WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychology psych public

  1. Soul and psyche: The Bible in psychological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J. Smith

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last third of the twentieth century a discipline that applies psychological and psychoanalytic insight to the study of the Bible, has resurfaced within biblical studies. In his book, Soul and Psyche, Wayne Rollins offers a psychological biblical approach as one of the new approaches to Scripture since the 1960’s. This approach tends to bring a renewed appreciation for the role of the human psyche or soul in the history of the Bible and its interpretation.

  2. Foundations of educational psychology: Howard Gardner's neoclassical psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, R

    2001-12-01

    This article is a theoretical examination of the implications of Howard Gardner's work in developmental and educational psychology (1983, 1993, 1999a, 1999b) for the structure of the psyche. The author accepts as axiomatic, in the context of this article, Gardner's educational manifesto (1999a) that all students should be taught disciplinary understandings of truth, beauty, and goodness. Rational inferences are then made indicating that the psyche that Gardner intends to educate and help develop is in the form of a neoclassical psyche and that it is structured by the capacities to know truth, to love beauty, and to will goodness.

  3. Media psychology: Modern man and nonlocality of psyche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronina E.E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern information technologies is causing changes in the structure of the human psyche, bringing about a new psychotype. The transition to a new level of evolution is accompanied by the growing manifestation of the psyche’s ontological features — nonlocality and self-determination. From a sample of more than 300 people, it was demonstrated that active Internet users are significantly different in a number of parameters from those who mostly use traditional media. This article examines the resources of media psychology as a new paradigm in the study of mass communication phenomena and the laws of the development of psyche.

  4. [Evolutionary development of human psyche in Wilber's integral psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koberda, Przemysław

    2008-01-01

    Darwin's evolution theory is fundamental for modern biology. But the logic of evolutionary development seems to have a wider context. Several observations and psychological investigations show convincingly that the extent of the development of human psyche is a continuation of the biological evolution. Developmental levels of consciousness, seen both from the individual and collective perspective, are discussed in the writings by the American investigator and philosopher Ken Wilber. His integral model, which has evoIved into integral psychology, forms a logical and inspiring basis for further scientific deliberations in the fields of psychology and medical sciences.

  5. ePsych: interactive demonstrations and experiments in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Gary L; Steinman, Bernard; McCarley, Nancy

    2002-05-01

    ePsych (http://epsych.msstate.edu), a new Web site currently under active development, is intended to teach students about the discipline of psychology. The site presumes little prior knowledge about the field and so may be used in introductory classes, but it incorporates sufficient depth of coverage to be useful in more advanced classes as well. Numerous interactive and dynamic elements are incorporated into various modules, orientations, and guidebooks. These elements include Java-based experiments and demonstrations, video clips, and animated diagrams. Rapid access to all material is provided through a layer-based navigation system that allows users to visit various "Worlds of the Mind." Active learning is encouraged, by challenging students with puzzles and problems and by providing the opportunity to "dig deeper" to learn more about the phenomena at hand.

  6. PsychDisclosure.org: Grassroot Support for Reforming Reporting Standards in Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeBel, E.P.; Borsboom, D.; Giner-Sorolla, R.; Hasselman, F.; Peters, K.R.; Ratliff, K.A.; Smith, C.T.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently an unprecedented level of doubt regarding the reliability of research findings in psychology. Many recommendations have been made to improve the current situation. This article reports results from PsychDisclosure.org, a novel open-science initiative that provides a platform for

  7. PsychMate: providing psychology majors the tools to do real experiments and learn empirical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschman, Amy; St James, James; Schneider, Walter; Zuccolotto, Anthony

    2005-05-01

    PsychMate is a set of software tools for undergraduate psychology students to run, develop, and analyze computerized experiments. It includes 30 psychological experiments in the areas of perception, cognition, social psychology, human factors, and cognitive neuroscience. Students run experiments themselves and see basic results immediately. The automatic spreadsheet analysis forms allow them to aggregate data and create analyses, presentations, and Web pages with a single click. Students can use the Psychology Experiment Authoring Kit experiment editor to create their own experiments in minutes and run experiments with other students using Web-based experiment-management tools. The BrainTutor and BrainViewer applications teach brain anatomy and permit students to analyze fMRI brain imaging data from subjects who have performed the same memory experiments in which they participated. PsychMate has been used in 83 classes in which 1,533 students submitted 5,464 completed experiments with few (less than 1%) requests for help and a very positive rating of the research experience.

  8. Psyche=singularity: A comparison of Carl Jung's transpersonal psychology and Leonard Susskind's holographic string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Timothy

    In this dissertation I discern what Carl Jung calls the mandala image of the ultimate archetype of unity underlying and structuring cosmos and psyche by pointing out parallels between his transpersonal psychology and Stanford physicist Leonard Susskind's string theory. Despite his atheistic, materialistically reductionist interpretation of it, I demonstrate how Susskind's string theory of holographic information conservation at the event horizons of black holes, and the cosmic horizon of the universe, corroborates the following four topics about which Jung wrote: (1) his near-death experience of the cosmic horizon after a heart attack in 1944; ( 2) his equation relating psychic energy to mass, "Psyche=highest intensity in the smallest space" (1997, 162), which I translate into the equation, Psyche=Singularity; (3) his theory that the mandala, a circle or sphere with a central point, is the symbolic image of the ultimate archetype of unity through the union of opposites, which structures both cosmos and psyche, and which rises spontaneously from the collective unconscious to compensate a conscious mind torn by irreconcilable demands (1989, 334-335, 396-397); and (4) his theory of synchronicity. I argue that Susskind's inside-out black hole model of our Big Bang universe forms a geometrically perfect mandala: a central Singularity encompassed by a two-dimensional sphere which serves as a universal memory bank. Moreover, in precise fulfillment of Jung's theory, Susskind used that mandala to reconcile the notoriously incommensurable paradigms of general relativity and quantum mechanics, providing in the process a mathematically plausible explanation for Jung's near-death experience of his past, present, and future life simultaneously at the cosmic horizon. Finally, Susskind's theory also provides a plausible cosmological model to explain Jung's theory of synchronicity--meaningful coincidences may be tied together by strings at the cosmic horizon, from which they

  9. The Beauty of the Psyche and Eros Myth: Integrating Aesthetics into Introduction to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Burke, Kayla

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1990s the authors became convinced that their undergraduate psychology students needed classroom experiences that set the conditions for them to become more engaged with beauty. They recognized the intrinsic importance of beauty to human psychological development, beyond any utilitarian concerns. But they also believed that…

  10. The Psyche as Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTURO CLAVIJO A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorism has argued that behavior is the Psyche and the subject matter of psychology. Although, some scientists had done empirical work with objective methods before 1913, the year in which John B. Watson published his manifesto, he was the first one to attempt a systematization of behavior as the Psyche, that is, as psychology’s subject matter. In this text, I outline Watson’s notion of behavior to compare it with two other forms of behaviorism: Skinner’s radical behaviorism and molar behaviorism. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the concept of behavior has been and is changing.

  11. Psychology, psychologists, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Katherine M; Sechrest, Lee; McKnight, Patrick E

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based policy is being encouraged in all areas of public service ( Black 2001 ). Unprecedented federal legislation reflects a faith in science "as a force for improved public policy" ( Feuer et al. 2002 ). The objective of evidence-based policy is to use scientific research to drive decision making. Thus, the link between social science research and public policy seems to be a natural one. The purpose of this chapter is to address how psychological science in general, and clinical psychology in particular, can be of use to public policy makers. We discuss how psychological science can be relevant and applicable to informing policy, and we describe the role clinical scientists might play in generating, disseminating, and implementing that information. We also note distinct limitations on the usefulness of psychological research in driving public policy. We discuss some pitfalls and recommend areas where clinical psychology might best serve public policy.

  12. Publications in psychology: French issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANK ARNOULD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the situation of psychology publications in France, in particular, the visibility of French research through journals and bibliographic databases; the role of publications for the evalua-tion of researchers and laboratories, and the contribution of French psychologists to a national publica-tions archiving platform.

  13. Psychology in the public service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G

    2002-01-01

    Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties.

  14. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2010-01-01

    With millions of copies sold, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology...

  15. Soul, butterfly, mythological nymph: psyche in philosophy and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakou, Elena I; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2017-03-01

    The term "psyche" and its derivatives - including "Psychology" and "Psychiatry" - are rooted in classical philosophy and in mythology. Over the centuries, psyche has been the subject of discourse and contemplation, and of fable; it has also come to signify, in entomology, the order of Lepidoptera. In the current surge of research on brain and mind, there is a gradual transition from the psyche (or the "soul") to the specified descriptors defined by the fields of Behavioral, Cognitive and Integrative Neuroscience.

  16. Inventing the Hispanic Psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavans, Ilan

    1992-01-01

    Many Latin American authors have undertaken cultural criticism designed to explain the psyche of the Hispanic countries. Carlos Fuentes, in "The Buried Mirror: Reflections on Spain and the New World," presents another example of the obsessive need to interpret Latin America to the rest of the world. (SLD)

  17. Inventing the Hispanic Psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavans, Ilan

    1992-01-01

    Many Latin American authors have undertaken cultural criticism designed to explain the psyche of the Hispanic countries. Carlos Fuentes, in "The Buried Mirror: Reflections on Spain and the New World," presents another example of the obsessive need to interpret Latin America to the rest of the world. (SLD)

  18. Behavioral Public Administration : Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and s...

  19. Behavioral Public Administration: Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and s...

  20. An Analysis of Psyche in Ode to Psyche

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧丹

    2014-01-01

    Cupid and Psyche are two typical characters in the Classical Mythology. Cupid was son of Venus, the goodness of love and beauty, while Psyche was a very beautiful daughter of a king. Because of Psyche’s beauty, Venus dispatched Cupid to punish her, but Cupid loved Psyche, then their love story started. Having gone through al kinds of hardship, they married at last. In Keats’s poetry, Ode to Psyche, he portrayed a song to love and the creative imagination, which is the story of Psyche so beautiful that Love fel in love with her. Combining the story of Cupid and Psyche with the poetry Ode to Psyche, readers wil have a more comprehensive knowledge.

  1. Behavioral Public Administration: Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2015-01-01

    We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both......, behavioral public administration represents a two-way street in which public administration scholars use theories and methods from psychology, and psychologists, in turn, learn from our setting of political-administrative contexts to refine their theories and methods. Finally, we propose four principals...... methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and should not, replace ‘conventional’ public administration, but it is complementary to it. Importantly...

  2. Behavioral Public Administration : Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing upon insights from psychology on behavior of individuals and groups. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on theories and

  3. Behavioral Public Administration : Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing upon insights from psychology on behavior of individuals and groups. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on theories and me

  4. Between phrén and psyché: Gabriele Buccola and his contribution to the birth of experimental psychology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degni, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    The institution in 1880 of a laboratory of experimental psychology in the San Lazzaro Mental Hospital of Reggio Emilia, directed by Augusto Tamburini, marks a fundamental stage for the birth of scientific psychology in Italy. It was in this laboratory that the Sicilian psychiatrist Gabriele Buccola worked, carrying out reaction-time experiments in a broad and systematic way on "sane" and mentally ill individuals. In so doing, he was following Claude Bernard's lesson--which was advocated also by Comte, Taine, and Ribot, as in Italy by Livi and Tamburini-- according to which mental functions are to be studied in both normal and pathological conditions. With these experiments, Buccola highlighted the way in which reaction time is tied to "attention," how it is altered by mental illness, and how there are various "modifiers" that influence the results. He also shows how the measurement of this "time" represents an important instrument for the differential diagnosis of several mental pathologies. Buccola's work, which is implemented in the first volume of experimental psychology written in Italy, demonstrates how psychology, which in the second half of the nineteenth century aspired to become an autonomous science, developed in Italy from the root of psychiatry, on the common ground of evolutionary positivism.

  5. Media, racism and public health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Raymond; Pega, Frank; McCreanor, Tim; Rankine, Jenny; Barnes, Angela

    2006-03-01

    International literature has established that racism contributes to ill-health of migrants, ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples. Racism generally negates wellbeing, adversely affecting physical and psychological health. Numerous studies have shown that media contribute marginalizing particular ethnic and cultural groups depicting them primarily as problems for and threats to the dominant. This articles frames media representations of, and their effect on, the indigenous Maori of Aotearoa, New Zealand within the ongoing processes of colonization. We argue that reflects the media contribution to maintenance and naturalisation of colonial relationships and seek to include critical media scholarship in a critical public health psychology.

  6. Psychoneuroimmunology - psyche and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2012-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively young field of research that investigates interactions between central nervous and immune system. The brain modulates the immune system by the endocrine and autonomic nervous system. Vice versa, the immune system modulates brain activity including sleep and body temperature. Based on a close functional and anatomical link, the immune and nervous systems act in a highly reciprocal manner. From fever to stress, the influence of one system on the other has evolved in an intricate manner to help sense danger and to mount an appropriate adaptive response. Over recent decades, reasonable evidence has emerged that these brain-to-immune interactions are highly modulated by psychological factors which influence immunity and autoimmune disease. For several diseases, the relevance of psychoneuroimmunological findings has already been demonstrated.

  7. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  8. Public mental health. II: The psychological dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curle, A

    1997-01-01

    Alienation, which is the source of much violence, is widespread throughout the world, deriving from and connected with adverse social and economic conditions. It is a state of estrangement from society often associated with bitterness and resentment; these exacerbate conflict and lead to war and other types of violence. Alienation is the antithesis of compassion and other feelings on which the good society is based. It is partially maintained by a web of psychological falsehoods, knots, relating to: awareness, happiness, identity, permanence, separateness, guilt and inferiority, and violence. These knots foster confused thinking that makes us more vulnerable to alienation. Unravelling the knots and cutting through the web of psychological falsehoods helps to release the human potential for positive, peaceful and non-violent action. Medicine can best contribute to weakening wide-spread alienation through the development of public mental health, working at the interface with the social, economic and cultural actors in the development of civil society.

  9. The Psyche as Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTURO CLAVIJO A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Según el conductismo, el comportamiento constituye la Psique y el tema de estudio de la psicología. Aunque algunos científicos habían realizado trabajos empíricos con métodos objetivos antes de 1913, año en el que John B. Watson publicó su manifiesto, este último fue el primero en intentar la sistematización de la conducta como equivalente a la Psique, esto es, como el objeto de estudio de la psicología. El artículo discute la noción de comportamiento de Watson y la compara con otras dos formas de conductismo: el conductismo radical de Skinner y el conductismo molar, con el fin de ilustrar la forma en que el concepto de comportamiento ha cambiado y sigue cambiando.

  10. The psyche as behavior

    OpenAIRE

    ARTURO CLAVIJO A.

    2012-01-01

    Según el conductismo, el comportamiento constituye la Psique y el tema de estudio de la psicología. Aunque algunos científicos habían realizado trabajos empíricos con métodos objetivos antes de 1913, año en el que John B. Watson publicó su manifiesto, este último fue el primero en intentar la sistematización de la conducta como equivalente a la Psique, esto es, como el objeto de estudio de la psicología. El artículo discute la noción de comportamiento de Watson y la compara con otras dos form...

  11. The Psyche as Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    ARTURO CLAVIJO A.

    2013-01-01

    Según el conductismo, el comportamiento constituye la Psique y el tema de estudio de la psicología. Aunque algunos científicos habían realizado trabajos empíricos con métodos objetivos antes de 1913, año en el que John B. Watson publicó su manifiesto, este último fue el primero en intentar la sistematización de la conducta como equivalente a la Psique, esto es, como el objeto de estudio de la psicología. El artículo discute la noción de comportamiento de Watson y la compara con otras dos form...

  12. Ranking Institutional Settings Based on Publications in Community Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Patka, Mazna; Adams, Monica; Morello, Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Two primary outlets for community psychology research, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" and the "Journal of Community Psychology", were assessed to rank institutions based on publication frequency and scientific influence of publications over a 32-year period. Three specific periods were assessed (1973-1983, 1984-1994, 1995-2004).…

  13. Psych-related iPhone apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Anthony Mark; Goozee, Rhianna

    2014-02-01

    iPhone apps are a widely utilised technology that have recently been identified as a useful medium for health research, clinical interventions and education. While some researchers have discussed advances in app technology, others promote specific apps that are not free to access. To our knowledge, no study has conducted a review of current, free iPhone apps related to psychology, psychiatry and mental health. Therefore, we conducted a pilot, web-based review exploring free iPhone apps using a replicable search strategy within the iTunes Store search function. A selection of apps were selected and subjectively assessed in terms of their usability, utility, graphics, and associated costs for the consumer. We concluded that the apps reviewed, though novel, are limited in their scope and utility. We also note a significant gap in more scientific, evidence-based app technology, and pose some pertinent ethical questions when developing future psych-related apps.

  14. The psyche and the gut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Enck; Ute Martens; Sibylle Klosterhalfen

    2007-01-01

    Research on gut-brain interactions has increased over the last decade and has brought about a number of new topics beyond "classical" subjects, such as "stress" and "personality", which have dominated the psychosomatic literature on gastrointestinal disorders over the past century. These novel topics include brain imaging of intestinal functions, placebo responses in gastroenterology, learning of gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of life in patients with intestinal complaints, and psychotherapy and familial aggregation of functional intestinal disorders. Currently, these new topics appear with a frequency of 1% to 3% in leading gastroenterological journals, either as data presentation or review papers. Increasing focus underlines the importance of enhancing our understanding on how the psyche and the brain communicate in order to better meet the needs of our patients.

  15. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2014 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Bonnie R. Strickland.

  16. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  17. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  18. The interpretation of nature and the psyche

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Carl Gustav

    2012-01-01

    Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) and Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (1900 – 1958) were two of the greatest thinkers of modern times. Jung is the founder of Analytical Psychology and is one of the best known researchers in the field of Dream Interpretation and Symbolization. Pauli was one of the pioneers of Quantum Physics. In 1945, Pauli received the Nobel Prize in Physics after being nominated by Albert Einstein for his “decisive contribution through his discovery of a new law of Nature, the exclusion principle” involving spin theory underpinning the structure of matter and the whole of chemistry. Together they collaborated on this book that was First published in 1952 in German as Naturerklärung und Psyche. C. G. Jung: Synchronizität als ein Prinzip akausaler Zusammenhänge. W. Pauli: Der Einfluss archetypischer Vorstellungen auf die Bildung naturwissenschaftlicher Theorien bei Kepler. However, our reviewer, himself an eminent professor of mathematics, concludes, “After thoroughly studying their writings for ma...

  19. Psychology in the Public Forum : Unity in Service?

    OpenAIRE

    David W., Rackham

    1996-01-01

    While a theoretical and methodological unity is beyond the grasp of contemporary psychology, it could be argued that a unity of purpose might be possible if it is recognized that specialized psychological systems and methods, even if irreconcilable at the moment, have all been tapped to provide some sort of service to the wider community. It might be said, therefore, that a kind of unity in diversity actually exists, this unity being in terms of the public service dimension of the psychologic...

  20. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve.

  1. Separate disciplines: The study of behavior and the study of the psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, L E; Vargas, E A

    1986-01-01

    The study of behavior differs fundamentally from the study of the psyche and logically cannot share the same discipline. However, while disciplines might be defined through technical exercises, they function through exercises of political power. The evolution of a discipline, though based on field and laboratory data interpreted within a specific paradigm and justified publicity by its utility to solve personal and social problems, follows a course of development in the political arenas of the academies and the professions. We happen to have a discipline, roughly connoted by the label "behavior analysis," without an academic home (the present ones haphazardly tolerate our activities), without a professional organization (the present one lobbies only "for behavior analysis"), and without a true professional name (the present one implies an approach not a discipline). No scientific community lasts long without a supporting professional infrastructure. In explicitly asserting ourselves as a discipline, we confront a number of difficult issues such as continuing to work in departments antithetical to behaviorism and a number of problems such as what we call ourselves to identify our professional and scientific concerns. (For example, we need a term descriptive of our science in its broad sense. That term is not psychology. Too many people persist in maintaining its commitment to cognitivism. On whatever term we agree, "behavior" should constitute its stem, for our efforts focus there, not in the putative underlying psyche or its current cognitive update.) The focus of our concerns and the solutions of our problems rest on one issue: Will our discipline prosper most as a branch of psychology or as an independent discipline? Slowly, but surely, our actions demonstrate that the latter is the preferred option, but these actions, though fortuitous, occur almost by accident. By specifically programming to achieve an independent professional status we increase the probability

  2. The I Ching and the psyche-body connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shirley S Y

    2005-04-01

    Carl G. Jung's fateful meeting with Richard Wilhelm in 1929 has helped to build a bridge of depth psychological understanding between the East and the West. When Jung emerged from his 'confrontation with the unconscious', he felt validated by Wilhelm in his discovery of the healing power of medieval alchemical symbolism for the European psyche. Analytical psychology however offers a scientific, psychological understanding of Chinese wisdom as contained in the I Ching and Taoist alchemy. The Taoist alchemical tradition (also known as the Inner Elixir tradition of which 'The Secret of the Golden Flower' is a sample text) is based on the premise that psychological experience of the Tao can be achieved through mental and physiological means such as breathing and meditative techniques, gymnastics, dietary regimens such as fasting, consumption of medicinal herbs and minerals, and special sexual practices. This tradition incorporates the I Ching and traditional Chinese medicine in the alchemical opus. Taoist alchemy assumes the primacy of the physical body in the process of self-realization. The psychological and cosmic forces of the trigrams of the I Ching are stored in the internal organs of the body and are the basic material for the experience of Tao. The internal organs are the foundation of the material and subtle bodies and through cultivation, the body becomes spiritualized as the spirits are embodied. The body as a reflection of the entire cosmos becomes the residence of the gods. The realization of a new consciousness is symbolized by the hexagram Fu, meaning rebirth. The Chinese notion of Tao coincides with Jung's postulation of the unus mundus, the unity of existence which underlies the duality of psyche and matter, the psycho-physical background of existence. In this light, in the world of inner experience, East and West follow similar paths symbolically.

  3. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Bernice Lott

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in…

  4. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Bernice Lott

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in…

  5. Impact of the Psychological Testing Assessment System (SATEPSI) for Scientific Publications in Psychological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur-Alves,Marcela; Silva, Renata Saldanha; Fernandes,Sthefanie Carvalho de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The strengthening of psychological assessment in Brazil in the twenty-first century can be understood as a result of the foundation of Psychological Test Evaluation System (SATEPSI, its Portuguese acronym) by Resolution 02/2003 of the Federal Council of Psychology. In this sense, the present study aimed to describe the impact of SATEPSI for research in the area. A survey of Brazilian researchers' publications was conducted in two periods in SciELO and BVS-Psi databases - 1993-2002 an...

  6. 3-µm Spectroscopy of Asteroid 16 Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takir, Driss; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan; Shepard, Michael K.

    2016-10-01

    Asteroid 16 Psyche, an M-type asteroid, is thought to be one of the most massive exposed iron metal object in the asteroid belt. The high radar albedos of Psyche suggest that this differentiated asteroid is dominantly composed of metal. Psyche was previously found to be featureless in the 3-µm spectral region. However, in our study we found that this asteroid exhibits a 3-µm absorption feature, possibly indicating the presence of hydrated silicates.We have observed Psyche in the 3-µm spectral region, using the long-wavelength cross-dispersed (LXD:1.9-4.2 µm) mode of the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). For data reduction, we used the IDL (Interactive Data Language)-based spectral reduction tool Spextool (v4.1). Psyche was observed over the course of three nights with an apparent visual magnitude of ~9.50: 8 December 2015 (3 sets), 9 December 2015 (1 set), and 10 March 2016 (1 set). These observations have revealed that Psyche may exhibit a 3-µm absorption feature, similar to the sharp group in the 2.9-3.3-µm spectral range. Psyche also exhibits an absorption feature similar to the one in Ceres and Ceres-like group in the spectral 3.3-4.0-µm range. These 3-µm observational results revealed that Psyche may not be as featureless as once thought in the 3-µm spectral region.Evidence for the 3-µm band was found on the surfaces of many M-type asteroids and a number of plausible alternative interpretations for the presence of this 3-µm band were previously suggested. These interpretations include the presence of anhydrous silicates containing structural OH, the presence of fluid inclusions, the presence of xenolithic hydrous meteorite components on asteroid surfaces from impacts, solar wind-implanted H, or the presence of troilite. The detection of the Ceres-like feature in the 3.3-4.0-µm spectral range, however, would rule out some of these alternative interpretations, especially the solar wind-implanted H.

  7. Fundamentalism in Psychological Science. The Publication Manual as "Bible."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Bowers, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the content of the fourth edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (1994) as if it were a biblical text. Draws on socio-historical studies and critical feminist perspectives to discuss the manual's function as a fundamentalist "bible" in relation to psychologists' culture. (SLD)

  8. Fundamentalism in Psychological Science. The Publication Manual as "Bible."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Bowers, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the content of the fourth edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (1994) as if it were a biblical text. Draws on socio-historical studies and critical feminist perspectives to discuss the manual's function as a fundamentalist "bible" in relation to psychologists' culture. (SLD)

  9. Publication bias and the failure of replication in experimental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2012-12-01

    Replication of empirical findings plays a fundamental role in science. Among experimental psychologists, successful replication enhances belief in a finding, while a failure to replicate is often interpreted to mean that one of the experiments is flawed. This view is wrong. Because experimental psychology uses statistics, empirical findings should appear with predictable probabilities. In a misguided effort to demonstrate successful replication of empirical findings and avoid failures to replicate, experimental psychologists sometimes report too many positive results. Rather than strengthen confidence in an effect, too much successful replication actually indicates publication bias, which invalidates entire sets of experimental findings. Researchers cannot judge the validity of a set of biased experiments because the experiment set may consist entirely of type I errors. This article shows how an investigation of the effect sizes from reported experiments can test for publication bias by looking for too much successful replication. Simulated experiments demonstrate that the publication bias test is able to discriminate biased experiment sets from unbiased experiment sets, but it is conservative about reporting bias. The test is then applied to several studies of prominent phenomena that highlight how publication bias contaminates some findings in experimental psychology. Additional simulated experiments demonstrate that using Bayesian methods of data analysis can reduce (and in some cases, eliminate) the occurrence of publication bias. Such methods should be part of a systematic process to remove publication bias from experimental psychology and reinstate the important role of replication as a final arbiter of scientific findings.

  10. Scientometric trend analyses of publications on the history of psychology: Is psychology becoming an unhistorical science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampen, Günter

    Examines scientometrically the trends in and the recent situation of research on and the teaching of the history of psychology in the German-speaking countries and compares the findings with the situation in other countries (mainly the United States) by means of the psychology databases PSYNDEX and PsycINFO. Declines of publications on the history of psychology are described scientometrically for both research communities since the 1990s. Some impulses are suggested for the future of research on and the teaching of the history of psychology. These include (1) the necessity and significance of an intensified use of quantitative, unobtrusive scientometric methods in historiography in times of digital "big data", (2) the necessity and possibilities to integrate qualitative and quantitative methodologies in historical research and teaching, (3) the reasonableness of interdisciplinary cooperation of specialist historians, scientometricians, and psychologists, (4) the meaningfulness and necessity to explore, investigate, and teach more intensively the past and the problem history of psychology as well as the understanding of the subject matter of psychology in its historical development in cultural contexts. The outlook on the future of such a more up-to-date research on and teaching of the history of psychology is-with some caution-positive.

  11. Quantum mechanics and the psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli Carminati, G.; Martin, F.

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we apply the last developments of the theory of measurement in quantum mechanics to the phenomenon of consciousness and especially to the awareness of unconscious components. Various models of measurement in quantum mechanics can be distinguished by the fact that there is, or there is not, a collapse of the wave function. The passive aspect of consciousness seems to agree better with models in which there is no collapse of the wave function, whereas in the active aspect of consciousness—i.e., that which goes together with an act or a choice—there seems to be a collapse of the wave function. As an example of the second possibility we study in detail the photon delayed-choice experiment and its consequences for subjective or psychological time. We apply this as an attempt to explain synchronicity phenomena. As a model of application of the awareness of unconscious components we study the mourning process. We apply also the quantum paradigm to the phenomenon of correlation at a distance between minds, as well as to group correlations that appear during group therapies or group training. Quantum entanglement leads to the formation of group unconscious or collective unconscious. Finally we propose to test the existence of such correlations during sessions of group training.

  12. Public skepticism of psychology: why many people perceive the study of human behavior as unscientific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2012-01-01

    Data indicate that large percentages of the general public regard psychology's scientific status with considerable skepticism. I examine 6 criticisms commonly directed at the scientific basis of psychology (e.g., psychology is merely common sense, psychology does not use scientific methods, psychology is not useful to society) and offer 6 rebuttals. I then address 8 potential sources of public skepticism toward psychology and argue that although some of these sources reflect cognitive errors (e.g., hindsight bias) or misunderstandings of psychological science (e.g., failure to distinguish basic from applied research), others (e.g., psychology's failure to police itself, psychology's problematic public face) reflect the failure of professional psychology to get its own house in order. I offer several individual and institutional recommendations for enhancing psychology's image and contend that public skepticism toward psychology may, paradoxically, be one of our field's strongest allies.

  13. 'Psyching-up' and muscular force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, David; Iredale, Fiona; Gill, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    Psyching-up refers to self-directed cognitive strategies used immediately prior to or during skill execution that are designed to enhance performance. This review focuses on research that has investigated the effect of psyching-up on force production; specifically, strength, muscular endurance and power. Although firm conclusions are not possible, the research tentatively suggests that psyching-up may enhance performance during dynamic tasks requiring strength and/or muscular endurance. However, more research is required. Power has received scant empirical attention and there are not enough data to support any conclusions. Preparatory arousal appears to be the most effective strategy although other strategies like imagery, self-talk and attentional focus also have empirical support. The range of tasks that have been used to measure force production have been limited to movements such as handgrip, leg extension, bench press, sit-ups, press-ups, pull-ups, and the standing broad jump. Additionally, most studies have used undergraduate and/or untrained samples. Only a very small number of studies have examined well-trained individuals. Currently, no explanation for why psyching-up may influence force production has any substantive support. Although a small number of studies have examined moderating and mediating variables, few consistent patterns have emerged and knowledge in this area is somewhat restricted. Given the importance that many athletes place on their mental preparation just prior to performance this is an area that warrants further examination. Research needs to examine a range of complex sport-specific tasks and use well-trained samples. Additionally, research needs to further examine why psyching-up may enhance force production.

  14. Socio-Psychological Determinants of Public Acceptance of Technologies: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, many technologies have been associated with societal controversies, leading to public rejection of their use. It is therefore important to understand the psychological determinants of societal acceptance of emerging technologies. Socio-psychological determinants of public acceptance of

  15. Publication patterns in developmental psychology: Trends and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobermann, Darja; Hamilton, Ian S

    2017-08-01

    Interest in publication patterns has been steady. Journals have instituted policies in an effort to curb bias and provide globally representative research. This study aimed to examine if publication patterns were present in two developmental psychology journals. It also explored the social networks of prominent authors and the prevalence of informal author-editor relationships, searching for any potential power groups. Data were taken from empirical articles published between 2005 and 2014 in Child Development (CD) and The International Journal of Early Childhood (IJEC) data points were geographical authorship affiliation, informal author relationships as established by co-publishing, and connections to journal editors via identical affiliation. Results confirmed the previously established North American dominance in published research. In CD a strongly interlinked social network was identified between authors over the 10 years, with 15 chief influentialists binding groups of authors together. Results suggest that patterns are still present in published research in the realm of developmental psychology. To conclude, the potential implications of these patterns within developmental psychology are presented. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Social action theory for a public health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, C K

    1991-09-01

    Many illnesses can be prevented or limited by altering personal behavior, and public health planners have turned to psychology for guidance in fostering self-protective activity. A social theory of personal action provides an integrative framework for applying psychology to public health, disclosing gaps in our current understanding of self-regulation, and generating guidelines for improving health promotion at the population level. A social action view emphasizes social interdependence and interaction in personal control of health-endangering behavior and proposes mechanisms by which environmental structures influence cognitive action schemas, self-goals, and problem-solving activities critical to sustained behavioral change. Social action theory clarifies relationships between social and personal empowerment and helps explain stages of self-change.

  17. Compositional characterization of asteroid (16) Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan; Reddy, Vishnu; Shepard, Michael K.; Thomas, Cristina; Cloutis, Edward

    2016-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectra (0.7-2.5 microns) of asteroid (16) Psyche obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. Rotationally-resolved spectra were obtained during three nights between December 2015 and February 2016. These data have been combined with three-dimensional shape models of Psyche generated with the SHAPE software package (Magri et al. 2007). From each spectrum, the band center, band depth and spectral slope were measured. We found that the band center varies from 0.92 to 0.94 microns with rotation phase, with an average value of 0.932±0.006 microns. The band depth was found to vary from 1.0 to 1.5±0.1%. Spectral slope values range from 0.25 to 0.35±0.01 microns-1, with rotation phase. We observed a possible anti-correlation between band depth and radar albedo. Using the band depth along with a new laboratory spectral calibration we estimated that Psyche has an average orthopyroxene abundance of 6±1%. The mass-deficit region of Psyche (longitudes ~ 0°-40°), characterized by having the highest radar albedo of the asteroid, also shows the highest value for the spectral slope and the minimum band depth, while the antipode of this region (longitudes ~ 180°-230°), where the radar albedo reaches its lowest value, shows a maximum in band depth and less steep spectral slopes. These results could suggest that the metal-poor antipode region has thicker regolith rich in pyroxene compared to the mass-deficit region.

  18. [Psychological aspects of public activity of a forensic medical examiner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkireva, E A; Buromskiĭ, I V

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years, professional activity of forensic medical examiners has been gaining publicity which necessitates knowledge of individual psychologic personality traits, the ability to effectively communicate, and high vocational culture on the part of each specialist. The specific character of professional contacts of a forensic medical expert is self-evident taking into consideration that he (she) has to deal with a great variety of persons including law enforcement officials, law breakers and criminal offence victims, men and women, young and aged people, representatives of different social groups, subjects in a specific emotional state, etc. In order to organize efficacious cooperation with all these individuals, the expert must develop high communicative competence, possess knowledge of psychology of communication, abilities and skills necessary for the establishment and maintenance of professional and business contacts.

  19. Workplace diversity and public policy: challenges and opportunities for psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An overview of employment participation patterns for these groups is presented, workplace barriers arising from marginalized status are highlighted, and the article concludes with a discussion of work-related legislative and public policy fronts that can be informed and influenced by the contributions of psychologists.

  20. Gary B. Melton: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2014 recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Gary B. Melton. Melton was selected for his "influential scholarship on critical topics in psychology in the public interest, especially child and family law and policy, forensic mental health services, child advocacy, rural psychology, research ethics, and child abuse and neglect." Melton's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  1. The iPSYCH2012 case-cohort sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C B; Bybjerg-Grauholm, J; Pedersen, M G

    2017-01-01

    The Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH) consortium has established a large Danish population-based Case-Cohort sample (iPSYCH2012) aimed at unravelling the genetic and environmental architecture of severe mental disorders. The iPSYCH2012 sample is nested within the entire Danish population...... born between 1981 and 2005, including 1 472 762 persons. This paper introduces the iPSYCH2012 sample and outlines key future research directions. Cases were identified as persons with schizophrenia (N=3540), autism (N=16 146), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (N=18 726) and affective disorder......PSYCH2012 sample also includes longitudinal information on health, prescribed medicine, social and socioeconomic information, and analogous information among relatives. To the best of our knowledge, the iPSYCH2012 sample is the largest and most comprehensive data source for the combined study of genetic...

  2. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is awarded to Florence L. Denmark. She is recognized for her efforts to help legitimize the psychology of women by teaching the first doctoral psychology course in the field and through her scholarly texts and articles. She continues to have an impact on the…

  4. Marguerita Lightfoot: Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Marguerita Lightfoot for her leadership, innovation, and commitment to applying psychological principles to develop behavioral health interventions for…

  5. Dante's Comedy: precursors of psychoanalytic technique and psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajnberg, Nathan Moses

    2010-02-01

    This paper uses a literary approach to explore what common ground exists in both psychoanalytic technique and views of the psyche, of 'person'. While Western literature has developed various views of psyche and person over centuries, there have been crystallizing, seminal portraits, for instance Shakespeare's perspective on what is human, some of which have endured to the present. By using Dante's Commedia, particularly the Inferno, a 14th century poem that both integrates and revises previous models of psyche and personhood, we can examine what features of psyche, and 'techniques' in soul-healing psychoanalysts have inherited culturally. Discovering basic features of technique and model of psyche we share as psychoanalysts permits us to explore why we have differences in variations on technique and models of inner life.

  6. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  7. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  8. Public Participation and Institutional Fit: A Social-Psychological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. DeCaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public participation plays a role in the development and long-term maintenance of environmental institutions that are well-matched to local social-ecological conditions. However, the means by which public participation impacts such institutional fit remains unclear. We argue that one major reason for this lack of clarity is that analysts have not clearly outlined how humankind's sense of agency, or self-determination, influences institutional outcomes. Moreover, the concept of institutional fit is ambiguous as to what constitutes a good fit and how such fit could be diagnosed or improved. This is especially true for "social fit," or how well institutions match human expectations and local behavioral patterns. We develop an interdisciplinary framework based on principles of human agency and institutional analysis from social psychology to address these problems. Using the concept of "institutional acceptance" as an indicator of social fit, we show how analysts can define, diagnose, and improve social fit of participatory programs. We also show how such fit emerges and is sustained over time. This interdisciplinary perspective on fit and participation has important implications for participatory approaches to environmental management and the scientific study of institutional evolution.

  9. Michael E. Lamb: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Michael E. Lamb. Lamb was selected because his "work profoundly shaped the fields of developmental psychology, social welfare, child and family policy, and law." Lamb's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  10. Psych verbs, the linking problem, and the acquisition of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorne, Joshua K; O'Donnell, Timothy J; Sudo, Yasutada; Uruwashi, Miki; Lee, Miseon; Snedeker, Jesse

    2016-12-01

    In acquiring language, children must learn to appropriately place the different participants of an event (e.g., causal agent, affected entity) into the correct syntactic positions (e.g., subject, object) so that listeners will know who did what to whom. While many of these mappings can be characterized by broad generalizations, both within and across languages (e.g., semantic agents tend to be mapped onto syntactic subjects), not all verbs fit neatly into these generalizations. One particularly striking example is verbs of psychological state: The experiencer of the state can appear as either the subject (Agnes fears/hates/loves Bartholomew) or the direct object (Agnes frightens/angers/delights Bartholomew). The present studies explore whether this apparent variability in subject/object mapping may actually result from differences in these verbs' underlying meanings. Specifically, we suggest that verbs like fear describe a habitual attitude towards some entity whereas verbs like frighten describe an externally caused emotional episode. We find that this distinction systematically characterizes verbs in English, Mandarin, and Korean. This pattern is generalized to novel verbs by adults in English, Japanese, and Russian, and even by English-speaking children who are just beginning to acquire psych verbs. This results support a broad role for systematic mappings between semantics and syntax in language acquisition.

  11. Gender, Self-Stigma, and Public Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Psychological Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of university students (N = 362), the role of gender and both the self-stigma and public stigma associated with one's decision to seek psychological help in predicting attitudes toward psychological helpseeking were examined. Moreover, gender differences regarding both the self-stigma and the public stigma associated with…

  12. Bernice Lott: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Bernice Lott. Lott's commitment to the public interest has always guided her career, as her groundbreaking research on gender, ethnicity, and race…

  13. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…

  14. Radical behaviorism and psychology's public: B. F. Skinner in the popular press, 1934-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, A

    2000-11-01

    B. F. Skinner is perhaps 2nd only to Freud among the most publicly identifiable psychological figures of the last century. This article reviews the popular press coverage of Skinner between 1934 and 1990 to examine how radical behaviorism was interpreted, portrayed, and received by psychology's public. Reactions to Skinner were often skeptical or condemnatory. It is suggested that some members of the public had difficulty accepting his views because of the disparities between the philosophy of radical behaviorism and the phenomenology of everyday experience. Furthermore, Skinner's status as a psychological expert was inextricably linked to the public's perception of his credibility not only as a scientist but also as a human being.

  15. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Anneliese A. Singh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Anneliese A. Singh. Dr. Singh's scholarship "has promoted major advancements in LBGT studies and intersectionality of multiple identities." Singh's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Candice L. Odgers: Awards for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Candice L. Odgers. Odgers's work addressing the developmental course of externalizing and conduct disorders and substance use yielded key insights into genetic and environmental variations in risk, leading to policy recommendations regarding how best to target interventions." Odgers's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  17. Tools for Teaching Cognitive Psychology: Using Public Service Announcements for Education on Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Lisa D.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the relevance of cognitive psychology, students in a cognitive psychology course were required to complete a detailed plan for a public service announcement focusing on environmental issues. The final exam was a Microsoft Office PowerPoint presentation incorporating at least eight concepts from the course. Students in the course…

  18. You'll Never Guess Who Wrote That: 78 Surprising Authors of Psychological Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2016-07-01

    One can find psychological authors in the most unexpected places. We present a capsule summary of scholarly publications of psychological interest authored or coauthored by 78 surprising individuals, most of whom are celebrities or relatives of celebrities, historical figures, or people who have otherwise achieved visibility in academic circles, politics, religion, art, and diverse realms of popular culture. Still other publications are authored by individuals who are far better known for their contributions to popular than to academic psychology. The publications, stretching across more than two centuries, encompass a wide swath of domains of psychological inquiry and highlight the intersection of psychology with fields that fall outside its traditional borders, including public health, economics, law, neurosurgery, and even magic. Many of these scholarly contributions have enriched psychology and its allied disciplines, such as psychiatry, in largely unappreciated ways, and they illustrate the penetration of psychological knowledge into multiple scientific disciplines and everyday life. At the same time, our author list demonstrates that remarkable intellectual accomplishments in one scientific domain, such as physics, do not necessarily translate into success in psychology and underscores the distinction between intelligence, on the one hand, and critical thinking and wisdom, on the other.

  19. Tools for Teaching Cognitive Psychology: Using Public Service Announcements for Education on Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Lisa D.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the relevance of cognitive psychology, students in a cognitive psychology course were required to complete a detailed plan for a public service announcement focusing on environmental issues. The final exam was a Microsoft Office PowerPoint presentation incorporating at least eight concepts from the course. Students in the course…

  20. Introduction and some Ideas as well as Visions on an Open Access European Psychology Publication Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÜNTER KRAMPEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available After a short description of the organization, tasks, and activities of the Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID – Leibniz-Institute/Germany possibilities of enhancing European cooperation on psychology publication issues are stressed upon. Arguments for its necessity refer to some turning points of history in the languages of science and to some problems of Anglo-American dominance in psychology publications, which are illustrated by bibliometric results on authors’ affiliations and publication languages represented in the PsycINFO database. The vision of a European Psychology Publication Platform (EPPP is developed including some considerations about its objectives and scope, principles, submission procedure and guidelines as well as review process and evaluation.

  1. Workplace Diversity and Public Policy: Challenges and Opportunities for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An…

  2. Developmental Psychology and Public Policy: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a framework for developmentally oriented policy research. Drawing from U. Bronfenbrenner's (1995) dynamic developmental systems theory, the authors suggest ways in which the key tenets of process, persons, context, and time can inform policy research in developmental psychology and can be used to support a causal…

  3. Developmental Psychology and Public Policy: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a framework for developmentally oriented policy research. Drawing from U. Bronfenbrenner's (1995) dynamic developmental systems theory, the authors suggest ways in which the key tenets of process, persons, context, and time can inform policy research in developmental psychology and can be used to support a causal…

  4. Workplace Diversity and Public Policy: Challenges and Opportunities for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An…

  5. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Mark L. Hatzenbuehler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Mark L. Hatzenbuehler. The Award recognizes Dr. Hatzenbuehler's advancements in understanding stigma, particularly "the stigma experience of being gay or bisexual at the psychological level in terms of rumination, secret keeping, and the like; at the social level in terms of stigma-imbued social interactions; and at the structural level in terms of policies such as the presence or absence of anti-bullying interventions in schools or gay marriage prohibitions at the level of states." Hatzenbuehler's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. The Future is Now: Reducing Psychological Distance to Increase Public Engagement with Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charlotte; Hine, Donald W; Marks, Anthony D G

    2017-02-01

    Many people perceive climate change as psychologically distant-a set of uncertain events that might occur far in the future, impacting distant places and affecting people dissimilar to themselves. In this study, we employed construal level theory to investigate whether a climate change communication intervention could increase public engagement by reducing the psychological distance of climate change. Australian residents (N = 333) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: one framed to increase psychological distance to climate change (distal frame), and the other framed to reduce psychological distance (proximal frame). Participants then completed measures of psychological distance of climate change impacts, climate change concern, and intentions to engage in mitigation behavior. Principal components analysis indicated that psychological distance to climate change was best conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of four components: geographic, temporal, social, and uncertainty. Path analysis revealed the effect of the treatment frame on climate change concern and intentions was fully mediated by psychological distance dimensions related to uncertainty and social distance. Our results suggest that climate communications framed to reduce psychological distance represent a promising strategy for increasing public engagement with climate change.

  7. Gold Medal Award for life achievement in psychology in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Salvatore R. Maddi. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  8. Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Beverly Greene

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Beverly Greene, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, has a long history of distinguished contributions in the public interest through her research, scholarship, teaching, practice, and consultation. Her work raises the visibility of many populations that have been overlooked and…

  9. Mental Health Promotion in Public Health: Perspectives and Strategies From Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E.P.; Peterson, Christopher; Diener, Ed; Zack, Matthew M.; Chapman, Daniel; Thompson, William

    2011-01-01

    Positive psychology is the study of what is “right” about people—their positive attributes, psychological assets, and strengths. Its aim is to understand and foster the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to thrive. Cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal research demonstrates that positive emotions are associated with numerous benefits related to health, work, family, and economic status. Growing biomedical research supports the view that positive emotions are not merely the opposite of negative emotions but may be independent dimensions of mental affect. The asset-based paradigms of positive psychology offer new approaches for bolstering psychological resilience and promoting mental health. Ultimately, greater synergy between positive psychology and public health might help promote mental health in innovative ways. PMID:21680918

  10. Dual Psychological Processes Underlying Public Stigma and the Implications for Reducing Stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, John B.; Glenn D Reeder

    2008-01-01

    People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma (e.g., shame and lowered self-esteem) or public stigma (e.g., the general public's prejudice towards the stigmatized). This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative proces...

  11. Brainwaves and psyches : A genealogy of an extended self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an ethnographical and historical analysis of the mode of being that is constituted when people use neurofeedback (brainwave training) for self-improvement. I analyse how human brainwaves have been associated with the psyche since their first demonstration by the psychiatrist Ha

  12. Radar observations and shape model of asteroid 16 Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Richardson, James; Taylor, Patrick A.; Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Conrad, Al; de Pater, Imke; Adamkovics, Mate; de Kleer, Katherine; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M.; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Viikinkoski, Matti; Timerson, Bradley; Reddy, Vishnu; Magri, Christopher; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    Using the S-band radar at Arecibo Observatory, we observed 16 Psyche, the largest M-class asteroid in the main belt. We obtained 18 radar imaging and 6 continuous wave runs in November and December 2015, and combined these with 16 continuous wave runs from 2005 and 6 recent adaptive-optics (AO) images (Drummond et al., 2016) to generate a three-dimensional shape model of Psyche. Our model is consistent with a previously published AO image (Hanus et al., 2013) and three multi-chord occultations. Our shape model has dimensions 279 × 232 × 189 km (± 10%), Deff = 226 ± 23 km, and is 6% larger than, but within the uncertainties of, the most recently published size and shape model generated from the inversion of lightcurves (Hanus et al., 2013). Psyche is roughly ellipsoidal but displays a mass-deficit over a region spanning 90° of longitude. There is also evidence for two ∼50-70 km wide depressions near its south pole. Our size and published masses lead to an overall bulk density estimate of 4500 ± 1400 kgm-3. Psyche's mean radar albedo of 0.37 ± 0.09 is consistent with a near-surface regolith composed largely of iron-nickel and ∼40% porosity. Its radar reflectivity varies by a factor of 1.6 as the asteroid rotates, suggesting global variations in metal abundance or bulk density in the near surface. The variations in radar albedo appear to correlate with large and small-scale shape features. Our size and Psyche's published absolute magnitude lead to an optical albedo of pv = 0.15 ± 0.03, and there is evidence for albedo variegations that correlate with shape features.

  13. Asteroid 16 Psyche: Radar Observations and Shape Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Richardson, James E.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Conrad, Al; de Pater, Imke; Adamkovics, Mate; de Kleer, Katherine R.; Males, Jared; Morzinski, Kathleen M.; Miller Close, Laird; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Viikinkoski, Matti; Timerson, Bradley; Reddy, Vishnu; Magri, Christopher; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.

    2016-10-01

    We observed 16 Psyche, the largest M-class asteroid in the main belt, using the S-band radar at Arecibo Observatory. We obtained 18 radar imaging and 6 continuous wave runs in November and December 2015, and combined these with 16 continuous wave runs from 2005 and 6 recent adaptive-optics (AO) images to generate a three-dimensional shape model of Psyche. Our model is consistent with a previously published AO image [Hanus et al. Icarus 226, 1045-1057, 2013] and three multi-chord occultations. Our shape model has dimensions 279 x 232 x 189 km (±10%), Deff = 226 ± 23 km, and is 6% larger than, but within the uncertainties of, the most recently published size and shape model generated from the inversion of lightcurves [Hanus et al., 2013]. Psyche is roughly ellipsoidal but displays a mass-deficit over a region spanning 90° of longitude. There is also evidence for two ~50-70 km wide depressions near its south pole. Our size and published masses lead to an overall bulk density estimate of 4500 ± 1400 kg m-3. Psyche's mean radar albedo of 0.37 ± 0.09 is consistent with a near-surface regolith composed largely of iron-nickel and ~40% porosity. Its radar reflectivity varies by a factor of 1.6 as the asteroid rotates, suggesting global variations in metal abundance or bulk density in the near surface. The variations in radar albedo appear to correlate with large and small-scale shape features. Our size and Psyche's published absolute magnitude lead to an optical albedo of pv = 0.15 ± 0.03, and there is evidence for albedo variegations that correlate with shape features.

  14. Social media, social avatars and the psyche: is Facebook good for us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, David

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to explore how social media users represent themselves online, and to consider whether this process has inherent potential to impact upon the psyche of the individual. Advanced thinking around social media may exist on an organizational level, but on an individual level there exists a need to catch up, as the psychological dimensions of going online are significant and deserve consideration. Inherent to the experience of using social media is the self selection of favorable material to represent the individual. This process is cumulative, and effectively creates a socially-derived and socially-driven, composite online image ('social avatar'). Humans notably select their best aspects for presentation to others and the social avatar reflects this tendency, effectively facilitating the creation of a 'gap' between online image (representation) and offline identity (substance). The creation of a social avatar should therefore be an important and conscious consideration for all users of social media, not just those individuals already struggling with the task of integrating the multiple facets which make up modern personal identity. Social avatars appear to be an important factor in understanding the inherent potential for social media to affect the psyche/contribute to psychopathology within the individual.

  15. Knowledge of and attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy among medical students, psychology students, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran

    2013-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.

  16. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Beatrice A. Wright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in 4 areas of psychology. The 2016 recipient of Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Beatrice A. Wright. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are: Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Allocation of Public Resources for Psychological Therapy between Types of Mental Health Condition: Towards Structural Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of allocating public resources efficiently between mental health conditions that are associated with different levels of disability, and presents an adaptation of an established framework to help decision-making in this area. The adapted framework refers to psychological interventions that are universal, indicated,…

  18. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Keith Humphreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Keith Humphreys, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, is cited for creatively combining a scientist's commitment to rigor, a clinician's emphasis on high-quality mental health care, and a policy analyst's understanding of how to address and resolve social problems. His work as a…

  19. Partnership work between Public Health and Health Psychology: introduction to a novel training programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Clare

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health services implement individual, community and population level interventions to change health behaviours, improve healthy life expectancy and reduce health inequalities. Understanding and changing health behaviour is complex. Integrating behaviour change theory and evidence into interventions has the potential to improve services. Methods Health Psychologists apply evidence and theories aimed at understanding and changing health behaviour. A Scottish programme is piloting the training of Health Psychologists within NHS contexts to address prominent public health challenges. Results This article outlines the details of this novel programme. Two projects are examined to illustrate the potential of partnership working between public health and health psychology. Conclusion In order to develop and improve behaviour change interventions and services, public health planners may want to consider developing and using the knowledge and skills of Health Psychologists. Supporting such training within public health contexts is a promising avenue to build critical NHS internal mass to tackle the major public health challenges ahead.

  20. Group work in the public health context: A proposal for training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasera, Emerson F; Pegoraro, Renata F; Pereira, Eliane R

    2016-03-01

    The entry of psychologists into the public health sector in Brazil is usually connected to a traditional clinical model, and, thus, marked by a lack of training for group work. A reflection on the training of psychologists for group work is essential. Aiming at contributing to this theme, the objective of this article is to discuss the training for group work in the public health sector. In particular, we aim to introduce a proposal for training in psychology in a Brazilian public university, covering a theoretical-practical module, as well as basic and professionalizing internship programmes.

  1. Too good to be true: publication bias in two prominent studies from experimental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2012-04-01

    Empirical replication has long been considered the final arbiter of phenomena in science, but replication is undermined when there is evidence for publication bias. Evidence for publication bias in a set of experiments can be found when the observed number of rejections of the null hypothesis exceeds the expected number of rejections. Application of this test reveals evidence of publication bias in two prominent investigations from experimental psychology that have purported to reveal evidence of extrasensory perception and to indicate severe limitations of the scientific method. The presence of publication bias suggests that those investigations cannot be taken as proper scientific studies of such phenomena, because critical data are not available to the field. Publication bias could partly be avoided if experimental psychologists started using Bayesian data analysis techniques.

  2. Publication bias in psychology: a diagnosis based on the correlation between effect size and sample size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kühberger

    Full Text Available The p value obtained from a significance test provides no information about the magnitude or importance of the underlying phenomenon. Therefore, additional reporting of effect size is often recommended. Effect sizes are theoretically independent from sample size. Yet this may not hold true empirically: non-independence could indicate publication bias.We investigate whether effect size is independent from sample size in psychological research. We randomly sampled 1,000 psychological articles from all areas of psychological research. We extracted p values, effect sizes, and sample sizes of all empirical papers, and calculated the correlation between effect size and sample size, and investigated the distribution of p values.We found a negative correlation of r = -.45 [95% CI: -.53; -.35] between effect size and sample size. In addition, we found an inordinately high number of p values just passing the boundary of significance. Additional data showed that neither implicit nor explicit power analysis could account for this pattern of findings.The negative correlation between effect size and samples size, and the biased distribution of p values indicate pervasive publication bias in the entire field of psychology.

  3. Publication Bias in Psychology: A Diagnosis Based on the Correlation between Effect Size and Sample Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühberger, Anton; Fritz, Astrid; Scherndl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background The p value obtained from a significance test provides no information about the magnitude or importance of the underlying phenomenon. Therefore, additional reporting of effect size is often recommended. Effect sizes are theoretically independent from sample size. Yet this may not hold true empirically: non-independence could indicate publication bias. Methods We investigate whether effect size is independent from sample size in psychological research. We randomly sampled 1,000 psychological articles from all areas of psychological research. We extracted p values, effect sizes, and sample sizes of all empirical papers, and calculated the correlation between effect size and sample size, and investigated the distribution of p values. Results We found a negative correlation of r = −.45 [95% CI: −.53; −.35] between effect size and sample size. In addition, we found an inordinately high number of p values just passing the boundary of significance. Additional data showed that neither implicit nor explicit power analysis could account for this pattern of findings. Conclusion The negative correlation between effect size and samples size, and the biased distribution of p values indicate pervasive publication bias in the entire field of psychology. PMID:25192357

  4. Beyond the Mind: Cultural Dynamics of the Psyche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsico, Giuseppina; Valsiner, Jaan

    This book Beyond the Mind: Cultural Dynamics of the Psyche is unusual in the content and it the format. That’s why it requires an unusual look. It has to do with a man, an intellectual journey and with uncountable travels across the world over the last two decades. This man is Jaan Valsiner...... and here you will read of his restless effort of elaborating ideas while going in different places as invited keynote. This book is mainly about his intellectual trajectory, which touches several places and several and interconnected topics. He lives travelling in the mind and in the physical world...... of new ideas, theories, models and even schemas....

  5. New psych unit eases patient burden in ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Creating a special unit for psychiatric patients frees up beds in your ED, ensures better care for that patient population, and improves the atmosphere in the main department for the rest of your patients. Consider these suggestions: The creation of a psych unit can be extremely costly. Be prepared to demonstrate projected savings when pitching the idea to administration. Make sure an ED physician has overall responsibility for each patient at all times. Keep a regular group of nurses in rotation. This setup will help ensure smooth handoffs.

  6. Improving Public Engagement With Climate Change: Five "Best Practice" Insights From Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Sander; Maibach, Edward; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    Despite being one of the most important societal challenges of the 21st century, public engagement with climate change currently remains low in the United States. Mounting evidence from across the behavioral sciences has found that most people regard climate change as a nonurgent and psychologically distant risk-spatially, temporally, and socially-which has led to deferred public decision making about mitigation and adaptation responses. In this article, we advance five simple but important "best practice" insights from psychological science that can help governments improve public policymaking about climate change. Particularly, instead of a future, distant, global, nonpersonal, and analytical risk that is often framed as an overt loss for society, we argue that policymakers should (a) emphasize climate change as a present, local, and personal risk; (b) facilitate more affective and experiential engagement; (c) leverage relevant social group norms; (d) frame policy solutions in terms of what can be gained from immediate action; and (e) appeal to intrinsically valued long-term environmental goals and outcomes. With practical examples we illustrate how these key psychological principles can be applied to support societal engagement and climate change policymaking.

  7. Top producers of scholarly publications in clinical psychology PhD programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Peter K; Wu, Yelena P; Roberts, Michael C

    2007-12-01

    Publication productivity of 1,927 core faculty members in clinical psychology training programs was tallied over a 5-year period (2000-2004) from their PsycINFO database entries (http://www.apa.org/psycinfo/). The top-producing faculty members are presented with rank by total number of publications and rank by number of peer-reviewed journal articles. In this report, the authors recognize those productive clinical psychologists in accredited clinical programs who have advanced the field through their substantial contributions to the literature base.

  8. Public perception of evolution and the rise of evolutionary psychology in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Vienna; Väliverronen, Esa

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we analyse the media debate in Finland that began after the publication in Science of a survey on the public acceptance of evolution. According to the results Finland ranked 17th among 34 countries. This was unexpected in a secular high tech nation with a consistent top performance in international comparative surveys on public education. We trace the main arguments in this debate in relation to previous studies on the public understanding of science and argue that newspaper claims of declining acceptance of evolutionism in Finland were based on rather ambivalent data. Furthermore, in the debate, evolutionary theory became a metonymy for science in society. The results published in Science provided a platform for a critique of religion and alternative movements, something quite uncommon in Finnish media. Finally, the debate was taken as an opportunity to promote evolutionary psychology as a legitimate social science.

  9. Effects of Psyching-Up on Sprint Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudi-Nassib, Sarra; Nassib, Sabri; Chtara, Moktar; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Tod, David; Chamari, Karim

    2017-08-01

    Hammoudi-Nassib, S, Nassib, S, Chtara, M, Briki, W, Chaouachi, A, Tod, D, and Chamari, K. Effects of psyching-up on sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2066-2074, 2017-The present research aimed at examining whether the psyching up (PU) strategies improve performance in 30-m sprinting. Sixteen male sprinters (age, 20.6 ± 1.3 years; body mass, 77.5 ± 7.1 kg; height, 180.8 ± 5.6 cm) participated in this study. Before each experimental session, the Hooper index was used to monitor the subject's feeling for the quality of sleep of the previous night, perceived quantity of stress, delayed onset muscle soreness, and fatigue. After completing general and specific warm-up, participants had to rate their degree of self-confidence. Then, they were asked to follow 1 of these 4 conditions: Imagery (experimental PU condition), Preparatory arousal (experimental PU condition), Attention placebo (control condition), and Distraction (control condition) during the final 30 seconds of the rest period right before performing a 30-m sprint. Participants separately and randomly performed all conditions. Results showed that although the imagery and preparatory arousal strategies contributed to increase the performance in the short-distance sprints (from 0 to 10 m), the imagery strategy contributed to increase the performance in the 30-m sprints. These findings support the general view that the PU strategies could improve athletic performance.

  10. The More You Know: The Impact of Publication and Peer-Review Experience on Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M.; Somerville, William; Harlem-Siegel, Jessica; Steele, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The New School Psychology Bulletin (NSPB) is a peer-reviewed journal operated by clinical psychology graduate students. Forty-four members of the editorial board and 27 authors were surveyed before and after working with NSPB. Results of the survey demonstrated that experience with the publication process resulted in quantitative decreases in…

  11. The More You Know: The Impact of Publication and Peer-Review Experience on Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M.; Somerville, William; Harlem-Siegel, Jessica; Steele, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The New School Psychology Bulletin (NSPB) is a peer-reviewed journal operated by clinical psychology graduate students. Forty-four members of the editorial board and 27 authors were surveyed before and after working with NSPB. Results of the survey demonstrated that experience with the publication process resulted in quantitative decreases in…

  12. Divorce in Russian Sociological and Social Psychological Research on Family Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kletsina I.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents social psychоlogical analysis of publications that focus on divorce situations in official marriages and explore its causes and consequences both for spouses and children. It is argued that the key factor in separation is a socio-psychological phenomenon called 'unconstructive marital relationships'. The partnership model described in the article, on the contrary, may serve as a normative basis contributing to the stabilization of marital relationships. While most publications conceptualize divorce as a collapse and split of family relationship, the article suggests interpreting divorces rather as a transformation stage in spousal and parentchild relationships.

  13. Dual psychological processes underlying public stigma and the implications for reducing stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Pryor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma (e.g, shame and lowered self-esteem or public stigma (e.g, the general public's prejudice towards the stigmatized. This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative processes are quick and relatively automatic whereas rule-based processes take longer to manifest themselves and involve deliberate thinking. Associative and rule-based thinking require different assessment instruments, follow a different time course and lead to different effects (e.g, stigma-by-association vs attributional processing that results in blame. Of greatest importance is the fact that each process may require a different stigma-prevention strategy.

  14. Dual psychological processes underlying public stigma and the implications for reducing stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Glenn D; Pryor, John B

    2008-01-01

    People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma (e.g., shame and lowered self-esteem) or public stigma (e.g., the general public's prejudice towards the stigmatized). This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative processes are quick and relatively automatic whereas rule-based processes take longer to manifest themselves and involve deliberate thinking. Associative and rule-based thinking require different assessment instruments, follow a different time course and lead to different effects (e.g., stigma-by-association vs attributional processing that results in blame). Of greatest importance is the fact that each process may require a different stigma-prevention strategy.

  15. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  16. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  17. Psych verb production and comprehension in agrammatic Broca's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Lee, Miseon

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the factors that affect agrammatic sentence production by testing eight agrammatic aphasic participants' comprehension and production of active and passive sentences using two types of English psych verbs, those with an Experiencer-marked subject (Subject-Experiencer (SubExp)) and those with an Experiencer-marked object (Object-Experiencer (ObjExp)). The Argument Structure Complexity Hypothesis (ASCH, [J. Neuroling. 16 (2003) 151]) posits that the verb (and sentence) production difficulties observed in agrammatic aphasia can be attributed, at least in part, to the argument structure properties of verbs, with verbs that are marked for more complex argument structure (in terms of the number and type of arguments) presenting greater difficulty than those with less complex argument structure entries. Based on previous linguistic analyses of psych verbs, ObjExp psych verbs are more complex than SubjExp verbs. Therefore, we predicted that the former would present greater production (but not comprehension) difficulty than the latter. Results showed above chance comprehension of all sentence types, with the exception of SubjExp passive constructions, in which the subject position is occupied by a non-Experiencer argument. In active sentence production, ObjExp verbs were more impaired than SubjExp verbs. However, the opposite pattern was noted for passive sentence production. While all participants had difficulty producing passive sentences of both types, they showed better performance on ObjExp verbs, as compared to SubjExp verbs, in which the Experiencer is in the subject position. Further, agrammatic aphasic speakers showed a preference for producing actives for SubjExp verbs and passives for ObjExp verbs, indicating that the thematic role requirements of selected verbs (e.g., Experiencer, Theme) influence production patterns, as they do in normal speakers. These data, as well as the error patterns seen in our patients, support the ASCH and suggest

  18. Edward A. Delgado-Romero: Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Edward A. Delgado-Romero, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. "Societies, professions, and individual citizens are enriched by the contributions of those who care. Edward A. Delgado-Romero has demonstrated through his scholarship, leadership in psychological associations such as the National Latina/Latino Psychological Association, and collaborations with universities and school districts in Georgia that he cares and is committed to addressing challenges in the provision of culturally sensitive psychological services to benefit the public interest. His example of servant leadership leaves a legacy to other early career professionals and graduate students alike. Es un hijo honorado." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF PERSONALISED TEPESTRY INSIDE PUBLIC MEANS OF CONVEYANCE ON PASSENGER – STUDY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOR-STANCIU Silviu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper wishes to present the effects of the personalisation of tapestry inside public means of conveyance on the passengers’ psychology. Thus, a study case is presented, regarding a project from May 2016. The project regarded a certain theme personalisation of the seat tapestry inside a tram in Iasi following the diminishment of vandalising acts on means of conveyance involved in the cultural project Iasi – The City of Painted Trams, initiated TRAMCLUB IAȘI NGO. Beyond its cultural role, the project aimed at growing the quality of the travel experience, both at a physical level, as well as a psychological one, by carefully choosing the fabrics, the colours and the graphic personalisation of the tapestry. Also, the project wanted to discourage the acts of vandalism by involving the members of the civil society. The participation of the students of the Faculty of Visual Arts and Design in the project of interior personalisation of the public mean of transport led to a sense of respect and belonging among the passengers. On a long term the project has as objective the change of the negative perception regarding urban public transport and discouraging the use of the personal vehicle in the urban areas.

  20. PSYCHE: An Object-Oriented Approach to Simulating Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Jamie A.

    1990-01-01

    Traditional approaches to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) do not provide realistic simulations of medical education, in part because they do not utilize heterogeneous knowledge bases for their source of domain knowledge. PSYCHE, a CAI program designed to teach hypothetico-deductive psychiatric decision-making to medical students, uses an object-oriented implementation of an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) to model the student, domain expert, and tutor. It models the transactions between the participants in complex transaction chains, and uses heterogeneous knowledge bases to represent both domain and procedural knowledge in clinical medicine. This object-oriented approach is a flexible and dynamic approach to modeling, and represents a potentially valuable tool for the investigation of medical education and decision-making.

  1. The psychological reactions after witnessing a killing in public in a Danish high school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, A.; Kurdahl, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School killings attract immense media and public attention but psychological studies surrounding these events are rare. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and possible risk factors of PTSD in 320 Danish high school students (mean age 18 years) 7.......5%. Furthermore, 25% had PTSD at a subclinical level. Intimacy with the deceased girl; feeling fear, helplessness, or horror during the killing; lack of expressive ability; feeling let down by others; negative affectivity; and dissociation predicted 78% of the variance of the HTQ total scores. CONCLUSION...

  2. The epidemiology of lost meaning: a study in the psychology of religion and existential public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Melder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The existential dimension of spirituality has proven to be of great importance over the last two decades when it comes to studies of self-rated health and quality of life. We see the positive effects it has on blood pressure, depression and life expectancy for chemotherapy and HIV patients, to mention just a few examples. In the public health sector, it is interesting to note that this existential/spiritual dimension had already been present in the early years when the term public health first came into the Swedish language. In the year 1926 public health was defined as ‘a people’s physical and spiritual health’. During the intervening years of major medical and scientific technical improvements in the field, the existential/spiritual perspective had been put aside, but now once again this dimension has come into focus. The central question is, how does the existential dimension of health, understood as a person’s ability to create and maintain functional meaning making systems, affect the person’s self-rated health and quality of life? The working theories and basic perspectives in this article are drawn from health research with attention to the existential dimension, public health from the perspective of the psychology of religion, and object relations theory.

  3. Monuments of memory: defensive mechanisms of the collective psyche and their manifestation in the memorialization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, Malgorzata

    2012-09-01

    The paper searches for insight in the area of collective memory as a part of collective consciousness, a phenomenon understood as a stabilizing factor for a society's self-image and identity. Collective memories are seen as originating from shared communications transmitting and creating the meaning of the past in the form of narrative, symbols and signs. As such, they contain the individual, embodied and lived side of our relations to the past. As well as the identity-building and meaning-making functions of collective memories, their defensive function is discussed with a focus on commemorative practices taking place in a transitional space between psychic and social life. Fears of a lack of collective identity and coherence have contributed to the way Polish commemorative practices have been shaped. This is considered in relation to the Smolensk catastrophe in 2010, viewed in the context of the Jungian concept of the collective psyche and the psychoanalytical understanding of defensive group mechanisms against trauma, especially those relating to loss and mourning. It leads to a consideration of how historical experiences and the experience of history can be accessed, as well as their meaning for individual and group development. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  4. Ego consciousness in the Japanese psyche: culture, myth and disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yama, Megumi

    2013-02-01

    With globalization, modern Western consciousness has spread across the world. This influx has affected the Japanese culture but ego consciousness has emerged through a long history and different course from that of the West. At a personal level, I have been interested in the establishment of a subject in a culture that values homogeneity and to understand this, I reflect on my own history of living in both the East and the West and on my experience practising psychotherapy. To show Japanese collective functioning at its best, I describe the human inter-connectedness and collaboration during the 2011 disaster. I explore the 'Nothing' at the centre of the Japanese psyche, through a reading of Japanese myth, especially the most originary and almost pre-human stories that come before the anthropomorphized 'First Parents'. A retelling of this founding story, reveals the multiple iterations over time that manifest in embodied being; this gradual emergence of consciousness is contrasted with Western myths of origin that are more clear and specific. This study attempts to bring awareness of the value and meaning of Eastern consciousness and its centre in the 'Nothing'.

  5. Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: José Toro-Alfonso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is José Toro-Alfonso, who was posthumously given this award for his commitment to "issues of inequity, diversity, and to the alleviation of human suffering particularly among Latino/Latina and LGBTQ communities." He "pioneered HIV/AIDS-related services for youth, women, gay, and transgender populations," and Toro-Alfonso's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. State Psychological Reactance to Depression Public Service Announcements Among People With Varying Levels of Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Brianna A; Siegel, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    Campaigns seeking to help people with depression can be effective, but they can also backfire. Psychological reactance is proposed as a partial explanation. Two experimental studies examined the effect of two depression messages (i.e., autonomy-supportive language, controlling language) for participants (n = 2027, n = 777) with varying levels of depressive symptomatology. For Study 1, two versions of a print public service announcement about seeking help for depression served as the experimental stimulus. Study 2 used an existing video public service announcement about seeking help for depression, but the text was altered to create the two conditions. In both studies, increased depressive symptomatology was associated with reduced help-seeking attitudes and intentions, as well as greater state reactance to a public service announcement about depression. Increased state reactance mediated the relationship between increased depressive symptomology and unfavorable help-seeking outcomes. Further, across the two studies, participants with high levels of depressive symptomatology who were exposed to the autonomy-supportive language ad reported either as much, or more, state reactance than participants with high levels of depressive symptomatology who were in the control condition. These results warn that language perceived as autonomy-supportive by people without depression might be perceived as controlling among people with depression.

  7. jsPsych: a JavaScript library for creating behavioral experiments in a Web browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Joshua R

    2015-03-01

    Online experiments are growing in popularity, and the increasing sophistication of Web technology has made it possible to run complex behavioral experiments online using only a Web browser. Unlike with offline laboratory experiments, however, few tools exist to aid in the development of browser-based experiments. This makes the process of creating an experiment slow and challenging, particularly for researchers who lack a Web development background. This article introduces jsPsych, a JavaScript library for the development of Web-based experiments. jsPsych formalizes a way of describing experiments that is much simpler than writing the entire experiment from scratch. jsPsych then executes these descriptions automatically, handling the flow from one task to another. The jsPsych library is open-source and designed to be expanded by the research community. The project is available online at www.jspsych.org .

  8. The Etiology of the Illnesses of the Psyche in the Hippocratic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Papavramidou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hippocratic Corpus played a key role to the disengagement of illness from the divine element that was believed to be to cause of all illnesses and injuries. Especially for the illnesses of the psyche (some call it “self” or “soul”, the Hippocratic physicians managed to recognize their biological origin and to create a “primitive” nosological structure. The aim of this paper is to identify the etiological factors of the illnesses of the psyche, according to the Hippocratic authors and to correlate them to modern medical observations. The Hippocratic physicians enumerated certain etiological factors for the occurrence of the illnesses of the psyche: imbalance of the humours, injuries of the head, extreme emotions, along with environmental features that were supposed to favor the appearance of such illnesses, such as the climate, the quality of the water, the winds, etc. Keywords: Hippocratic medicine; History of medicine; history of psychiatry; psyche

  9. Experiences in the health services network and in the street: Captures and detours in psychology training for public health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Ana Kalliny de Sousa; Amorim, Ana Karenina de Melo Arraes; Romagnoli, Roberta Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the internships at the psychosocial health system of Natal, Northeast region of Brazil, as part of training in psychology. The objective of these internships is to offer students work experiences in public health both inside and outside health services. Based on Institutional Analysis and Schizoanalysis, these experiences were examined through two analysers: (1) the power of knowledge and (2) the need for by-passes. We conclude that health provokes tensions between instituted practices in health services and those instituted in psychology training.

  10. Feminism and/in/as psychology: The public sciences of sex and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra; Pettit, Michael

    2015-08-01

    In our introduction to this special issue on the histories of feminism, gender, sexuality, and the psy-disciplines, we propose the tripartite framework of "feminism and/in/as psychology" to conceptualize the dynamics of their conjoined trajectories and relationship to gender and sexuality from the late 19th through the late 20th centuries. "Feminism and psychology" highlights the tensions between a political movement and a scientific discipline and the efforts of participants in each to problematize the other. "Feminism in psychology" refers to those historical moments when self-identified feminists intervened in psychology to alter its content, methodologies, and populations. We propose, as have others, that these interventions predate the 1970s, the period most commonly associated with the "founding" of feminist psychology. Finally, "feminism as psychology/psychology as feminism" explores the shared ground between psychology and feminism-the conceptual, methodological, and (more rarely) epistemological moments when psychology and feminism made common cause. We suggest that the traffic between feminism and psychology has been persistent, continuous, and productive, despite taking different historically and geographically contingent forms. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Rationality of 17 cities' public perception of SARS and predictive model of psychological behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Kan; LU Jiafang; FAN Hongxia; JIA Jianming; SONG Zhaoli; LI Wendong; GAO Jing; CHEN Xuefeng; HU Weipeng

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the feature of Chinese peoples' perception of SARS by surveying a stratified sample of 4231 people from 17 cities in China, and primarily pro- posed a risk perception centered predictive model of psy- chological behavior in crisis. The results indicated that, negative SARS-related information, especially information of personal interest, will arouse people's risk perception of high level, and lead to irrational nervousness or scare; but positive SARS-related information, including recovery in- formation and that with measures taken by government, can decrease the level of risk perception. In the middle of May, people felt the highest level of risk on the SARS pathogens; the following are the physical health condition and infectiv- ity after recovering from SARS; they are factors that need special attention. SEM result analyses supported our hy- potheses in that SARS-related information affect people's coping behavior and mental health through their risk perception, the four indices of risk assessment, feeling of nerv- ousness, coping behavior and mental health are effective presentimental indices for public psychological behavior in risky events.

  12. The psychological reactions after witnessing a killing in public in a Danish high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ask Elklit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: School killings attract immense media and public attention but psychological studies surrounding these events are rare. Objective: To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and possible risk factors of PTSD in 320 Danish high school students (mean age 18 years 7 months after witnessing a young man killing his former girlfriend in front of a large audience. Method: The students answered the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ, the Crisis Support Scale (CSS, and the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. Results: Prevalence of PTSD 7 months after the incident was 9.5%. Furthermore, 25% had PTSD at a subclinical level. Intimacy with the deceased girl; feeling fear, helplessness, or horror during the killing; lack of expressive ability; feeling let down by others; negative affectivity; and dissociation predicted 78% of the variance of the HTQ total scores. Conclusion: It is possible to identify students who are most likely to suffer from PTSD. This knowledge could be used to intervene early on to reduce adversities.

  13. ETHNO-RACIAL RELATIONSHIP AND PSYCHOLOGY: PUBLICATIONS IN JOURNALS OF SCIELO AND LILACS

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Edna; dos Santos, Alessandro de Oliveira; Colosso, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Based on analysis of articles published on national journals of psychology, between 2000 and 2009, this study provides an overview of how ethno-racial has been investigated by psychology. Forty one articles were identified, categorized and analyzed by their content. The production proved to be relevant for understanding the ethno-racial relationship devotes themselves to the construction of knowledge: the psychological violence of prejudice and racism, the social legacy of the white...

  14. SIB health psychology in Brazil: The challenges for working in public health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Mary-Jane P; Brigagão, Jacqueline M; Menegon, Vera M; Vicentin, Maria-Cristina G

    2016-03-01

    Considering the diversity of theoretical approaches and settings for psychological practice, this editorial provides a background for the articles that have been included in this special issue concerning health psychology in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude). We addressed issues concerning the national curricular outline for undergraduate training in psychology and historical data on the social movements that led to the creation of the Sistema Unico de Saude and the Psychiatric Reform which created an important area for psychological work absorbing a considerable number of psychologists.

  15. A review of a decade’s scholarly publications (2004–2013 in the South African Journal of Industrial Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Publishing methodologically sound, empirically based studies in reputable accredited scientific journals are essential in order to advance knowledge and evidence-based practice in the field of industrial and organisational psychology.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to conduct a broad content analysis of the articles published in the South African Journal of Industrial Psychology (SAJIP between 2004 and 2013. The study aimed to provide a descriptive overview of the most frequent content themes,published authors and institutions, research approaches, strategies, designs and analysis techniques, software packages and sample sizes in industrial and organisational (I-O psychology utilised in the publications.Motivation for study: The periodic analyses of published content in scholarly journals provide an index of the extent to which the publications reflect the scope of practice in a given discipline and broaden insight into the direction and relevance of research published in a journal.Research design, approach and method: A broad systematic content analysis was conducted of 342 documented articles published in the SAJIP between 2004 and 2013. Descriptive data(frequencies and percentages were used to report the findings.Main findings: The publishing pattern of the SAJIP appeared to correspond with its focus and scope. Manuscripts utilising mostly cross-sectional quantitative correlational research designs with large samples (n > 201 were published in the SAJIP. The University of Johannesburg and Professor Sebastiaan (Ian Rothmann were the largest contributors to publications between 2004 and 2013. Organisational psychology and psychometrics were the most prominent domains in I-O psychology research. Data were predominantly processed utilising SPSS.Practical implications: The insights derived from the findings can be employed to plan future research initiatives in the field of I-O psychology.Contribution/value-add: The

  16. Reporting quality of social and psychological intervention trials: a systematic review of reporting guidelines and trial publications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Grant

    missing from trial publications; most leading journals in social and behavioural sciences do not ask authors to follow reporting standards. Findings demonstrate a need to develop a CONSORT extension with updated standards for social and psychological intervention trials.

  17. Research quality and psychological theory in publications on school shooters with multiple victims - A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Grøndahl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School shooting homicide events generate considerable attention. A substantial number of research reports have tried to explain the phenomenon. However, the outcome of these studies has produced a conflicting picture of the issue. Our systematic review explored the quality of research in publications on school shooters. Research quality was assessed concerning description of design, method and interpretation of results according to PRISMA and CRD criteria. We investigated evidence of the impact of psychological theories on how research was designed and interpreted. A total of 10 papers met the criteria for inclusion in the review. With a few exceptions, the research quality was low. Only three studies contained a separate methods section. Two out of ten studies reported from an interview with a school shooter. Secondary sources such as school, hospital and/or psychological evaluations were used in four studies, while the rest had only applied tertiary data sources. There was a void of psychological theoretical analysis to inform the creation of relevant research designs. No study discussed psychological theories to inform inference from empirical data to conclusion. Higher quality of research and enhanced focus on theoretical understanding of psychological factors in school shooting are called upon.

  18. La psyché démodée. Psychanalyse et objectivité sociale chez Adorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zanotti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the possible relation between psychoanalytic concepts and social critique in the perspective of Adorno's social thought. The title refers to Adorno's idea that psyche as individual spontaneity has now lost the weight it used to have in the liberal era. As a brief introductory remark, I clarify the status of theory for Adorno, i.e., the circularity between interpretation and description as grounded by the nature of the social object itself. Then I analyse his core idea of “social objectivity” as an impersonal mechanism which is at the same time produced by men and reified, heteronomous for them, and I argue that, for Adorno, the discontinuity existing between individual and society prevents an immediate shift of psychoanalytic concepts to the social world: the example of fascism clearly proves that the determining social forces today, while instrumentally exploiting deep psychical materials, are not themselves psychological. In the final part, I show how, for Adorno, psychology and sociology nevertheless need to be mediated with each other, while avoiding the superficial synthesis the so-called “revised psychoanalysis” aims to, and I point out some similarities between psychoanalytic practice and social critique as conceived by him.

  19. Race and Ethnicity in School Psychology Publications: A Content Analysis and Comparison to Publications in Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Proctor, Sherrie L.; Dempsey, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has examined the quantity and types of diversity-related research in the field of school psychology, revealing gaps in the literature. Extension of this line of research with current data and comparison to related disciplines is needed. This study used content analysis to address these issues, with a specific focus on the racial…

  20. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  1. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  2. Desert wanderings: pathways for whole, broken and shattered psyches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S M

    2000-07-01

    This paper challenges an implicit assumption of analytical psychology that centred, mandalic images express psychical wholeness in an optimal fashion across cultures and eras. I suggest that liminal, bardo-like eras, such as our 'post-modern' one, constellate complex, antithetical and ec-centric images, which are process-oriented and which encompass wholeness and fragmentation, conjunction and disjunction, thus holding and expressing actual individual and collective experience. In our era, we inhabit unfolding states of wholeness, brokenness and fragmentation. Images of wholeness, emerging spontaneously from the unconscious, may reflect part or all of these contradictory realities. Examples of such antithetical Self-images are developed from the ancient midrashic traditions of the rabbis; from Jung's contemporary exposition of Pauli's 'world-clock' dream; from Kepler's discovery, at the dawn of modernity, that the planets circled the sun in ellipses rather than circles; and from a clinical illustration.

  3. Meditation, Mindfulness, Psyche and Soma: Eastern, Western Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Jordanov, Daniel; Autrup, Mads

    This presentation focuses on the genesis of meditation and mindfulness in the East for comprehension of these phenomena, which are increasingly applied and adapted in the current Western context. Their very origin from the East, particularly Buddhism and Yoga practices, directs our attention...... to the three major assumptions about human nature; the monoism between mind and body, the centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct. The mainstream Western understandings promoting the body-mind dualism are challenged by invoking the bodily experiences and consciousness emphasising...... is perceived as a way of resisting dualisms and binaries regarding psychological, physical, social and spiritual realities. We conclude that without a holistic, integrated understanding of the basic principles and assumptions in which meditation and mindfulness are embedded, there is a risk for these phenomena...

  4. Moderators between work context and psychological health in a public service sector / S. Williams

    OpenAIRE

    Wiliams, Shelley-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Work context has many consequences for the psychological outcomes of employees. These outcomes also have consequences for the employer through possible loss of productivity, impaired health of employees which may be associated with absenteeism and turnover intention, among others. The literature also shows that these outcomes are not always the same even under similar working conditions. Theorising in cognitive psychology indicates that the way in which an individual appraises a situation may...

  5. Fourteen Years of Educational and Psychological Research in Sweden: A Bibliography of Publications in English, 1967-1980. Studia Psychologica et Paedagogica. Series Altera LXIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    This document, the second of two bibliographies, lists Swedish publications and reports written in English for the fields of education and psychology, covering the years 1967-1980. Along with published articles, the bibliography also lists official reports from education and psychology departments. The entries are arranged alphabetically by the…

  6. Psychological and Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Social Sustainability through Impacts on Perceived Health Care Quality and Public Health: The Case of Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quan-Hoang Vuong; Thu-Trang Vuong; Tung Manh Ho; Ha Viet Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    A study on over 2000 patients has been conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam, to explore the influences of psychological and socio-economic factors on the evaluation of healthcare quality and public health by patients...

  7. Detection of Water and/or Hydroxyl on Asteroid (16) Psyche

    CERN Document Server

    Takir, Driss; Sanchez, Juan; Shepard, Michael K; Emery, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    In order to search for evidence of hydration on M-type asteroid (16) Psyche, we observed this object in the 3 micron spectral region using the long-wavelength cross-dispersed (LXD: 1.9-4.2 micron) mode of the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Our observations show that Psyche exhibits a 3 micron absorption feature, attributed to water or hydroxyl. The 3 micron absorption feature is consistent with the hydration features found on the surfaces of water-rich asteroids, attributed to OH- and/or H2O-bearing phases (phyllosilicates). The detection of a 3 micron hydration absorption band on Psyche suggests that this asteroid may not be metallic core, or it could be a metallic core that has been impacted by carbonaceous material over the past 4.5 Gyr. Our results also indicate rotational spectral variations, which we suggest reflect heterogeneity in the metal/silicate ratio on the surface of Psyche.

  8. Searching the animal psyche with Charles Le Brun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sarah R

    2010-07-01

    Around 1670 the French court painter and Academician Charles Le Brun produced a series of drawings featuring naturalistic animal heads, as well as imaginary heads in which he refashioned various nonhuman animal species to make humanoid physiognomies. What were the purpose and significance of these unusual works? I argue that they show Le Brun's interest in what we today would call animal psychology: focusing upon the sensory organs and their connections with the animal's brain, Le Brun studied his animals as conscious protagonists of the natural realm. One source that may have served him in this project was Marin Cureau de La Chambre's De la Connoissance des bestes of 1645, in which the physician argued that animals possess a conscious soul grounded in the senses. However, Le Brun's animal-humans have no clear place in the artist's taxonomy--nor, indeed, in any seventeenth-century understandings of species. It is rather John Locke, at his most skeptical, who offers the best parallel in the realm of natural philosophy to Le Brun's unsettling animal-humans. Probably without meaning to, Le Brun demonstrated through his eerie, boundary-crossing creatures the limits of visual classification.

  9. The relationship between wellbeing indicators and teacher psychological stress in Eastern Cape public schools in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik L.M. Vazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Positive psychological and subjective wellbeing indicators have proven to be protective against certain physical illnesses but have been rarely assessed in teacher stress.Research purpose: The main objective of this study was to assess the relationship between indicators of wellbeing and stress and to further assess the relative importance of these wellbeing indicators in explaining stress variance in a large sample of Eastern Cape primary and high school teachers in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The majority of teacher stress studies focus on the misfit between the individual’s resources and the environmental demands. There is a scarcity of studies reporting on protective factors in teaching and we know little about their possible role as possible protective factors against stress. This is important in developing stress prevention strategies.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey was used targeting public school teachers in the Eastern Cape. The sample size was 562 randomly selected teachers from both public primary and high schools.Main findings: The results revealed that stress is prevalent amongst teachers. Subjective and psychological wellbeing factors added significantly to the explained stress variance. Also, both negative affect and role problems had significant positive correlations with stress, whilst psychological wellbeing had a strong inverse relationship with stress.Practical/managerial implications: The results implied that interventions focusing on improving psychological wellbeing and reduction of negative affect can contribute to stress prevention.Contribution/value-add: The results contributed towards a better understanding of the relative importance of wellbeing constructs as protective factors against teacher stress.

  10. The Psychology of Working: A New Framework for Counseling Practice and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Kenna, Alexandra C.; Gill, Nadia; DeVoy, Julia E.

    2008-01-01

    The authors present the "psychology-of-working perspective" (D. L. Blustein, 2006; N. Peterson & R. C. Gonzalez, 2005; M. S. Richardson, 1993) as an alternative to traditional career development theories, which have primarily explored the lives of those with choice and volition in their working lives. The major historical and conceptual features…

  11. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...... its role as a scientific discipline that contributes to making transparent the political, social, and interpersonal relations that define how our lives are shaped, if we want a discipline that provides value beyond the scientific realm....

  12. Public Acceptance A Threefold Application of Social Psychology to Enhance People's Acceptance of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Lee [Korean Women' s Development Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-04-15

    It provides three aspects of application of social psychological theories and methodology. The first aspect deals with the study of people's attitudes toward nuclear energy; the second with the development of programs in order to promote people's acceptance of nuclear energy; and the third with the measurement of the effectiveness of the programs that have been implemented to promote the public acceptance. In Korea, very few studies have been conducted to explain people's attitudes toward nuclear power. The existing data tell US that the public attitudes are generally favorable. Would they stay that way? The outlook is not very bright, considering the rapid growth of the environmental movement in Korea.

  13. Comparative study of publications performed on psychosis in the Spanish psychology and psychiatry journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, L; Buela-Casal, G

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the article production on psychosis from the main spanish journals of psychology and psychiatry, as well as to make comparisons among them. 16 journals of psychology and 5 of psychiatry were selected and a period of revision of four years settled down (2003-2006). The sample was constituted by 183 articles. For the comparison of the journals four index were used: proportion of articles on psychosis in relation to the total of generated articles; used type of methodology; used type of sample; and aspect of the psychosis in whose investigation it is centered. The results show that little is investigated, that most of the studies is theoretical or ex- post facto, that more the frequently studied subjects are those with psychosis and that the taken care of aspects more are related to the etiology and the treatment of the disease.

  14. Affects as central organising and integrating factors. A new psychosocial/biological model of the psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciompi, L

    1991-07-01

    A new psychosocial/biological model of the psyche is proposed, in which the affects play a central role in organising and integrating cognition. The psyche is understood here as a complex hierarchical structure of affective/cognitive systems of reference (or 'programmes for feeling, thinking, and behaviour'), generated by repetitive concrete action. These systems store past experience in their structure, and provide the functional basis for further cognition and communication. Affects endow these programmes with a specific qualitative value (such as motivation), connect cognitive elements synchronically and diachronically, and contribute to their storage and mobilisation according to context. They also participate in differentiating cognitive systems at higher levels of abstraction. These assumptions are supported by recent findings on the role of the limbic and hypothalamic system for the regulation of emotion, on neuronal plasticity, and on the phenomenon of state-dependent learning and memory. Refutable hypotheses are formulated for further research on the interaction of emotion and cognition.

  15. Detection of Rotational Spectral Variation on the M-type Asteroid (16) Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Shepard, Michael K.; Thomas, Cristina; Cloutis, Edward A.; Takir, Driss; Conrad, Albert; Kiddell, Cain; Applin, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The asteroid (16) Psyche is of scientific interest because it contains ∼1% of the total mass of the asteroid belt and is thought to be the remnant metallic core of a protoplanet. Radar observations have indicated the significant presence of metal on the surface with a small percentage of silicates. Prior ground-based observations showed rotational variations in the near-infrared (NIR) spectra and radar albedo of this asteroid. However, no comprehensive study that combines multi-wavelength data has been conducted so far. Here we present rotationally resolved NIR spectra (0.7–2.5 μm) of (16) Psyche obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. These data have been combined with shape models of the asteroid for each rotation phase. Spectral band parameters extracted from the NIR spectra show that the pyroxene band center varies from ∼0.92 to 0.94 μm. Band center values were used to calculate the pyroxene chemistry of the asteroid, whose average value was found to be Fs30En65Wo5. Variations in the band depth (BD) were also observed, with values ranging from 1.0% to 1.5%. Using a new laboratory spectral calibration method, we estimated an average orthopyroxene content of 6% ± 1%. The mass-deficit region of Psyche, which exhibits the highest radar albedo, also shows the highest value for the spectral slope and the minimum BD. The spectral characteristics of Psyche suggest that its parent body did not have the typical structure expected for a differentiated body or that the sequence of events that led to its current state was more complex than previously thought.

  16. Measuring sequences of keystrokes with jsPsych: Reliability of response times and interkeystroke intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, S; Zielinski, C; Mathôt, S; Dufau, S; Alario, F-X; Longcamp, M

    2016-07-13

    Although the precision and reliability of response time (RT) measurements performed via Web-based interfaces have been evaluated, sequences of keystrokes have never been investigated in detail. Keystrokes often occur in much more rapid succession than RTs, and operating systems may interpret successive or concomitant keyboard events according to both automatic and user-based settings. Sequence keystroke timing could thus be more sensitive than single RTs to noise in online measurements. Here, we quantified the precision and reliability of timing measures performed during sequences of keystrokes. We used the JavaScript jsPsych library to create an experiment involving finger-movement sequences, and ran it online with 633 participants. We manipulated the structure of three keystroke motor sequences, targeting a replication of previous findings regarding both RTs and interkeystroke intervals (IKIs). Our online data accurately reproduced the original results and allowed for a novel assessment of demographic variables such as age and gender. In parallel, we also measured the objective timing accuracy of the jsPsych interface by using specialized hardware and software, showing a constant 60-ms delay for RTs and a 0-ms delay for IKIs across the sequences. The distribution of IKIs revealed quantizing for a majority of participants, most likely due to the sampling frequency of their USB keyboards. Overall, these findings indicate that JsPsych provides good reliability and accuracy in sequence keystroke timings for mental chronometry purposes, through online recordings.

  17. Psyche and culture: Perspectives based on the contributions and limits of ethnopsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitou, Rajaa

    2016-12-01

    The unconscious often appears in the form of a question or answer to the difficult relationship between the psyche and culture, a difficulty that becomes exacerbated when we are dealing with cultural difference. This difficulty, evidenced for example by Freud's thoughts on Islam, reappears, albeit in a very different way, in ethnopsychiatric theory. The author discusses the blind spots of the binary logic of the unconscious present in the work of George Devereux, a logic that eventually leads him into the same trap he had himself criticized. This discussion allows us to open up other perspectives, by moving away from the analogies, confusions and splits between the psyche and culture towards what binds them together. This link is sustained by language and its dialectics, at the crossroads of individual singularity and cultural codifications. The author's approach is supported by two clinical vignettes: one from a case of a young Turkish woman, the other concerning a male Iraqi patient, a survivor of torture. This approach distances itself from any psychocentric view that would see the psyche as closed upon itself and thus ultimately exclude any object-relations and inter-subjective relationships; likewise, it rejects the ethnocentric conflation of the subject with his culture. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  18. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in tuberculosis patients in public primary care clinics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltzer Karl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress has been rarely investigated among tuberculosis patients in low-resource settings despite the fact that mental ill health has far-reaching consequences for the health outcome of tuberculosis (TB patients. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress as a proxy for common mental disorders among tuberculosis (TB patients in South Africa, where over 60 % of the TB patients are co-infected with HIV. Methods We interviewed 4900 tuberculosis public primary care patients within one month of initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment for the presence of psychological distress using the Kessler-10 item scale (K-10, and identified predictors of distress using multiple logistic regressions. The Kessler scale contains items associated with anxiety and depression. Data on socio-demographic variables, health status, alcohol and tobacco use and adherence to anti-TB drugs and anti-retroviral therapy (ART were collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Using a cut off score of ≥28 and ≥16 on the K-10, 32.9 % and 81 % of tuberculosis patients had symptoms of distress, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (OR = 1.52; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.85, lower formal education (OR = 0.77; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.91, poverty (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI = 1.57-2.31 and not married, separated, divorced or widowed (OR = 0.74; 95 % CI = 0.62-0.87 were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥28, and older age (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.00-1.69, lower formal education (OR = 0.55; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.71, poverty (OR = 2.02; 95 % CI = 1.50-2.70 and being HIV positive (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.74 were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥16. In the final model mental illness co-morbidity (hazardous or harmful alcohol use and non-adherence to anti-TB medication and/or antiretroviral therapy were not

  19. Research in Sport and Exercise Psychology Between 2003 and 2013 : an Analysis of the English-Speaking Publication Trends Before the Field’s 50th Anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Németh, Lilla; Vega Marcos, Ricardo de la; Szabo, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Sports and exercise psychology as a scholastic field was officially inaugurated in 1965 in Rome on the occasion of the first World Congress on Sports Psychology. As it nears its 50th anniversary in 2015, we have conducted a content analysis of the existing six subject specific English-speaking international journals in the field to obtain an overview of research and publication trends. Articles (n = 2276) published between 1 January 2003 and 1 January 2013 were examined. The type of publicati...

  20. Self research in educational psychology: a cautionary tale of positive psychology in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    2006-07-01

    Recent calls for a positive psychology that would deemphasize human pathology and dysfunction in favor of building an understanding of positive features of human life and human flourishing make two assumptions that the author questions in this article. First, he challenges the assumption that disciplinary psychology has been fixated on pathology and dysfunction by considering work in educational psychology that, both historically and currently, espouses the characteristics of positive psychology as articulated by its major advocates. Second, through a brief, critical consideration of research on the self in educational psychology, he contests the assumption that psychology has sufficient resources to develop into the positive psychology envisioned by its promoters. He argues that psychology's emphasis on the individual, whose core self resides in a deep, internal psyche, radically strips psychology of the historical and sociocultural resources that enable self-development, constrain self-understanding, and constitute the self.

  1. Quantum psyche

    CERN Document Server

    Baaquie, Belal E; Demongeot, J; Galli-Carminati, Giuliana; Martin, F; Teodorani, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century Sigmund Freud discovered that our acts and choices are not only decisions of our consciousness, but that they are also deeply determined by our unconscious (the so-called "Freudian unconscious"). During a long correspondence between them (1932-1958) Wolfgang Pauli and Carl Gustav Jung speculated that the unconscious could be a quantum system. This book is addressed both to all those interested in the new developments of the age-old enquiry in the relations between mind and matter, and also to the experts in quantum physics that are interested in a formalisation of this new approach. The description of the "Bilbao experiment" adds a very interesting experimental inquiry into the synchronicity effect in a group situation, linking theory to a quantifiable verification of these subtle effects. Cover design: "Entangled Minds". Riccardo Carminati Galli, 2014.

  2. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  3. Psychological treatments for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glombiewski, Julia A; Sawyer, Alice T; Gutermann, Jana; Koenig, Katharina; Rief, Winfried; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2010-11-01

    The aims of the present analysis were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacies and treatment moderators of psychological interventions for fibromyalgia. A literature search using PubMed, PsychINFO, the Cochrane Library, and manual searches identified 23 eligible studies including 30 psychological treatment conditions and 1396 patients. Meta-analytic integration resulted in a significant but small effect size for short-term pain reduction (Hedges's g=0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27-0.48) and a small-to-medium effect size for long-term pain reduction over an average follow-up phase of 7.4 months (Hedges's g=0.47, 95% CI: 0.3-0.65) for any psychological intervention. Psychological treatments also proved effective in reducing sleep problems (Hedges's g=0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.64), depression (Hedges's g=0.33, 95% CI: 0.20-0.45), functional status (Hedges's g=0.42, 95% CI: 0.25-0.58), and catastrophizing (Hedges's g=0.33, 95% CI: 0.17-0.49). These effects remained stable at follow-up. Moderator analyses revealed cognitive-behavioral treatment to be significantly better than other psychological treatments in short-term pain reduction (Hedges's g=0.60, 95% CI: 0.46-0.76). Higher treatment dose was associated with better outcome. Publication-bias analyses demonstrated that the effect sizes were robust. The results suggest that the effects of psychological treatments for fibromyalgia are relatively small but robust and comparable to those reported for other pain and drug treatments used for this disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was associated with the greatest effect sizes. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reducing State Communication Anxiety for Public Speakers: An Energy Psychology Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, John, III; Schmuldt, Laura; Rudick, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-method pilot study investigates the efficacy of implementing primordial energy activation and transcendence to address public speaking anxiety. Speech anxiety was significantly reduced from pretest to posttest, as measured by the Communication Anxiety Inventory State. Suggestions for future research, limitations of the current study,…

  5. Psychological treatments for fibromyalgia: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glombiewski, J.A.; Sawyer, A.T.; Gutermann, J.; Koenig, K.; Rief, W.; Hofmann, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the present analysis were to investigate the short-and long-term efficacies and treatment moderators of psychological interventions for fibromyalgia. A literature search using PubMed, PsychINFO, the Cochrane Library, and manual searches identified 23 eligible studies including 30 psychol

  6. Grassroot Support for Reforming Reporting Standards in Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeBel, E.P.; Borsboom, D.; Giner-Sorolla, R.; Hasselman, F.; Peters, K.R.; Ratliff, K.A.; Tucker Smith, C.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently an unprecedented level of doubt regarding the reliability of research findings in psychology. Many recommendations have been made to improve the current situation. In this article, we report results from PsychDisclosure.org, a novel open-science initiative that provides a platform

  7. Psychological treatments for fibromyalgia: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glombiewski, J.A.; Sawyer, A.T.; Gutermann, J.; Koenig, K.; Rief, W.; Hofmann, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the present analysis were to investigate the short-and long-term efficacies and treatment moderators of psychological interventions for fibromyalgia. A literature search using PubMed, PsychINFO, the Cochrane Library, and manual searches identified 23 eligible studies including 30

  8. Hidden Layers of Hafiz’s Psyche (a new analysis of Hafiz’s poetry based on collective unconscious’ archetypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rozatian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many words about Hafiz and his poetry, perhaps more than other Persian poets. The reason for this can be sought in his ambiguous poems. Thus, a critic calls him a broad-minded mystic whose poems have mystical implications, whereas another one considers him as a fickle person who changes his opinions every moment. For some critics he is a smart poet who has simply created a literary work without inserting his mindset into it. For this reason, there are a number of paradoxical and even opposite interpretations for most of his verses and it seems that new interpretations are still possible. One reason for the interpretability of his poems is the presence of various characters such as Rend (the libertine, Pire Moghan (the old Magian, Saghi (the cup-bearer, Sufi, Mohtaseb (the reckoner in his Divan for some of which historical equivalents have been presented in several works and some scholars have tried to prove that each of these characters refers to real persons in Hafiz’s epoch or past epochs. Contemplation on the atmosphere of his poetry brings this question to the mind that if it is possible to consider each of these characters as hidden layers of Hafiz’s psyche that his consciousness tries to achieve self-knowledge and Perfection through recognition of such layers and creating balance and harmony between them. Using the idea proposed in analytical psychology about archetypes of collective unconscious, this article tries to find an answer for the mentioned question to achieve a new horizon in the analysis of Hafiz’s poems.

  9. Study of psychological bases of leadership competency formation of managers of public health institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhan V.N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychodiagnostic examination of 288 health care managers of Dnipropetrovsk region was conducted to determine communicative and organizational characteristics of health managers of different levels. CОS-1 technique was used to study communication and organizational skills. Leaders were divided into two groups of comparison by the level of their administration: 40.3% of head doctors of the first level of control and 59.7% of administrators of second-level management executives. Psychological characteristics were compared with the results of a similar study conducted by the same procedure in 2001. Mainly high degree of communication and organizational skills of managers of different ranks of officers was established. The results showed improvement of communicative and organizational skills of health care managers with time and with the level of managerial positions (p<0.05. Level of organizational skills exceeds the level of communicative skills of managers. Low level of communicative skills was observed in 16.81% of the respondents. This requires development of appropriate management skills for better achieve ment of the objectives of the health system, including its responsiveness.

  10. [Risk perception and psychological reactions in public crisis situations using the example of terror attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, A; Hulse, L; Schmidt, S

    2009-12-01

    The reactions to the 9/11 terror attacks were immense in the western population. In the current review, the impact of terror attacks is presented with surveys, clinical interviews, and scientific polls, which were identified in a comprehensive literature search. Results show that the fear of further terror attacks is comparatively overestimated in the population and is associated with numerous psychological consequences and reactions. The overestimation of the probability of further terror attacks is related among other reasons to its unique features and its strong representation in the media. Several independent studies proved that the number of stress symptoms and psychiatric diagnoses is associated with a high risk perception in relation to terror attacks. This was not only the case for victims of terror attacks, but also for people indirectly exposed to the terror attacks. In addition, there is evidence that the number of the stress symptoms correlate with the duration of TV consumption of new findings about terror attempts. Methodologically, there is a critical lack of more in-depth analyses to explain the development of risk perceptions and its influence on mental and physical health. Because of the international importance and cross-cultural differences, an international standardization of research is desirable.

  11. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  12. The effects of psychological interventions on wound healing: A systematic review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hayley; Norton, Sam; Jarrett, Paul; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Psychological stress has been shown to delay wound healing. Several trials have investigated whether psychological interventions can improve wound healing, but to date, this evidence base has not been systematically synthesized. The objective was to conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials in humans investigating whether psychological interventions can enhance wound healing. A systematic review was performed using PsychINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and MEDLINE. The searches included all papers published in English up until September 2016. The reference lists of relevant papers were screened manually to identify further review articles or relevant studies. Nineteen studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Fifteen of nineteen studies were of high methodological quality. Six studies were conducted with acute experimentally created wounds, five studies with surgical patients, two studies with burn wounds, two studies with fracture wounds, and four studies were conducted with ulcer wounds. Post-intervention standardized mean differences (SMD) between groups across all intervention types ranged from 0.13 to 3.21, favouring improved healing, particularly for surgical patients and for relaxation interventions. However, there was some evidence for publication bias suggesting negative studies may not have been reported. Due to the heterogeneity of wound types, population types, and intervention types, it is difficult to pool effect sizes across studies. Current evidence suggests that psychological interventions may aid wound healing. Although promising, more research is needed to assess the efficacy of each intervention on different wound types. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Psychological stress negatively affects wound healing. A number of studies have investigated whether psychological interventions can improve healing. However, no systematic reviews have been conducted. What does this study add

  13. Humans in space the psychological hurdles

    CERN Document Server

    Kanas, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Using anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, and the results from studies conducted in space analog environments on Earth and in the actual space environment, this book broadly reviews the various psychosocial issues that affect space travelers.  Unlike other books that are more technical in format, this text is targeted for the general public.  With the advent of space tourism and the increasing involvement of private enterprise in space, there is now a need to explore the impact of space missions on the human psyche and on the interpersonal relationships of the crewmembers. Separate chapters of the book deal with psychosocial stressors in space and in space analog environments; psychological, psychiatric, interpersonal, and cultural issues pertaining to space missions; positive growth-enhancing aspects of space travel; the crew-ground interaction; space tourism; countermeasures for dealing with space; and unique aspects of a trip to Mars, the outer solar system, and interstellar travel. .

  14. Positive Psychology: possible future and clinical derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gancedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A possible future for the Positive Psychology movement could be to merge it into a new enunciative subsystem of psychology, which is named here as psychoeulogy. Psychoeulogy is defined as: the psychology subsystem that studies psychological well-being, and its conditions, characteristics and promotion. It could be understood as the conceptual reversal of psychopathology. Together, psychoeulogy and psychopathology, can complete the spectre of knowledge about the psyche. The target of this article is to introduce an epistemological model for this future psychoeulogy, and, at the same time, display its derivations on a clinical psychoeulogical model that can integrate the contributions of positive psychology and those of others psychological movements. 

  15. Prejudice and Psychological Factors Analysis Concerning Public Aesthetic Taste%大众审美的前见和格式塔心理因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海峰

    2013-01-01

    The paper tries to explore underlying psychological factors influencing public aesthetic taste from the perspectives of Hermeneutics and Gestalt Psychology , and then bring out causes for taste changes from aes-thetic subjects themselves .%本文试图从解释学和格式塔心理学的角度来探析大众审美观念的心理因素,以期从审美主体自身找到大众审美变迁的原因。

  16. Modeling rational, psychological, and social behavior toward diffusion of new technology using agent-based simulation: the case of the public utility jeepney (PUJ) fleet in Metro Manila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahanchian, Mohammad; Biona, Jose Bienvenido Manuel

    2017-01-01

    is to assist policymakers for energy and environmental policy design based on consumers’ behavior. The jeepney owners in the old public utility jeepney (PUJ) fleet in Metro Manila are chosen as case study to prove the applicability of the model. The results show that rational, psychological, and social...... configuration affect diffusion of innovation. This study presents an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate the rational decision-making, psychological behavior, and social interaction of people to explore their reaction to policy scenarios toward adopting technological changes over time. The aim of model...

  17. Cortisol mediates redistribution of CD8+ but not of CD56+ cells after the psychological stress of public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, J; Netter, P; Voigt, K H

    2001-10-01

    The present study investigated the question if a pharmacological blockade of cortisol release with stress affects lymphocyte redistribution in healthy volunteers. It was expected that the well known increases in the number of CD8+ (T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells) and CD56+ (natural killer cells) after stress would not be downregulated in the absence of an appropriate cortisol response, since redistribution is markedly influenced by glucocorticoids. In a double blind design, forty healthy male volunteers were exposed to a brief psychological stressor (public speaking) and received a single oral dose of dexamethasone [DEX] (N=20) or placebo (N=20) the evening before the main experiment. Ratings on emotional states and blood samples for determination of hormones, CD8+, and CD56+ cell counts were obtained at different time points during the experiment. Stress of public speaking led to highly significant increases in catecholamine and cortisol concentrations, to subjective discomfort and, most pronounced, to high increases in the number of CD8+ and CD56+ cells. DEX neither influenced baseline levels of mood, catecholamines and cell numbers nor stress induced responses of mood and catecholamines. However, during the whole experiment cortisol concentrations were suppressed in the DEX-condition and the number of CD8+, but not CD56+, cells remained elevated at the end of the session, while in the placebo condition the numbers of these cells were decreased to baseline levels. The data demonstrate that cortisol seems to play an important role in stress induced redistribution patterns of CD8+ but not CD56+ cells. This, however, can be explained by different migration processes between those cells (e.g. different targets of migration) and, therefore, different glucocorticoid influences on target tissues.

  18. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Associationの英文法記述について

    OpenAIRE

    江藤, 裕之

    2004-01-01

    言語事実の記述・分析により,言語の本質を追及することを目指す今日の科学的言語学において,「文法」は規範文法-言葉による正確な自己表現を可能にするためのルール-を意味しない.しかし,思考内容を正しく文章に表現するための技術への要請は消滅することなく,その伝統は文章読本,論文執筆マニュアルといった形で続いている.本稿では,今日を代表する英語論文執筆マニュアルであるアメリカ心理学会発行のPublication Manual of the American Psychological Associationの"g...

  19. Dearth by a Thousand Cuts? Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikara, Mina; Rudman, Laurie; Fiske, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Publication in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, a flagship indicator of scientific prestige, shows dramatic gender disparities. A bibliometric analysis included yoked-control authors matched for Ph.D. prestige and cohort. Though women publish less, at slower annual rates, they are more cited in handbooks and textbooks per JPSP-article-published. No gender differences emerged on variables reflecting differential qualifications. Many factors explain gender discrepancy in productivity. Among top publishers, per-year rate and first authorship especially differ by gender; rate uniquely predicts top-male productivity, whereas career-length uniquely predicts top-female productivity. Among men, across top-publishers and controls, productivity correlates uniquely with editorial negotiating and being married. For women, no personal variables predict productivity. A separate inquiry shows tiny gender differences in acceptance rates per JPSP article submitted; discrimination would be a small-but-plausible contributor, absent independent indicators of manuscript quality. Recent productivity rates mirror earlier gender disparities, suggesting gender gaps will continue.

  20. Effects of psychological stress test on the cardiac response of public safety workers: alternative parameters to autonomic balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, M. R.; Vargas-Luna, F. M.; Delgadillo-Holtfort, I.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that public safety workers (PSW) face many stressful situations that yield them as high-risk population for suffering chronic stress diseases. In this multidisciplinary research the cardiac response to induced psychological stress by a short duration Stroop test was evaluated in 20 female and 19 male PSW, in order to compare traditionally used cardiac response parameters with alternative ones. Electrocardiograms have been recorded using the Eindhoven electrodes configuration for 1 min before, 3 min during and 1 min after the test. Signals analysis has been performed for the heart rate and the power spectra of its variability and of the variability of the amplitude of the R-wave, i.e. the highest peak of the electrocardiographic signal periodic sequence. The results demonstrated that the traditional autonomic balance index shows no significant differences between stages. In contrast, the median of the area of the power spectrum of the R-wave amplitude variability in the frequency region dominated by the autonomous nervous system (0.04-to-0.4 Hz) is the more sensitive parameter. Moreover, this parameter allows to identify gender differences consistent with those encountered in other studies.

  1. On Plato's View of Psyche%柏拉图的灵魂观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦

    2007-01-01

    一直以来,灵魂问题在西方哲学中占据了重要的地位,现代西方心灵哲学(Philosophy of Mind)中对"心灵"(Mind)本质的探讨则可以追溯到古希腊先哲对"灵魂"(Psyche,Soul)的思考.柏拉图作为古希腊哲学的重要代表之一,他对灵魂起源、本质、能力等问题的回答给予我们一副融合宗教与哲学元素在内的奇妙图式.

  2. [Mental images: towards a media history of the psyche around 1900].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Veronika

    2014-12-01

    Presupposing that visual practices are inherent to the social constitution of knowledge, this article suggests juxtaposing photographs and films produced in a psychiatric environment to popular films run in theaters around 1900, thus identifying cinema's particular "Denkstil" (Fleck). Rejecting science's dominating paradigm of visual objectivity (Daston/Galison), the visual apparatus [dispositif] of early cinema facilitates subjective experience of unreason and irrationality and thus initiates a different epistemological approach to knowledge as self-knowledge of a modern, self-reflexive subject. This is particularly evident in early cinema's depiction of the psyche, which does not solely focus on the physical manifestation of the 'mad', 'insane' body, but also visualizes the subject's inner life: technical means like montage, multiple exposure or stop motion can be employed to illustrate subjective visions, fantasies or dreams. Thus, the invisible mind becomes visible as the "unthinkable within thinking" (Deleuze), while the subject is invited to participate in cinema's "gay science" (Nietzsche).

  3. Physical and psychological aspects of women selfperception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Fialová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research "Body image as a part of active life style" was to explore the meaning of several aspects of physical and psychological self and satisfaction with them. We are interested in the degree of meaning, satisfaction, control and chance for change. The article analyses the relation of 866 women (18-60 years old to their own body and health and to the own ideas and feelings. The monitored women feel considerable discrepancy between the importance of several items related to their body and psyche and between the satisfaction with them. The largest disproportion in the evaluation of importance and satisfaction was discovered at the life without fear, fright and tense (49 %. A big discrepancy was founded also at physical activities and fitness (32 %. The control over body and psyche perceive more than 60 % of the women, spirituality is a little more controlled than corporality. Contentment was evaluated less than control, opportunity and importance. More than 60 % of women showed dissatisfaction with the aspects of body and psyche. We have to learn to know the worth of our self and care of own progress in relation and limits of individual occasions. The satisfaction with the self is a ground of physical and psychological well - being.

  4. Psych NP-NC: a benchmark graduate nurse practitioner program for meeting the mental health needs in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis-Jarrett, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    UNC-Chapel Hill's Psych NP-NC program prepares clinically and culturally proficient nurse practitioners to provide psychiatric and mental health care in North Carolina areas that are medically underserved and have a greater number of health disparities. This article reviews the program and the role of its graduates and makes policy recommendations for improving mental health care in the state.

  5. Short-term operational evaluation of a group-parenting program for Japanese mothers with poor psychological status: adopting a Canadian program into the Asian public service setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Aya; Yabe, Junko; Sasaki, Hitomi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-07-01

    Although parenting practices differ across various sociocultural settings, scientific research on parenting intervention in Asia is scarce. We adopted a Canadian multilanguage group-based parenting program (Nobody's Perfect) into the Japanese public health service setting and evaluated its impact. Our program was feasible as a public service; was well-accepted among the participants with low psychological status, many of whom were first-time mothers; and had a potential positive impact on the mood of mothers and the self-evaluation of their abilities in society. Our results may facilitate and provide direction for similar research in Asia.

  6. Commentary: Understanding the origins of anger, contempt, and disgust in public health policy disputes: applying moral psychology to harm reduction debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Jess; Dollar, Katherine M; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2010-04-01

    Scientific disputes about public health issues can become emotional battlefields marked by strong emotions like anger, contempt, and disgust. Contemporary work in moral psychology demonstrates that each of these emotions is a reaction to a specific type of moral violation. Applying this work to harm reduction debates, specifically the use of smokeless tobacco to reduce harm from tobacco use, we attempt to explain why some public health disputes have been so heated. Public health ethics tend to emphasize social justice concerns to the exclusion of other moral perspectives that value scientific authority, professional loyalty, and bodily purity. An awareness of their different emotional reactions and underlying moral motivations might help public health professionals better understand each others' viewpoints, ultimately leading to more productive dialogue.

  7. Reporting Quality of Social and Psychological Intervention Trials: A Systematic Review of Reporting Guidelines and Trial Publications

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Sean P.; Evan Mayo-Wilson; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Paul Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous reviews show that reporting guidelines have improved the quality of trial reports in medicine, yet existing guidelines may not be fully suited for social and psychological intervention trials. OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: We conducted a two-part study that reviewed (1) reporting guidelines for and (2) the reporting quality of social and psychological intervention trials. DATA SOURCES: (1) To identify reporting guidelines, we systematically searched multiple electronic databases and ...

  8. Psychology's epistemological identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Černigoj

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is first to present three different, mutually irreducible approaches to the study of human psyche, and then to offer a conceptual model that allows their meaningful integration. I begin the article with the common knowledge about three main determinants of human behavior: genetic inheritance, social environment, and one's own activity, which I then link with Stevens' (1998 conceptualization of three appropriate epistemologies in psychology. Nomothetic epistemology is adequate for the study of behavior rooted in our biological dispositions, hermeneutic epistemology for the study of behavior founded on symbolic meanings, and transformative epistemology for the study of behavior steaming from our capacity for reflexive awareness. I then interrelate these epistemologies using Gergen's (1973 idea about the continuum of temporal stability of events supplemented with the dimension of the abstractness of their treatment. I presuppose that nomothetic treatment of temporally less stable events demands a higher level of abstraction and vice versa. This is very important for psychology, because it acknowledges the possibility of psychology being a nomothetic science, but at the same time warns for the necessity of complementing its findings with the interpretive and phenomenological realizations.

  9. 公立医院医生心理资本特征研究%Research on characteristic psychological capital of doctors in public hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任桂芳; 尹文强; 黄冬梅; 孙葵; 李伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解医生心理资本现状,并分析其特点,以使医院管理更加具有针对性.方法 运用定量与定性相结合的方法,对公立医院医生进行心理资本状况的研究.结果 医生事务型心理资本得分4.25分,人际型心理资本得分4.41分;医生心理资本各维度得分最高的是“谦虚沉稳”,得分最低的是“乐观希望”;医生心理资本在性别、年龄、工作总年限、月均收入等方面存在差异,而在职称、医院级别、聘用形式等方面无差异.结论 医生具有较强的心理资本以应对压力.增强医生心理资本,对提高医疗服务质量具有重要的实践意义.%Objective To study the state of doctors' psychological capital in public hospitals,and to analyze the characteristics of such capital,so as to better leverage the capital as a hospital management tool.Methods A quantitative and qualitative research was made on the state of doctors' psychological capital.Results The doctors' task-oriented psychological capital scored 4.25,and guanxi-oriented psychological capital 4.41; “modesty and prudence”scored the highest in all dimensions of the doctors' psychological capital,“optimism and hope”lowest; the doctors with different genders,ages,seniority,and monthly average income have a difference in psychological capital.However,no significant difference was found with varying titles,hospital levels,and employment models.Conclusion The doctors were found with a strong psychological capital to cope with stress.Better psychological capital will raise quality of care in practice.

  10. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, L.A.A.; van der Graaff, J.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/ S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms, through mothers’ psych

  11. Discontinuities in the male psyche: waiting, deadness and disembodiment. Archetypal and clinical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Phil

    2006-11-01

    The discontinuities of development in the male psyche that are manifested in some analyses in unconscious experiences of inner disintegration are described. Narcissism and a de-somatized relationship to their own presence are the dominant clinical presentation in these patients. The analyst sometimes experiences these analyses as 'dead', as a result of the projection of a 'dead mother' object. The question of how psychic deadness and impotence can be worked with is examined. Clinical experience with these men shows how notions associated with the puer-senex archetype can illuminate the stark realities of a patient's early experiences, particularly in how mother's presence is felt. A theoretical and clinical bridge is proposed between puer and narcissus to frame how a man may unconsciously strive against psychic fragmentation by clinging to an identification with both--in order to remain intact in the face of being caught in a pre-pubescent state which reflects the insecure attachment to mother. The author describes how patients may find a more grounded embrace of reality via the use of the analyst's empathy and a greater potency through work in the transference/countertransference. These strengthening achievements help men to begin to leave the 'dead mother' behind.

  12. Review: Gerd Jüttemann (Hrsg. (2013. Die Entwicklung der Psyche in der Geschichte der Menschheit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Krebs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Vorbereitungsband für die Reihe "Die Psychogenese der Menschheit" – ein Sammelband aus 32 Beiträgen, betitelt "Die Entwicklung der Psyche in der Geschichte der Menschheit" und 2013 herausgegeben von Gerd JÜTTEMANN – wird in dieser Besprechung in mehreren Schritten vorgestellt und bewertet. Zunächst wird kontextuell argumentiert, dass die bewährte, empirisch-experimentelle Methodologie der Psychologie zur Vernachlässigung weiterer Erkenntnisverfahren führte, die bei Themen wie dem hier zu besprechenden Werk allein verbleiben und die kurz angesprochen werden. Sodann wird das Werk im Überblick knapp dargestellt und die außergewöhnliche Heterogenität in Inhalten und Methoden betont. Die Besprechung einzelner Beiträge, die nach dem Gesichtspunkt großer Unterschiedlichkeit ausgewählt wurden, schließt sich an. Die abschließende Gesamtbewertung betont den lückenhaften Forschungsstand, die Notwendigkeit der allein verbleibenden qualitativen Methodik mit ihren verschiedenen Möglichkeiten und nennt Desiderata künftigen Vorgehens für diesen thematisch und methodisch interessanten Auftakt-Band, der insbesondere durch Dichte und Verschiedenheit der Beiträge beeindruckt. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1502219

  13. Emergency medical services and "psych calls": Examining the work of urban EMS providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prener, Christopher; Lincoln, Alisa K

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical technicians and paramedics form the backbone of the United States' Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system. Despite the frequent involvement of EMS with people with mental health and substance abuse problems, the nature and content of this work, as well as how EMS providers think about this work, have not been fully explored. Using data obtained through observations and interviews with providers at an urban American EMS agency, this paper provides an analysis of the ways in which EMS providers interact with people with mental illness and substance abuse problems, as well as providers' experiences with the mental health care system. Results demonstrate that EMS providers share common beliefs and frustrations about "psych calls" and the types of calls that involve people with behavioral health problems. In addition, providers described their understandings of the ways in which people with mental health and substance use problems "abuse the system" and the consequences of this abuse. Finally, EMS providers discuss the system-level factors that impact their work and specific barriers and challenges to care. These results suggest that additional work is needed to expand our understanding of the role of EMS providers in the care of people with behavioral health problems and that mental health practitioners and policy makers should include consideration of the important role of EMS and prehospital care in providing community-based supports for people with behavioral health needs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. PsychBusters: A Means of Fostering Critical Thinking in the Introductory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, Stephen B.; Blessing, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a project given to introductory psychology students that increased their critical thinking regarding psychological findings, such as those that might appear in news reports (e.g., "listening to Mozart makes you smarter") or everyday life (e.g., "birds of a feather flock together"). Relative to students who did not do the project,…

  15. The Deviation of Public Policy Execution and Its Impact on Public Psychology%公共政策执行偏差对公众的心理影响及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨铖; 李霞飞; 武厚

    2015-01-01

    The government management target caused by the executive deviation of public policies cannot be fully realized, and even initiates the society contradiction. The paper states the connotation of public policy implementation deviation and seven ways, analyzes the influences of the deviation performing to the public social attitudes, sense of relative deprivation and psychological harmony. To eliminate or reduce the negative effects of the executive deviation of public policies, we give advices to the people on coordinating cognition, improving recognition, setting up the psychological service network countermeasures and so on.%公共政策执行偏差可导致政府管理目标不能完全实现甚至落空,并引发社会矛盾。文章阐述公共政策执行偏差的内涵及七种表现方式,分析执行偏差会对公众的社会态度,相对剥夺感和心理和谐等产生影响,从后趋角度就减少受众不协调认知、提高中下阶层大众认同、建立心理服务网络等方面为消减不良影响提出对策建议。

  16. Western psychology and Muslim psychology in dialogue: comparisons between a Qura'nic theory of personality and Freud's and Jung's ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, comparisons are made between a newly developed Qura'nic theory of personality and the Freudian and Jungian theories of the mind. Notable similarities were found between the Freudian id, ego, superego and neurosis and the Qura'nic nafs ammarah besoa' (evil-commanding psyche), a'ql (intellect), al-nafs al-lawammah (the reproachful psyche) and al-nafs al-marid'a (the sick psyche), respectively. Noteworthy resemblances were detected also between the Jungian concepts collective unconscious, archetypes, Self and individuation and the Qura'nic constructs roh (spirit), al-asmaa' (the names), qalb (heart), and al-nafs al-mutmainnah (the serene psyche), respectively. These parallels, as well as the departure points, between the models are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. The comparisons performed in this paper open new avenues for dialogue between western models of the psyche and their Muslim counterparts, a dialogue that can enrich both perspectives and advance the field of psychology.

  17. Satisfaction with and benefits of a psych-social club: development of a mixed method evaluation instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labun, Evelyn; Yurkovich, Eleanor; Ide, Bette A

    2012-12-01

    There are no instruments for validation or evaluation of a member's satisfaction of and benefits with psych-social clubs. This article reports on the development and testing of the mixed-method instrument entitled Benefits and Satisfaction Tool for Members of a Psych-social Club (B&ST-MPC), which evolved from findings of a qualitative research study. The alpha reliability coefficient was .92. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Test yielded a value of .812. The items loaded on 3 factors. Utilization of B&ST-MPC supports development of services for rural communities through feedback from consumers. Further testing of the B&ST-MPC in settings with diverse populations is recommended.

  18. Bibliometric assessment of publication output of child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological affiliations between 2005 and 2010 based on the databases PubMed and Scopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Ozgür; Föcker, Manuel; Wibker, Katrin; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to determine the quantitative scientific publication output of child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological affiliations during 2005-2010 by country based on both, "PubMed" and "Scopus" and performed a bibliometric qualitative evaluation for 2009 using "PubMed". We performed our search by affiliation related to child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological institutions using "PubMed". For the quantitative analysis for 2005-2010, we counted the number of abstracts. For the qualitative analysis for 2009 we derived the impact factor of each abstract's journal from "Journal Citation Reports". We related total impact factor scores to the gross domestic product (GDP) and population size of each country. Additionally, we used "Scopus" to determine the number of abstracts for each country that was identified via "PubMed" for 2009 and compared the ranking of countries between the two databases. 61 % of the publications between 2005 and 2010 originated from European countries and 26 % from the USA. After adjustment for GDP and population size, the ranking positions changed in favor of smaller European countries with a population size of less than 20 million inhabitants. The ranking of countries for the count of articles in 2009 as derived from "Scopus" was similar to that identified via the "PubMed" search. The performed search revealed only minor differences between "Scopus" and "PubMed" related to the ranking of countries. Our data indicate a sharp difference between countries with a high versus low GDP with regard to scientific publication output in child and adolescent psychiatry/psychology.

  19. An Overview and Analysis of Journal Operations, Journal Publication Patterns, and Journal Impact in School Psychology and Related Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Cooley, Kathryn M.; Arnett, James E.; Fagan, Thomas K.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Hingle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the results of three studies designed to understand better the journal operations, publishing practices, and impact of school psychology journals in recent years. The first study presents the results of a survey focusing on journal operations and peer-review practices that was completed by 61 journal editors of school…

  20. The Role of Work in Psychological Health and Well-Being: A Conceptual, Historical, and Public Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The primary theme of this article, which serves as the introductory contribution of a special section of the "American Psychologist," is that work plays a central role in the development, expression, and maintenance of psychological health. The argument underlying this assumption is articulated at the outset of the article in conjunction with a…

  1. An Overview and Analysis of Journal Operations, Journal Publication Patterns, and Journal Impact in School Psychology and Related Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Cooley, Kathryn M.; Arnett, James E.; Fagan, Thomas K.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Hingle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the results of three studies designed to understand better the journal operations, publishing practices, and impact of school psychology journals in recent years. The first study presents the results of a survey focusing on journal operations and peer-review practices that was completed by 61 journal editors of school…

  2. More attention to the psychological health of college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡锐

    2008-01-01

    @@ Due to studies,economy,emotion,interpersonal relation ships and occupation, a series of psychOlOgical health problems of college students crop up.College students frequently have more complex problems today than they did over a decade ago,including both the typical or expected college student problems-difficulties in relationships and developmental issues-as well as the Bore severe problems,such as depression,sexualassault and thoughts of suicide.

  3. 刑法公众认同的心理学展开%Psychological Expansion of Public Recognition of Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马荣春; 焦译宁

    2016-01-01

    Public recognition of criminal law means that criminal practice ,including criminal legislation ,criminal justice and punishment execution , embodies common know ledge ,common sense and common feelings ,w hich are know n by the social public as to be accepted ,trusted and abided by universally . Principle of psychological resonance verifies the concept of public recognition of criminal law .Principle of three‐element reciprocation embodies the psychological structure of public recognition of criminal law .And theory of locus of control explains that public recognition of criminal law has important significance in enhancing individual recognition ability and behavior motivation ,and in improving individual emotional state ,w hich is useful to protect human rights and to keep social order .%刑法公众认同,是指刑法实践包括刑法立法、刑法司法乃至刑罚执行因内化和体现社会公众普遍认同的常识、常理和常情而被社会公众普遍认可、信赖与体行。心理学中的心理共振原理印证着刑法公众认同的概念,三元交互理论体现着刑法公众认同的心理结构,而心理控制源理论说明着刑法公众认同具有增强个体认知能力和行为动力、改善个体情感状态,从而有利于保障人权和稳定社会秩序的重要意义。

  4. Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

  5. On the Teaching Objectives of Public Psychology in Higher Normal Colleges%高师公共心理学教学目标探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张公社

    2013-01-01

    Establishing an integrated teaching obj ect is the requirements of improving teaching quality and current education reform.With its development in many years,teaching obj ectives of pub-lic psychology in higher normal colleges tend to be pluralistic,including psychology learning,cultiva-tion of psychological diathesis and education quality,and ideological education,etc.%为高师公共心理学确定一个完整的教学目标,既是提高教学质量的需要,也是当前教学改革的需要。经过多年演变,高师公共心理学的教学目标已趋向多元化,涵盖了心理学知识学习、心理素质培养、教育素质培养、心理健康教育和思想教育等几个方面。

  6. [The concept of soul in the course of history. Thoughts on psyche, mind and awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2002-10-31

    This paper seeks to convey an insight into the interrelationships between body, soul and mind and to show how the concept of "soul" has evolved through the course of history. In German the word "soul" has a confusing array of meanings today. For most of us it comprises all of man's emotions, his awareness, constructive thought, drive, state of mind and spirit. The soul thus represents the essence of a person and his relationships to those closest to him. For many people the soul was and still is the principle of life, the breath of life and the force of life. The immortal soul escapes, leaves the body, is weighed and judged. At all times in history man has doggedly pursued the mysteries of self-awareness, the ultimate truth and the soul. What he found varied, depending on the age and the place. What the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament express in deep-seated metaphors, the Greek philosophers put into clear-cut words: their concept of soul was then largely integrated into Christian thought. Meister Eckhart describes the soul in mystically transfigured passion. C.G. Jung writes of the "animus and anima." Sigmund Freud uses the term "psyche." Radical materialism denies the existence and independence of the soul's processes. The questions where we come from and where we are going, why and what for, no longer find a common answer. Psychiatry, however, takes up the intellectual call of the time and replies to the challenges of the day. Thus, the search for the "soul", a search that occupies so many people, also always involves the search for the whole person.

  7. TITIK TEMU TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY DAN TASAWUF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah Khadijah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to introduce transpersonal psychology approach, especially its meeting point with the world of Sufism in Islam. The article tries to answer the following questions, are: 1 what is the difference between transpersonal psychology and other psycho-logical theories, and; 2 in what aspect transpersonal psychology shares a common ground with Sufism? The writer finds that there is a significant difference between transpersonal psychology and other psychological theories, especially psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Psychoanalysis emphasizes the deepest meaning of human behavior with a tendency to override the meaning of physical aspect. Behaviorism has been strongly influenced by pure science. In fact, research on the human psyche aspect cannot be done simply by applying pure science. Meanwhile, transpersonal psychology tries to fundamentally reinforce and develop human potential, both physical and mental aspects. Moreover, this approach reaches supernatural and spiritual aspects of human beings. The writer tends to argue that the common ground shared by the mystical aspects of the Western world, in the perspective of transpersonal psychology, and Sufism in Islam lays in the fact that each entity puts great emphasis on managing and increasing the spiritual aspect of human.Keywords: transpersonal psychology, tasawuf, common ground.

  8. La Psique Latinoamericana: Breve Ensayo Hermenéutico Desde Freud y Jung Latin-American Psyche: Brief Hermeneutic Essay Based on Freud and Jung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gissi

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo integra algunas tesis de Freud y de Jung y las aplica a la psique latinoamericana. Según el autor, la conquista española en América, fue y aún es psicoculturalmente, distinta para conquistadores y conquistados. Desde la perspectiva de Freud, el análisis se basa en la segunda tópica, en la teoría de los mecanismos de defensa y en el complejo de Edipo. Se relacionan conflictos represivos, castratorios, proyectivos, etc. en los grupos culturales en pugna, y las derivaciones familiares y psicopolíticas congruentes. Desde Jung, el análisis se realiza a través de mitos y símbolos, lo que refleja una no integración sana de los arquetipos y un fuerte componente patriarcal de dominación. Esto implica la baja individuación, el "yo débil" y las disociaciones descubiertas por Freud.This article joins together some of Freud's and Jung's thesis and applies them into the Latin-American psyche. The author states that Spaniard's conquer period in America was, and still is, very different for conquerors and conquered (from a psychological and cultural point of view. From a Freudian approach, the analysis is based on the "Topica II", on the defense mechanisms theory and the Oedipus complex. In both groups, the author relates repressive conflicts, castration, projection, etc., with its familiar and psycho-political consequences. From Jung, the analysis is made with myths and symbols, which reflects a strong patriarchal component of domination and a unwholesome integration of the archetypes. This implies the low individuation, the "weak self" and the dissociations discovered by Freud.

  9. [Work and psychological distress among public school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; Porto, Lauro Antônio; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study with all the teachers in the municipal school system in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, investigated the association between work content (psychological demand and control over work) and the occurrence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among teachers. The Karasek demand-control model was used to evaluate control over work. The Self-Report Questionnaire-20 was used to evaluate minor psychiatric disorders. MPD prevalence was 55.9% among the 808 teachers studied. Crude prevalence of MPD showed a positive and significant association with psychological demand and a negative and significant association with control over work. MPD prevalence was higher in teachers with highly demanding work, characterized by heavy demand and low control (PR = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.44-2.10), and in those with active work, with heavy demand and low control (PR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.13-1.61), as compared to teachers with low-demand work (light demand and high control), after adjusting for confounders in a multiple logistic regression model. As a conclusion, teachers' mental health is strongly associated with their work content.

  10. Privatizing health care in times of new public management: Investigating the role of psychological empowerment using cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Niklas; Baraldi, Stephan; Berntson, Erik; Andersson, Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Although privatization within health care is usually justified using arguments based on efficiency and productivity, the empirical investigations underpinning such arguments are few and ambiguous in their results. Presenting a new theoretical and analytical approach to this research field, we argue that psychological empowerment, reflecting individuals' intrinsic change motivation state, is a crucial prerequisite for the transformation of a nonprofit health care organization to a for-profit one. The general aims of this study were to explore empowerment cognitions during a privatization, to relate these to a selection of key work-related outcome variables, and to identify the effects of privatization in terms of individual level changes in empowerment after privatization. A sample of health care workers (n = 210) provided survey longitudinal data that were analyzed using cluster analysis. Eight clusters were identified at both pre- and postprivatization with each cluster mirroring specific empowerment patterns: Empowered, In Control, Quasi-Empowered, Competent/Normed, Reference, Underused, Misfit, and Powerless. The clusters discriminated on positive work attitudes, mental health complaints, and turnover intentions. The analysis also revealed the complexity of privatization in that a homogenization as well as a differentiation tendency was observed, thereby implicating both socio-structural equality and inequality effects. The results highlighted the relevance of allocating importance to health care workers' psychological empowerment during the privatization process, and of viewing such organizational transformations not as simple shifts in the state of affairs, but as nonlinear processes involving dynamic changes in individual perceptions over time.

  11. School Psychology: A Public Health Framework: III. Managing Disruptive Behavior in Schools: The Value of a Public Health and Evidence-Based Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This article emphasizes the value of an evidence-based and public health perspective in managing disruptive behavior. Information about comprehensive school-based programs and classroom management techniques for disruptive behavior disorders is presented and the important role school psychologists can play in implementing these programs discussed.…

  12. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  13. Telemonitoring with respect to Mood Disorders and Information and Communication Technologies: Overview and Presentation of the PSYCHE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Javelot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews what we know about prediction in relation to mood disorders from the perspective of clinical, biological, and physiological markers. It then also presents how information and communication technologies have developed in the field of mood disorders, from the first steps, for example, the transition from paper and pencil to more sophisticated methods, to the development of ecological momentary assessment methods and, more recently, wearable systems. These recent developments have paved the way for the use of integrative approaches capable of assessing multiple variables. The PSYCHE project stands for Personalised monitoring SYstems for Care in mental HEalth.

  14. Telemonitoring with respect to mood disorders and information and communication technologies: overview and presentation of the PSYCHE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javelot, Hervé; Spadazzi, Anne; Weiner, Luisa; Garcia, Sonia; Gentili, Claudio; Kosel, Markus; Bertschy, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews what we know about prediction in relation to mood disorders from the perspective of clinical, biological, and physiological markers. It then also presents how information and communication technologies have developed in the field of mood disorders, from the first steps, for example, the transition from paper and pencil to more sophisticated methods, to the development of ecological momentary assessment methods and, more recently, wearable systems. These recent developments have paved the way for the use of integrative approaches capable of assessing multiple variables. The PSYCHE project stands for Personalised monitoring SYstems for Care in mental HEalth.

  15. Amor i Psyche na kozetce: psychoanalityczne metody interpretacji literatury na przykładzie baśni Apulejusza

    OpenAIRE

    Stróżyński, Mateusz

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to show differences in psychoanalytic approach to literary works, especially myths and folktales, with regard to different theories of personality stemming from the thought of Sigmund Freud. In the paper three methods are demonstrated – Freudian (based on Bettelheim’s approach to folktales), Jungian (based on Neumann’s analysis of Amor and Psyche), and that of transactional analysis (based on Berne’s and Karpmann’s ideas on tales and drama triangle). Each method of...

  16. Topological approach of Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, we showed that the swallowtail, which is one of these morphologies, was able to describe geometrically the structural organisation of the psyche according to Jung, with its collective unconscious, personal unconscious and conscious. Moreover, we have correlated this morphology with Jung's evolutive processes like individualization and individuation. These comparisons incited us to think that some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory are the geometrical dealing of Jung's archetypes.

  17. The cultural psychology endeavor to make culture central to psychology: Comment on Hall et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorakova, Antonie

    2016-12-01

    When Hall, Yip, and Zárate (2016) suggested that cultural psychology focused on reporting differences between groups, they described comparative research conducted in other fields, including cross-cultural psychology. Cultural psychology is a different discipline with methodological approaches reflecting its dissimilar goal, which is to highlight the cultural grounding of human psychological characteristics, and ultimately make culture central to psychology in general. When multicultural psychology considers, according to Hall et al., the mechanisms of culture's influence on behavior, it treats culture the same way as cross-cultural psychology does. In contrast, cultural psychology goes beyond treating culture as an external variable when it proposes that culture and psyche are mutually constitutive. True psychology of the human experience must encompass world populations through research of the ways in which (a) historically grounded sociocultural contexts enable the distinct meaning systems that people construct, and (b) these systems simultaneously guide the human formation of the environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Psychology and culturology: A means of cooperating and problems associated with cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaks L.A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the main potential aspects of cooperation between psychology and culturology, which are connected through their mutual determination of the psyche (psychic reality and culture. The paper acknowledges the key importance of the cultural-historical traditions initiated by Lev Vygotsky and his successors as well as the idea that their potential has yet to be realized by contemporary psychology. A new vision of culture is given to culturology (in comparison with traditional cultural studies and its significance in conducting modern psychological research: a novel problematization of psychology’s subject matter and its methodological support. Different aspects of the psyche’s cultural determination, the experience with cultural psychology (historical psychology in researching historical mental types (“Annals school” are reviewed alongside with the role of culture knowledge in analyzing the psychological results of this determination. The consistency of culture and its components represented and internalized by mental structures is announced as a fundamental cultural basis of psychological research. The return influence of psychological phenomena on culture’s various aspects, as well as related cultural and psychological problems, are determined by the fundamental place and role of the psyche in any given cultural system as well as the contradictions that exist between a culture and the psyche. All this requires further examination. One of the most vital contemporary challenges facing psychology is the problem of the mental peculiarities of the consciousness, which can be principally explained in terms of a consistent culturological approach. Interrelationships between the psyche’s properties and conscious cultural functions are shown through example of aesthetic attitude.

  19. The Models of Relationship between Training and Psyche development in Cultural-historical and Activity Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogozhina I.N.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of referring of the psychological theories studying interrelation of training and mental development processes to this or that stage of scientific knowledge formation on the basis of studied objects types and corresponded determination systems as a basic criterion distinguishing the ideals of scientific rationality is justified. General characteristics of classical, non-classical and post-non-classical models, determination of the mechanisms of dissipative systems, requirements for learning and development model building in the context of post-non-classic science paradigm on the criterion of the system features of the object of cognition are described. Domestic psychological school models are compared with associanism, behaviorism, gestalt psychology and Piaget determination models on the number of options allocated to these determinants, types of causal chains and types of links between causal chains. It is shown that cultural-historical approach is situated intermediately between post-non-classical and non-classical models, while activity approach corresponds to post-non-classical understanding of the object of study as complicated self-developing "man-size" system. Determination relationships models developed by L.V.Vygotskii, S.L. Rubinstein, A.N. Leont’ev continue to play the heuristic role at the present stage of scientific development.

  20. Music and Psyche: Towards a Theory of Individual and Relational Psycho-sonorous Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pellizzari

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The foundations of this project were based mainly on questions about music therapeutic clinical practice, a practice whose efficacy has been demonstrated and it's expanding every day through its innovative practice-based procedures. The general goal of our study was to formulate a specific theoretical approach contributing to diagnostic evaluation in the area of mental health. The design was exploratory and descriptive. The analysis of the data was carried out with a mixed methods procedure; some variables were treated qualitatively and some quantitative procedures were carried out as well. Through this combined procedure two analysis units were evaluated: Sonorous Production Analysis Unit, given by the variables of dynamic organization from Individual Improvisation and the variables of connection in the relational improvisation, and Subject Unit given by psychological variables (organization of thoughts, symbolization, affectivity, receptivity, etc... of the verbal interview and the variable Subjective Appreciation from the interviewed about the relationship PS and psychological features given by a written questionnaire. After carrying out the empirical phase, defining all the variables and designing the charts of reported data, the information was processed with a SPSS Statistical package. Through quantitative and qualitative procedures we have been able to determine five individual sonorous profiles (random, germ, stable, complex and creative, five relational sonorous profiles (isolated, fused, dependent, differentiated and integrated and significant relationships for its correlational tendencies between these profiles and the psychological variables. In this paper the results of the first stage will be developed.

  1. Proposition of psyche entropy analysis and its application%精神熵分析法的提出及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申玉琪; 赵东风; 刘义; 孟亦飞

    2011-01-01

    随着机械、电子器件可靠性的不断提高,系统的安全性越来越取决于人的行为.当人处于不良的精神状态,就可能做出本人意愿之外的失误,从而导致事故的发生.因此,针对人的无意识失误进行分析并提出改进措施,可以提高系统的安全水平,降低事故风险.本文提出的精神熵分析方法,以安全学原理、心理学、安全人机工程学为基础提出六个评价指标,结合熵权法的计算原理.通过班组人员岗前自评的形式,员工给出六项指标的分数,并计算自己的最终得分,以此来评估员工在岗时的精神状态.管理者依据一定原则对低分项进行询问,发现问题并提出解决办法,最终降低并控制无意识失误导致的事故风险.%Along with the continuous improvement on the reliability of machinery and electronic devices, system safety increasingly depends on human behavior. When people are in poor mental state, they may be out of control to make certain unexpected mistakes which will result in accidents possibly. Therefore, to analyse the unconscious human errors and bring forward the measures which will improve the situation can promote the safety level of the whole system as well as decrease the risk of the accidents. The concept of psyche entropy analysis was proposed in the paper as a method to figure out the above issue. Based on safety principles, psychology and safety ergonomics, six indicators for the calculation of entropy method were put forward. The method was implemented before the workers were on duty. The workers evaluated themselves by giving the score of the six indicators and calculated the total score they finally gain which was the representation of the their psychological state. Then the manager may enquire about the low-scoring items according to some principles to find the questions and their solutions. Finally we can reduce and control the risk of the accidents caused by unconscious human errors.

  2. Infância e políticas públicas: um olhar sobre as práticas psi Psychological practices and public policies for childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Cruz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva discutir, a partir das formas pelas quais se constituiu a categoria infância no Brasil, a atual configuração das políticas públicas voltadas para essa área, especialmente no que se refere às práticas da Psicologia. Entendemos a infância como uma construção social, isto é, como uma noção datada geográfica e historicamente. Apontamos como a Psicologia se faz presente em temáticas, tais como o estabelecimento de padrões de normalidade e anormalidade, circunscrevendo etapas evolutivas em relação à infância. Como exemplo, citamos o Juizado de Menores, o Serviço de Assistência do Menor (SAM e as Fundações Estaduais do Bem-Estar do Menor (FEBEMs, bem como as atuais entidades de abrigos, já reordenadas a partir do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA. Para finalizar, problematizamos a inserção da Psicologia no debate sobre as políticas públicas, especificamente na área da infância denominada vulnerável.This paper aims to discuss the current configuration of public policies, especially from the psychological practices, based on the ways the childhood category was created in Brazil. Childhood is understood as a social construction, meaning here a geographic and historical knowledge's schedule. By the setting of some disciplinary approaches, Psychology is highlighted in themes as such as patterns of normality and abnormality connected to evolution steps with the childhood. As examples the Juizado de Menores, the Serviço de Assistência do Menor (SAM and the Fundações Estaduais do Bem - Estar do Menor (FEBEMs as well as the current shelters reorganized from the Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA can be pointed. So, a problematization about the interplay of the Psychology on the public policies debate about the way childhood's vulnerability was proposed.

  3. The American Psychological Association Task Force assessment of violent video games: Science in the service of public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L; Appelbaum, Mark; Dodge, Kenneth A; Graham, Sandra; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C; Hamby, Sherry; Fasig-Caldwell, Lauren G; Citkowicz, Martyna; Galloway, Daniel P; Hedges, Larry V

    2017-01-01

    A task force of experts was convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) to update the knowledge and policy about the impact of violent video game use on potential adverse outcomes. This APA Task Force on Media Violence examined the existing literature, including the meta-analyses in the field, since the last APA report on media violence in 2005. Because the most recent meta-analyses were published in 2010 and reflected work through 2009, the task force conducted a search of the published studies from 2009-2013. These recently published articles were scored and assessed by a systematic evidentiary review, followed by a meta-analysis of the high utility studies, as documented in the evidentiary review. Consistent with the literature that we reviewed, we found that violent video game exposure was associated with: an increased composite aggression score; increased aggressive behavior; increased aggressive cognitions; increased aggressive affect, increased desensitization, and decreased empathy; and increased physiological arousal. The size of the effects was similar to that in prior meta-analyses, suggesting a stable result. Our task force concluded that violent video game use is a risk factor for adverse outcomes, but found insufficient studies to examine any potential link between violent video game use and delinquency or criminal behavior. Our technical report is the basis of this article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. What the public think about hypnosis and hypnotherapy: A narrative review of literature covering opinions and attitudes of the general public 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwel, Matthew; Jolly, Kate; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-06-01

    To describe the public's understanding of hypnosis and openness to hypnotherapy. A comprehensive search of English language peer reviewed journal articles from 1st January 1996-11th March 2016 was performed over 9 databases (Medline, PubMed, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, Embase (excerpta medica), PsychInfo, Cochrane, Science citation index-expanded, Conference citation index) and a title-only search of Google scholar. 39 keyword combinations were employed: hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotic, perception, beliefs, knowledge, view, opinion and understanding, in singular and plural where appropriate. A search of the bibliographies of eligible articles was undertaken. Inclusion criteria - Articles containing original data regarding the general public's attitudes towards hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Exclusion criteria - Non-therapy hypnosis (forensic, entertainment) materials and those concerned with groups likely to possess prior or professional knowledge of hypnosis, (hypnotists, clinicians and psychologists). Analysis was conducted in line with the questions. 31 articles were identified, covering diverse populations. Most people believe that: hypnosis is an altered state which requires collaboration to enter; once hypnotized perception changes; hypnotherapy is beneficial for psychological issues and is supportive of medical interventions; hypnosis can also enhance abilities especially memory. People are open to hypnotherapy subject to validation from the psychological or medical establishment. Similarity of opinion is more apparent than difference. Most people are positive towards hypnotherapy, and would consider its use under the right circumstances. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. 公务员心理契约:一个公共政策的视域%Improvement of Civil Servants Psychological Contract:A Public Policy’s Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洁

    2014-01-01

    As important things in public administration study, civil servants psychological contract and public policy plays an important role each other. Nowadays there are these problems existing: the unsymmetrical information of public policy results in instability of psychological contract; the continuity of public policy’s failure goes against dynamic instability of psychological contract; the faultiness of public policy’s system easily leads to break and violation of psychological contract. We should improve civil servants psychological contract in terms of public policy’s formation. Developing civil servants participation in public policy’s making, building customer-oriented belief, keeping instability and property of public policy , declining influence of interest group and completing system of public policy will realize win-win of both civil servants psychological contract and public policy.%作为公共管理研究的重要方面,公务员心理契约和公共政策相互影响。目前,二者存在的问题主要有:公共政策形成时的信息不对称,导致公务员心理契约的不稳定;利益集团对公共政策的影响导致公务员产生不公平感和不公正感;公共政策的非连续性,不利于心理契约的动态稳定;公共政策体系的不完善,容易导致公务员心理契约的违背和破裂等问题。要从公共政策形成的动态过程采取加强公务员对公共政策的参与度、重视内部顾客导向、保持公共政策的稳定性和科学性、降低利益集团的影响、完善公共政策体系等有效措施来提升公务员心理契约水平,实现公务员心理契约和公共政策的双赢。

  6. [The ability for psych self-regulation as a factor in resistance to the stresses in extreme conditions of space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodova, A G; Bystritskaia, A F; Smirnova, T M

    2005-01-01

    Significance of the ability for psych self-regulation in the context of resistance to the stresses of space flight was studied in an experiment with 9 test-subjects simulating such factors of space flights as 8 to 9-day isolation and confinement, some physiological effects of microgravity in a head-down position at -8 degrees for 7 d, artificial climate, and implementation of dock and piloting operations. Stress resistance, self-regulation, mental performance and behavior were assessed with the use of computerized tests "Mirror coordinograph", "Relaxometer", and "SOPR-monitoring". The ability to voluntary control psych was shown to be favorable to stress-resistance and rapid recovery of mental efficiency after the natural decline in consequence of the experimental simulation. The ability for psych self-regulation is one of the major criteria of professional selection for exposure to extreme conditions.

  7. Psychological Analysis of Public Library Readers in the Environment of Computer Network Resources%计算机网络资源环境下公共图书馆读者心理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁佳

    2012-01-01

    Public libraries as a nonprofit cultural educational institution,is open for the public,all members of society who use the library resources,library services object.The Public Library of the nature of its readers with a wide range of social and mass characteristics.Understanding of computer network resources and the environment,public library readers psychology,master of readers of different ages tend to provide a basis for public library services.Public Library audience composition and reading motivation and purpose,read the psychological differences.Readers 'psychology,and the corresponding collection of literature data and network information resources services to meet readers' needs to improve the collection of documents and network resource utilization,of great significance for readers of different age groups.The computer network resources and the environment,public library readers psychological to make analysis,to further explore the computer network resources and the environment,how public libraries should better carry out the reader service work.%公共图书馆作为公益性文化教育机构,是面向社会公众开放的,凡是具有利用图书馆资源条件的一切社会成员,都是图书馆服务对象。公共图书馆的性质决定了它的读者具有广泛的社会性和群众性特点。了解计算机网络资源环境下公共图书馆的读者心理,掌握不同年龄读者的阅读倾向,能为公共图书馆读者服务工作提供依据。

  8. Applying Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based intervention aimed at improved psychological and social well-being of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerlooijer, J.N.; Kok, G.; Weyusya, J.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Bartholomew, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve psych

  9. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. [Fifty years of psychiatry at the interface between psyche and soma: a SWOT analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdenhove, B; Luyten, P

    2008-01-01

    During the past 50 years the border area between psychiatry and somatic medicine has undergone remarkable changes. Theories have become better-founded, both psychologically and neurobiologically, research has become more sophisticated, and liaison-psychiatrists and health psychiatrist/behavioural medicine psychologists have played an increasingly active role in this domain. At the beginning of the 21st century modern psychosomatic medicine is facing new challenges; these include how to create a workable diagnostic classification system, how to instruct and educate both health professionals and lay-persons to an adequate level, how to utilize innovative research paradigms without having recourse to reductionism and how to implement in medical practice treatments that are geared to the needs of the individual patient.

  11. The wound of the border: the liminality condition of the body and psyche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Martino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of meaning-making of personal experience is realized through the development of borders. They represent dynamic semiotic devices that allow us simultaneous processes of distinction and connection, separation and integration, individuation and belonging. In a semiotic and psychodynamic perspective, the skin is the first and fundamental boundary process that makes possible the development of identity, the intersubjective dimension and sharing within life contexts. The illness appears as a life discontinuity constituting a laceration of personal somatic, psychic, social borders. From this wound, the victim of an illness may find his/herself in a state of liminality. This concept, originally anthropological, is of current interest in the psychological context as the main feature is the feeling of disorientation, isolation, fragmentation, exclusion from the world of others. In clinical terms, the elaboration of the liminal experience can occur through the construction of new border systems that can construct new meaning to the many aspects of life.

  12. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association--5th edition: a review of additions and changes in style requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cynthia L; Aud, Myra A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the substantive changes and enhancements between the 4th edition and new 5th edition of the so that modifications and enhancements are more easily incorporated into the reader's writing and editing practice. The 4th and new 5th editions of the were compared and substantive changes are presented. The following text style requirements are addressed: (a) use of parentheses to enclose statistical values, (b) use of italics, and (c) presentation of statistical data. Reference citation style changes include: (a) use of italics instead of underlining, (b) use of et al., and (c) use of the hanging indent. With the explosion of electronic media use, guidelines for documenting these sources are reviewed. Appropriate use of adverbs and research subject descriptors, submission of manuscripts on disks or files, responsibilities of corresponding authors, and converting the dissertation into a journal article are addressed. This information should assist the reader to quickly and accurately focus upon the enhancements and changes in the recently released 5th edition. Hopefully these changes will easily be incorporated into the readers' editing responsibilities, manuscripts, and subsequent publications.

  13. Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Linda Kay

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that

  14. Does Publication Bias Inflate the Apparent Efficacy of Psychological Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of US National Institutes of Health-Funded Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Driessen

    Full Text Available The efficacy of antidepressant medication has been shown empirically to be overestimated due to publication bias, but this has only been inferred statistically with regard to psychological treatment for depression. We assessed directly the extent of study publication bias in trials examining the efficacy of psychological treatment for depression.We identified US National Institutes of Health grants awarded to fund randomized clinical trials comparing psychological treatment to control conditions or other treatments in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder for the period 1972-2008, and we determined whether those grants led to publications. For studies that were not published, data were requested from investigators and included in the meta-analyses. Thirteen (23.6% of the 55 funded grants that began trials did not result in publications, and two others never started. Among comparisons to control conditions, adding unpublished studies (Hedges' g = 0.20; CI95% -0.11~0.51; k = 6 to published studies (g = 0.52; 0.37~0.68; k = 20 reduced the psychotherapy effect size point estimate (g = 0.39; 0.08~0.70 by 25%. Moreover, these findings may overestimate the "true" effect of psychological treatment for depression as outcome reporting bias could not be examined quantitatively.The efficacy of psychological interventions for depression has been overestimated in the published literature, just as it has been for pharmacotherapy. Both are efficacious but not to the extent that the published literature would suggest. Funding agencies and journals should archive both original protocols and raw data from treatment trials to allow the detection and correction of outcome reporting bias. Clinicians, guidelines developers, and decision makers should be aware that the published literature overestimates the effects of the predominant treatments for depression.

  15. Does Publication Bias Inflate the Apparent Efficacy of Psychological Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of US National Institutes of Health-Funded Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Ellen; Hollon, Steven D.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Cuijpers, Pim; Turner, Erick H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of antidepressant medication has been shown empirically to be overestimated due to publication bias, but this has only been inferred statistically with regard to psychological treatment for depression. We assessed directly the extent of study publication bias in trials examining the efficacy of psychological treatment for depression. Methods and Findings We identified US National Institutes of Health grants awarded to fund randomized clinical trials comparing psychological treatment to control conditions or other treatments in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder for the period 1972–2008, and we determined whether those grants led to publications. For studies that were not published, data were requested from investigators and included in the meta-analyses. Thirteen (23.6%) of the 55 funded grants that began trials did not result in publications, and two others never started. Among comparisons to control conditions, adding unpublished studies (Hedges’ g = 0.20; CI95% -0.11~0.51; k = 6) to published studies (g = 0.52; 0.37~0.68; k = 20) reduced the psychotherapy effect size point estimate (g = 0.39; 0.08~0.70) by 25%. Moreover, these findings may overestimate the "true" effect of psychological treatment for depression as outcome reporting bias could not be examined quantitatively. Conclusion The efficacy of psychological interventions for depression has been overestimated in the published literature, just as it has been for pharmacotherapy. Both are efficacious but not to the extent that the published literature would suggest. Funding agencies and journals should archive both original protocols and raw data from treatment trials to allow the detection and correction of outcome reporting bias. Clinicians, guidelines developers, and decision makers should be aware that the published literature overestimates the effects of the predominant treatments for depression. PMID:26422604

  16. Reflections on the Jungian nature of psychology as the discipline of interiority: a response to Saban's 'Misunderstandings'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedl, John

    2015-11-01

    Psychology as the discipline of interiority is the name of the psychology that has developed from Wolfgang Giegerich's work in the field of analytical psychology. This article offers a counterview to that of Mark Saban's claim that Giegerich's psychology is 'irrelevant' to Jungians today and is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of Jungian psychology. It will be shown that, in fact, it is a fundamental misunderstanding of Giegerich's work that has led Saban to form erroneous conclusions. Links between Jung's and Giegerich's conceptions of the 'objective psyche' will be highlighted, along with other examples of how, contrary to Saban's conclusions, psychology as the discipline of interiority has obvious connections to, and grounding in, Jungian psychology. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  17. Soul in the world: symbolic culture as the medium for psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Warren

    2017-02-01

    Whilst the loss of a sense of living connection with the material world is mainly associated with the scientific revolution in seventeenth century Europe, it can be traced back to Plato's introduction of a hierarchy between soul and body. Jung's attempted solution to this - esse in anima - is ingenious but maintains the Cartesian split by which the aliveness of the world is reduced to a projection of psychic forces (the archetypes). An alternative approach is proposed, rooted in the Aristotelean emphasis on practical activity that sees the soul as a function of our way of being in the world. Human cognition is extended and distributed by our social and material engagement with the world, especially via collective representations whose symbolic character is constitutive of the reality of the world in which we live. Despite the dominance of 'scientific Cartesian' representations in the modern Western world, there remain numerous instances of participation mystique that cannot be captured by the Cartesian notion of projection. These indicate an opening to ways of being in the world that may lead us out of the impasse of the Cartesian matrix. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. The Capacity Survey on Psychological Crisis Intervention During Public Emergencies in China%我国突发公共事件心理危机干预能力资源状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国永; 张继彬; 孟艳; 张巍; 陶茂萱; 李正懋; 钱玲

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the capacity and resources of the public emergencies psychological crisis inter-vention and provide the basis for capacity and resource building of emergencies psychological crisis intervention in the future. Methods Using a combination of questionnaires and interviews to investigate the 31 provincial-level health administrative departments, project prefecture-level city municipal health administrative departments and Professional institution. Results 15 of 27 provinces and 6 of 11 prefecture-level city cleared the administrative de-partment that in charge of public emergencies psychological crisis intervention. There were only 14, 16 and 12 pro-vincial expert groups, talent bank and technical personnel on coping with public emergency include the psychological crisis intervention staffs. 28. 0% of professionals in the survived professional institution had the ability to deal with post-traumatic psychological problems. 13 public emergency response plans form 6 provinces included psychological crisis intervention. There was only 1 provincial departments of public health obtaining special funds in psychological crisis intervention. Only 6 provinces had plans of public emergency response involving psychological crisis interven-tion. Conclusions Emergency psychological crisis intervention work hasn't included the public emergencies response system. There was a lack of funds and capacity to carry out emergencies psychological crisis intervention.%目的 评估我国目前开展突发公共事件心理危机干预的能力资源现状,为今后进行突发公共事件心理危机干预能力资源建设提供依据.方法 采用问卷调查和访谈结合的方法,对全国31个省级卫生行政部门、项目市市级卫生行政部门及专业机构进行调查.结果 有效问卷的27个省中,有15个省明确了突发公共事件心理危机干预工作行政主管部门;27个省中,分别有14个、16个及12个省的突发事件应对专家

  19. 公立医院医务人员离职情况与心理契约违背分析%Analysis of Resignation Status and Psychological Contract Violation in Med-ical Staff in the Public Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶; 李思茹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the measures of stabilizing the medical staff by exploring the resignation status and psycho-logical contract violation in medical staff in the public hospital. Methods 225 cases of resignation medical staff in some public hospital were selected as the objects and the resignation report was surveyed and analyzed by the psychological con-tract violation scale. Results The public hospital in our city, going abroad and foreign-capital hospital were the main places where the medical staff in the public hospital had gone, and there were obvious differences in the psychological contract vi-olation scores between the medical staff of different ages. Conclusion The public hospital should take systematical measures to improve the perception of performing the hospital’s duties of medical staff especially the young medical staff and reduce the occurrence of psychological contract violation.%目的:通过考察公立医院医务人员离职情况与心理契约违背现状,探讨稳定医务人员对策。方法以某公立医院225名离职医务人员为对象,采用心理契约违背量表调查并对离职报告分析。结果本市公立医院、出国、外资医院是公立医院医务人员的主要离职去向;不同年龄段的医务人员心理契约违背得分存在显著性差异。结论公立医院应采取系统措施改善医务人员特别是青年医务人员对医院履行职责的感知,减少其心理契约违背的发生。

  20. 公安院校女生心理压力分析及调节策略研究%A Study on Psychological Pressure Analyses of Girls and Adjustment Strategies in Public Security colleges and universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恒毅

    2012-01-01

      As the reserve police officers of the People’s Republic of China, girls in public security colleges and universities shoulder the great task of national public security career development while girls are much easier than boys under the influence of psychological pressures caused by their physiological and psychological factors. Whether we can effectively help girls eliminate their psychological pressures and make them keep healthy in body and mind will directly affect the qualities of the future police groups. This article analyzed girls’ psychological pressures from the policing management model, study pressures and employment pressures, and further put forward some countermeasures to help girls in public security colleges and universities to accept psychological counseling so as to ease psychological pressures and maintain psychological health by strengthening communication, building a learning environment and enhancing psychological guidance, etc..%  公安院校女生作为共和国的预备警官,承载着祖国公安事业发展的重任,而女性特殊的生理心理因素,使她们较男性更容易受到心理压力的侵扰,所以能否有效帮助公安院校女生疏导心理压力,保持身心健康将直接影响到未来警察群体的素质。本文主要从警务化管理产生的压力、学业压力和就业压力三方面对公安院校女生所面临的压力进行了剖析,并提出通过加强沟通交流、营造学习氛围、加强心理辅导等措施来帮助公安院校女生进行心理疏导,排解心理压力,保持心理健康。

  1. A clínica psicológica e o público LGBT The psychological clinic and the LGBT public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Gonsalves Toledo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como base os estudos recentes sobre as sexualidades e os gêneros e, em especial, os relativos à diversidade sexual, este artigo promove uma discussão ética sobre as vicissitudes da clínica psicológica com a população LGBT (lésbicas, gays, bissexuais, travestis e transexuais. Para tanto, problematizamos a construção sócio-histórica-cultural da homossexualidade e da heterossexualidade, as hierarquias das sexualidades e algumas ações terapêuticas na clínica direcionada ao público não-heterossexual, tendo em vista a Resolução do Conselho Federal de Psicologia nº 1/99 que estabelece normas de atuação para os psicólogos em relação à questão da orientação sexual. Desse modo, matizamos o discurso da clínica usualmente orientada para o trabalho com pessoas heterossexuais, pensando de modo crítico o trabalho desenvolvido com sujeitos que transitam entre a vulnerabilidade e a invisibilidade devido a sua dissidência dos preceitos heteronormativos.Basing on the recent studies about the sexualities and the gender and, specifically, the ones which are related to the sexual diversity, this article promotes an ethic discussion about the vicissitudes in the psychological clinic with LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population. Considering the Resolution of Federal Council of Psychology nº 1/99, that establishes norms of performance for the psychologists which are related to the subject of the sexual orientation, we developed some discussions regarding the socio-historical construction of the homosexuality and about the heterosexuality, the hierarchies of the sexualities, and the therapeutic actions in the clinic addressed the to no-heterosexual public. Thereby, we diversify about the clinical discourse which is usually regulated by the work with heterosexual people, thinking critically the work is developed with people who are passing trough the vulnerability and invisibility because their unsuitability to the

  2. Introduction to the Virtual Issue on Behavioral Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, Lars; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Jilke, Sebastian; Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    For public administration scholars, psychological theories and methods can be extremely helpful, especially when studying attitudes or behaviors of (groups of) citizens, public professionals, or public managers. Behavioral public administration explicitly connects public administration and psycholog

  3. Publication Criteria and Recommended Areas of Improvement within School Psychology Journals as Reported by Editors, Journal Board Members, and Manuscript Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Craig A.; Floyd, Randy G.; Fuhrmann, Melanie J.; Martinez, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    Two online surveys were completed by editors, associate editors, editorial board members, and members or fellows of the Division 16 of the American Psychological Association. These surveys targeted (a) the criteria for a manuscript to be published in school psychology journals, and (b) the components of the peer-review process that should be…

  4. Study on audience psychology and the guidance of public opinion in the media age%全媒体时代受众心理与舆论引导研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓廷

    2013-01-01

      在全媒体时代,媒体之间的融合和交互影响使舆论环境发生了深刻的变革。伴随着这种变革,受众心理特征也在其影响之下发生变迁。本文旨在通过对全媒体时代受众心理特征的分析进而探讨如何正确进行舆论引导的问题。%  In the age of new media, fusion and interaction between media to make public opinion environment has undergone profound changes. The psychology of audience characteristics have changed in under its influence. This paper aims to analyze the media audience psychological characteristics and then discusses how to correctly guide public opinion question.

  5. [Psychological impact on French soldiers in the Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Erwan; de Montleau, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The many constraints and psychologically demanding situations to which French soldiers are subjected (living conditions, operational pace, scenes of exaction, hostile crowds, combat situations) have justified a psychiatrist being posted to the theatre of operation Sangaris, in the Central African Republic, soon after the military intervention began. While the psychiatrist's activity is typical of psychiatry in operational situations,.the configuration of the conflict- a civil war - and its impact on the psyche of the soldiers making up the task force have resulted in these practices being adapted and acknowledgement of the need to update skills.

  6. Psychology and literature: the question of reading otherwise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Inmaculada

    2002-10-01

    By making literature the partner of a dialogue with psychology, with the aim of better understanding the psyche, psychoanalysis has truly altered our way of understanding the literary phenomenon. Thus, Freud resorted to literature in an attempt to validate his theories. At the same time, though, in striving for-natural-scientific status, he shifted the emphasis away from any possible deep comprehension of the literature. However, psychoanalysis, trying to delve deeper into literature, has elaborated a whole theory regarding the literary meaning that is still prevalent today. In this paper, the author examines the Freudian conception of literature that points beyond the intrapsychic and moves towards intersubjectivity.

  7. 考虑公众心理风险感知的应急物资优化调度%Emergency supplies optimal scheduling considering the public's psychological risk perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭坪; 马超; 阮俊虎

    2013-01-01

    This paper integrated the behavioral science theory into relief supplies optimal scheduling after emergency events,and proposed that the public's psychological factors should be taken into account to make decisions about relief supplies scheduling.We depicted the public's psychological risk perception with prospect theory,defined and selected the public's psychological expectation time as a time reference point,and got out the risk perception curve and function model.We formulated a mixed integer programming model to minimize public's psychological risk perception and dissatisfaction degree of supplies.The corresponding multi-layer search algorithm was designed.Finally,the validity of this model and algorithm is verified through numerical experiment.%将行为科学理论融入了突发事件发生后的应急物资优化调度问题研究中,提出应急物资调度决策应注意考虑公众的心理因素.用前景理论刻画了公众对应急物资获得时间的风险感知程度,定义并选取公众心理预期时间作为时间参考点,得出了风险感知曲线和函数模型.构建了以最小化公众心理风险感知程度和物资未满足度为目标的混合整数规划模型,设计了相应的多层搜索求解算法.最后的数值实验证实了模型和算法的有效性.

  8. Expressions of homosexuality and the perspective of analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barry

    2010-02-01

    Homosexuality, as a description and category of human experience, has a long, complicated and problematic history. It has been utilized as a carrier of theological, political, and psychological ideologies of all sorts, with varying and contradictory influences into the lives of us all. Analytical psychology, emphasizing the purposiveness found in manifestations of the psyche, offers a unique approach to this subject. The focus moves from causation to the meanings embedded in erotic expressions, fantasies, and dreams. Consequently, homosexuality loses its predetermined meaning and finds its definition in the psychology of the individual. Categories of 'sexual orientation' may defend against personal analysis, deflecting the essential fluidity and mystery of Eros. This is illustrated with samples of the variety found in 'homosexual' material.

  9. Strengthening introductory psychology: A new model for teaching the introductory course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Regan A R; Hackathorn, Jana; Enns, Carolyn; Frantz, Susan; Cacioppo, John T; Loop, Trudy; Freeman, James E

    2016-01-01

    Introductory psychology (Intro Psych) is one of the most popular and frequently taught courses on college campuses, yet educators in psychology have limited knowledge about what is covered in classes around the nation or the extent to which class content reflects the current scope of the discipline. There is no explicit model to guide course content selection for the intro course, which poses substantial challenges for instructors. This article proposes a new model for teaching the intro course that integrates (a) scientific foundations, (b) 5 major domains or pillars of knowledge (biological, cognitive, developmental, social and personality, and mental and physical health), and (c) cross-cutting themes relevant to all domains (cultural and social diversity, ethics, variations in human functioning, and applications; American Psychological Association, 2014). We advocate for national assessment of the course, a similar introductory course for majors and nonmajors, the inclusion of experiential or laboratory components, and additional training resources for instructors of the intro course. Given the exponential growth of psychological knowledge and applications during the past decades, we caution against attempting to provide exhaustive coverage of all topic areas of psychology in a one-semester course. We conclude by discussing the challenges that lie ahead for the discipline of psychology as it launches this new model for Intro Psych.

  10. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  11. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2014 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology is Richard M. Lerner.

  12. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2014 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology is Gilbert O. Sanders.

  13. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2014 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology is Thomas J. Bouchard Jr.

  14. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive psycholog

  15. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  16. Current Institutional Trends in Research Productivity in Counseling Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelman, Nathan M.; Uffelman, Rachel A.; Wagner, Kimberly S.; Diegelman, Sally A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated institutional publication activity in counseling psychology journals for the 10-year period from 1993 to 2002. Four journals reported by counseling psychology training directors as prime publication outlets for the field of counseling psychology were used: "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "The Counseling Psychologist,"…

  17. Revision and Re-enchantment of the Legacy of Psychology from a Half Century of Consciousness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Grof

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on observations from more than fifty years of research into an important subgroup of non-ordinary states of consciousness that he calls holotropic, the author suggests a revision of some basic assumptions of modern psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. The proposed changes involve the nature of consciousness and its relationship to matter, dimensions of the human psyche, the roots of emotional and psychosomatic disorders, and therapeutic strategy. In the light of the new observations, spirituality appears to be an essential attribute of the human psyche and of existence in general. An important and controversial subject that could be only tangentially addressed in the context of this paper is the importance of archetypal psychology and astrology for consciousness research.

  18. Trends of psychology-related research on euthanasia: a qualitative software-based thematic analysis of journal abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Euthanasia has received increasing attention in both academic and public debates as one of the most controversial issues. However, the contribution of psychology-related themes to the topic has had little role on these ongoing debates. The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main themes relating to euthanasia as provided by psychology-related research; (2) to analyze the temporal trends of psychology-related research on euthanasia over the last decades. A comprehensive search of academic literature was conducted on PsychINFO database. A qualitative software-based thematic analysis was carried out on 602 journal abstracts published from 1935 to 2014. This study highlighted four different thematic areas which characterized the scientific discourse on euthanasia: (1) moral values, in terms of religious, philosophical, and social implications concerning the individual's decision to die; (2) professional ethics, in terms of health and social workers' legal responsibility in death assistance; (3) end-of-life care, with regard to medical options provided to support individuals nearing death; and (4) patient's right to healthcare, in terms of access to palliative care and better quality of dying. Euthanasia discourse over the last decades seems to be overall characterized by two main dimensions: (1) the increasing trend of social legitimacy and acceptability of euthanasia over time, which moved from ethical to healthcare issues; and (2) the curvilinear temporal trend about the request/provision process in euthanasia, which moved from patient's decision for ending life (mainly characterizing the most past and recent research) to the role of health professionals (with a peak in the 1990s). The results suggest palliative care as a potential future research area which can provide healthcare providers with skills to 'connect' with patients, understand patients' hidden agendas, and grant a good quality of life and dying process.

  19. Psyché (ψυχη. Os caminhos do acontecer psíquico na Grécia Antiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeferino Rocha

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi apresentado, como conferência de abertura, no V Congresso Brasileiro de Psicopatologia Fundamental, realizado na Cidade de Campinas (São Paulo entre 15 e 17 de setembro do presente ano. Nele foram delineados os principais momentos da trajetória do pensamento grego antigo no progressivo “acontecer” da psyché humana. O trabalho foi dividido em duas partes: a primeira, consagrada ao período da Grécia Arcaica, destacou o acontecimento da psyché nos poemas da tradição homérica, nos poemas líricos e, sobretudo, nos poemas trágicos, que prepararam o lugar de destaque que os primeiros filósofos présocráticos deram à psyché na sua maneira de ver o mundo. A segunda, correspondente ao período clássico, ressalta o cuidado da alma na filosofia de Sócrates e o significado metafísico que Platão e Aristóteles deram ao conceito de psyché, na medida em que o inseriram em suas respectivas filosofias. A conclusão indica, rapidamente, de que modo o acontecer psíquico continuou se realizando através da História da Humanidade e como, mais do que nunca, ele precisa ser repensado, hoje, para responder ao desafio que o mundo contemporâneo vem fazendo às ciências da alma.

  20. Asteroid (16) Psyche: Triaxial Ellipsoid Dimensions and Rotational Pole from Keck II NIRC2 AO Images and Keck I OSIRIS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Conrad, Al; Reddy, Vishnu; de Kleer, Katherine R.; Adamkovics, Mate; de Pater, Imke; Merline, William J.; Tamblyn, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) images of asteroid (16) Psyche obtained at 4 epochs with the NIRC2 camera at the 10m W. M. Keck Observatory (Keck II) on UT 2015 December 25 lead to triaxial ellipsoid diameters of 279±4 x 230±2 x 195±14 km, and a rotational pole at RA=29° and Dec=-2°. Adding 6 more epochs obtained nearly simultaneously with the OSIRIS system at Keck I, as well as two more epochs from Keck II in 2009, yields diameters of 273±2 x 232±2 x 165±3 km, and a pole at RA=37° and Dec=+1°. (Errors are formal fit parameter uncertainties; an additional 4% uncertainty is possible from systematic biases.) The differing perspectives between 2015 (sub-Earth latitude Θ=-50°) and 2009 (Θ=-6°) improves primarily the c dimension and the location of the rotational pole, but illustrates how well images from even a single night can determine the size, shape, and pole of an asteroid. The 2015 observations were obtained as part of a campaign to study Psyche with many techniques over a few months, including radar from Arecibo and images from Magellan.These handful of images show the same rugged outline as the radius vector model available on the DAMIT website, constructed from many lightcurves and scaled by previous Keck AO images. In fact Psyche has rotated some 125,350 times between the first lightcurve in 1955 and our 2015 AO images, exactly 60 years apart to the day. Since the asteroid has such a high obliquity, these lightcurves have scanned well into both northern and southern hemispheres. The difference between the pole derived from our images and the radius vector model pole is only 7°, and the mean diameters of Psyche are 219 and 211 km, respectively.

  1. Psychology Practice: Design for Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a blueprint for modernizing the delivery of high-quality behavioral health care and for improving access to care by a public sorely in need of psychological services. The blueprint brings together disparate elements of psychology practice into a more unified structure, an updated house, based upon advances in the essential…

  2. Survey on the demands of psychological crisis intervention in public emergencies among Chinese people%我国公众突发公共事件心理危机干预需求调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国永; 张继彬; 孟艳; 张巍; 陶茂萱; 李正懋; 钱玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the demands of psychological crisis intervention in public emergencies among Chinese people.Methods Multi-staged stratified clustered sampling method was carried out in six provinces.A questionnaire survey was conducted among 9227 residents.Results The public' s demands on different forms of psychological assistance separately were:publicity through the media (42.55%),receiving related publicity materials (23.32%),individual psychological counseling (17.35%) and collective psychological counseling (13.32%).Most of them were willing to choose professionals (40.87%) and family relatives (39.42%) as psychological assistance providers,the succor preferred professionals (62.35%) to provide psychological assistance,the direct victims or the families of the direct victims were more like to choose the family relatives (48.32%) to provide psychological assistance.The public were willing to access to psychological knowledge and skills through television programs (n =5322),chat (n =3503) and the Internet (n =3011).Direct victims or the families of the victims required on the TV (60.40%) and chat (40.69%).The main form of publicity materials that the public wanted were books (42.94%),posters (40.58%).The public' s demand on books,pamphlets,brochures increased with the increaser of the education level.Conclusion Inemergencies psychological crisis intervention,it is necessary to provide psychological assistance and psychological health education according to the characteristics of the public.%目的 了解我国公众对突发公共事件心理危机干预服务的需求.方法 采用分层整群抽样的方法对6个省(自冶区、直辖市)的9227名公众进行问卷调查.结果 公众对不同形式心理援助的需求依次是:通过媒体宣传(42.55%)、获得相关宣传材料(23.32%)、个体心理咨询(17.35%)、集体心理辅导(13.32%);大多数人愿意选择专业人员(40.87%)和家人亲戚(39.42

  3. Práticas psicológicas: enfrentamentos entre saúde pública e saúde coletiva Psychological practices: confrontations between public health and collective health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Guazzelli Bernardes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo problematizar as formas pelas quais a Psicologia se articula ao campo da saúde coletiva. O texto utiliza-se de uma estratégia genealógica, considerando as ferramentas foucaultianas de biopoder, verdade e subjetividade. O estudo reflete sobre as modificações das práticas psicológicas produzidas quando o fato psicológico deixa de ser um domínio do organismo para tornar-se um efeito da história de vida dos sujeitos. Essa transformação diz respeito à aproximação das práticas psicológicas do campo das políticas públicas de saúde. Entende-se que essa aproximação se conforma como um campo de lutas em que operam tanto uma lógica individualizante, quando as práticas psicológicas adéquam as políticas públicas a uma racionalidade tecnicista, tutelar e privatista, quanto uma lógica de militância na saúde, produzida pela adequação das práticas psicológicas ao direito e à cidadania.This article aims at problematizing the ways through which Psychology articulates with the collective health field. We have employed a genealogical strategy, using Foucauldian analysis tools, such as bio-power, truth, and subjectivity. This study is a reflection on modifications of psychological practices produced when the psychological fact is no longer an organism domain, becoming an effect of the subjects' life history. Such change concerns the approximation of psychological practices to the field of public health policies. This approximation is understood as a battlefield in which both individualizing logic and the logic of health militancy operate; the former is present when psychological practices fit public policies into a technical, tutelary, private rationality, and the latter is produced through conformity of psychological practices to both right and citizenship.

  4. Psychological Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Flohrer, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Instilling psychological empowerment in employees is one of the most important tasks of modern leadership. Building on quantitative research and the development of a new psychometric scale related to project management this thesis shows: First, individuals' characteristics and their work team environment influence perceptions of access to information and resources – two important antecedents of psychological empowerment. Second, while a project briefing strengthens the link of the psychologic...

  5. MMed (Psych.) (Nrb)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-02-01

    Feb 1, 2008 ... Abuse occurred in both single and both parent families and regardless of the guardian/ parental .... Sex. Male. 6. 10. 4. 2. Female. 55. 90. 38. 17. Place of abuse. Nairobi. 31. 51. 20. 11 .... at the same hospital. On the social ...

  6. [The general psychological concept in the later work of Eugen Bleulers. Comparison with a summarized description from a forgotten theory 60 years after the final publication (1939)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A; Hell, D

    1999-04-01

    Documents by Eugen Bleuler from 1921 to 1939 that go into general psychological topics of meaning of consciousness, formation of motive and will, are presented. An effort towards integration of seemingly incompatible, side by side standing, unrelated biological and psychological concepts that probably is most likely explainable by the contemporary background of ideas, is recognizable. In this context, Eugen Bleuler refers to an already (especially by Richard Semon) systematically developed theory called "Mnemism" that he interpreted and applied to the psychological circumstances mentioned above. That theory of "mnemism" that can be most adequately described as a biogenetic-vitalistic theory, is assuming, that all organic life--independent of the possibility of a self-reflecting consciousness--is able to learn experiences made by analysis of environment and to pass it on following generations. Pattern of stimulus reactions are in the sense of this theory memorized ("engraphiert") and reactivated under similar situational circumstances ("ekphoriert") by the psychological mode of association.--It can be shown that Bleuler pursued this theory for a period of more than ten years. It represents the benchmark for Bleuler's standpoints, for example for the question of determination of human acting, that as itselves are already known from his earlier documents, but here have found a more theoretically based explanation. The assumption of the efficacy of specific, not necessary consciously remembered "engramms" of memory, suggests the hypothesis of the existence of unconsciousness; in this context textual points of contact to the psychological concepts of S. Freud and C. G. Jung--mnemic memory and collective unconscious--are shown.

  7. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  8. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  9. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not interest

  10. A review of cyberbullying and suggestions for online psychological therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad Foody

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of cyberbullying are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature because of their implications for child and adolescent development. In particular, cyberbullying victimisation has been associated with similar negative consequences to traditional or face-to-face bullying such as lower academic achievement, anxiety, and sometimes even suicide. Research has also started to emerge investigating the impact of such incidences on the life of adults. The literature in this area has been steadily growing over the last decade and this review highlights the current situation in terms of relevant features and the psychological impact on victims. The selection process consisted of a comprehensive search that was conducted in January 2015 in the following databases: PsychInfo, ERIC, Web of Science and Medline. A total of 19 papers were included. We conclude with suggestions for online psychological treatment for victims and bullies as a means of coping with the distress caused from cyberbullying experiences.

  11. Transforming han: a correlational method for psychology and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Whachul

    2015-06-01

    Han is a destructive feeling in Korea. Although Korea accomplished significant exterior growth, Korean society is still experiencing the dark aspects of transforming han as evidenced by having the highest suicide rate in Asia. Some reasons for this may be the fragmentation between North and South Korea. If we can transform han then it can become constructive. I was challenged to think of possibilities for transforming han internally; this brings me to the correlational method through psychological and religious interpretation. This study is to challenge and encourage many han-ridden people in Korean society. Through the psychological and religious understanding of han, people suffering can positively transform their han. They can relate to han more subjectively, and this means the han-ridden psyche has an innate sacredness of potential to transform.

  12. 戈尔巴乔夫时期民众政治心理对苏联政治的影响%The Public Political Psychology in Gorbachev ’ s Period and Its Effects on Soviet Union Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵乐

    2015-01-01

    戈尔巴乔夫时期民众政治心理普遍存在政治信仰衰退、政治价值观出现偏差、政治信任崩塌等消极现象,影响了苏联的政治环境,导致苏联思想意识领域混乱,政治环境恶化,政治参与大爆发,推动并加速了苏联剧变。%The variability of political psychology not only effects on individual and group political behavior but also transforms political standards to ideology. The attitude toward political system and political phenomenon of members of society can be directly perceived by political psychology. This article provides and analysis the negative phenomena of public political psychology in Gorbachev’ s period, find out how the domestic reasons contributed to the fall of the Soviet Union.

  13. Husserl e a psicologia Husserl and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Raffaelli

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é esclarecer a relação entre a fenomenologia de Husserl e a psicologia. Embora Husserl traçasse um paralelo entre fenomenologia e psicologia, ele não supunha uma identidade entre essas duas disciplinas. A psicologia é uma ciência de fatos e a fenomenologia é a base para a compreensão do sentido desses fatos. A psicologia pode ser considerada uma ciência autônoma que estuda a psique através do comportamento. Mas a interpretação da significação subjacente ao comportamento só pode ser realizada pela psicologia eidética. A psicologia eidética, fundada na fenomenologia, é que conduziria a depuração do naturalismo que impregna a psicologia empírica. Segundo Husserl, a psicologia não necessita dos conselhos metodológicos das ciências da natureza e deve buscar seu próprio caminho para compreender o sentido do ato humano. Assim, o que a psicologia precisa é de um "plus ultra" conectando a investigação psicológica com o transcendental.The aim of this study is to clarify the relation between Husserl's phenomenology and psychology. Although Husserl pointed out a similarity between phenomenology and psychology, he did not suppose an identity between the two disciplines. Psychology is a science of facts and phenomenology is the basis to understand the sense of those facts. Psychology may be considered as an autonomous science that studies the psyche through the behavior. But the interpretation of the signification that underlies the behavior can only be made by eidetic psychology. Eidetic psychology, based on the phenomenology, would conduct the depuration of the naturalism that impregnates empirical psychology. According to Husserl, psychology does not need methodological advices from the sciences of nature and must find his own way to understand the sense of the human act. Thus, what psychology needs is a "plus ultra" connecting the psychological investigation with the transcendental.

  14. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology: Charles Silverstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  15. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology: Marcia K. Johnson

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  16. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology: Walter C. Borman

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  17. An Extended 4-Phases-Testmodel for Clinical Trials and its Application on Clinical Psychology Publications in the German-Speaking Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Schui, Gabriel; Krampen, Günter

    2008-01-01

    With reference to the concept of evidence-based psychotherapy, methodology of clinical psychology research focuses on the 4-phases-testmodel for clinical trials adapted from pharmacological research and evidence-based medicine. Questions: Can the literature on clinical interventions from the German-speaking countries be classified according to an extended 4-phases-testmodel? On which phases does research focus and how do foci shift in a time span of 30+ years (1977 to 2007). Method: All clini...

  18. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year.

  19. An Analysis of Sofia’Psyche Personality in the Film The Color Purple——from the Perspective of Freud’s Psychoanalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苗

    2012-01-01

      The film The Color Purple mainly talks about the bitter situation of oppression and discrimination of American black wom-en through the life of protagonist Celie, and Celie’s spiritual journey of becoming awaken gradually and independent, and at last gain her own new life. Another black woman Sofia in the film has confidence, independence and fighting spirit. This paper will analyzes Sofia’s three personalities from the perspective of Freudian psychoanalysis, especially his theory of personality which divides the psyche into the id, the self, and the superego so as to better understand black wom-en’inner world in the oppression and discrimination society.

  20. On Permeation of Mental Health Education into Public Psychology in Normal Colleges%高师公共心理学渗透心理健康教育思考与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳贵

    2014-01-01

    心理健康教育渗透是解决高师公共心理学教学内容枯燥、教学方法单调、严重脱离教育和生活实际等问题的有效途径。基于重要性认识,提出了准确定位、目标融合,案例教学、体验为主,创新模式、三助为体等渗透路径,以及加强教材建设和师资培训等保障措施。%The permeation of mental health education into public psychology is the effective way of solving the problems in the public psychology course ,such as ,monotony in instruction method ,shallowness in content and divorced from reality .In ac-cordance with the students'cognition characteristics ,it is suggested that the objective ,content and method of teaching should be adjusted .Construction of teaching textbooks and faculty training should be strengthened .

  1. Creating the Continuum: J. E. Wallace Wallin and the Role of Clinical Psychology in the Emergence of Public School Special Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the continuum of services in intellectual disability programmes. The emergence of public school special education in the USA in the first two decades of the twentieth century is used as a case study of this history by focusing on events and personalities connected to the St Louis Public Schools. Using Annual…

  2. Creating the Continuum: J. E. Wallace Wallin and the Role of Clinical Psychology in the Emergence of Public School Special Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the continuum of services in intellectual disability programmes. The emergence of public school special education in the USA in the first two decades of the twentieth century is used as a case study of this history by focusing on events and personalities connected to the St Louis Public Schools. Using Annual…

  3. Community psychology practice: expanding the impact of psychology's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom

    2014-11-01

    This article introduces the reader to community psychology practice by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology practice looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology practice. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology practice for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology practice offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making.

  4. Producing a Radio Show about Psychological Science: The Story of "Psychological Frontiers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Emily; Sachau, Daniel; Albertson, Dawn N.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a campus-based radio show about psychological science. The authors' goals in creating the show were to inform the public about the science of psychology and to create a teaching and learning resource for faculty members and students. The show, "Psychological Frontiers," airs twice a week and consists of…

  5. Editorial: Research as Practice: On Critical Methodologies. Qualitative Research in Psychology Sage Publications Ltd., GB ISSN: 1478-0887 Elektronisk ISSN: 1478-0895 FI quality: 2008: 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Table of contents: Motzkau and Jefferson: Research as Practice: On Critical Methodologies (editorial) Jefferson and Huniche: (Re) Searching for persons in practice: Field based methods for critical psychological practice research Khawaja and Mørck: Researcher positioning - Muslim ‘otherness......' and beyond Hasse and Trentemøller: The method of culture contrast Nissen: Objectification and Prototype Lee: Researching Children's Diets in England: Critical Methods in a Consumer Society Nolas: Between the ideal and the real: using ethnography as a way of extending our language of change Motzkau...

  6. Özel Banka Çalışanlarında Psikolojik Sözleşme İhlalleri İle Örgütsel Adalet Etkileşimi: Elazığ İlinde Bir Araştırma (Interaction With Psychological Contract Violations And Organizational Justice Among Private Banking Employees)

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Haluk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the association between the violations of psychological contract and organizational justice. A sample of provate bank employees (n=278) in Elazig is province is chosen. Afterthe analysis (exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, correlation and regression analiyses, t test, ANOVA) it is found that violations of psychological contract decreses organizational justice perception. Besides, it is found that violations of psych...

  7. Criteria of the peer review process for publication of experimental and quasi-experimental research in Psychology: A guide for creating research papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel M. Ramos-Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research in Psychology is characterized by ensuring a method that guarantees objectivity, reliability, validity and replication of results. In this theoretical study we propose a set of criteria for the preparation and review of quasiexperimental and experimental research manuscripts, which follows such methodological objective dictates. These criteria are based on a review of structural aspects in experimental research, in the modern theory of psychological theorization, and in the validity theory of scientific research. All these aspects are complemented with those proposed in revisions about empirically-based, statistically-based peer-review systems, and recently refined according to the expert judgment approach. We distinguish between essential, obligatory, complementary, and methodological criteria. These norms are organized according to a measuring tool -the ExperimenCheck2 system-, including report characteristics, antecedents, theoretical development, design, analysis and interpretation of results, format and bibliographical sources, also summarized in the form of a conceptual map. We also introduce the general guidelines of a reviewing process that fulfils scientific criteria, using the proposed evaluative guideline as the main organizing principle.

  8. Martial arts and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J R

    1988-12-01

    The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.

  9. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  10. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  11. Editorial: Research as Practice: On Critical Methodologies. Qualitative Research in Psychology Sage Publications Ltd., GB ISSN: 1478-0887 Elektronisk ISSN: 1478-0895 FI quality: 2008: 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Table of contents: Motzkau and Jefferson: Research as Practice: On Critical Methodologies (editorial) Jefferson and Huniche: (Re) Searching for persons in practice: Field based methods for critical psychological practice research Khawaja and Mørck: Researcher positioning - Muslim ‘otherness' and ......: The Semiotic of Accusation: Thinking about deconstruction, development, the critique of practice and the practice of critique Zavos and Biglia: Embodying Feminist Research: learning from action research, political practices and collective knowledge......' and beyond Hasse and Trentemøller: The method of culture contrast Nissen: Objectification and Prototype Lee: Researching Children's Diets in England: Critical Methods in a Consumer Society Nolas: Between the ideal and the real: using ethnography as a way of extending our language of change Motzkau...

  12. Virtual reality in the psychological treatment for mental health problems: An systematic review of recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmaggia, Lucia R; Latif, Leila; Kempton, Matthew J; Rus-Calafell, Maria

    2016-02-28

    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of controlled studies of the use of Virtual Reality in psychological treatment (VRT). Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Only studies comparing immersive virtual reality to a control condition were included. The search resulted in 1180 articles published between 2012 and 2015, of these, 24 were controlled studies. The reviewed studies confirm the effectiveness of VRT compared to treatment as usual, and show similar effectiveness when VRT is compared to conventional treatments. Current developments and future research are discussed.

  13. Positive Effect of Sexual Psychology on Public Physical Education in Colleges and Universities%两性心理驱动大学公共体育教学效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱锋

    2014-01-01

    当代大学生时值智慧焕发时期,个体心理恰好脱离心理断乳期。在公共体育课堂教学中恰当运用两性心理相互驱动的发育规律,对大学生身体素质和运动能力的提高有重要意义。体育课中将青春期的朝气具有的兴奋和好奇心理给予恰当诱导,能使大学公共体育课堂教学的效果明显提高,对大学生体育教学将起到良性影响的作用。%Sincecollege students are becoming psychologically mature while developing intelligence,their physical fitness and sports capacity will be improved if the psychological attraction between two sexes is employed in physi-cal educationpractice in colleges and universities.The excitement and curiosity presented in adolescence,if properly manipulated in public physical education course could patently enhance the teaching effect of the course in colleges and universities,and have a positive impact on physical education of the students in general.

  14. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Patil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Education Psychology is one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines which is concerned with the description, explanation and control of the educational processes arising from the interaction between the teacher and learner in the context of a specified or unspecified subject. The concept of educational psycology is changing as a result of the general impact of the disciplines such as sociology, anthropology,economics, political science and so on. The subject matter of educational psychology is also reflecting a diversity of structures and emphases in its connection.

  15. Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Jens; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-12-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key to exceed some, mostly implicit, ontological restrictions in traditional AT and free it from an embracement of functionalism and mechanicism, rooted in Renaissance Physics. The analysis goes back to Aristotle's understanding of the freely moving animal in its ecology and introduces some dualities in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting Psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain.

  16. Emerging Ecological Approaches to Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health in the School Context: Next Steps from a Community Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J.; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, ecological perspectives have become more visible in prevention, health promotion, and public health within the school context. Individually based approaches to understanding and changing behavior have been increasingly challenged by these perspectives because of their appreciation for contextual influences on individual behavior.…

  17. The Professionalization of Teacher Education Calling for Reforming the Public Psychology Course%教师教育专业化对公共《心理学》课程改革的诉求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊

    2011-01-01

    Professionalization of teachers is the fundamental requirement for teaching reformation,and it is the essential trend for teaching education as well.It is definitely most-needed to clarify the logical relation between the professionalization of teachers and teachers' career cultivation,which has positive correlation between them.The solutions are: diagnosing the existing problems in public psychology course for advanced education and solving the problems lying in the professionalization of teachers.The explicit quality of Public Psychology course and its position are the reinforcement of the teaching content and methods so that the improvement of teaching qualities can go smoothly.The only evaluation way can be promoted and improved greatly.%教师职业专业化是教育事业改革与发展的根本需要,是师范教育培养目标的必然走向。教师职业专业化必然要求教师培养的专业化,为此需要厘清教师职业专业化与教师职前培养专业化的逻辑关系,诊断高师公共《心理学》课程教学存在的问题,解决教师教育专业化对《心理学》课程改革诉求的主要对策是:明确公共《心理学》的课程性质和地位、加强教材建设改革教学内容、改革教学方法手段促进教学质量提高、改革单一的课程考核方式。

  18. Effective responder communication improves efficiency and psychological outcomes in a mass decontamination field experiment: implications for public behaviour in the event of a chemical incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The risk of incidents involving mass decontamination in response to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear release has increased in recent years, due to technological advances, and the willingness of terrorists to use unconventional weapons. Planning for such incidents has focused on the technical issues involved, rather than on psychosocial concerns. This paper presents a novel experimental study, examining the effect of three different responder communication strategies on public experiences and behaviour during a mass decontamination field experiment. Specifically, the research examined the impact of social identity processes on the relationship between effective responder communication, and relevant outcome variables (e.g. public compliance, public anxiety, and co-operative public behaviour). All participants (n = 111) were asked to visualise that they had been involved in an incident involving mass decontamination, before undergoing the decontamination process, and receiving one of three different communication strategies: 1) 'Theory-based communication': Health-focused explanations about decontamination, and sufficient practical information; 2) 'Standard practice communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, sufficient practical information; 3) 'Brief communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, insufficient practical information. Four types of data were collected: timings of the decontamination process; observational data; and quantitative and qualitative self-report data. The communication strategy which resulted in the most efficient progression of participants through the decontamination process, as well as the fewest observations of non-compliance and confusion, was that which included both health-focused explanations about decontamination and sufficient practical information. Further, this strategy resulted in increased perceptions of responder legitimacy and increased identification with

  19. Effective Responder Communication Improves Efficiency and Psychological Outcomes in a Mass Decontamination Field Experiment: Implications for Public Behaviour in the Event of a Chemical Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G. James; Williams, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The risk of incidents involving mass decontamination in response to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear release has increased in recent years, due to technological advances, and the willingness of terrorists to use unconventional weapons. Planning for such incidents has focused on the technical issues involved, rather than on psychosocial concerns. This paper presents a novel experimental study, examining the effect of three different responder communication strategies on public experiences and behaviour during a mass decontamination field experiment. Specifically, the research examined the impact of social identity processes on the relationship between effective responder communication, and relevant outcome variables (e.g. public compliance, public anxiety, and co-operative public behaviour). All participants (n = 111) were asked to visualise that they had been involved in an incident involving mass decontamination, before undergoing the decontamination process, and receiving one of three different communication strategies: 1) ‘Theory-based communication’: Health-focused explanations about decontamination, and sufficient practical information; 2) ‘Standard practice communication’: No health-focused explanations about decontamination, sufficient practical information; 3) ‘Brief communication’: No health-focused explanations about decontamination, insufficient practical information. Four types of data were collected: timings of the decontamination process; observational data; and quantitative and qualitative self-report data. The communication strategy which resulted in the most efficient progression of participants through the decontamination process, as well as the fewest observations of non-compliance and confusion, was that which included both health-focused explanations about decontamination and sufficient practical information. Further, this strategy resulted in increased perceptions of responder legitimacy and increased

  20. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  1. Psychology Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderssen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…

  2. The social rights and the public policies: a social psychology between the social self-organization and the exercise of the citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Edith Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our presentation is twofold: to expose the complex articulation between public policies in Buenos Aires City and the main trends in housing and food; and analyze their relationships with practices and representations of different levels of responsibility officers and agents, about de recipients of those policies. The qualitative research is based on document analysis, interviews and observational strategies. The analysis showed us a paradoxical relationship between the dismantling of the welfare state from the ‘90s economic recession and changes in public policies related to housing, according to international agreements. In the implementation of these policies we detected a marked tension between three types of staff concepts and relative positions about beneficiaries, ranging from a strong interactional commitment to a beneficiary communities conceptualization as a source of risk and a non community nature.

  3. AN INTERPRETATION ON CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY: SOME THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Esteban Guitart

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss a particular view on cultural psychology focusedon “lived experience” and “vital geography” terms. It is provided sometheoretical principles and applications of this perspective. According to this view,human development is the result of participation in educational practices throughwhich people appropriate the “signs”, “cultural technology” or explicit and implicitforms of shared life. It is postulated two assumptions and three features.The assumptions are: the lived experienced should be studied in the context orsituation where it is expressed and constructed, and the “cultural diet” is thefood of our psyche (our memories, fears, perceptions, feelings, thoughts. The featuresremind us to consider the human experience as the unit of analysis, bothsituated and distributed, and finally, as a product of participation in particularvital geographies. Applications are outlined in the field of clinical psychology andrehabilitation, socioeducative field and in the field of social psychology of organizations,as examples of practices according to a culturally oriented psychology.Finally, it is emphasized the need to take into account the subjective, social andpolitical sides of culture in order to develop an ecological understanding of mindand human behavior.

  4. Environmental psychology matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters.

  5. Psychology, philosophy and nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.; Byrne, A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)

  6. The unmourned wound: Reflections on the psychology of Adolf Hitler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, D R

    1995-09-01

    Fifty years after his death by suicide, Adolf Hitler continues to arouse profound feelings of revulsion and attraction. This paper is an exploration of Hitler's psyche from the perspective of a depth psychology. After examining analyses of Hilter's personality by Richard Rubenstein and Alice Miller, the argument is made that we need C.G. Jung's concept of psychic inflation to understand more fully Hitler's impact upon the world. Hitler is seen as inflated by the compensating energies of the Self in response to his deeply wounded ego, a wound he could not mourn. Consequently, he became identified with the dark and destructive energies of the Self which inflated and then usurped his ego. Hitler's demonic and destructive career resulted from that inflation, which he was not able to neutralize. The paper concludes with reflections on the role of mourning in protecting us from the experience of psychic inflation, especially by the Self in its dark and destructive aspects.

  7. Cultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Steven J; Ruby, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Humans are a cultural species, constantly navigating a complex web of culturally bound practices, norms, and worldviews. This article provides a brief overview of the relatively young field of cultural psychology, which investigates the many ways psychology and culture interweave with one another. Highlighting the cultural nature of the human species, it draws upon research on cultural evolution, enculturation, and developmental processes. This review further summarizes a number of cultural differences in how people perceive the self, and the behavioral consequences that follow from these differences, in the domains of internal and external attribution styles, motivations for self-enhancement, approach/avoidance, primary and secondary control, as well as motivations for distinctiveness and conformity. Additionally, the review discusses research on the intersection of culture and emotion, as well as cultural differences in cognition, perception, and reasoning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lukyanenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the modern concept of the FGOS the most urgent problem is the role of psychological and pe dagogical support of children in inclusive education. Talking about inclusive education, it should be noted that it is not only the creation of technical conditions for unimpeded access of children with disabilities in educational institutions, but also the specifics of the educational  process,  which  should  be  built  taking into account the psycho-physical capabilities of a child with disabilities. Thus inclusive education is understood and becomes in fact a complex and mu ltifaceted process of joint education and training of persons  with  disabilities  and  normally  devel oping peers. That is, inclusive education and the system of psycho-pedagogical support allow children with di sabilities more effectively progress in social development, which is based on social adaptation. It becomes obvious that psychological support is a cting as one of the key components of the education system in general and the basic, fundamental, component of inclusive education. This position of psych ological support to successfully implement individual opportunities of personal  development  and  provi ding  a  fully  adaptive,  mutual  perception:  the  child microenvironment microenvironment-child. Psychological support a systematic approach is the key to efficient operation of the educational institution that seeks  to  implement a  program  of  inclusive  educ ation.

  9. Can Industrial-Organizational Psychology Survive the Advancement of Professional Psychology? Speciality Standards for Providers of I/O Psychological Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Thomas E.

    The Revised Standards for Providers of Psychological Services, developed by a committee of the American Psychological Association, have an important impact on industrial/organizational psychologists. Currently, four types of controls exist as assurances to the public that appropriate psychological services are being provided. They are: graduate…

  10. American Psychological Association: Annual Report, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the 2008 annual reports from the various directorates and offices of the American Psychological Association (APA). In 2008, APA continued to work on initiatives, programs, and products that lend value to the member's psychology career, support the future of their discipline, and serve the public. APA's goal is to strengthen…

  11. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  12. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  13. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  14. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  15. 核事故的公众医学心理学影响与应急%Medical Psychology Impact and Emergency Response of Nuclear Disasters for the Public

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 刘强; 杜利清; 王彦; 樊飞跃

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear accident could bing physical and psychological effects for the public. Besides some casualties of radiation disease, after math sequelae could be intense and of long duration which represent stress ,full syndrome disorder , depression, anxiety, excessive alcohol use and some physical symptom of high blood pressure,somatic complaints and cardiovascular disease. These two aspects could affect and transmit with each other in the perspertive of medical psychology. This article discussed on the puhlic health impact of nuclear disaster and analyzed how to control and depress it.%核事故给公众带来的健康问题包括身体危害和心理影响.除少数事故伤员为放射性疾病外,核事故的灾后综合征对公众影响更为持久.包括紧张、情绪紊乱、压抑、焦虑、酗酒等精神方面的表现,也包括高血压、全身不适、心血管疾病等临床表现症状.从医学心理学的角度看,这两方面的表现症状是相互影响、相互转化的结果.现讨论国内外一些核事故对公众健康的影响,并分析如何控制和降低核事故给公众带来的健康影响.

  16. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  17. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  18. Influencing Policy with Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    According to this acceptance speech delivered by the recipient of the 1987 Kurt Lewin Award, social psychological contributions should be placed within an interdisciplinary framework and an institutional structure in order to make it more relevant for public policy. Recommendations for doing this are offered. (BJV)

  19. Religious Feelings and Psychological Guidance of Public Opinions in New Stories about Social Incidents%突发事件报道中的宗教情感与舆论的心理引导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任雅仙

    2012-01-01

    宗教问题历来是新闻报道中最为敏感和复杂的政治话题之一,近年来各种与宗教相关的社会突发事件、社会热点事件不断发生,使得这些事件中的舆论引导问题成了大众传媒、宗教媒体比较棘手、需要迫切解决的重要课题,当前学术界相应的研究也显现不足。本文认为,具有偏执和妄想特征的宗教情感是一种特殊的群体心理,在突发事件或一定刺激下表现得更加强烈,传播者在坚持宗教禁忌报道的“恪守”原则等基础上,可以从归属、认同、怂动、凝聚四个方面加大舆论的感性心理引导,在满足其心理慰藉和情感宣泄的同时,能更有效地化解矛盾,使其宗教情感朝着更为平和与高尚、和谐与积极的方向发展。%Religion problem has always been one of the most complex and politically sensitive topics in the news reports. In recent years, a variety of social emergencies and social hot events associated with religion occur continu- ously. How to effectively guide the public opinion is more difficult and important issue in the mass media and reli- gion media. And the academic research also shows lack of corresponding. The article thinks religious feeling is a kind of special crowd psychology, with paranoid and delusional features. And it is more intense when emergencies and certain stimulation happened. So media should not only strictly follow the varieties of report principles, but also they can strengthen psychological guidance from the ownership, identity, encourage, condensed. It can meet the needs of the crowd psychological comfort and emotional catharsis, at the same time it can effectively resolve contra- dictions and can make the religious emotion toward a more peaceful, noble, harmonious, positive development.

  20. The Numerical Psychology of Performance Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2015-01-01

    Performance information attaches numbers to the inputs, outputs, and outcomes of public services. Numbers are what separate performance information from other sources of information about public sector performance. In cognitive and social psychology, there are vast amounts of research...... on the profound effects of numbers on human attitudes and behavior, but these insights are largely unexplored by scholars of performance information. This article introduces the importance of numerical psychology for the study of performance information, pointing out how numerical research both challenges...

  1. Internationalization of Psychology Education in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarlito W. Sarwono

    2014-01-01

    Psychology in Indonesia was born from a medical faculty in 1953, a few years after the independence of Indonesia. It was founded primarily to get the right man in the right place that is very urgent at that time after the Dutch colonial government left many vital public and private positions empty. From the time it was born, the Indonesian psychology has moved vice-versa from indigenous psychology to universalism, from East to West, and from qualitative to quantitative methodology. The internationalization process of Indonesian psychology is discussed from the author's personal view.

  2. Depression and Psychological Trauma: An Overview Integrating Current Research and Specific Evidence of Studies in the Treatment of Depression in Public Mental Health Services in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Vitriol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, different research has demonstrated the high prevalence of childhood trauma, including sexual abuse, among depressive women. These findings are associated with a complex, severe, and chronic psychopathology. This can be explained considering the neurobiological changes secondary to early trauma that can provoke a neuroendocrine failure to compensate in response to challenge. It suggests the existence of a distinguishable clinical-neurobiological subtype of depression as a function of childhood trauma that requires specific treatments. Among women with depression and early trauma receiving treatment in a public mental health service in Chile, it was demonstrated that a brief outpatient intervention (that screened for and focused on childhood trauma and helped patients to understand current psychosocial difficulties as a repetition of past trauma was effective in reducing psychiatric symptoms and improving interpersonal relationships. However, in this population, this intervention did not prevent posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to the extreme earthquake that occurred in February 2010. Therefore in adults with depression and early trauma, it is necessary to evaluate prolonged multimodal treatments that integrate pharmacotherapy, social support, and interpersonal psychotherapies with trauma focused interventions (specific interventions for specific traumas.

  3. 2009 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…

  4. 2009 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…

  5. 2010 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…

  6. 2010 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…

  7. A psicologia comunitária e a conquista das políticas públicas (The community psychology and the public policies conquest Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.13i1.0008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurdes Perez Oberg

    2014-02-01

    , we discuss the interviews made. We conclude that the children’s reading group can be seen as a “device” that promotes processes that allow them to become singular subjects and that can also support the implementation of public policies. The interviews show, in its intersubjectivity, the dialogue with the other, with who is not recognized as a citizen, using the power of the muted voices of the minorities.   Keywords: Community Psychology. Clinical Work. Public Policies.

  8. Study on the Design of Urban Underground Public Space Based on Psychological Safety%基于心理安全的城市地下公共空间设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昱卉

    2014-01-01

    People’s psychological safety should be taken into account in the design of underground public space. This paper takes underground space of Wuchang railway station as an ex-ample, by field investigation and questionnaire survey, it ana-lyse the relationship between people’s safety needs and under-ground space environmental factors. The aim of the research is to put forward some methods and provide a reference for the improvement of underground space environment.%城市地下公共空间设计应充分考虑使用者的安全需求。本文通过对武汉武昌火车站综合交通枢纽地下公共空间使用者的问卷调查,分析其心理安全需求与空间要素之间的关系,提出相应的设计策略,为地下公共空间的建设和环境改善提供参考。

  9. Thought of Positive Psychology in Public Security Education Teaching——Based on the training of positive moods and emotions experience in public security colleges classroom teaching%积极心理学在公安课堂教育教学中的思考——学生积极情绪体验能力的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭科莲

    2011-01-01

    Positive psychology claims to study the positive aspects of psychology,by training and developing human beings' positive power,enable people to be healthy and happy.Its education concept has very important enlightenment to the current public security colleges classroom teaching and urges us to change our education concept: classroom teaching should not only impart knowledge,develop students' public security of combat skills but also guide students to learn happily and studiously and enables students to master how to obtain the ability of merriness and happiness,that is,to develop them to generate the ability of positive moods and emotions experience.%积极心理学主张研究人的心理的积极方面,通过培养和发展人的积极力量,使人真正成为健康和生活幸福的人。积极心理学的教育理念对当前公安院校课堂教学有重要启示,它促使我们转变教育观念:课堂教学不仅要传授知识,培养学生公安实战技能,而且要引导学生乐学、好学,使学生在学习的过程中掌握获得快乐、幸福的能力,即培养其生成积极情绪情感体验的能力。

  10. [Agustín Moreno: scientific psychology and women's legal responsibility in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    Agustín Moreno Rodríguez (1886-1967) studied Medicine and Natural Sciences at the Central University of Spain, in Madrid. He was a student of Dr. Luis Simarro, the University's professor of Experimental Psychology and of Tomas Maestre, the University's professor of Medical Law, Toxicology and Psychiatry. In 1910, he published the text The woman's civil and penal responsibility during the menstrual period. In this work, he approaches the question of the legal responsibility of women, based on the principle of excitation/reaction of Claude Bernard and on his personal version of the concept of iteration elaborated by Luis Simarro. Dr. Moreno also defends the thesis that menstruation adds some uniqueness to the function of the feminine psyche and, therefore, modifies the responsibility of a woman's actions. We also comment on the predominant approach to the mind of women in the Spanish scientific psychology of that time and the reaction of the Spanish feminist intellectuals.

  11. Psychology and the Notion of the Spirit: Implications of Max Scheler's Anthropological Philosophy in Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Olga V; Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-09-01

    After many decades with neglect Max Scheler and his anthropological contributions to the understanding of human existence, have gotten  more attention in psychology and other humanities. One factor is the actuality of his main project of revaluating the roles of values in philosophy and science. Yet another is the way individual scholars have applied Scheler's philosophy and terms on different fields and arenas. Viktor Frankl was one of these, and he brought Scheler's philosophical anthropology into psychotherapeutic practice, offering theoretical and empirical arguments for considering the notion of the spirit as an interdependent -yet separate- entity in regards to the psyche and the soma. During this commentary on Allyushin (Integrative Psychology Behaviour, 48, 503-523, 2014), we will discuss some general aspects of Scheler's contribution to phenomenology, but focus specifically on the implication of his notion of the spirit for psychological theory, acknowledging the work that has been done in the field for at least 60 years in logotherapy and existential analysis. With this purpose, we will highlight four other notions interrelated with the motivational quality of the notion of the spirit: resentment, axiology of values; self-detachment and self-transcendence.

  12. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  13. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  14. The Psychology of Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brenda Lindley

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of mishaps show that human error is a factor in a significant majority of accidents. Trying to decide how to change human behavior to be safer is generally the biggest challenge of any safety program. However, understanding the human psyche is the first step to changing behavior. Many studies focus on the before and after of an accident, but what about the thoughts of a person in the commission of an unsafe act? This is a less understood area. Examining it reveals why it is not well comprehended. This paper attempts to examine a part of the thought process, with an eye to helping influence people to less hurtful actions.

  15. Psychology and alchemy

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, C G

    2010-01-01

    Alchemy is central to Jung's hypothesis of the collective unconscious. In this volume he begins with an outline of the process and aims of psychotherapy, and then moves on to work out the analogies between alchemy, Christian dogma and symbolism and his own understanding of the analytic process. Introducing the basic concepts of alchemy, Jung reminds us of the dual nature of alchemy, comprising both the chemical process and a parallel mystical component. He also discusses the seemingly deliberate mystification of the alchemists. Finally, in using the alchemical process as providing insights into individuation, Jung emphasises the importance of alchemy in relating to us the transcendent nature of the psyche.

  16. Psychology and alchemy

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, C G

    1980-01-01

    Alchemy is central to Jung's hypothesis of the collective unconscious. In this volume he begins with an outline of the process and aims of psychotherapy, and then moves on to work out the analogies between alchemy, Christian dogma and symbolism and his own understanding of the analytic process. Introducing the basic concepts of alchemy, Jung reminds us of the dual nature of alchemy, comprising both the chemical process and a parallel mystical component. He also discusses the seemingly deliberate mystification of the alchemists. Finally, in using the alchemical process as providing insights into individuation, Jung emphasises the importance of alchemy in relating to us the transcendent nature of the psyche.

  17. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  18. 家庭精神环境对3~6岁儿童行为问题影响的通径分析%Path analysis on effect of family psyche environment on behavioral problems of 3-6-year-old children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何淑华; 高建慧; 陈昂; 邓成; 顾丽萍; 叶春红; 张翠梅; 施玉麒; 欧阳少玲; 刘庆嘉

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the effect of family psyche environment on occurrence of behavioral problems in 3 -6 -year -old children, provide a basis for further psychological health care service for children and making corresponding strategies. Methods: Con-ners abbreviated symptom questionnaire and family environment scale were used to survey the children aged 3-6 years old from 66 kindergartens in 11 towns/districts in Zhongshan city by stratified cluster sampling method, path analysis was used to explore the effect of family psyche environment on behavioral score of children. Results; The detection rate of behavioral problems in children was 14. 05% , the detection rates in boys and girls were 17. 10% and 10. 50% , respectively, there was statistically significant difference ( P <0. 01) , the detection rate decreased with age, the detection rates of behavioral problems in three - year - old group, four - year - old group, and five - year - old group were 15. 60% , 14. 50% , and 13. 10% , respectively, there was statistically significant difference (P <0. 01) . Among ten family psychological features, except moral -religious emphasis, the other nine family psychological features affected total behavioral score by both direct effect and indirect effect, and they could be listed as follows according to total path coefficient; conflict (0. 146 7) , intellectual - cultural o-rientation ( -0. 146 2) , cohesion ( -0. 142 4) , organization ( -0. 126 2) , active -recreational orientation ( -0. 114 2) , expressiveness ( -0. 089 4) , control ( -0. 055 5) , independence (0. 031 7) , and achievement orientation (0. 010 1) . Conflict (0. 113 6) and intellectual - cultural orientation ( -0. 107 8) had the largest direct effects. Conclusion; Family psyche environment has impact on the occurrence of behavioral problems in preschool children, more attention should be paid to the effect of family psyche environment when conducting screening, diagnosis, and intervention of behavioral

  19. Forensic Psychology: An Empirical Review of Experimental Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lisa R.; Finn, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated the first eleven years of experimental research (1973-1983) publications, with a focus on forensic psychology, that were cited in Psychological Abstracts. Results indicate: a paucity of experimental research; a significant difference between empirical and nonempirical publications; and a transition from descriptive to correlational and…

  20. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  1. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  2. Ethical issues in sport psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jack C; Way, William C; Hilliard, Robert C

    2017-08-01

    The field of sport psychology is dynamic and growing. To continue building credibility with the public and allied professionals, effective and ethical practice is crucial. Advances in technology have allowed sport psychology professionals to consult with athletes from a distance, but practitioners must be mindful of their competency to use technology, confidentiality concerns, and the suitability of technology for their clients. Movement toward defining competency and clarifying issues of title usage are additional areas in which the field is gaining momentum. Recent attention has also been drawn to the topics of professional development and cultural competency. With the unique settings in which applied sport psychology practice takes place, attention to multiple relationships is another key ethical issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Psychological Analysis and Implications of Internet Public Opinion on Hospital Violence%医院暴力事件网络舆情的社会心理学分析与启示∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓强; 尹文强; 黄冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the public attitudes towards violence incidents from the perspective of in-ternet users, by the means of collecting the hospital violence incidents on the internet. Methods:Selected 7 cases of typical hospital violence and divided those comments into three categories, namely,"support the medical side","support the patient side" and "other". The proportions of all kinds of attitudes were analyzed. Summarize the in-centives of hospital violence and analyze the attitudes of internet users from the perspective of social psychology. Results:Internet users had different attitudes to these 7 cases of hospital violence incidents. The proportion of "support the medical side" was from 0 . 66% to 95 . 82%, and the proportion of"support the patient side" was from 0. 18% to 81. 25%. This was mainly due to the in-group favoritism, stereotypes, moral judgment and emotional tendencies of internet public opinion and media-induced and other factors. In internet users' view, the low profes-sional ethical quality is considered the most important incentives, and the proportion was 43. 05%. Conclusions:The tendency of the media coverage has an important influence on the attitude of internet users. Policy makers should correctly treat with the two sides of network public opinions, the hospitals should improve the ability to re-spond to public opinion, the media should regulate coverage and publicity.%目的:通过收集网络上的医院暴力新闻事件,从网民角度分析公众对暴力伤医事件的态度。方法将所选取新闻事件的热门跟帖分为三类,即“支持医方”、“支持患方”和“其他”,分析各类态度所占的比例,挑选归纳有效跟帖,总结网民视角下医院暴力的诱因,并从社会心理学角度对网民态度进行解析。结果网民对研究选取的7例医院暴力事件的态度为:支持医方者所占比例最小为0.66%,最大为95.82%;支持患方者所占比例最小为0

  4. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  5. Guidelines for prevention in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  7. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  8. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  9. Frequency and Citations of Published Authors in Two Community Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Steven B.; Adams, Monica; Jason, Leonard A.; Patka, Mazna; Cowman, Shaun; Topliff, Annie

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the development of community psychology through publications in the main journals of the field, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" (AJCP) and "Journal of Community Psychology" (JCP). The investigation assessed which individuals played a major role in shaping the field through their publications by recording…

  10. New approaches to sport and exercise psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains articles based on selected presentations at the 11th European Congress of Sport Psychology, a congress arranged by the Danish Forum of Sport Psychology and the Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, between 22 and 27 July 2003 in Copenhagen, Denmark.1......) The intention of this publication is to introduce the reader to a selection of articles which the editors would like to summarize under the title New Approaches to Sport and Exercise Psychology. Despite the diversity in content and form, all the articles have been selected on the basis of one common orientation......: they contribute something new or different to the field of sport and exercise psychology, for example, a new epistemological understanding, a new theoretical approach, a new research method or a new perspective on the applicability of sport psychology to different settings in the domain of sport, games...

  11. Systematic review: psychological morbidity in young people with inflammatory bowel disease - risk factors and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A J; Rowse, G; Ryder, A; Peach, E J; Corfe, B M; Lobo, A J

    2016-07-01

    Psychological morbidity in young people aged 10-24 years, with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increased, but risk factors for and impacts of this are unclear. To undertake a systematic literature review of the risk factors for and impact of psychological morbidity in young people with IBD. Electronic searches for English-language articles were performed with keywords relating to psychological morbidity according to DSM-IV and subsequent criteria; young people; and IBD in the MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Web of Science and CINAHL databases for studies published from 1994 to September 2014. One thousand four hundred and forty-four studies were identified, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. The majority measured depression and anxiety symptoms, with a small proportion examining externalising behaviours. Identifiable risk factors for psychological morbidity included: increased disease severity (r(2) = 0.152, P young people with IBD were wide-ranging and included abdominal pain (r = 0.33; P young people with IBD in a range of ways, highlighting the need for psychological interventions to improve outcomes. Identified risk factors provide an opportunity to develop targeted therapies for a vulnerable group. Further research is required to examine groups under-represented in this review, such as those with severe IBD and those from ethnic minorities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...... theories. As such, behavioral public administration complements traditional public administration. Furthermore, it could be a two-way street for psychologists who want to test the external validity of their theories in a political-administrative setting. Finally, four principles are proposed to narrow...

  13. The rise of a science in the early twentieth century: the forgotten voice of Gualtiero Sarfatti and the first "social psychology" volumes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensales, Gilda; Dal Secco, Alessandra

    2014-02-01

    Establishing social psychology as a distinct field of study has been the object of heated debate over the first decades of the 20th century. Entrenched in different theoretical traditions, such as philosophy, sociology, psychology, and criminology, the development of the conceptual boundaries of social psychology as an autonomous science was the result of a historic effort. Resulting from a negotiation process between competing stances, some voices relevant to the identity construction of social psychology have been lost over time. Within the framework of a "polycentric" historical perspective valorizing local histories, the present study aims to scrutinize those early voices, which were later marginalized. To this scope, we conducted a narrative analysis on the first volumes explicitly naming social psychology in their titles and identified the main themes, conceptual frameworks, and scientific advancements. The analysis illustrates the work of Gualtiero Sarfatti and articulates his forgotten contribution to drawing social psychology as a distinct discipline, built on the scientific method and positioned within the psychological sociocentric tradition. Our analysis reveals the leading role of Sarfatti in the disciplinary foundation of social psychology as a psychological science based on the concept of social psyche. Yet despite the fact his contribution was influential in the scholarly community of his time, our work highlights how his voice vanished from the subsequent disciplinary developments to date, and suggests some explanations behind this neglect.

  14. Single session debriefing after psychological trauma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Arnold A P; Kamphuis, Jan H; Hulsbosch, Alexander M; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2002-09-07

    Despite conflicting research findings and uncertain efficacy, single session debriefing is standard clinical practice after traumatic events. We aimed to assess the efficacy of this intervention in prevention of chronic symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and other disorders after trauma. In a meta-analysis, we selected appropriate studies from databases (Medline Advanced, PsychINFO, and PubMed), the Journal of Traumatic Stress, and reference lists of articles and book chapters. Inclusion criteria were that single session debriefing had been done within 1 month after trauma, symptoms were assessed with widely accepted clinical outcome measures, and data from psychological assessments that had been done before (pretest data) and after (post-test data) interventions and were essential for calculation of effect sizes had been reported. We included seven studies in final analyses, in which there were five critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) interventions, three non-CISD interventions, and six no-intervention controls. Non-CISD interventions and no intervention improved symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, but CISD did not improve symptoms (weighted mean effect sizes 0.65 [95% CI 0.14-1.16], 0.47 [0.28-0.66], and 0.13 [-0.29 to 0.55], respectively). CISD did not improve natural recovery from other trauma-related disorders (0.12 [-0.22 to 0.47]). CISD and non-CISD interventions do not improve natural recovery from psychological trauma.

  15. The psyche and gastric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Gerardo; Compare, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Although the idea that gastric problems are in some way related to mental activity dates back to the beginning of the last century, until now it has received scant attention by physiologists, general practitioners and gastroenterologists. The major breakthrough in understanding the interactions between the central nervous system and the gut was the discovery of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the 19th century. ENS (also called 'little brain') plays a crucial role in the regulation of the physiological gut functions. Furthermore, the identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the development of specific CRF receptor antagonists have permitted to characterize the neurochemical basis of the stress response. The neurobiological response to stress in mammals involves three key mechanisms: (1) stress is perceived and processed by higher brain centers; (2) the brain mounts a neuroendocrine response by way of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and (3) the brain triggers feedback mechanisms by HPA and ANS stimulation to restore homeostasis. Various stressors such as anger, fear, painful stimuli, as well as life or social learning experiences affect both the individual's physiologic and gastric function, revealing a two-way interaction between brain and stomach. There is overwhelming experimental and clinical evidence that stress influences gastric function, thereby outlining the pathogenesis of gastric diseases such as functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. A better understanding of the role of pathological stressors in the modulation of disease activity may have important pathogenetic and therapeutic implications.

  16. Influence of female college students’ losing contact events on female public social psychology%女大学生失联事件对女性公众社会心态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗维; 韩蓁

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查女性公众对女大学生失联事件的认识及归因,对安全教育的心理需求,探索为女性公众提供心理健康服务的有效方法。方法媒体报道女大学生失联事件发生后3个月,自编《女大学生失联事件调查问卷》对女大学生、女生母亲、女教师3个群体共计1200名女性公众展开问卷调查。结果58.39%~78.53%的女性公众归因于女大学生缺乏自我防范意识(χ2=31.001,P<0.001);50.0%~58.11%的女性公众关注失联事件(χ2=26.803,P=0.001),28.31%~40.76%的女性公众出现担心、伤心、焦虑情绪(χ2=47.439,P<0.001),34.1%~47.0%的女性公众限制出行;女生母亲比女教师认为女大学生遭遇危险的可能性更高(χ2=31.001,P<0.001);安全讲座、宣传单、座谈会是女性公众更为接受的预防方法(χ2=168.392,P<0.001)。结论失联事件对女性公众带来明显的负面影响,新闻报道依然是影响社会舆论的主要方法,加强教育和社会监管的同时,个人需要提高自身的安全隐患意识。%Objective To investigate the understanding and attribution of female public on female college students’ losing contact events and their psychological demands for safety education, and to explore effective methods to provide mental health services for female public. Methods Three months after the losing contact events, the research was carried out among 1 200 females including college students, teachers and mothers with Questionnaire of Female Students ’ Losing Contact Events designed by the researchers.Results Totally 58.39%~78.53%of the female public attributed it to the lack of self-protection sense among female students (χ2 =31.001,P<0.001). There were 50.6%-58.3%of the female public paying attention to the events (χ2 =26.803,P=0.001), 28.31%-40.76% suffering fear, sadness and anxiety (

  17. Psicología y Salud Psíquica Psychology and Psychic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Lopera Echavarría

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Es frecuente utilizar la expresión salud mental en lugar de salud psíquica. Partiendo de una definición del objeto de la psicología como cultura encarnada, en este escrito argumentaremos por qué es preferible utilizar la expresión salud psíquica. Consideramos que psyché es un concepto mucho más amplio que mente, y que abarca las diferentes facetas de la realidad humana. Basándonos en las elaboraciones de Canguilhem sobre lo normal y lo patológico, proponemos un concepto de salud que contempla el despliegue del ser humano, en tanto continuación de las pautas que la vida misma establece en su proceso de evolución.It is common to use the term "mental health" rather than "psychic health". Starting with a definition of the object of psychology as culture incarnate, in this paper we will argue why it is preferable to use the term psychic health. We believe that "psyche" is a much broader concept than mind, covering the different facets of human reality. Based on the working of Canguilhem on the normal and the pathological, we propose a concept of health that includes the deployment of human beings, like a continuation of the patterns that life itself states in its evolution process.

  18. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  19. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  20. JPART Virtual Issue on Citizen-State Interactions in Public Administration Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; James, Oliver; Moynihan, Donald P.;

    2016-01-01

    of these articles in particular. These eight articles are excellent examples of the potential added value of psychological insights to key public administration questions. We hope that this Virtual Issue inspires scholars and practitioners to deepen the dialogue between public administration and psychology.......For public administration scholars, psychological theories and methods can be extremely helpful, especially when studying attitudes or behaviors of (groups of) citizens, public professionals, or public managers. Behavioral public administration explicitly connects public administration...

  1. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.

  2. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of ... Aviation Psychological Practice in the Nigerian Air Force: Challenges and ... Psychosocial Predictors of Quality of Life among Caregivers of Chronically Ill ...

  3. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  4. 教育现实情境取向的教育心理学研究——德国近十年教育心理学发展的基本走向%The Research Trend of German Educational Psychology in the Past Ten Years: From the Perspective of the Educational Realistic Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯小俐; 张大均; Detlef H.Rost

    2012-01-01

    According to the Science Citation Index and Social Science Index, the psychology research in the United States, Britain, and Germany rank the top three in the world. However, few reviews about educational psychology in Germany can be found in Chinese psychology literature. At an age of globalization, it is necessary to understand the educational psychology in Germany, which has made a great contribution to psychology in the world. Educational psychology emerged relatively earlier than other subjects as a branch of psy- chology and its birth was marked by the publication of Journal of Educational Psychology on Jan 15th, 1899, by Ferdinand Kemsies. To explore the research trends of educational psychology in Germany and provide some guidance for educational psychology in China, the present study analyzed articles published between 2000 and 2010 in three German journals ( i. e. , Zeitschrififur Ptidagogische Psychologie, Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, and Zeitschrifi fur Entwicklungspsychologie und Padagogische Psychologie) which are indexed by SSCI, PsychINFO, and PsyJOURNALS. On the basis of the educational situation model recognized widely by Germany educational psychologists, the research topic on Germany educational psychology can be divided into four aspects, including the learner, the educator and instructor, the media, and the environment. And the aspect of the learner plays the cental role in the whole field. German educational psychologists propose that research methods should be determined by the specific research task, with the experimental method, the semi-experimental method, and correlational research as the main parts and along with other methods ( e. g. the Practice and Behavior research method and the qualitative research method). The research characteristics in German educational psychology can be summarized as the following: First, it emphasizes the important role of the realistic educational situation. Second, it focuses on

  5. Psychology of Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Ulu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter of book that entitled Science, Religion and Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Controversy has been given important informations about psychology of religion’s historical development as well as pioneer figures’ contributions. In this text some evaluations has been made by categorizing studies in field of psychology of religion. Finally some informations are provided about current status of the psychology of religion and position of the psychology of religion ...

  6. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-01-01

    Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in ...

  7. The application of psychological effects for university public elective ——The case of "Adolescent Psychology"%谈心理效应在高校公共选修课中的应用——以青年心理学课程为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向阳; 刘娜; 王益民

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of practical teaching experience, this paper has analyzed the application of 8 psychological effects such as the card effect, The first impression effect, the threshold effect and so on for teaching content, classroom teaching and examination. We think that we can greatly improve the teaching effect by the reasonable and effective application of psychological effects for the university public electives.%根据教学实践经验,分析了名片效应、首因效应、门槛效应等8种心理效应在教学内容选择、课堂教学组织及课程考核中的应用,在公共选修课的教学过程中合理、有效地应用心理效应,能够极大地提高教学效果。

  8. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  9. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  10. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  11. Psychology and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  12. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  13. Quality education in professional psychology: flowers blooming, Flexner, and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozensky, Ronald H

    2013-11-01

    The educational system in professional psychology is reviewed, including how it utilizes its mission and core values to ensure quality-based educational experiences that graduate a quality "product" who ultimately provides quality health care services for consumers of psychological care. Education and training in, and the practice of, professional psychology must adopt and adapt to changes in accountability and quality expectations in the evolving health care system brought about by the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Definitions of "psychologist" and "specialist" are discussed, along with a rationale for a clearly articulated educational core that operationalizes learning objectives needed to be a competent, successful psychologist. Implications for quality assurance, including questions of educational outcomes and their impact on clinical outcomes of health care services, are related to the education and training sequence. Competency-based education, "pre-psych" requirements, evidenced-based care, specialization, and interprofessionalism, each a key component of a successful future for professional psychology, are also discussed.

  14. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  15. "Teaching of Psychology" Has Already Had a Long Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the publishing history of "Teaching of Psychology" from its days as a Division Two (within the American Psychological Association) newsletter to its current role as a leading academic journal. Discusses content, format, and personnel changes from 1950 to the present. Includes a table of editors and publication data. (MJP)

  16. Psychological Empowerment and Child Welfare Worker Outcomes: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Weaver, Cynthia; Hrostowski, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role…

  17. Effective Application of Psychological Motivators for Social Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severn, Jessica

    Social advertisers--those responsible for public and nonprofit advertising and marketing--must employ many of the major psychological motivations used by commercial advertisers to stimulate desire and action on the part of target audiences. For example, commercial advertisers create psychological stimuli to facilitate motivation of the fulfillment…

  18. Innovation in Psychology Teaching in Europe: A Scoping Survey of European Union Universities Use of Technology, Aims and Status of Teaching, Drivers of Change, and a Thematic Review of Recent Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Peter; Hammond, Jennifer; Lewandowska, Anna; Trapp, Annie; Marques, J. Frederico

    2014-01-01

    To investigate innovation in psychology teaching in European Union (EU) higher education, Europlat partners were surveyed and 43 replies were received from 30 countries. Estimated use of e-learning and other technologies including e-books and journals, virtual learning environments, lecture recording, plagiarism detection, laboratory simulation…

  19. Exploration of Influence of Public Welfare Marketing Based on the Consumer's Psychology---Take C'estbon's “a hundred libraries Project” as an Example%基于消费者心理的公益营销影响初探--以怡宝“百所图书馆计划”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑坤; 张立镜

    2016-01-01

    选取华润怡宝作为研究对象,通过内容分析对怡宝“百所图书馆计划”公益活动对消费者心理的影响进行了探讨,认为公益营销对消费者心理的影响在于认知、情感和行为意向三个维度,其中认知方面包括市场知名度的提升、公益形象的构建和正面形象的传播三个方面;情感方面包括唤起公众对怡宝公益的支持和赞扬等积极情绪和传递正能量、推动消费者对企业的情感认同;行为意向方面包括增强消费者产品消费的行为意向和参与公益活动的行为意向。%This article selects C'estbon as the research object,through content analysis,the influence of C'estbon's“hundreds of the library project”public welfare activities on consumers' psychology is discussed.It is suggested that the influence of public welfare marketing on consumer's psychology includes three dimensions of the cognitive,emotional,and behavioral intention,and cognitive aspect includes ascension of market popularity,the building of public image,and the spread of a positive image;emo-tional aspect includes the raise public support for C'estbon,other positive emotions and positive energy,promoting the consumer to enterprise's commitment;behavioral intention aspect includes enhancing consumer product consumption behavior intention and behavior intention of participating in public welfare activities.

  20. Combined with selective audience psychology to promote the publicity quality of higher vocational medical colleges anduniversities, strengthen the connotation construction%结合受众选择性心理提升医学类高职院校宣传质量,强化内涵建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小瑜

    2013-01-01

      受众的心理、态度、情感会影响宣传的效果,作为宣传工作者在开展宣传工作时应考虑受众到底在想什么,他们的内心活动到底有哪些特征,[1]根据这些特征来选择宣传内容、制订宣传方式,宣传才能取得良好的效果。宣传是一项系统工程,在宣传过程中,贯串着一系列战略、战术和方法问题。宣传工作者在开展工作中必须尊重宣传规律,遵循受众心理规律,讲求科学的宣传观,不断改进创新,打动受众的心,改变受众的态度,激发受众的情感,才能取得预期的宣传效果。%Psychological, emotional attitude of the audience will influence the effect of publicity, as a worker in the publicity work should consider what the audience to think about, what feature in their mind, [1] to select the propaganda content, according to these characteristics make publicity, in order to achieve good results. Publicity is a systematic engineering, in the promotion process, through a series of strategy, tactics and method. The propagandist must respect for the law in carrying out the work, follow the audience psychological rules, with the scientific concept of propaganda, constantly innovate, touch the hearts of the audience, change the audience's attitude, stimulate the audience's emotion, to achieve the expected publicity effect.

  1. Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolier, L; Haverman, M; Westerhof, G.J; Riper, H; Smit, F; Bohlmeijer, E

    2013-01-01

    .... The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for individuals with specific psychosocial problems...

  2. How public relations works: theoretical roots and public relations perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihlen, Ø.; van Ruler, B.

    2007-01-01

    Public relations is often studied from a managerial, instrumental perspective or a psychological, behavioral perspective. To understand the role of public relations in building trust or mistrust and to develop - or destroy - a license to operate, it needs also to be studied as a social phenomenon. T

  3. How public relations works: theoretical roots and public relations perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihlen, Ø.; van Ruler, B.

    2007-01-01

    Public relations is often studied from a managerial, instrumental perspective or a psychological, behavioral perspective. To understand the role of public relations in building trust or mistrust and to develop - or destroy - a license to operate, it needs also to be studied as a social phenomenon. T

  4. How public relations works: theoretical roots and public relations perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihlen, Ø.; van Ruler, B.

    2007-01-01

    Public relations is often studied from a managerial, instrumental perspective or a psychological, behavioral perspective. To understand the role of public relations in building trust or mistrust and to develop - or destroy - a license to operate, it needs also to be studied as a social phenomenon.

  5. On the Very Idea of Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Given the centennial of the publication of the first two textbooks in social psychology, the one by William McDougall and the other by Edward Alsworth Ross, the author stresses that it is an auspicious time for reflection. It is a time to reconsider the movements into which these volumes were secreted, and the resulting trajectories of…

  6. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  7. Future lines of research in the field of toxic and psychological factors in road accidents : a study made on request of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Toxic and Psychological Factors in Road Traffic Accidents of the Committee of Medical Research and Public Health of the Commission of European Communities, Directorate General for Research Science and Education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1976-01-01

    The scope of this report is to state, discuss and forecast the various aspects related to toxic and psychological factors in road traffic accidents. The more specific aim is to prepare a basis on which future action (and more particularly the different priorities for these actions), can be defined.

  8. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  9. Modern technology for psychological well-being. Facility management systems at the psychiatric therapy center `Hard` at Embrach; Moderne Technik fuer gute Psyche. Einsatz von Gebaeudeautomation im Psychiatrie-Zentrum Hard in Embrach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxler, C. [Boxler MSRL-Engineering fuer Gebaeudeautomation AG, Jona (Switzerland)

    1998-04-01

    The central heating system of Hard hospital center was due for modernisation. The new control systems were to be integrated in the existing facility management system. The contribution describes the modernisation and reconstruction project, from the preliminary projecting stages to the start-up of the new system. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Klinik Hard musste die Heizzentrale saniert und die Waermeerzeugung modernisiert werden. Dabei sollte die Regel- und Steuerungstechnik in das bestehende Gebaeudeautomationssystem integriert werden. Der folgende Beitrag erlaeutert das entsprechende Projekt fuer die Sanierung und den Umbau der Heizzentrale, von der MSRL-Planung bis hin zur Gewerkeuebergabe. (orig.)

  10. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  11. Psychological Test Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psychological test.

  12. Psychological violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  13. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  14. Psychological interventions for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Perri; Nicholson Perry, Kathryn

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate and synthesize the available evidence from the previous 20 years regarding the utility of psychological interventions in the management of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). Studies were retrieved from MEDLINE via OvidSP and PsychINFO. Selection criteria included controlled and before-after non-controlled studies including case series, using seizure frequency as an outcome measurement. Studies were required to assess one or more types of psychological intervention for the treatment of PNES in adults. Data from 13 eligible studies was pooled to examine the effectiveness of psychological interventions in treating PNES on two primary outcomes: seizure reduction of 50% or more and seizure freedom. A meta-analysis was conducted with data extracted from 228 participants with PNES. Interventions reviewed in the analysis included CBT, psychodynamic therapy, paradoxical intention therapy, mindfulness and psychoeducation and eclectic interventions. Meta-analysis synthesized data from 13 studies with a total of 228 participants with PNES, of varied gender and age. Results showed 47% of people with PNES are seizure free upon completion of a psychological intervention. Additional meta-analysis synthesized data from 10 studies with a total of 137 participants with PNES. This analysis found 82% of people with PNES who complete psychological treatment experience a reduction in seizures of at least 50%. The studies identified for this analysis were diverse in nature and quality. The findings highlight the potential for psychological interventions as a favorable alternative to the current lack of treatment options offered to people with PNES. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  16. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  17. Psychological Component of Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  18. Corpo e psique: da dissociação à unificação - algumas implicações na prática pedagógica Body and psyche: from dissociation to unification - implications for pedagogical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Pena Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a unicidade corpo/psique e os bloqueios de expressão pessoal, provenientes da dissociação dessas dimensões, que dificultam as atividades profissionais e a própria vida. A formação do professor exige mais que a aquisição de conteúdos e técnicas de ensino. Transformações mais profundas na prática pedagógica implicam uma mudança de atitude dos educadores, uma nova postura diante da vida e da educação, não apenas uma mudança cognitiva com a aquisição de conhecimentos, mas também mudanças emocional, corporal e espiritual, uma aprendizagem da integração das várias dimensões do ser humano. É necessário saber como superar ou minimizar bloqueios que a vida exigiu como proteção como nos mostram os estudos de Wilhelm Reich e alguns de seus continuadores - Alexander Lowen, Stanley Keleman e David Boadella -, que dão fundamentação teórica a esta pesquisa. É preciso saber como criar possibilidades de transformar padrões que são adquiridos pela formação acadêmica e que acabam por se cristalizar como evidenciam estudos pedagógicos aqui considerados. Uma das formas viáveis para tal são as atividades expressivas, dentre elas as atividades lúdicas e de arte-educação. As relações se constituem no ambiente social, o processo de crescimento se dá no contato com o outro, na percepção das diferenças, na aceitação da multiplicidade de pensamentos, na avaliação de seu próprio fazer. As teorias aqui consideradas são significativas para os estudos na área da Educação na medida em que apontam possibilidades de um novo olhar para a prática de sala de aula e as relações que nela se estabelecem.The objective of this work is to analyze the body/psyche unity and the hindrance to personal expression that arises from the dissociation of these two dimensions, complicating professional activities and life itself. The education of a teacher requires more than just the acquisition

  19. Using an Internship Opportunity to Expand Awareness of Industrial/Organizational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisamore, Jennifer L.; Alexander, Evangeline

    2008-01-01

    The public perception of the field of psychology tends to be limited to the clinical area. Exposure to other areas of psychology through broad, introductory courses helps expand students' perspectives of psychology. This exposure may be too late, however, as many colleges cannot afford to devote entire courses to each of the many subfields of…

  20. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  1. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Psychological First Aid

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters.".  Created: 12/30/2010 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/13/2011.

  2. Press coverage of the new psychology by the New York Times during the progressive era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Press coverage of psychology by the New York Times was examined for the Progressive Era. Following a period in which psychology was associated with spiritualism, psychoanalysis, and the Emmanuel movement, the Times gave editorial preference to reports about psychology's applications. Reaching an audience that was both affluent and influential, the topics emphasized by the Times included the lie detector, psychological applications in the work place, mental tests, and child psychology. These areas reflected issues of social concern to Progressives, publicized the rise of the psychologist as expert, and aided psychology in its challenge to common sense.

  3. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  4. The Psychology of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, A.; Balasubramanian, P.; Nirmala, R. Sweety

    2007-01-01

    Psychology plays a significant role in the life of each and every human being. Starting from childhood, if psychology of learning is utilized positively it would play a vital role in the building up of a bright career of a child. The explosion of information technology has been exercising far reaching influence on the area of educational…

  5. The psychology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swencionis, Charles; Rendell, Sarah Litman

    2012-10-01

    G. Stanley Hall, the first person to earn a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States, did research on eating behaviors in the nineteenth century (Lepore in The New Yorker, 2011). Research on psychological aspects of obesity accelerated in the 1950s and there has been a great deal done at this point. We review areas of considerable activity and relevance.

  6. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  7. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  8. Psychology and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsterburg, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    This essay considers the discipline of psychology as distinct from history, defining it as a science within philosophy dedicated to the study of the causal structure of the human mind. Although Hugo Munsterburg was considered an important figure in applied psychology, this essay represents an earlier epistemology. (SLD)

  9. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  10. Psychology for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Nash

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical psychology…

  11. Child Psychology Experiences Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla Walla Coll., WA.

    Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

  12. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  13. Anthropomorphism in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, David

    This article presents an address on anthropomorphism in psychology. Anthropomorphism assures that human beings are given human characteristics when participating in psychological research. This is significant because the research community does not often report results of studies in the language of feelings, thoughts, or desires, which has led to…

  14. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  15. The Numerical Psychology of Performance Information – Implications for Citizens, Managers, and Policy Makers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2016-01-01

    Performance information attaches numbers to the inputs, outputs, and outcomes of public services. Numbers are what separate performance information from other sources of information about public sector performance. In cognitive and social psychology, there are vast amounts of research...

  16. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  17. Historiography of Czech psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskovcová, Simona; Hoskovec, Jirí; Plháková, Alena; Sebek, Michael; Svancara, Josef; Voboril, Dalibor

    2010-08-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the development of the Czech historiography of psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychotherapy is mentioned as a special thematic development. Contemporary problems and perspectives in the field of the history of psychology in the Czech Republic are discussed, sources of information are given.

  18. Money or mental health: the cost of alleviating psychological distress with monetary compensation versus psychological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2010-10-01

    AbstractMoney is the default way in which intangible losses, such as pain and suffering, are currently valued and compensated in law courts. Economists have suggested that subjective well-being regressions can be used to guide compensation payouts for psychological distress following traumatic life events. We bring together studies from law, economic, psychology and medical journals to show that alleviating psychological distress through psychological therapy could be at least 32 times more cost effective than financial compensation. This result is not only important for law courts but has important implications for public health. Mental health is deteriorating across the world - improvements to mental health care might be a more efficient way to increase the health and happiness of our nations than pure income growth.

  19. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C.M. Vorst

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of hu

  20. Identify the degree of socio-psychological self-assessment team

    OpenAIRE

    Avdeev, V.; Lebedev, A.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with theoretical aspects of the work and organizational psychology, organizational climate survey and analysis of the employees of the State Fire squad № 211 public institutions "Fire and rescue center". The purpose of this article – definition of psychological climate in the organization. To determine the psychological climate squad used a technique A. Nemov at identifying the degree of integration "SPSK" – social and psychological self-assessment team. This methodology is ...

  1. Examination of Psychological Type and Preferred Negotiation Tactics and Strategies of Contract Negotiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    strategies. The next section will discuss the theory of psychological type which was developed by the noted psychologist Carl G. Jung in the early 1900’s...noted psychologist Carl G. Jung published the book Psychological Types. Within this publication, Jung detailed his theory of personality types which...psychological types. These psychological types are 16 increased twofold when Jung suggests that one’s interests are either subject oriented ( introversion

  2. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  3. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  4. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  5. Integrating positive psychology into health-related quality of life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L

    2015-07-01

    Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.

  6. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  7. Bibliometric Analysis of the Journal «Psychological Science and Education»

    OpenAIRE

    Shvedovskaya A.A.,; Meshkova N.V.,

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the journal bibliometric characteristics of the journal “Psychological Science and Education”. The citation data were drawn from references of each article of “Psychological Science and Education” during 1996 and 2015. Data retrieved from the Russian Citation Index (E.library.ru) and the Portal of Russian Psychological Publications (Psyjournals.ru) database were used to identify the main cited journals, publications and authors.

  8. The psychological impact of mammographic screening on women with a family history of breast cancer--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Eila K; Henderson, Bethan J; Brett, Joanne; Bankhead, Clare; Austoker, Joan

    2005-11-01

    This systematic review aims to assess the psychological impact of mammographic screening on women with a family history of breast cancer. Women with a family history, and hence increased risk, of breast cancer are known to experience higher levels of anxiety about cancer. They are also often offered screening from an earlier age. The psychological consequences of screening are therefore of particular importance for this group of women. A comprehensive search of 4 electronic databases was conducted from 1982 to 2003, combining sets of terms relating to (1) breast screening or mammography (breast screen*; mammogra*), (2) psychological impact (adverse effects; anxi*; distress; nervous; psych*, psychological consequences; stress; worry) and (3) family history. Reference lists from relevant papers were examined for additional papers. The review identified seven papers from four countries. Overall, the findings indicate that, similar to women in the general population, most women with a family history do not appear to experience high levels of anxiety associated with mammographic screening. Although women who are recalled for further tests do experience increased anxiety the levels appear to be no greater than for women without a family history. We conclude that further research on this topic is required--this should include studies designed specifically to consider both the negative and positive impact of mammographic screening on women with a family history, using validated measures of anxiety and worry in combination with qualitative research.

  9. The psychologist who is not a psychologist: a deconstructive reading of Wolfgang Giegerich's idea of psychology proper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlan, Stanton

    2016-04-01

    This paper represents an archetypal and deconstructive reading of the work of Wolfgang Giegerich. In an attempt to extend and philosophically develop Jung's late-life view of the objective psyche, Giegerich, via Hegel, defines psychology proper as fundamentally separate from the everyday person and the 'human, all-too-human' aspects of the soul. It is argued that, in so doing, Giegerich removes the human person from being the primary focus of his psychology and creates instead a hierarchy of ideas and values privileging syntax over semantics, the logical over the empirical, and thinking over imagination. This bypasses the emotionality of the everyday person/patient and also renders psychology proper unable to address the day-to-day practice of the analyst. Giegerich attempts to rectify this problem by re-incorporating what he had previously rejected, making his theory more complex than is apparent in his binary oppositions. In the end, however, it remains a question to what extent Giegerich is successful in avoiding a binary scission (Saban 2015) or a tendency to regularly de-emphasize the human aspect of the soul (Hoedl 2015) in his need to continue to heroically push off from the ego seeking total freedom from neurosis and from our humanity. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  10. Discursive social psychology now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today.

  11. Discursive and scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Derek

    2012-09-01

    I begin with the origins of Loughborough University's Discourse and Rhetoric Group (DARG), and in particular discursive psychology (DP). Rather than attempting to summarize DP, versions of which are plentiful, the article attempts to clarify various relationships and tensions between DP and other kinds of social psychology, particularly experimental. Common sense psychology is defined as DP's topic rather than rival; the aim is to study how people deploy everyday psychological notions and manage psychological business within talk and text, and what they accomplish by such deployments, rather than trying, as experimental psychology is often characterized as doing, to replace it all with something purportedly better. Claims for DP being particularly interpretative rather than scientific are rejected, by appeal to an 'interpretative gap' between phenomena, data, analysis, and conclusions that all research must manage, that gap being often much larger in quantitative and experimental work. The importance of pursuing causal explanations of psychological phenomena is questioned, and the importance asserted, of discovering, through rigorous empirical and conceptual analysis, the normative bases of human conduct and accountability.

  12. Self -Disclosure through Sharing with the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Self-disclosure is a rather difficult skill for both the counselor and the counselee in the psychological counseling process. In this study, the self-disclosure skill, which is an important concept in psychological counseling, and sharing with the public, i.e. with other people, will be studied. The data for the study, which is of a qualitative…

  13. PEMPHIGUS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bicalho Matias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological stress has been associated with the course of several autoimmune skin diseases and reported a possible factor in triggering and aggravating for pemphigus in predisposed patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to present an upgrade of the scientific literature on the relation between pemphigus and psychological stress. Methods: To assure a comprehensive investigation, we have performed searches on LILACS, MedLine, PEPSIC, PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. The terms used were pemphigus, psychological stress and psychological distress. We have selected works published on journals indexed in different online databases, without distinction as to language and date of the studies. Results and Discussion: Initially, 22 works had fulfilled the selection criteria. After discarding publications which deviated from the subject, 9 works were selected for analysis. Among the selected articles, one was a theoretical review, five case studies, two case-control studies and one documental analysis. Publications discuss the importance of recognizing the influence of exogenous factors, such as psychological stress, on the development and evolution of pemphigus, since the health condition of the patients can be improved through the recognition, validation and treatment of their psychological issues, associating psychological assistance to the immunosuppressive treatment. Conclusion: The report of stressor events by patients at the Dermatology Clinical is frequently observed, however, the relation between psychological stress and the development or aggravation of pemphigus is a recent subject among researchers of the field.

  14. The psychological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tateo

    Full Text Available Abstract: The commentary presents an epistemological reflection about Dialogical Self theory. First, the theoretical issues of DS about the relationship between individuality, alterity and society are discussed, elaborating on the articles of this special issue. Then, it is presented the argument of psychologist's ontological fallacy, that is the attitude to moving from the study of processes to the study of psychological entities. Finally a development toward new research directions is proposed, focusing on the study of higher psychological functions and processes, taking into account complex symbolic products of human activity and developing psychological imagination.

  15. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  16. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome in the first year of colorectal cancer: a review of the psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsbergen, Karin M; Prins, Judith B; Brunner, Han G; Kraaimaat, Floris W; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) receive genetic counselling within 1 year after diagnosis. Little is known whether specific subgroups are more vulnerable for genetic testing related distress. A literature review was conducted to identify the psychological impact of CRC in the first year, and the additional impact of genetic testing. The electronic databases of PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify all reports published between January 1997 and October 2007 on the psychological impact of (1) CRC-diagnosis up to 1 year after treatment and of (2) genetic testing for Lynch syndrome in patients with CRC. Studies on the psychological impact of genetic testing in newly diagnosed patient with CRC were not available. Either CRC patients diagnosed several years ago were studied and the focus was also often on the psychological impact of genetic testing prior to DNA-test disclosure. They show that limitations in emotional and social functioning can persist up to 1 year after CRC treatment, especially in those with a stoma or diagnosed before age 60. Female patients and male patients diagnosed before age 50 appear to be more vulnerable to genetic test-related distress. It is well known that being treated for CRC has great impact on psychological functioning. Little is known about the psychological impact during the first year after diagnosis and very little is known about the additional psychological effect of genetic testing for hereditary cancer in this period. We found presumptive evidence that specific subgroups of patients with CRC are more vulnerable for genetic-testing-related distress.

  17. According to Handball Coaches, What Are The Psychological Factors That Affect The Performance of Athletes? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat ERDOĞAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure the factors that affect psychogical aspects of athletes’ performance accordi ng to the handball coaches. In this study, the case study design within qualitative research methods was used. As a sampling method, the convenient sampling method from the purposive sampling methods was used. As a data collection tool, semi - structured interview form which is developed by the researcher himself was used. The descriptive analysis and the content analysis were used in the analysis of the findings. In this study, the performance of athletes by handball coaches as factors affecting the psych ological aspect determined as, training place, coaches, training methods and equipment, socio - economic status, body language, arousal level, competitors, spectators, family, friends, education, referees, concentration, personality, communication, motivatio n, time - out, psychological training.

  18. The Ghosts of Counseling Psychology: Is Counseling Research Really Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Scheel et al. offer an interesting analysis on the publication rate of counseling-related research articles in counseling psychology's two major journals. In this reaction to their work, the author considers various aspects of their results and contemplates possible explanations for the decline of counseling-related publications. The author…

  19. The Ghosts of Counseling Psychology: Is Counseling Research Really Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Scheel et al. offer an interesting analysis on the publication rate of counseling-related research articles in counseling psychology's two major journals. In this reaction to their work, the author considers various aspects of their results and contemplates possible explanations for the decline of counseling-related publications. The author…

  20. 42 CFR 456.370 - Medical, psychological, and social evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychological, and social evaluations. 456.370 Section 456.370 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Intermediate Care Facilities Medical,...

  1. Husserl's Crisis as a crisis of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feest, Uljana

    2012-06-01

    This paper places Husserl's mature work, The Crisis of the European Sciences, in the context of his engagement with--and critique of--experimental psychology at the time. I begin by showing (a) that Husserl accorded psychology a crucial role in his philosophy, i.e., that of providing a scientific analysis of subjectivity, and (b) that he viewed contemporary psychology--due to its naturalism--as having failed to pursue this goal in the appropriate manner. I then provide an analysis of Husserl's views about naturalism and scientific philosophy. Some central themes of the Crisis are traced back to Husserl's earlier work and to his relationship with his teacher, Franz Brentano, with whom he disagreed about the status of "inner perception" as the proper scientific method for a phenomenological analysis. The paper then shows that Husserl was well aware of at least one publication about the crisis of psychology (Bühler's 1927 book), and it teases out some aspects of the complicated relationship between Husserl and members of the Würzburg School of thought psychology: The latter had drawn on Husserl's writings, but Husserl felt that they had misunderstood his central thesis. I conclude by placing Husserl's work in the wider context of scientific, cultural, and political crisis-discourses at the time.

  2. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  3. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  4. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also addresses the future of psychology in Africa and the world over. ... simultaneous item bias test and logistic discriminant function analysis for detecting ... Types of examination malpractice as perceived by teachers of secondary schools in ...

  5. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  6. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nigel Foreman

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space...

  7. Social Psychology as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  8. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    -induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition......We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal...

  9. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  10. Psychological intervention of murophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrie Yihun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Although phobia is more commonly observed during adolescence as compared to adulthood, its specific type of murophobia is uncommon. Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders are rarely reported to mental health clinicians. The present study is a case report of a 16-year old adolescent female with murophobia. The case was not registered in any general medical clinic and was sent to our department for further psychological assessment and intervention. The client was comprehensively examined through clinical interview, behavioural analysis and treated by cognitive-behaviour technique of psychological intervention and without the inclusion of psychiatric treatment. Details of the psychological assessment and intervention have been presented in this case report.

  11. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  12. Deconstructivism and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Mencin Čeplak

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In last ten, fifteen years, variety of disciplines literary throng the conceptualizations of identity. This plurality of discourses blurs the boundaries between disciplines and at the same time deepens them. The deconstruction positions in psychology, referring to Althusser's concept of interpellation, Lacanian psychoanalysis and Foucault's theorization of discourse and power relations do not try to define the boundaries and connections between the disciplines. However, in the analyses of the birth of psychological knowledge and their consequences the deconstruction position points out that psychological knowledge fatally reduces the factors constructing identity and subjectivity by limiting itself on individual and interpersonal. This article discusses two consequences of this reduction: this reduction leads to the conclusion that social differentiation is the effect of the individual differences in capacities and personal characteristics and at the same time this reduction impedes psychological knowledge in the analyses of its own role in the power relations.

  13. Internet research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter

    2015-01-03

    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  14. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  15. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  16. Psychological.pm6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa ..... inactivity and the avoidance of physical exercise in .... Mood and anxiety ... individuals with chronic pain: the moderating role of pain duration. Pain 2004 ...

  17. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...

  18. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  19. Eating, Psychology of

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to provide the reader with a brief guide to the psychology of eating. Biological, developmental, cognitive, social, eating disorders and obesity were all discussed and their relative contribution to the psychology of eating was described. This paper has also described how eating behaviourists have conceptualised hunger and fullness in order to understand human motivations to feed. It is hoped that interested readers will continue beyond this article to gain a...

  20. Psychological Test Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Gessmann H.-W.; Sheronov E.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psycholo...

  1. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouras, Harold; Faucherre, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  2. The Individual Differences Tradition in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawis, Rene V.

    1992-01-01

    Traces historical development from individual differences psychology through psychological testing, vocational counseling, and student personnel work, to counseling psychology. Describes individual differences tradition in counseling psychology research and practice. Discusses how individual differences psychology has influenced counseling…

  3. Feminism and psychology: critiques of methods and epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H; Riger, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Starting in the 1960s, many of the critiques of psychological science offered by feminist psychologists focused on its methods and epistemology. This article evaluates the current state of psychological science in relation to this feminist critique. The analysis relies on sources that include the PsycINFO database, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010), and popular psychology methods textbooks. After situating the feminist critique within the late-20th-century shift of science from positivism to postpositivism, the inquiry examines feminists' claims of androcentric bias in (a) the underrepresentation of women as researchers and research participants and (b) researchers' practices in comparing women and men and describing their research findings. In most of these matters, psychology manifests considerable change in directions advocated by feminists. However, change is less apparent in relation to some feminists' criticisms of psychology's reliance on laboratory experimentation and quantitative methods. In fact, the analyses documented the rarity in high-citation journals of qualitative research that does not include quantification. Finally, the analysis frames feminist methodological critiques by a consideration of feminist epistemologies that challenge psychology's dominant postpositivism. Scrutiny of methods textbooks and journal content suggests that within psychological science, especially as practiced in the United States, these alternative epistemologies have not yet gained substantial influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  5. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...

  6. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  7. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  8. Psychological distress and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R; Young, T B; Schoenherr, R A

    1982-04-01

    Psychologically distressed patients and clients of health care and social service organizations are found to report somewhat more dissatisfaction with services than do the nondistressed. Four explanations for this relationship are examined: 1) the psychologically distressed are generally dissatisfied; 2) service providers react negatively to the psychologically distressed; 3) psychologically distressed patients are dissatisfied when service providers do not respond to their psychological needs; and 4) patients who deny their psychological distress tend to be dissatisfied. The results show that the psychologically distressed report more dissatisfaction because of the very high levels of dissatisfaction found among patients who deny having personal problems.

  9. Beyond Objectivity and Subjectivity: The Intersubjective Foundations of Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Michael F

    2016-12-01

    The question of whether psychology can properly be regarded as a science has long been debated (Smedslund in Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50, 185-195, 2016). Science is typically understood as a method for producing reliable knowledge by testing falsifiable claims against objective evidence. Psychological phenomena, however, are traditionally taken to be "subjective" and hidden from view. To the extent that science relies upon objective observation, is a scientific psychology possible? In this paper, I argue that scientific psychology does not much fail to meet the requirements of objectivity as much as the concept of objectivity fails as a methodological principle for psychological science. The traditional notion of objectivity relies upon the distinction between a public, observable exterior and a private, subjective interior. There are good reasons, however, to reject this dichotomy. Scholarship suggests that psychological knowledge arises neither from the "inside out" (subjectively) nor from the outside-in (objectively), but instead intersubjective processes that occur between people. If this is so, then objectivist methodology may do more to obscure than illuminate our understanding of psychological functioning. From this view, we face a dilemma: Do we, in the name of science, cling to an objective epistemology that cuts us off from the richness of psychological activity? Or do we seek to develop a rigorous intersubjective psychology that exploits the processes through which we gain psychological knowledge in the first place? If such a psychology can produce systematic, reliable and useful knowledge, then the question of whether its practices are "scientific" in the traditional sense would become irrelevant.

  10. 2008 C. H. McCloy lecture. Social psychology and physical activity: back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L

    2009-12-01

    In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity. "Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower biopsycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather than the larger public. Psychology can contribute to an integrative and relevant professional discipline by going back to the future as social psychology and physical activity and by incorporating three of C. H. McCloy's themes (a) evidence-based practice, (b) beyond dualisms, and (c) commitment to public service. Our scholarship must move beyond dualisms to recognize complexities and connections and be truly scholarship for practice. Social psychology and physical activity can serve the public by advocating for inclusive, empowering physical activity programs that promote health and well being for all.

  11. A dor e a constituição psíquica The pain and the psyché’s constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Celina Garcia Albornoz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda uma temática que atinge a todos: a infância e a adolescência marcadas pelas privações. O abandono, a negligência e o abuso físico, sexual e psicológico de crianças e de adolescentes são fatos reais e freqüentes na vida dos mesmos. A literatura psicanalítica sustenta a idéia de que as vivências de privação geram importantes seqüelas no desenvolvimento emocional, podendo marcar de forma peculiar a vida das pessoas para sempre. O percurso teórico realizado neste artigo aponta que crianças e adolescentes vitimizados apresentam dificuldades para investir em si mesmos e nos outros, o que os torna portadores de sintomas dificultadores da adaptação pessoal, social, escolar, institucional e familiar. É fundamental que eles possam elaborar as suas vivências passadas traumáticas, retomar o desenvolvimento de forma saudável e atualizar os seus potenciais.This paper concerns a theme which affects everyone: childhood and adolescence at risk. Abandonment, neglect as well as physical, sexual and psychological abuse of children and adolescents are real and often recurrent in their lives. Psychoanalytic literature sustains the idea that early experiences of deprivation cause important sequels to emotional development and might leave everlasting consequences. The theoretical approach developed in this study shows that children and adolescents who are victimized present difficulties investing in themselves and in others. As a result, they present symptoms of difficult adjustment in personal, social, school, institutional and family areas. It is essential for them to overcome such traumatic past experiences in order to enable such children and adolescents to develop in a more healthier way and to enhance their potential.

  12. Reforming the minimum wage: Toward a psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The field of psychology has periodically used its professional and scholarly platform to encourage national policy reform that promotes the public interest. In this article, the movement to raise the federal minimum wage is presented as an issue meriting attention from the psychological profession. Psychological support for minimum wage reform derives from health disparities research that supports the causal linkages between poverty and diminished physical and emotional well-being. Furthermore, psychological scholarship relevant to the social exclusion of low-income people not only suggests additional benefits of financially inclusive policymaking, it also indicates some of the attitudinal barriers that could potentially hinder it. Although the national living wage debate obviously extends beyond psychological parameters, psychologists are well-positioned to evaluate and contribute to it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Critical psychology: A geography of intellectual engagement and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Critical psychology has become a generative and international movement in the last 5 decades, with self-identifying critical psychologists emerging from around the globe with publications and contributions, both theoretical and practical, in many areas of psychology. This article provides an overview of current trends in critical psychology and elucidates historical sources and theoretical tenets. Presented are the relationship between individual subjectivity and society, the role of power in the discipline, the problem of subjectification, the importance of reflexivity and intersubjectivity in the context of research practices, methodologies of change for different contexts, and the ethical-political positions from which critical psychologists operate. Challenges to critical psychology, which include engagements with indigenous psychologies, new forms of internationalization, and advancing transdisciplinary work, are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Freedom, responsibility and power: contrasting approaches to health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David F

    2002-01-01

    In Health Psychology in Context it was argued that, if we are to make any sense of it, the subject matter of health psychology must be understood in the context of social, political and economic forces. That theme is continued here with a brief examination of how freedom, responsibility and power enter into the generation of conflicts, including the recent outbreak of war. The interplay of commercial and state interests in academic and health research settings is then discussed. The assumptions, values and meanings of work in health psychology are examined in that light. These are divided between four evolving approaches in health psychology: clinical, public, community and critical health psychology. A framework is presented for positioning these approaches within a system for the production of health and social care.

  15. Psychological Stress and the Cutaneous Immune Response: Roles of the HPA Axis and the Sympathetic Nervous System in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. F. Hall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress, an evolutionary adaptation to the fight-or-flight response, triggers a number of physiological responses that can be deleterious under some circumstances. Stress signals activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Elements derived from those systems (e.g., cortisol, catecholamines and neuropeptides can impact the immune system and possible disease states. Skin provides a first line of defense against many environmental insults. A number of investigations have indicated that the skin is especially sensitive to psychological stress, and experimental evidence shows that the cutaneous innate and adaptive immune systems are affected by stressors. For example, psychological stress has been shown to reduce recovery time of the stratum corneum barrier after its removal (innate immunity and alters antigen presentation by epidermal Langerhans cells (adaptive immunity. Moreover, psychological stress may trigger or exacerbate immune mediated dermatological disorders. Understanding how the activity of the psyche-nervous -immune system axis impinges on skin diseases may facilitate coordinated treatment strategies between dermatologists and psychiatrists. Herein, we will review the roles of the HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system on the cutaneous immune response. We will selectively highlight how the interplay between psychological stress and the immune system affects atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  16. Psychological Stress and the Cutaneous Immune Response: Roles of the HPA Axis and the Sympathetic Nervous System in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica M F; Cruser, Desanges; Podawiltz, Alan; Mummert, Diana I; Jones, Harlan; Mummert, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Psychological stress, an evolutionary adaptation to the fight-or-flight response, triggers a number of physiological responses that can be deleterious under some circumstances. Stress signals activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Elements derived from those systems (e.g., cortisol, catecholamines and neuropeptides) can impact the immune system and possible disease states. Skin provides a first line of defense against many environmental insults. A number of investigations have indicated that the skin is especially sensitive to psychological stress, and experimental evidence shows that the cutaneous innate and adaptive immune systems are affected by stressors. For example, psychological stress has been shown to reduce recovery time of the stratum corneum barrier after its removal (innate immunity) and alters antigen presentation by epidermal Langerhans cells (adaptive immunity). Moreover, psychological stress may trigger or exacerbate immune mediated dermatological disorders. Understanding how the activity of the psyche-nervous -immune system axis impinges on skin diseases may facilitate coordinated treatment strategies between dermatologists and psychiatrists. Herein, we will review the roles of the HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system on the cutaneous immune response. We will selectively highlight how the interplay between psychological stress and the immune system affects atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  17. Psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors in Brazil and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alice Vilas Boas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental health in work domain?”. This paper assesses psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors working in these two countries and test for their differences. The sample consists of 354 Brazilian professors and 317 Canadian professors. Data were collected through an on-line questionnaire assessing the following mental health indicators: anxiety, depression, loss of control, general positive affect and emotional ties. We compared the components of psychological distress and psychological well-being to analyse their relations. Additionally, we compared these components with work-life balance indicator. Reliability analyses demonstrated that all tested components are consistent to evaluate mental health. There are small mean differences between Brazilian and Canadian professors in all five components of mental health, but these differences are not statistically significant. Mean differences for work-life balance, gender, age, and bias of conformity are statistically different, although the size effects are small. Linear regression analysis, step by step, controlled for life events, showed that general positive affect, anxiety and emotional ties predict 31.5% of the scores of work-life balance. Additionally, we observed that Brazilian professors find more balance between professional and private life than do their Canadian colleagues. Promoting mental health is a challenge for public management sector, thus, public managers and governmental organizations can

  18. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  19. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  20. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  1. Reconciling Psychology with Economics - Obesity, Behavioral Biology, and Rational Overeating

    OpenAIRE

    Trenton Smith

    2006-01-01

    Reconciling Psychology with Economics: Obesity, Behavioral Biology, and Rational Overeating Abstract: The modern phenomenon of obesity is an archetypal example of a behavior whose explanation simultaneously falls within the purview of psychology, economics, and the biological sciences. While psychologists and advocates of public health have long viewed overeating as a weakness or disease in need of treatment, economists have pointed out that "like any other consumer behavior" choices about di...

  2. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  3. Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2014 recipient is Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper. Cooper is active in global cooperation in psychology for the public and the discipline's benefit so that psychology can truly serve all of humanity. The first psychologist from outside the West to lead the International Union of Psychological Science, he is the driving force behind the Pan-African Psychology Union and continues to ensure that less-developed psychology dispensations play meaningful roles in international psychology." Cooper's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  4. Gold Medal Award for life achievement in the science of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2012 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology is Philip G. Zimbardo. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  5. Gold Medal Award for life achievement in the practice of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2012 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology is Carol D. Goodheart. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors' liaison.

  6. Gold Medal Award for life achievement in the application of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2012 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology is Marsha Linehan. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  7. Self-guided interventions for managing psychological distress in people with cancer - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Anna; Haynes, Kerry; Boltong, Anna; White, Victoria; Krishnasamy, Meinir; Schofield, Penelope; Aranda, Sanchia; Livingston, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    People with cancer can experience psychological distress but do not always desire, or engage with, professional support to assist with managing distress. Interventions that are self-directed or guided by patients may hold promise as they allow patients to engage with interventions as they need. The objective of this review is to describe and appraise the evidence for effectiveness of self-guided interventions that aim to manage psychological distress in people with cancer. A systematic search of Medline, PsychInfo and CINAHL identified 15 relevant papers, reporting on 14 studies. Of the interventions, three studies comprised hard-copy workbooks, six studies used resource packs, four were online resources and one was a brief multimedia resource. One study was adequately powered and demonstrated a positive effect. Almost all interventions required some level of facilitation. Distressed participants may benefit more from interventions. Self-guided interventions represent a potentially efficient way of delivering support for people affected by cancer, however evidence supporting them is lacking. There is a need to generate evidence to understand the impact of self-guided interventions for: i) the ideal delivery point in the disease trajectory, ii) patient groups, iii) intervention content and iv) type and mode of delivery. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Either scholar or activist? Thinking cultural psychology beyond academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marco Carre Benzi, David

    2016-01-01

    Both Robert Innis’s and Svend Brinkmann’s works bring to the fore a notorious, but usually forgotten, topic on cultural psychology: the normative framework that regulates the relation between the researcher and the phenomena studied. In fact, these ‘models of human flourishing’, using authors...... directions: turning cultural psychology into activism, and conducting value-laden research. For this purpose, the case of Arthur Jensen’s 1969 controversial publication on IQ is discussed. This example is useful to reveal the challenges that cultural psychology must face in order to become more aware of its...

  9. The psychological present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L J

    1992-01-01

    The present paper compares behavior-analytic and cognitive treatments of the concept of psychological history with regard to its role in current action. Both treatments take the position that the past bears some responsibility for the present, and are thereby obligated to find a means of actualizing the past in the present. Both do so by arguing that the past is brought to bear in the present via the organism. Although the arguments of the two positions differ on this issue, neither provides a complete account. An unconventional treatment of psychological history is proposed, the logic of which is exemplified in anthropological, biological, and psychological perspectives. The unconventional treatment in psychological perspective holds that (a) the organism's interaction with its environment, not the organism itself, changes with experience; and (b) the past interactions of an organism exist as, and only as, the present interactions of that organism. This solution to the problem of psychological history provides obligations and opportunities for analysis that are not available when the more conventional positions of cognitivism and behavior analysis are adopted.

  10. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  11. Unforgivable Sinners? Epistemological and Psychological Naturalism in Husserl’s Philosophy as a Rigorous Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sebastiano Staiti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present and assess Husserl's arguments against epistomological and psychological naturalism in his essay Philosophy as a Rigorous Science. I show that his critique is directed against positions that are generally more extreme than most currently debated variants of naturalism. However, Husserl has interesting thoughts to contribute to philosophy today. First, he shows that there is an important connection between naturalism in epistemology (which in his view amounts to the position that the validity of logic can be reduced to the validity natural laws of thinking and naturalism in psychology (which in his view amounts to the position that all psychic occurrences are merely parallel accompaniments of physiological occurrences. Second, he shows that a strong version of epistemological naturalism is self-undermining and fails to translate the cogency of logic in psychological terms. Third, and most importantly for current debates, he attacks Cartesianism as a form of psychological naturalism because of its construal of the psyche as a substance. Against this position, Husserl defends the necessity to formulate new epistemic aims for the investigation of consciousness. He contends that what is most interesting about consciousness is not its empirical fact but its transcendental function of granting cognitive access to all kinds of objects (both empirical and ideal. The study of this function requires a specific method (eidetics that cannot be conflated with empirical methods. I conclude that Husserl's analyses offer much-needed insight into the fabric of consciousness and compelling arguments against unwarranted metaphysical speculations about the relationship between mind and body.

  12. Mountain Climbing in the Dark: Introduction to the Special Symposium on the Future Direction of Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2017-07-01

    This special symposium in Perspectives on Psychological Science answers the question, "Do you believe the field of psychological science is headed in the right direction?" Respondents are a sampling of Association for Psychological Science award winners over the past 5 years dating back from publication of this symposium.

  13. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology.

  14. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  15. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  16. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.

  17. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  18. Sociogenomic personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J

    2008-12-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology.

  19. Probe into the Application of Psychological Consultation Skills to Mediation of Public-Order-Related Cases%运用心理咨询技术调解治安案件的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于福洋; 徐振雷; 樊传衡

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, China has made great achievements in economic and social development, which has caught world attention. Subsequently, the disputes involving labor wages, demolition and debts have arisen more frequently. To deal with such cases, pure combat will affect social stability and lead to irrational complaints. However, mediation has gradually become an effective approach that ifrst-line police agencies resort to. Truthfully speaking, successful mediation not only solves disputes but also maintains social stability. In practice, to deal with disputes, which are different from administrative and criminal cases, police offcers have no rules to rely on so they should put themselves in the shoes of the parties concerned, try to prevent the disputes from getting worse and have abilities to win their trust, to communicate, to calm down their emotion and to change their irrational beliefs. Psychological consultation offers a new angle of view and technical approach to police. It is signiifcant to explore the application of psychological consultation to mediation of disorder-order-related cases.%近几年来,中国的经济发展取得了全球瞩目的成绩,社会发展日新月异,随之而来,由劳资、拆迁、债务纠纷引发的打架斗殴和损毁财物的案件明显增多。面对上述案件,单纯采取打击处理的方式解决问题,容易影响社会稳定,造成非正常上访,而治安调解逐渐成为基层公安机关处理化解上述问题的有效手段,可以说成功的调解,既做到了化解矛盾纠纷,又维护了社会稳定。实践中,办理治安调解案件不像办理其他行政、刑事案件那样有章可循,需要民警具备设身处地理解当事人、把控事态发展演化、赢得当事人的信任的能力,特别是需要具有较强的沟通能力、稳定和调解情绪的能力、改变当事人非理性信念的能力。心理咨询为民警提供了一种新的视角和技术

  20. Career Development and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J.; Savickas, Mark L.

    Career development specialists need to find ways to adapt their knowledge and skills to become agents of social action. Public policy is one area where career development specialists can involve themselves to help bring about social change. This paper attempts to raise the consciousness of Society of Vocational Psychology (SVP) members and to…