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Sample records for psychology progress empirical

  1. Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P; Steen, Tracy A; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and 1 plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology.

  2. Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Steen, Tracy A.; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  3. Why Psychology Cannot be an Empirical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedslund, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The current empirical paradigm for psychological research is criticized because it ignores the irreversibility of psychological processes, the infinite number of influential factors, the pseudo-empirical nature of many hypotheses, and the methodological implications of social interactivity. An additional point is that the differences and correlations usually found are much too small to be useful in psychological practice and in daily life. Together, these criticisms imply that an objective, accumulative, empirical and theoretical science of psychology is an impossible project.

  4. Psychological Vulnerability to Completed Suicide: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…

  5. Learning to Read Empirical Articles in General Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sego, Sandra A.; Stuart, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Many students, particularly underprepared students, struggle to identify the essential information in empirical articles. We describe a set of assignments for instructing general psychology students to dissect the structure of such articles. Students in General Psychology I read empirical articles and answered a set of general, factual questions…

  6. Learning to Read Empirical Articles in General Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sego, Sandra A.; Stuart, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Many students, particularly underprepared students, struggle to identify the essential information in empirical articles. We describe a set of assignments for instructing general psychology students to dissect the structure of such articles. Students in General Psychology I read empirical articles and answered a set of general, factual questions…

  7. Empirical progress and nomic truth approximation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Theodorus

    2014-01-01

    In my From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism (2000) I have shown how an instrumentalist account of empirical progress can be related to nomic truth approximation. However, it was assumed that a strong notion of nomic theories was needed for that analysis. In this paper it is shown, in terms of

  8. The empirical foundations of psychoanalytic approaches to psychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L S

    1990-01-01

    The view that psychoanalytic approaches to psychological testing lack empirical foundations is disputed by systematically examining the ways in which psychoanalytic theory expands the sources of data available to the psychological tester at each step in the assessment process. The contention is made that it is unscientific to restrict the concept of what constitutes scientific rigor to formal experimentation with statistical analysis.

  9. Forensic Psychology: An Empirical Review of Experimental Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lisa R.; Finn, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated the first eleven years of experimental research (1973-1983) publications, with a focus on forensic psychology, that were cited in Psychological Abstracts. Results indicate: a paucity of experimental research; a significant difference between empirical and nonempirical publications; and a transition from descriptive to correlational and…

  10. Cultural sport psychology: a critical review of empirical advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryba, Tatiana V

    2017-08-01

    Despite a long standing assertion that sociocultural domain is one of the factors constituting human psychological phenomena, sport psychological science has only recently begun to examine culture as the principal basis of physical activity and sport participants' behaviour, wellbeing, engagement, and performance outcomes. Emphasizing the centrality of culture in bringing meaning to athlete careers and life projects, I summarise empirical literature explicitly positioned within cultural sport psychology (CSP). Specifically, I focus on two areas of psychological inquiry - acculturation and athletic career - in which the CSP theoretical tenets and agenda stimulated emergence of novel research trajectories. I conclude by suggesting directions for future work in CSP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychological functioning in primary progressive versus secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vleugels, L; Pfennings, L E; Pouwer, F

    1998-01-01

    (SD 11.1). Patients completed questionnaires measuring among others the following aspects of psychological functioning: depression (BDI, SCL-90), anxiety (STAI, SCL-90), agoraphobia (SCL-90), somatic complaints (SCL-90), hostility (SCL-90) and attitude towards handicap (GHAS). Patients with a PP......Psychological functioning in two types of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is assessed: primary progressive (PP) and secondary progressive (SP) patients. On the basis of differences in clinical course and underlying pathology we hypothesized that primary progressive patients and secondary...... progressive patients might have different psychological functioning. Seventy patients treated in an MS centre were examined cross-sectionally. Forty had an SP course of MS and 30 a PP course. The 33 male and 37 female patients had a mean age of 48.4 years (SD 11.2) and mean age of onset of MS of 30.7 years...

  12. Teaching Psychology and Law: An Empirical Evaluation of Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelechoski, Amanda D.; Riggs Romaine, Christina L.; Wolbransky, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    Given the recent proliferation of undergraduate psychology and law courses, there is an increased need to empirically evaluate effective methods of teaching psycholegal material. The current study used a between- and within-subject design across four higher education institutions (N = 291 students) to evaluate the effectiveness of incorporating…

  13. Empirical Progression of Lean Manufacturing: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilanthi M.G.S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing has evolved over time devising with thinking of waste reduction. Many researchers have studied in this field and have tried to define the concept and to evaluate its performance. Therefore the main purpose of this paper is to recognize the conceptual evolution and to comprehend such empirical work related to lean manufacturing.

  14. An empirical assessment of content in criminal psychological profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N

    2003-02-01

    Although criminal psychological profiling has been in use by law enforcement agencies for almost three decades, there is a paucity of empirical research examining the technique. A fundamental issue that has received little attention is the empirical evaluation of information contained in profiles composed by professional profilers. In this study, a group of profilers, police officers, psychologists, college students, and self-declared psychics were given information from a solved murder investigation, after which the participants composed a written profile predicting the probable offender. Professional profilers tended to write more lengthy profiles that contained more information about the nonphysical attributes of the offender and more information about the crime scene or the offender's behavior before, during, and after the crime. These results are discussed in terms of their implication for our broader understanding of the technique of profiling and future directions for research into profiling.

  15. An empirical investigation on psychological characteristics of entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh sadat Abtahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on psychological characteristics of entrepreneurs in one of Iranian universities located in city of Zanjan, Iran. The proposed study of this paper uses a standard questionnaire in Likert scale and concentrates on three components of locus of control, risk taking and tolerance of ambiguity. The study chooses a sample of 350 out of 11,000 students who were enrolled in various areas and detected that students maintained higher level of risk taking (t-student = 10.999, P-value = 0.000, higher level of locus of control (t-student = 29.708, P-value = 0.000 and lower level of tolerance of ambiguity (t-student = -13.584, P-value = 0.000.

  16. Debunking Confabulation : Emotions and the Significance of Empirical Psychology for Kantian Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleingeld, Pauline; Cohen, Alix

    2014-01-01

    It is frequently argued that research findings in empirical moral psychology spell trouble for Kantian ethics. Sometimes the charge is merely that Kantianism is mistaken about the role of emotions in human action, but it has also been argued that empirical moral psychology ‘debunks’ Kantian ethics a

  17. Debunking Confabulation : Emotions and the Significance of Empirical Psychology for Kantian Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleingeld, Pauline; Cohen, Alix

    2014-01-01

    It is frequently argued that research findings in empirical moral psychology spell trouble for Kantian ethics. Sometimes the charge is merely that Kantianism is mistaken about the role of emotions in human action, but it has also been argued that empirical moral psychology ‘debunks’ Kantian ethics

  18. Empirically derived dietary patterns in relation to psychological disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosseinzadeh, Mahdieh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Majdzadeh, Reza; Afshar, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Psychological disorders are highly prevalent worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and prevalence of psychological disorders in a large sample of Iranian adults...

  19. Empirical Laws and Foreseeing the Future of Technological Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Lopes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Moore’s law (ML is one of many empirical expressions that is used to characterize natural and artificial phenomena. The ML addresses technological progress and is expected to predict future trends. Yet, the “art” of predicting is often confused with the accurate fitting of trendlines to past events. Presently, data-series of multiple sources are available for scientific and computational processing. The data can be described by means of mathematical expressions that, in some cases, follow simple expressions and empirical laws. However, the extrapolation toward the future is considered with skepticism by the scientific community, particularly in the case of phenomena involving complex behavior. This paper addresses these issues in the light of entropy and pseudo-state space. The statistical and dynamical techniques lead to a more assertive perspective on the adoption of a given candidate law.

  20. Empirical Research in Environmental Psychology: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, David

    1974-01-01

    The development of the field of environmental psychology and its research methods are reviewed. Trends in areas of study -- perception, space, personality, learning, and building design -- are noted. (KM)

  1. Psychological Determinants of University Students' Academic Performance: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…

  2. Multicultural Humanistic Psychology: Empirical Investigations of Humanistic Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffins, Belinda J.; McConnell, Stephen C.

    Multicultural psychology examines existential-humanistic concerns in reference to the unique world of the client. Some of these contextual variables include race, age, religion, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, sociocultural and sociopolitical influences, as well as the roles of power, privilege, and disadvantage. Diversity impacts…

  3. Empirically derived dietary patterns in relation to psychological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Mahdieh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Majdzadeh, Reza; Afshar, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-02-01

    Psychological disorders are highly prevalent worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and prevalence of psychological disorders in a large sample of Iranian adults. A cross-sectional study was done to identify dietary patterns derived from factor analysis. Dietary data were collected through the use of a validated dish-based semi-quantitative FFQ. Psychological health was examined by use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the General Health Questionnaire. The study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran, within the framework of the Study on Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition (SEPAHAN). Iranian adults (n 3846) aged 20-55 years. After adjustment for potential confounders, greater adherence to the lacto-vegetarian dietary pattern was protectively associated with depression in women (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·91). Normal-weight participants in the top quintile of this dietary pattern tended to have decreased odds of anxiety compared with those in the bottom quintile (OR=0·61; 95 % CI 0·38, 1·00). In addition, the traditional dietary pattern was associated with increased odds of depression (OR=1·42; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·99) and anxiety (OR=1·56; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·42) in women. Normal-weight participants in the highest quintile of the traditional dietary pattern had greater odds for anxiety (OR=1·89; 95 % CI 1·12, 3·08) compared with those in the lowest quintile. The Western dietary pattern was associated with increased odds of depression in men (OR=1·73; 95 % CI 1·07, 2·81) and anxiety in normal-weight participants (OR=2·05; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·46). There was a significant increasing trend in the odds of psychological distress across increasing quintiles of the fast food dietary pattern in women (P-trend=0·02). Recommendation to increase the intake of fruits, citrus fruits, vegetables, tomato and low-fat dairy products and to reduce the intakes of snacks, high-fat dairy

  4. Effects of Mindfulness on Psychological Health: A Review of Empirical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Smoski, Moria J.; Robins, Clive J.

    2013-01-01

    Within the past few decades, there has been a surge of interest in the investigation of mindfulness as a psychological construct and as a form of clinical intervention. This article reviews the empirical literature on the effects of mindfulness on psychological health. We begin with a discussion of the construct of mindfulness, differences between Buddhist and Western psychological conceptualizations of mindfulness, and how mindfulness has been integrated into Western medicine and psychology, before reviewing three areas of empirical research: cross-sectional, correlational research on the associations between mindfulness and various indicators of psychological health; intervention research on the effects of mindfulness-oriented interventions on psychological health; and laboratory-based, experimental research on the immediate effects of mindfulness inductions on emotional and behavioral functioning. We conclude that mindfulness brings about various positive psychological effects, including increased subjective well-being, reduced psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and improved behavioral regulation. The review ends with a discussion on mechanisms of change of mindfulness interventions and suggested directions for future research. PMID:21802619

  5. Measuring progressive independence with the resident supervision index: empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashner, T Michael; Byrne, John M; Chang, Barbara K; Henley, Steven S; Golden, Richard M; Aron, David C; Cannon, Grant W; Gilman, Stuart C; Holland, Gloria J; Kaminetzky, Catherine P; Keitz, Sheri A; Muchmore, Elaine A; Kashner, Tetyana K; Wicker, Annie B

    2010-03-01

    A Resident Supervision Index (RSI) developed by our research team quantifies the intensity of resident supervision in graduate medical education, with the goal of testing for progressive independence. The 4-part RSI method includes a survey instrument for staff and residents (RSI Inventory), a strategy to score survey responses, a theoretical framework (patient centered optimal supervision), and a statistical model that accounts for the presence or absence of supervision and the intensity of patient care. The RSI Inventory data came from 140 outpatient encounters involving 57 residents and 37 attending physicians during a 3-month period at a Department of Veterans Affairs outpatient clinic. Responses are scored to quantitatively measure the intensity of resident supervision across 10 levels of patient services (staff is absent, is present, participated, or provided care with or without a resident), case discussion (resident-staff interaction), and oversight (staff reviewed case, reviewed medical chart, consulted with staff, or assessed patient). Scores are analyzed by level and for patient care using a 2-part model (supervision initiated [yes or no] versus intensity once supervision was initiated). All resident encounters had patient care supervision, resident oversight, or both. Consistent with the progressive independence hypothesis, residents were 1.72 (P  =  .019) times more likely to be fully responsible for patient care with each additional postgraduate year. Decreasing case complexity, increasing clinic workload, and advanced nonmedical degrees among attending staff were negatively associated with supervision intensity, although associations varied by supervision level. These data are consistent with the progressive independence hypothesis in graduate medical education and offer empirical support for the 4-part RSI method to quantify the intensity of resident supervision for research, program evaluation, and resident assessment purposes. Before

  6. Race and Ethnicity in Empirical Counseling and Counseling Psychology Research: A 10-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Galvan, Nallely; Maschino, Peggy; Rowland, Marcy

    2005-01-01

    This article examined 796 empirical studies published in the "Journal of Counseling Psychology," the "Journal of Counseling and Development," and "The Counseling Psychologist" from 1990 to 1999 and found that only 457 (57%) reported racial and ethnic characteristics of research participants. From this data, an overall picture was generated of the…

  7. Empirical Reflections on Academic Training Programs in Counseling Psychology: Contexts and Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Goodyear, Rodney K.

    2005-01-01

    The three main articles in the Major Contribution of the September issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" address academic training programs in counseling psychology, focusing on their institutional contexts and commitments. Each article examines one key issue, provides empirical data concerning this issue, and traces the practical implications of…

  8. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Schools: The Role of Educational Psychology in the Dissemination of Empirically Supported Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…

  9. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Schools: The Role of Educational Psychology in the Dissemination of Empirically Supported Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…

  10. The foundational principles as psychological lodestars: Theoretical inspiration and empirical direction in rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S; Ehde, Dawn M; Wegener, Stephen T

    2016-02-01

    Historically, the Foundational Principles articulated by Wright (1983) and others guided theory development, research and scholarship, and practice in rehabilitation psychology. In recent decades, these principles have become more implicit and less explicit or expressive in the writings and work of rehabilitation professionals. We believe that the Foundational Principles are essential lodestars for working with people with disabilities that can guide inquiry, practice, and service. To introduce this special issues, this commentary identifies and defines key Foundational Principles, including, for example, Lewin's (1935) person-environment relation, adjustment to disability, the malleability of self-perceptions of bodily states, and the importance of promoting dignity for people with disabilities. We then consider the role the Foundational Principles play in the articles appearing in this special issue. We close by considering some new principles and their potential utility in rehabilitation settings. Readers in rehabilitation psychology and aligned areas (e.g., social-personality psychology, health psychology, rehabilitation therapist, psychiatry, and nursing) are encouraged to consider how the Foundational Principles underlie and can shape their research and practice.

  11. A model of psychological evaluation of educational environment and its empirical indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Laktionova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the study is to identify ways of complex psychological assessment of educational en-vironment quality, the nature of conditions that affect positive personal development of its members. The solution to this problem is to develop science-based content and technology sup-port for psychological evaluation of the educational environment. The purpose of the study was theoretical rationale and empirical testing of a model of psychological examination of education-al environment. The study is based on the assumption that in order to assess the quality of the educational environment in the aspect of its personality developing potential, we need to create a model of psychological examination as a special developmental system, reflected in terms of the personal characteristics of its subjects. The empirical material is based on a study sample of 717 students and 438 teachers from 28 educational institutions that participated in the program of urban pilot sites of the Department of Education of Moscow. In total, 1,155 people took part it the study.

  12. Press coverage of the new psychology by the New York Times during the progressive era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Press coverage of psychology by the New York Times was examined for the Progressive Era. Following a period in which psychology was associated with spiritualism, psychoanalysis, and the Emmanuel movement, the Times gave editorial preference to reports about psychology's applications. Reaching an audience that was both affluent and influential, the topics emphasized by the Times included the lie detector, psychological applications in the work place, mental tests, and child psychology. These areas reflected issues of social concern to Progressives, publicized the rise of the psychologist as expert, and aided psychology in its challenge to common sense.

  13. Does Missing Classes Decelerate Student Exam Performance Progress? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…

  14. Too paranoid to see progress: Social psychology is probably liberal, but it doesn't believe in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegard, Bo; Winegard, Benjamin; Geary, David C

    2015-01-01

    We agree with Duarte et al. that bias in social psychology is a serious problem that researchers should confront. However, we are skeptical that most social psychologists adhere to a liberal progress narrative. We suggest, instead, that most social psychologists are paranoid egalitarian meliorists (PEMs). We explain the term and suggest possible remedies to bias in social psychology.

  15. Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Denes; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-03-01

    We have empirically assessed the distribution of published effect sizes and estimated power by analyzing 26,841 statistical records from 3,801 cognitive neuroscience and psychology papers published recently. The reported median effect size was D = 0.93 (interquartile range: 0.64-1.46) for nominally statistically significant results and D = 0.24 (0.11-0.42) for nonsignificant results. Median power to detect small, medium, and large effects was 0.12, 0.44, and 0.73, reflecting no improvement through the past half-century. This is so because sample sizes have remained small. Assuming similar true effect sizes in both disciplines, power was lower in cognitive neuroscience than in psychology. Journal impact factors negatively correlated with power. Assuming a realistic range of prior probabilities for null hypotheses, false report probability is likely to exceed 50% for the whole literature. In light of our findings, the recently reported low replication success in psychology is realistic, and worse performance may be expected for cognitive neuroscience.

  16. Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Denes; Ioannidis, John P. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have empirically assessed the distribution of published effect sizes and estimated power by analyzing 26,841 statistical records from 3,801 cognitive neuroscience and psychology papers published recently. The reported median effect size was D = 0.93 (interquartile range: 0.64–1.46) for nominally statistically significant results and D = 0.24 (0.11–0.42) for nonsignificant results. Median power to detect small, medium, and large effects was 0.12, 0.44, and 0.73, reflecting no improvement through the past half-century. This is so because sample sizes have remained small. Assuming similar true effect sizes in both disciplines, power was lower in cognitive neuroscience than in psychology. Journal impact factors negatively correlated with power. Assuming a realistic range of prior probabilities for null hypotheses, false report probability is likely to exceed 50% for the whole literature. In light of our findings, the recently reported low replication success in psychology is realistic, and worse performance may be expected for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:28253258

  17. Liturgy as Experience - the Psychology of Worship.
 A Theoretical and Empirical Lacuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owe Wikström

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has three aims: 1 to plead for an approach to the study of the liturgy based on the psychology of religion, 2 to draw up a preliminary theoretical model for how the liturgy can be interpreted, and 3 to narrow down the field for further interdisciplinary development and empirical analysis. People undergo more or less strong experiences during and in conjunction with church services. Perhaps people are moved, experience holiness, reverence, fellowship or closeness to the risen Christ. The problem is what factors during the service strengthen such a religious experience. What is the role played by the music, symbols, the place or building where the service is held, the number of participants and the liturgical event?

  18. A psychological flexibility-based intervention for modulating the impact of stigma and prejudice: a descriptive review of empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Masuda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been growing efforts to understandand modulate stigma and prejudice from the standpoint of the psychological flexibility model, a pragmatic model of complex human behavior. The present paper provides an overview of the empirical evidence on the applicability of the psychological flexibility model, and its applied strategy, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT, to stigma and prejudice. Preliminary findings suggest that the psychological flexibility model and ACT are promising avenues for reducing stigma and prejudice; however, further investigation and refinement of the model and ACT are crucial for significantly ameliorating human suffering related to stigma and prejudice.

  19. Happy software developers solve problems better: psychological measurements in empirical software engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotin, Daniel; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers' productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research). Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states-emotions and moods-deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1) providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2) introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3) raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a multidisciplinary viewpoint.

  20. Happy software developers solve problems better: psychological measurements in empirical software engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Graziotin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers’ productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research. Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states—emotions and moods—deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1 providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2 introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3 raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a

  1. The mature minor: some critical psychological reflections on the empirical bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Brian C

    2013-06-01

    Moral and legal notions engaged in clinical ethics should not only possess analytic clarity but a sound basis in empirical findings. The latter condition brings into question the expansion of the mature minor exception. The mature minor exception in the healthcare law of the United States has served to enable those under the legal age to consent to medical treatment. Although originally developed primarily for minors in emergency or quasi-emergency need for health care, it was expanded especially from the 1970s in order to cover unemancipated minors older than 14 years. This expansion initially appeared plausible, given psychological data that showed the intellectual capacity of minors over 14 to recognize the causal connection between their choices and the consequences of their choices. However, subsequent psychological studies have shown that minors generally fail to have realistic affective and evaluative appreciations of the consequences of their decisions, because they tend to over-emphasize short-term benefits and underestimate long-term risks. Also, unlike most decisionmakers over 21, the decisions of minors are more often marked by the lack of adequate impulse control, all of which is reflected in the far higher involvement of adolescents in acts of violence, intentional injury, and serious automobile accidents. These effects are more evident in circumstances that elicit elevated affective responses. The advent of brain imaging has allowed the actual visualization of qualitative differences between how minors versus persons over the age of 21 generally assess risks and benefits and make decisions. In the case of most under the age of 21, subcortical systems fail adequately to be checked by the prefrontal systems that are involved in adult executive decisions. The neuroanatomical and psychological model developed by Casey, Jones, and Summerville offers an empirical insight into the qualitative differences in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases

  2. Positive Psychology versus the Medical Model?: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephen; Linley, P. Alex

    2006-01-01

    Comments on "Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions" by Seligman, Steen, Park, and Peterson (see record 2005-08033-003). Seligman and colleagues provided a progress report on positive psychology, reviewing the impressive developments over the past five years. We wholeheartedly support the positive psychology movement…

  3. Developmental Psychology and Public Policy: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a framework for developmentally oriented policy research. Drawing from U. Bronfenbrenner's (1995) dynamic developmental systems theory, the authors suggest ways in which the key tenets of process, persons, context, and time can inform policy research in developmental psychology and can be used to support a causal…

  4. Developmental Psychology and Public Policy: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a framework for developmentally oriented policy research. Drawing from U. Bronfenbrenner's (1995) dynamic developmental systems theory, the authors suggest ways in which the key tenets of process, persons, context, and time can inform policy research in developmental psychology and can be used to support a causal…

  5. The value of positive psychology for health psychology: progress and pitfalls in examining the relation of positive phenomena to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Lisa G; Tedeschi, Richard G

    2010-02-01

    The growth of the "positive psychology" movement reflects increased scientific and lay interest in the relation of positive phenomena to mental and physical health and the corresponding potential for interventions that promote positive feelings, thoughts, and experiences to improve health and well-being. In this article, we (1) consider research on optimism, sense of coherence, and posttraumatic growth that predates the contemporary emphasis on positive psychology, but has clear and increasingly well-supported connections to health psychology, (2) examine several potential mechanisms through which such positive phenomena may influence the etiology, progression, and management of illness, (3) identify four pervasive but misleading assumptions about positive phenomena that may limit both scientific research and practical application, and (4) caution against serious pitfalls of popular views of positive thinking, such as its promotion as a cure for cancer and other diseases. We conclude with recommendations for the balanced scientific investigation and application of positive phenomena.

  6. Effects of Social Psychological Phenomena on School Psychologists' Ethical Decision-Making: A Preliminary Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Laurie McGarry; Lasser, Jon; Reardon, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary, exploratory study examines the impact of select social psychological phenomena on school-based ethical decision-making of school psychologists. Responses to vignettes and hypothetical statements reflecting several social psychological phenomena were collected from 106 practicing school psychologists. Participants were asked to…

  7. The psychology behind commitment and loyalty: an empirical study in a bank setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Odekerken-Schröder, G.J.; Martens, H.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the extant literature on customer loyalty, it is recognized that the psychological processes behind commitment and customer loyalty are still ill understood. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess the impact of three psychological antecedents (position involvement, volit

  8. The psychology behind commitment and loyalty: an empirical study in a bank setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Odekerken-Schröder, G.J.; Martens, H.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the extant literature on customer loyalty, it is recognized that the psychological processes behind commitment and customer loyalty are still ill understood. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess the impact of three psychological antecedents (position involvement,

  9. Congregational bonding social capital and psychological type : an empirical enquiry among Australian churchgoers

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; FRANCIS, Leslie J.; Powell, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the variation in levels of bonding social capital experienced by individual churchgoers, drawing on data generated by the Australian National Church Life Survey, and employing a five-item measure of church-related bonding social capital. Data provided by 2065 Australian churchgoers are used to test the thesis that individual differences in bonding social capital are related to a psychological model of psychological types (employing the Jungian distinctions). The data demon...

  10. Empirical Comparison of Two Psychological Therapies: Self Psychology and Cognitive Orientation in the Treatment of Anorexia and Bulimia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, Eytan; Latzer, Yael; Kreitler, Shulamit; Berry, Elliot M.

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the applicability of self psychological treatment (SPT) and cognitive orientation treatment (COT) to the treatment of anorexia and bulimia. Thirty-three patients participated in this study. The bulimic patients (n = 25) were randomly assigned either to SPT, COT, or control/nutritional counseling only (C/NC). The anorexic patients (n = 8) were randomly assigned to either SPT or COT. Patients were administered a battery of outcome measures assessing eating disorders symptomatology, attitudes toward food, self structure, and general psychiatric symptoms. After SPT, significant improvement was observed. After COT, slight but nonsignificant improvement was observed. After C/NC, almost no changes could be detected.(The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:115–128) PMID:10079459

  11. Tension between the theoretical thinking and the empirical method: is it an inevitable fate for psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Yasuhiro

    2012-03-01

    This paper will start from focusing on the limitations of quantitative approach in psychology from three viewpoints. First--data collection, especially experiments and questionnaires as two major methods of quantitative approach. The second limitation is data aggregation, followed by the third--statistical significance testing. After that, recent spread of qualitative approach as another option for one of psychological methods will be introduced and a controversy surrounding epistemology of qualitative approach will be also introduced. Finally, it will be discussed that accumulation of faithful descriptions on reality, especially from qualitative approach, would be needed for producing creative research.

  12. PsychMate: providing psychology majors the tools to do real experiments and learn empirical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschman, Amy; St James, James; Schneider, Walter; Zuccolotto, Anthony

    2005-05-01

    PsychMate is a set of software tools for undergraduate psychology students to run, develop, and analyze computerized experiments. It includes 30 psychological experiments in the areas of perception, cognition, social psychology, human factors, and cognitive neuroscience. Students run experiments themselves and see basic results immediately. The automatic spreadsheet analysis forms allow them to aggregate data and create analyses, presentations, and Web pages with a single click. Students can use the Psychology Experiment Authoring Kit experiment editor to create their own experiments in minutes and run experiments with other students using Web-based experiment-management tools. The BrainTutor and BrainViewer applications teach brain anatomy and permit students to analyze fMRI brain imaging data from subjects who have performed the same memory experiments in which they participated. PsychMate has been used in 83 classes in which 1,533 students submitted 5,464 completed experiments with few (less than 1%) requests for help and a very positive rating of the research experience.

  13. An Empirical Study of the Application of Psychological Principles to the Teaching of Orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martland, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    An empirical study was carried out to explore effects of three sets of schedules developed by Edgar Stones as guidelines conducive to student learning. Guidelines for concept teaching, psychomotor skill development, and teaching problem solving formed the instructional framework for teaching 11-year-old children the principles of navigational…

  14. Vulnerability to psychological distress: empirical and conceptual distinctions between measures of neuroticism and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, J; Bates, G W

    1993-12-01

    In two studies, 97 and 176 individuals (47 men and 50 women, M age 34.2 yr.; and 88 men and 88 women, M age 34.8) known to have experienced a recent period of psychological distress were compared with otherwise similar individuals who reported no such experience on measures of neuroticism, extraversion, and positive and negative affect. In both studies, the neuroticism measure was a significant independent discriminator between the groups while the negative affect measure was not. This suggests that (a) measures of neuroticism tap factors additional to those tapped by scales measuring only levels of characteristic negative affect and (b) these factors are related to individual differences in vulnerability to psychological distress.

  15. Empirically supported treatments for panic disorder with agoraphobia in a Spanish psychology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Francisco; Labrador, Francisco J

    2014-10-27

    The aim of this work is to study the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia (PD/Ag), as well as the characteristics of the treatment and its results and cost in a University Psychology Clinic. Fifty patients demanded psychological assistance for PD/Ag; 80% were women, with an average age of 29.22 years (SD = 9.03). Mean number of evaluation sessions was 3.26 (SD = 1.03), and of treatment sessions, 13.39 (SD = 9.237). Of the patients, 83.33% were discharged (that is, questionnaire scores were below the cut-off point indicated by the authors, and no PD/Ag was observed at readministration of the semistructured interview), 5.5% refused treatment, and 11% were dropouts. The average number of treatment sessions of patients who achieved therapeutic success was 15.13 (SD = 8.98). Effect sizes (d) greater than 1 were obtained in all the scales. Changes in all scales were significant (p < .05). The estimated cost of treatment for patients who achieved therapeutic success was 945.12€. The treatment results are at least similar to those of studies of efficacy and effectiveness for PD/Ag. The utility of generalizing treatments developed in research settings to a welfare clinic is discussed.

  16. Attitudes toward Substance Abuse Clients: An Empirical Study of Clinical Psychology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundon, Chandra R; Anderson, Melissa L; Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) and its frequent comorbidity with mental illness, individuals with SUD are less likely to receive effective SUD treatment from mental health practitioners than SUD counselors. Limited competence and interest in treating this clinical population are likely influenced by a lack of formal training in SUD treatment. Using a factorial survey-vignette design that included three clinical vignettes and a supplementary survey instrument, we investigated whether clinical psychology doctoral students differ in their level of negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD versus major depressive disorder (MDD); whether they differ in their attributions for SUD versus MDD; and how their negative emotional reactions and attributions impact their interest in pursuing SUD clinical work. Participants were 155 clinical psychology graduate-level doctoral students (72% female). Participants endorsed more negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD than toward clients with MDD. They were also more likely to identify poor willpower as the cause for SUD than for MDD. More than a third reported interest in working with SUD populations. Highest levels of interest were associated with prior professional and personal experience with SUD, four to six years of clinical experience, and postmodern theoretical orientation.

  17. [Short-term psychological consequences of car accidents: an empirical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunas, Antonio; Iavarone, Valentina; Fiorletta, Angela; Madeddu, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate short-term (3 and 5 months) psychological consequences of severe motor-vehicle accidents. The sample under investigation is composed of two groups: 8 survivors of severe motor-vehicle accidents with spinal cord injuries (SCI) hospitalized in a Spinal Cord Unit, and 6 survivors who did not require hospitalization. All subjects were assessed twice, three and five months after the accident, on a variety of measures including the CAPS and the BDI-SF. Prevalence of PTSD in the total sample was, 3 months after the accident, 14% with no significant differences between the two groups; some peculiarities in the symptomathological profile emerged as much as subjects with SCI experience avoidance of trauma-related stimuli more frequently. An overall decline in frequency and severity of post-traumatic symptoms between the two assessments was observed in the total sample, though some components (Criterion C symptoms) showed no relevant variations over time. Finally, depressive symptoms, which were characterized by higher severity in the SCI group, showed a significant decline between the two assessments. Our data, although based on a limited sample, might help in tailoring psychological interventions for prevention and treatment of PTSD in survivors of severe motor accidents.

  18. Psychology is not primarily Empirical Science: A Comparison of Cultures in the Lexical Hypothesis Tradition as a Failure of Introspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Václav

    2017-06-01

    A large part of psychology has become an empirical science that assumes that there might exist one set of research methods suitable for psychological research in all human cultures. Research questions, methods, and theories formulated from one cultural perspective are not thoroughly introspectively examined when being used in another cultural environment. This leads to research that answers questions that are not meaningful in such environments. Research coming from the lexical hypothesis tradition is given as an example. The original research in English language decided that the lexicon was enough to represent language structures for the purpose of examining how language reflects personality; however, some languages might use specific grammatical structures to reflect personality, so the lexicon is not enough to adequately represent these languages. Despite this, researchers still follow the research method developed for the English language. The Czech and Korean languages are examples of this approach. A solution to this problem is the thorough use of introspection during the formulation of research questions.

  19. Mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for depression: An empirical update and evaluation of research aimed at identifying psychological mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Lotte H J M; Müller, Viola N L S; Arntz, Arnoud; Huibers, Marcus J H

    2016-12-01

    We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent to which these studies meet several important requirements for mechanism research. Our review indicates that in spite of increased attention for the topic, advances in theoretical consensus about necessities for mechanism research, and sophistication of study designs, research in this field is still heterogeneous and unsatisfactory in methodological respect. Probably the biggest challenge in the field is demonstrating the causal relation between change in the mediator and change in depressive symptoms. The field would benefit from a further refinement of research methods to identify processes of therapeutic change. Recommendations for future research are discussed. However, even in the most optimal research designs, explaining psychotherapeutic change remains a challenge. Psychotherapy is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that might work through interplay of multiple mechanisms at several levels. As a result, it might be too complex to be explained in relatively simple causal models of psychological change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Century of Progress in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Discoveries and the Next Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Eduardo; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Chen, Gilad

    2017-02-16

    In a century of research published in the Journal of Applied Psychology, we have seen significant advances in our science. The results of this science have broad applications to the workplace and implications for improving organizational effectiveness through a variety of avenues. Research has focused on understanding constructs, relationships, and processes at multiple levels, including individual, team, and organizational. A plethora of research methods and questions have driven this work, resulting in a nuanced understanding of what matters in the workplace. In this paper, we synthesize the most salient discoveries, findings, and/or conclusions in 19 domains. We seek to summarize the progress that has been made and highlight the most salient directions for future work such that the next century of research in industrial and organizational psychological science can be as impactful as the first century has been. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. POOR PROGRESS STUDENTS IN LEARNING MATHEMATICS AS SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tatochenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical substantiation of modern methodical system of Mathematics teaching of poor progressing secondary school pupils. A systematic approach to the study of psycho-pedagogical determinants of poor progress of pupils in math was implemented. The dynamic of interfunctional relationship of structure of educational and informative sphere of poor progressing pupils in mathematics was disclosed and scientific understanding of this process was expanded. The introduction in the educational process of didactic methodical and psychologically balanced methodical control system and correction of poor progressing students’ in Maths improves quality indicators of their permanent knowledge and skills. It allows you to discover the fullness, depth and durability of learning at different stages and levels of education, it contributes to correction, management and partly self-management learning process of poor progressing students in Mathematics, excites them to an active mental activity promotes the development of a conscious attitude to their systematic academic work. The essence of “poor progress” phenomena is observed as well as “educational retardation” of school students during teaching mathematics. Target orientation, the resource potential of the real educational process of poor progressing pupils in Mathematics are determined. Contradictions are singled out and pedagogical conditions of results control of learning outcomes of comprehensive school pupils are proved. An attempt to consider the academic failure of schoolchildren in Mathematics in connection with the main categories of didactics – the content and the learning process was made. Certain shortcomings of teaching and learning activities of students in the study of Mathematics are highlighted as poor progressing elements and gaps. The process and content, enriched with the use of NIT, ensuring the formation of key competencies of lagging behind and

  2. Optimizing psychological interventions for trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder: an update on current empirical status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorrason I

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ivar Snorrason, Gregory S Berlin, Han-Joo Lee Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by a persistent habit of pulling out one's hair. In treatment-seeking populations, hair-pulling disorder can be severe, chronic, and difficult to treat. In the early 1970s, behavioral interventions (eg, habit reversal training were developed and proved effective in treating chronic hair-pulling for many individuals. In order to further increase treatment efficacy and improve long-term outcome, several authors have developed augmented treatment protocols that combine traditional behavioral strategies with other cognitive-behavioral interventions, including cognitive therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. In the present review, we give an overview of the clinical and diagnostic features of hair-pulling disorder, describe different cognitive-behavioral interventions, and evaluate research on their efficacy. Keywords: trichotillomania, hair-pulling, cognitive-behavioral therapy, diagnosis, review

  3. The Spillover Effect of Technological Progress Based on Two Sector Model: An Empirical Study of Chinese Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-hua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the technology has the nature of public good, industrial technology innovation activities have positive externalities on related sectors. Two-sector model is built to identify and calculate the spillover effects of technological progress. Specifically, the industry is divided into two sectors, and technological progress in one sector is added to the production function of the other to research the relationship between technological progress in one sector and output growth of the other. Panel data constituted by time-series from 2000 to 2007 and cross-section data of 31 provinces in Chinese manufacturing sectors is used for empirical testing. The conclusion is drawn that there are very significant spillover effects from the technological progress in equipment manufacturing sector on non-equipment manufacturing sector. The estimated results of different divisions prove that the production efficiency of equipment manufacturing sector and equipment updating speed of non-equipment manufacturing sector influence the spillover effects.

  4. Empirical Validation of a Modern Genetics Progression Web for College Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Amber; Romine, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Research in learning progressions (LPs) has been essential towards building understanding of how students' ideas change over time. There has been little work, however, into how ideas between separate but related constructs within a multi-faceted LP relate. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the idea of "progression webs" to…

  5. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  6. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A; Moulson, Margaret C

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  7. The Importance of Psychological and Social Factors in Influencing the Uptake and Maintenance of Physical Activity after Stroke: A Structured Review of the Empirical Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Morris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. People with stroke are not maintaining adequate engagement in physical activity (PA for health and functional benefit. This paper sought to describe any psychological and social factors that may influence physical activity engagement after stroke. Methods. A structured literature review of studies indexed in MEDLINE, CinAHL, P&BSC, and PsycINFO using search terms relevant to stroke, physical disabilities, and PA. Publications reporting empirical findings (quantitative or qualitative regarding psychological and/or social factors were included. Results. Twenty studies from 19 publications (9 surveys, 1 RCT, and 10 qualitative studies were included. Seventeen studies reported findings pertinent to psychological factors and fourteen findings pertinent to social factors. Conclusion. Self-efficacy, physical activity beliefs, and social support appear particularly relevant to physical activity behaviour after stroke and should be included in theoretically based physical interventions. The Transtheoretical Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour are candidate behavioural models that may support intervention development.

  8. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  9. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  10. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-02-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS) for a good theory. After providing the rationale for TAPAS, this article evaluates several social-psychological theories in terms of TAPAS, especially classic theories, and illustrates its utility with some more recent theoretical contributions of social psychology. This article concludes by outlining recommendations for effective theory construction and development, such as the utility of meta-analytic approaches for pursuing truth, the utility of theory-oriented courses and journals for pursuing abstraction, and the utility of adversarial collaboration for pursuing progress, and reaching out to major personal or societal issues for pursuing applicability.

  11. Discursive social psychology now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today.

  12. Facilitating College Students' Authenticity and Psychological Well-Being through the Use of Mandalas: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Larson, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to examine the relationship between authenticity and psychological well-being, and to examine the effects of creating and interpreting mandalas on the levels of authenticity and psychological well-being of college students. The results and their implications for practice and future research are discussed.…

  13. Facilitating College Students' Authenticity and Psychological Well-Being through the Use of Mandalas: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Larson, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to examine the relationship between authenticity and psychological well-being, and to examine the effects of creating and interpreting mandalas on the levels of authenticity and psychological well-being of college students. The results and their implications for practice and future research are discussed.…

  14. Psycho-neural Identity as the Basis for Empirical Research and Theorization in Psychology: An Interview with Mario A. Bunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; Martin, Toby L.; Julio, Flávia

    2012-10-01

    Mario Bunge is one of the most prolific philosophers of our time. Over the past sixty years he has written extensively about semantics, ontology, epistemology, philosophy of science and ethics. Bunge has been interested in the philosophical and methodological implications of modern psychology and more specifically in the philosophies of the relation between the neural and psychological realms. According to Bunge, functionalism, the philosophical stand of current psychology, has limited explanatory power in that neural processes are not explicitly acknowledged as components or factors of psychological phenomena. In Matter and Mind (2010), Bunge has elaborated in great detail the philosophies of the mind-brain dilemma and the basis of the psychoneural identity hypothesis, which suggests that all psychological processes can be analysed in terms of neural and physical phenomena. This article is the result of a long interview with Dr. Bunge on psychoneural identity and brain-behaviour relations.

  15. Art - a strategic and empirical therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R M

    1975-01-01

    Art therapy in Britain has progressed on two main lines, the empirical (aesthetic) and the strategic (psychological). In the writer's experience neither approach is adequate to deal with one particular style of creative expression, referred to as the basic archaic, linear style, and indicative of severe autistic regression when it becomes stereotyped. Attention is drawn to the importance of the appearance of fragments of other (transitional) styles that may appear and offer the key to therapeutic progress.

  16. Luria-Psychological Thought in Empirical Study%鲁利亚--实证研究中的心理学思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盛力

    2014-01-01

    鲁利亚的心理学思想主要是针对维果斯基社会历史学派的观点进行深入论证。他运用大量的实证研究论述人的认识过程特点和心理结构的形成很大程度上都是由所生活的外部(社会、历史)条件以及存在的社会方式决定的。本文通过梳理鲁利亚关于心理学的部分实证研究,进而阐述鲁利亚的心理学思想以及对心理科学所做出的贡献。%The psychological thought of Luria is mainly aimed at Lev Vygotsky opinions of Social-Cultural historical school for further argument. He used a lot of empirical research on human cognitive process characteristics and the formation of psy-chological structure. He put forward the views that it largely determined by the external living social condition, historical con-ditions and social way of existence. This paper expounds psychological thought of Luria and contribution to the psychological science, according to the materials and articles published abroad of Luria.

  17. The Dynamic Character of a Psychological Contract between the Superior and the Employee (According to Empirical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ROGOZIŃSKA-PAWEŁCZYK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the dynamic character of relationships between superiors and employees in the context of a psychological contract. One of the assumptions is that superiors and employees’ shared understanding of their mutual obligations and expectations underpins the performance of the psychological contract. The article explains the concept of a psychological contract and addresses possible breaches thereto as well as their impact on the shape of relationships between superiors and employees. Information necessary to carry out the analysis was obtained from surveys conducted with 178 representatives of large and medium-sized firms based in Poland and with 800 of their employees. In addition to determining the state and contents of a psychological contract as felt by superiors and employees, the article provides also a description and the rankings of their mutual expectations and obligations related to a psychological contract. The degree of similarity between the opinions of the surveyed superiors and employees on each other’s obligations and expectations was assessed with a specially constructed index (an opinion coincidence index, OCI. the results of the surveys and the direction and amount of OCI’s deviation from show that while employees and superiors frequently differ in the perceptions of their expectations and obligations, there are also areas where their opinions are identical. It has also been found that employees’ perception of the contents of a psychological contract depends on their age and the number of years they have worked in the organisation. This fact points to the dynamic character of a psychological contract.

  18. Spirituality and positive psychology go hand in hand: an investigation of multiple empirically derived profiles and related protective benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Yakov A; Miller, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the relationship between personal spirituality and positive psychology traits as potentially presented in multiple profiles, rather than monolithically across a full sample. A sample of 3966 adolescents and emerging adults (aged 18-25, mean = 20.19, SD = 2.08) and 2014 older adults (aged 26-82, mean = 38.41, SD = 11.26) completed a survey assessing daily spiritual experiences (relationship with a Higher Power and sense of a sacred world), forgiveness, gratitude, optimism, grit, and meaning. To assess the relative protective benefits of potential profiles, we also assessed the level of depressive symptoms and frequency of substance use (tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, and heavy alcohol use). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine common subgroupings of study participants across report on personal spirituality and positive psychology scales in each age cohort, with potential difference between latent classes then tested in level of depressive symptoms and degree of substance use. LCA determined a four-class and a three-class best-fitting models for the younger and older cohorts, respectively. Level of personal spirituality and level of positive psychology traits were found to coincide in 83 % of adolescents and emerging adults and in 71 % of older adults, suggesting personal spirituality and positive psychology traits go hand in hand. A minority subgroup of "virtuous humanists" showed high levels of positive psychology traits but low levels of personal spirituality, across both age cohorts. Whereas level of depression was found to be inversely associated with positive psychology traits and personal spirituality, uniquely personal spirituality was protective against degree of substance use across both age cohorts. Overall interpretation of the study findings suggests that personal spirituality may be foundational to positive psychology traits in the majority of people.

  19. Between the modern and the postmodern. The possibility of self and progressive understanding in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Sugarman, J

    2000-04-01

    Psychology assumes defensible notions of human subjectivity and understanding. Yet, some versions of postmodernism, including some of those currently influential within psychology, eschew the possibility of the kind of understanding-capable personhood on which modern psychology has depended. The authors argue for a skeptical, middle-ground position that might allow psychologists to resist a forced choice between modernism and postmodernism in their subject matter and understanding. The authors set up their argument with 2 stories of human development and change. These stories assume no fixed, essentialist foundations of the sort favored in classically modern psychologies, yet they maintain the possibility of both self and understanding within a real but contingent physical, biological, and sociocultural world. The authors then articulate a middle-ground position as one that avoids the fixed foundationalism, essentialism, and absolute certitude of modernity, without endorsing the radical arbitrariness, antisubjectivism, and anarchistic relativism of some versions of postmodernity.

  20. Now or Later?: An Empirical Investigation of When and Why Students Apply to Clinical Psychology PhD Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimak, Eric H.; Edwards, Katie M.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Suhr, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study used a national sample of PhD students in clinical psychology (N = 1,034) to explore when students decided to pursue their graduate degree, reasons for their decisions, and associated satisfaction. Results indicated that immediately after completing their undergraduate degree, 57% of current graduate students reported postponing…

  1. Psycho-Neural Identity as the Basis for Empirical Research and Theorization in Psychology: An Interview with Mario A. Bunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; Martin, Toby L.; Julio, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    Mario Bunge is one of the most prolific philosophers of our time. Over the past sixty years he has written extensively about semantics, ontology, epistemology, philosophy of science and ethics. Bunge has been interested in the philosophical and methodological implications of modern psychology and more specifically in the philosophies of the…

  2. An Empirical Assessment of REBT Models of Psychopathology and Psychological Health in the Prediction of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Horea-Radu; Hyland, Philip; Vallières, Frédérique; David, Daniel Ovidiu

    2017-03-28

    This study aimed to assess the validity of two models which integrate the cognitive (satisfaction with life) and affective (symptoms of anxiety and depression) aspects of subjective well-being within the framework of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) theory; specifically REBT's theory of psychopathology and theory of psychological health. 397 Irish and Northern Irish undergraduate students completed measures of rational/irrational beliefs, satisfaction with life, and anxiety/depression symptoms. Structural equation modelling techniques were used in order to test our hypothesis within a cross-sectional design. REBT's theory of psychopathology (χ2 = 373.78, d.f. = 163, p < .001; comparative fit index (CFI) = .92; Tucker Lewis index (TLI) = .91; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .06 (95% CI = .05 to .07); standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = .07) and psychological health (χ2 = 371.89, d.f. = 181, p < .001; CFI = .93; TLI = .92; RMSEA = .05 (95% CI = .04 to .06); SRMR = .06) provided acceptable fit of the data. Moreover, the psychopathology model explained 34% of variance in levels of anxiety/depression, while the psychological health model explained 33% of variance. This study provides important findings linking the fields of clinical and positive psychology within a comprehensible framework for both researchers and clinicians. Findings are discussed in relation to the possibility of more effective interventions, incorporating and targeting not only negative outcomes, but also positive concepts within the same model.

  3. Now or Later?: An Empirical Investigation of When and Why Students Apply to Clinical Psychology PhD Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimak, Eric H.; Edwards, Katie M.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Suhr, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study used a national sample of PhD students in clinical psychology (N = 1,034) to explore when students decided to pursue their graduate degree, reasons for their decisions, and associated satisfaction. Results indicated that immediately after completing their undergraduate degree, 57% of current graduate students reported postponing…

  4. The dichotomy of ‘them and us’ thinking in Counselling Psychology incorporating an empirical study on BDSM

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon-Gibbs, S.

    2016-01-01

    Within the field of Counselling Psychology there is very little mention of Bondage and Discipline; Dominance and Submission; and Sadism and Masochism (BDSM). Given the wide range of activities that fall under the umbrella of BDSM (Weinberg, 2006), along with the associated stigma of BDSM (Wright, 2006), the exact prevalence of people engaging in it is unknown. However, the huge popularity of the Fifty Shades of Grey books and film (James, 2012, 2015) suggests that dominance and submission may...

  5. Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

  6. Pragmatic nihilism: how a Theory of Nothing can help health psychology progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; Crutzen, Rik

    2017-06-01

    Health psychology developed a plethora of theories to explain and change a wide variety of behaviours. Several attempts have been undertaken to build integrative theories, some even striving for a Theory of Everything. We argue against these efforts, arguing that instead a 'pragmatic nihilism' perspective may be more fruitful to understand and change health behaviours. The first tenet of pragmatic nihilism is that psychological variables are usefully considered as metaphors rather than referring to entities that exist in the mind. As a consequence, the second tenet emphasizes theories' definitions and guidelines for the operationalisation of those variables. The third tenet of pragmatic nihilism is that each operationalisation represents an intersection of a variety of dimensions, such as behavioural specificity and duration, and most importantly, psychological aggregation level. Any operationalisation thus represents a number of choices regarding these dimensions. Pragmatic nihilism has two implications. First, it provides a foundation that enables integrating theories in a more flexible and accurate manner than made possible by integrative theories. Second, it emphasizes the importance of operationalisations, underlining the importance of investing in the careful development of measurement instruments, thorough reporting of measurement instruments' specifics and performance, and full disclosure of the instruments themselves.

  7. Empirically supported treatments in psychotherapy: towards an evidence-based or evidence-biased psychology in clinical settings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Castelnuovo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of research and practice in psychotherapy has been deeply influenced by two different approaches: the empirically supported treatments (ESTs movement, linked with the evidence-based medicine (EBM perspective and the “Common Factors” approach, typically connected with the “Dodo Bird Verdict”. About the first perspective, since 1998 a list of ESTs has been established in mental health field. Criterions for “well-established” and “probably efficacious” treatments have arisen. The development of these kinds of paradigms was motivated by the emergence of a “managerial” approach and related systems for remuneration also for mental health providers and for insurance companies. In this article ESTs will be presented underlining also some possible criticisms. Finally complementary approaches, that could add different evidence in the psychotherapy research in comparison with traditional EBM approach, are presented.

  8. 抗震救灾医护人员心理干预研究进展%Research progress on psychological intervention for medical personnel of earthquake relief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馥瑜; 刘喜文

    2012-01-01

    从救灾医护人员身心健康状况、影响因素、地震心理卫生服务的一般手段、危机心理干预模式、灾后心理重建、灾后心理干预存在的问题、完善心理卫生服务系统等方面阐述了抗震救灾医护人员心理干预研究进展.%It expounded the research progress on psychological intervention for medical personnel of earthquake relief from aspects of the physical and mental health and its influencing factors of disaster relief medical personnel, general means of earthquake psychological health services, crisis psychological intervention mode,post -disaster psychological reconstruction,existing problems in post - disaster psychological intervention and perfecting mental health service system.

  9. Ten years of Italian historiography of psychology: a field in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Glauco; Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

    2010-08-01

    This article briefly outlines a picture of the activities and research conducted in Italy on the history of psychology during the last 10 years, focusing its attention on institutions, scholars, conferences, archives, journals, and so forth. At the dawn of the 21st century, the tradition of historical-psychological studies that developed in the last quarter of the 20th century has led to a renewed situation in teaching organization and research, with the emergence of several groups, especially at the universities of Rome "Sapienza", Bari, Milan-Bicocca, and Urbino, and of a second generation of young historians increasingly engaged on an international level. After a general survey conducted with historiometric method on the principal areas of research cultivated and on the themes dealt with, we mention a change that has occurred in the historiographical approach, a transition from a historiography addressed prevalently to the "history of ideas" to one that, pursuing the approach of a new and critical "multifactorial" history, proves to be more attentive to the social and institutional history, in correspondence with established international trends.

  10. Life style: progress in measuring life style and its relation with other psychological concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Sánchez López

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on life styles ha ve driven us to consider three studies which analyse the concept and its relationship with other psychological variables. The first study presents an analysis of the activities carried out by a person, asan operational definition of life styles using ADIT self-registering (Self-Registeringof Time Distribution, SRTD, considering individuals who interact with subject in those activities. In the second study, modifications to the original self-record are suggested; eg, the sectionthat registers where and with whom are carried out the activities was eliminated. In the third study, the relationships among life styles, life satisfaction and personality variables are analysed. Therewere 84 persons in the sample assigned to 6 groups, depending on the relationships among these three concepts, as was previously suggested by other studies

  11. [The characteristics of socialization of neuro-psychic development, personal psychological status and school progress of adolescents educated in different conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averiyanova, N I; Ryanjva, N A

    2013-01-01

    The analysis was made of socialization of neuro-psychic development, personal psychological status and school progress of adolescents educated in surrogate families, orphanage, and biological families. In a number of indicators, the level of neuro-psychic development of alumni of orphanage was lower that in case of their peers residing in families. The alumni of orphanage have reliably low mood, reticence, aggressiveness, disposition to negative evaluation of what is going on, compulsive motions, pathological habits. The study testifies that location of child to surrogate family influences positively at one's neuro-psychic development, school progress, personal psychological status. The results of study induce to recommend to services of monitoring of surrogate families to more profoundly analyze psychological status of children since quality of adaptation of children in families in many ways depends on it.

  12. Assessing psychological health and empowerment in women: the Personal Progress Scale Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M; Worell, Judith; Chandler, Redonna K

    2005-01-01

    Empowerment is a primary outcome of many health interventions with women. Typical outcome measures, however focus exclusively on specific symptoms, neglecting the clinically important attitudes and behaviors associated with increased empowerment and well-being. Empowerment is conceptualized as enabling women to access skills and resources to cope more effectively with current as well as future stress and trauma. This study investigated a new measure of personal empowerment in women, the Personal Progress Scale-Revised (PPS-R). Results suggest that the PPS-R is a promising measure of empowerment in women, demonstrating excellent reliability and validity in diverse sample of women. Additionally, the PPS-R demonstrated preliminary utility with a subgroup of abused women, a vulnerable group of women for whom empowerment is a variable of high importance.

  13. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation.; Katsaus ydinonnettomuuksien psykologisiin seurauksiin sekae empiirinen tutkimus saeteilysuojelutoimenpiteiden vaikutuksista kaeyttaeytymiseen kuvitteelisessa tilanteessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukkala, A.; Eraenen, L. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Psychology

    1994-10-01

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.).

  14. Maternal Psychological Status and Nursing Progress%围产期产妇心理状况及护理进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余筱慧

    2014-01-01

    围产期产妇心理状况主要包括恐惧和焦虑、矛盾心理、依赖心理、急躁心理、期待心理、丧失信心;其影响因素有年龄、妊娠期合并疾病、并发症及其社会支持等;心理护理措施有产前健康教育、良好的病房环境、建立良好的护患关系、个体化服务及加强第一产程、第二产程和第三产程的心理护理以促进产程进展,提高自然分娩成功率。%Maternal psychological status in perinatal period is mainly includes fear and anxiety,ambivalence,psychological dependence,impatient psychology,psychological expectations,lose confidence;The influential factors are age,comorbidities andcomplications of pregnancy social support;Psychological nursing measures of prenatal health education,goodenvironment of ward,establishing good nurse patient relationship and individualized service and the strengthening of the first production of stage of labor and third stage psychological nursing in order to promote the progress of labor,improve the success rate of natural childbirth.

  15. A Meta-Meta-Analysis: Empirical Review of Statistical Power, Type I Error Rates, Effect Sizes, and Model Selection of Meta-Analyses Published in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Brannick, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses meta-analyses published in "Psychological Bulletin" from 1995 to 2005 to describe meta-analyses in psychology, including examination of statistical power, Type I errors resulting from multiple comparisons, and model choice. Retrospective power estimates indicated that univariate categorical and continuous moderators, individual…

  16. 幸福观取向理论建构及实证%The Theory Construction And Empirical Research Of Well -Being Views From The Psychological Orientation Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓钧; 江亚丹; 黄威红

    2011-01-01

    well-being views.The structure of the theory includes four orientations:individual-oriented conceptions of subjective well-being,social oriented conceptions of subjective well-being,positive- oriented conceptions of subjective well-being,negative-oriented conceptions of subjective well-being.The factor loadings and the fit indices are fine.The full-scale internal consistency reliability is.853 and full-scale three-week interval test-retest reliability is.810.Furthermore,the result of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis indicates that the whole scale has good reliability and validity.The RMSEA is.045,CFI and NNFI is both.92.All this shows that the scale not only can be used as the empirical research tool of verification of the theory of psychological oriented conceptions of subjective well-being,but also can be used to evaluate the level of personal well-being concept.%尝试用新的理论视角—取向研究视角,对幸福观进行整合研究,建构一种与社会情境结合更紧密,更具概括性的幸福观取向理论。幸福观取向理论的假设建构模型包括四种幸福观取向维度:社会取向,个人取向,积极取向和消极取向。根据理论模型编制幸福观取向量表,以1056名被试为研究对象,运用EFA和CFA对该理论模型进行实证研究。结果证明各维度因素负荷和拟合指数良好,幸福观取向量表显示出良好的信度和建构效度,保证了实证研究的有效性。

  17. Empty-nest-related psychological distress is associated with progression of brain white matter lesions and cognitive impairment in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dandan; Dong, Yuanli; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yingxin; Diao, Yutao; Cui, Yi; Wang, Juan; Chai, Qiang; Liu, Zhendong

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between empty-nest-related psychological distress and the progression of white matter lesions (WMLs) and cognitive impairment in 219 elderly subjects aged 60 years or over. Psychological distress was assessed using the University of California at Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) Short-Form. Cognitive function was evaluated using the MMSE and MoCA. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. After 5.2-year follow-up, the reductions in MMSE and MoCA scores and the increases in periventricular (P)WMH, deep (D)WMH, and total WMH volumes in the empty-nest elderly were greater than those in the non-empty-nest elderly (P < 0.05). The reduced MMSE and MoCA scores and increased volumes of PWMH and total WMH in the empty-nest elderly living alone were greater than those in the empty-nest elderly living with a spouse (P < 0.05). UCLA-LS and GDS scores were significantly and independently associated with reduced MMSE and MoCA scores and the increased volumes of PWMH, DWMH, and total WMH. The results indicate that empty-nest-related psychological distress is associated with progression of WMLs and cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:28256594

  18. The perceiving process and mystical orientation : an empirical study in psychological type theory among participants at the parliament of the world's religions

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCIS, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Cargas, Sarita

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 580 participants attending the Parliament of the World’s Religions in Barcelona 2004 completed the Francis-Louden Mystical Orientation Scale together with a measure of psychological type (the Francis Psychological Type Scales) in order to test the thesis based on Christopher Ross’ work that intuitive types would record significantly higher scores of mystical orientation in comparison with sensing types. The data supported Ross’ theory, and also added to the growing body of evidenc...

  19. Progress in research and work of psychological health in U.S.Armed Forces%美军心理健康维护进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文娜; 楼铁柱; 刁天喜; 吴东

    2011-01-01

    With the United States still involved in military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, psychological and cognitive injuries among those deployed are of growing concern, such as traumatic brain injury ( TBI ), suicide and post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ). This paper reviews the main progress in the research and work of psychological health in the U. S. Armed Forces.%美军自2001年参加阿富汗战争和2003年参加伊拉克战争以来,创伤性脑损伤、自杀、创伤后应激障碍等成为其日益关注的问题.本文围绕目前美军心理健康维护的工作重点,介绍了其在心理健康维护方面的科研和工作进展.

  20. Mathematical knowledge: a case study in empirical philosophy of mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwe, B.; Müller, T.; Wilhelmus, E.; Van Kerkhove, B.; De Vuyst, J.; Van Bendegem, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a paradigm for the philosopher of mathematics who takes mathematical practice seriously: Empirical Philosophy of Mathematics. In this philosophical paradigm, we use empirical methods (from sociology, psychology, cognitive science, didactics) to evaluate empirical questions

  1. An Empirical Study on the Effects of Psychological Ownership on Employees job performance%心理所有权对员工工作绩效的影响机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹科岩; 曹树基; 龙君伟

    2009-01-01

    This study empirically explores the impact of psychological ownership on organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and job performance by surveying the questionnaires of 380 employees from some enterprises. The study proves that with the effects of organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior, psychological ownership has a significant and positive impact on job performance. This means organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior of employees play an intermediary role in psychological ownership and job performance.%为了研究心理所有权与组织承诺、组织公民行为及员工工作绩效之间的关系,对380名企业员工进行了问卷调查.研究结果表明:心理所有权可以通过员工组织承诺和组织公民行为对工作绩效产生影响,即组织承诺和组织公民行为在心理所有权与员工工作绩效之间起中介作用.

  2. Reciprocal Relationships between Resource Loss and Psychological Distress Following Exposure to Political Violence: An Empirical Investigation of COR Theory’s Loss Spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M.; Hall, Brian J.; Russ, Eric U.; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a four-wave prospective study of Palestinian adults living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, interviewed between 2007 and 2009 at 6-month intervals to explore transactional relationships among resource loss (i.e., intra- and inter-personal resource loss) and psychological distress (i.e., PTSD and depression symptoms). Initially, 1196 Palestinians completed the first wave interview and 752 of these participants completed all four interviews. A cross-lagged panel design was constructed to model the effects of trauma exposure on both resource loss and psychological distress and the subsequent reciprocal effects of resource loss and psychological distress across four time waves. Specifically, resource loss was modeled to predict distress, which in turn was expected to predict further resource loss. Structural equation modeling was used to test this design. We found that psychological distress significantly predicts resource loss across shorter, 6-month time waves, but that resource loss predicts distress across longer, 12-month intervals. These findings support the Conservation of Resources theory’s corollary of loss spirals. PMID:22091974

  3. Reciprocal relationships between resource loss and psychological distress following exposure to political violence: an empirical investigation of COR theory's loss spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M; Hall, Brian J; Russ, Eric U; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a four-wave prospective study of Palestinian adults living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, interviewed between 2007 and 2009 at 6-month interval to explore transactional relationships between resource loss (i.e., intra and interpersonal resource loss) and psychological distress (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms). Initially, 1196 Palestinians completed the first wave interview and 752 of these participants completed all four interviews. A cross-lagged panel design was constructed to model the effects of trauma exposure on both resource loss and psychological distress and the subsequent reciprocal effects of resource loss and psychological distress across four time waves. Specifically, resource loss was modeled to predict distress, which in turn was expected to predict further resource loss. Structural equation modeling was used to test this design. We found that psychological distress significantly predicts resource loss across shorter, 6-month time waves, but that resource loss predicts distress across longer, 12-month intervals. These findings support the Conservation of Resources theory's corollary of loss spirals.

  4. How do the middle class and the poor grow apart? An empirical test of the psychological well-being pathway in middle-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, R.J.; Kempen, L.A.C.M. van

    2016-01-01

    How to define who exactly qualifies as middle class is a long-standing discussion, but has been given new impetus by recent contributions in behavioural economics and social psychology. This study investigates the plausibility of the claim that the middle class can be meaningfully defined as those

  5. An Empirical Study on Interaction Among Psychological Contract , Organizational Trust, and Knowledge Sharing Willing%知识员工心理契约、组织信任与知识共享意愿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢福财; 陈小锋

    2012-01-01

    knowl- edge to other individuals or organizations, to help each other learn. By setting the knowledge employees who are the core staff in organizations as study objects and taking organizational trust as mediating variables, this paper tries to construct a model of knowledge worker's psychological contract-knowledge sharing willingness and study the mecha- nism that psychological contract could have on the knowledge sharing willingness by empirical study which sample includes 24 high-tech enterprises of Shanghai, Wenzhou and Nanchang etc. The result suggests : ( 1 ) transactional psychological contract is negatively related to an employee's willingness to share explicit/tacit knowledge; relational psychological contract has a positive and the greatest influence on employee's willingness of explicit/tacit knowledge sharing; Developmental psychological contract is positively relat- ed to an employee's willingness to share explicit knowledge, but does not affect tacit knowledge sharing willingness. (2) Not transactional psychological contract, but relational and developmental psychological contract meet the high- er, the higher trust in the organization; (3) Relational and developmental psychological contract affect the explicit/ tacit knowledge sharing willingness through the organization trust as mediation variables, in addition, organizational trust plays a partial mediation role between relational psychological contract and knowledge sharing willingness, and plays a full mediation role between developmental psychological contract and knowledge sharing wilingness. Some advices can be made in accordance with the study results : ( 1 ) we can find that psychological contract has significant effect on knowledge worker's behavior willingness from the data analyze result, therefore we should pay more attention to the psychological contract management of knowledge workers. (2) Substantial encouragement on individual is usually considered being

  6. Therapist and Patient Perceptions of Alliance and Progress in Psychological Therapy for Women Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Rubin, Stephen; Hernandez, Enrique; Bergman, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to understand both therapist and patient perspectives on alliance and session progress for women in treatment for gynecological cancer. We used a longitudinal version of the one-with-many design to partition variation in alliance and progress ratings into therapist, patient/dyad, and time-specific components. We also…

  7. 精神心理因素与功能性胃肠疾病的研究进展%Psychological Factors and Functional Gastrointestinal Disease Research Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱慧彬

    2011-01-01

    Functional gastrointestional disorders( FGIDs )is a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms which can not be explained with organic diseases or abnormal biochemical or pathological index so far. WHO proposed that "health is not only the absence of disease, but also physical health, mental health, good social and moral health." Modern medicine advocates biological-psychological-social medical model,making exploration and study of psychological factors a hot research point in the occurrence and development of diseases, especially in this type of psychosomatic disease. A large number of studies have shown that life events, mental stress, emotional disorders and other psychological factors seriously affect the genesis, progress and treatment of these diseases. Here is to review the research status of spiritual and psychological factors influence on FGIDs and the possible meachanisms, psychotherapy prognosis on FGIDs.%功能性胃肠病(FGIDs)是一类具有消化道症状而目前暂不能用器质性病变或生化、病理指标异常来解释的疾病.WHO提出"健康不仅是没有疾病,而且包括躯体健康、心理健康、社会适应良好和道德健康".现代医学倡导生物-心理-社会医学模式,使得精神心理因素在疾病的发生、发展中的作用成为研究热点之一.不同的精神心理因素影响这类疾病的发生、进展和治疗.现就精神心理因素对FGIDs的影响及可能机制和心理治疗对FGID预后的研究现状予以综述.

  8. 护理人员心理授权的研究进展%Research progress of nurses' psychological empowerment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪曼君; 叶志弘; 徐凌丽

    2015-01-01

    Nurses' psychological empowerment plays an important role on nurses themselves, organization and patient's outcomes. It has caused nursing scholars wide concern in recent years. In order to provide references for further research, this paper summarized the connotation, model, measurement, inlfuencing factors, and effects of psychological empowerment.%护理人员的心理授权对护士自身、组织、患者结局有促进作用,已得到了护理学者的广泛关注。本文将对心理授权的内涵、模型、测量方法、影响因素及作用效果进行综述,旨在为护理人员心理授权的进一步研究提供参考。

  9. 护士心理资本的研究进展%Research progress of nurses' psychological capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万娅姣; 王英

    2013-01-01

    This paper expounded the definition construction, commonly used measurement scales, influencing factors and the related research on nurses' psychological capital. It is aimed to provide reference for future research in the field of nursing intervention on the psychological capital.%本文通过对现有文献进行总结、归纳,整理出心理资本的概念、构成、常用测量量表及影响因素,并就国内外学者对于护士心理资本的相关研究进行介绍,旨在为进一步的研究提供参考.

  10. 讯问人员心理压力及其应对的实证性研究%An Empirical Study on the Interrogator Psychological Pressure and Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘启刚; 周立秋

    2014-01-01

    讯问工作所具有的高负荷、高应激的特点决定了讯问人员是心理失调的高发人群。针对当前讯问人员心理压力的现状和存在的问题,需从讯问人员个体预防和优化工作机制方面采取有针对性的举措加以解决。%Because the characteristics of interrogation works are high load and high stress, the interrogators are high risk population bearing psychological pressure. We put forward some prevention and mitigation solutions for the current status of interrogation personnel psychological pressure and problems from the perspective of interrogators individual prevention and optimization mechanism.

  11. Research progress on psychological health of nursing undergraduates and interven-tion methods%护理本科生心理健康及干预方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金瑞华; 王艳; 郑洁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize the concept of psychological health and psychological health status of nursing undergraduates and research progress on psychological health intervention for them.The impact factors of the psychological health of nursing undergraduates were analyzed , the significance was pointed out that we promoted education work of nursing undergraduate psychological health and trained high-quality nursing talents.%综述了心理健康概念和护理本科生的心理健康现状,以及目前对护生心理健康干预的研究进展,分析了影响护理本科生心理健康的因素,指出了素质教育体系下推进护理本科生心理健康教育工作,培养高质量护理人才的意义。

  12. Medical progress, psychological factors and global care of the patient: lessons from the treatment of childhood leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Digilio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of treatment of childhood leukemia is a meaningful model of ethical, bioethical and organizational repercussions of medical progress. Specifically, it has provided precious indications and very useful tools to cope with several of the more important problems of modern medicine: the value of controlled randomized studies; the risks of intense medicalization impairing the quality of care; the importance of a valid doctor-patient relationship; the psycho-emotive involvement of the pediatric staff; and last but not least, the need of an unrelenting effort of humanization of the procedures and environments, hand in hand with the frequent adjustments of the protocols according to scientific and technological progress. Finally, the authors comment upon the first cures (1962-1966 observed in the Pediatrics Clinic of the Sapienza University of Rome.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  14. 雇佣契约对心理契约破坏影响的实证研究%Empirical Study Concerning the Effect of Employment Contract to Psychological Contract Breach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊耘; 纪晓鹏; 邵芳

    2011-01-01

    Using 222 employees in a state owned bank as sample, with help of SEM and hierarchical multivariate linear regression , this paper explored impacts of psychological contract breach on job satisfaction and turnover intention, which is moderated by labor contract types and continuance commitment to relationships. Empirical results showed that, firstly, psychological contract breach negatively related to job satisfaction, and positively related to turnover intention. Secondly, type of labor contract only moderated relationship between psychological contract and job satisfaction, and comparing to perpetual employees, contingent employees decreased their job satisfaction to a greater extend. Thirdly, continuance commitment buffered relationships between psychological contract breach and job satisfaction/turnover intention.%以中国某国有银行支行222名员工为样本,应用结构方程模型和分步骤多元回归等统计分析方法,研究雇佣契约对员工心理契约破坏反应的影响,即心理契约破坏与员工工作态度(工作满意度和离职倾向)间关系中雇佣契约(雇佣契约类型和持续承诺)具有的调节作用.实证结果表明,企业心理契约破坏与员工工作满意度负相关,与离职倾向正相关;雇佣契约类型调节心理契约破坏与员工工作满意度间关系,即与长期雇员相比,短期雇员工作满意度水平的变化程度更大,雇佣契约类型对心理契约破坏与离职倾向间关系不具有调节作用;持续承诺弱化了心理契约破坏与工作满意度、离职倾向间的关系,即与持续承诺低的员工相比,持续承诺高的员工对心理契约破坏的反应更为平和.

  15. Acceptance and commitment therapy: empirical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Neil A

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), including behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and their integration, has evolved over the past four decades to become the most empirically supported psychological treatment for a range of psychiatric conditions, spanning the preponderance of Axis I disorders, selected Axis II disorders, and a range of associated clinical-health problems. The evolution of cognitive-behavioral theory and treatment has followed a coherent scientific framework, first introduced in the cognitive-behavioral modeling and treatment of depression, to include: (a) systematic clinical observations, (b) definition and psychometric operationalization of key disorder-specific cognitive, emotional and behavioral constructs, (c) laboratory investigation of operationalized disorder-specific processes, (d) development of comprehensive CBT treatment interventions to target the processes of empirically tested disorder-specific models, (e) progression from early noncontrolled clinical outcome studies to the development of sophisticated, large-scale randomized controlled trials testing disorder-specific CBT interventions, (f) examination of disorder-specific moderators and mediators of change in CBT treatment, and (g) openness to refinements and elaborations based on empirical updates from experimental and clinical investigations. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  17. Common sense, intuition, and theory in personality and social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical work in personality and social psychology benefits from a well-developed understanding of the prior empirical and theoretical work on a problem and from informed intuitions. Intuitions develop about a subject matter through years of study, investigation, and problem solving, just as chess masters develop a sophisticated set of cognitive structures that change the very appearance of the chess board. In part because the subject matter is so personal, students new to personality and social psychology arrive with many intuitions, prior beliefs, and naive theories about social processes and behavior based on unsystematic experiences and observations. These intuitions can hinder or foster theoretical progress. The role of mentors, critiques, and empirical tests in minimizing the deleterious effects of these entry biases is discussed. Refined scientific intuitions are also subject to error, however, so means of minimizing these errors are also discussed.

  18. 跨文化的实证法学研究:文化心理学的挑战与贡献%Challenge and Contribution of Cultural Psychology to Empirical Legal Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘邦惠; 彭凯平

    2012-01-01

    跨文化的实证法学研究把文化心理学的理论突破和心理学的实证方法引入到对法学基本原理的研究之中.文化心理学研究中发现的东西方文化在价值定向、道德判断和思维方式等方面的差异能够给跨文化实证法学研究带来重要的启示.在对一些重要法律问题的认识上,例如法律中的因果关系和责任的判定、合同形成以及纠纷调解等方面,跨文化心理学研究已经发现了显著的跨文化差异,这些差异可能会影响到不同文化背景的人对法的认识、法的建设以及法律的应用.我们认为跨文化的实证法学研究不仅可以为法学研究提供一条新的研究路径,更主要的是还可以为中国法学研究的国际化和国际法律纠纷提供理论指导.%Empirical legal studies can benefit from the research findings of cultural psychology to understand the fundamental principles of law. Research findings in cultural psychology have shown that Eastern Asian cultures and North American cultures differ significantly in value orientations, moral judgments and cognitive styles. East Asian values emphasize collectivism and North American values emphasize individualism. East Asiansmoral reasons are centered on the principles of duties and responsibilities whereas North American moral reasons are centered on the principles of autonomy and justice. East Asian cognitive styles tend to be more holistic, focusing on context, backgrounds and relations and the North American cognitive styles tend to be more analytic, focusing on objects, categories and dispositions.Such cultural differences have profound implications in legal understanding and legal practices, as laws are human machinery and are subject to the influence of human values, moralities and cognition. Mounting evidence in cross-cultural legal studies has shown East and West differences in causation inquiry, responsibility judgments, contract formation and mediation practices

  19. Freud in Introductory Psychology Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Christian J.

    1976-01-01

    Discussed are presentations and evaluations of Freud found in psychology textbooks from 1908 to 1975 in terms of the empirical versus the nonempirical views about the proper subject matter of psychology. Findings indicate that psychologists remain divided in their attitudes toward Freud. (Author/DB)

  20. The seemingly quixotic pursuit of a cumulative psychological science: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Patrick J

    2009-06-01

    The goal of any empirical science is to pursue the construction of a cumulative base of knowledge upon which the future of the science may be built. However, there is mixed evidence that the science of psychology can accurately be characterized by such a cumulative progression. Indeed, some argue that the development of a truly cumulative psychological science is not possible with the current paradigms of hypothesis testing in single-study designs. The author explores this controversy as a framework to introduce the 6 articles that make up this special issue on the integration of data and empirical findings across multiple studies. The author proposes that the methods and techniques described in this set of articles can significantly propel researchers forward in their ongoing quest to build a cumulative psychological science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Improved Student Reasoning About Carbon-Transforming Processes Through Inquiry-Based Learning Activities Derived from an Empirically Validated Learning Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    JW, Schramm; Jin, H.; Keeling, EG; Johnson, M.; Shin, HJ

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports on our use of a fine-grained learning progression to assess secondary students' reasoning through carbon-transforming processes (photosynthesis, respiration, biosynthesis). Based on previous studies, we developed a learning progression with four progress variables: explaining mass changes, explaining energy transformations, explaining subsystems, and explaining large-scale systems. For this study, we developed a 2-week teaching module integrating these progress variables. Students were assessed before and after instruction, with the learning progression framework driving data analysis. Our work revealed significant overall learning gains for all students, with the mean post-test person proficiency estimates higher by 0.6 logits than the pre-test proficiency estimates. Further, instructional effects were statistically similar across all grades included in the study (7th-12th) with students in the lowest third of initial proficiency evidencing the largest learning gains. Students showed significant gains in explaining the processes of photosynthesis and respiration and in explaining transformations of mass and energy, areas where prior research has shown that student misconceptions are prevalent. Student gains on items about large-scale systems were higher than with other variables (although absolute proficiency was still lower). Gains across each of the biological processes tested were similar, despite the different levels of emphasis each had in the teaching unit. Together, these results indicate that students can benefit from instruction addressing these processes more explicitly. This requires pedagogical design quite different from that usually practiced with students at this level.

  2. Empirical likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Art B

    2001-01-01

    Empirical likelihood provides inferences whose validity does not depend on specifying a parametric model for the data. Because it uses a likelihood, the method has certain inherent advantages over resampling methods: it uses the data to determine the shape of the confidence regions, and it makes it easy to combined data from multiple sources. It also facilitates incorporating side information, and it simplifies accounting for censored, truncated, or biased sampling.One of the first books published on the subject, Empirical Likelihood offers an in-depth treatment of this method for constructing confidence regions and testing hypotheses. The author applies empirical likelihood to a range of problems, from those as simple as setting a confidence region for a univariate mean under IID sampling, to problems defined through smooth functions of means, regression models, generalized linear models, estimating equations, or kernel smooths, and to sampling with non-identically distributed data. Abundant figures offer vi...

  3. An introduction to comparative evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd K

    2013-07-18

    Previously we (Vonk and Shackelford, 2012, in press) proposed an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology into a new field of "comparative evolutionary psychology." This integrative discipline incorporates principles from ethology, ecology, biology, anthropology, and psychology, broadly defined. We present in this special issue a collection of original empirical and theoretical review articles in which leading researchers propose ways to successfully integrate comparative and evolutionary approaches within their particular areas of study. We showcase the key contributions of these articles and highlight several empirical and theoretical challenges, as well as key future directions, for comparative evolutionary psychology.

  4. An Introduction to Comparative Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vonk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously we (Vonk and Shackelford, 2012, in press proposed an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology into a new field of “comparative evolutionary psychology.” This integrative discipline incorporates principles from ethology, ecology, biology, anthropology, and psychology, broadly defined. We present in this special issue a collection of original empirical and theoretical review articles in which leading researchers propose ways to successfully integrate comparative and evolutionary approaches within their particular areas of study. We showcase the key contributions of these articles and highlight several empirical and theoretical challenges, as well as key future directions, for comparative evolutionary psychology.

  5. Predicting Real-World Effectiveness of Cancer Therapies Using Overall Survival and Progression-Free Survival from Clinical Trials: Empirical Evidence for the ASCO Value Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakdawalla, Darius N; Shafrin, Jason; Hou, Ningqi; Peneva, Desi; Vine, Seanna; Park, Jinhee; Zhang, Jie; Brookmeyer, Ron; Figlin, Robert A

    To measure the relationship between randomized controlled trial (RCT) efficacy and real-world effectiveness for oncology treatments as well as how this relationship varies depending on an RCT's use of surrogate versus overall survival (OS) endpoints. We abstracted treatment efficacy measures from 21 phase III RCTs reporting OS and either progression-free survival or time to progression endpoints in breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers. For these treatments, we estimated real-world OS as the mortality hazard ratio (RW MHR) among patients meeting RCT inclusion criteria in Surveillance and Epidemiology End Results-Medicare data. The primary outcome variable was real-world OS observed in the Surveillance and Epidemiology End Results-Medicare data. We used a Cox proportional hazard regression model to calibrate the differences between RW MHR and the hazard ratios on the basis of RCTs using either OS (RCT MHR) or progression-free survival/time to progression surrogate (RCT surrogate hazard ratio [SHR]) endpoints. Treatment arm therapies reduced mortality in RCTs relative to controls (average RCT MHR = 0.85; range 0.56-1.10) and lowered progression (average RCT SHR = 0.73; range 0.43-1.03). Among real-world patients who used either the treatment or the control arm regimens evaluated in the relevant RCT, RW MHRs were 0.6% (95% confidence interval -3.5% to 4.8%) higher than RCT MHRs, and RW MHRs were 15.7% (95% confidence interval 11.0% to 20.5%) higher than RCT SHRs. Real-world OS treatment benefits were similar to those observed in RCTs based on OS endpoints, but were 16% less than RCT efficacy estimates based on surrogate endpoints. These results, however, varied by tumor and line of therapy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Theoretical and Empirical Research Progress in Evaluating Environmental Regulation Strength%环境规制强度测度理论与实证进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 李颖

    2012-01-01

    With increasing importance of environmental issues in the global economy and politics fields, Envi- ronmental regulation has been a research focus in the field of economics. A great amount of inspiring achievements constantly enrich people's understanding of environmental regulation itself and its impacts in the perspective of Eco- nomics. Although theoretical research has generated a lot of breakthroughs, empirical study in this field is facing obstacles of evaluating indicator, that is how to choose and acquire appropriate indicators to make comparisons among countries or industries. Due to lack of appropriate and consistent evaluating indicator, similar empirical re- searches often reach to contrary conclusions or insignificant regression results, making the conclusions of empirical researches less convincing. By researching and comparing domestic and foreign literatures of Environmental Regula- tion, it's found that foreign indicators follow a clear development route, from qualitative description to simple quan- titative indicator and then to composite index, from input oriented to output-oriented. Input-oriented indicator includes Pollution Abatement Cost (similar indicator such as regulation compliance cost), pollution control invest- ment, number of inspections and government expenditure, while output-oriented indicator includes discharge fee/ tax and major pollutants emissions. After being introduced into empirical study by Walter & Ugelow( 1979), com- posite index has experienced a transformation from mainly input-oriented indicator based to input-oriented indicator based while EPI index has been created and widely used to describe a country's environmental performance. Do- mestic literatures mainly cpncentrate on two kinds of simple quantitative indicators, Pollution Control Investment and Pollutant Emissions, and composite index based on them. In recent years, indicator selection in domestic re- search has been developed to be more complex and various

  7. Progress on application of psychological empowerment in nursing management%心理授权在护理管理中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李为华; 吴美福

    2011-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the concept of psychological empowerment and its measurement tools,it reviewed mainly the application of psychological empowerment in nursing management.%在介绍心理授权概念及其测量工具的基础上,重点对心理授权在护理管理中的应用情况进行综述.

  8. 电子游戏对儿童心理发展影响的实证研究%An Empirical Study on the Effects of Video Games on Children's Psychological Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彪; 陈卫东

    2012-01-01

    As a representative product of the development in new technology and new culture,video games have become an important recreational way for children.Meanwhile,the influence of video games upon children,especially the sound development of children's psychology,has also drawn the concern from all the fields in society.Empirical research indicates that video games,if well taken advantage of,can develop children's multiple intelligences and thus be used as a very good educational resource.Different types of electronic games have their own advantages in different ways.As a result,the designers and developers of video games ought to make full use of the intelligence advantages of video games,develop electronic games fit for the development of children's multiple intelligences,and reduce their negative influences on the development of children's intelligences.%电子游戏作为新技术和新文化发展的代表产物,已成为儿童的重要娱乐方式。与此同时,电子游戏对儿童尤其是儿童心理发展的影响已引起了社会各界的关注。实证研究表明,电子游戏如果合理利用,可以培养儿童的多元智能,成为一种很好的教育资源。不同类型电子游戏对开发和培养儿童单项智能具有不同的优势。游戏设计开发人员和教育工作者应设计开发适合儿童多元智能发展的电子游戏作品,发挥电子游戏所具有的智能开发的优势,减少电子游戏对儿童智能发展的不利影响。

  9. 大学生运动损伤后的心理反应及心理康复研究进展%Progresses of Psychological Responses and Psychological Rehabilitation Researching after Athletic Injury on College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚晓明

    2012-01-01

      The author analyzed and summarized the psychological responses and the means of psychological rehabilitation after sports injury of college students through literature research,and also offered some considerations according to correlated reseaches about it all over the world.%  作者运用文献综述法,分析并总结大学生运动损伤后的心理反应和运动损伤的心理康复手段,同时,结合国内外相关研究,提出一些见解和建议。

  10. An Introduction to Comparative Evolutionary Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Vonk; Todd K. Shackelford

    2013-01-01

    Previously we (Vonk and Shackelford, 2012, in press) proposed an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology into a new field of “comparative evolutionary psychology.” This integrative discipline incorporates principles from ethology, ecology, biology, anthropology, and psychology, broadly defined. We present in this special issue a collection of original empirical and theoretical review articles in which leading researchers propose ways to successfully integrate compara...

  11. Eleven rules for a more successful clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Steven C

    2005-09-01

    The recommendations put forth in the target article, "Twenty-First Century Graduate Education in Clinical Psychology: A Four Level Matrix Model" (C.R. Snyder & T.R. Elliott, this issue, pp. 1033-1054), should be regarded in the context of the large need to develop a more progressive and effective discipline. No amount of "brute force" education and empiricism is certain to solve the problems of the scope of our field identified by the authors. Eleven rules are offered and defended that may lead to a more practically and empirically successful field.

  12. Discursive and scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Derek

    2012-09-01

    I begin with the origins of Loughborough University's Discourse and Rhetoric Group (DARG), and in particular discursive psychology (DP). Rather than attempting to summarize DP, versions of which are plentiful, the article attempts to clarify various relationships and tensions between DP and other kinds of social psychology, particularly experimental. Common sense psychology is defined as DP's topic rather than rival; the aim is to study how people deploy everyday psychological notions and manage psychological business within talk and text, and what they accomplish by such deployments, rather than trying, as experimental psychology is often characterized as doing, to replace it all with something purportedly better. Claims for DP being particularly interpretative rather than scientific are rejected, by appeal to an 'interpretative gap' between phenomena, data, analysis, and conclusions that all research must manage, that gap being often much larger in quantitative and experimental work. The importance of pursuing causal explanations of psychological phenomena is questioned, and the importance asserted, of discovering, through rigorous empirical and conceptual analysis, the normative bases of human conduct and accountability.

  13. 青少年心理应激应对的研究进展%Research Progress of Tackling Teenage Psychological Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董磊; 陈开梅

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of literature review,the paper first defines psychological stress and then expounds on the structure of tackling teenage psychological stress from perspective of function,effect and Matheny view.The paper finally points out the deficiency of researches on teenage psychological stress.%本文在文献综述的基础上,首先,对心理应激的定义进行了界定;其次,从功能、效果和 Matheny 观点3种角度对青少年心理应激应对的结构进行了阐述;最后,提出了青少年心理应激研究的不足之处。

  14. Research progress on psychological analysis of nasal deformity patients%鼻畸形患者心理分析的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯思; 许晨婕; 王珮华

    2016-01-01

    随着社会和经济的日益进步,人们除了关注鼻畸形对身体美观和功能的影响外,心理压力和治疗过程对鼻畸形患者心理行为的影响也越来越受到重视。为此,国内外学者逐渐开始进行鼻畸形相关的心理学方面的研究,并从主观的临床评价转向具有客观评定指标的量表测量,设计相关量表作为测量工具来评价患者的心理现象特征。本文就近年来与鼻畸形相似的颌面部畸形患者的心理进行分析,进而研究鼻畸形患者的心理现象,并探讨其在国内尚待深入的研究方向。%With the development of society and economy,people pay attention to not only the function and beautiful outlook of nasal deformity,but also the psychological pressure resulted from nasal deformity and psychological impacts of deformity treatment. Domestic and foreign scholars gradually began to study psychology of patients with nasal deformity,and turned from subjective clin-ical judgement to questionnaires with objective evaluation items,designing various correlated questionnaires to evaluate patients’ psychological phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest relative research on psychological impacts of maxillofa-cial deformity patients,which is similar to nasal deformity patients,to research nasal deformity patients’ psychological phenome-non and to discuss the further domestic research direction.

  15. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo E. Iso-Ahola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1 scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative; (2 non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3 statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4 psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance, not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.

  16. 浅析心理学在中国文明进程中的作用%Reflections on the Function of Psychology in Chinese Civilization Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路易斯·希金斯

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Chinese psychology: its historical roots; how it developed; and its state today; how psychologists are trained and educated; what kind of work they do; and some of the problems facing psychology in China today.%分析中国心理学的历史、发展和现状,指出中国文明和心理学在人类历史上辉煌的过去,描述现代心理学在中国的发展和现存的不足,将中西方的心理学进行对比分析.

  17. Empire Redux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    The Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism and permeated with imperial rhetoric, imagery and memories, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship and belonging. The current dispute, moreover, is frequently framed in terms of national identity, and accusations of imperialism...... and neo-colonialism persist. Thus in dealing with the conflict, historians and commentators alike have often made references to imperial legacies, yet this has rarely been afforded much careful analysis. Views on this matter continue to be entrenched, either presenting the war as a throwback to nineteenth...... from the legacies of empire. Taking decolonization as a starting point, this thesis demonstrates how the idea of a ‘British world’ gained a new lease of life vis-à-vis the Falklands, as the Islanders adopted the rhetorical mantle of ‘abandoned Britons’. Yet this new momentum was partial and fractured...

  18. Empire Redux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    from the legacies of empire. Taking decolonization as a starting point, this thesis demonstrates how the idea of a ‘British world’ gained a new lease of life vis-à-vis the Falklands, as the Islanders adopted the rhetorical mantle of ‘abandoned Britons’. Yet this new momentum was partial and fractured......The Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism and permeated with imperial rhetoric, imagery and memories, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship and belonging. The current dispute, moreover, is frequently framed in terms of national identity, and accusations of imperialism......, as evinced by the developments triggered by the Argentine invasion in 1982. Despite the apparent firmness of the British government’s commitment to the Islands, cracks and fissures over the meaning of Britishness were simultaneously magnified. The perceived temporal dislocation of defending loyal Britons...

  19. [Positive occupational health psychology: an introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo

    2012-02-01

    This article introduces the monographic section on Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP), presenting eight theoretical and empirical papers about diverse topics. Traditionally, research on occupational health has mainly been focused on causes of diseases and on identifying and preventing work factors related to worker's impaired health. However, this biased view may not provide a complete understanding of the mechanisms that lead to employee well-being and performance. We discuss the differences of POHP with similar constructs, and review reasons for its importance in the development of this field. Overall, the studies included in the monographic section show the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs, and present ideas and questions that we hope may help to further our progress in the field of POHP.

  20. The research progress and methodological value of the rhetoric psychology%修辞心理学的研究进展及其方法论价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋美谕

    2013-01-01

      语言是思维的重要工具,同时也是思维活动的成果,人类语言离不开各种修辞,而人们在利用修辞行使达意传情尽可能适切、圆满的语言调配活动中就产生了修辞心理,修辞心理学正是对修辞心理现象和规律进行研究的科学。修辞心理学作为一门由修辞学和心理学交叉衍生出的独特科学,虽有吴礼权博士大体建立了其学科体系,但其后发展并不迅速,希望修辞心理学能得到应有的重视。%Language is the important tool of thinking, also is the gain of conceptual work. Human language cannot leave all kinds of rhetoric. The rhetoric psychology emerged when people using rhetorics to make the language deployment activities as compatible as possible. The rhetoric psychology is a science which is committed to study phenomena and laws of the rhetoric psychology. This paper briefly introduces the discipline establishment and the present status of development of the rhetoric psychology. Illustrates part of the research results, elaborated the methodology value of the rhetoric psychology.

  1. Psychological profiling of offender characteristics from crime behaviors in serial rape offences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W; Irwin, Harvey J

    2002-04-01

    Criminal psychological profiling has progressively been incorporated into police procedures despite a dearth of empirical research. Indeed, in the study of serial violent crimes for the purpose of psychological profiling, very few original, quantitative, academically reviewed studies actually exist. This article reports on the analysis of 62 incidents of serial sexual assault. The statistical procedure of multidimensional scaling was employed in the analysis of this data, which in turn produced a five-cluster model of serial rapist behavior. First, a central cluster of behaviors were identified that represent common behaviors to all patterns of serial rape. Second, four distinct outlying patterns were identified as demonstrating distinct offence styles, these being assigned the following descriptive labels brutality, intercourse, chaotic, and ritual. Furthermore, analysis of these patterns also identified distinct offender characteristics that allow for the use of empirically robust offender profiles in future serial rape investigations.

  2. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  3. Empirical Study of Thematic Progression Theory in College English Writing Teaching%主位推进理论在大学英语写作教学中的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马贺丹

    2014-01-01

    将主位推进理论引入到英语写作教学中,利用实证研究的方法,对实验班和控制班60名非英语专业二年级学生在实验前后所写的英语作文得分以及实验班学生在实验前后所写作文中使用主位类型和主位推进模式进行对比分析,主要探讨其与英语写作之间的关系。实验借助统计学软件SPSS17.0对所得数据进行描述统计和独立样本T检验。结果显示,实验后学生使用的主位及主位推进模式多样化,作文整体水平得到了显著性提高,尤其是篇章的连贯性。%In this paper, the thematic progression theory is introduced into English writing teaching in order to discuss the relationship between them. By an empirical study, the paper compares the scores of the English compositions written by 60 sophomore non-English major students, and at the same time, ana-lyzes the types of theme and thematic progression patterns in the compositions of the experiment class before and after the experiment. The data are collected and processed by using the descriptive statis-tics and independent samples T-test of the statistical software SPSS17.0. The results demonstrate that more diversified and flexible types of theme and TP patterns are found in the compositions after the experiment and their compositions, especially the textual coherence, have been significantly improved.

  4. FDI对我国中部地区技术进步影响的实证研究%Empirical Research on the Influence of FDI on Improving Technological Progress of the Middle Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海兵; 李华

    2013-01-01

    梳理了中部地区吸收利用FDI的现状和特征,计算出了中部的TFP(全要素生产率),并以此作为技术进步的衡量指标,构建VAR模型对FDI和TFP的相关性进行实证分析.结果表明,短期内FDI对中部地区的技术进步有一定的促进作用,但长期来看促进作用并不十分显著.中部地区在吸收利用FDI过程中要引导技术引进,加强自主创新;创造公平环境,扶持本土企业;鼓励中外合资,强化技术合作.%This article has described the present situation and characteristic of the middle areas of China attract and utilize foreign capital.TFP of the middle areas has been calculated,and been used to measure technological progress.Through constructing VAB Model,this article has empirically analyzed the relationship between FDI and TFP.The result proves that FDI has some facilitation to the technological progress of the middle areas in the short term,but in the long run,the facilitation is not very significant.In the process of attracting and using foreign capital,the middle areas of China should guide technology transfer,and strengthen independent innovation; create a fair environment,and support local enterprises; encourage Sino-foreign joint venture,and strengthen fechnical cooperation.

  5. Research on the Psychological Contract Violation and Reestablishment of University Librarians --Empirical Investigation and Analysis of University Librarians in Shaanxi Province%高校图书馆员心理契约违背与重建研究——陕西省高校图书馆员实证调研与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井水

    2012-01-01

    图书馆2.0时代馆员心理契约有了新的内涵。通过对陕西省高校图书馆员的实证调研可知,影响馆员心理契约违背的变量包括组织支持感、领导一成员交换关系、组织政治行为和个体认知差异。从社会交换理论的角度构建馆员心理契约违背的嵌套模型,有助于提升高校图书馆员组织支持感,合理利用领导成员交换关系,减少组织公民政治行为,满足馆员个性化心理需求,重建馆员心理契约。%In the era of Lib2.0, the psychological contract of librarians has new connotations. The empirical investigation into university librarians in Shaanxi province shows that variables influencing the psychological contract violation of librarians include the perceived organizational support, the leader-member exchange relationship, the organizational political behavior, individual cognitive differences. Constructing the nested model of the psychological contract violation from the view of the social exchange theory contributes to promoting the perceived organizational support of university librarians, making use of the leader-member exchange relationship rationally, reducing the organizational political behavior, satisfying the personalized psychological demand, and reestablishing the psychological contract of librarians.

  6. 心理因素与颞下颌关节紊乱的研究进展%Research progress about role of psychological factors in temporomandibular disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘法鑫; 蒋立坚

    2013-01-01

    颞下颌关节紊乱病(TMD)是口腔科常见却难治的疾病之一.尽管对TMD认识日益加深,但由于其病因复杂,目前发病机理尚未完全阐明.近年来TMD的心理因素及心理治疗研究越来越受到重视,相关的心理因素种类繁多.本文对心理因素在TMD的发生、发展和诊断治疗作用的研究进展结合国内外文献对其进行综述.%Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is one of the most common and refractory disease.Although increasing knowledge was gained,the pathogenic mechanism of TMD has not been fully clarified due to the complex causes.Recently,the research about its psychological factors and psychological treatment were gained increasing attention,and various related psychological factors were reported.This review is about the occurrence,development,diagnosis and treatments of TMD,which based on domestic and international literatures.

  7. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive psycholog

  8. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  9. Martial arts and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J R

    1988-12-01

    The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.

  10. 心理实验系统教学效果的实证研究%An empirical study on teaching effects of two kinds of psychology experiment systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 吕庆燕

    2012-01-01

    Accompanied by tendency of computerization of psychology research, as well as the integration of teaching and information technology, now the psychology experiment system(PES) and E-Prime system are the main psychology experiment systems in the experimental psychology teaching. This paper investigates and analyzes the effects of two kinds of psychology experiment systems in the experimental psychology teaching with experiments and questionnaires. The results show that both systems can effectively promote the expertise, develop the capacity and foster professional interest of students in learning. Both systems show their respective advantages and disadvantages. This paper suggests teachers should combine the two systems to a-chieve better teaching results.%伴随心理学研究计算机化趋势的出现,以及信息技术与学科教学整合的需要,当前实验心理学教学中主要使用了PES与E-Prime 2种心理实验系统.研究通过实验和问卷调查分析了2种心理实验系统在教学中的效果.结果表明:2种心理实验系统有效促进了学生专业知识综合与运用等能力的发展,激发了专业学习兴趣,但2个系统在教学中表现出各有利弊的特点,需教师将二者结合,以取得更好的教学效果.

  11. Psychological literacy: proceed with caution, construction ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch DD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Douglas D Murdoch Department of Psychology, Mount Royal University, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Psychological literacy is the ethical application of psychological skills and knowledge. This could benefit individuals in their personal, occupational, and civic lives and subsequently benefit society as a whole. We know that psychology has a wide-ranging impact on society. The potential benefits of a psychologically literate citizenry in improved parenting, better business practices, enlightened legislation, and many other areas make this a desirable goal. It has been proposed that this should become the primary goal of an undergraduate psychology education to benefit the majority who do not go on to graduate school and even those who only take a few psychology courses. This idea has significant merit and warrants further investigation and development. However, there are major concerns that need to be addressed. First, what are uniquely psychological skills and knowledge? Many of the skills psychology undergraduates acquire are generic to university and not specific to psychology. Second, psychology can be as harmful when misapplied as it can be beneficial when ethically applied. Third, psychology departments will need to address pragmatic as well as ethical issues, including issues of competency, boundaries, accountability, and confidentiality. Fourth, the available empirical evidence to direct such efforts is primarily at the anecdotal, case example, and pilot study stages. Significant improvements are needed in measuring psychological literacy, choice of outcome measures, and research methodologies before these advantages can be realized in an empirically supported manner. Currently, best practices in the undergraduate curriculum are the mindful and purposeful design of courses and experiential opportunities. It is proposed that psychological literacy is best conceptualized as a meta-literacy and that it should become a goal of psychology

  12. An Empirical Study on the Impacts of Knowledge-Worker's Individual Characteristics on Psychological Empowerment%知识型员工个体特征对心理授权影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷巧玲; 赵更申

    2009-01-01

    Based on a sample composed of 351 knowledge-workers, this paper analyzed the impacts of knowledge-worker's individual characteristics on psychological empowerment. It was found that gender, marriage, age, education, had significant correlations with psychological empowerment. These conclusions provided reference for corporation to effectively encourage knowledge-worker.%以351位知识型员工为样本,分析了知识型员工的个体特征对其心理授权的影响.结果表明,性别、婚姻、年龄及学历对心理授权都有显著影响.

  13. Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confer, Jaime C.; Easton, Judith A.; Fleischman, Diana S.; Goetz, Cari D.; Lewis, David M. G.; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from…

  14. An Empirical Test of Crisis, Social Selection, and Role Explanations of the Relationship between Marital Disruption and Psychological Distress: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis of Four-Wave Panel Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R.; Wu, Jian

    2002-01-01

    Reviews three theoretical explanations (social role theory, crisis theory, social selection theory) for the reasons for psychological distress of divorced individuals. Evaluates the efficacy of these theories in a pooled analysis of married persons followed over 12 years. Results provide evidence that higher stress levels of the divorced primarily…

  15. An Introduction to Evolutionary Developmental Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Machluf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental psychology represents a synthesis of modern evolutionary theory and developmental psychology. Here we introduce the special issue on evolutionary developmental psychology by briefly discussing the history of this field and then summarizing the variety of topics that are covered. In this special issue, leading researchers provide a collection of theoretical and empirical articles that highlight recent findings and propose promising areas for future research.

  16. An introduction to evolutionary developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machluf, Karin; Liddle, James R; Bjorklund, David F

    2014-04-29

    Evolutionary developmental psychology represents a synthesis of modern evolutionary theory and developmental psychology. Here we introduce the special issue on evolutionary developmental psychology by briefly discussing the history of this field and then summarizing the variety of topics that are covered. In this special issue, leading researchers provide a collection of theoretical and empirical articles that highlight recent findings and propose promising areas for future research.

  17. Analyzing Teaching Commitment: Theoretical and Empirical Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Alexander K., Jr.

    Classical commitment studies are either sociologically oriented or based in the psychological empirical research tradition. A review of the literature reveals agreement on the multidimensionality and the contextual complexity of commitment, two principles which guide the hypotheses of the present study. This study uses the Administrator and…

  18. Individual psychological features of law enforcement officers convicted of crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyutykh V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this topic is caused by a significant number of crimes committed by law enforcement officers and the necessity of active prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes. The hypothesis was suggested that the main difference of individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes from individual psychological characteristics of law-abiding law enforcement officers is the difference between the principal values of the person both the main motives of activity adopted by an individual and the structure and the hierarchy of these values. This article describes the progress and results of empirical research conducted on the materials of psychodiagnostic examination of: employees who have been convicted of intentional crimes; law-abiding employees; people entering an internal affairs agency. Test subjects - men 18-46 years old, 90 people. Recommendations for practical psychologist of internal affairs agencies on detection of individual psychological personality features typical for law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes are formulated based on the obtained results.

  19. Research progress of chronic pain psychological cognitive factors%慢性疼痛患者认知行为疗法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁娟; 丁燕; 缪靓靓

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the chronic pain and cognitive behavior therapy, as well as pain cognitive theory and tools to measure the pain cognition in domestic and abroad from psychological aspects. It also reviews the cognitive behavior therapy treatment impacted on pain intervention and current status, puts forward the effective intervention from the pain cognitive behavior of this psychology aspect, so as to provide the patients with supplementary for more effective participation in pain management which is the direction of future research.%介绍慢性疼痛和认知行为疗法的概念、疼痛认知理论及国内外从心理层面评估疼痛认知的测量工具,综述认知行为疗法对疼痛干预的作用及认知行为治疗疼痛的研究现状,提出从患者的疼痛认知行为这一心理层面对其进行有效干预,为患者更有效地参与疼痛管理提供补充是今后研究的方向。

  20. 颅脑损伤患者康复期心理护理研究进展%Research progress on psychological nursing for patients with craniocerebral trauma during rehabilitation stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚婷; 周染云; 张敏; 赵岩; 于丹; 鲁鑫

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviewed research progress on psychological disorders of patients with craniocerebral trauma during rehabilitation stage and the nursing interventions. The nursing interventions included narrative therapy,cognitive behavioral therapy,relaxation therapy and social support therapy,which aimed to give nurses instructions to improve patientsˊquality of life and promote their recovery.%文章综述了颅脑损伤患者康复期可能出现的心理问题、心理护理措施,其中心理护理措施包括叙事疗法、认知行为疗法、放松疗法及社会支持疗法,以期为提高患者生活质量和预后提供依据。

  1. Psychological Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Flohrer, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Instilling psychological empowerment in employees is one of the most important tasks of modern leadership. Building on quantitative research and the development of a new psychometric scale related to project management this thesis shows: First, individuals' characteristics and their work team environment influence perceptions of access to information and resources – two important antecedents of psychological empowerment. Second, while a project briefing strengthens the link of the psychologic...

  2. Social Justice Advocacy among Graduate Students: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemeyer, Rachel McQuown

    2009-01-01

    Although social justice advocacy has increasingly been acknowledged as important in the field of psychology (e.g., Goodman et al., 2004; Toporek et al., 2006a, Vera & Speight, 2003), there is a dearth of empirical research examining social justice advocacy across graduate psychology students. This mixed-methods study examined demographic and…

  3. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  4. Principles of Empirically Supported Interventions Applied to Anger Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Oetting, Eugene R.; DiGiuseppe, Raymond A.

    2002-01-01

    This article applies the Principles of Empirically Supported Interventions (PESI) in counseling psychology to anger management with adults. The review suggests that there is empirical support for cognitive-behavioral interventions generally and for four specific interventions (relaxation, cognitive, behavioral skill enhancement, and combinations…

  5. Using Empirical Article Analysis to Assess Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiochi, Peter; Everton, Wendi; Evans, Melanie; Fugere, Madeleine; Escoto, Carlos; Letterman, Margaret; Leszczynski, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Developing students who can apply their knowledge of empirical research is a key outcome of the undergraduate psychology major. This learning outcome was assessed in two research methods courses by having students read and analyze a condensed empirical journal article. At the start and end of the semester, students in multiple sections of an…

  6. Using Empirical Article Analysis to Assess Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiochi, Peter; Everton, Wendi; Evans, Melanie; Fugere, Madeleine; Escoto, Carlos; Letterman, Margaret; Leszczynski, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Developing students who can apply their knowledge of empirical research is a key outcome of the undergraduate psychology major. This learning outcome was assessed in two research methods courses by having students read and analyze a condensed empirical journal article. At the start and end of the semester, students in multiple sections of an…

  7. An Empirical Study on Positive Psychology Applied to Ideological and Political Education of College Students%积极心理学在大学生思想政治教育中的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自维

    2012-01-01

      Positive psychology is one of the latest developments of psychology; it has been researched and applied more widely and deeply in the field of educational practice in China. Take Tourism and Land Resources College of Chongqing Technology and Business University for an example, the research group not only discusses how to make a good use of the core value of positive psychology which is useful for developing the ideological and political education for college students in the new era, but also brings up strategies and suggestions to education, in order to be used for reference.%  积极心理学是当代心理学最新进展之一,积极心理学在我国教育实践中得到了较好的研究和运用。课题组以重庆工商大学旅游与国土资源学院为例,探讨如何运用积极心理学理念,开展新时期大学生学生思想政治教育,并提出了教育对策和建议,以期对思想政治教育工作有所借鉴。

  8. Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Psychological Empowerment on Employee Satisfaction, Loyalty and Performance%心理授权对员工满意、忠诚和绩效影响的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺江; 陈荣; 郑小平

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed 617 frontline employees from a big company in petrochemical industry, aiming of examtng their psychological empowerment, employee satisfaction, employee loyalty, task performance and the internal marketing mixes of the company. The paper investigated the impact of psychological empowerment on employee loyalty and task performance, and the contribution of the four dimensions of internal marketing on the establishment psychological empowerment respectively.%以石化行业为背景,通过问卷调查的方法调查了617名石化企业一线员工的心理授权水平、员工满意度、员工忠诚和任务绩效以及该石化企业的内部营销水平。本文将内部营销的四个维度作为决定售后一线员工心理授权水平的前因变量,考查了售后服务员工的心理授权水平如何影响员工忠诚与任务绩效,并识别出员工满意在其中的中介作用。

  9. 急诊医生工作敬业度、心理资本与工作绩效实证研究%An Empirical Research on Work Engagement, Psychological Capital and Work Performance of Emergency Physicians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧卿; 龚怡琳; 汪大伟; 马青变

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨综合医院急诊医生工作敬业度、心理资本和工作绩效之间的作用关系,为提高医院组织管理水平提供依据。方法在全国三级综合医院急诊医生范围内发放问卷,回收有效问卷277份,运用SPSS22.0统计软件对数据进行分析。结果工作敬业度对工作绩效有显著的正向影响,心理资本整体在这二者之间存在显著的中介作用,心理资本四个维度在这二者之间起部分中介作用。结论急诊医生在工作中会产生不同程度的心理状态,进而表现出不同程度的敬业状态,从而对其工作绩效产生影响。医院可以通过加大对急诊医生心理资本开发,提高其敬业度,进而提升其工作绩效。%Objective To discuss the relationship among work engagement, psychological capital and work performance of emergency physicians in general hospitals and provide a basis for improving organizational management in hospitals.Method Carried out questionnaire survey among emergency physicians in nationwide tertiary general hospitals. Collected 277 valid questionnaires and used SPSS 22.0 to conduct data analysis.Results Work engagement had a significant positive influence on work performance. Psychological capital played a significant mediating role and the four sub-dimensions of psychological capital played a partially significant mediating role.Conclusion Emergency physicians would have different psychological states at work and show different work engagement, which would have different influence on their work performance. Thus, hospitals could attach more importance to the development of emergency physicians' psychological capital to improve their work engagement and work performance.

  10. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.

  11. Research progress on status quo of psychological distress in malignant tumor patients and its related factors%恶性肿瘤病人心理痛苦现状及相关因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩满霞; 陈华英

    2016-01-01

    [目的]了解国内外恶性肿瘤病人心理痛苦的现状及其相关因素的研究进展,为心理痛苦的后续研究及临床应用提供方向和指导依据。[方法]查阅国内外有关恶性肿瘤病人心理痛苦的文献资料,对心理痛苦的概念、评估工具、不同病种的病人心理痛苦的现状及整体相关因素进行分析和综述。并讨论这些研究深度和广度的局限性以及临床需求。[结果]国内外检索出以“肿瘤”和“心理痛苦”或“心理困扰”的文献较多,主要涉及某一单一肿瘤类型病人的心理痛苦的调查研究,且国外研究多于国内的研究。[结论]国内外学者均对肿瘤病人心理痛苦进行了相关调查研究,但研究范围仍比较局限。国内研究处于起步阶段,相关研究较国外少且评价工具不统一,对其相关影响因素的分析也各有侧重。因此,应进一步统一心理痛苦的评估工具,扩大对不同病种的研究,并对相关影响因素进行较为全面的分析,以此指导我国心理痛苦的临床治疗和护理。%Objective:To know about the research progress on status quo of psychological distress in malignant tumor patients and its related factors in abroad and at home,so as to provide direction and guidance for the fur-ther research on psychological distress and its clinical application.Methods:The literatures on psychological dis-tress in malignant tumor patients in abroad and at home were checked out.The concept of psychological dis-tress,assessment tools,the status quo of psychological distress in patients with different diseases and the overall related factors were analyzed and reviewed.And it discussed these limitations of the research depth and breadth and clinical needs.Results:In abroad and at home the retrieved literatures on “tumor”and “psychological pain”or “psychological distress”were more,mainly referred to the investigation on psychological distress in

  12. Study on the Effect of Consumer Psychological Contract Violation---Based on the Empirical Analysis of the Influence on Consumers' Complaint Behaviors%顾客心理契约违背效应研究--基于对顾客抱怨行为影响的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫; 马钦海

    2015-01-01

    Recently, researches in the marketing field pay more and more attention to customer's psychological contract which is an implicit contract between customer and organization. Customer's psychological contract is defined as customer's beliefs of mutual obligations shaped by the organization regarding the terms of an exchange relationship. Customer's psychological contract violation is the emotional reaction when customer perceives that the organization has failed to fulfill adequately the promised obligations of the psychological contract. Customer's psychological contract happens frequently and brings the negative results. Therefore , it becomes one of the focuses. Based on the literature review of consumer psychological contract and complaint behavior , this paper proposes that the gender, customer's beliefs concerning obligations of themselves and industry play moderate role in the relationships between consumer psychological contract violation and complaint behavior. Based on the empirical study of restaurant and bank , the results show that consumer psychological contract violation has negative effect on direct complaint , indirect complaint and switching intention. And customers' beliefs concerning obligations of themselves and industry have moderate effect on consumer psychological contract violation-complaint behavior relationships. Gender's moderate role is not confirmed.%近些年,营销领域中作为顾客和企业之间的隐性契约,顾客心理契约受到越来越多的重视。顾客心理契约是指顾客与企业交易过程中,对自身与企业之间互惠的责任和义务的感知和信念,顾客心理契约违背是顾客感知企业单方面未履行应该承担的责任和义务,并产生情感反应。由于顾客心理契约违背发生频繁,并且给企业带来无形的损失,成为该领域中研究的热点。文章在顾客心理契约违背和抱怨行为影响因素相关研究文献基础上,提出顾客性别

  13. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  14. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  15. The Seemingly Quixotic Pursuit of a Cumulative Psychological Science: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    The following manuscript is the final accepted manuscript. It has not been subjected to the final copyediting, fact-checking, and proofreading required for formal publication. It is not the definitive, publisher-authenticated version. The American Psychological Association and its Council of Editors disclaim any responsibility or liabilities for errors or omissions of this manuscript version, any version derived from this manuscript by NIH, or other third parties. The published version is available at www.apa.org/journals/met. The goal of any empirical science is to pursue the construction of a cumulative base of knowledge upon which the future of the science may be built. However, there is mixed evidence that the science of psychology can accurately be characterized by such a cumulative progression. Indeed, some argue that the development of a truly cumulative psychological science is not possible using the current paradigms of hypothesis testing in single-study designs. The author explores this controversy as a framework to introduce the six papers that make up this special issue that is focused on the integration of data and empirical findings across multiple studies. The author proposes that the methods and techniques described in this set of papers can significantly propel us forward in our ongoing quest to build a cumulative psychological science. PMID:19485622

  16. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not interest

  17. Shifting loyalties: reconsidering psychology's subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, Zachary

    2009-09-01

    Schwarz (IPBS: Integrative Psychology & Behavioral Science 43:3, 2009) cogently demonstrates that in conjunction with scientific conventionalism psychology has developed a rather deficient view of their subject matter: the human being. Psychology based on an impoverished notion of empirical has rendered subjectivity or 'the measuring apparatus man' invisible. As his story implicitly demonstrates, psychologists supported by a positivistic view of science (in part to be empirical) and notion of 'objectivity' have learned to trust their 'rigorous' methods instead of their participants as capable of revealing important and interesting phenomena. If we are going to take subjectivity and experience seriously there should be a cultivation of a new attitude or orientation regarding psychology's subject matter (i.e., the human being) and science. This commentary discusses Mark Freeman's (2007) argument that the first requirement of science should be 'fidelity to the phenomena' and elaborates on the implications for psychology grounded in this view of science.

  18. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... and extensions" of BARTLETT's experiments, demonstrating how his methodology was progressively changed and misunderstood over time. An argument is made for re-introducing an open, qualitative and idiographic experimental method similar to the one BARTLETT practiced....

  19. 高职类院校贫困生与非贫困生心理位差实证研究%Empirical Research on Psychological Status Difference between Needy and Non-impoverished Students in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕鹤霞

    2016-01-01

    基于对H高职院校大一至大三年级280名贫困生与非贫困生对照组分层抽样调查显示,从在校消费对比来看,家庭经济原因导致贫困生与非贫困生生活质量存在很大差距;从心理健康对比来看,贫困生比非贫困生更敏感多疑、情绪波动大、自我肯定度低;从人际交往来看,贫困生比非贫困生更渴望通过良好的人际关系提高自信;从心理压力对比来看,在就业方面,贫困生比非贫困生担忧更多、态度更为消极。贫困生补充调查显示,绝大多数贫困生心理比较健康。基于此,应从经济扶贫和心理扶助两方面入手解决贫困生“心理贫困”。%According to the stratified sampling survey of 280 students from freshman to junior students, there is a big gap based on the family economic reasons lead to the difference quality of life between the needy and non-impoverished college students from the point of consumption contrast; the needy college students are more sensitive, suspicious and low self-esteem than the non-impoverished students from the point of psychological heath condition contrast; the needy college students are more eager to improve self-confidence by a good interpersonal relationship than the non-impoverished students from the point of interpersonal communication contrast; the needy college students are more worrying and more negative than the non-impoverished students from the point of great psychological pressure contrast in looking for jobs. The vast majority of the needy college students have mental health according to the added survey. Based on this, we must solve the “psychological poverty” problem of the needy college students from the two aspects of economic poverty alleviation and psychological counseling.

  20. Psychological literacy: proceed with caution, construction ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    Psychological literacy is the ethical application of psychological skills and knowledge. This could benefit individuals in their personal, occupational, and civic lives and subsequently benefit society as a whole. We know that psychology has a wide-ranging impact on society. The potential benefits of a psychologically literate citizenry in improved parenting, better business practices, enlightened legislation, and many other areas make this a desirable goal. It has been proposed that this should become the primary goal of an undergraduate psychology education to benefit the majority who do not go on to graduate school and even those who only take a few psychology courses. This idea has significant merit and warrants further investigation and development. However, there are major concerns that need to be addressed. First, what are uniquely psychological skills and knowledge? Many of the skills psychology undergraduates acquire are generic to university and not specific to psychology. Second, psychology can be as harmful when misapplied as it can be beneficial when ethically applied. Third, psychology departments will need to address pragmatic as well as ethical issues, including issues of competency, boundaries, accountability, and confidentiality. Fourth, the available empirical evidence to direct such efforts is primarily at the anecdotal, case example, and pilot study stages. Significant improvements are needed in measuring psychological literacy, choice of outcome measures, and research methodologies before these advantages can be realized in an empirically supported manner. Currently, best practices in the undergraduate curriculum are the mindful and purposeful design of courses and experiential opportunities. It is proposed that psychological literacy is best conceptualized as a meta-literacy and that it should become a goal of psychology undergraduate education but not necessarily the goal. PMID:27540315

  1. Psychological literacy: proceed with caution, construction ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    Psychological literacy is the ethical application of psychological skills and knowledge. This could benefit individuals in their personal, occupational, and civic lives and subsequently benefit society as a whole. We know that psychology has a wide-ranging impact on society. The potential benefits of a psychologically literate citizenry in improved parenting, better business practices, enlightened legislation, and many other areas make this a desirable goal. It has been proposed that this should become the primary goal of an undergraduate psychology education to benefit the majority who do not go on to graduate school and even those who only take a few psychology courses. This idea has significant merit and warrants further investigation and development. However, there are major concerns that need to be addressed. First, what are uniquely psychological skills and knowledge? Many of the skills psychology undergraduates acquire are generic to university and not specific to psychology. Second, psychology can be as harmful when misapplied as it can be beneficial when ethically applied. Third, psychology departments will need to address pragmatic as well as ethical issues, including issues of competency, boundaries, accountability, and confidentiality. Fourth, the available empirical evidence to direct such efforts is primarily at the anecdotal, case example, and pilot study stages. Significant improvements are needed in measuring psychological literacy, choice of outcome measures, and research methodologies before these advantages can be realized in an empirically supported manner. Currently, best practices in the undergraduate curriculum are the mindful and purposeful design of courses and experiential opportunities. It is proposed that psychological literacy is best conceptualized as a meta-literacy and that it should become a goal of psychology undergraduate education but not necessarily the goal.

  2. Is multicultural psychology a-scientific?: diverse methods for diversity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauce, Ana Mari

    2011-07-01

    This article asks, and answers three separate questions: What is multicultural psychology? What is psychological science? Are multicultural psychology and (empirical/positivist) psychological science incompatible? A brief overview of the history of science is provided emphasizing the emancipatory impulses behind a modernist, empirical, positivist approach to science. It is argued that such an approach is not incompatible with multicultural psychology. The author concludes that multicultural psychological will be strengthened if psychologists draw upon both qualitative and quantitative methods, including those that come from a positivist tradition, when investigating psychological and social issues as they affect diverse populations.

  3. Analysis of Author Affiliation across Four School Psychology Journals from 2000 to 2008: Where Is the Practitioner Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Erin E.; Skinner, Christopher H.; McCleary, Daniel F.; von Mizener, Briana Hautau; Bliss, Stacy L.

    2009-01-01

    Articles published between 2000 and 2008 in four major school psychology journals--"School Psychology Review," "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," and "School Psychology Quarterly"--were classified based on type (empirical or narrative) and on the primary and secondary authors' affiliations. Results showed that more than…

  4. Empirical Analysis on Relationship between Executive Sock Option, Psychological Ownership and Professional Manager's Turnover Intention%经理人股票期权、心理所有权与离职倾向间关系的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锡元; 梁果; 王业楠

    2012-01-01

    利用调查问卷数据,实证分析了经理人股票期权与其离职倾向的关系,考察了心理所有权在两者间的中介作用。结果显示:经理人股票期权显著影响职业经理人的离职倾向,心理所有权在经理人股票期权与离职倾向之间起完全中介作用。该结果表明,实施经理人股票期权可有效减弱其离职倾向。%Using the data from the questionnaire, this paper empirically analyzes the relationship between executive stock option and turnover intention and the mediating role of psychological ownership. The results show that executive stock option has a significantly negative effect on professional manager's turnover intention,and psychological ownership has a mediating effect on the relationship between executive stock option and turnover intention. The result indicates that executive stock option could effectively reduce professional manager's turnover intention.

  5. 物流行业员工心理授权与工作生活质量关系的实证研究-以苏州地区为例%Empirical Study on Relationship between Psychological Empowerment and Work/life Quality of Logistics Industry Employees:In the Case of Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗亚坤; 袁勇志

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in the case of the Suzhou region and on the basis of a questionnaire survey of 870 logistics enterprise employees, we studied empirically the relationship between the psychological empowerment and the work/life quality of them, the result of which indicated that there existed a very significant positive relationship between the two which also showed that the logistics enterprise management should pay specialty attention to the importance of the psychological empowerment of their employees.%以苏州地区为例,在对870位物流企业员工问卷调查的基础上,对物流行业员工心理授权与工作生活质量的关系进行了实证研究。研究结果表明,物流行业员工心理授权与工作生活质量表现出非常显著的正相关关系,很好地揭示了心理授权和工作生活质量之间的关系,提示物流行业管理者要特别关注心理授权在管理中的重要性。

  6. Nursing Progress and Psychological Characters of Infertile Patients%不孕症患者的心理特点及其护理进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丹

    2012-01-01

    总结近年来的相关文献,探讨不孕症患者的心理特点及护理对策,分析不孕症患者不良情绪产生的原因、心理特点及常用护理方法等问题,发现思想、家庭及疾病是导致不孕症的主要原因,而由此产生的焦虑、抑郁情绪以及性生活满意度降低是患者主要心理特点,应采取有针对性的护理方法,给予不孕症妇女宽松舒适的医疗、生活、社交环境以及支持、理解和帮助,不仅可增强其自信心和自尊心,而且有助于缓解其焦虑抑郁情绪,从而提高受孕率.%Psychological characters and nursing strategies of infertile patients were explored by reviewing the related literature in recent years. The main reasons being the cause of infertility were thinking, family and disease through analyzing the source of bad moods in infertile patients, mental characters of infertility and common nursing method, therefore originated mental characters of the patients were anxiety, depression and low sexual satisfaction and the corresponding nursing should be performed to provide comfortable medical care, life, social environment, support, understanding and help to infertile women, which would help to not only enhance the confidence and self-respect, but also alleviate anxiety and depression thereby to raise conception rate.

  7. An Empirical Analysis on Internal and External Effects of Technical Progress in Equipment Manufacturing Industry%装备制造业技术进步内外部效应的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震; 张宏

    2016-01-01

    In the realistic context of“Made in China by 2025”and“Industrial 4.0”,this paper,based on the analysis of the do⁃mestic and international effect mechanism of technical progress in equipment manufacturing industry,empirically verifies the internal and external effects of technical progress in China’s equipment manufacturing industry with the aid of the panel and the VAR model. The study finds that:In the internal effect,the equipment manufacturing industry’s income and energy effi⁃ciency have a two-way positive impact on technical level,profit has a one-way positive impact on technical level,and employ⁃ment and technology level show a two-way negative impact;In the external effect,the equipment manufacturing industry’s FDI quality and technical level present a two-way positive impact,international division of labor and technical level present a one-way positive impact,and trade competitiveness and technical level present a two-way negative impact. Therefore,China should increase investment and improve productivity at home,and deepen the international division of labor and actively par⁃ticipate in the construction of value chain in order to improve the technical level of equipment manufacturing industry.%文章以“中国制造2025”“、工业4.0”时代来临为现实背景,在分析装备制造业技术进步的国内及国际效应作用机理的基础上,借助面板和VAR模型从实证角度验证我国装备制造业技术进步的内外部效应。研究发现,内部效应中,装备制造业收入及能耗效率指标与技术水平呈现双向正面影响,利润与技术水平为单向正面,就业与技术水平为双向负面;外部效应中,装备制造业引进外资质量与技术水平呈现双向正面影响,国际分工程度与技术水平为单向正面,贸易竞争力与技术水平为双向负面。因此为提升装备制造业技术水平,国内应加大投入,提高

  8. 军事飞行员心理训练效果的实证研究%Empirical Research on Strategies and Effects of Psychological Training Concerning Military Pilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 宋华淼; 邵峰; 彭文华; 董文; 张宜爽; 杨柳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨两种不同的心理训练方法对飞行员缓解急性应激的效果,并对两种方法的有效性进行比较,为我军心理健康促进工作提供参考。方法:本研究选取116名飞行员参加本项研究,先通过“四任务测验”诱发应激,然后将飞行员随机分成漂浮舱训练组和腹式呼吸训练组,训练时间均为10分钟,分析两种心理训练方法对飞行员缓解应激情绪的影响。采用情绪的生理指标皮肤电作为心理训练效果的评价指标。结果:应用SPSS 16.0中一般线性模型( General linear model ,GLM)的Repeated measures和multivariate过程对心理训练重复测量数据进行重复测量方差分析和多元方差分析,并进行不同时间点和不同组的两两比较。漂浮舱训练时,飞行员的皮肤电在静息、应激和漂浮舱训练3种状态均有显著差异(F=184.479,P<0.05);腹式呼吸训练时,应激状态与静息和腹式呼吸训练间有显著差异,而静息和腹式呼吸训练两个状态间未见显著差异。结论:漂浮舱训练能有效缓解飞行员的急性应激,而腹式呼吸训练后的放松效果不明显。%Objective:To explore and compare the effect of two difficult psychological training prac-tices and the result assessment on acute stress relieving for military pilots ,and offer reference for Chinese troops'psychology health promoting in peacetime and wartime .Methods:This research selected 116 mili-tary pilots for two methods of psychological training ,58 pilots for floating capsule training and the other 58 pilots for abdominal breathing exercises .Study used physical index of galvanic skin response ( GSR) as the evaluation index .Results:Using repeated measures and multivariate analysis of variance process of the general linear model in SPSS and giving comparison among different groups and different measure time pairwise .The results showed that floating capsule

  9. The influence of threat perception and psychological safety on employee creativity after mergers and acquisitions:an empirical study of high- tech companies%并购后威胁感知与心理安全对员工创新的影响——基于高科技企业的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙静; 汪丽

    2011-01-01

    This study examined employees' subjective experiences of creativity after mergers. The empirical results showed the following: First, if employees considered the merger as an opportunity (threat) , then they perceived that they exhibited greater (less) creativity after the merger; second, psychological safety has a positive impact on employees' creativity; and third, psychological safety moderated the relationship between threat perception and self - perceived creativity in such a way that, when compared with employees who saw the merger as an opportunity, employees who saw the merger as a threat experienced greater creativity when psychological safety was high than when psychological safety was low.%探讨了高科技企业员工在并购中的威胁感知因素对其创造力的影响机制,并结合心理安全因素分析它们对创造力交互影响的作用机制。经验数据表明,当员工将并购感知为威胁时,会对创造力产生负面影响;反之,当员工将并购感知为机会时,会对创造力产生正面影响,而员工并购后感受到的心理安全程度和员工创造力之间存在正向的相关关系。同时,心理安全还会调节威胁感知和员工自我感知创造力之间的关系。与视并购为机会的员工相比,把并购视为威胁的员工如果能感受到高心理安全,他们将体验比在低心理安全时更高的创造力。但是这种效应在员工视并购为机会时,不那么显著或不存在。也就是说,在员工视并购为威胁时,他们所感知的创造力在不同的心理安全情况下的差别,要远大于他们视并购为机会的时候。

  10. 体育拓展训练与大学生身心健康实效性研究%An Empirical Research on Outward Bound Training and Students' Psychological Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱锋; 楼晨辉

    2011-01-01

    通过对80名男性大学生体育拓展训练前后测试对比,实验结果显示:体育拓展训练不仅有利于增强学生的体质,而且有利于提高学生的心理健康水平。文章介绍了体育拓展训练的基本情况,分析了体育拓展训练对大学生身心健康的影响,并提出了开展大学生体育拓展训练的具体建议。%The result of physical education outward bound training test and comparative experiments for 80 male university students showed that participation in physical education outward bound training will not only help enhance students' constitution, but also improve students' psychological health level. This study provides a reference and basis to meet university students' needs for sports cultural diversity and the need of diversification, the constant pursuit of new sports lifestyle. Meanwhile, it provides a reference and basis to enhance the quality of physical and mental development of students and give the development of new curriculum resources.

  11. Anxiety Sensitivity and Psychological Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In I. Hand & H. U. Wittchen ( Eds .), Panic and Phobias: Empirical evidence of theoretical models and long-term effects of psychological treatments (pp...isolated attacks (Weissman, 1988; Wittchen , 1986). The onset of panic disorder in treatment populations tends to occur in the late teens through 3 the late...References American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed .). Washington, DC: Author. Barlow, D.H

  12. Evidence-Based Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2016-11-03

    In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), and as is true in most health care professions, the primary focus of EBPP has been on treatment. Comparatively little attention has been devoted to applying the principles of EBPP to psychological assessment, despite the fact that assessment plays a central role in myriad domains of empirical and applied psychology (e.g., research, forensics, behavioral health, risk management, diagnosis and classification in mental health settings, documentation of neuropsychological impairment and recovery, personnel selection and placement in organizational contexts). This article outlines the central elements of evidence-based psychological assessment (EBPA), using the American Psychological Association's tripartite definition of EBPP as integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences. After discussing strategies for conceptualizing and operationalizing evidence-based testing and evidence-based assessment, 6 core skills and 3 meta-skills that underlie proficiency in psychological assessment are described. The integration of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences is discussed in terms of the complex interaction of patient and assessor identities and values throughout the assessment process. A preliminary framework for implementing EBPA is offered, and avenues for continued refinement and growth are described.

  13. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  14. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Patil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Education Psychology is one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines which is concerned with the description, explanation and control of the educational processes arising from the interaction between the teacher and learner in the context of a specified or unspecified subject. The concept of educational psycology is changing as a result of the general impact of the disciplines such as sociology, anthropology,economics, political science and so on. The subject matter of educational psychology is also reflecting a diversity of structures and emphases in its connection.

  15. 组织公平、心理契约违背与工作态度——基于“绩效工资”政策背景下高校教师的实证分析%Organizational Justice, Psychological Contract Violation and Working Attitude: An Empirical Analysis on Faculty under the "Performance Pay" Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永刚

    2012-01-01

    Based on discriminating dimensions of organizational justice and working attitude, this study empirically analyzes the relationships among organizational justice, psychological contract violation and working attitude, with a special reference to the data from faculty members under the "Performance Pay" policy in our country. Results reveal that, distribuutive justice and procedural justice have significantly negative impacts on psychological contract violation, which in turn has a negative impact on job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has significantly positive impacts on organizational commitment and job engagement, while the positive impact of organizational commitment on job engagement is not statistically significant. The final part of this paper illustrates conclusions, implications and limitations of this study.%在对组织公平和工作态度进行维度划分的基础上,本文以我国“绩效工资”政策实施背景下的高校教师为研究对象,对组织公平、心理契约违背及工作态度间的关系进行了实证分析。结果发现,分配公平和程序公平对心理契约违背的消极影响显著;心理契约违背对工作满意度有着消极影响;工作满意度对组织承诺和工作投入有着积极影响;组织承诺对工作投入的积极影响不显著。最后,对本文的研究结论、启示与不足进行了阐述。

  16. Varieties of Fame in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L

    2016-11-01

    Fame in psychology, as in all arenas, is a local phenomenon. Psychologists (and probably academics in all fields) often first become well known for studying a subfield of an area (say, the study of attention in cognitive psychology, or even certain tasks used to study attention). Later, the researcher may become famous within cognitive psychology. In a few cases, researchers break out of a discipline to become famous across psychology and (more rarely still) even outside the confines of academe. The progression is slow and uneven. Fame is also temporally constricted. The most famous psychologists today will be forgotten in less than a century, just as the greats from the era of World War I are rarely read or remembered today. Freud and a few others represent exceptions to the rule, but generally fame is fleeting and each generation seems to dispense with the lessons learned by previous ones to claim their place in the sun. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Empirical Study on College Students' Psychologies of Con-sumption Decision when Choosing Shampoos%关于大学生选择洗发水时消费决策心理的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙佳佳

    2014-01-01

    By using the method of questionnaire survey, with 400 college students from 4 colleges in Xianlin area of Nanjing as the research object, this paper made a survey on the college students' psychologies of consumption decision when choosing shampoos. The result shows: 1) college students pay more attention to the functions, brands and prices of shampoos; 2) the influences of functions, advertising and promotion of shampoos on college stu-dents of different genders are significantly different (p<0.05);3) college students first focus on the following functions of sham-poos, such as "anti-dandruff and itching-relief", "cleaning","making hair straight and smooth"and"repairing damaged hair", and the concerns of college students of different genders are dif-ferent; 4) college students are easily influenced by advertise-ments, companions and family members;5) the brands chosen by college students of different genders are significantly different.%本研究采用问卷调查的方法,以南京仙林地区的四所高校的400名大学生为研究对象,对目前大学生购买洗发水时的消费决策心理进行调查。结果显示:1)大学生更关注洗发水的功能、品牌和价格。2)不同性别的大学生受洗发水的功能、广告及促销的影响存在显著差异(p<0.05)。3)大学生首先关注洗发水的“去屑止痒”、“清洁”、“使发质垂顺柔滑”、“修护受损发质”等功能,且不同性别的大学生对不同功能的关注存在差异。4)大学生易受广告、同伴、家人的影响。5)不同性别的大学生对品牌的选择存在显著差异。

  18. Empirical Research on the Psychological Inducement to Knowledge Communication and Knowledge Sharing Under Academic Blogs Environment%学术博客知识交流与共享心理诱因的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟军; 甘春梅; 刘蕤

    2012-01-01

    科研活动日益重视知识交流与共享,学术博客为实现科研人员的知识分享提供了新平台.识别学术博客社区中影响个体知识贡献行为的心理因素成为社区持续发展的关键问题.基于社会资本理论、社会交换理论以及公共物品困境理论,本文提出了学术博客社区知识交流与共享行为的心理诱因理论模型;进一步以科学网博客社区为研究对象,通过在线问卷调查获得229份有效问卷,使用PLS对模型进行验证.结果显示,在学术博客中,人际信任和乐于助人有助于促进科研人员的知识交流与共享行为;私欲使个体不愿意与他人交流与共享;人际信任则对私欲有一定的调节作用.而声誉、忧虑感和价值怀疑与个体的知识交流与共享行为没有关系.%Knowledge communication and knowledge sharing play a more important role in scientific research activities, while academic blogs provide a new platform for sharing knowledge. To identify individuals' psychological inducement factors influencing their knowledge sharing behaviors is a key for community sustainable development. This paper puts forward a research model based on Social Capital Theory, Social Exchange Theory and Public Goods Dilemma. Furthermore, the model is validated by PLS method through an online questionnaire of 229 users from Sciencenet. en. The results show that, interpersonal trust and enjoyment in helping others positively affect individuals ' knowledge communication and knowledge sharing behaviors; greed exerts a strong negative effect on individuals ' sharing behaviors; and interpersonal trust has a moderate effect on greed. In addition, reputation, fear and doubt of knowledge value have no relationships with individuals' behaviors.

  19. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  20. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  1. Psychology Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderssen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…

  2. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  3. Radical psychology institutionalized: a history of the Journal Psychologie & Maatschappij [psychology & society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, R; Jansz, J

    2000-01-01

    Starting out as a newsletter for radical psychologists, the Dutch journal Psychologie & Maatschappij (Psychology & Society) moved in the past decade toward the theoretical mainstream within psychology. In this paper, the major changes in the journal are described and analyzed, as well as the features that did not change: an emphasis on theory and history, an interdisciplinary approach, and an emphasis on discussion. The main transformations were from psychology as instrumental toward the goals of the progressive movement in the Netherlands, then to extreme criticism of all scientific and professional psychological activities, and finally to adherence to the most advanced approaches within academic psychology.

  4. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  5. A Tale of Two Minds: Psychology and Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, George S.

    2010-01-01

    The American Psychological Association recently released its Presidential Task Force report on Psychology and Global Climate Change. Its principles and proposals would inaugurate a long and productive program of psychological research on climate change. But is it too little, too late? Climatologists have been growing progressively gloomier over…

  6. Nation-Level Indicators of Gender Equity in Psychological Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2012-01-01

    Power and inequality are central concepts in feminist theory and practice. Yet, with a few notable exceptions, there is relatively little empirical research on gender and power within feminist psychology. A search of PsycINFO for articles published in "Psychology of Women Quarterly" for the years 2000-2011 yielded only 14 empirical articles with…

  7. Re-emerging conceptual integration: commentary on Berkowitz's "on the consideration of automatic as well as controlled psychological processes in aggression".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, researchers in various areas of psychology have challenged the claims of a single mode of information processing, and developed dual-process models of social behaviors. Although these theories differ on a number of dimensions, they all share the basic assumption that two different modes of information processing operate in making decision and copying behavior. In essence, the common distinction in these perspectives is between controlled vs. automatic, conscious vs. unconscious, and affective vs. cognitive modes of processing. The purpose of Berkowitz's article is to go beyond the notion of automatic processes in order to use classic notions of conditioning and displacement to explain aggressive behavior. I assert that an explanatory framework for psychology of aggression must be anchored not only in the new but also classic theoretical paradigms. However, progress in psychology does not rest solely on the accumulation of theoretical insights. It demands a large body of empirical facts, with attention to incongruities, discordances, and conceptual clarifications.

  8. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: Contributions from Comparative Research with Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental psychology is a discipline that has the potential to integrate conceptual approaches to the study of behavioral development derived from psychology and biology as well as empirical data from humans and animals. Comparative research with animals, and especially with nonhuman primates, can provide evidence of adaptation in…

  9. Bayesian Just-So Stories in Psychology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    According to Bayesian theories in psychology and neuroscience, minds and brains are (near) optimal in solving a wide range of tasks. We challenge this view and argue that more traditional, non-Bayesian approaches are more promising. We make 3 main arguments. First, we show that the empirical evidence for Bayesian theories in psychology is weak.…

  10. Music and religion: psychological perspectives and their limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Belzen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Criticizing some psychological approaches that speak in too general terms about both music and religion, this article turns to a precise empirical observation and asks what psychology might possibly contribute to its understanding, after first necessarily questioning what terms such as ‘rel

  11. Cultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Steven J; Ruby, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Humans are a cultural species, constantly navigating a complex web of culturally bound practices, norms, and worldviews. This article provides a brief overview of the relatively young field of cultural psychology, which investigates the many ways psychology and culture interweave with one another. Highlighting the cultural nature of the human species, it draws upon research on cultural evolution, enculturation, and developmental processes. This review further summarizes a number of cultural differences in how people perceive the self, and the behavioral consequences that follow from these differences, in the domains of internal and external attribution styles, motivations for self-enhancement, approach/avoidance, primary and secondary control, as well as motivations for distinctiveness and conformity. Additionally, the review discusses research on the intersection of culture and emotion, as well as cultural differences in cognition, perception, and reasoning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Foreman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include interface flexibility, the reproducibility of virtual experience, and the opportunity for on-line monitoring of performance. Applications of VEs are many and varied, but are especially beneficial where experience can be tailored via augmentation, and where dangerous training situations can be avoided. The use of programmable agents has great future potential in relation to training and interpersonal skill development, also perhaps in clinical diagnosis and therapy. Progress in VE usage in psychological education is limited by cost and availability, though VEs are being used increasingly in classroom and laboratory teaching exercises. Virtual Reality was said to be “an answer waiting for a question”, but questions are being recognized, so that applications of VEs within the behavioural sciences are likely to multiply.

  13. Multiple types of psychological contracts : a six-cluster solution.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Den Brande, I; Janssens, Maddy; Sels, Luc; Overlaet, Robrecht

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the existence of particular types of psychological contracts. We take a feature-oriented approach towards psychological contracts, which allows more generalizability across settings than content-oriented assessments. In defining the types of psychological contracts, we rely on 10 dimensions that indicate the employees' expected entitlements as well as their expected obligations towards their employer. We assess the existence of types of psyc...

  14. Adolescent Abortion: Psychological and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Findings from empirical research differ greatly from the Supreme Court's assumptions about psychological factors in adolescent abortion. Psychologists should preserve adolescent clients' privacy in counseling about pregnancy-related decisions. Government should encourage counseling services for pregnant adolescents and research on psychological…

  15. Psychological conditions of adaptation to professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Tereshenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empirical studies of the occupational stress and adaptation. The study shows that the process of adaptation to stress affect the socio-psychological characteristics. Constructive ways of behavior are: the choice of cooperation, a strong desire to be with people, taking responsibility and decision-making.

  16. The Benefits of Volunteering for Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromnick, Rachel; Horowitz, Ava; Shepherd, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Within the current economic climate students are seen as needing more than a degree to succeed in securing graduate employment. One way that students chose to enhance their employability is through engaging in voluntary work. In this empirical study, undergraduate psychology students' reasons for volunteering are explored within the context of…

  17. The Psychology of Replication and Replication in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2012-11-01

    Like other scientists, psychologists believe experimental replication to be the final arbiter for determining the validity of an empirical finding. Reports in psychology journals often attempt to prove the validity of a hypothesis or theory with multiple experiments that replicate a finding. Unfortunately, these efforts are sometimes misguided because in a field like experimental psychology, ever more successful replication does not necessarily ensure the validity of an empirical finding. When psychological experiments are analyzed with statistics, the rules of probability dictate that random samples should sometimes be selected that do not reject the null hypothesis, even if an effect is real. As a result, it is possible for a set of experiments to have too many successful replications. When there are too many successful replications for a given set of experiments, a skeptical scientist should be suspicious that null or negative findings have been suppressed, the experiments were run improperly, or the experiments were analyzed improperly. This article describes the implications of this observation and demonstrates how to test for too much successful replication by using a set of experiments from a recent research paper.

  18. Autobiography After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Astrid

    metropole, political legitimacy at the end of empire and settler family innocence, I argue that the writers engage with collective memories about empire in their personal recollections. Such collective narratives pattern autobiographies so that the same concerns and rhetoric recur in widely different...

  19. Progress in applied Research of Mental Psychological intervention in treatment of chronic pain%精神心理学干预在慢性疼痛治疗中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玲; 倪家骧

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research concerns about the mental psychological intervention involved in the treatment of chronic pain. It still continue reported that combining with mental psychological intervention in pain management could relieve pain level, therefore improve quality of lives. Common psychological intervention including psychological and pharmacological approach and psychological behavior approach both support their efficacy%越来越多的研究关注精神心理学参与慢性疼痛的治疗,在临床中不断有报道提出慢性疼痛复合心理干预有效,并能综合的改善患者的生活质量.常见慢性疼痛的心理学干预包括心理药理学干预与心理行为学干预,均对慢性疼痛的改善有效.

  20. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  1. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  2. Empirical Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2015-01-01

    knowledge takes place through the integration of the empirical or historical research into the philosophical studies, as Chang, Nersessian, Thagard and Schickore argue in their work. Building upon their contributions we will develop a blueprint for an Empirical Philosophy of Science that draws upon......Empirical insights are proven fruitful for the advancement of Philosophy of Science, but the integration of philosophical concepts and empirical data poses considerable methodological challenges. Debates in Integrated History and Philosophy of Science suggest that the advancement of philosophical...... qualitative methods from the social sciences in order to advance our philosophical understanding of science in practice. We will regard the relationship between philosophical conceptualization and empirical data as an iterative dialogue between theory and data, which is guided by a particular ‘feeling with...

  3. Navigating rough waters: an overview of psychological aspects of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Janice C; Beckman, Linda J

    2005-03-01

    This article provides an overview of the social and psychological aspects surrounding the surrogacy process including attitudes about surrogacy, perceptions and problems of surrogate mothers and intended/social parents, and questions concerning children resulting from contractual parenting. Review of the literature on contractual parenting reveals a wealth of discussion about the ethical, moral, legal, and psychological implications, but limited empirical data on the psychological and social aspects. Future research can provide empirical evidence as a foundation for counseling at all phases of the surrogacy process.

  4. The effects of performance measurement and compensation on motivation : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Herpen, M; Van Praag, M; Cools, K

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between pay and performance. Economic and psychological theories predict that the design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system affect the motivation of employees. Our survey results demonstrate a positive relationship

  5. The effects of performance measurement and compensation on motivation : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Herpen, M; Van Praag, M; Cools, K

    This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between pay and performance. Economic and psychological theories predict that the design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system affect the motivation of employees. Our survey results demonstrate a positive relationship

  6. The effects of performance measurement and compensation on motivation : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Herpen, M; Van Praag, M; Cools, K

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between pay and performance. Economic and psychological theories predict that the design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system affect the motivation of employees. Our survey results demonstrate a positive relationship

  7. From Monty Python to Total Recall: A Feature Film Activity for the Cognitive Psychology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, David B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a college psychology course activity designed to help students define the parameters of cognitive psychology. Students selected a feature film and a journal article that represented some aspect of cognitive psychology. They then wrote a paper discussing the theoretical and empirical connections between the sources and the topic. (MJP)

  8. From Monty Python to Total Recall: A Feature Film Activity for the Cognitive Psychology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, David B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a college psychology course activity designed to help students define the parameters of cognitive psychology. Students selected a feature film and a journal article that represented some aspect of cognitive psychology. They then wrote a paper discussing the theoretical and empirical connections between the sources and the topic. (MJP)

  9. Theological reflections on empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan A. Boesak

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the meeting of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches in Accra, Ghana (2004, and the adoption of the Accra Declaration, a debate has been raging in the churches about globalisation, socio-economic justice, ecological responsibility, political and cultural domination and globalised war. Central to this debate is the concept of empire and the way the United States is increasingly becoming its embodiment. Is the United States a global empire? This article argues that the United States has indeed become the expression of a modern empire and that this reality has considerable consequences, not just for global economics and politics but for theological refl ection as well.

  10. Understanding and reducing work-related psychological distress in interns: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, A D; Tallentire, V; Selzer, R M; Rotstein, L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to collate and evaluate studies investigating either the factors influencing work-related psychological distress in postgraduate year one (PGY1) doctors or the strategies designed to reduce it. This is a systematic review conducted in May 2014. The data sources were key databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase) and manual searches of reference lists for relevant studies published in the last 15 years. This study is an empirical research designed either to elucidate the factors influencing work-related psychological distress in PGY1 doctors, or examine the effects of an intervention designed to reduce it. Key information was extracted into an electronic data extraction form, which incorporated elements of Murphy's model of work stress factors. A total of 21 studies was included in the review; 16 studies had examined the factors influencing work-related psychological distress, four studies had investigated strategies to reduce it, and a single study addressed both. Analysis of the findings of each individual study through the conceptual framework provided by Murphy's model revealed a discrepancy between the factors influencing work-related psychological distress and the focus of strategies designed to reduce it. Factors such as career progression and a PGY1 doctor's role within the organisation were not addressed in the interventions identified. Significant sources of psychological distress in PGY1 doctors remain overlooked by current interventions. Strategies designed to prevent or reduce psychological distress should be broad-based and grounded in both the literature exploring salient factors and existing theories of work-related stress.

  11. Re-reading Discourse and Social Psychology: transforming social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    This paper considers one theme in the contemporary legacy of Potter and Wetherell's (1987) Discourse and Social Psychology. It overviews the context that led to that book and considers a series of critical responses from both experimental and critical/qualitative social psychologists. It refutes criticisms and corrects confusions. Focusing on contemporary discursive psychology, it highlights (a) its rigorous use of records of actual behaviour; (b) its systematic focus on normative practices. In methodological terms, it (a) highlights limitations in the use of open-ended interviews; (b) considers the way naturalistic materials provide access to participants' own orientations and displays; (c) builds a distinctive logic of sampling and generalization. In theoretical terms, it (a) highlights the way discourse work can identify foundational psychological matters; (b) offers a novel approach to emotion and embodiment; (c) starts to build a matrix of dimensions which are central to the constructing and recognizing of different kinds of social actions. It now offers a fully formed alternative social psychology which coordinates theory and method and a growing body of empirical work.

  12. Psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galjautdinova S. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of a study of psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood are presented. Psychological readiness is defined as a structure consisting of three components: the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral, which is consistent with the single theory of psychological processes L. M. Vekkera. It was found that the main component that determines the high level of psychological readiness for motherhood is a cognitive component. The content of the cognitive component includes an understanding of the child as a value. Some results of the research of value orientations of pregnant women in the structure of psychological readiness for parenthood. To identify the value system of pregnant women, the method of “Value Orientations” by M. Rokich was applied. The analysis of empirical data was performed using factor analysis and U criterion of Mann-Whitney. Respondents were distributed into two age groups: first group of 21-25 years (56 persons, second group of 26-30 years (44 persons. All women are nulliparous. The younger age group of pregnant women is characterized by values that are directed at the outside world. Emotional component dominates in the structure of psychological readiness for motherhood. Values of women in the second group are aimed at children. Cognitive and behavioral components dominate in the structure of their psychological readiness for motherhood. Knowledge of the structure of psychological readiness of women to parenthood will help to diagnose disorders of maternal behavior, to design methods of its correction and prevention.

  13. Empirical and Conceptual Arguments for Training in Assessment Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Ronald A.

    Contrary to current anti-testing sentiment, Sangamon State University's recently designed M.A. program in clinical psychology requires training in the use of psychodiagnostic instruments and presents assessment as an integral part of therapy or counseling. This paper offers empirical and conceptual support for this position. Data is summarized…

  14. Race and Ethnicity in Empirical Research: An 18-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kimber L.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Wells, Eliza M.

    2009-01-01

    Extending previous research (E. A. Delgado-Romero, N. Galvan, P. Maschino, & M. Rowland, 2005) regarding race and ethnicity in counseling and counseling psychology, this article examined how race and ethnicity were reported and used in empirical studies published in diversity-focused journals from 1990 to 2007. The results are discussed and…

  15. Preparing Empirical Methodologies to Examine Enactive Subjects Experiencing Musical Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been a considerable expansion of psychological research that attempts to study the impact of music on experienced or felt emotion. Since this research area is relatively young, the field is fractured with many competing theories on the best methods to measure emotional respons...... to interdisciplinary research, to further develop these empirical research questions....

  16. Empirical entropy in context

    CERN Document Server

    Gagie, Travis

    2007-01-01

    We trace the history of empirical entropy, touching briefly on its relation to Markov processes, normal numbers, Shannon entropy, the Chomsky hierarchy, Kolmogorov complexity, Ziv-Lempel compression, de Bruijn sequences and stochastic complexity.

  17. Piaget, Pedagogy, and Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E. C. Genovese

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructivist pedagogy draws on Piaget's developmental theory. Because Piaget depicted the emergence of formal reasoning skills in adolescence as part of the normal developmental pattern, many constructivists have assumed that intrinsic motivation is possible for all academic tasks. This paper argues that Piaget's concept of a formal operational stage has not been empirically verified and that the cognitive skills associated with that stage are in fact “biologically secondary abilities” (Geary and Bjorklund, 2000 culturally determined abilities that are difficult to acquire. Thus, it is unreasonable to expect that intrinsic motivation will suffice for most students for most higher level academic tasks. In addition, a case is made that educational psychology must incorporate the insights of evolutionary psychology.

  18. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve.

  19. Taking heartache to heart: Empirical psychological modelling of chest pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Serlie (Alec)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe chest pain of patients visiting a cardiology out-patient's clinic is most often caused by coronary atherosclerosis, which induces an oxygen shortage in the heartmuscle and thereby pain. However, in approximately 30% of the chest pain patients no clear somatic cause can be found. Cont

  20. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  1. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland

    2016-05-01

    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt.

  2. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Phobic Avoidance in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennett, Heather K.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature regarding the treatment of phobic avoidance in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for classifying interventions as empirically supported, developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 12 Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, were used. For…

  3. Comparative evolutionary psychology of sperm competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K; Goetz, Aaron T

    2006-05-01

    A comparative evolutionary psychological perspective predicts that species that recurrently faced similar adaptive problems may have evolved similar psychological mechanisms to solve these problems. Sperm competition provides an arena in which to assess the heuristic value of such a comparative evolutionary perspective. The sperm competition that results from female infidelity and polyandry presents a similar class of adaptive problems for individuals across many species. The authors first describe mechanisms of sperm competition in insects and in birds. They suggest that the adaptive problems and evolved solutions in these species provide insight into human anatomy, physiology, psychology, and behavior. The authors then review recent theoretical and empirical arguments for the existence of sperm competition in humans and discuss proposed adaptations in humans that have analogs in insects or birds. The authors conclude by highlighting the heuristic value of a comparative evolutionary psychological approach in this field.

  4. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  5. 中国各省市科技进步贡献率测算的实证研究%Empirical Research on Calculation of Contribution Rate of Science and Technology Progress in Provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰兰; 诸克军; 郭海湘

    2011-01-01

    According to the new economic growth theory, a novel method of computing contribution rate of science and technology progress based on C-D production function and Solow method were proposed in this paper. Three steps of the method are as follows:First, perform fuzzy soft clustering of 31 Chinese provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities to obtain the degree of membership of these places belonging to each category, according to the level of science and technology improvement. Second, calculate the contribution rate of science and technology progress of different technology level categories in respect to economic growth. Third,multiply the obtained contribution rate of each category by degree of membership that the region belongs to so to obtain the contribution rate of science and technology progress in each region. Finally, this method was employed to calculate the contribution rate of science and technology progress in 31 Chinese provinces (cities) from 1998 to 2007. Results showed that level of science and technology development was unbalanced in China, where Shanghai got the highest contribution rate of science and technology progress of 54.19%,followed by Beijing with 48.90%, and Sichuan being the last with 28.59%. In addition, the economic growth of Chinese regions depended mainly on funding, whose contribution rate was up to 60%. Therefore, China needs to pay attention to the development level of science and technology, and give full play to the role of science and technology progress in economic growth, so as to give an impetus to the improvement of contribution rate of other production factors and boost the overall economic growth.%依据新经济增长理论,提出了一种基于C-D生产函数和索罗余值法测算科技进步对经济增长贡献率的新方法.该方法包括三个步骤:首先,对中国31个省市按照科技进步水平进行软分类.得到各地区隶属于各类别的隶属度;第二,分别计算不同科技水平

  6. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  7. An overview of South African psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa.

  8. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  9. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  10. 我国技术进步对能源效率的空间面板分析%Impact Analysis of Technical Progress on Energy Efficiency in China-Empirical Analysis Based on Sspatial Panel Data Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈治理; 詹国华; 蔡伟

    2012-01-01

    Provincial panel data from 2005 to 2009 are used to analyze empirically spatial panel data model by considering the spatial effect. The results show that R & D input, human capital and the number of licensed patents improve energy efficiency positively, while foreign direct investment almost has no influence. Individual difference between the provinces is the main factor that affects spatial distribution pattern of energy efficiency. How to make good use of foreign direct investment, spillovers of eastern regions is the key to solve the problem of non-equilibrium energy efficiency in China.%利用2005-2009年省际面板数据,在考虑空间效应的情况下,运用空间面板模型进行实证分析,发现国内R&D投入、人力资表和专利授权数对提高能源利用效率有积极影响,而外商直接投资几乎无影响;省域之间的个体差异是影响能源效率空间分布格局的主要因素.如何利用好外商直接投资、发挥东部地区溢出效应等是解决我国能源效率发展非平衡问题的关键.

  11. Personal archetypes, aspects of personality and psychological well-being / Christoffel Johannes (Christo) Els

    OpenAIRE

    Els, Christoffel Johannes

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to theoretically and empirically explore the nature of personal archetypes, aspects of personality and psychological well-being, as well as the relationship between archetypes and aspects of personality and psychological well-being. This study was conducted according to the new paradigm emerging with the field of psychology, focusing on health and psychological well-being, so diverging from the conventional pathogenic meta-perspective in which the focus is on il...

  12. Teaching Independent Learning Skills in the First Year: A Positive Psychology Strategy for Promoting Law Student Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Rachael; Duffy, James; Huggins, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence in Australia and overseas has established that in many university disciplines, students begin to experience elevated levels of psychological distress in their first year of study. There is now a considerable body of empirical data that establishes that this is a significant problem for law students. Psychological distress may…

  13. Life Writing After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A watershed moment of the twentieth century, the end of empire saw upheavals to global power structures and national identities. However, decolonisation profoundly affected individual subjectivities too. Life Writing After Empire examines how people around the globe have made sense of the post......-imperial condition through the practice of life writing in its multifarious expressions, from auto/biography through travel writing to oral history and photography. Through interdisciplinary approaches that draw on literature and history alike, the contributors explore how we might approach these genres differently...... in order to understand how individual life writing reflects broader societal changes. From far-flung corners of the former British Empire, people have turned to life writing to manage painful or nostalgic memories, as well as to think about the past and future of the nation anew through the personal...

  14. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...... is giving its own answer to questions such as: Why does the use of qualitative empirical methods benefit philosophical accounts of science? And how should these methods be used by the philosopher?...

  15. The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music.

  16. Simple Unawareness in Dynamic Psychological Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Nielsen, Carsten Søren

    2017-01-01

    Building on Battigalli and Dufwenberg (2009)’s framework of dynamic psychological games and the progress in the modeling of dynamic unawareness by Heifetz, Meier, and Schipper (2013a) we model and analyze the impact of asymmetric awareness in the strategic interaction of players motivated...... by reciprocity and guilt. Specifically we characterize extensive-form games with psychological payoffs and simple unawareness, define extensive-form rationalizability and, using this, show that unawareness has a pervasive impact on the strategic interaction of psychologically motivated players. Intuitively...

  17. 1型糖尿病病人心理特点及护理研究进展%Psychological characteristics of type 1 diabetes patients and nursing research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶菊英; 王欣

    2014-01-01

    对1型糖尿病病人的发病原因、心理特点及护理对策进行综述,建议对病人开展针对性的心理干预,对促进病人的康复和提高病人生存质量具有重要意义。%It reviewed the etiology,psychological characteristics and nursing countermeasures of type 1 diabetes patients.It suggested that it was important to carry out targeted psychological characteristics for promoting patients’rehabilitation and improving their quality of life.

  18. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  19. 安徽省建筑业科技进步贡献实证分析:1995~2009%Empirical Analysis on Function of Science and Technology Progress in Anhui Construction Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽萍; 洪功翔; 刘竹林

    2011-01-01

    以1995~2009年为研究期,采用投入三要素模型,并考虑市场变化带来的结构性冲击影响,对安徽省建筑业经济增长各要素的贡献进行实证分析。结果显示,安徽省建筑业主要依靠市场需求扩张下的要素聚集推动,而科技进步贡献较小。提高全要素生产率特别是内生性技术创新能力,是建筑业持续发展和建筑企业提升核心竞争力的必由之路。%In this paper,the elements contribution of construction industry economic growth in Anhui province is empirically analyzed by using the three elements model theory and considering the structural impact on economic growth brought about by the construction market changes from year 1995 to year 2009.The results show that the key factors in Anhui construction industry's economic development is resource elements aggregation and input-driven growth and its TFP played a poor role.To enhance the function of total factor productivity,especially in the ability of endogens technology innovation,will be the only way to maintaining construction industry' sustained-development and to increasing the core industrial competitiveness of construction industry companies.

  20. Hoffman's virtual guilt theory: the progress of guilt study in psychological field%霍夫曼虚拟内疚理论:内疚研究的心理学进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔建中; 王蓓

    2005-01-01

    目的:介绍内疚研究的心理学进展,并对其理论意义进行评价.资料来源:应用计算机检索Psychological数据库1980-01/2003-12期间关于霍夫曼以及与内疚、移情、道德的相关文献,检索词"Hoffman"、"guilt"、"empathy"、"moral",限定文章语言种类为"Ehglish".资料选择:在所查找到的文献中,选择霍夫曼的专著和文章,以及其他心理学家的著述中涉及霍夫曼内疚和虚拟内疚研究的文献.排除重复研究类文章.资料提炼:围绕内疚和虚拟内疚,对所选文献进行提炼,共得到有关霍夫曼虚拟内疚研究的书籍和文献9部(篇).资料综合:9部(篇)文献包括综述1篇,专著8部.其中1部专著解释了虚拟内疚的涵义及类型,1篇综述和3部专著阐述了虚拟内疚发生机制,5部专著分析了虚拟内疚的影响因素,1部专著对霍夫曼的理论意义进行了评价.结论:霍夫曼的理论认为虚拟内疚是尽管人们实际上并没有做伤害他人的事情,或所作所为并没有违犯公认的社会道德规范,但如果他们以为自己做了错事或与他人所受到的伤害有间接关系,也会感到内疚而自责.其分为四大类:关系性内疚,责任性内疚,发展性内疚,幸存性内疚.并认为虚拟内疚是移情性悲伤与认知归因相结合的产物,主要受既往经验、移情能力、道德水平和关系程度影响.霍夫曼关于虚拟内疚的研究,不仅拓展了内疚研究的领域、丰富了内疚研究的内容,而且从新的角度揭示了道德情感在个体道德发展中的自我调节和自我教育作用.%OBJECTIVE: To introduce the progress of the study on guilt in psychology and to evaluate its theoretical implications.DATA SOURCE: Search on computer for the related literature on Hoffman and guilt, empathy moral published from January 1980 to December 2003 using psychological database, the key words being "Hoffman, guilt,empathy, moral" restricting the language of the articles

  1. Attempting Measurement of Psychological Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSalzberger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Measures of psychological attributes abound in the social sciences as much as measures of physical properties do in the physical sciences. However, there are crucial differences between the scientific underpinning of measurement. While measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence that demonstrates the quantitative nature of the property assessed, measurement in the social sciences is, in large part, made possible only by a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data. Traditional psychometric analyses fail to address the requirements of measurement as defined more rigorously in the physical sciences. The construct definitions do not allow for testable predications; and content validity becomes a matter of judgment. In order to improve measurement of psychological attributes, it is suggested to, first, readopt the definition of measurement in the physical sciences; second, to devise an elaborate theory of the construct to be measured that includes the hypothesis of a quantitative attribute; and third, to test the data for the structure implied by the hypothesis of quantity as well as predictions derived from the theory of the construct.

  2. Criminal psychological profiling: validities and abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N

    2003-04-01

    Criminal psychological profiling has attained unprecedented recognition despite little empirical evidence to support its validity and the absence of any thorough exposition of the skills involved with the technique. This article reports on the empirically derived conclusions of studies that sought to examine the accuracy and skill of various groups performing a profiling task. The conclusions provide some support for the contention that professional profilers can produce a more accurate prediction of an unknown offender in comparison to other studied groups. The results also give an indication of the type of skills required for proficient profiling.

  3. Facts and values in psychotherapy-A critique of the empirical reduction of psychotherapy within evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Henrik; Slaattelid, Rasmus

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses an implicit presupposition in research-supported psychological treatments and evidence-based practice in psychology. It argues that the notion of research-supported psychological treatments is based on a reductive conceptualisation of psychotherapy. Research-supported psychological treatments hinge upon an empirical reduction where psychotherapy schools become conceptualized as mere collections of empirical propositions. However, this paper argues that the different psychotherapy schools have distinct ethoses that are constituted by normative claims. Consequently, the evaluation of the different psychotherapy schools and the practice of psychotherapy should include the underlying normative claims of these ethoses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Current opinion in clinical sport psychology: from athletic performance to psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Zella E; Bonagura, Kehana

    2017-08-01

    Clinical sport psychology (CSP) is a contemporary, empirically informed model that employs a scope, style, and mode of practice built upon cutting-edge findings from both clinical and sport sciences, and that follows the sound methodological traditions of clinical psychology [1(••)]. Conceptualizing athletic performance and well-being through the context of empirical research in both athletic and nonathletic domains of functioning, CSP practice can involve the enhancement of athletic performance, and also the personal development and psychological well-being of performers. CSP intervention options expand (if desired) to include those currently considered to be outside of the purview of traditional sport psychology and within the domains of clinical/counseling psychology. Importantly, CSP does not imply that its practitioners must choose a population. CSPers can, if appropriate, assess and intervene with psychological disorders, performance dysfunction, and performance improvement, and/or can make appropriate referrals. Despite whether one personally addresses the variety of interpersonal, non-diagnosable, and clinical issues potentially presented, they must support a comprehensive, client-specific approach and engage in interventions based on sound evidence. Expanding practice boundaries, and with it one's roles and responsibilities, also results in expanded job opportunities. This scope highlights the clinical sport psychologist as the human behavior expert in the athletic milieu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  6. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  7. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  8. An empirical examination of women's empowerment and transformative change in the context of international development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Shelly

    2012-03-01

    This paper responds to calls from social scientists in the area of globalization and women's empowerment to test a model that investigates both structural and individual components of women's empowerment in the context of globalization. The investigation uses a liberation psychology framework by taking into account the effects of globalization, human rights discourse, and women's activism within social movements to identify how structural inequities may be related to empowerment. Surveys conducted in rural Nicaragua revealed that land ownership and organizational participation among women were related to more progressive gender ideology, and in turn, women's power and control within the marital relationship, individual levels of agency, and subjective well-being. The study demonstrates that psychology can bridge the theoretical arguments surrounding human rights with the practical implementation of development interventions, and provide empirical support that has yet to be demonstrated elsewhere. The findings have important implications for strategies and interventions that can improve conditions for women and contribute to the aims of social justice articulated in the Beijing Platform for Action.

  9. A Century of Gestalt Psychology in Visual Perception I. Perceptual Grouping and Figure-Ground Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Johan; Elder, James H.; Kubovy, Michael; Palmer, Stephen E.; Peterson, Mary A.; Singh, Manish; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    In 1912, Max Wertheimer published his paper on phi motion, widely recognized as the start of Gestalt psychology. Because of its continued relevance in modern psychology, this centennial anniversary is an excellent opportunity to take stock of what Gestalt psychology has offered and how it has changed since its inception. We first introduce the key findings and ideas in the Berlin school of Gestalt psychology, and then briefly sketch its development, rise, and fall. Next, we discuss its empirical and conceptual problems, and indicate how they are addressed in contemporary research on perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization. In particular, we review the principles of grouping, both classical (e.g., proximity, similarity, common fate, good continuation, closure, symmetry, parallelism) and new (e.g., synchrony, common region, element and uniform connectedness), and their role in contour integration and completion. We then review classic and new image-based principles of figure-ground organization, how it is influenced by past experience and attention, and how it relates to shape and depth perception. After an integrated review of the neural mechanisms involved in contour grouping, border-ownership, and figure-ground perception, we conclude by evaluating what modern vision science has offered compared to traditional Gestalt psychology, whether we can speak of a Gestalt revival, and where the remaining limitations and challenges lie. A better integration of this research tradition with the rest of vision science requires further progress regarding the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the Gestalt approach, which will be the focus of a second review paper. PMID:22845751

  10. An Empirical Kaiser Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, Johan; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2016-03-31

    In exploratory factor analysis (EFA), most popular methods for dimensionality assessment such as the screeplot, the Kaiser criterion, or-the current gold standard-parallel analysis, are based on eigenvalues of the correlation matrix. To further understanding and development of factor retention methods, results on population and sample eigenvalue distributions are introduced based on random matrix theory and Monte Carlo simulations. These results are used to develop a new factor retention method, the Empirical Kaiser Criterion. The performance of the Empirical Kaiser Criterion and parallel analysis is examined in typical research settings, with multiple scales that are desired to be relatively short, but still reliable. Theoretical and simulation results illustrate that the new Empirical Kaiser Criterion performs as well as parallel analysis in typical research settings with uncorrelated scales, but much better when scales are both correlated and short. We conclude that the Empirical Kaiser Criterion is a powerful and promising factor retention method, because it is based on distribution theory of eigenvalues, shows good performance, is easily visualized and computed, and is useful for power analysis and sample size planning for EFA. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Empirical Music Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    musical performance and reception is inspired by traditional approaches within aesthetics, but it also challenges some of the presuppositions inherent in them. As an example of such work I present a research project in empirical music aesthetics begun last year and of which I am a team member....

  12. Trade and Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2007-01-01

    This articles seeks to establish a new set of organizing concepts for the analysis of the Roman imperial economy from Republic to late antiquity: tributary empire, port-folio capitalism and protection costs. Together these concepts explain better economic developments in the Roman world than the...

  13. Empirical Discovery in Linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pericliev, V

    1995-01-01

    A discovery system for detecting correspondences in data is described, based on the familiar induction methods of J. S. Mill. Given a set of observations, the system induces the ``causally'' related facts in these observations. Its application to empirical linguistic discovery is described.

  14. Essays in empirical banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on empirical banking. They study how do information and political activeness affect banks’ lending behavior, as well as the effect of lending relationship with banks on firms’ stock performance during interbank liquidity crunch. The first essay looks at a t

  15. Trade and Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2007-01-01

    This articles seeks to establish a new set of organizing concepts for the analysis of the Roman imperial economy from Republic to late antiquity: tributary empire, port-folio capitalism and protection costs. Together these concepts explain better economic developments in the Roman world than the ...

  16. Empirical Music Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    musical performance and reception is inspired by traditional approaches within aesthetics, but it also challenges some of the presuppositions inherent in them. As an example of such work I present a research project in empirical music aesthetics begun last year and of which I am a team member....

  17. Empirical social choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    applications. Special attention is given to three phenomena and their possible empirical manifestations: The instability of social choice in the form of (1) the possibility of majority cycles, (2) the non-robustness of social choices given alternative voting methods, and (3) the possibility of various forms...

  18. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  19. Emotions in robot psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, V; Popp, M

    2014-10-01

    In his famous thought experiments on synthetic vehicles, Valentino Braitenberg stipulated that simple stimulus-response reactions in an organism could evoke the appearance of complex behavior, which, to the unsuspecting human observer, may even appear to be driven by emotions such as fear, aggression, and even love (Braitenberg, Vehikel. Experimente mit künstlichen Wesen, Lit Verlag, 2004). In fact, humans appear to have a strong propensity to anthropomorphize, driven by our inherent desire for predictability that will quickly lead us to discern patterns, cause-and-effect relationships, and yes, emotions, in animated entities, be they natural or artificial. But might there be reasons, that we should intentionally "implement" emotions into artificial entities, such as robots? How would we proceed in creating robot emotions? And what, if any, are the ethical implications of creating "emotional" robots? The following article aims to shed some light on these questions with a multi-disciplinary review of recent empirical investigations into the various facets of emotions in robot psychology.

  20. The psychological safety of the educational environment and the psychological well-being of Russian secondary school pupils and teachers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeva I.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest of psychologists in the study of safety in the educational environment and its psychological characteristics is increasing. The aim of this study was to select, substantiate, and disclose the psychological factors in the educational environment that influence the psychological well-being of pupils. There were three stages in our research: clarifying the level of psychological safety in the schools in the study; revealing the consistency of the teachers’ and the students’ evaluations of the level of psychological safety in those schools; determining the nature of the influence of the psychological safety of the educational environment on the psychological well-being of the students. The study involved 172 teachers and 876 students in Moscow and St. Petersburg schools. Psychological safety is a condition of educational environments that are free from psychological violence in the interactions of the people in them; psychological safety contributes to the satisfaction of the needs for personal trust and communication, creates for the participants a sense of belonging (the referential importance of the environment, and contributes to their mental health. The empirical study revealed that (1 the level of the psychological safety of the educational environment in the evaluations of the teachers was higher and had more expressed differentiation than did the level in the students’ evaluations; (2 the psychological well-being of the students was closely correlated with the level of psychological safety for the teachers; (3 such components of the well-being of the students as emotional comfort, self-confidence, a higher level of cognitive activity were developed in those schools with high levels of psychological safety for the teachers. The results can be useful in educational psychology and environmental psychology as well as when creating technologies to support the safety of school environments and of the people in them, including

  1. Psychological health in adults with morquio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadia; Cagle, S

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPSIV), also known as Morquio syndrome, is a progressive genetic condition which predominantly affects skeletal development. Research thus far has focused on physical manifestations, with little attention to psychological characteristics. As a first step in determining the natural occurrence of psychological symptoms in this population, we administered Achenbach measures of psychological functioning (ASEBA ASR and OASR), quality of life (SF-36), and pain severity (BPI) questionnaires to 20 adults with Morquio syndrome. 11/20 subjects (55%) scored within the symptomatic range on at least one or more ASEBA problem scales. These subjects also had higher pain severity scores (p = 0.051) and pain interference scores (p = 0.03) on the BPI. However, subjects with psychological symptoms did not differ significantly on QOL measures from those without psychological symptoms. Overall, subjects scored below the US mean only in physical health QOL (p Morquio syndrome, including regular assessment for psychological symptoms in addition to the quality of life measures typically used, as the latter may miss important information. Greater attention to psychological symptoms may help maximize overall health in adults with Morquio syndrome. Comparison with psychological studies on other lysosomal storage diseases suggests these results may be disease specific, rather than the result of living with chronic pain or having an LSD in general.

  2. Second Work in Progress Special Edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottequin, Ezra; Deutz, Marike|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372536115; Ruggeri, Kai

    2014-01-01

    It is with great pleasure that the Journal of European Psychology Students presents its first special edition of the Work in Progress reports of the Junior Researcher Programme, resulting from a recently established partnership between these two services of the European Federation of Psychology

  3. Ten years of a model of aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgments : The aesthetic episode - Developments and challenges in empirical aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Nadal, Marcos

    2014-11-01

    About a decade ago, psychology of the arts started to gain momentum owing to a number of drives: technological progress improved the conditions under which art could be studied in the laboratory, neuroscience discovered the arts as an area of interest, and new theories offered a more comprehensive look at aesthetic experiences. Ten years ago, Leder, Belke, Oeberst, and Augustin (2004) proposed a descriptive information-processing model of the components that integrate an aesthetic episode. This theory offered explanations for modern art's large number of individualized styles, innovativeness, and for the diverse aesthetic experiences it can stimulate. In addition, it described how information is processed over the time course of an aesthetic episode, within and over perceptual, cognitive and emotional components. Here, we review the current state of the model, and its relation to the major topics in empirical aesthetics today, including the nature of aesthetic emotions, the role of context, and the neural and evolutionary foundations of art and aesthetics.

  4. Reconciling economics and psychology on intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Bruna

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes how the debate on intrinsic motivation was imported from psychology into economics. The most important differences between the two disciplines are in the definition of intrinsic motivation and in the timing of the undermining effect of rewards. The economic framework of inter-temporal choices is proposed to reconcile the different empirical and theoretical results arising in the literature, and it is shown how rewards induce substitution and income effects depending on whet...

  5. 高师生性心理健康与其人格特质关系的实证研究%The Empirical Research on the Relationship of Personality Traits with Sex Psychological Health among Normal Students in Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹; 刘延金; 龙雪娜

    2015-01-01

    The paper has investigated the sex psychological health of 1400 students from the six different normal universities. The results have indicated that there is a negative relationship between sex psychological health and personal traits. The level of psychological health will decrease due to the rise of level of psychological quality, which means that the higher the psychological personality score is, the lower the psychological health level is. Therefore, psychological quality can predict the situation of sex psychological health. In this case, psychological quality not only provides practical basis in terms of understanding students’personal trait and strengthening personality, but also provides theoretical basis for the normal universities to improve the psychological quality of student.%本文通过对6所师范院校的1400名高师生性心理健康进行综合分析,得出高师生性心理健康水平与其人格特质的精神质之间有着极其显著的负相关,心理健康水平随着精神质值的增高而降低,高师生的精神质可以显著地预测其性心理健康水平状况。为高师生了解人格特质,健全其人格,提高性心理健康水平提供了可参考的实践依据,为师范院校提升师范生的心理素质提供了科学依据。

  6. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  7. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  8. Research progress on psychological training of disaster rescue health care workers in China%我国灾难救护医护人员心理培训研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴菁; 崔静; 叶旭春

    2014-01-01

    介绍了灾难救护医护人员面临的心理应激及问题,主要综述灾难救护医护人员的心理干预和培训,并提出应加强医护人员自我心理调适方面的培训,特别是在灾难发生前、灾难发生时及救灾后恢复阶段对医护人员的心理培训,各时间点培训内容也应各有侧重点。%It introduced the psychological stress and problems which the disaster rescue health workers faced with,and summarized psychological intervention and training of disaster rescue health workers.And it put forward that the training should be strengthened on self psychological adj ustment of them,especially before disaster,on disaster and recovery period after disaster for medical staff.And training content at each time point should also have their own emphasis.

  9. 癌症病人家庭照顾者心理行为干预模式研究进展%Research progress on psychological behavioral intervention model for family caregivers of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡彩平; 林毅; 李秋萍

    2012-01-01

    阐述了癌症病人家庭照顾者生理、心理及精神等方面的变化,癌症病人及其家庭照顾者的心理行为干预模式.提出以夫妻为中心的心理行为干预模式将是未来发展的方向,探讨并开发适合国情的癌症病人综合健康促进支持系统(CHESS),且与病人电子健康档案及适当的专业人员干预有机结合,将有利于满足以夫妻为中心的个体化干预模式.%It expounded the physiological, psychological and spiritual changes of the family caregivers, and psychological behavioral intervention model for cancer patients and their family caregivers. It put forward the psychological behavioral intervention model which took husband and wife as the center will be the future development direction, probe into and develop the cancer patient comprehensive health promotion support system (CHESS) for the cancer patients which is suitable for the development of the national conditions. And the organic union was carried out between the system, patients' electronic health records and appropriate professional intervention, which will be conducive to meet the individual intervention model which took husband and wife as the center.

  10. Empirical codon substitution matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnet Gaston H

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Codon substitution probabilities are used in many types of molecular evolution studies such as determining Ka/Ks ratios, creating ancestral DNA sequences or aligning coding DNA. Until the recent dramatic increase in genomic data enabled construction of empirical matrices, researchers relied on parameterized models of codon evolution. Here we present the first empirical codon substitution matrix entirely built from alignments of coding sequences from vertebrate DNA and thus provide an alternative to parameterized models of codon evolution. Results A set of 17,502 alignments of orthologous sequences from five vertebrate genomes yielded 8.3 million aligned codons from which the number of substitutions between codons were counted. From this data, both a probability matrix and a matrix of similarity scores were computed. They are 64 × 64 matrices describing the substitutions between all codons. Substitutions from sense codons to stop codons are not considered, resulting in block diagonal matrices consisting of 61 × 61 entries for the sense codons and 3 × 3 entries for the stop codons. Conclusion The amount of genomic data currently available allowed for the construction of an empirical codon substitution matrix. However, more sequence data is still needed to construct matrices from different subsets of DNA, specific to kingdoms, evolutionary distance or different amount of synonymous change. Codon mutation matrices have advantages for alignments up to medium evolutionary distances and for usages that require DNA such as ancestral reconstruction of DNA sequences and the calculation of Ka/Ks ratios.

  11. Integrating positive psychology into health-related quality of life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L

    2015-07-01

    Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.

  12. [Psychological approaches in hypertension management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall-Barbry, Gaëlle; Consoli, Silla M

    2006-06-01

    Stress factors, especially high levels of occupational stress, are associated with hypertension. Several so-called psychological techniques have been applied to hypertension: biofeedback, relaxation techniques (Schultz' autogenic training, Jacobson's progressive relaxation), transcendental meditation, and cognitive behavioral techniques for stress management. Randomized studies show that the best results come from cognitive behavioral methods, whether or not they include relaxation techniques. Other forms of psychotherapy (such as psychoanalysis) may be useful, although their benefits for blood pressure have not been tested in controlled trials. Patients should be informed about the personal benefits they may obtain from psychological treatment. Indications are hyperreactivity to stress, high levels of occupational stress, and difficulty in tolerating or complying with antihypertensive drugs.

  13. Psychological Diagnostics of Developmental Disorders: A New Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Lubovsky V.I.; Korobeynikov I.A.,; Valyavko S.M.,

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose a fundamentally new, theoretically grounded and empirically supported approach to psycho-pedagogical diagnostics of developmental disorders. It is shown that in Russia psychological diagnostics of developmental disorders still has no proper theoretical foundations and is carried out rather intuitively and empirically, even on the stage of differential diagnosis. The situation abroad is quite similar despite the use of standardized intelligence tests as they can only measur...

  14. The rise of quantitative methods in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cousineau

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative methods have a long history in some scientific fields. Indeed, no one today would consider a qualitative data set in physics or a qualitative theory in chemistry. Quantitative methods are so central in these fields that they are often labelled “hard sciences”. Here, we examine the question whether psychology is ready to enter the “hard science club” like biology did in the forties. The facts that a over half of the statistical techniques used in psychology are less than 40 years old and that b the number of simulations in empirical papers has followed an exponential growth since the eighties, both suggests that the answer is yes. The purpose of Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology is to provide a concise and easy access to the currents methods.

  15. An empirical analysis of the relationship between financing Lease industry and technological progress based on error correction model%误差修正模型下融资租赁对技术进步影响的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋新; 何健敏

    2014-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the development situation of financial lease Industry, the authors apply the practical data from 1989 to 2010 and Error Correction Model, taking the trading volume of financial lease industry and the trading volume of the technological market of the whole country as the variables, an empirical analysis between China’s financial lease industry and technological progress has been made, from which we can find out the impact of financial lease industry on technological progress. It shows that a notable positive correlation of financial lease industry and technological progress in the long run. However, one percentage point change in growth rate of financial lease will lead to 0.102 6 percentage point change in the growth rate of the trading volume of the technological market of the whole country in the short time. So it is important to foster the financial lease industry so as to promote technological progress of correlated industry.%在分析我国融资租赁发展现状的基础上,选取1989年至2010年间的融资租赁交易额和全国技术市场成交额数据为样本,运用误差修正模型实证分析了我国融资租赁对技术进步的影响,结果显示:在较长的时期内,融资租赁与技术进步明显正相关;而在短期内,融资租赁增长率每变动1个百分点就会导致全国技术市场成交额增长率变动0.1026个百分点。为此,应大力培植融资租赁市场,促进行业技术进步。

  16. The Limitations of Concepts in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    Many concepts in developmental psychology are inferred or confirmed from very particular experimental or naturalistic observations but investigators often generalize their validity to a broad domain of situations. This permissiveness is affecting progress. This paper provides examples of this error and criticizes the tendency to award essences to…

  17. The Limitations of Concepts in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    Many concepts in developmental psychology are inferred or confirmed from very particular experimental or naturalistic observations but investigators often generalize their validity to a broad domain of situations. This permissiveness is affecting progress. This paper provides examples of this error and criticizes the tendency to award essences to…

  18. Integrating Humor and Positive Psychology Approaches to Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Brittany Maiolino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated how individual differences and personality constructs taken from the positive psychology and humor domains of psychology may play an important role in psychological well-being. Participants completed measures assessing trait gratitude, savoring, and humor styles; along with several positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being (e.g., life satisfaction, positive affect, depression, and anxiety. We first examined the degree of empirical and conceptual overlap among the personality constructs from these two domains. Here, we found that higher levels of gratitude and savoring were associated with higher levels of self-enhancing and affiliative humor, whereas higher levels of aggressive and self-defeating humor were primarily associated with lower levels of gratitude. Subsequent regression analyses indicated that the positive psychology construct of gratitude was predictive of several different indices of positive and negative well-being, whereas savoring was most predictive of greater positive affect. In addition, these regression analyses also revealed that the humor styles of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor provided a significant increase in the prediction of several positive and negative indices of well-being, above and beyond the effects attributable to the positive psychology constructs alone. These findings were then discussed in terms of developing a broader and more integrated theoretical approach to the understanding of psychological well-being.

  19. Clinical Psychology Training: Accreditation and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Robert W

    2017-05-08

    Beginning with efforts in the late 1940s to ensure that clinical psychologists were adequately trained to meet the mental health needs of the veterans of World War II, the accreditation of clinical psychologists has largely been the province of the Commission on Accreditation of the American Psychological Association. However, in 2008 the Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System began accrediting doctoral programs that adhere to the clinical science training model. This review discusses the goals of accreditation and the history of the accreditation of graduate programs in clinical psychology, and provides an overview of the evaluation procedures used by these two systems. Accreditation is viewed against the backdrop of the slow rate of progress in reducing the burden of mental illness and the changes in clinical psychology training that might help improve this situation. The review concludes with a set of five recommendations for improving accreditation.

  20. The Matthew effect in empirical data

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz

    2014-01-01

    The Matthew effect describes the phenomenon that in societies the rich tend to get richer and the potent even more powerful. It is closely related to the concept of preferential attachment in network science, where the more connected nodes are destined to acquire many more links in the future than the auxiliary nodes. Cumulative advantage and success-breads-success also both describe the fact that advantage tends to beget further advantage. The concept is behind the many power laws and scaling behaviour in empirical data, and it is at the heart of self-organization across social and natural sciences. Here we review the methodology for measuring preferential attachment in empirical data, as well as the observations of the Matthew effect in patterns of scientific collaboration, socio-technical and biological networks, the propagation of citations, the emergence of scientific progress and impact, career longevity, the evolution of common English words and phrases, as well as in education and brain development. W...

  1. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.

  2. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of ... Aviation Psychological Practice in the Nigerian Air Force: Challenges and ... Psychosocial Predictors of Quality of Life among Caregivers of Chronically Ill ...

  3. Psychology of Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Ulu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter of book that entitled Science, Religion and Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Controversy has been given important informations about psychology of religion’s historical development as well as pioneer figures’ contributions. In this text some evaluations has been made by categorizing studies in field of psychology of religion. Finally some informations are provided about current status of the psychology of religion and position of the psychology of religion ...

  4. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-01-01

    Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in ...

  5. The Empirical Study about the Agricultural College Students Psychological Crisis Interfere System%构建农业院校大学生心理危机干预体系的实证研究——以某农业大学为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景; 闫翔

    2011-01-01

    在问卷调查的基础上,进行了农业院校心理危机干预体系构建实践,构建了包括心理危机预防体系、心理危机预警体系、心理危机应急处置体系、心理危机后期跟踪体系等"四位一体"的心理危机干预体系。构建心理危机预防体系,通过开设大学生心理健康教育课程、开展大学生心理健康宣传活动、加强心理辅导与咨询工作;构建心理危机预警体系,通过建立心理档案,进行预警信息评估,建立校、院、班三级管理机制,健全学生心理危机报告制度。某农业大学经过几年的研究建设,已经初步形成了完整的心理危机干预体系,为该校大学生心理健康发展提供了有利支持和保障。%The study which based on questionnaire set up psychological crisis interfere systems in agricultural university. It established " four in one " psychological crisis interfere systems include psychological crisis prophylaxis system, early-warning system, emergency disposal system, and later stage tracking system.The college sets psychological crisis prophylaxis system by opening college student psychological-health education, giving publicity to psychological health, improving psychology counseling; sets early-warning system by psychological files, evaluating early-warning information, setting up three-stages management frame which included college, institution and class, perfecting students psychological crisis report.The college has been forming basic and complete psychological crisis interfere systems for many years construction, and systems give support and protection to college student psychological development.

  6. The Empirical Study of How Depreciation of Infrastructure Affects Investment in Infrastructure and the Relationship Between Depreciation of Infrastructure and the Progress of Technology%基础设施折旧与基础设施投资及科技进步关系的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志斌; 郭亚红

    2013-01-01

    文章利用中国30个省2001-2010年的面板数据就基础设施折旧对基础设施投资的影响进行实证分析,同时还用格兰杰因果检验研究了基础设施折旧与科技进步之间的因果关系。实证结果表明:人均基础设施折旧对人均基础设施投资有显著的促进作用。东部、中部和西部地区的基础设施折旧与科技进步有不同的因果关系。中部和西部地区采用加速折旧,东部地区仍然采用直线折旧有利于缩小东部、中部和西部地区人均基础设施投资的差距。%In this paper, we collect 30 provinces’2001-2010 panel data in China to demonstrate and analyze the deprecia-tion of infrastructure’impact to the investment in infrastructure,and also use the Granger test to test the relationship between depreciation of infrastructure and the progress of technology. The empirical results show that:the per capita of infrastructure is significantly positive to per capita investment in infrastructure. The Granger test of the relationship between depreciation and the progress of Technology in the east, the middle and the west shows rather different results. It comes out when the west and the middle adopt accelerated depreciation,the east still uses the straight-line depreciation,the gap between per capita infra-structure investment in the east,the middle and the west can become smaller.

  7. 阿尔茨海默病患者家属心理干预研究现状%The research progress of psychological intervention among family members of Alzheimer's disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊丽娜; 金燕飞; 金昌德

    2015-01-01

    With the arrival of the aging society, Alzheimer's disease is becoming increasingly prominent and taking care of these patients has become an important social responsibility. At present, most,Alzheimer's disease patients were looked after by their family members whose psychological problems has become a major healthcare issue and affects not only their own physical and mental health but also the health of Alzheimer's disease patients. Therefore, resolving the psychological problems of family members of Alzheimer's disease patients is imperative. This paper summarized the current research in China and aboard of psychological intervention among family members of Alzheimer's disease patients in order to provide theoretical basis and reference for people to resolve the psychological problems of family members of Alzheimer's disease patients.%随着老龄化社会的到来,阿尔茨海默病发病率日益增高,照顾阿尔茨海默病患者成为社会一大重任。目前阿尔茨海默病患者的护理绝大多数是由患者家属承担,而家属在照顾患者期间会产生各种心理问题,不仅影响着患者家属的身心健康,也给阿尔茨海默病患者带来负面的影响。因此,解决阿尔茨海默病患者家属的心理问题势在必行。本文通过检索近几年来国内外对阿尔茨海默病患者家属的心理问题干预的相关研究,总结阿尔茨海默病患者家属的心理问题干预的研究现状,以期为解决家属心理问题提供理论依据和参考。

  8. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...... for a proper acknowledgment of epistemology’s role in conceptual improvement...

  9. Realism And Empirical Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Schmelzer, I

    1997-01-01

    We define realism using a slightly modified version of the EPR criterion of reality. This version is strong enough to show that relativity is incomplete. We show that this definition of realism is nonetheless compatible with the general principles of causality and canonical quantum theory as well as with experimental evidence in the (special and general) relativistic domain. We show that the realistic theories we present here, compared with the standard relativistic theories, have higher empirical content in the strong sense defined by Popper's methodology.

  10. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  11. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  12. Psychology and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  13. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…

  14. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  15. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  16. What social psychology can do for prevention of illness and adaptation to illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie

    The progress in fundamental social psychological research has become smaller and because of this, our society increasingly pushes scientific social psychology, and other sciences, into the direction of utility and valorisation. At the same time there is a painful short of use of social psychological

  17. 高功能孤独症谱系障碍患者心理健康护理的研究进展%Research progress of psychological health nursing for individuals with high functioning autism spectrum disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷瑞玲

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder ( ASD) but without intellectual impairment or disability ( ID) were described here as individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder ( HFASD) . This article reviewed on the psychologi-cal problems and prognosis of this population, and made recommendations for application of the existing mental health services to the a-dults with HFASD.%高功能孤独症谱系障碍( HFASD)包含不伴有智力障碍或残疾( ID)的孤独症谱系障碍( ASD)的青少年和成年人。本文就高功能孤独症谱系障碍成年患者的心理问题及预后进行综述,并且对如何将现有的精神卫生服务应用于高功能自闭症谱系障碍的成年人提出建议。

  18. The progress of nurses'working pressure and psychological health coping methods%急诊科护士工作压力及心理健康应对方式研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; 陈宏

    2010-01-01

    From the nurses'strength, mental stress and emotional stress, the environmental impact, this article was reviewed the state of nurses'psychology enhancing and influenced factors. To strengthen the study of enhancing nurses' mental health, relieve pressure, colleagues support systems, recognite decompression education could reduce their working pressure, increase the level of psychology health, improve the quality of nursing%从护士职业的体力消耗、精神压力、情感压力、环境影响等方面综述了国内外急诊科护士心理压力增高的现状及相关因素,并从加强护士心理健康研究、提前做好缓解压力计划、建立同事支持系统、重视减压教育等环节着手,降低其工作压力,以增强心理健康水平,提高护理质量.

  19. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  20. Recovery and positive psychology: parallel themes and potential synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sandra G; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    The positive psychology movement studies the sources of human strength and the foundations of the "good life." Like the recovery movement, it focuses on personal fulfillment and well-being more than on mental illness. These movements have followed separate but parallel tracks. Positive psychology has traveled an academic and empirical path and the recovery movement has followed a grassroots advocacy model. The authors describe the successful use of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths in a Department of Veterans Affairs psychiatric rehabilitation program. They argue for the integration of positive psychology and the recovery movement: positive psychology provides a potentially useful framework for further defining and fostering the goals of recovery, and the recovery movement can expand the hitherto limited application of positive psychology.

  1. Anxious attachment and psychological distress in cardiac rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Sarah Rose, M; Brewis, C S

    1995-06-01

    This study investigated the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychologically distressed and non-psychologically distressed cardiac patients. Attachment is a biologically based behavioral system in which proximity to a special other is sought or maintained to achieve a sense of safety and security. Anxious attachment, as the name denotes, fails to achieve the function of attachment in the sense of individuals having little or no confidence in the availability of their attachment figures. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking and separation protest) capture the features of anxious attachment as elaborated by Bowlby. These scales were administered to 178 cardiac rehabilitation patients drawn from the cardiac rehabilitation program of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that feared loss and proximity seeking differentiated psychologically distressed from non-psychologically distressed patients. The implications of this finding for the understanding of psychologically distressed cardiac patients are discussed.

  2. Appropriate Algorithms for Nonlinear Time Series Analysis in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, Christian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    Chaos theory has a strong appeal for psychology because it allows for the investigation of the dynamics and nonlinearity of psychological systems. Consequently, chaos-theoretic concepts and methods have recently gained increasing attention among psychologists and positive claims for chaos have been published in nearly every field of psychology. Less attention, however, has been paid to the appropriateness of chaos-theoretic algorithms for psychological time series. An appropriate algorithm can deal with short, noisy data sets and yields `objective' results. In the present paper it is argued that most of the classical nonlinear techniques don't satisfy these constraints and thus are not appropriate for psychological data. A methodological approach is introduced that is based on nonlinear forecasting and the method of surrogate data. In artificial data sets and empirical time series we can show that this methodology reliably assesses nonlinearity and chaos in time series even if they are short and contaminated by noise.

  3. Psychological adjustment of obese youth presenting for weight management treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Meg H; Saelens, Brian E; Roehrig, Helmut; Kirk, Shelley; Daniels, Stephen R

    2004-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological maladjustment in clinic-based treatment-seeking obese children and adolescents (BMI > or = 95th percentile) and the degree to which maternal, demographic, and youth factors correlate to the youths' psychological adjustment. Anthropometrics, demographics (race, sex, insurance status), measures of youth psychological adjustment (self- and mother-report; Behavior Assessment System for Children), and maternal self-report of psychological distress (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised) were collected from 121 obese children and adolescents (55% white, 45% black) and their mothers. Approximately one-third of youths self-reported some psychological maladjustment, but two-thirds of youth were described by their mothers as experiencing some degree of psychological maladjustment. Adjustment difficulties were specific to social functioning, low self-esteem, and internalizing symptoms. Forty-one percent of mothers of child participants and 56% of mothers of adolescent participants reported clinically significant psychological distress. Youth self-report and mother-report of youths' psychological difficulties were often most strongly associated with mothers' level of psychological distress and/or family socioeconomic status rather than to youth characteristics (e.g., percent overweight, race). Psychological maladjustment levels among obese youth and their mothers were higher in this clinic-based sample than in treatment research-based samples. Present correlate findings extended to obese adolescents and reaffirm a potent association between youth self-report of their own psychological adjustment and their mother's level of psychological distress. Demographic characteristics and youth weight status were not consistent correlates of youths' psychological functioning. Findings have implications for the translation of empirically supported pediatric obesity interventions to clinic-based treatment samples.

  4. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Daniel J. Bauer

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Daniel J. Bauer, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for the creative integration of sophisticated quantitative methods with empirical research in the psychological sciences. Bauer draws on his joint training as a developmental and quantitative psychologist to pursue the design,…

  5. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Daniel J. Bauer

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Daniel J. Bauer, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for the creative integration of sophisticated quantitative methods with empirical research in the psychological sciences. Bauer draws on his joint training as a developmental and quantitative psychologist to pursue the design,…

  6. Initial Validation of an Instrument Measuring Psychology-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, Maggie D.; McMahan, Ethan A.; Nitkova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology-specific epistemological beliefs (EBs) are believed to influence students' approach to and performance in psychology courses. However, empirical research on this topic is limited due in part to a lack of well-validated instruments measuring this construct. The primary objective of this research was to develop and validate the…

  7. Initial Validation of an Instrument Measuring Psychology-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, Maggie D.; McMahan, Ethan A.; Nitkova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology-specific epistemological beliefs (EBs) are believed to influence students' approach to and performance in psychology courses. However, empirical research on this topic is limited due in part to a lack of well-validated instruments measuring this construct. The primary objective of this research was to develop and validate the…

  8. Learning to View Psychology as a Science: Self-Persuasion through Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, James

    1990-01-01

    Finds that introductory students who wrote an essay supporting an empirical orientation toward psychology were more likely to conduct an experiment when given a choice of assignment, compared to a control group. Discusses implications for teaching students to view psychology as a science. (Author/NL)

  9. Antecedents and Outcomes of Psychological Insecurity and Interpersonal Trust Among Chinese People

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Taormina; Ruinan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Psychological insecurity and interpersonal trust were empirically tested in a conceptual model in relation to several personality and social measures as theoretical antecedents, and to interpersonal relationships and feelings of life satisfaction as hypothesized outcomes. Questionnaire data from 301 Chinese adults showed psychological insecurity to be significantly and positively correlated with neuroticism and dependency, while negatively related to family emotional support, emotional intell...

  10. The Impact of Business School Students' Psychological Capital on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthans, Brett Carl; Luthans, Kyle William; Jensen, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological capital (PsyCap) consisting of the psychological resources of hope, efficacy, resiliency, and optimism has been empirically demonstrated in the published literature to be related to manager and employee positive organizational outcomes and to be open to development. However, to date, little attention has been devoted to the impact of…

  11. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  12. 围绝经期妇女焦虑症心理治疗研究进展%Research progress of the psychological treatment of the anxiety disorders of the women in the peri-menopausal period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 王彩霞; 李萍

    2016-01-01

    Along with the social competition increasingly serious, the women bear more and more physical, psychological, and social pressures so as to cause some women to advance into the peri-menopausal period early, and appear the more serious peri-menopausal anxiety disorder. The prevalence of the peri-menopausal anxiety disorder is high, the rates of the diagnosis and treatment are low and it is more easily misdiagnosed as the organic disease, which seriously affects the family life and work quality of the women. Therefore, development of the community psychological treatment, active cooperation with the district mental health center and formation of a mental disease prevention and control network can improve the social function of the women in the peri-menopausal period better, promote the community women’s health and the rapid development of the community psychological treatment of the peri-menopausal anxiety disorder.%随着社会竞争日益激烈,妇女承受的生理、心理、社会压力越来越大,致使部分女性提早进入围绝经期,出现较为严重的围绝经期焦虑症。围绝经期焦虑症患病率较高,诊断率和治疗率均很低,临床更易误诊为器质性疾病,严重影响妇女的家庭生活和工作。因此,大力发展社区心理治疗,主动与区精神卫生中心合作,形成心理疾病防控网络,可更好地提高妇女在围绝经期的社会功能,促进社区妇女健康,推动社区围绝经期焦虑症心理治疗的迅速发展。

  13. Beyond integrating social sciences: Reflecting on the place of life sciences in empirical bioethics methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Marcel; Schildmann, Jan

    2017-07-21

    Empirical bioethics is commonly understood as integrating empirical research with normative-ethical research in order to address an ethical issue. Methodological analyses in empirical bioethics mainly focus on the integration of socio-empirical sciences (e.g. sociology or psychology) and normative ethics. But while there are numerous multidisciplinary research projects combining life sciences and normative ethics, there is few explicit methodological reflection on how to integrate both fields, or about the goals and rationales of such interdisciplinary cooperation. In this paper we will review some drivers for the tendency of empirical bioethics methodologies to focus on the collaboration of normative ethics with particularly social sciences. Subsequently, we argue that the ends of empirical bioethics, not the empirical methods, are decisive for the question of which empirical disciplines can contribute to empirical bioethics in a meaningful way. Using already existing types of research integration as a springboard, five possible types of research which encompass life sciences and normative analysis will illustrate how such cooperation can be conceptualized from a methodological perspective within empirical bioethics. We will conclude with a reflection on the limitations and challenges of empirical bioethics research that integrates life sciences.

  14. Exploring Psychology in the Field: Steps and Examples From the Used-Car Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Devin G

    2016-07-01

    The growing availability of large datasets in a variety of domains presents an opportunity for researchers to use field data to better understand psychological concepts. I discuss, from an empirical economics point of view, steps for how to study cognition in large datasets. I use two recent papers that explore psychology in the used-car market as motivating examples. These examples help illustrate the potential importance of big data as a way to explore human psychology and cognition.

  15. The Psychological Effects of Meditation: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmeier, Peter; Eberth, Juliane; Schwarz, Marcus; Zimmermann, Doreen; Haarig, Frederik; Jaeger, Sonia; Kunze, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, we give a comprehensive overview of the effects of meditation on psychological variables that can be extracted from empirical studies, concentrating on the effects of meditation on nonclinical groups of adult meditators. Mostly because of methodological problems, almost 3/4 of an initially identified 595 studies had to be…

  16. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology, and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, Fred; Bruggeman, Frank; Jonker, Catholijn; Looren de Jong, Huib; Tamminga, Allard; Treur, Jan; Westerhoff, Hans; Wijngaards, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an *empirical* turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on *a priori* discussions of inter-level relations between “completed” sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way inter-

  17. A Social Extension of a Psychological Interest Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikner-Ahsbahs, Angelika

    2003-01-01

    Based on an individual interest theory as a sensitising theory, empirical data are used to gain social interest concepts, as there are situated collective interest and interest-dense situation. These concepts serve as a basis for a social extension of a psychological interest theory. Its construction combines social interactions, the dynamic of…

  18. Trauma and Victimization: A Model of Psychological Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, I. Lisa; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Synthesizes theoretical and empirical findings about psychological responses to traumatization across survivors of rape, childhood sexual or physical abuse, domestic violence, crime, disasters, and the Vietnam War. Describes five major categories of response and presents new theoretical model for understanding individual variations in victim…

  19. Research Forum on Psychological Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Margaret; Safren, Steven A.; Solanto, Mary V.; Hechtman, Lily; Rostain, Anthony L.; Ramsay, J. Russell; Murray, Candice

    2008-01-01

    Background: A literature search found five empirical studies of psychological treatment for adults with ADHD, out of 1,419 articles on ADHD in adults. Practice guidelines to date all recommend multimodal intervention, given that a significant number of patients cannot tolerate, do not respond to, or fail to reach optimal outcomes with medication…

  20. The Psychological Effects of Meditation: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmeier, Peter; Eberth, Juliane; Schwarz, Marcus; Zimmermann, Doreen; Haarig, Frederik; Jaeger, Sonia; Kunze, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, we give a comprehensive overview of the effects of meditation on psychological variables that can be extracted from empirical studies, concentrating on the effects of meditation on nonclinical groups of adult meditators. Mostly because of methodological problems, almost 3/4 of an initially identified 595 studies had to be…

  1. Religion and self: notions from a cultural psychological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Belzen

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction of a cultural psychological perspective, this paper turns to the concept of self. The paper proposes to conceive of that reality to which the concepts of self refer as a narrative, employing especially autobiographies and other ego-documents in empirical exploration. After

  2. The Development and Resulting Performance Impact of Positive Psychological Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthans, Fred; Avey, James B.; Avolio, Bruce J.; Peterson, Suzanne J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, theory and research have supported psychological capital (PsyCap) as an emerging core construct linked to positive outcomes at the individual and organizational level. However, to date, little attention has been given to PsyCap development through training interventions; nor have there been attempts to determine empirically if such…

  3. The research progress on the correlations between occupational stress and psychological counseling of operating room nurses%手术室护士职业压力与心理咨询相关性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚娜娜; 谢虹; 谢青青; 周爱萍

    2013-01-01

    In this article,the author summarized and analyzed the performance,stress source,influencing factors of nurses' occupational stress.In order to find measures to relieve the stress.The effective intervention measure is psychological counseling.%就目前国内外关于手术室护士职业压力的表现、来源和影响因素等方面的综合性述评及心理咨询的作用、对其产生的影响等方面的总结、分析,找到一种能减轻手术室护士职业压力最好最有效的干预措施即心理咨询,以引起医院管理机构及相关研究人员对手术室护士职业压力的关注.

  4. What psychology means to me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donelson E. Dulany

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available What the title of this article means to me after decades on a university faculty is very broad. It would include topics of my research and writing, of my graduate and undergraduate teaching, and of what I read in the area, including papers that have been submitted to me as editor of the American Journal of Psychology. What I can write here focuses on my research and writing and related metatheoretical views, including what I have considered the deeper and more significant questions formulated in philosophy of mind and submitted to empirical investigation in psychology. Of most active concern today, and over the years, are those asking about the roles of consciousness, symbolic representation, and volition in mental activity and action. Is symbolic representation carried out consciously or unconsciously, or both? This paper recognizes the 19th century attempt to establish a science of consciousness, a behavioristic movement that rejected consciousness as being the soul of theology, a cognitive metatheory giving some place to consciousness but emphasizing non-conscious symbolic representation. This summarizes our experimental examinations of my theories of the source of intentional action, of causal reasoning, and of explicit and implicit learning. It also summarizes the overarching mentalistic metatheory I have described.

  5. The Psychological Structure of Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Aaron C; Cheng, Joey T; Tracy, Jessica L

    2016-07-25

    Psychological inquiry into humility has advanced considerably over the past decade, yet this literature suffers from 2 notable limitations. First, there is no clear consensus among researchers about what humility is, and conceptualizations vary considerably across studies. Second, researchers have uniformly operationalized humility as a positive, socially desirable construct, while dismissing evidence from lay opinion and theological and philosophical traditions suggesting that humility may also have a darker side. To redress these issues, we conducted the first comprehensive, bottom-up analysis of the psychological structure of humility. Here we report 5 studies (total N = 1,479) that involve: (a) cluster analysis and categorization of humility-related words, generated by both lay persons and academic experts; (b) exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of momentary and dispositional humility experiences; and (c) experimental induction of a momentary humility experience. Across these studies, we found converging evidence that humility can take 2 distinct forms, which we labeled "appreciative" and "self-abasing" humility. Appreciative humility tends to be elicited by personal success, involve action tendencies oriented toward celebrating others, and is positively associated with dispositions such as authentic pride, guilt, and prestige-based status. In contrast, self-abasing humility tends to be elicited by personal failure, involves negative self-evaluations and action tendencies oriented toward hiding from others' evaluations, and is associated with dispositions such as shame, low self-esteem, and submissiveness. Together, these findings provide a systematic and empirically grounded understanding of humility. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. What psychology means to me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2006-01-01

    What the title of this article means to me after decades on a university faculty is very broad. It would include topics of my research and writing, of my graduate and undergraduate teaching, and of what I read in the area, including papers that have been submitted to me as editor of the American Journal of Psychology. What I can write here focuses on my research and writing and related metatheoretical views, including what I have considered the deeper and more significant questions formulated in philosophy of mind and submitted to empirical investigation in psychology. Of most active concern today, and over the years, are those asking about the roles of consciousness, symbolic representation, and volition in mental activity and action. Is symbolic representation carried out consciously or unconsciously, or both? This paper recognizes the 19(th) century attempt to establish a science of consciousness, a behavioristic movement that rejected consciousness as being the soul of theology, a cognitive metatheory giving some place to consciousness but emphasizing non-conscious symbolic representation. This summarizes our experimental examinations of my theories of the source of intentional action, of causal reasoning, and of explicit and implicit learning. It also summarizes the overarching mentalistic metatheory I have described.

  7. PROBLEMS WITH WIREDU'S EMPIRICALISM Martin Odei Ajei1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central to Wiredu's arguments is his insistence that an empirical metaphysic characterizes Akan .... Safro Kwame, the progress of scientific knowledge is likely to render the. “the quasi-physicalism of ..... not well framed. What is indeed one ...

  8. The cultural background of the non-academic concept of psychology in Japan: its implications for introductory education in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitaka, Yuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    No research has empirically explored the non-academic concept of psychology itself (implicit theories) in non-Western cultures despite a widely held belief that this understanding differs cross-culturally. This study examined whether the non-academic concept of psychology among inexperienced Japanese students differed from the concept held by students of other countries. In Japanese, psychology is referred to as , which includes the ideographic character , literally meaning heart. This fact led us to hypothesize that psychology will be disproportionately associated with emotion among Japanese students. Indeed, our findings among Japanese students produced a J-curve, indicating that our prediction was true. We posit that this issue has never been discussed in Japan because a majority of people share this concept of psychology. In our second study, we examined not only preference in students' association of intelligence or emotion but also heart or mind with psychology. Finally, we identified whether students' believe that psychology encompasses both the heart and the mind. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of explicitly defining the non-academic concept of psychology in early psychology education in Japan.

  9. Integrating psychological research on girls with feminist activism: a model for building a liberation psychology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathryn E; Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S; Lyons, Aoife L

    2003-03-01

    A liberation psychology is needed to bridge the gap between psychology's focus on individual distress and broad social forces that foster such distress. We offer a model for bridging this gap by focusing on a specific area of psychology (psychological research on girls) and a specific social movement (feminist activism). Psychological research on girls and feminist activism share the common goal of improving the lives of girls and women. However, both have fallen short of this goal. This is due, in part, to the weaknesses associated with each endeavor and to the fact that the complementary strengths of each have remained isolated from the other. In this paper, we propose a common language and shared framework to integrate psychological research with feminist activism. First, we review the basic strengths and weaknesses associated with psychological research and feminist activism, with a particular focus on how they are distinct from one another. Second, we provide a taxonomic framework for integrating these two areas on the basis of the stress paradigm, with specific examples provided from our recent reviews of the literature and our own empirical work with adolescent girls. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future work needed to integrate psychological research on girls with feminist activism toward the goal of building a liberation psychology in the United States.

  10. The folk psychology of souls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Jesse M

    2006-10-01

    The present article examines how people's belief in an afterlife, as well as closely related supernatural beliefs, may open an empirical backdoor to our understanding of the evolution of human social cognition. Recent findings and logic from the cognitive sciences contribute to a novel theory of existential psychology, one that is grounded in the tenets of Darwinian natural selection. Many of the predominant questions of existential psychology strike at the heart of cognitive science. They involve: causal attribution (why is mortal behavior represented as being causally related to one's afterlife? how are dead agents envisaged as communicating messages to the living?), moral judgment (why are certain social behaviors, i.e., transgressions, believed to have ultimate repercussions after death or to reap the punishment of disgruntled ancestors?), theory of mind (how can we know what it is "like" to be dead? what social-cognitive strategies do people use to reason about the minds of the dead?), concept acquisition (how does a common-sense dualism interact with a formalized socio-religious indoctrination in childhood? how are supernatural properties of the dead conceptualized by young minds?), and teleological reasoning (why do people so often see their lives as being designed for a purpose that must be accomplished before they perish? how do various life events affect people's interpretation of this purpose?), among others. The central thesis of the present article is that an organized cognitive "system" dedicated to forming illusory representations of (1) psychological immortality, (2) the intelligent design of the self, and (3) the symbolic meaning of natural events evolved in response to the unique selective pressures of the human social environment.

  11. Empirical Study on the Influence of Psychological Factors on the Teaching Quality of Sport Dance of College Students%心理因素对大学生体育舞蹈教学质量影响的实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇

    2011-01-01

    通过将教育心理学、体育心理学基础理论与笔者多年的体育舞蹈教学实践相结合,总结出几种对学生心理因素产生积极影响的教学方法,并进一步提出关于提高体育舞蹈教学质量的建议。%Based on the fundamental theories such as education psychology,physical psychology and so on as well as the practical experience of teaching,the author,in this article,tried to explore an efficient way of dealing with psychological factors in education.Furthermore,the author also came up with several feasible advices on how to improve the quality of sport dance education.

  12. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  13. A pragmatic basis for judging models and theories in health psychology: the axiomatic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedslund, G

    2000-03-01

    Psychology and its subfield of health psychology suffer from a lack of standardized terminology and a unified theoretical framework for the prediction and explanation of health behaviour. Hence, it is difficult to establish whether a given theory is logically consistent and to compare different theories. Science involves both empirical and conceptual issues. It is asserted that psychology has overemphasized the former and underemphasized the latter. Empirical psychology needs an explicit, shared conceptual system in order to develop its theories. An example of an axiomatic method (Psycho-Logic; see e.g. J. Smedslund.Psychological Inquiry 1991a; 2: 325-338) is applied to show how the Health Belief Model,the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory all conform to the a priori conditions of acting. One implication is that studies of the predictive power of theories stated as definitional truths only assess auxiliary hypotheses, i.e. the extent to which the measuring instruments are reliable and valid. On the other hand, the introduction of logic into health psychology can facilitate genuine empirical studies by helping to avoid so-called 'pseudoempirical' work (Smedslund, J. In Smith, Harré & Van Langenhove (Eds.) Rethinking psychology, 1995). Systems such as Psycho-Logic can also enhance conceptual integration by using logic to explicate and demonstrate intuitive relations. Implications for practitioners are discussed briefly.

  14. Center for Army Leadership’s Response to Empirically Based Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Douglas MacArthur Military Leader- ship Writing award for his article, “Empirically Based Leadership: Integrating the Science of Psychology in...experience. The paper states that integrating relevant empiricism into the process is required to construct a more complete model of leadership; however...review was con- ducted of psychology literature among other bodies of knowledge. The expert review used a Delphi technique to obtain independent

  15. Animal Metacognition: A Tale of Two Comparative Psychologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Couchman, Justin J.; Beran, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature considers whether animals have capacities that are akin to human metacognition (i. e., humans’ capacity to monitor their states of uncertainty and knowing). Comparative psychologists have approached this question by testing a dolphin, pigeons, rats, monkeys and apes using perception, memory and food-concealment paradigms. As part of this consideration, some associative modelers have attempted to describe animals’ “metacognitive” performances in low-level, associative terms—an important goal if achievable. The authors summarize the empirical and theoretical situation regarding these associative descriptions. The associative descriptions in the animal-metacognition literature fail to encompass important phenomena. The sharp focus on abstract, mathematical associative models creates serious interpretative problems. The authors compare these failed associative descriptions to an alternative theoretical approach within contemporary comparative psychology. The alternative approach has the potential to strengthen comparative psychology as an empirical science and integrate it more fully within the mainstream of experimental psychology and cognitive science. PMID:23957740

  16. Animal metacognition: a tale of two comparative psychologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Couchman, Justin J; Beran, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    A growing literature considers whether animals have capacities that are akin to human metacognition (i.e., humans' capacity to monitor their states of uncertainty and knowing). Comparative psychologists have approached this question by testing a dolphin, pigeons, rats, monkeys, and apes using perception, memory, and food-concealment paradigms. As part of this consideration, some associative modelers have attempted to describe animals' "metacognitive" performances in low-level, associative terms-an important goal if achievable. The authors summarize the empirical and theoretical situation regarding these associative descriptions. The associative descriptions in the animal-metacognition literature fail to encompass important phenomena. The sharp focus on abstract, mathematical associative models creates serious interpretative problems. The authors compare these failed associative descriptions with an alternative theoretical approach within contemporary comparative psychology. The alternative approach has the potential to strengthen comparative psychology as an empirical science and integrate it more fully within the mainstream of experimental psychology and cognitive science.

  17. A quarter century of Culture's Consequences: a review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede's cultural values framework

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley L Kirkman; Kevin B Lowe; Cristina B Gibson

    2006-01-01

    Since Geert Hofstede's Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (Sage, 1980) was published, researchers have utilized Hofstede's cultural values framework in a wide variety of empirical studies. We review 180 studies published in 40 business and psychology journals and two international annual volumes between 1980 and June 2002 to consolidate what is empirically verifiable about Hofstede's cultural values framework. We discuss limitations in the Hofstede-inspir...

  18. Husserl e a psicologia Husserl and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Raffaelli

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é esclarecer a relação entre a fenomenologia de Husserl e a psicologia. Embora Husserl traçasse um paralelo entre fenomenologia e psicologia, ele não supunha uma identidade entre essas duas disciplinas. A psicologia é uma ciência de fatos e a fenomenologia é a base para a compreensão do sentido desses fatos. A psicologia pode ser considerada uma ciência autônoma que estuda a psique através do comportamento. Mas a interpretação da significação subjacente ao comportamento só pode ser realizada pela psicologia eidética. A psicologia eidética, fundada na fenomenologia, é que conduziria a depuração do naturalismo que impregna a psicologia empírica. Segundo Husserl, a psicologia não necessita dos conselhos metodológicos das ciências da natureza e deve buscar seu próprio caminho para compreender o sentido do ato humano. Assim, o que a psicologia precisa é de um "plus ultra" conectando a investigação psicológica com o transcendental.The aim of this study is to clarify the relation between Husserl's phenomenology and psychology. Although Husserl pointed out a similarity between phenomenology and psychology, he did not suppose an identity between the two disciplines. Psychology is a science of facts and phenomenology is the basis to understand the sense of those facts. Psychology may be considered as an autonomous science that studies the psyche through the behavior. But the interpretation of the signification that underlies the behavior can only be made by eidetic psychology. Eidetic psychology, based on the phenomenology, would conduct the depuration of the naturalism that impregnates empirical psychology. According to Husserl, psychology does not need methodological advices from the sciences of nature and must find his own way to understand the sense of the human act. Thus, what psychology needs is a "plus ultra" connecting the psychological investigation with the transcendental.

  19. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  20. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  1. Psychological Test Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psychological test.

  2. Psychological violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  3. Technology in Gifted Education: A Review of Best Practices and Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periathiruvadi, Sita; Rinn, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    The article aims to explore the progress of technology use in gifted education and highlight the best practices and empirical research in this area. The literature on the use of technology with gifted students and their teachers has been extensive, with articles on best practices, but the empirical research in this area is still emerging. With the…

  4. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  5. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  6. FDI, agricultural technology progress and transference of redundant rural labor force --theoretical and empirical based on "integrated model"%FDI、农业技术进步与农村剩余劳动力转移——基于“合力模型”的理论与实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德昭; 许和连

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to use gradient transfer of FDI and agricultural technology progress to achieve coordinative development of ur- ban and rural areas for speeding up the transition of economic developing mode in current. On the basis of "Push - pull" theory, this paper constructs an analytical framework of "integrated model" that includes FDI, agricultural technology progress and transference of redundant rural labor force, and makes empirical study based on the panel data of 28 Chinese provinces from 1996 to 2009. Results from the whole country show that, the " pull" of FDI and the " push" of agricultural technology progress both have significant positive impacts on promoting the transference of redundant rural labor force. The real urban - rural income disparity and the size of non - agri- cultural industries have significant positive " pull" impacts too. " Intermediate power" plays complex roles, such as labor market flexi- bility has a significant positive impact, while the urban unemployment rate is all the other way. For diverse areas, the real urban - rural income disparity has a significant positive impact in the eastern, but appears contrary to the central and western on the transference of redundant rural labor force, and the unemployment rate is insignificant. The "pull" of FDI in the eastern is much higher, but the "push" of agricultural technology progress is significant lower than the central and western.%用FDI产业梯度转移和农业技术进步实现城乡统筹发展,已是当前加快中国经济发展方式转变的必然要求。系统构建了包含FDI、农业技术进步和农村剩余劳动力转移在内的“合力模型”的理论分析框架,采用1996—2009年中国28个省级单位的面板数据进行实证检验。全国层面的研究表明,FDI形成的“拉力”和农业技术进步形成的“推力”对农村剩余劳动力转移均有显著的正向影响。分地区层面的研究

  7. Network Convergence,Technical Progress and Productivity Growth in Telecommunications Industry-Empirical Analysis Based on Provincial Panel Data of China%网络融合、技术进步与电信业生产率增长--基于中国31省市面板数据的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘孟飞

    2014-01-01

    文章立足网络融合深化发展的现实背景,首先引入Herfindahl指数衡量中国电信业网络融合程度,然后采用Malmquist生产率指数方法测算了我国电信业的全要素生产力及其分解值变化情况,并通过构建多元面板回归模型,对网络融合、政府规制及其他影响因素进行了实证检验。研究结果表明:整体上,中国电信业全要素生产率实现了明显的增长,增长的源泉主要来自于技术进步。在影响因素方面,网络融合和行业重组改革对中国电信业的全要素生产率增长和技术进步均起到了积极的促进作用,价格上限规制政策则产生了明显的负面作用。此外,经济发展水平、人口密度、市场规模、电信业重要程度等宏观经济因素也从不同方面产生重要影响。%The paper measures the degree of network convergence of Chinese telecommunications industry by Herfindahl index ,considering the development of network convergence .We calculate the telecommunications industry's TFP and its decomposition value through Malmquist productivity index method .And we make an empirical test of the effects of network convergence ,government regulation ,and other factors by constructing a multivariate panel regression model .The results show that the overall TFP of Chinese telecommunications in-dustry has increased significantly ,w hich mainly comes from technical progress .In terms of influencing factors , network convergence and industry restructuring reform both play a positive role in Chinese telecommunications industry T FP grow th and technological progress ,but the regulation policy of price cap produces a significant negative effect .In addition ,there exist significant impacts from different aspects in the level of economic devel-opment ,population density ,market size ,degree of importance and other macroeconomic factors .

  8. 民办高校大学生心理资本现状和提升策略研究--以宿迁学院为实证研究%On the Current Status of Psychological Capital and the Promotion Strategy Research for the College Students in the Private Higher Colleges---Taking Suqian College as an Empirical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹

    2015-01-01

    本研究基于心理资本的视角,以宿迁学院在校大学生为研究对象,采用问卷调查法、数理统计法,用“大学生心理资本问卷”对随机分层抽取的500名在校大学生进行调查,通过 EXCEL 和 SPSSl9.0统计分析软件对所得数据进行分析和汇总。分析了大学生心理资本现状,得出了心理资本的提升策略。%Based on psychological capital,this study takes students in Suqian College as the studey objective and adopts ap-proaches such as questionnaire survey and mathematical statistics."Questionnaire on Psychological Capital of College Students"is put into use among 500 students through stratified sampling and after which EXCEL and SPSSl9.0 SAS are applied to make analysis of and it then represents a summary of the data.The psychological capital of college students is analyzed,and the promotion strategies of psychological capital are obtained.

  9. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  10. Psychological Component of Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  11. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  12. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear).

  13. Workplace psychological harassment: Gendered exposures and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippel, Katherine; Vézina, Michel; Bourbonnais, Renée; Funes, Amélie

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the results of an empirical study of working conditions including psychological harassment (workplace bullying) in the province of Québec, Canada, the first North American jurisdiction to regulate psychological harassment in its labor legislation. All empirical data provided in this article was drawn from the Québec Survey on Working, Employment and Occupational Health and Safety Conditions, conducted through 5071 telephone interviews of a representative sample of Québec workers, including the self-employed. Here we focus on employees, and provide bivariate and multivariate analyses. All analyses were stratified by gender. We provide a portrait of exposure to psychological harassment, and exposure to other psychosocial factors in the workplace associated with exposure to psychological harassment. Results show associations between exposure to psychological harassment and negative health measures including psychological distress, symptoms of depression, traumatic work accidents, musculoskeletal disorders and negative perception of health status. We report on steps taken by employees to put an end to the harassment. Gender similarities and differences in exposure, associated risk factors, health measures and strategies are presented and discussed in light of the legal context in which the study took place. We conclude with recommendations for prevention strategies that take into consideration the gender composition of the workplace.

  14. Exercise Intervention on College Students Psychological Disease Research Progress%运动对大学生心理疾病干预作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; 康金琳

    2015-01-01

    采用文献资料法、逻辑分析法总结运动对大学生心理疾病干预的研究现状,针对不同心理疾病采用了不同的体育运动方式,对大学生常见的抑郁、急躁、易怒、强迫症状可以进行有氧体育运动,而对出现的焦虑、孤独、胆怯、运用群体性运动;其它神经衰弱、紧张自负、恐慌则采用传统的体育运动。总之,合理的运动可以有效的减少心理疾病。%With the literature material method and logic analysis, this paper summarizes the current research status of exercise intervention on college students' psychological disease, according to different mental illness, different ways of sports are adopted. Common symptoms for college students, such as impatience, irritability, depression symptoms can be cured through undertaking aerobic sports. The anxiety, loneliness, fear, can use the mass movement. Neurasthenia, nervous, panic conceit can adopt traditional sports. A reasonable use of exercise can effectively lessen mental illness.

  15. Research Progress in the Effect of Scenic Recreational Forest on People's Physiological and Psychological Health%风景游憩林对人们身心健康影响研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温静; 刘昕昕; 黄祥丰; 高园园; 贠小琴; 魏松坡

    2012-01-01

    随着人们生活水平的提高,城市居民迫切希望进入森林开展户外游憩活动以便放松身心、强身健体.分析了空气负离子、植物挥发物等森林保健资源对人体生理和心理健康的影响,并对风景游憩林保健功能研究现状及农村旅游发展态势进行了探讨.%With the improvement of peoples living standards, city residents are eager to have outdoor recreational activities in scenic recreational forest in order to loosen mind and exercise body. In the paper, the effect of forest healthcare resources, such as the air negative ions and plant volatiles on human physiological and psychological health was analyzed. In addition, the research status and development of healthcare function of scenic recreational forest was discussed.

  16. Evidence-based psychological treatments for distress in family caregivers of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Coon, David W

    2007-03-01

    This review identifies evidence-based psychological treatments (EBTs) for reducing distress, and improving well-being, of family members caring for an older relative with significant cognitive and/or physical impairment. Three categories of psychologically derived treatments met EBT criteria: psychoeducational programs (N = 14 studies), psychotherapy (N = 3 studies), and multicomponent interventions (N = 2 studies). Specifically, support within the psychoeducational category was found for skill-training programs focused on behavior management, depression management, and anger management and for the progressively lowered threshold model. Within the psychotherapy category, cognitive-behavioral therapy enjoys strong empirical support. Within the multicomponent category, programs using a combination of at least 2 distinct theoretical approaches (e.g., individual counseling and support group attendance) were also found to be effective. Suggestions for future research include the development of more well-integrated multicomponent approaches, greater inclusion of ethnically diverse family caregivers in research protocols, and greater incorporation of new technologies for treatment delivery. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The psychology of time: a view backward and forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P A; Block, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    We selectively review the progress of research on the psychology of time during the past 125 years, starting with the publication of the first English-language psychological journal, The American Journal of Psychology. A number of important articles on the psychology of time appeared in this journal, including the widely cited early article by Nichols (1891). The psychology of time is a seminal topic of psychological science, and although it entered a phase of decline and even moribund neglect, the past several decades have seen a prominent renaissance of interest. This renewed vigor represents the rebirth of the recognition of the centrality of the psychology of time in human cognition and behavior. Our selective overview highlights a number of strands of progress and how they have helped lead to the present, in which the cognitive neuroscience of time and timing in the brain is one of the most fervent and fertile modern areas of brain research. We also discuss some remaining challenges and potential lines of progress.

  18. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  19. Empire as a Geopolitical Figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the ingredients of empire as a pattern of order with geopolitical effects. Noting the imperial form's proclivity for expansion from a critical reading of historical sociology, the article argues that the principal manifestation of earlier geopolitics lay not in the nation...... but in empire. That in turn has been driven by a view of the world as disorderly and open to the ordering will of empires (emanating, at the time of geopolitics' inception, from Europe). One implication is that empires are likely to figure in the geopolitical ordering of the globe at all times, in particular...... after all that has happened in the late twentieth century to undermine nationalism and the national state. Empire is indeed a probable, even for some an attractive form of regime for extending order over the disorder produced by globalisation. Geopolitics articulated in imperial expansion is likely...

  20. History of Psychology in Ghana Since 989AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychology as taught in Ghanaian universities is largely Eurocentric and imported. Calls have been made to indigenize psychology in Ghana. In response to this call, this paper attempts to construct a history of psychology in Ghana so as to provide a background for the study of the content and process of what psychology would and/or ought to become in Ghana. It does so by going as far back as the University of Sankore, Timbuktu established in 989AD where intellectual development flourished in the ancient Empire of Mali through to the 1700s and 1800s when Black Muslim scholars established Koranic schools, paying particular attention to scholarly works in medicine, theology and philosophy. Attention is then drawn to Anton Wilhelm Amo’s dissertation, De Humanae Mentis “Apatheia” and Disputatio Philosophica Continens Ideam Distinctam (both written in 1734 as well as some 18th and 19th century Ghanaian scholars. Special mention is also made about the contributions by the Department of Psychology at the University of Ghana (established in May 1967 in postcolonial Ghana as one of the first departments of psychology in Anglophone West Africa. The paper also discusses the challenges associated with the application of psychological knowledge in its current form in Ghana and ends by attempting to formulate the form an indigenous Ghanaian psychology could to take.

  1. Psychological characterization of testicular feminization syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M A; Barroso, C C; Arce, B

    1983-01-01

    Ten cases with testicular feminization syndrome (TFS) diagnosed at the National Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, were studied. The patients were interviewed and subjected to the following psychological tests: Raven's Progressive Matrices, the MMPI, the 16PF, and the TAT. Laboratory determinations included: nuclear chromatin, karyotype, FHS, LH, estradiol, testosterone and nitrogen retention test. Intellectual achievement was found normal, and as far as psychological stability is concerned (MMPI) there was no common profile typical of the group. Psychosexual attitudes showed alterations related to acceptance of body image, fears to be unable to maintain the stability of the couple, and lack of a strong maternal drive. Personality profile manifested two outstanding traits in the group: Dominance (E+) and Shrewdness (N+), the former being remarkably high for a female population. A hypothesis is advanced in regard to the psychological alterations of the possible role of partial androgenization of the central nervous system in these patients.

  2. Youths’ Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Intentions. Empirical Study on Students with Entrepreneurship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nițu–Antonie Renata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to identify the psychological and behavioural characteristics as potential triggers of youths’ entrepreneurial intentions within the context of rational action and planned behaviour theory. The empirical study proposed nine antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions for Romanian students with entrepreneurial higher education background. The results emphasized that behavioural variables (favourable subjective norms and attitude development, perceived behavioural control influence entrepreneurial intentions in a higher degree than the psychological ones (propensity to risk-taking, self-confidence, need for achievement, innovativeness. Moreover, some psychological variables (locus of control and tolerance of ambiguity have been identified as having insignificant influence on entrepreneurial intentions of the respondent students.

  3. Remembrances of Empires Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Aldrich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the colonial legacy is ever present in contemporary Europe. For a generation, most Europeans largely tried, publicly, to forget the colonial past, or remembered it only through the rose-coloured lenses of nostalgia; now the pendulum has swung to memory of that past – even perhaps, in the views of some, to a surfeit of memory, where each group agitates for its own version of history, its own recognition in laws and ceremonies, its own commemoration in museums and monuments, the valorization or repatriation of its own art and artefacts. Word such as ‘invasion,’ ‘racism’ and ‘genocide’ are emotional terms that provoke emotional reactions. Whether leaders should apologize for wrongs of the past – and which wrongs – remains a highly sensitive issue. The ‘return of the colonial’ thus has to do with ethics and politics as well as with history, and can link to statements of apology or recognition, legislation about certain views of history, monetary compensation, repatriation of objects, and—perhaps most importantly—redefinition of national identity and policy. The colonial flags may have been lowered, but many barricades seem to have been raised. Private memories—of loss of land, of unacknowledged service, of political, economic, social and cultural disenfranchisement, but also on the other side of defeat, national castigation and self-flagellation—have been increasingly public. Monuments and museums act not only as sites of history but as venues for political agitation and forums for academic debate – differences of opinion that have spread to the streets. Empire has a long after-life.

  4. Psychological determinants of information searching activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorunova, L

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of the activity theory in describing psychological determinants of the information searching activity. The notions of information behavior, information retrieval, information competence, information retrieval activity given in Russian and English scientific literature are compared. The research approach to the information retrieval activity based on the principles developed in the Russian theory of activity is described; and the fundamentals of G. Sukhodolsky's generalized conception of activity are presented for the first time. Analysis of empirical researches showed that specific features of information search depend on how the user evaluates information resources, information, conditions and results of search. Psychological determiners of information search may be detected as the system of evaluative alternatives, which is generated by the user during the process of his experience growth. We discovered that user's evaluation system is also related to his individual typological and personal regulative features and determines the choice of the search strategy.

  5. Understanding the mind from an evolutionary perspective: an overview of evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K; Liddle, James R

    2014-05-01

    The theory of evolution by natural selection provides the only scientific explanation for the existence of complex adaptations. The design features of the brain, like any organ, are the result of selection pressures operating over deep time. Evolutionary psychology posits that the human brain comprises a multitude of evolved psychological mechanisms, adaptations to specific and recurrent problems of survival and reproduction faced over human evolutionary history. Although some mistakenly view evolutionary psychology as promoting genetic determinism, evolutionary psychologists appreciate and emphasize the interactions between genes and environments. This approach to psychology has led to a richer understanding of a variety of psychological phenomena, and has provided a powerful foundation for generating novel hypotheses. Critics argue that evolutionary psychologists resort to storytelling, but as with any branch of science, empirical testing is a vital component of the field, with hypotheses standing or falling with the weight of the evidence. Evolutionary psychology is uniquely suited to provide a unifying theoretical framework for the disparate subdisciplines of psychology. An evolutionary perspective has provided insights into several subdisciplines of psychology, while simultaneously demonstrating the arbitrary nature of dividing psychological science into such subdisciplines. Evolutionary psychologists have amassed a substantial empirical and theoretical literature, but as a relatively new approach to psychology, many questions remain, with several promising directions for future research. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Psychology teaching in nursing education: a review of and reflection on approaches, issues, and contemporary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan M A; Timmins, Fiona

    2012-11-01

    This paper highlights the relevance of psychology for nurses and the issues around the inclusion of psychology as an essential part of nursing education. Considerable international variations in the extent to which psychology is incorporated in nursing education suggest a need for discussion and reflection on this topic. This paper aims to (a) examine and reflect on scholarly literature in English addressing psychology of nursing in education and (b) present and reflect on an example of psychology teaching in a school of nursing and midwifery in Ireland. A review of the literature took place, which included a search of various databases and an analysis of emerging psychology for nursing textbooks over the period 1906-2011. Findings were used as a framework for reflection on a local example. The literature review yielded numerous commentaries, discussion papers, textbook reviews and editorials but very few empirical studies. Three topics were identified as appearing most frequently in the literature: the relevance of psychology in the nursing curriculum; depth and content of coverage; and whether integrated or separate instruction of psychology should be chosen. Findings suggest that overall the relevance of psychology to nursing education is not contested, but debates have emerged regarding how best to approach and integrate psychology. The outcomes of these debates are mostly inconclusive at present. Educators are encouraged to become active in these discussions and reflections, which are hampered by lack of empirical evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  8. The Psychology of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, A.; Balasubramanian, P.; Nirmala, R. Sweety

    2007-01-01

    Psychology plays a significant role in the life of each and every human being. Starting from childhood, if psychology of learning is utilized positively it would play a vital role in the building up of a bright career of a child. The explosion of information technology has been exercising far reaching influence on the area of educational…

  9. The psychology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swencionis, Charles; Rendell, Sarah Litman

    2012-10-01

    G. Stanley Hall, the first person to earn a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States, did research on eating behaviors in the nineteenth century (Lepore in The New Yorker, 2011). Research on psychological aspects of obesity accelerated in the 1950s and there has been a great deal done at this point. We review areas of considerable activity and relevance.

  10. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  11. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  12. Psychology and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsterburg, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    This essay considers the discipline of psychology as distinct from history, defining it as a science within philosophy dedicated to the study of the causal structure of the human mind. Although Hugo Munsterburg was considered an important figure in applied psychology, this essay represents an earlier epistemology. (SLD)

  13. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  14. Psychology for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Nash

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical psychology…

  15. Child Psychology Experiences Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla Walla Coll., WA.

    Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

  16. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  17. Anthropomorphism in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, David

    This article presents an address on anthropomorphism in psychology. Anthropomorphism assures that human beings are given human characteristics when participating in psychological research. This is significant because the research community does not often report results of studies in the language of feelings, thoughts, or desires, which has led to…

  18. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  19. Social Psychology of Instability within Organizational Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takhir Yu. Bazarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since modern organizations inevitably face constant changes in internal and externalenvironment, can anything be done in order for the strategy of changesto become “proactive” and to prevent naturally determined crisis situations andrecession? Featuring empirical data, the article discusses the possibility of sociopsychologicalresearch in the situation of instability. Among other aspects, thereis suggested an answer to the question of whether social psychology can help aperson to realize his/her identity in professional and organizational environments.Moreover, a number of fixed behavioral patterns observed in situations of changesare examined specifically.

  20. Introduction: Applying Clinical Psychological Science to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Christine B; DiVasto, Katherine A

    2017-02-10

    Mental illness is a prevalent and extraordinarily complex phenomenon. Psychologists have developed distinct approaches toward understanding and treating mental illness, rooted in divergent epistemology. This introduction to the Special Issue on Clinical Psychological Science and Practice provides a brief overview of the scientist-practitioner gap, and explores one step (of many) toward bridging this divide. Seven compelling case illustrations featured in this Special Issue apply empirical findings to case formulation, treatment selection, and assessment across complex and varied clinical presentations. This issue thereby demonstrates the feasibility of integrating research and clinical expertise in mental healthcare.

  1. Mapping spatial frames of reference onto time: a review of theoretical accounts and empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2014-09-01

    When speaking and reasoning about time, people around the world tend to do so with vocabulary and concepts borrowed from the domain of space. This raises the question of whether the cross-linguistic variability found for spatial representations, and the principles on which these are based, may also carry over to the domain of time. Real progress in addressing this question presupposes a taxonomy for the possible conceptualizations in one domain and its consistent and comprehensive mapping onto the other-a challenge that has been taken up only recently and is far from reaching consensus. This article aims at systematizing the theoretical and empirical advances in this field, with a focus on accounts that deal with frames of reference (FoRs). It reviews eight such accounts by identifying their conceptual ingredients and principles for space-time mapping, and it explores the potential for their integration. To evaluate their feasibility, data from some thirty empirical studies, conducted with speakers of sixteen different languages, are then scrutinized. This includes a critical assessment of the methods employed, a summary of the findings for each language group, and a (re-)analysis of the data in view of the theoretical questions. The discussion relates these findings to research on the mental time line, and explores the psychological reality of temporal FoRs, the degree of cross-domain consistency in FoR adoption, the role of deixis, and the sources and extent of space-time mapping more generally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  3. Historiography of Czech psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskovcová, Simona; Hoskovec, Jirí; Plháková, Alena; Sebek, Michael; Svancara, Josef; Voboril, Dalibor

    2010-08-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the development of the Czech historiography of psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychotherapy is mentioned as a special thematic development. Contemporary problems and perspectives in the field of the history of psychology in the Czech Republic are discussed, sources of information are given.

  4. Reflections on the main schools of the world psychology in the Czech interwar psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plháková, Alena

    2008-11-01

    The author deals with the reasons for the different level of acceptance of the three important psychological perspectives (Gestalt psychology, behaviorism, and psychoanalysis) in the Czech interwar psychology. Gestalt psychology was probably the most accepted approach, which was at least partly caused by its founding in the neighboring Germany. It was an academic perspective that was convenient for the professional ambitions of its representatives as well as for their endeavor to establish psychology as a serious scientific discipline. On the contrary, the acceptance of behaviorism was rather negative or indifferent. Czech psychologists perceived it as a predominantly foreign, extraneous school of thinking. They preferred the studies on consciousness and the method of introspection over empirical research. Psychoanalysis also has never taken deeper roots in Czechoslovakia. Some Czech intellectuals accepted the existence of unconsciousness but they criticized Freudian sexual symbolism (Peroutka, Capek). Negative attitudes of the politicians Masaryk and Benes also contributed to the cool reception of this school. With sporadic exceptions, the psychoanalytic thinking was developed only in a small Jewish-German-Czech circle.

  5. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  6. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C.M. Vorst

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of hu

  7. Italian psychology under protection: Agostino Gemelli between Catholicism and fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Renato; Giannone, Anna; Giuliani, Alessia

    2013-05-01

    Between the 1930s and 1940s, Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) was the main Italian psychologist; he accepted and promoted an empirical conception of psychology influenced by neo-Thomism. The views of Gemelli were a landmark for many psychologists and psychological models in Catholic universities. Gemelli, moreover, throughout his scientific activity, continued ongoing work of expertise in matters concerning science, morality, and psychology. He was a Franciscan monk but also an officer of the Italian air force, a psychologist, and a rector. During the period of fascist rule in Italy, Gemelli sought compromise solutions to foster the survival of psychological institutions. Around his story, contrasting interpretations have emerged. The aim of this article is to look at Agostino Gemelli as an important historical subject to understand the ways in which scientific enterprises and institutions are likely to be influenced by political regimes and by the dogmatic and intolerant milieu. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  9. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  10. Empirically Driven Software Engineering Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombach, Dieter

    Software engineering is a design discipline. As such, its engineering methods are based on cognitive instead of physical laws, and their effectiveness depends highly on context. Empirical methods can be used to observe the effects of software engineering methods in vivo and in vitro, to identify improvement potentials, and to validate new research results. This paper summarizes both the current body of knowledge and further challenges wrt. empirical methods in software engineering as well as empirically derived evidence regarding software typical engineering methods. Finally, future challenges wrt. education, research, and technology transfer will be outlined.

  11. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  12. 管理人员心理资本对工作绩效影响的实证研究--以某保险公司为例%Empirical Study on Effect of Administrative Personnel’s Psychological Capital on Job Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣山; 李樱

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies effect of psychological capital of administrative personnel on job performance through questionnaire and job performance scale,which indicates that management personnel’s psychological capital in in-surance company is positively correlated to their job performance,and hope and resilience in psychological capital dimensions have a distinct positive prediction function to task performance as well as toughness and optimism.%采用心理资本问卷和工作绩效量表,调研保险公司管理人员的心理资本对工作绩效的影响。数据表明:保险公司管理人员的心理资本与工作绩效呈显著正相关;心理资本维度中的希望和韧性对任务绩效有显著的正向预测作用,韧性和乐观对关系绩效有显著的正向预测作用。

  13. 变革型领导·心理授权与离职意向的关系——对农产品加工企业的实证研究%Empirical Study on Relationship among Transformational Leadership, Psychological Empowerment and Turnover Intention Based on Agri-food Process Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰菊萍

    2013-01-01

    以农产品加工企业401名雇员为研究对象,采用问卷方式对变革型领导、心理授权和离职意向进行调查.结构方程模型和偏相关分析的结果表明,变革型领导对雇员离职意向存在负向关联,心理授权与雇员离职意向间也有负向关联.其中,变革型领导先影响直接资源,再影响心理资源,最后对离职意向起负向预测作用.心理授权在变革型领导和离职意向间所起中介作用得到了实证分析的支持.%Based on a survey of 401 employees from agri-food process corporations,transformational leadership,psychological empowerment and turnover intention were investigated with questionnaire. Both the results of structural equation modeling and partial correlations demonstrated that transformational leadership and psychological empowerment was negatively associated with turnover intention. Further more, psychological empowerment mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and turnover intention.

  14. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  15. Psychological interactions with infertility among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikel, J; Gidron, Y; Sheiner, E

    2004-12-01

    Despite the fact that various studies have demonstrated the importance of the mind-body connection and fertility, the psychosocial aspects of infertility have not been adequately addressed. Fertility treatments, ranging from medical monitoring, to hormonal remedies and in vitro fertilization (IVF), are both a physical and emotional burden on women and their partners. Psychological factors such as depression, state-anxiety, and stress-induced changes in heart rate and cortisol are predictive of a decreased probability of achieving a viable pregnancy. A couple that is trying to conceive will undoubtedly experience feelings of frustration and disappointment if a pregnancy is not easily achieved. However, if the difficulties progress and the man and or woman are labelled as having fertility problems, then this may result in a severe insult to self-esteem, body image, and self-assessed masculinity or femininity. Three types of relationships have been hypothesized between psychological factors and infertility. These include: (1) psychological factors are risk factors of subsequent infertility; (2) the experience of the diagnosis and treatment of infertility causes subsequent psychological distress; (3) a reciprocal relationship exists between psychological factors and infertility. The evidence for these three relationships is reviewed and an alternative approach to the treatment of infertility including stress evaluation that precedes or is concurrent to fertility treatment is suggested.

  16. Rethinking the early history of post-Vygotskian psychology: the case of the Kharkov school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnitsky, Anton; Ferrari, Michel

    2008-05-01

    Between the death of Vygotsky in 1934 and the discovery of Vygotsky's work in the West in 1962, Vygotskian psychology was developed through research done by the first generation of Vygotsky's students and their followers, primarily associated with the Kharkov School. Surprisingly, these studies carried out in the 1930s, of great importance for the development of virtually all subsequent Vygotskian psychology, still remain largely unknown; this represents a significant gap in understanding the history of Vygotskian psychology as an empirical study of consciousness. This paper provides a systematic overview of the research agenda of the Kharkov group between 1931 and 1941 and provides new insights into the early development of Vygotskian psychology.

  17. Research on the Relationship between Knowledge-based Psychological Ownership and Knowledge Hiding:The Empirical Analysis from Intellectual Organization%知识心理所有权对知识隐藏的影响机制研究--基于智力型组织的实证调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜荣萍; 何亦名

    2014-01-01

    员工知识分享对智力型组织的成功至关重要,而智力型组织中却普遍存在知识隐藏行为。以160名知识型员工为调查对象,对知识心理所有权、领地行为与知识隐藏之间的关系进行了实证分析,构建并验证了知识心理所有权-领地行为-知识隐藏作用机制模型。结果发现,心理所有权对知识隐藏和领地行为有显著正向影响,领地行为在心理所有权与知识隐藏之间中介效应显著。因此,组织可采用知识管理、团队合作及开放工作场所等方式降低员工的知识隐藏行为,实现组织内部知识分享。%The employee's knowledge sharing is crucial to the success of intellectual organization,but knowledge hiding be-havior is universal in intellectual group.Why employees usually hide knowledge faced with the knowledge request of the colleagues? What factors can affect knowledge hiding behavior,and what is the mechanism? And that is a new research perspective of knowledge hiding to answer the question from the perspective of knowledge-based psychological ownership. Using the data from 160knowledge-based employees,we test the relationship among knowledge-based psychological own-ership,territoriality and knowledge hiding,establish and verify the mechanism model of territoriality on knowledge-based psychological ownership and knowledge hiding.The results indicate:knowledge-based psychological ownership has posi-tive impacts on knowledge hiding and territoriality;and territoriality plays a mediating effect on the relationship between knowledge-based psychological ownership and knowledge hiding.Thus,organization can adopt knowledge management tools,raise the level of teamwork and adopt open work spaces to decrease employees'knowledge hiding behavior,which can help achieving knowledge sharing within the organization.

  18. Cultural Practices and the Conception of Individual Differences: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Terezinha

    1995-01-01

    Considers empirical evidence and theoretical issues that point out the need to reconceptualize individual differences in psychology. Studies use of arithmetic in everyday life and in the classrooms to explore consequences of cultural practices, the nature of individual differences in "ability," and links between practices and identity.…

  19. Overlap and distinctiveness of psychological risk factors in patients with ischemic heart disease and chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Denollet, Johan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the importance of psychological factors in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, this research has been criticized due to overlap between psychological constructs. We examined whether psychological questionnaires frequently used...... in cardiovascular research assess distinct constructs in a mixed group of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chronic heart failure (CHF) patients....

  20. Application of Chaos Theory to Psychological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Rae Fortunato

    This dissertation shows that an alternative theoretical approach from physics--chaos theory--offers a viable basis for improved understanding of human beings and their behavior. Chaos theory provides achievable frameworks for potential identification, assessment, and adjustment of human behavior patterns. Most current psychological models fail to address the metaphysical conditions inherent in the human system, thus bringing deep errors to psychological practice and empirical research. Freudian, Jungian and behavioristic perspectives are inadequate psychological models because they assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that the human psychological system is a closed, linear system. On the other hand, Adlerian models that require open systems are likely to be empirically tenable. Logically, models will hold only if the model's assumptions hold. The innovative application of chaotic dynamics to psychological behavior is a promising theoretical development because the application asserts that human systems are open, nonlinear and self-organizing. Chaotic dynamics use nonlinear mathematical relationships among factors that influence human systems. This dissertation explores these mathematical relationships in the context of a sample model of moral behavior using simulated data. Mathematical equations with nonlinear feedback loops describe chaotic systems. Feedback loops govern the equations' value in subsequent calculation iterations. For example, changes in moral behavior are affected by an individual's own self-centeredness, family and community influences, and previous moral behavior choices that feed back to influence future choices. When applying these factors to the chaos equations, the model behaves like other chaotic systems. For example, changes in moral behavior fluctuate in regular patterns, as determined by the values of the individual, family and community factors. In some cases, these fluctuations converge to one value; in other cases, they diverge in

  1. Empirical Legality and Effective Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Pringe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The conditions that Kant’s doctrine establishes are examined for the predication of the effective reality of certain empirical objects. It is maintained that a for such a predication, it is necessary to have not only perception but also a certain homogeneity of sensible data, and b the knowledge of the existence of certain empirical objects depends on the application of regulative principles of experience.

  2. Mistreating Psychology in the Decades of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    We systematically mistreat psychological phenomena, both logically and clinically. This article explores three contentions: that the dominant discourse in modern cognitive, affective, and clinical neuroscience assumes that we know how psychology/biology causation works when we do not; that there are serious intellectual, clinical, and policy costs to pretending we do know; and that crucial scientific and clinical progress will be stymied as long as we frame psychology, biology, and their relationship in currently dominant ways. The arguments are developed with emphasis on misguided attempts to localize psychological function via neuroimaging, misunderstandings about the role of genetics in psychopathology, and unfortunate constraints on health-care policy and clinical service delivery. A particular challenge, articulated but not resolved in this article, is determining what constitutes adequate explanation in the relationship between psychology and biology. PMID:21949539

  3. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Smashing Silos and Breaking Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertlieb, Donald

    2016-11-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of my career as a pediatric psychologist. Educational and professional experiences often involved confrontations with silos and boundaries set by traditions limiting understanding and impact on children's healthy development. A pedigree in developmental psychology clashed with identity, guild, and loyalty dimensions of clinical psychology. A research emphasis challenged the emergent harmony of the scientist-practitioner models. The medical center and its silos collided with those of arts and sciences academia. Evolving as an applied developmental scientist specializing in pediatric psychology allowed for a gratifying and meaningful career with a range of scientific, pedagogical, and policy contributions. An abiding orientation toward human rights and social justice sustained progress and generativity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The psychological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tateo

    Full Text Available Abstract: The commentary presents an epistemological reflection about Dialogical Self theory. First, the theoretical issues of DS about the relationship between individuality, alterity and society are discussed, elaborating on the articles of this special issue. Then, it is presented the argument of psychologist's ontological fallacy, that is the attitude to moving from the study of processes to the study of psychological entities. Finally a development toward new research directions is proposed, focusing on the study of higher psychological functions and processes, taking into account complex symbolic products of human activity and developing psychological imagination.

  5. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  6. The 2008 Leona Tyler Award Address: Core Values that Distinguish Counseling Psychology--Personal and Professional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Ted

    2009-01-01

    The empirical literature and the author's professional experience over four decades have convinced him that concerning practice patterns and work settings there is little to distinguish counseling psychology from other psychological practice specialties. What is distinctive are certain core values that undergird and distinguish this specialty.…

  7. The Psychological Impact on Incest on Its Victim: A Review of the Literature and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Karin Ruth

    The literature on incest was reviewed with specific emphasis on the psychological impact that the incestuous relationship has on the female victim. The goals of the review were to identify the psychological impact of incest as supported by clinical observations and empirical research and to review literature on intervention strategies. These…

  8. A Model for Predicting the Presence of School Psychology: An International Examination of Sociocultural, Sociopolitical and Socioeconomic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Clayton R.; Jimerson, Shane R.; Begeny, John C.

    2010-01-01

    School psychology exists in many countries around the world; however, it is far from ubiquitous. The extant literature offers limited empirical information addressing why school psychology may be present in some countries but not in others. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative investigation examining four sociocultural and…

  9. 自我领导与员工创新行为的关系研究——心理授权的中介效应%An empirical study on the relationship between self- leadership and employee innovative behavior: the mediating effect of psychological empowerment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云

    2011-01-01

    自我领导是个体控制自己行为的过程,即运用特别的行为和认知策略来影响和引导白已的行为。自我领导策略包括行为聚焦策略、自然奖赏策略、建设性思维策略。心理授权是个体通过对工作情境四方面的评价而形成的内在动机状态。在中国文化环境中探讨了自我领导、心理授权与创新行为三者之间的关系..结论表明,建设性思维策略(心理意象、自我对话)对心理授权的影响比较显著,行为聚焦策略(自我惩罚、自我奖赏)对心理授权的影响效果不显著;建设性思维策略(心理意象)对创新行为的影响比较显著,行为聚焦策略(自我惩罚、自我奖赏)对创新行为的影响效果不显著;心理授权在建设性思维策略(心理意象、自我对话)与创新行为之间的中介效应显著,心理授权在行为聚焦策略(自我奖赏、自我惩罚)与创新行为的中介效应不湿著。%Selfleadership is a process through which individuals control their own behavior, influencing and leading themselves through the use of specific sets of behavioral and cognitive strategies. Self - leadership strategies are usually grouped into the three primary categories of behavior - focused strategies, natural reward strategies and constructive thought pattern strategies. Psychological empowerment is an increased intrinsic task motivation manifested in a set of four cognitions reflecting an individual' s orientation to his or her work role. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship among self - leadership, psychological empowerment and innova- tive behaviors at work. The results indicate that constructive thought pattern strategies (mental imagery, self- talk) is positively asso- ciated with psychological empowerment, behavior- focused strategies (self-reward, self- punishment) is not significantly associated with psychological empowerment. The

  10. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  11. An Empirical Study on Migrant Children's Psychological Health in West Hunan and the Intervention of National Sports%湘西地区流动儿童心理健康状况及民族体育干预的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉凤

    2014-01-01

    文章采用问卷调查法对湘西地区流动儿童心理健康状况进行调查,并对其心理健康存在问题的流动儿童进行体育运动干预。结果表明湘西地区流动儿童心理健康水平低于城区常住儿童;流动儿童经过板凳龙运动和苗族鼓舞运动干预后,心理健康各项指标得分分值下降,且情绪障碍、性格缺陷、社会适应障碍等变化有显著性差异(P ﹤0.05)。说明板凳龙训练和苗族鼓舞运动能使流动儿童不良情绪得到释放,增强自信心,促进流动儿童的心理健康发展。%Questionnaire investigations are adopted to explore the migrant children's psychological health status of Xiangxi area and sports intervention is carried out to help those children with mental health problems. The results indi-cate that the migrant children's psychological health level is lower than resident children in Xiangxi area. After interven-tion with bench dragon game and Drum - and - dance of the Miao Nationality, their mental health indicators score de-creased with significant difference (P < 0. 05)in their mood disorders, personality defects, social adaptation disorders. Bench dragon and drum - and - dance games of the Miao Nationality can help them release their negative emotions, en-hance self - confidence and then promote their psychological health.

  12. 创业导向对员工创新行为影响的跨层次实证研究——以创新氛围和心理授权为中介变量%A cross- level empirical research on the impact of entrepreneurial orientation on employee innovative behavior-- innovative climate and psychological empowerment as mediator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋典; 袁勇志; 张伟炜

    2011-01-01

    探讨了宏观层面的创业导向、创新氛围变量对微观层面雇员心理授权与创新行为变量的影响,在对52家企业260名员工就创业导向、创新氛围、心理授权与创新行为等变量数据调研的基础上,应用跨层次分析表明:创业导向有助于组织创新氛围的构建,而创新氛围会提升员工的心理授权和创新行为表现,且心理授权是创新氛围与员工创新行为的部分跨层次中介变量。这些结论有助于更好地理解创业导向向组织绩效转换的中间机制。%This study explores the impact of macro level variables of entrepreneurial orientation, innovation and climate on the micro - level variables of employee psychological empowerment and innovative behavior, based on the survey 260 employees within 52 enterprises with the use of cross - level model, results show entrepreneurial orientation can help build innovative climate within organization, innovative climate will enhance employee psychological empowerment and stimulate employee innovative behavior, and then psychological empowerment is a partial cross -level mediator between innovative climate and employee innovative behavior. These findings give us a better understanding of conversion mechanism from entrepreneurial orientation to organizational performance.

  13. Adherence to diabetes regimens: empirical status and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S M

    1990-01-01

    Adherence to diabetes treatment regimens has proved to be a conceptual and empirical enigma. Consequently, reliable and valid applications to the clinical practice of diabetes care and education have been wanting. Rates of nonadherence are staggeringly high, regardless of the methodology employed, and verification of self-reports is complicated by social desirability to appear compliant. Low intertask correlations further complicate our understanding of adherence-metabolic control relationships. Studies relating to the Health Belief Model, social learning theory, and the psychology of interpersonal relationships that have sought to identify determinants of adherence behaviors have specific relevance to the clinical practice of diabetes education.

  14. The Effect of Work Values of New Generation Employees and the Psychological Empowerment on Job Performance---The Empirical Research based on the Knowledge-based Enterprises%新生代员工工作价值观、心理授权对工作绩效的影响--基于知识型企业的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 颜世富

    2014-01-01

    20世纪80年代以后出生的新生代员工正成为中国职场主力军,他们有着与以往代际员工不同的工作价值观。同时,企业管理实践也正发生变化,对员工的授权也变得越来越重要。对上海、北京等地的13家知识型企业148名新生代员工的工作价值观、心理授权和工作绩效的关系进行了研究,结果表明:知识型企业中新生代员工工作价值观、心理授权和工作绩效量表两两存在显著相关;知识型企业中新生代员工的工作价值观和心理授权能有效预测任务绩效、人际促进、工作投入以及总的工作绩效;知识型企业中新生代员工的心理授权能有效预测工作绩效,其中工作价值观在心理授权与工作绩效之间起调节作用。%New generation employees, which have different work values from the past intergeneration, be the Mainstream in China labor market today. Meanwhile, the corporate management practices are also changing, empowering employees becomes increasingly important. Data were collected from 148 new generation employees of 13 Knowledge-based enterprises in Shanghai, Beijing, etc on the relation between work values and psychological empowerment with work performance. The results show that : The work values of new generation employees and psychological empowerment and job performance are interrelated obviously;Dimensions of work values of new generation employees and psychological empowerment have good predictive effects of task performance, task promotion, interpersonal promotion and overall job performance;Psychological empowerment of new generation employees in knowledge-based enterprises could predict job performance, and the work values of new generation have a moderating effect.

  15. 中国组织情境下领导风格对员工追随行为的作用:心理授权与LMX的影响%An Empirical Study on Leadership Style and Followership Behavior in the Chinese Context:Effects on Leader-Member Exchange and Psychological Fm-Powermatic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晟; 邱波; 曾顺根

    2016-01-01

    依据中国组织情境,选取398组主管-员工配对样本统计分析,结果显示:授权领导对员工追随行为有直接的正向影响,通过心理授权的部分中介,对追随行为还有间接的正向影响;威权领导对员工追随行为有直接的负向影响,通过心理授权的部分中介,对追随行为还有间接的负向影响。LMX调节授权领导、威权领导与员工心理授权的关系,即LMX强化授权领导对员工心理授权的正向影响水平;反向弱化威权领导对员工心理授权的负向影响水平。LMX质量愈高,其调节效应愈强,反之则愈弱。本研究成果对学界与业界人士正确认知员工追随行为发生的前因(领导视角)具有一定的促进作用。%The statistical analysis of pair questionnaire data for 398 groups of supervisor-staff shows that firstly,Empowering Leadership exerts both a direct positive influence and an indirect positive influence by the partial mediate of psychological Fm-Powermatic on Followership Behavior;Authoritarian Leadership exerts both a direct negative influence and an indirect influence by the partial mediate of psychological Fm-Powermatic on Followership Behavior.Secondly,LMX plays a positive moderate role in the relationship between Empowering Leadership,Authoritarian Leadership and Psychological Fm-Powermatic of staff,which means that LMX strengthens the positive impact level of Empowering Leadership toward Psycho-logical Fm-Powermatic of staff.The more positive weakened of negative impact level of Authoritarian Leadership on Followership Behavior,the higher qualified LMX is,which leads to a stronger adjusting effect,vice versa.The finding of this paper may have certain simulative effect on the understanding of academia on the cause of Followership Behavior from the perspective of leadership.

  16. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  17. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  18. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  19. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also addresses the future of psychology in Africa and the world over. ... simultaneous item bias test and logistic discriminant function analysis for detecting ... Types of examination malpractice as perceived by teachers of secondary schools in ...

  20. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  1. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  2. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nigel Foreman

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space...

  3. Social Psychology as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  4. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    -induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition......We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal...

  5. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  6. Psychological intervention of murophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrie Yihun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Although phobia is more commonly observed during adolescence as compared to adulthood, its specific type of murophobia is uncommon. Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders are rarely reported to mental health clinicians. The present study is a case report of a 16-year old adolescent female with murophobia. The case was not registered in any general medical clinic and was sent to our department for further psychological assessment and intervention. The client was comprehensively examined through clinical interview, behavioural analysis and treated by cognitive-behaviour technique of psychological intervention and without the inclusion of psychiatric treatment. Details of the psychological assessment and intervention have been presented in this case report.

  7. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  8. Deconstructivism and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Mencin Čeplak

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In last ten, fifteen years, variety of disciplines literary throng the conceptualizations of identity. This plurality of discourses blurs the boundaries between disciplines and at the same time deepens them. The deconstruction positions in psychology, referring to Althusser's concept of interpellation, Lacanian psychoanalysis and Foucault's theorization of discourse and power relations do not try to define the boundaries and connections between the disciplines. However, in the analyses of the birth of psychological knowledge and their consequences the deconstruction position points out that psychological knowledge fatally reduces the factors constructing identity and subjectivity by limiting itself on individual and interpersonal. This article discusses two consequences of this reduction: this reduction leads to the conclusion that social differentiation is the effect of the individual differences in capacities and personal characteristics and at the same time this reduction impedes psychological knowledge in the analyses of its own role in the power relations.

  9. Internet research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter

    2015-01-03

    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  10. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  11. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  12. Psychological.pm6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa ..... inactivity and the avoidance of physical exercise in .... Mood and anxiety ... individuals with chronic pain: the moderating role of pain duration. Pain 2004 ...

  13. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...

  14. The concept of mindfulness: nonspecific factor of psychological wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugovkina O.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the growing interest in the study of the concept of mindfulness as a psychological construct and a form of psychotherapeutic intervention for the prevention and treatment of various mental disorders has become prominent in the foreign literature. On the basis of empirical evidence the article describes the positive effects of psychological awareness, including an increase of the subjective well-being, satisfaction with interpersonal relationships, improvement of some cognitive performance (working memory, executive functions, decline in cognitive and emotional reactivity. The article gives a description of the presumed neurobiological correlates of awareness and formulate the general perspective for further research.

  15. The art of assessment in psychology: ethics, expertise, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, J A

    1999-05-01

    Psychological assessment is a hybrid, both art and science. The empirical foundations of testing are indispensable in providing reliable and valid data. At the level of the integrated assessment, however, science gives way to art. Standards of reliability and validity account for the individual instrument; they do not account for the integration of data into a comprehensive assessment. This article examines the current climate of psychological assessment, selectively reviewing the literature of the past decade. Ethics, expertise, and validity are the components under discussion. Psychologists can and do take precautions to ensure that the "art" of their work holds as much merit as the science.

  16. Psychology of terrorism: Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, John G

    2017-04-01

    Despite the extraordinary social and political consequences often associated with terrorist violence, as well as our responses to it, psychological research on terrorist behavior is conspicuously underdeveloped. This special issue of American Psychologist presents a series of articles that showcase new conceptual, theoretical, and empirical advances in our understanding of terrorism. In doing so, it seeks to not merely summarize recent accomplishments, but to highlight the immense value of explicitly psychological research on these issues, far more of which is called for to realize the potential for informing solutions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  18. Psychology of male and female communicative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyura, Svetlana A

    2008-05-01

    The article features a brief overview of theoretical and empirical studies in communication psychology and sociability of men and women, boys and girls. Russian and foreign studies are summarized to point out that girls and women place greater emphasis on communication and interpersonal relations than do boys and men. Moreover, female communication is more emotional. The article presents the results of the author's own empirical study of male and female communicative activity. Communicative activity is viewed as a complex psychological phenomenon, a degree of the subject's willingness to interact. Communicative activity was studied with the test proposed by the Russian psychologist, Krupnov, and designed to detect the following components of communicative activity: dynamic (natural), emotional, motivational, cognitive, regulatory, productive, and two sorts of communication difficulties (operational and personal). Gender differences in communicative activity are shown on a sample of 480 participants aged 18-40 (240 men and 240 women). The article then describes communicative styles of adolescents (130 boys and 130 girls, aged 19-24). Various communicative styles are featured, including "energetic, businesslike," "conformal, emotional," "diplomatic, externally oriented" for boys and "energetic, sociable," "emotional, difficult," and "complaisant, expressive" for girls. Every person's individuality and gender identity are shown to impact their communicative style.

  19. Eating, Psychology of

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to provide the reader with a brief guide to the psychology of eating. Biological, developmental, cognitive, social, eating disorders and obesity were all discussed and their relative contribution to the psychology of eating was described. This paper has also described how eating behaviourists have conceptualised hunger and fullness in order to understand human motivations to feed. It is hoped that interested readers will continue beyond this article to gain a...

  20. Psychological Test Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Gessmann H.-W.; Sheronov E.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psycholo...

  1. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouras, Harold; Faucherre, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  2. The Individual Differences Tradition in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawis, Rene V.

    1992-01-01

    Traces historical development from individual differences psychology through psychological testing, vocational counseling, and student personnel work, to counseling psychology. Describes individual differences tradition in counseling psychology research and practice. Discusses how individual differences psychology has influenced counseling…

  3. The psychology of psychology: A thought experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Williams, Wendy M

    2015-01-01

    In the target article, Duarte et al. allege that the lack of political diversity reduces research efficacy. We pose a thought experiment that could provide an empirical test by examining whether institutional review board (IRB) members, granting agencies, and journal reviewers filter scientific products based on political values, invoking scientific criteria (rigor, etc.) as their justification. When these same products are cast in terms highlighting opposite values, do these people shift their decisions?

  4. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  5. 基于教育心理学研究新进展的教与学--针对教学环境的研究的启示%The Teaching and Learning Based on the New Progress of Education Psychology Research---Implications from the studies of teaching environmental

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉萍

    2014-01-01

    Teaching environment has a critical influence for academic achievement and intellectual development of students .Teaching environment can be divided into the educational environment and the learning environment .This paper starts with the new progress of educational psychology for teaching environment ,discusses impact of the educational environment , teaching and learning environment on students’ academic achievement and the academic self -concept ,focusing on the combined model of the I \\E model of Marsh and big fish - little pond effect ,to explore its implications for teaching and learn-i ng .%教学环境对于学生的学业成就和智力发展有着至关重要的影响。教学环境可分为教育环境与学习环境。本文将从教育心理学针对教学环境的新进展入手,探讨教育环境、教学环境对学生学业成就、学业自我概念的影响,以针对课堂情感氛围和Ma rs h的I\E模型与大鱼小池效应的组合模型为重点,探讨其对于教与学的启示。

  6. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...

  7. Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

  8. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  9. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  10. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Psychological Stress and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Yu Jin; Yang, Yong Ryoul; Park, Seorim; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Follo, Matilde Yung; Cocco, Lucio; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is an emotion experienced when people are under mental pressure or encounter unexpected problems. Extreme or repetitive stress increases the risk of developing human disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), immune diseases, mental disorders, and cancer. Several studies have shown an association between psychological stress and cancer growth and metastasis in animal models and case studies of cancer patients. Stress induces the secretion of stress-related mediators, such as catecholamine, cortisol, and oxytocin, via the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis or the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). These stress-related hormones and neurotransmitters adversely affect stress-induced tumor progression and cancer therapy. Catecholamine is the primary factor that influences tumor progression. It can regulate diverse cellular signaling pathways through adrenergic receptors (ADRs), which are expressed by several types of cancer cells. Activated ADRs enhance the proliferation and invasion abilities of cancer cells, alter cell activity in the tumor microenvironment, and regulate the interaction between cancer and its microenvironment to promote tumor progression. Additionally, other stress mediators, such as glucocorticoids and oxytocin, and their cognate receptors are involved in stress-induced cancer growth and metastasis. Here, we will review how each receptor-mediated signal cascade contributes to tumor initiation and progression and discuss how we can use these molecular mechanisms for cancer therapy.

  11. Empirical Study of Influencing of Job Resources to R&D Staffs Work Engagement——The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital%工作资源对企业研发人员工作投入影响的实证研究——心理资本的中介作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江红艳; 孙配贞; 何浏

    2012-01-01

    采用问卷调查法,选取广州等地区企业的研发人员为调查对象,探讨了工作资源对研发人员工作投入的影响作用机制.研究结果表明:工作资源对工作投入具有显著的正向影响;心理资本在工作资源与工作投入之间起部分中介作用.%This paper tries to examine the influence of job resources on work engagement,and investigates the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between job resources and work engagement. The data is collected from R&-D staff from enterprises located in some cities,such as Guangzhou. In line with predictions, we found that job resources had a significant positive effect on work engagement. The results also indicated that psychological capital partially mediated the effect of job resources on work engagement.

  12. Psychological distress and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R; Young, T B; Schoenherr, R A

    1982-04-01

    Psychologically distressed patients and clients of health care and social service organizations are found to report somewhat more dissatisfaction with services than do the nondistressed. Four explanations for this relationship are examined: 1) the psychologically distressed are generally dissatisfied; 2) service providers react negatively to the psychologically distressed; 3) psychologically distressed patients are dissatisfied when service providers do not respond to their psychological needs; and 4) patients who deny their psychological distress tend to be dissatisfied. The results show that the psychologically distressed report more dissatisfaction because of the very high levels of dissatisfaction found among patients who deny having personal problems.

  13. Empirical Research on Innovation of Entrepreneurial Opportunities、Psychological Empowerment of Employees and Enterprise Performance%创业机会的创新性、员工心理授权与企业绩效的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭骁

    2011-01-01

    Entrepreneurial activity from the entrepreneur to the entrepreneurial opportunity recognition, innovativeness of entrepreneurial opportunities range between imitative opportunities and creative opportunities. Past research found that innovativeness of entrepreneurial opportunities are associated with corporate performance. But theory of psychological empowerment point out that employees working in the cognitive will influence behavior, therefore, we should consider the role of psychological empowerment. After all,the development and utilization of innovation opportunities need the staff to work together. Study found that innovativeness of entrepreneurial opportunities on firm performance is indeed a significant positive impact. And psychological empowerment of the four dimensions of factors, including Staff awareness of their own ability、Staff awareness of their own influence、 Staff awareness of the significance of their work and Employees work on their cognitive autonomy all have a significant positive impact on firm performance. This explains that psychological authorized staff feeling will help promote the performance. Also found that Staff awareness of their own ability、Staff awareness of the significance of their work and Employees work on their cognitive autonomy was positively regulates relationship between innovativeness of entrepreneurial opportunities and firm performance. Only staff awareness of their own influence in the regulation had no significant effect. Conclusion is useful in objectively from the outside entrepreneurial opportunities, and internal staff treat the two processes of psychological empowerment perceived to enhance corporate performance. Fully understand the mechanism of corporate performance.%创业活动源于创业者对创业机会的识别,而创业机会的创新性强弱则介于模仿性机会和创新性机会之间,过往研究认为创业机会的创新性与企业绩效正相关.但心理授

  14. Exaptation, adaptation, and evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Armin

    2013-01-01

    One of the most well known methodological criticisms of evolutionary psychology is Gould's claim that the program pays too much attention to adaptations, and not enough to exaptations. Almost as well known is the standard rebuttal of that criticism: namely, that the study of exaptations in fact depends on the study of adaptations. However, as I try to show in this paper, it is premature to think that this is where this debate ends. First, the notion of exaptation that is commonly used in this debate is different from the one that Gould and Vrba originally defined. Noting this is particularly important, since, second, the standard reply to Gould's criticism only works if the criticism is framed in terms of the former notion of exaptation, and not the latter. However, third, this ultimately does not change the outcome of the debate much, as evolutionary psychologists can respond to the revamped criticism of their program by claiming that the original notion of exaptation is theoretically and empirically uninteresting. By discussing these issues further, I also seek to determine, more generally, which ways of approaching the adaptationism debate in evolutionary biology are useful, and which not.

  15. A New Replication Norm for Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne P LeBel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing concern regarding the replicability of findings in psychology, including a mounting number of prominent findings that have failed to replicate via high-powered independent replication attempts. In the face of this replicability “crisis of confidence”, several initiatives have been implemented to increase the reliability of empirical findings. In the current article, I propose a new replication norm that aims to further boost the dependability of findings in psychology. Paralleling the extant social norm that researchers should peer review about three times as many articles that they themselves publish per year, the new replication norm states that researchers should aim to independently replicate important findings in their own research areas in proportion to the number of original studies they themselves publish per year (e.g., a 4:1 original-to-replication studies ratio. I argue this simple approach could significantly advance our science by increasing the reliability and cumulative nature of our empirical knowledge base, accelerating our theoretical understanding of psychological phenomena, instilling a focus on quality rather than quantity, and by facilitating our transformation toward a research culture where executing and reporting independent direct replications is viewed as an ordinary part of the research process. To help promote the new norm, I delineate (1 how each of the major constituencies of the research process (i.e., funders, journals, professional societies, departments, and individual researchers can incentivize replications and promote the new norm and (2 any obstacles each constituency faces in supporting the new norm.

  16. An integrative mechanistic account of psychological distress, therapeutic change and recovery: the Perceptual Control Theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Sally; Mansell, Warren; Wood, Alex M

    2011-03-01

    The exact nature and mechanisms of psychological change within psychological disorders remain unknown. This review aims to use a psychological framework known as Perceptual Control Theory (Powers, 1973, 2005; Powers, Clark, & McFarland, 1960) to integrate the diverse literature within psychotherapy research. The core principles of Perceptual Control Theory are explained, and key domains of psychotherapy are considered to explore how well they converge with these principles. The quantitative and qualitative empirical literature on the process of psychological change is reviewed to examine how it fits with predictions based on Perceptual Control Theory. Furthermore, the prerequisites for psychological change; client qualities, therapist qualities, the therapeutic alliance and the shifting of awareness, are also considered to examine their consistency within a Perceptual Control Theory account. Finally the strengths and limitations of a Perceptual Control Theory account in explaining the mechanism of psychological change are considered.

  17. Effects of Psychological Distance and Need for Cognitive Closure on Impression Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Ivan; Tonković, Mirjana; Ivanec, Dragutin

    2017-01-01

    Based on theoretical and empirical similarities between Construal level theory of psychological distance and the Need for cognitive closure (NFC) theory, it could be hypothesized that psychological distance and NFC represent constructs that overlap to some degree. Since both theories describe judgmental behavior in terms of schematic processing, we hypothesized that primacy effect, a schema-driven phenomenon, is strengthened under the heightened NFC and psychological distance. We tested this hypothesis in an impression formation experiment while manipulating psychological distance and measuring NFC. Low NFC and psychological closeness reflect preference for situationally specific, contextually rich information, and therefore their joint effect resulted in reliance on all available information regardless of their position in a sequence. High NFC and psychological distance produced a preference for clear, schematic, stable knowledge, and therefore weighed first information more, which resulted in the primacy effect.

  18. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  19. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  20. The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: contrasts in philosophical foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between the fields of humanistic and positive psychology has been marked by continued tension and ambivalence. This tension can be traced to extensive differences in the philosophical grounding characterizing the two perspectives within psychology. These differences exist with respect to (a) ontology, including the ways in which human nature is conceptualized regarding human potentials and well-being; (b) epistemology, specifically, the choice of research strategies for the empirical study of these concepts; and (c) practical philosophy, particularly the goals and strategies adopted when conducting therapy or undertaking counseling interventions. Because of this philosophical divide, adherents of the two perspectives may best be advised to pursue separately their shared desire to understand and promote human potentials and well-being.

  1. Empirical Research In Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly engineering design research involves the use of empirical studies that are conducted within an industrial environment [Ahmed, 2001; Court 1995; Hales 1987]. Research into the use of information by designers or understanding how engineers build up experience are examples of research...... of research issues. This paper describes case studies of empirical research carried out within industry in engineering design focusing upon information, knowledge and experience in engineering design. The paper describes the research methods employed, their suitability for the particular research aims......, the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and describes two case studies in detail. The paper draws conclusions from the studies reviewed about the use of empirical research methods in industry....

  2. Empirical Research In Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly engineering design research involves the use of empirical studies that are conducted within an industrial environment [Ahmed, 2001; Court 1995; Hales 1987]. Research into the use of information by designers or understanding how engineers build up experience are examples of research...... of research issues. This paper describes case studies of empirical research carried out within industry in engineering design focusing upon information, knowledge and experience in engineering design. The paper describes the research methods employed, their suitability for the particular research aims......, the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and describes two case studies in detail. The paper draws conclusions from the studies reviewed about the use of empirical research methods in industry....

  3. Psychological Diagnostics of Developmental Disorders: A New Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubovsky V.I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a fundamentally new, theoretically grounded and empirically supported approach to psycho-pedagogical diagnostics of developmental disorders. It is shown that in Russia psychological diagnostics of developmental disorders still has no proper theoretical foundations and is carried out rather intuitively and empirically, even on the stage of differential diagnosis. The situation abroad is quite similar despite the use of standardized intelligence tests as they can only measure quantitative differences in subjects’ performance. The authors emphasize core components of cognitive activity different correlation of which determines the differences between various types of intellectual disorders that are similar in presentation. The proposed approach allows us to fully use the relevant characteristics of different types of developmental disorders. Features of the dynamics of cognitive activity, which are identified in observations and ignored in testing, significantly complement the psychological characteristics of developmental disorders.

  4. Excess success for psychology articles in the journal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Tanzman, Jay; Matthews, William J

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a systematic analysis of the relationship between empirical data and theoretical conclusions for a set of experimental psychology articles published in the journal Science between 2005-2012. When the success rate of a set of empirical studies is much higher than would be expected relative to the experiments' reported effects and sample sizes, it suggests that null findings have been suppressed, that the experiments or analyses were inappropriate, or that the theory does not properly follow from the data. The analyses herein indicate such excess success for 83% (15 out of 18) of the articles in Science that report four or more studies and contain sufficient information for the analysis. This result suggests a systematic pattern of excess success among psychology articles in the journal Science.

  5. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others....... In this paper, I argue that a growing focus on frontier technologies in the life sciences in discussions about bio-power today has come at the cost of empirical investigations into how, for example, 'quality of life' came to be a crucial object of bio-power in the 20th century. Just as Foucault outlined...

  6. Organizational Environment, Psychological Empowerment and Organizational Commitment:Based on Empirical Analysis of University Teachers' Individual Evaluation%组织环境、心理授权与组织承诺--基于高校教师个体评价的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞文; 刘金兰

    2014-01-01

    通过调查756名高校教师的自我评价和对学校环境的主观评价,考察了高校组织环境、教师心理授权与组织承诺之间的关系,验证了心理授权及其4个维度在组织环境与组织主动承诺和被动承诺之间的中介作用。研究结果表明:高校环境对教师组织承诺有显著的影响作用;心理授权在高校环境与组织主动承诺之间起中介作用;心理授权4个维度所起的作用不同,工作意义和自我效能维度在高校环境与组织主动承诺之间起部分中介作用,工作影响力维度在高校环境与组织被动承诺之间起完全中介作用,工作自主性维度不起中介作用。%Based on the survey of 756 university teachers’ self-evaluations and subjective evaluations of their u-niversity environment ,this study explored the relationship among university environment ,teachers’ psycho-logical empowerment and organizational commitment .It validated the mediating role of psychological empower-ment and its four dimensionality between organizational environment and initiative as well as passive organiza-tional commitment .The results showed that the university environment had significant impacts on organiza-tional commitment ,and that psychological empowerment mediated organizational environment upon organiza-tional commitment ,but had different functions of the four dimensionality ,among w hich meaning and compe-tence partially mediated between organizational environment and initiative commitment ;impact dimensionality fully mediated between organizational environment and passive commitment ,and self-determination had no me-diating effect .

  7. 心理所有权、组织认同与组织公民行为——中国情景下的实证研究%Psychological Ownership, Organizational Identification and Organizational Citizenship Behavior——An Empirical Research in Chinese Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩

    2012-01-01

    通过544个有效样本的问卷调查数据,探讨心理所有权对组织公民行为产生影响的作用机制,尤其是研究组织认同在其中的中介作用以及中国人传统性的调节作用.研究结果表明,心理所有权对员工的组织公民行为有显著的正向影响(相关系数是0.421,P<0.000);组织认同在两者之间起完全中介作用,即心理所有权是通过影响员工的组织认同进而影响组织公民行为.层次回归方程分析的结果显示,中国人传统性对组织认同与员工组织公民行为之间的关系具有调节作用.具体而言,对于传统性低的员工而言,它们之间呈显著正相关关系;而对于传统性高的员工而言,相关关系并不显著.%By using 544 questionnaire samples, the mechanism of psychological ownership that has impact on organizational citizenship behavior is analyzed. Special attention is paid to the mediating effect of organizational identification and the moderating effect of the Chinese traditionally. Results indicate that: 1) the psychological ownership has a significant impact on organizational citizenship behavior (the correlation coefficient is 0. 421, P <0. 000) ; and 2) organizational identification fully mediates the relationship between them, or it is through organizational identification that the psychological ownership affects the organizational citizenship behavior. By using moderated multiple regression, it shows that the Chinese traditionality moderates the relationships between the organizational identification and organizational citizenship behavior. In other words, for the staffs with lower traditionality, the relationship is positive, while for the staffs with higher traditionality, they are not significant related.

  8. 人际信任、心理契约违背与组织导向偏差行为--来自家族企业样本的实证证据%Interpersonal Trust,Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Deviance:Empirical Evidence From Family Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄嘉欣; 汪林; 储小平

    2015-01-01

    本研究探讨了人际信任对家族企业员工组织导向偏差行为的影响机制。通过对广东本土家族企业234份员工样本进行分析,结果表明:(1)下属对领导的人际信任越强时,下属的组织导向偏差行为越少;(2)心理契约违背在下属对领导的人际信任和下属的组织导向偏差行为关系之间发挥了完全的中介作用;(3)在领导的组织代表性较高的情况下,下属对领导的人际信任与下属的心理契约违背之间的负向关系较强。研究结果启示,家族企业领导在强化自身的组织代表性时,不仅要构建与下属的人际信任,还需要提升心理契约的管理能力。%This research explores the influence mechanism of interpersonal trust of Family Business employees on Organizational deviance.Based on analysis of the 234 employees samples of Guangdong local Family Business,the results show that:(1 )the subordinate interpersonal trust towards their supervisor is negatively correlated to Organizational Deviance;(2)Psychological Contract Violation played a fully mediating role between the relationship of the interpersonal trust and organizational deviance;(3)the higher Supervisor's Organizational Embodiment,the weaker negative relationship between Interpersonal trust and Psychological Contract Violation.The results of the study implied that family business leaders should enhance their organizational embodiment. They should build interpersonal trust between their subordinates,while enhancing the management ability of psychological contract.

  9. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  10. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  11. Crisis interventions in online psychological counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Amaral Medeiros da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The world's population is often assailed by crises of various orders. Disasters caused by nature and by humans themselves also impact on people's mental health. Psychological crises, such as suicide attempts, represent a growing problem in mental health. When faced with such scenarios, specific strategies of crisis intervention are both appropriate and necessary. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the literature dealing with online psychological crisis intervention, describing and discussing their operational design, specific characteristics and applications. Method: A systematic review of literature indexed on the PubMed, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases identified by searches conducted from January to June of 2014. Results: The searches identified 17 empirical studies about online crisis interventions which were reviewed. Three crisis contexts emerged: 1 disasters, 2 risk/prevention of suicide, and 3 trauma. Eleven different intervention programs were described and the predominant treatment approach was cognitive behavioral therapy. The results showed that research into online psychological crisis intervention has been conducted in several different countries, especially the Netherlands and Australia, and that the users of these tools benefit from them. Conclusion: Online crisis interventions have been developed and researched in many countries around the world. In Brazil, there is still a lack of investment and research in this area.

  12. The psychological present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L J

    1992-01-01

    The present paper compares behavior-analytic and cognitive treatments of the concept of psychological history with regard to its role in current action. Both treatments take the position that the past bears some responsibility for the present, and are thereby obligated to find a means of actualizing the past in the present. Both do so by arguing that the past is brought to bear in the present via the organism. Although the arguments of the two positions differ on this issue, neither provides a complete account. An unconventional treatment of psychological history is proposed, the logic of which is exemplified in anthropological, biological, and psychological perspectives. The unconventional treatment in psychological perspective holds that (a) the organism's interaction with its environment, not the organism itself, changes with experience; and (b) the past interactions of an organism exist as, and only as, the present interactions of that organism. This solution to the problem of psychological history provides obligations and opportunities for analysis that are not available when the more conventional positions of cognitivism and behavior analysis are adopted.

  13. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  14. Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Steven C; Levin, Michael E; Plumb-Vilardaga, Jennifer; Villatte, Jennifer L; Pistorello, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term "contextual behavioral science." We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more adequate psychological systems based on philosophical clarity; the development of basic principles and theories; the development of applied theories linked to basic ones; techniques and components linked to these processes and principles; measurement of theoretically key processes; an emphasis on mediation and moderation in the analysis of applied impact; an interest in effectiveness, dissemination, and training; empirical testing of the research program across a broad range of areas and levels of analysis; and the creation of a more effective scientific and clinical community. We argue that this is a reasonable approach, focused on long-term progress, and that in broad terms it seems to be working. ACT is not hostile to traditional CBT, and is not directly buoyed by whatever weaknesses traditional CBT may have. ACT should be measured at least in part against its own goals as specified by its own developmental strategy.

  15. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress of a Distinctive Model of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.; Plumb-Vilardaga, Jennifer; Villatte, Jennifer L.; Pistorello, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term “contextual behavioral science.” We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more adequate psychological systems based on philosophical clarity; the development of basic principles and theories; the development of applied theories linked to basic ones; techniques and components linked to these processes and principles; measurement of theoretically key processes; an emphasis on mediation and moderation in the analysis of applied impact; an interest in effectiveness, dissemination, and training; empirical testing of the research program across a broad range of areas and levels of analysis; and the creation of a more effective scientific and clinical community. We argue that this is a reasonable approach, focused on long-term progress, and that in broad terms it seems to be working. ACT is not hostile to traditional CBT, and is not directly buoyed by whatever weaknesses traditional CBT may have. ACT should be measured at least in part against its own goals as specified by its own developmental strategy. PMID:23611068

  16. Social Climate Science: A New Vista for Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Adam R; Schuldt, Jonathon P; Romero-Canyas, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The recent Paris Agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions, adopted by 195 nations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, signaled unprecedented commitment by world leaders to address the human social aspects of climate change. Indeed, climate change increasingly is recognized by scientists and policymakers as a social issue requiring social solutions. However, whereas psychological research on intrapersonal and some group-level processes (e.g., political polarization of climate beliefs) has flourished, research into other social processes-such as an understanding of how nonpartisan social identities, cultural ideologies, and group hierarchies shape public engagement on climate change-has received substantially less attention. In this article, we take stock of current psychological approaches to the study of climate change to explore what is "social" about climate change from the perspective of psychology. Drawing from current interdisciplinary perspectives and emerging empirical findings within psychology, we identify four distinct features of climate change and three sets of psychological processes evoked by these features that are fundamentally social and shape both individual and group responses to climate change. Finally, we consider how a more nuanced understanding of the social underpinnings of climate change can stimulate new questions and advance theory within psychology.

  17. Emulation vs. indigenization in the reception of Western psychology in Republican China: an analysis of the content of Chinese psychology journals (1922-1937).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, Geoffrey; Cheung, Boris Tat; Ru, Han

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the practice of empirical psychology in China during the Republican period using a content analysis of its journals. By seeking answers to questions of what kinds of psychology from the West first attracted the Chinese; whether they found a way of developing a psychology more in tune to their own cultural assumptions of selfhood; and to what uses they felt the new discipline could be put, it shows the extent to which its journal content adopted a Western or an indigenous orientation. It thus contributes to the recent debate about indigenization of psychology globally and situates the origins of these issues in China much earlier than has been envisaged by contemporary Chinese indigenous psychologists. Throughout this period, indigenous concerns informed the research agenda, the dominant practice being psychometrics. But because of a lack of social support, they remained largely confined to the pages of psychology journals. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Publication bias and the failure of replication in experimental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2012-12-01

    Replication of empirical findings plays a fundamental role in science. Among experimental psychologists, successful replication enhances belief in a finding, while a failure to replicate is often interpreted to mean that one of the experiments is flawed. This view is wrong. Because experimental psychology uses statistics, empirical findings should appear with predictable probabilities. In a misguided effort to demonstrate successful replication of empirical findings and avoid failures to replicate, experimental psychologists sometimes report too many positive results. Rather than strengthen confidence in an effect, too much successful replication actually indicates publication bias, which invalidates entire sets of experimental findings. Researchers cannot judge the validity of a set of biased experiments because the experiment set may consist entirely of type I errors. This article shows how an investigation of the effect sizes from reported experiments can test for publication bias by looking for too much successful replication. Simulated experiments demonstrate that the publication bias test is able to discriminate biased experiment sets from unbiased experiment sets, but it is conservative about reporting bias. The test is then applied to several studies of prominent phenomena that highlight how publication bias contaminates some findings in experimental psychology. Additional simulated experiments demonstrate that using Bayesian methods of data analysis can reduce (and in some cases, eliminate) the occurrence of publication bias. Such methods should be part of a systematic process to remove publication bias from experimental psychology and reinstate the important role of replication as a final arbiter of scientific findings.

  19. Psychological and educational recommendations for working with young people with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacón López, Elena; Lopez-Justicia, M.D.; Vervloed, M.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the consequences of Retinitis Pigmentosa, a retinal degenerative disease with progressive reduction of the visual field, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and night blindness. Retinitis Pigmentosa is addressed from both a psychological and an educational standpoint, focusing

  20. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology.