must ask about future: for whom and what do I suffer? Whereas the question about the ultimate origin of suffering (why do I suffer?) not only makes it possible to explain the issue fully but first of all allows us to recognize suffering as a mystery of human existence. The author proves that the analyses carried out by John Paul II in Salvifici doloris are coherent with the principles of logotherapy. However, the analyses are more profound since they point to individual, social, cultural and transcendental dimensions of suffering.

  5. Five currents of organizational psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2017-01-01

    Organizational psychology may be seen as consisting of a number of mutually conflictual currents developed over several decades. This article discusses five currents in organizational psychology that have both been dominant in Scandinavia and have had particular significance in relation...... to the field of organizational development: The social psychological, the socio-technical, the humanistic, the work psychological and the social constructionist currents. Central arguments and works from leading scholars are discussed. It is argued that although treated differently the notions of the small...... group, group dynamics, resistance to change and process consultation constitute pivotal and through going tenets in all the currents. These notions, it is argued, link the discipline of organizational psychology together into a mutually discordant, but anyway relatively consistent research area...

  6. Psychology, psychologists, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Katherine M; Sechrest, Lee; McKnight, Patrick E

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based policy is being encouraged in all areas of public service ( Black 2001 ). Unprecedented federal legislation reflects a faith in science "as a force for improved public policy" ( Feuer et al. 2002 ). The objective of evidence-based policy is to use scientific research to drive decision making. Thus, the link between social science research and public policy seems to be a natural one. The purpose of this chapter is to address how psychological science in general, and clinical psychology in particular, can be of use to public policy makers. We discuss how psychological science can be relevant and applicable to informing policy, and we describe the role clinical scientists might play in generating, disseminating, and implementing that information. We also note distinct limitations on the usefulness of psychological research in driving public policy. We discuss some pitfalls and recommend areas where clinical psychology might best serve public policy.

  7. Premenstrual syndrome: a psychological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riven, L

    1983-10-01

    This paper reviews the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) from a historical and psychological perspective. The physician must recognize that the premenstruum-the four days before the onset of the menses-is a `high risk' phase for women. They may demonstrate somatic and psychological complaints such as irritability, aggression, tension, anxiety, depression, lethargy, insomnia, poor coordination and concentration. Psychological disturbances can range from self-deprecation and the feeling that `everything is too much' to pronounced feelings of oppression and depression. Psychiatric patients may become even more disturbed at this time. Recent reviews on PMS have studied its etiology and its possible connection to hormone imbalance, but to date there is no complete explanation for the syndrome's psychological symptoms. The most promising treatments for the psychological symptoms of PMS are pyridoxine (although there are conflicting reports about it), antidepressants, benzodiazepines if anxiety and tension dominate, and ongoing psychotherapy for severe cases.

  8. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena.

  9. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  10. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  11. The cold pressor test for the pediatric population: refinement of procedures, development of norms, and study of psychological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapanotto, Manuela; Pozziani, Giorgio; Perissinotto, Egle; Barbieri, Sara; Zacchello, Franco; Benini, Franca

    2009-08-01

    The aims of the study were: (a) to propose focal refinements to the cold pressor test (CPT) for the pediatric population, contributing to the development of subjective and behavioral norms; (b) to analyze the influence of personal (gender, age, and skin-fold thickness), and psychological (anxiety, depression, internalization, and externalization) variables on pain perception and its correlation with room temperature. After a phase of adaptation in a water bath (24-27 degrees C), the child immersed one arm in cold water (10 degrees C) and reported pain threshold and tolerance. The test was conducted on 141 healthy children. Pain tolerance was reached within the first minute by 50% of the children. Pain intensity affected the children's emotional status. Older children tolerated pain for longer. Gender, psychological, and environmental variables did not influence pain perception. This study provides methodological refinements to the CPT contributing to the development of norms for children.

  12. [Psychological problems of thalassemic subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasco, G; La Mantia, A; Cuniolo, A

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of psychological problems of the thalassemic subject shown with these following tests: Der Baumtest, drawing of the human figure. Moreover, we made meetings with all boys and their parents during their stay in the day-hospital. These tests have shown subjective conflicts (fear and uncertainty of future due to illness felt as aggression and fault, depressive moods and loneliness, problems of communication, hope in a magic recovery opposite to the constant discomfort of the therapeutic dependence) and relational conflicts (ambivalence towards parents, difficulties in becoming a part of the social and school environment).

  13. Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology. ... paediatric and ethical aspects of the applied field of clinical and counselling psychology. ... which have a close bearing on psychology such as psychiatry, sociology, social work, ...

  14. Psychological Disorders among Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Ofovwe et al. Psychological Disorders in PLWHA ... Keywords: Psychological disorders, HIV/AIDS, Southern Nigeria. Résumé ... and psychological treatment or for research purposes. ... Phobic Anxiety (Irrational fears and avoidance of objects ...

  15. Counseling Health Psychology: Assessing Health Psychology Training within Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…

  16. Counseling Health Psychology: Assessing Health Psychology Training within Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…

  17. On Changing the Framework of Psychology: Comparative Psychology Is What General Psychology Should Be.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, Jack

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the on-going debate between comparative and behaviorist frameworks in psychology. Advocates a comparative framework and suggests methods to avoid misconceptions about the field. A framework for reorganizing the focus of general psychology and integrating it into a neofunctionalist perspective is included. (DH)

  18. Conservation psychology as a field of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kalc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades the importance of psychology has become more prominent when addressing environmental issues. At the turn of the millennium a new field of psychological research was introduced to scientific community. The so-called conservation psychology strives to merge and spur basic and applied psychological research from the field of (proenvironmental behaviour and sustainable development. Together with environmental and population psychology, it forms Division 34 of American Psychological Association. However, conservation psychology is not a broadly known and renowned field of study in Slovenia. Therefore, the main purpose of the present article is to introduce conservation psychology as a possible field of study to Slovenian psychologists.

  19. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2010-01-01

    With millions of copies sold, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology...

  20. Self-critical perfectionism and binge eating symptoms: a longitudinal test of the intervening role of psychological need frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Liesbet; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Verstuyf, Joke

    2014-07-01

    Although abundant research has shown that self-critical perfectionism relates to binge eating symptoms, fewer studies have addressed the role of intervening processes that might explain why this is the case. Grounded in self-determination theory, we hypothesized that self-critical perfectionism would relate to an increased risk for binge eating symptoms because it engenders frustration of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This hypothesis was tested in a sample of 566 adolescents (72% female; mean age = 13.3 years) using a 3-wave longitudinal study with a 6-month interval. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that self-critical perfectionism related to increases in psychological need frustration which, in turn, predicted increases in binge eating symptoms. Structural relations were found to be equivalent for males and females. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Testing self-determined motivation as a mediator of the relationship between psychological needs and affective and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E

    2007-10-01

    Self-determination theory suggests that when psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met, participants experience more self-determined types of motivation and more positive outcomes. Limited research has examined this mediational role of self-determined motivation in adult physical activity participants, and very few studies have included assessments of relatedness. This study tested the hypothesis that self-determined motivation would mediate the relationship between psychological need fulfillment and affective and behavioral outcomes. Adult dragon boaters (N = 558) between the ages of 19 and 83 completed a questionnaire on motivational aspects of dragon boating. Competence, relatedness, and autonomy all significantly predicted self-determined motivation, but self-determined motivation only partially mediated their relationship with positive and negative affect. These findings demonstrate the importance of all three needs in adult activity motivation and suggest that the relationships between needs, self-determination, and outcomes may be complex.

  2. Parental Psychological Control, Psychological Autonomy, and Acceptance as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A.; Northrup, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines several key parenting variables (psychological control, psychological autonomy, and acceptance) in predicting self-esteem among Latino adolescents using structural equation modeling analyses. Nested models are tested and parental acceptance variables are omitted from the model and group gender comparisons are examined. Two…

  3. Parental Psychological Control, Psychological Autonomy, and Acceptance as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A.; Northrup, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines several key parenting variables (psychological control, psychological autonomy, and acceptance) in predicting self-esteem among Latino adolescents using structural equation modeling analyses. Nested models are tested and parental acceptance variables are omitted from the model and group gender comparisons are examined. Two…

  4. Software for generating psychological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    This review compares four software packages for generating and running psychological computer experiments. It aims to inform researchers' decisions about which software to choose for their lab. Four widely used general purpose commercial packages available for the Windows platform are considered: DirectRT, E-Prime, Inquisit, and SuperLab. An overview of each package is given, and the implementation of two test experiments is described. Packages are evaluated with regard to the amount of complexity reduction they provide for the task of programming an experiment and the variety of experimental designs they can accommodate.

  5. Military Psychology | Ijide | African Journal for the Psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Jean Piaget (1970), psychology is applicable to all human activities and situations, education and psychotherapy, work and leisure ... This is rather a limited view, considering the broad areas of application of the former to the later.

  6. Board certification in psychology: insights from medicine and hospital psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robiner, William N; Dixon, Kim E; Miner, Jacob L; Hong, Barry A

    2012-03-01

    For physicians board certification is an accepted tradition that research suggests improves services and outcomes. In contrast, relatively few psychologists pursue board certification suggesting ambivalence or limited contingencies reinforcing it. The authors report on medical school and hospital-based psychologists' attitudes toward board certification and current certification status. About one-fifth (21.7%) of the sample were certified by the American Board of Professional Psychology, a greater proportion than psychologists generally: Highest rates were seen in neuropsychology (7.5%), clinical psychology (6.4%), clinical child and adolescent psychology (3.2%) and clinical health psychology (2.8%). Few (certification. Half recognized benefits to the profession for psychologists pursuing board certification, yet 70% opposed requiring it for their hospital-based practice. Forces seeking to promote healthcare quality ultimately may increase expectations for board certification. If consumers, employers, hospitals and managed care organizations demand board certification for health professionals, greater numbers of psychologists would likely seek it.

  7. The History of Psychological Testing Development in China%中国的心理测量发展史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张厚粲; 余嘉元

    2012-01-01

    While the thought of mental testing originated from ancient China, the science of Psychological Testing was first introduced into China during the first two decades of the 20th century when the first group of students who studied abroad returned. Looking back on its history, we can see the course of Psychological Testing development is quite tortuous. It can be divided into three periods. The first psychological test took place in 1915 in Guangzhou, where a foreign scholar tested 500 elementary students in order to compare the intellectual difference between Chinese and American children. At the same time, Chinese scholars started to develop tests by themselves, among which the Chinese Calligraphy Scale of Elementary School by Yu Ziyi in 1918 was the first local psychological test. In 1920, Liao Shicheng and Chen Heqin began to teach testing courses in Nanjing Teacher's College and formally introduced the scientific Psychological Testing via the publication of Methods of Testing. In 1923, a nationwide large-scale intelligence and educational test was conducted in cooporation with an expert from America, obtaining age norms and grade norms of the 3rd to 8th grades, which attracted the attention of all educators. Since 1925, Ai Wei had been working on educational tests and developed a lot of tests for different grades and subjects for elementary schools and high schools. Together with Zhang Yaoxiang, Ai Wei also devoted himself to tests for learning Chinese characters and reading interest, and developed a Reading Scale eventually. In 1931, the Chinese Association of Testing was established and the journal Testing came out. After the War of Resistance Against Japan broke out, the work of testing continued and progressed. However, the pace of its development was impeded by the war. After the founding of New China, Psychological Testing turned into a forbidden area because of political transformation. The word "psychological" was misunderstood as the same as

  8. Martial arts and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J R

    1988-12-01

    The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.

  9. Five currents of organizational psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2017-01-01

    group, group dynamics, resistance to change and process consultation constitute pivotal and through going tenets in all the currents. These notions, it is argued, link the discipline of organizational psychology together into a mutually discordant, but anyway relatively consistent research area...... of continual organizational change. It is argued that this latest budding in organizational psychology has negative implications both for the fineness of the scientific discipline and for the credibility in practice. A firmer ethics is demanded. Keywords: Organizational psychology, group dynamics, resistance...... to change, basic assumptions, relations, currents...

  10. Applying quantum principles to psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Wang, Zheng; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina

    2014-12-01

    This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed.

  11. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Taghipour; Narjes Sadat Borghei; RobabLatifnejad Roudsari; Afsaneh Keramat; Hadi Jabbari Nooghabi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through ran...

  12. When development matters: From evolutionary psychology to evolutionary developmental psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Gardiner, Amy K.; David F. Bjorklund

    2008-01-01

    This article presents evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP) as an emerging field of evolutionary psychology (EP). In describing the core tenets of both approaches and the differences between them, we emphasize the important roles that evolution and development have in understanding human behaviour. We suggest that developmental psychologists should pay more attention to evolutionary issues and, conversely, evolutionary psychologists should take development seriously. Key words: evol...

  13. The influence of behavioural psychology on consumer psychology and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Psychology, along with a wide range of other academic disciplines, has influenced research in both consumer behaviour and marketing. However, the influence of one area of psychology – namely, behaviourism – on research on consumers and marketing has been less prominent. Behaviourism has influenced consumer and marketing research through the application of classical and operant conditioning, matching and foraging theories, amongst other frameworks, during the past 50 years. This article provid...

  14. Psychological Adjustment of Siblings to a Child with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollidge, Colin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the psychological adjustment of well child siblings living with siblings with diabetes. Psychological adjustment was assessed by measuring self-concept; behavioral difficulties; competence; anxiety; and depression on standardized tests. The well siblings demonstrated significant internal psychological stressors and maintained high levels…

  15. Attorneys Influence Expert Evidence in Forensic Psychological and Neuropsychological Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees-Haley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that attorneys are influencing data relied on by psychological experts in forensic cases, usually by advising clients how to respond to psychological tests or by prompting them in other ways. This article alerts psychologists to this threat to the validity of psychological and neuropsychological evaluations.…

  16. Emotions in robot psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, V; Popp, M

    2014-10-01

    In his famous thought experiments on synthetic vehicles, Valentino Braitenberg stipulated that simple stimulus-response reactions in an organism could evoke the appearance of complex behavior, which, to the unsuspecting human observer, may even appear to be driven by emotions such as fear, aggression, and even love (Braitenberg, Vehikel. Experimente mit künstlichen Wesen, Lit Verlag, 2004). In fact, humans appear to have a strong propensity to anthropomorphize, driven by our inherent desire for predictability that will quickly lead us to discern patterns, cause-and-effect relationships, and yes, emotions, in animated entities, be they natural or artificial. But might there be reasons, that we should intentionally "implement" emotions into artificial entities, such as robots? How would we proceed in creating robot emotions? And what, if any, are the ethical implications of creating "emotional" robots? The following article aims to shed some light on these questions with a multi-disciplinary review of recent empirical investigations into the various facets of emotions in robot psychology.

  17. Is evolutionary psychology a metatheory for psychology? A discussion of four major issues in psychology from an evolutionary developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a metatheoretical framework for psychology. We argue that evolutionary psychology should be expanded if it is to offer new insights regarding the major issues in psychology. Evolutionary developmental biology can provide valuable new insights into issues

  18. Psychological work characteristics, psychological workload and associated psychological and cognitive requirements of train drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were specific to train drivers: high emotional and mental demands, small amount of autonomy and skill discretion. No evidence of a high emotional workload, a high mental workload or short-term stress reactivity was found. In general, the drivers' fatigue complaints and recovery needs after work were comparable to that of other workers. However, severe sleepiness and high need for recovery did affect a substantial proportion of train drivers. The ability to stay aware, to anticipate, to remain attentive and to cope with fatigue are psychological and cognitive skills that are required to adequately and safely perform the train drivers' job. Including these requirements in periodic assessments of train drivers is recommended. A systematic literature search was performed, aimed at assessing the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers. Based on this information and interviews with experts, a list of psychological and cognitive requirements that needed to perform the train drivers’ job adequately and safely was proposed.

  19. The role of disease perceptions and results sharing in psychological adaptation after genetic susceptibility testing: the REVEAL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Koehly, Laura M; Roberts, J Scott; Chen, Clara A; Hiraki, Susan; Green, Robert C

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which psychological adaptation (validated measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and test-specific distress) after genetic susceptibility testing is influenced by changes in beliefs about Alzheimer's disease (AD) and sharing of test results with others. Adult children of AD patients (N=269) from a randomized clinical trial involving genetic testing for apolipoprotein E (APOE) provided information before, as well as 6 weeks and 12 months after results disclosure. The levels of adaptation varied highly among participants at 12-month assessment. Participants who learned that they were ε4 negative (lower risk) had a reduction in perceived risk and concern about developing AD compared with those who learned that they were ε4 positive. Those who received results through an extended educational protocol (three in-person visits) had a larger decline in AD concern than those in a condensed protocol (educational brochure and two in-person visits). Increase in AD concern 6 weeks after disclosure was associated with increase in depression scores (b=0.20, Ptesting (b=0.18, P=0.02) 1 year after testing. Increase in perceived risk (b=0.16, P=0.04) was also associated with higher AD genetic testing distress. Sharing the test results with health professionals and friends (but not family) was associated with decrease in depression (b=-0.11, P=0.05) and anxiety levels (b=-0.16, Ptesting may help facilitate test recipients' long-term psychological adaptation.

  20. Toward a cogenetic cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way of build......The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way...... to account for developmental processes must emerge from a triadic system, rather than following the procedures of a binary logic, in order to have any correspondence between concept building and phenomenological world in psychology. Then, I sketch an epistemological approach called method of complementary...... negation that could help cultural psychology to build more developmental abstract models of very concrete human phenomena....

  1. Psychology in the public service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G

    2002-01-01

    Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties.

  2. Varieties of Fame in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L

    2016-11-01

    Fame in psychology, as in all arenas, is a local phenomenon. Psychologists (and probably academics in all fields) often first become well known for studying a subfield of an area (say, the study of attention in cognitive psychology, or even certain tasks used to study attention). Later, the researcher may become famous within cognitive psychology. In a few cases, researchers break out of a discipline to become famous across psychology and (more rarely still) even outside the confines of academe. The progression is slow and uneven. Fame is also temporally constricted. The most famous psychologists today will be forgotten in less than a century, just as the greats from the era of World War I are rarely read or remembered today. Freud and a few others represent exceptions to the rule, but generally fame is fleeting and each generation seems to dispense with the lessons learned by previous ones to claim their place in the sun. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Positive Psychology and Leisure Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Dattilo

    2015-01-01

      The purpose of this paper is to present a balanced and systematic leisure education service model grounded in positive psychology principles that are applied across diverse audiences and in various...

  4. Responsive Social Psychologies to Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Galindo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.

  5. Social capital and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    The author proposes a conceptual model to explain the diverse roles of social capital--resources embedded in social networks--in the social production of health. Using a unique national U.S. sample, the author estimated a path analysis model to examine the direct and indirect effects of social capital on psychological distress and its intervening effects on the relationships between other structural antecedents and psychological distress. The results show that social capital is inversely associated with psychological distress, and part of that effect is indirect through subjective social status. Social capital also acts as an intervening mechanism to link seven social factors (age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, occupational prestige, annual family income, and voluntary participation) with psychological distress. This study develops the theory of social capital as network resources and demonstrates the complex functions of social capital as a distinct social determinant of health.

  6. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult......AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  7. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience with psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrutdinova, Liliya Raifovna; Nugmanova, Dzhamilia Renatovna

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of experience as such and its corporeal, emotional and cognitive elements in the situation of psychological consulting provisioning is covered. The aim of research was to study psychological crisis experience dynamics in the situation when psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods is provided. Theoretical analysis of the problem of crisis situations, phenomenon and structural, and dynamic organization of experience of the subject of consulting have been carried out. To fulfill research project test subjects experience crisis situation have been selected, studied in the situation when they provided psychological consulting by methods of gestalt therapy, and methodology of study of crisis situations experience has been prepared. Specifics of psychological crisis experience have been revealed and its elements in different stages of psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods. Dynamics of experience of psychological crisis and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. "Desiccation" of experience is being observed, releasing its substantiality of negative impression to the end of consulting and development of the new experience of control over crisis situation. Interrelations of structural elements of experience in the process of psychological consulting have been shown. Effecting one structure causes reliable changes in all others structural elements of experience. Giving actual psychological help to clients in crisis situation by methods of gestalt therapy is possible as it was shown in psychological consulting sessions. Structure of client's request has been revealed - problems of personal sense are fixed as the most frequent cause of clients' applications, as well as absence of choices, obtrusiveness of negative thoughts, tend to getting stuck on events

  8. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...... recognition of the sociocultural embeddedness of human development, and of the importance to study individuals’ subjective experience, however, calls for adequate methodological procedures that allow for the study of processes of transformation across the life span. The wide range of established procedures...

  9. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  10. Clinical psychology, sexuality and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, J.; Zitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical psychology has an early ignominious past with regard to sexuality and gender. Burns and Zitz provide a history of the perspectives taken on sexuality, gender and their variants through the lens of clinical psychology, moving from an individualist, positivistic perspective to more current positions such as intersectionality and post-modern understandings of distress. Alongside this changing perspective the development of the profession and its therapeutic practices will be charted. Bu...

  11. Pregnancy as a psychological event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Apart from physiological and somatic changes, pregnancy is a complex phenomenon which also includes psychological and social changes. Pregnancy, especially the first one, represents a powerful psychological event. This paper deals with pregnancy as a psychological event, considering psychological changes in the course of pregnancy as a stressful event. Psychological changes during pregnancy Pregnancy is always associated with changes in psychological functioning of pregnant women. It is usually associated with ambivalence, frequent mood changes, varying from anxiety, fatigue, exhaustion, sleepiness, depressive reactions to excitement. During pregnancy, changes include body appearance, affectivity and sexuality, whereas the position and role of women attains a new quality. Even thoughts of pregnancy can bring about numerous worries about its course and outcome, and especially of the delivery itself, which may be so intense that they acquire a features of phobia (which may be the reason for avoiding pregnancy. Pregnancy as a stressful event Pregnancy is identified as a potent stressor that can seriously affect the psychic status of pregnant women, perinatal outcome, but also psychic functioning of the new-born individual. Appropriate relationship of partners and support of the society play an important role in overcoming stress during pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnancy is an event that involves numerous somatic and psychological changes. However, pregnancy can also be a potent stressor. Existence of prenatal maternal stress may lead to different perinatal complications that may have long-term consequences on the newborn. In prevention of maternal stress emphasis has to be put on partner’s emotional support, as well as empathy of the social environment. However, in certain cases, professional psychotherapeutic support is necessary, in form of short supportive treatment. Preventive measures should include adequate psychological support

  12. The neuroscience of psychological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, David H

    2014-11-01

    The series of articles in this issue of Behavior Research and Therapy presages a new field of translational research that could be called "the neuroscience of psychological treatments". After a brief retrospective on the origins and promise of this focus of study several cautions are adumbrated. As in any new field of scientific endeavor, close collaboration among stakeholders with interest in this field and the integration of a healthy scientific skepticism will best ensure the continued development of ever more powerful psychological treatments.

  13. Performance consequences of psychological empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Tuuli, MM; Rowlinson, S

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between psychological empowerment and job performance, and whether three intermediate performance determinants; motivation, ability, and opportunity to perform hold the key to unlocking the empowerment-performance relationship dilemma are addressed. Using hierarchical linear modeling to analyze responses from 380 project management-level staff, the results show that psychological empowerment not only has direct and positive performance consequences, but also indirect effects,...

  14. What is satisfying about satisfying events? Testing 10 candidate psychological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, K M; Elliot, A J; Kim, Y; Kasser, T

    2001-02-01

    Three studies compared 10 candidate psychological needs in an attempt to determine which are truly most fundamental for humans. Participants described "most satisfying events" within their lives and then rated the salience of each of the 10 candidate needs within these events. Supporting self-determination theory postulates (Ryan & Deci, 2000)--autonomy, competence, and relatedness, were consistently among the top 4 needs, in terms of both their salience and their association with event-related affect. Self-esteem was also important, whereas self-actualization or meaning, physical thriving, popularity or influence, and money-luxury were less important. This basic pattern emerged within three different time frames and within both U.S. and South Korean samples and also within a final study that asked, "What's unsatisfying about unsatisfying events?" Implications for hierarchical theories of needs are discussed.

  15. Personal goals and psychological growth: testing an intervention to enhance goal attainment and personality integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Kasser, Tim; Smith, Kendra; Share, Tamara

    2002-02-01

    We hypothesized that semester goal attainment provides a route to short-term psychological growth. In an attempt to enhance this process, we randomly assigned participants to either a goal-training program or to a control condition. Although there were no main effects of program participation on later goal attainment, important interactions were found. Consistent with a "prepared to benefit" model, participants already high in goal-based measures of personality integration perceived the program as most useful and benefited the most from the program in terms of goal attainment. As a result, they became even more integrated and also increased in their levels of psychosocial well-being and vitality. Implications for theories of short-term growth and positive change are discussed, as is the unanswered question of how to help less-integrated persons grow.

  16. The psychology of psychology: A thought experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Williams, Wendy M

    2015-01-01

    In the target article, Duarte et al. allege that the lack of political diversity reduces research efficacy. We pose a thought experiment that could provide an empirical test by examining whether institutional review board (IRB) members, granting agencies, and journal reviewers filter scientific products based on political values, invoking scientific criteria (rigor, etc.) as their justification. When these same products are cast in terms highlighting opposite values, do these people shift their decisions?

  17. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  18. Psychology, philosophy and nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.; Byrne, A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)

  19. Is Vygotsky Relevant? Vygotsky's Marxist Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between Vygotsky's psychology and Marxism, arguing that his was a "Marxist psychology" in its "historical foundation": a specific conception of history. This conception of history is evident in Vygotsky's analysis and diagnosis of the crisis in psychology. The creation of a Marxist, general psychology was the…

  20. The Three Faces of Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James S.

    1977-01-01

    Social psychology's current crisis largely reflects the division of the field into three increasingly isolated domains: psychological social psychology, symbolic interactionism, and psychological sociology. Brief critical discussion of these facets indicates that the strengths of each complement the weaknesses in the others, highlighting a need…

  1. Is Vygotsky Relevant? Vygotsky's Marxist Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between Vygotsky's psychology and Marxism, arguing that his was a "Marxist psychology" in its "historical foundation": a specific conception of history. This conception of history is evident in Vygotsky's analysis and diagnosis of the crisis in psychology. The creation of a Marxist, general psychology was the…

  2. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior.

  3. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippke, Sonia; Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and nutrition (χ(2) 1=3.5; P=.04, for N

  4. Introductory Psychology Texts as a View of Sociobiology/Evolutionary Psychology's Role in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Elisabeth Cornwell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociobiology and its descendant evolutionary psychology (EP have struggled to gain ground within the social sciences over the past 30 years. While some have heralded the Triumph of Sociobiology (Alcock, 2001, others have critiqued it as a poor approach to understanding human behavior and would prefer that a Darwinian perspective remain outside the domain of human social sciences. We attempt to assess just how successful (or not it has been by examining how it has been covered in introductory psychology textbooks over the past 30 years. Our findings indicate that a Darwinian perspective has gained influence and acceptance within the field of psychology over the past three decades. However, we also find that EP as a sub-discipline is often perceived as narrowly defined and limited to research on mating strategies. We address how these perceptions may affect the future of EP, and possible steps needed to increase both the acceptance and importance of evolutionary theory to psychology.

  5. The Reintegration of Vocational Psychology and Counseling Psychology: Training Issues for a Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitschek, Christine; DeBell, Camille

    2002-01-01

    In the past 20 years, there have been numerous calls for a reinvigoration of vocational psychology. Now, as vocational psychology has grown again within counseling psychology, the authors argue that what is needed is not a reinvigoration but rather a new paradigm that reintegrates vocational psychology and the rest of counseling psychology. The…

  6. Attempting Measurement of Psychological Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSalzberger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Measures of psychological attributes abound in the social sciences as much as measures of physical properties do in the physical sciences. However, there are crucial differences between the scientific underpinning of measurement. While measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence that demonstrates the quantitative nature of the property assessed, measurement in the social sciences is, in large part, made possible only by a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data. Traditional psychometric analyses fail to address the requirements of measurement as defined more rigorously in the physical sciences. The construct definitions do not allow for testable predications; and content validity becomes a matter of judgment. In order to improve measurement of psychological attributes, it is suggested to, first, readopt the definition of measurement in the physical sciences; second, to devise an elaborate theory of the construct to be measured that includes the hypothesis of a quantitative attribute; and third, to test the data for the structure implied by the hypothesis of quantity as well as predictions derived from the theory of the construct.

  7. From psychology of personality to psychology of persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojnov Dušan B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers diverse approaches to human subjectivity conceptualization. On the one hand, a summary is made of an established psychological view of personality as an intrinsic psychological entity responsible for stylistic differences in the behavior of isolated individuals, founded on the traditional Cartesian view. On the other hand more recent views are presented, which take human subjectivity as personhood i.e. responsible action of moral subjects, placed within amongst-people space, and implying allied activity of persons in a social community. In addition, consideration is given to new methodological demands for psychologists who want to research the domain of human personhood as well as to deviations of a "new paradigm" of psychological investigations from scientific tradition in viewing methods that has prevailed in psychology until recently. Clarification of demands for studying personhood is a new trend in psychology, so it should be stressed that such orientation, despite its long-lasting past, virtually has a very short history.

  8. Gestalt psychology: the forgotten paradigm in abnormal psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M; Uhlhaas, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Gestalt views of psychopathology are almost completely ignored in mainstream psychology and psychiatry. However, a review of available evidence indicates a remarkable consistency between these views and current data from experimental psychopathology and cognitive neuroscience. This consistency is especially pronounced in the area of schizophrenia. In addition, there is a convergence of cognitive and neurobiological evidence regarding the validity of early Gestalt views of both normal brain-behavior relationships and disordered ones, as in schizophrenia. This article reviews some contributions of Gestalt psychology regarding schizophrenia and examines these views in light of more recent findings from cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and experimental psychopathology. We conclude that Gestalt theory is a viable theoretical framework from which to understand schizophrenia. Specifically, it appears that a breakdown of Gestalt organizational processes may characterize both the cognitive and the brain processes in schizophrenia.

  9. Psychological Foundations of Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2016-01-01

    语言在我们的进化史中只是新近才出现的一种现象,而导致这惊人发展的力量是什么尚不清楚。我们知道部分原因是特化于语言功能的脑结构的演变。语言行为,和所有的行为一样,要通过脑结构的作用,但因为语言极其微妙并涉及多个方面,所以要在大脑中有一个特别复杂的表征。我们会看到,我们语言能力的各个方面,不是纯粹的抽象物,而是在闹中有独立的,能具体说明的表征。另外,语言的心理学基础研究会扩展我们对语言理解,语言产生和语言习得的讨论。这篇文章首先对语言的心理学基础做了一个简单的介绍使我们对为什么要做这个研究有一个清晰的观点。然后讨论了大脑机制和语言。不同的语言技能涉及脑的不同部位,遭受脑受伤的个体常常只是在语言的某些方面表现缺陷。接着描述了语言进程的侧化,对脑裂病人和正常人的研究表明,对大部分人来说,脑的左半球控制语言,特别是句法过程和语言产生,而右半球则是语用方面和语言理解。最后,对关于大脑的智力,性别和遗传因素和语言的关系做了简要的描述。%The emergence of language occurred only recently in our evolutionary history,and the set of forces that led to this extraordinary de-velopment is not yet clear.We do know that part of the story concerns the evolution of brain mechanisms specialized for language functions.Lan-guage behavior,like all behavior,is mediated by brain structures,but because language is extremely subtle and multifaceted,it has a particularly complex representation in the brain.We will learn that various aspects of our language capacity are not mere abstractions but rather have separate and specifiable representations in the brain.Moreover,the study of the psychological foundations of language extends our discussion of language comprehension,production and

  10. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators.

  11. Does Emotions Communication Ability Affect Psychological Well-Being? A Study with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) v2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the current study was to provide evidence regarding the relationship between emotions communication ability--in terms of emotional intelligence (EI)--and psychological well-being. Additionally, the study explored the moderating effect of sex on this relationship. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, General Health Questionnaire, Psychological General Well-Being Index, and Depression Questionnaire. Results showed the moderating role of sex in the relationship between EI ability and psychological well-being. Furthermore, the associations between EI and psychological well-being measures were generally higher for men than for women, supporting the idea that sex needs to be taken into account when considering EI measures. The potential helpfulness of EI and emotions communications ability in promoting mental health is discussed.

  12. Bridging history and social psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special...

  13. [Criminal psychology in Franco's police].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael; Zubieta, Eva

    2013-02-01

    Francisco J. de Echalecu (1897-1957) was a Spanish psychiatrist who held important positions, such as Psychology Professor at the Academia General de Policía and Neuropsychiatrist at the Dirección General de Seguridad. This work provides a brief biography of Echalecu and analyzes the transcriptions of his classes on Criminal Psychology of 1942, his Criminal Psychology from 1947 as well as his involvement in the case of the torture of Communist leader Heriberto Quiñones. We describe his project of a totalitarian Psychology and his proposal of social intervention, including eugenic methodologies as well as forced reclusion for those labeled as asocial. The adaptation in Spain of the totalitarian psychological project to the new international reality after the Second World War is also described. In Spain a "final solution" for criminals and political dissidents has been prepared, which was inspired by the Nazi criminal policies and promoted by Dr. Echalecu from Spain's higher police body, the DGS. This project was frustrated by the German defeat in the world war and the only thing left from the original project was the arbitrary application of the Ley de Vagos y Maleantes [an antivagrancy law] to those individuals labeled as "asocial".

  14. E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana

    Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.

  15. A Model for a Doctor of Psychology Program in Forensic Psychology: Curriculum and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, C. Abraham; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An overview of the objectives and courses of a doctoral program in forensic psychology is provided. Forensic psychology is the application of psychological methods, principles, and skills to the relevant needs of the legal system. (DE)

  16. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF THE ACCOUNTANT FRAUDSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelariu Alin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Corrupted professional accountants are vital for planning, creating and hiding financial fraud. No financial fraud can be made without help from an expert in Accounting. Through this paper we try to raise awareness of the necessity of having ethical professional accountants and we promote rigorous psychological testing for candidates to the Accounting profession. The purpose of this paper is to present a psychological profile of a fraudster in the field of Accounting and recommended profiles for the candidates to the profession. We presented the fraud triangle of opportunity, motivation and rationalization so we can begin to enter the mind of the accountant fraudster. Then we presented the profile of the character prone to financial fraud as shown in Accounting literature. Further, we presented psychological tests backed by specialty literature that could be useful to select candidates fit for the Accounting profession. The literature presents us with recommended psychological profiles for the professional accountants. A great psychological test used for hiring in the Accounting profession is the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II, used by the government, military, universities, non profit organizations and religious organizations in the USA. The recommended personality types for Accounting are the supervisors and inspectors from the guardians branch for low ranking accountants and the fieldmarshals and masterminds from the rationals branch for high ranking accountants.

  17. The meta-chlorophenylpiperazine challenge test in cocaine addicts: hormonal and psychological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydens-Branchey, L; Branchey, M; Fergeson, P; Hudson, J; McKernin, C

    1997-06-01

    We report on the neuroendocrine and psychological responsivity of 31 cocaine addicts and 14 controls to the serotonergic agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) (0.5 mg/kg p.o.). Cocaine addicts were subdivided into subjects with aggressive tendencies and other features similar to those found in type 2 alcoholics and subjects without these features. Following m-CPP, aggressive and nonaggressive patients had a significantly blunted prolactin response compared to controls, but there was no difference between the two patient subgroups. There was no difference between the cortisol responses of nonaggressive patients and controls, but aggressive patients had a significantly blunted cortisol response compared to controls and nonaggressive patients. Both patient subgroups reported more intense "activation-euphoria" and "high" responses following m-CPP than controls. These results could indicate the existence of alterations along serotonergic pathways in cocaine addicts taken as a group. In addition, a subgroup of patients who could be described as type 2 cocaine addicts appear to be biologically different from healthy subjects and from other cocaine addicts as indicated by a greater cortisol blunting following m-CPP.

  18. Impact on parents of receiving individualized feedback of psychological testing conducted with children as part of a research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kelly; Fernandez, Conrad V; Chambers, Christine T; Bandstra, Nancy F; Parker, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    While many researchers accept the principle that participants have a right to receive information learned from their participation in research, there are few studies examining the impact of receiving results on participants. This study was developed to examine the impact on parents of the receipt of individual results of research-based psychological testing of their children. A summary of the child's individual results of standardized measures of language and development was sent by mail with the questionnaire designed to assess the impact of receiving results. Response rate from the mailed questionnaire was 55.6% (n=74/133). Most parents reported the results as helpful and positive. The majority would receive results again. Overall, the sharing of individualized feedback from psychological testing conducted as part of a research study was well accepted by parents. This practice appears ethically permissible with appropriate support options for addressing participant concerns upon receiving the results as well options for clinical follow-up for the child.

  19. The psychology of suicide terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jerrold M; Ali, Farhana; Henderson, Schuyler W; Shanfield, Steven; Victoroff, Jeff; Weine, Stevan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews current understandings of the psychology of suicide terrorism for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals to help them better understand this terrifying phenomenon. After discussing key concepts and definitions, the paper reviews both group and individual models for explaining the development of suicide terrorists, with an emphasis on "collective identity." Stressing the importance of social psychology, it emphasizes the "normality" and absence of individual psychopathology of the suicide bombers. It will discuss the broad range of terrorisms, but will particularly emphasize terrorism associated with militant Islam. The article emphasizes that comprehending suicide terrorism requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes anthropological, economic, historical, and political factors as well as psychological ones. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for research, policy, and prevention, reviewing the manner in which social psychiatric knowledge and understandings applied to this phenomenon in an interdisciplinary framework can assist in developing approaches to counter this deadly strategy.

  20. The cultural psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    Abstract: For half a century, the psychology of creativity has been using a basic typology proposed by Rhodes (1961) that distinguishes between person, process, product and press in definitions and research. These four P’s, although useful as a conceptual organizer, nevertheless present a fragmen......Abstract: For half a century, the psychology of creativity has been using a basic typology proposed by Rhodes (1961) that distinguishes between person, process, product and press in definitions and research. These four P’s, although useful as a conceptual organizer, nevertheless present...... a fragmented and rather static perspective of creativity. Cultural psychology transforms this conception by considering creative persons as Actors, creative processes as forms of Action, creative products as Artefacts and press factors as part of social (Audiences) and material (Affordances) environments...

  1. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sz Makó, Hajnalka; Veszprémi, Béla

    2011-01-01

    The present paper, based on the results of international studies, is focused on the reconsideration of the psychological aspects of induced abortion. By presenting a narrow cross-section of the Hungarian demographic data, we would like to emphasise the necessity and the significance of a deeper understanding of the subject. Factors behind the decision-making, short- and long term outcomes of the intervention influencing primarily the mental health of women and partner-relationship aspects are discussed in details. While acknowledging the complexity of the subject deriving from the legal, ethical, moral, religious, medical, social and sociological concerns, our aim is to call attention to the psychological aspects of induced abortion and the importance of psychological care of women undergoing surgical operation.

  2. The cultural psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    Abstract: For half a century, the psychology of creativity has been using a basic typology proposed by Rhodes (1961) that distinguishes between person, process, product and press in definitions and research. These four P’s, although useful as a conceptual organizer, nevertheless present a fragmen......Abstract: For half a century, the psychology of creativity has been using a basic typology proposed by Rhodes (1961) that distinguishes between person, process, product and press in definitions and research. These four P’s, although useful as a conceptual organizer, nevertheless present...... a fragmented and rather static perspective of creativity. Cultural psychology transforms this conception by considering creative persons as Actors, creative processes as forms of Action, creative products as Artefacts and press factors as part of social (Audiences) and material (Affordances) environments...

  3. Psychopharmacology's debt to experimental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Lori A; Steinberg, Hannah; Sykes, Elizabeth A B

    2006-05-01

    The role of experimental psychology in the development of psychopharmacology has largely been ignored in recent historical accounts. In this article the authors attempt to redress that gap by outlining work in early experimental psychology that contributed significantly to the field. While psychiatrists focused on the therapeutic nature of drugs or their mimicry of psychopathology, experimental psychologists used psychoactive drugs as tools to study individual differences in normal behavior as well as to develop methodologies using behavior to study mechanisms of drug action. Experimental work by Kraepelin, Rivers, and Hollingworth was particularly important in establishing drug-screening protocols still used today. Research on nitrous oxide and on the effects of drug combinations is discussed to illustrate the importance of experimental psychology to psychopharmacology.

  4. Ethical issues in sport psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jack C; Way, William C; Hilliard, Robert C

    2017-08-01

    The field of sport psychology is dynamic and growing. To continue building credibility with the public and allied professionals, effective and ethical practice is crucial. Advances in technology have allowed sport psychology professionals to consult with athletes from a distance, but practitioners must be mindful of their competency to use technology, confidentiality concerns, and the suitability of technology for their clients. Movement toward defining competency and clarifying issues of title usage are additional areas in which the field is gaining momentum. Recent attention has also been drawn to the topics of professional development and cultural competency. With the unique settings in which applied sport psychology practice takes place, attention to multiple relationships is another key ethical issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonello, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive power of different models related to behaviour, residential consumption as well as to the acceptability of energy policies. Results suggest that energy saving is mainly linked to altruistic motivations, followed by egoistic reasons and in a minor way to environmental concerns. People would act according to these dimensions when contextual conditions are perceived as appropriate.

  6. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve.

  7. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validity Semantics in Educational and Psychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcoat, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The semantics, or meaning, of validity is a fluid concept in educational and psychological testing. Contemporary controversies surrounding this concept appear to stem from the proper location of validity. Under one view, validity is a property of score-based inferences and entailed uses of test scores. This view is challenged by the…

  9. From computers to cultivation: reconceptualizing evolutionary psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eBarrett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Does evolutionary theorizing have a role in psychology? This is a more contentious issue than one might imagine, given that as evolved creatures, the answer must surely be yes. The contested nature of evolutionary psychology lies not in our status as evolved beings, but in the extent to which evolutionary ideas add value to studies of human behaviour, and the rigour with which these ideas are tested. This, in turn, is linked to the framework in which particular evolutionary ideas are situated. While the framing of the current research topic places the brain-as-computer metaphor in opposition to evolutionary psychology, the most prominent school of thought in this field (born out of cognitive psychology, and often known as the Santa Barbara school is entirely wedded to the computational theory of mind as an explanatory framework. Its unique aspect is to argue that the mind consists of a large number of functionally specialized (i.e., domain-specific computational mechanisms, or modules (the massive modularity hypothesis. Far from offering an alternative to, or an improvement on, the current perspective, we argue that evolutionary psychology is a mainstream computational theory, and that its arguments for domain-specificity often rest on shaky premises. We then go on to suggest that the various forms of e-cognition (i.e., embodied, embedded, enactive represent a true alternative to standard computational approaches, with an emphasis on cognitive integration or the extended mind hypothesis in particular. We feel this offers the most promise for human psychology because it incorporates the social and historical processes that are crucial to human ‘mind-making’ within an evolutionarily-informed framework. In addition to linking to other research areas in psychology, this approach is more likely to form productive links to other disciplines within the social sciences, not least by encouraging a healthy pluralism in approach.

  10. From computers to cultivation: reconceptualizing evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Louise; Pollet, Thomas V; Stulp, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Does evolutionary theorizing have a role in psychology? This is a more contentious issue than one might imagine, given that, as evolved creatures, the answer must surely be yes. The contested nature of evolutionary psychology lies not in our status as evolved beings, but in the extent to which evolutionary ideas add value to studies of human behavior, and the rigor with which these ideas are tested. This, in turn, is linked to the framework in which particular evolutionary ideas are situated. While the framing of the current research topic places the brain-as-computer metaphor in opposition to evolutionary psychology, the most prominent school of thought in this field (born out of cognitive psychology, and often known as the Santa Barbara school) is entirely wedded to the computational theory of mind as an explanatory framework. Its unique aspect is to argue that the mind consists of a large number of functionally specialized (i.e., domain-specific) computational mechanisms, or modules (the massive modularity hypothesis). Far from offering an alternative to, or an improvement on, the current perspective, we argue that evolutionary psychology is a mainstream computational theory, and that its arguments for domain-specificity often rest on shaky premises. We then go on to suggest that the various forms of e-cognition (i.e., embodied, embedded, enactive) represent a true alternative to standard computational approaches, with an emphasis on "cognitive integration" or the "extended mind hypothesis" in particular. We feel this offers the most promise for human psychology because it incorporates the social and historical processes that are crucial to human "mind-making" within an evolutionarily informed framework. In addition to linking to other research areas in psychology, this approach is more likely to form productive links to other disciplines within the social sciences, not least by encouraging a healthy pluralism in approach.

  11. Psychological distress and intelligence in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T. W.; Antal, K.

    2016-01-01

    This study has primarily aimed to investigate first, the prevalence of psychological distress complaints among a population-representative sample of young men, second, whether psychological distress is associated with poorer performance on an intelligence test and third, whether any association...... is a purely linear function. Specifically, we have examined self-reported symptoms of psychological distress, and IQ, among 1869 young men appearing before the Danish Draft Board with a view to assessing suitability for conscription. The assessment included a 25-item questionnaire concerning a broad range...... of distress-related items, the Personal Health Schema (PHS), having yes/no responses, together with a general IQ test, the Børge Prien's Prøve (BPP). The rate of endorsement of the PHS items was low, ranging between 3% and 29% with a median of two/three items. The Pearson correlation between the two variables...

  12. Psychological characterization of testicular feminization syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M A; Barroso, C C; Arce, B

    1983-01-01

    Ten cases with testicular feminization syndrome (TFS) diagnosed at the National Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, were studied. The patients were interviewed and subjected to the following psychological tests: Raven's Progressive Matrices, the MMPI, the 16PF, and the TAT. Laboratory determinations included: nuclear chromatin, karyotype, FHS, LH, estradiol, testosterone and nitrogen retention test. Intellectual achievement was found normal, and as far as psychological stability is concerned (MMPI) there was no common profile typical of the group. Psychosexual attitudes showed alterations related to acceptance of body image, fears to be unable to maintain the stability of the couple, and lack of a strong maternal drive. Personality profile manifested two outstanding traits in the group: Dominance (E+) and Shrewdness (N+), the former being remarkably high for a female population. A hypothesis is advanced in regard to the psychological alterations of the possible role of partial androgenization of the central nervous system in these patients.

  13. Identity of psychology, psychological paradigms and constructivism: Toward a perspective social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janek Musek

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical self-reflexion is a healthy practice of any science including psychology. Nevertheless, psychology has long ago outgrew the age of the search for its own identity. It is however a science sui generis, determined by a radical split into Lockean and Kantian (objective and phenomenological paradigm, each completely legitimate but also completely different in defining the objectives as well as the methods of research. That internal splitting is presented in all psychological disciplines. In social psychology, social constructivism emerged decades ago as a typical disciplinary "paradigm" (although subordinated to both previously mentioned paradigms. The present contribution is aimed to show that social constructivism could be effectively merged with the theoretical frame of cognitivism, dominant theoretical orientation in contemporaneous psychology. On the other hand, social constructivism failed to understand the proper relationship between human nature and human cultural context. Human beings are evolutionary evolved as beings genetically programmed for the construction of the culture and social milieu. Human beings are not products of the culture in the proper sense of meaning. The truth is quite opposite: the culture is a product of human biological equipment. But this is an equipment that predisposes human individual to be a social, cultural being uniquely capable of learning, uniquely capable of receiving the influence of his own products – social environment and culture.

  14. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four...... sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology...

  15. Psychological stress and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkap, Loa; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from the gene......OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from...

  16. Computer applications in clinical psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Zamoşteanu, Alina Oana

    2012-01-01

    The computer-assisted analysis is not currently a novelty, but a necessity in all areas of psychology. A number of studies that examine the limits of the computer assisted and analyzed interpretations, also its advantages. A series of studies aim to assess how the computer assisting programs are able to establish a diagnosis referring to the presence of certain mental disorders. We will present the results of one computer application in clinical psychology regarding the assessment of Theory of Mind capacity by animation.

  17. (Social constructionism and social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Bečaj

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 20th century a number of alternative approaches to positivistic and individualistic traditional social psychology appeared. Among them most important are social representations, social identity theory and especially a variety of different orientations usually labelled as social constructionism. What all those approaches have in common is radical change on the metatheoretical level. It could be said that new approaches are quite promising, but it seems that epistemological and ontological questions as well as problems of social motivation are not yet satisfactory clarified. It seems that the identity of psychology depends on the resolution of this theoretical uncertainties.

  18. Computer applications in clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Oana Zamoşteanu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The computer-assisted analysis is not currently a novelty, but a necessity in all areas of psychology. A number of studies that examine the limits of the computer assisted and analyzed interpretations, also its advantages. A series of studies aim to assess how the computer assisting programs are able to establish a diagnosis referring to the presence of certain mental disorders. We will present the results of one computer application in clinical psychology regarding the assessment of Theory of Mind capacity by animation.

  19. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.

  20. Psychological characteristics of FMS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Catherine; Cassimjee, Nafisa; Schoeman, Johan; Meyer, Helgaard

    2009-03-01

    This research is a pilot study that explores the psychological profiles of fibromyalgia (FMS) patients. Data were collected from 29 subjects. The variables investigated were attachment style, sense of coherence (SOC), attribution style and depression. The prevalence of secure attachment amongst the group was 51.7%. Significant differences were found amongst the secure and insecure groups with relation to SOC, depression and five subscales of attribution style. The small sample size and cross-sectional nature of the study limit the strength of the conclusions drawn, but the results question the existence of a single discreet FMS-prone psychological profile.

  1. Individualized assessment and phenomenological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C T

    1979-04-01

    Although there is growing openness to tailoring of assessment procedures and reports to the particular client, these efforts typically have been sporadic and incomplete. This article reviews a systematic approach to individualized assessment, one whose practices are referred to as collaborative, contextual, and interventional. Clinical examples of these practices are presented in terms of their grounding in phenomenological psychology. Prior to that, themes such as intentionality, situatedness, dialectics, structuralism, and hermeneutics are introduced briefly. Phenomenological psychology as such is not seen here as necessary for all individualized practices, but it is seen as a critical touchpoint for development of theory and further practices.

  2. Re-reading Discourse and Social Psychology: transforming social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    This paper considers one theme in the contemporary legacy of Potter and Wetherell's (1987) Discourse and Social Psychology. It overviews the context that led to that book and considers a series of critical responses from both experimental and critical/qualitative social psychologists. It refutes criticisms and corrects confusions. Focusing on contemporary discursive psychology, it highlights (a) its rigorous use of records of actual behaviour; (b) its systematic focus on normative practices. In methodological terms, it (a) highlights limitations in the use of open-ended interviews; (b) considers the way naturalistic materials provide access to participants' own orientations and displays; (c) builds a distinctive logic of sampling and generalization. In theoretical terms, it (a) highlights the way discourse work can identify foundational psychological matters; (b) offers a novel approach to emotion and embodiment; (c) starts to build a matrix of dimensions which are central to the constructing and recognizing of different kinds of social actions. It now offers a fully formed alternative social psychology which coordinates theory and method and a growing body of empirical work.

  3. Psychological and Social Psychological Factors Influencing Second-Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. P.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews major findings on the relationship of attitudes and motives to second language learning, proposes a framework within which other psychological variables may be considered, and urges the consideration of nonverbal variables involved in cross-cultural communication. (Author/AM)

  4. Evaluation of the validity of the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests of vigilance, auditory memory, and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Piper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experimental Building Language (PEBL test battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ is a popular application for neurobehavioral investigations. This study evaluated the correspondence between the PEBL and the non-PEBL versions of four executive function tests. Methods. In one cohort, young-adults (N = 44 completed both the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the PEBL CPT (PCPT with the order counter-balanced. In a second cohort, participants (N = 47 completed a non-computerized (Wechsler and a computerized (PEBL Digit Span (WDS or PDS both Forward and Backward. Participants also completed the Psychological Assessment Resources or the PEBL versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (PARIGT or PEBLIGT. Results. The between-test correlations were moderately high (reaction time r = 0.78, omission errors r = 0.65, commission errors r = 0.66 on the CPT. DS Forward was significantly greater than DS Backward on the WDS (p < .0005 and the PDS (p < .0005. The total WDS score was moderately correlated with the PDS (r = 0.56. The PARIGT and the PEBLIGTs showed a very similar pattern for response times across blocks, development of preference for Advantageous over Disadvantageous Decks, and Deck selections. However, the amount of money earned (score–loan was significantly higher in the PEBLIGT during the last Block. Conclusions. These findings are broadly supportive of the criterion validity of the PEBL measures of sustained attention, short-term memory, and decision making. Select differences between workalike versions of the same test highlight how detailed aspects of implementation may have more important consequences for computerized testing than has been previously acknowledged.

  5. Evaluation of the validity of the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests of vigilance, auditory memory, and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Brian; Mueller, Shane T; Talebzadeh, Sara; Ki, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Psychology Experimental Building Language (PEBL) test battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net/) is a popular application for neurobehavioral investigations. This study evaluated the correspondence between the PEBL and the non-PEBL versions of four executive function tests. Methods. In one cohort, young-adults (N = 44) completed both the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT) and the PEBL CPT (PCPT) with the order counter-balanced. In a second cohort, participants (N = 47) completed a non-computerized (Wechsler) and a computerized (PEBL) Digit Span (WDS or PDS) both Forward and Backward. Participants also completed the Psychological Assessment Resources or the PEBL versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (PARIGT or PEBLIGT). Results. The between-test correlations were moderately high (reaction time r = 0.78, omission errors r = 0.65, commission errors r = 0.66) on the CPT. DS Forward was significantly greater than DS Backward on the WDS (p < .0005) and the PDS (p < .0005). The total WDS score was moderately correlated with the PDS (r = 0.56). The PARIGT and the PEBLIGTs showed a very similar pattern for response times across blocks, development of preference for Advantageous over Disadvantageous Decks, and Deck selections. However, the amount of money earned (score-loan) was significantly higher in the PEBLIGT during the last Block. Conclusions. These findings are broadly supportive of the criterion validity of the PEBL measures of sustained attention, short-term memory, and decision making. Select differences between workalike versions of the same test highlight how detailed aspects of implementation may have more important consequences for computerized testing than has been previously acknowledged.

  6. The effect of failure on cognitive and psychological symptom validity tests in litigants with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakis, George J; Gervais, Roger O; Rohling, Martin L

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the influence of performance on cognitive and psychological symptom validity tests on neuropsychological and psychological test performance in claimants evaluated in a medico-legal context (N = 301) with symptoms of PTSD. A second purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the severity of PTSD symptoms on cognitive test performance after excluding patients who failed to put forth adequate best effort and who exaggerated psychiatric symptoms. Patients were administered a battery of neuropsychological measures that were aggregated into a composite measure, the Cognitive-Test Battery Mean (C-TBM). Patients were also administered a battery of psychological tests that were aggregated into another composite measure, the Psychological-Test Battery Mean (P-TBM). We found that failure on cognitive symptom validity tests was associated with significantly poorer neuropsychological functioning, but there was not a significant effect on psychological symptoms. Conversely, failure on psychological symptom validity tests was associated with higher levels of psychopathology, but there was not a significant effect on cognitive ability. Finally, once patients were screened for adequate effort and genuine symptom reporting, the severity of PTSD symptoms did not appear to influence cognitive ability. This is the first study that assessed both types of symptom validity testing in PTSD claimants, which is important given that previous literature has demonstrated cognitive impairment in PTSD and that individuals with PTSD tend to claim cognitive impairment. Implications of these findings are discussed with regard to the existing literature and the relationship between these two types of symptom validity tests.

  7. Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Unal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486

  8. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and

  9. Positive psychology in psychological interventions in rehabilitation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majani, Giuseppina

    2011-01-01

    Human beings have always tackled their problems and the adversities of life by drawing on their own resources, resilience, and values, and yet the focus on pathology has effectively long dominated the cognitive approach of psychologists to ill-being. Psychological interventions in rehabilitation medicine were formed around the codification and containment of the ill-being, in an almost surgical or antibiotic sense of "correcting" the negativity: identifying and removing or combating the ill-being, or, if possible, its sources; the distance to be covered was from negativity to zero: absence of ill-being as a synonym for well-being. But what makes a 20-year-old tetraplegic look to the future? Where does someone who has been waiting for heart transplant for one, two or three years find the strength to carry on while living on 18 drugs and no more than two little bottles of water a day? In its use in the context of health care, positive psychology is that part of psychology that takes on the task--among others--of deciphering the mechanisms through which it becomes possible to adapt to a chronic illness. But not only. Positive psychology also offers the opportunity to systematise knowledge concerning the possibility of overreaching the distance from negativity to zero, of going beyond, of nourishing positivity, enriching and improving oneself, despite the presence of an organic disease or a disability. Positive psychotherapy does not negate painful or unpleasant experiences, but encourages the use of resources to understand weaknesses and it is contributing substantially to drawing our attention back to optimism, courage, positive emotions, flexibility, creativity, faith, hopes, honesty, perseverance, flourishing and on their relationships with physical health. A different language from the one that years of pragmatism have accustomed us to. If positive psychology can help our patients to see, through the pain, anger and fear, something that makes their life still

  10. Psychological and cancer-specific distress at 18 months post-testing in women with demonstrated BRCA1 mutations for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Jon G; Møller, Pål; Heimdal, Ketil; Dahl, Alv A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore both levels of and factors predictive of psychological and cancer-specific distress in women with demonstrated BRCA1 mutations belonging to families with hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC). We included 214 women from HBOC families who had BRCA1 testing, and who were examined with a mailed questionnaire at pre-test (T1), 6 weeks after getting the test result (T2) and 18 months later (T3). Self-rating instruments for psychological distress, cancer-specific distress and personality traits were used. Hardly any significant changes were observed concerning the levels of psychological and cancer-specific distress from T1 via T2 to T3 for the total group or those with carrier or non-carrier status, while women with cancer had a significant reduction of cancer-specific distress over time. The pre-test levels of psychological and cancer-specific distress were significant and strong predictors of these types of distress at T3. The personality trait of neuroticism made a significant contribution to both types of distress at pre-test, and a small separate contribution to distress at T3. Carrier status, history of personal cancer, pre-test levels of optimism or multidimensional health locus of control did not significantly predict distress at T3. Genetic testing or test results were not found to induce psychological or cancer-specific psychological distress at long-term. Neuroticism had a decisive influence at both pre-test and long-term levels of distress.

  11. Psychological literacy: proceed with caution, construction ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch DD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Douglas D Murdoch Department of Psychology, Mount Royal University, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Psychological literacy is the ethical application of psychological skills and knowledge. This could benefit individuals in their personal, occupational, and civic lives and subsequently benefit society as a whole. We know that psychology has a wide-ranging impact on society. The potential benefits of a psychologically literate citizenry in improved parenting, better business practices, enlightened legislation, and many other areas make this a desirable goal. It has been proposed that this should become the primary goal of an undergraduate psychology education to benefit the majority who do not go on to graduate school and even those who only take a few psychology courses. This idea has significant merit and warrants further investigation and development. However, there are major concerns that need to be addressed. First, what are uniquely psychological skills and knowledge? Many of the skills psychology undergraduates acquire are generic to university and not specific to psychology. Second, psychology can be as harmful when misapplied as it can be beneficial when ethically applied. Third, psychology departments will need to address pragmatic as well as ethical issues, including issues of competency, boundaries, accountability, and confidentiality. Fourth, the available empirical evidence to direct such efforts is primarily at the anecdotal, case example, and pilot study stages. Significant improvements are needed in measuring psychological literacy, choice of outcome measures, and research methodologies before these advantages can be realized in an empirically supported manner. Currently, best practices in the undergraduate curriculum are the mindful and purposeful design of courses and experiential opportunities. It is proposed that psychological literacy is best conceptualized as a meta-literacy and that it should become a goal of psychology

  12. Board Certification in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

  13. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

  14. BIological Psychology, Exercise, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…

  15. The Community Psychology Evaluation Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jeffrey A.; Wolfe, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the American Evaluation Association (AEA) added community psychology (CP) to its roster of topical interests groups (TIG). One of the highlights of the CP TIG program at the 2012 AEA Conference and the genesis of this "American Journal of Evaluation" Forum was a panel of accomplished community psychologists and evaluation…

  16. Teaching Psychology Students Computer Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnip, Gilbert W.

    This paper describes an undergraduate-level course designed to teach the applications of computers that are most relevant in the social sciences, especially psychology. After an introduction to the basic concepts and terminology of computing, separate units were devoted to word processing, data analysis, data acquisition, artificial intelligence,…

  17. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  18. Guidelines for prevention in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Psychological effects of polar expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Suedfeld, Peter

    2008-01-12

    Polar expeditions include treks and stays at summer camps or year-round research stations. People on such expeditions generally undergo psychological changes resulting from exposure to long periods of isolation and confinement, and the extreme physical environment. Symptoms include disturbed sleep, impaired cognitive ability, negative affect, and interpersonal tension and conflict. Seasonal occurrence of these symptoms suggests the existence of three overlapping syndromes: the winter-over syndrome, the polar T3 syndrome, and subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder. About 5% of people on expeditions meet DSM-IV or ICD criteria for psychiatric disorders. However, they also experience positive or so-called salutogenic outcomes resulting from successfully coping with stress and enhanced self-sufficiency, improved health, and personal growth. Prevention of pathogenic psychological outcomes is best accomplished by psychological and psychiatric screening procedures to select out unsuitable candidates, and by providing access to psychological support, including telephone counselling. Promotion of salutogenic experiences is best accomplished by screening for suitable personality traits, and training participants in individual coping strategies, group interaction, and team leadership.

  20. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.