WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychology practices initially

  1. An Initial Exploration of the Association between Psychological Distress and Sedentary Behaviour in First Year Undergraduates. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Graham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available University students are reported to have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than the general population. Consequently, research surrounding factors that may contribute to poor mental health of students is imperative in order to identify interventions for this at-risk population. Previous research has determined that sedentary behaviour is associated with physical health, with an emerging focus on the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health. As the role of student consists of primarily sedentary behaviours such as reading, writing and computer use, the relationship between these activities and student mental wellbeing is particularly relevant. The presentation reported on the findings of study conducted on a sample of first year undergraduates and their reported levels of psychological distress and use of time. The findings highlight the diverse and demanding lifestyles of today’s student and the need for further research into student mental well-being.

  2. An Initial Exploration of the Association between Psychological Distress and Sedentary Behaviour in First Year Undergraduates. A Practice Report

    OpenAIRE

    Charmaine Graham; Amanda Richardson; Sharron King; Belinda Chiera; Tim Olds

    2014-01-01

    University students are reported to have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than the general population. Consequently, research surrounding factors that may contribute to poor mental health of students is imperative in order to identify interventions for this at-risk population. Previous research has determined that sedentary behaviour is associated with physical health, with an emerging focus on the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health. As the role of student ...

  3. Replication initiatives will not salvage the trustworthiness of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James C

    2016-05-31

    Replication initiatives in psychology continue to gather considerable attention from far outside the field, as well as controversy from within. Some accomplishments of these initiatives are noted, but this article focuses on why they do not provide a general solution for what ails psychology. There are inherent limitations to mass replications ever being conducted in many areas of psychology, both in terms of their practicality and their prospects for improving the science. Unnecessary compromises were built into the ground rules for design and publication of the Open Science Collaboration: Psychology that undermine its effectiveness. Some ground rules could actually be flipped into guidance for how not to conduct replications. Greater adherence to best publication practices, transparency in the design and publishing of research, strengthening of independent post-publication peer review and firmer enforcement of rules about data sharing and declarations of conflict of interest would make many replications unnecessary. Yet, it has been difficult to move beyond simple endorsement of these measures to consistent implementation. Given the strong institutional support for questionable publication practices, progress will depend on effective individual and collective use of social media to expose lapses and demand reform. Some recent incidents highlight the necessity of this.

  4. Community psychology practice: expanding the impact of psychology's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom

    2014-11-01

    This article introduces the reader to community psychology practice by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology practice looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology practice. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology practice for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology practice offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Ethics in the practice of clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Rathna

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of ethical issues in clinical psychology. Specifically, it addresses the broad philosophical ideas and views on mental illness on which ethical principles are based, including Greek philosophy and Christianity. It goes on to describe the ethical code of the American Psychological Association as it pertains to general principles, psychological assessment or psychometry, education or training and psychological interventions. The principles of the code and research on the same are discussed with relevance to issues and challenges to ethical practice in India, and suggestions for ethical conduct are made. The paper emphasises the need to consider different viewpoints and take individual responsibility for difficult decisions.

  6. Forensic psychology and correctional psychology: Distinct but related subfields of psychological science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S

    2018-02-12

    This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Development and Initial Examination of the School Psychology Multicultural Competence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Celeste M.; Briggs, Candyce; Ricks, Elizabeth; Middleton, Kyndra; Fisher, Sycarah; Connell, James

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the initial development and examination of the School Psychology Multicultural Competence Scale (SPMCS), a 45-item self-report measure for evaluating school psychologists' multicultural competence in the primary domains of school psychology practice (i.e., assessment, consultation, intervention). A sample of 312 school…

  8. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  9. Development of the private practice management standards for psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rebecca; Stokes, David; Littlefield, Lyn; Collins, Leah

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the process of developing a set of private practice management standards to support Australian psychologists and promote high quality services to the public. A review of the literature was conducted to identify management standards relevant to psychology, which were further developed in consultation with a panel of experts in psychology or in the development of standards. Forty-three psychologists in independent private practice took part in either a survey (n=22) to provide feedback on the relevance of, and their compliance with, the identified standards, or a 6-month pilot study (n=21) in which a web-based self-assessment instrument evaluating the final set of standards and performance indicators was implemented in their practice to investigate self-reported change in management procedures. The pilot study demonstrated good outcomes for practitioners when evaluation of compliance to the standards was operationalized in a self-assessment format. Study results are based on a small sample size. Nevertheless, relevance and utility of the standards was found providing an initial version of management standards that have relevance to the practice of psychology in Australia, along with a system for evaluating psychological service provision to ensure best practice in service delivery. © 2010 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  10. Undergraduate Psychological Writing: A Best Practices Guide and National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Shaziela; Salter, Nicholas P.

    2017-01-01

    There is no comprehensive guide for teaching psychological writing, and little is known about how often instructors teach the topic. We present a best practices guide for teaching psychological writing beyond just American Psychological Association style, discuss psychology-specific writing assignments, and examine psychological writing…

  11. Psychological assessment for bariatric surgery: current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Carolina Aita

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity on a global scale has alarmed health institutions, the general population and professionals involved in its treatment. Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective and lasting alternative for weight reduction and improved general health. In this context and as part of a multidisciplinary team, psychologists are responsible for the preoperative psychological assessment of bariatric candidates. To investigate how psychological assessments are occurring, including the identification of utilized resources; factors that are addressed; the duration of the process; existing protocols; and to evaluate the importance of this practice. A systematic review of national and international literature, through PubMed and Scielo's databases, using "psychological assessment", "obesity" and "surgery", as keywords. There is an agreement about the main factors that should be investigated during the preoperative assessment, as well as the main contraindications for the surgical procedure. The importance of the psychological assessment is well established in the field of bariatric surgery. However, this area needs a standard protocol to guide the mental health professionals that deal with bariatric patients.

  12. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfonso Piña López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.

  13. Mindfulness in School Psychology: Applications for Intervention and Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felver, Joshua C.; Doerner, Erin; Jones, Jeremy; Kaye, Nicole C.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of mindfulness is increasing in other areas of applied psychology, school psychology has yet to embrace it in practice. This article introduces school psychologists to the burgeoning field of mindfulness psychology and to the possibilities that it offers to their discipline. A background on the Western scientific study and…

  14. Coaching Psychology: An Approach to Practice for Educational Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coaching psychology is a distinct sub-discipline of academic and applied psychology that focuses on the enhancement of performance, development and well-being in the broader population. Applied in educational contexts, the practice of coaching psychology has the potential to have a positive impact by supporting children and adults to achieve…

  15. Confidentiality in psychological practice: a decrepit concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M; Knowles, A D

    1995-11-01

    Although the principle of confidentiality in the relationship between psychologists and client has been vaunted, and is emphasised in the Australian Psychological Society's Code of Professional Conduct (the APS code; 1994), the confidentiality of this relationship is circumscribed by the absence of legal protections, the ethical beliefs of psychologists, institutional practices, and the provisions of the APS code itself. Lack of privilege in judicial proceedings, and statutory obligations to report certain types of behaviour, mandate breaches of confidentiality in some circumstances. Ethical beliefs of psychologists may support disclosure, especially where it is believed that there is danger of serious physical harm to the client or others. Multidisciplinary teams and institutional settings require the exchange of information for optimal delivery of services. Recent amendments to the APS code may require disclosure without the client's consent when a client is believed to be suicidal. Such developments, when considered at all, are typically regarded as exceptions to a general obligation of confidentiality. However, discussion of exceptions presupposes agreement on fundamental principle: the significance of, and rationale for, confidentiality in the psychologist-client relationship. It is argued in this paper that the obligation of confidentiality has been assumed rather than vigorously analysed and empirically explored. A critical examination of this obligation is the most appropriate starting point for the rehabilitation of contemporary principles of confidentiality in the psychologist-client relationship.

  16. A Bottom up Initiative: Meditation & Mindfulness 'Eastern' Practices in the "Western" Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    a case of bottom up initiative, where the students themselves have demanded inclusion of non- conventional psychosocial interventions illustrated by meditation and mindfulness as Eastern psychological practices, thus filling the gap related to the existential, spiritual approaches. The western...

  17. Guidelines for psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, the American Psychological Association adopted Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Clients in order to describe affirmative psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) clients. There are 16 guidelines in this document that guide TGNC-affirmative psychological practice across the lifespan, from TGNC children to older adults. The Guidelines are organized into five clusters: (a) foundational knowledge and awareness; (b) stigma, discrimination, and barriers to care; (c) lifespan development; (d) assessment, therapy, and intervention; and (e) research, education, and training. In addition, the guidelines provide attention to TGNC people across a range of gender and racial/ethnic identities. The psychological practice guidelines also attend to issues of research and how psychologists may address the many social inequities TGNC people experience. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Good science, bad science: Questioning research practices in psychological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation we have questioned the current research practices in psychological science and thereby contributed to the current discussion about the credibility of psychological research. We specially focused on the problems with the reporting of statistical results and showed that reporting

  19. Bringing Cultural Diversity to Feminist Psychology. Theory, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, Hope, Ed.

    This book focuses on the theoretical, empirical and practice-based implications of recognizing cultural diversity in the psychology of women. Contributors to this volume share the common objective of keeping feminist psychology robust and useful. Chapters in the first section, "Cultural Diversity in Theory and Methodology in Feminist…

  20. Health Psychology Bulletin : Improving Publication Practices to Accelerate Scientific Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Gjalt-jorn Ygram; Kok, Gerjo; Crutzen, Rik; Sanderman, Robbert

    2017-01-01

    The instrument of scientific publishing, originally a necessary tool to enable development of a global science, has evolved relatively little in response to technological advances. Current scientific publishing practices incentivize a number of harmful approaches to research. Health Psychology

  1. Personal growth initiative among Industrial Psychology students in a higher education institution in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique de Jager-van Straaten

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Personal growth initiative (PGI is an important characteristic of workplace counsellors. Industrial and organisational (I-O psychologists often assist employees with counselling for work-related and personal problems, and therefore PGI is an important research topic for this profession. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the PGI of I-O psychology students in a higher education institution in South Africa, as well as to explore differences in PGI between demographic groups. Motivation: According to the scope of practice for psychologists, growth and development of employees form part of an I-O psychologist’s responsibilities. PGI is an important characteristic of I-O psychologists as it enables them to efficiently assist employees in growth and development processes. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. A purposive non-probability sample (N = 568 of I-O psychology students was taken from a higher education institution in South Africa. A biographical questionnaire and the personal growth initiative scale (PGIS were used as measuring instruments. Main findings: The results indicated that (1 the PGIS is a valid and reliable measure of PGI, (2 PGI is prevalent amongst I-O psychology students and (3 PGI differs between certain demographic groups. Practical implications: The findings of this study will assist in the future development of a training programme for I-O psychology students to equip them with the counselling skills they need to function in a counselling role. Contribution: This study contributes to knowledge regarding the importance of PGI for I-O psychology students. The study will also assist higher education institutes to adapt their training programmes in order to prepare I-O psychology students for their role as counsellors. More knowledge will also be provided with regard to the functioning of the PGIS.

  2. Psychological stress and multimorbidity in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . Additionally, stress is a common reason for contacting the general practitioner (GP), and yet no guidelines for management and treatment exist. Aims The aim of this thesis was to investigate the consequences of psychological stress on the health while taking into account mental‐physical multimorbidity, i...... found to be associated with adverse health outcomes and potentially suboptimal healthcare. The link between stress and multimorbidity could substantiate the efforts to develop management guidelines for primary care, stress‐targeted interventions, and to accommodate the healthcare system to better...... and poor prognosis of physical diseases, including increased mortality. However, little is known on the physical consequences of sub‐threshold psychological stress, which is more common than psychiatric disorders in the background population and is highly prevalent in persons with multimorbidity...

  3. Training family medicine residents to practice collaboratively with psychology trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Fowler, Shannon L; Murdoch, William; Markova, Tsveti; Kimbrough, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe a training curriculum for family medicine residents to practice collaboratively with psychology (doctoral) trainees at the Wayne State University/Crittenton Family Medicine Residency program. The collaborative care curriculum involves a series of patient care and educational activities that require collaboration between family medicine residents and psychology trainees. Activities include: (1) clinic huddle, (2) shadowing, (3) pull-ins and warm handoffs, (4) co-counseling, (5) shared precepting, (6) feedback from psychology trainees to family medicine residents regarding consults, brief interventions, and psychological testing, (7) lectures, (8) video-observation and feedback, (9) home visits, and (10) research. The activities were designed to teach the participants to work together as a team and to provide a reciprocal learning experience. In a brief three-item survey of residents at the end of their academic year, 83% indicated that they had learned new information or techniques from working with the psychology trainees for assessment and intervention purposes; 89% indicated that collaborating with psychology trainees enhanced their patient care; and 89% indicated that collaborating with psychology trainees enhanced their ability to work as part of a team. Informal interviews with the psychology trainees indicated that reciprocal learning had taken place. Family medicine residents can learn to work collaboratively with psychology trainees through a series of shared patient care and educational activities within a primary care clinic where an integrated approach to care is valued.

  4. Inclusive Educational Practice in Europe: Psychological Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christopher, Ed.; Horan, Jacqueline, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    The inclusion of all children in the educational system still poses challenges, and psychologists have long been researching and facilitating effective practice with children who don't adjust readily to school. This book collates the findings and practice of psychologists working in schools and educational settings in 13 European states, and will…

  5. The Practice of Psychological Science: Searching for Cronbach's Two Streams in Social-Personality Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy, JL; Robins, RW; Sherman, JW

    2009-01-01

    The present research surveyed a group of editors and editorial board members of personality and social psychology journals to examine the practice of psychological science in their field. Findings demonstrate that (a) although personality and social researchers tend to use many of the same approaches, methods, and procedures, they nonetheless show average differences in each of these domains, as well as in their overarching theoretical aims and perspectives; (b) these average differences larg...

  6. Psychological jurisprudence as an interdisciplinary science and the area of psychological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozdnyakov V. M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article convincingly demonstrates that Russia is increasingly began to publish monographs lawyers on key legal and psychological phenomena, and in dissertations in the formulation of the provisions on the protection of delatsya criticism of "Westernization" of the state legislation and upheld psychologicaland position. At the same time, critically, it is noted that in the field of legal ideology and policies, and in making innovations in the law still, as in Soviet period, dominated by legal dogma, and psychological realities are taken into account in fragments. The reason for this state of Affairs is that still within the framework of University training and further education of local lawyers, in contrast to international practice, insufficient attention is paid to the development of psychological culture, but in the end no full-fledged dialogue between lawyers and psychologists. Taking into account possibilities of integrative methodology justified the subject of psychological law as an interdisciplinary science and the field of psychological practice focused on the identification of regularities and mechanisms of development of legal awareness and legal existence of various actors in the legal activity aimed at the development of psychologically informed interventions for the improvement of legal ideology and politics, systems of law-making, law enforcement and crime prevention, psycho-technical methods and techniques in activities of law enforcement officials. For constructive development of psychological jurisprudence identified the key areas of research and nodal practicerelevant problems.

  7. The marginalisation of dreams in clinical psychological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Linda; Dawson, Drew

    2018-04-22

    The longstanding human interest in dreams has led to a significant body of psychological and philosophical discourse, including research. Recently, however, dreams have been relegated to the periphery of clinical psychological practice. This is potentially problematic as clients continue to bring dreams to therapy and many psychologists lack the confidence or competence to respond effectively to dream material. Building on the structural, professional and research cultures surrounding psychology using a cultural-historical activity theory framework, we argue the marginalisation of dreams is due to cultural-historical factors. These factors include the political and economic context in which psychology developed; psychology's early attempts to differentiate from psychoanalysis by identifying with behaviourism and the natural sciences; and a discipline-specific definition of what constitutes evidence-based practice. These factors led to professional discourses within which dreams are seen as of little clinical or therapeutic value, or that dream work is only for long-term therapy and requires extensive therapist training. However, there are diverse models of dream work consistent with most theoretical orientations within contemporary psychological practice. We conclude with recommendations on how to rebuild clinical confidence and competence in the use of dream material within the current professional environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Children's Sleep and School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Wolfson, Amy R.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2009-01-01

    Much contemporary research has demonstrated the multiple ways that sleep is important for child and adolescent development. This article reviews that research with an emphasis on how sleep parameters are related to school adjustment and achievement. Five areas of sleep research are reviewed to discern implications for practice with children using…

  9. Psychological Restoration Practices among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaher, Yara; Runnerstrom, Miryha G.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the restoration practices and the different types of environments sought out by college students during times of stress and also explores the potential for restorative experiences in built environments. In February 2015, 407 matriculated undergraduates at a large public research university voluntarily participated in this…

  10. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology: Charles Silverstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  11. Evolving Nature of School Psychology in Alberta: Politics and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Coranne; Zwiers, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the practice of school psychology in the province of Alberta reflects the entrenchment of assessment with the emerging possibility of a broader service provider role. This article articulates the influence that politics and government has had on the role of school psychologists in Alberta schools as special education…

  12. Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients" provide psychologists with (a) a frame of reference for the treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients and (b) basic information and further references in the areas of assessment, intervention, identity, relationships, diversity, education, training, and…

  13. The Use of Genograms in Educational Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Adele

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the application of the genogram in educational psychology (EP) practice. It provides a brief overview of the historical and theoretical development of the genogram. It then reviews and critiques some of the current literature regarding clinical application of the genogram in casework with children and adolescents and their…

  14. Health psychology in family practice: Fulfilling a vital need | Kagee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health psychology in family practice: Fulfilling a vital need. A Kagee, P Naidoo. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  15. Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2009-01-01

    Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

  16. Past and future American Psychological Association guidelines for statistical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finch, S; Thomason, N; Cumming, G

    2002-01-01

    We review the publication guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) since 1929 and document their advice for authors about statistical practice. Although the advice has been extended with each revision of the guidelines, it has largely focused on null hypothesis significance testing

  17. Theoretical orientations and practical applications of psychological ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olckers, C.; van Zyl, L.; van der Vaart, L.

    2017-01-01

    This book shares the theoretical advancements that have been made regarding psychological ownership since the development of the construct and specifically the practical applications within multi-cultural and cross-cultural environments. Enriched by empirical data and case studies by subject

  18. What can an intern of psychology do at school? Discussing the practice and professional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiana Dapieve Patias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available School psychology is dedicated to integrate actions that can facilitate the process of learning and development of scholar community. The psychologist has the function of reviewing his or her own professional concepts and practices constantly so that he or she can deal with the complexity of this reality, broadening the concept of school complaints in order to identify other factors associated with these complaints. This paper presents a report on the interventions done during an internship of school psychology at an Elementary School in the countryside of RS. It was noticed an initial necessity of awareness about the psychologist role and about a greateracceptance of a job that could not be just clinical. The practice of the psychologist and of the psychology intern in this context were discussed and related to education and health in a broad sense.

  19. Conducting research in clinical psychology practice: Barriers, facilitators, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirsten V; Thew, Graham R

    2017-09-01

    The combination of clinical psychologists' therapeutic expertise and research training means that they are in an ideal position to be conducting high-quality research projects. However, despite these skills and the documented benefits of research to services and service users, research activity in practice remains low. This article aims to give an overview of the advantages of, and difficulties in conducting research in clinical practice. We reviewed the relevant literature on barriers to research and reflected on our clinical and research experiences in a range of contexts to offer practical recommendations. We considered factors involved in the planning, sourcing support, implementation, and dissemination phases of research, and outline suggestions to improve the feasibility of research projects in post-qualification roles. We suggest that research leadership is particularly important within clinical psychology to ensure the profession's continued visibility and influence within health settings. Clinical implications Emerging evidence suggests that clinical settings that foster research are associated with better patient outcomes. Suggestions to increase the feasibility of research projects in clinical settings are detailed. Limitations The present recommendations are drawn from the authors' practical experience and may need adaptation to individual practitioners' settings. This study does not attempt to assess the efficacy of the strategies suggested. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  20. The Practice of School Psychology in Quebec English Schools: Current Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Cindy A.

    2016-01-01

    In Quebec, school psychology is alive and well. This article outlines current challenges and opportunities related to the practice of psychology in Quebec English schools. Changes to the practice of psychology in Quebec over the last decade have had an impact on the delivery of psychological services in schools. Modifications of the admission…

  1. Exploring the Psychological Antecedents of Attitude towards Indigenous Wetland Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Jayakumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the North eastern agro-climatic zone of Tamil Nadu, India to analyze the possible impact of the psychological antecedents of attitude towards Indigenous Wetland Practices(IWPs among the farming community. Two hundred and nine farmers were selected at random from ten blocks in three districts of the state. Their psychological characteristics and attitude towards IWPs were assessed. The mean attitude score and the mean attitude index were analysed. The highest variable index was found in the case of Progressivism and Traditionalism, followed by Self-Reliance. Environmental orientation and Decision making ability had a positive and highly significant relationship while Scientific Orientation had a negative and highly significant relationship with attitude towards Indigenous Wetland Practices.

  2. The practice of psychological science: searching for Cronbach's two streams in social-personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jessica L; Robins, Richard W; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2009-06-01

    The present research surveyed a group of editors and editorial board members of personality and social psychology journals to examine the practice of psychological science in their field. Findings demonstrate that (a) although personality and social researchers tend to use many of the same approaches, methods, and procedures, they nonetheless show average differences in each of these domains, as well as in their overarching theoretical aims and perspectives; (b) these average differences largely conform to social and personality researchers' stereotypes about each subgroup; (c) despite their methodological and philosophical differences, the 2 subgroups study many of the same research topics; and (d) the structure of social-personality research practices can be characterized as having 2 independent factors, which closely correspond to L. J. Cronbach's (1957) correlational and experimental "streams of research."

  3. Towards a new theory of practice for community health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolas, Sevasti-Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out the value of theorizing collective action from a social science perspective that engages with the messy actuality of practice. It argues that community health psychology relies on an abstract version of Paulo Freire's earlier writing, the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which provides scholar-activists with a 'map' approach to collective action. The article revisits Freire's later work, the Pedagogy of Hope, and argues for the importance of developing a 'journey' approach to collective action. Theories of practice are discussed for their value in theorizing such journeys, and in bringing maps (intentions) and journeys (actuality) closer together.

  4. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Marisela

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.

  5. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  6. Developing Psychological Literacy: Is There a Role for Reflective Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Debra; Homewood, Judi

    2016-01-01

    Psychological literacy is an umbrella term that is widely used to describe the attributes or capabilities of psychology graduate (Cranney & Dunn 2011). This article explores some of the complexities inherent in the learning and teaching of psychological literacy by exploring challenges to the development of self-awareness and cultural…

  7. Initial value sensitivity of the Chinese stock market and its relationship with the investment psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shangjun; Li, Xiaojun; Zhong, Xiuqin

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the initial value sensitivity (IVS) of Chinese stock market, including the single stock market and the Chinese A-share stock market, with respect to real markets and evolving models. The aim is to explore the relationship between IVS of the Chinese A-share stock market and the investment psychology based on the evolving model of genetic cellular automaton (GCA). We find: (1) The Chinese stock market is sensitively dependent on the initial conditions. (2) The GCA model provides a considerable reliability in complexity simulation (e.g. the IVS). (3) The IVS of stock market is positively correlated with the imitation probability when the intensity of the imitation psychology reaches a certain threshold. The paper suggests that the government should seek to keep the imitation psychology under a certain level, otherwise it may induce severe fluctuation to the market.

  8. HIV-Related Stigma, Social Support, and Psychological Distress Among Individuals Initiating ART in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela; Tymejczyk, Olga; Remien, Robert; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Hoffman, Susie; Melaku, Zenebe; Elul, Batya; Nash, Denis

    2018-02-16

    Recent World Health Organization HIV treatment guideline expansion may facilitate timely antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, large-scale success of universal treatment strategies requires a more comprehensive understanding of known barriers to early ART initiation. This work aims to advance a more comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among three known barriers to ART initiation: psychological distress, HIV-related stigma, and low social support. We analyzed cross-sectional interview data on 1175 adults initiating ART at six HIV treatment clinics in Ethiopia. Experience of each form of HIV-related stigma assessed (e.g., anticipatory, internalized, and enacted) was associated with increased odds of psychological distress. However, among those who reported enacted HIV-related stigma, there was no significant association between social support and psychological distress. Interventions to improve mental health among people living with HIV should consider incorporating components to address stigma, focusing on strategies to prevent or reduce the internalization of stigma, given the magnitude of the relationship between high internalized stigma and psychological distress. Interventions to increase social support may be insufficient to improve the mental health of people living with HIV who experienced enacted HIV-related stigma. Future research should examine alternative strategies to manage the mental health consequences of enacted HIV-related stigma, including coping skills training.

  9. Development and Initial Validation of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Benjamin D.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Zhao, Yu; Lei, Pui-Wa; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Li, Hongli; Tate, Robin; Lin, Yu-Chu

    2012-01-01

    A short version of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62) was created via three studies. The final short version (CCAPS-34), which contains 34 items and 7 subscales, demonstrated good discrimination power, support for the proposed factor structure, strong initial convergent validity, and adequate test-retest…

  10. Psychological distress as a predictor of frequent attendance in family practice: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede

    2001-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness....

  11. The Application of Social Justice Principles to Global School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, David; Clinton, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    In as much as school psychology practice is based on the goals of supporting the rights, access, and treatment of children as related to their education, social justice has the potential to be a moral framework for training, research, and practice in school psychology. Accordingly, this article seeks to achieve many objectives. First, a definition…

  12. A practical guide to big data research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eric Evan; Wojcik, Sean P

    2016-12-01

    The massive volume of data that now covers a wide variety of human behaviors offers researchers in psychology an unprecedented opportunity to conduct innovative theory- and data-driven field research. This article is a practical guide to conducting big data research, covering data management, acquisition, processing, and analytics (including key supervised and unsupervised learning data mining methods). It is accompanied by walkthrough tutorials on data acquisition, text analysis with latent Dirichlet allocation topic modeling, and classification with support vector machines. Big data practitioners in academia, industry, and the community have built a comprehensive base of tools and knowledge that makes big data research accessible to researchers in a broad range of fields. However, big data research does require knowledge of software programming and a different analytical mindset. For those willing to acquire the requisite skills, innovative analyses of unexpected or previously untapped data sources can offer fresh ways to develop, test, and extend theories. When conducted with care and respect, big data research can become an essential complement to traditional research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Integrating research into clinical internship training bridging the science/practice gap in pediatric psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Spirito, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a "capstone experience"; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the "business of science." Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists.

  14. Integrating Research Into Clinical Internship Training Bridging the Science/Practice Gap in Pediatric Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a “capstone experience”; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the “business of science.” Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. PMID:22286345

  15. Revisioning Clinical Psychology: Integrating Cultural Psychology into Clinical Research and Practice with Portuguese Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    James, Susan; Harris, Sara; Foster, Gary; Clarke, Juanne; Gadermann, Anne; Morrison, Marie; Bezanson, Birdie Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a model for conducting psychotherapy with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. The theoretical foundation for the model is based on clinical and cultural psychology. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology in order to provide a complex understanding of both culture and the individual within his or her cultural context. The model proposed in this article is also based on our clinical experience and mixed method research with the Portuguese communi...

  16. Teaching Function and Practice Thinking of Psychological Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Psychology teaching was implemented in virtue of excellent psychological movies, which not only could help to stimulate students' interest, and make the abstract theory concretion and visualization, but also provide the scenes similar to the reality for students' learning with attempts to improve their learning achievement. However, as for the…

  17. Classic Papers in Psychology: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Who are the most prestigious authors cited in today's psychology textbooks and journals? And where are (or where were) they based? This short note reports on the answers gained to such questions by using the Web of Science Core Collection to find the authors of the most highly cited papers in psychology published between 1927 and 2012. The…

  18. Effects of Psychological and Social Work Factors on Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance and Difficulties Initiating Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleeshouwers, Jolien; Knardahl, Stein; Christensen, Jan Olav

    2016-04-01

    This prospective cohort study examined previously underexplored relations between psychological/social work factors and troubled sleep in order to provide practical information about specific, modifiable factors at work. A comprehensive evaluation of a range of psychological/social work factors was obtained by several designs; i.e., cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up, prospective analyses with baseline predictors (T1), prospective analyses with average exposure across waves as predictor ([T1 + T2] / 2), and prospective analyses with change in exposure from baseline to follow-up as predictor. Participants consisted of a sample of Norwegian employees from a broad spectrum of occupations, who completed a questionnaire at two points in time, approximately two years apart. Cross-sectional analyses at T1 comprised 7,459 participants, cross-sectional analyses at T2 included 6,688 participants. Prospective analyses comprised a sample 5,070 of participants who responded at both T1 and T2. Univariable and multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were performed. Thirteen psychological/social work factors and two aspects of troubled sleep, namely difficulties initiating sleep and disturbed sleep, were studied. Ordinal logistic regressions revealed statistically significant associations for all psychological and social work factors in at least one of the analyses. Psychological and social work factors predicted sleep problems in the short term as well as the long term. All work factors investigated showed statistically significant associations with both sleep items, however quantitative job demands, decision control, role conflict, and support from superior were the most robust predictors and may therefore be suitable targets of interventions aimed at improving employee sleep. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Psychology and psychosocial practices: narratives and conceptions of psychologists from the psychosocial care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Thomé Seni da Silva e Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The psychosocial care, current care model in mental health in Brazil, emphasizes interdisciplinary, inter-sectoral and territorial actions. This paper aims to present conceptions of psychologists from the Centers for Psychosocial Care of a city on Parana state, about the psychosocial practices developed in their daily actions. Semi-structured individual interviews and group meetings were conducted, using the technique of Operating Group of Pichón-Rivière. The interviews and groups were recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analyzed. Results point the dichotomy between clinical and psychosocial practices in psychology and the professional identity of the participants tied to traditional clinical psychology model. Some psychosocial practices are gradually being recognized by professionals as legitimate practice of psychology, and could be considered amplified clinic in psychology. It is concluded that for the effectiveness of psychosocial practices, it is essential to improve graduation courses and permanent education strategies for mental health professionals.

  20. Building chronic disease management capacity in General Practice: The South Australian GP Plus Practice Nurse Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Koehne, Kristy; Verrall, Claire C; Szabo, Natalie; Bollen, Chris; Parker, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on the implementation experience of the South Australian GP Plus Practice Nurse Initiative in order to establish what is needed to support the development of the chronic disease management role of practice nurses. The Initiative was delivered between 2007 and 2010 to recruit, train and place 157 nurses across 147 General Practices in Adelaide. The purpose was to improve chronic disease management in General Practice, by equipping nurses to work as practice nurses who would coordinate care and establish chronic disease management systems. Secondary analysis of qualitative data contained in the Initiative evaluation report, specifically drawing on quarterly project records and four focus groups conducted with practice nurses, practice nurse coordinators and practice nurse mentors. As evidenced by the need to increase the amount of support provided during the implementation of the Initiative, nurses new to General Practice faced challenges in their new role. Nurses described a big learning curve as they dealt with role transition to a new work environment and learning a range of new skills while developing chronic disease management systems. Informants valued the skills development and support offered by the Initiative, however the ongoing difficulties in implementing the role suggested that change is also needed at the level of the Practice. While just over a half of the placement positions were retained, practice nurses expressed concern with having to negotiate the conditions of their employment. In order to advance the role of practice nurses as managers of chronic disease support is needed at two levels. At one level support is needed to assist practice nurses to build their own skills. At the level of the Practice, and in the wider health workforce system, support is also needed to ensure that Practices are organisationally ready to include the practice nurse within the practice team.

  1. Psychological impact on house staff of an initial versus subsequent emergency medicine rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagappan, K; Grlic, N; Steinberg, M; Pollack, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the psychological impact of a 4-week emergency medicine (EM) rotation on residents undergoing their first EM experience. These findings were compared to the psychological impact the rotation had on residents with prior EM experience. Data were obtained from a post hoc analysis of a previous study. Prerotation and postrotation psychological distress levels were assessed over a 4-week EM rotation. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Dissociative Experience Scale that together comprise a total of 14 psychometric scales. All scales were given at the beginning and end of the initial EM rotation for the academic year of 1994-1995. All information was coded and confidential. Eighteen junior residents (9/18 EM [50%]) were analyzed as a group and compared to 53 residents (34/51 EM [66%]) with prior exposure to the authors' emergency department. Residents doing their first EM rotation (N = 18) showed improvement in 13 of 14 scales (P = .002). Of the 13 scales that improved, 3 improved significantly: Brief Symptom Inventory = anxiety (P = .002) and Dissociative Experience Scale = absorption (P = .001) and other (P = .001). Residents with prior EM experience (N = 53) displayed worsening in 9 of 13 scales (P = not significant) and no change in 1. Residents undergoing their first EM rotation showed a significant decrease in psychological distress over the 4-week period. Residents with prior EM experience did not show a similar change.

  2. Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Vocational Psychology: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James P., Jr., Ed.; Bullock-Yowell, Emily, Ed.; Dozier, V. Casey, Ed.; Osborn, Debra S., Ed.; Lenz, Janet G., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This publication is based on the 2016 Society for Vocational Psychology (SVP) Biennial Conference, that was held at the Florida State University on May 16-17, 2016. The conference theme was "Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Vocational Psychology." The conference content and the resulting edited book are based on the…

  3. Undergraduate Internship Supervision in Psychology Departments: Use of Experiential Learning Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah F.; Barber, Larissa K.; Nelson, Videl L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined trends in how psychology internships are supervised compared to current experiential learning best practices in the literature. We sent a brief online survey to relevant contact persons for colleges/universities with psychology departments throughout the United States (n = 149 responded). Overall, the majority of institutions…

  4. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  5. Practical recommendations for the evaluation of improvement initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Gareth; Coly, Astou; Goldmann, Don; Rowe, Alexander K; Chattu, Vijay; Logiudice, Deneil; Rabrenovic, Mihajlo; Nambiar, Bejoy

    2018-01-01

    Abstract A lack of clear guidance for funders, evaluators and improvers on what to include in evaluation proposals can lead to evaluation designs that do not answer the questions stakeholders want to know. These evaluation designs may not match the iterative nature of improvement and may be imposed onto an initiative in a way that is impractical from the perspective of improvers and the communities with whom they work. Consequently, the results of evaluations are often controversial, and attribution remains poorly understood. Improvement initiatives are iterative, adaptive and context-specific. Evaluation approaches and designs must align with these features, specifically in their ability to consider complexity, to evolve as the initiative adapts over time and to understand the interaction with local context. Improvement initiatives often identify broadly defined change concepts and provide tools for care teams to tailor these in more detail to local conditions. Correspondingly, recommendations for evaluation are best provided as broad guidance, to be tailored to the specifics of the initiative. In this paper, we provide practical guidance and recommendations that funders and evaluators can use when developing an evaluation plan for improvement initiatives that seeks to: identify the questions stakeholders want to address; develop the initial program theory of the initiative; identify high-priority areas to measure progress over time; describe the context the initiative will be applied within; and identify experimental or observational designs that will address attribution. PMID:29447410

  6. EFL Teachers' Self-Initiated Professional Development: Perceptions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simegn, Birhanu

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed perceptions and practices of secondary schools (Grade 9-12) EFL teachers' self-initiated professional development. A questionnaire of likert scale items and open-ended questions was used to gather data from thirty-two teachers. The teachers were asked to fill out the questionnaire at Bahir Dar University during their…

  7. Enriching science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2016-03-01

    This editorial provides a brief synthesis of the past, present, and future of School Psychology Quarterly, highlighting important contributions as an international resource to enrich, invigorate, enhance, and advance science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe. Information herein highlights (a) the value of high quality and timely reviews, (b) publishing manuscripts that address a breadth of important topics relevant to school psychology, and (c) the structure and contributions of the special topic sections featured in School Psychology Quarterly. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Development of a Causal Framework linking High Perofrmance HRM Practices, Positive Psychological Capital, Creative Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vishal

    2013-01-01

    Synthesizing the ideas of high-performance Human Resource Management (HRM), positive psychological capital, and componential theory of creativity, the present study develops a multi-level causal framework linking high-performance work practices (HPWP), positive psychological capital, employee creative performance behaviors and creative performance. The paper argues that to provide a convincing explanation of the association between HRM practices and creativity, we need to improve our theoreti...

  9. Shopping around for Theories for Counseling Psychology Practice: Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E.

    2012-01-01

    Three psychotherapy theories are summarized and critiqued for their applicability to counseling psychology. The lack of attention to psychodynamic and experiential theories in the special section and the lack of theorizing by counseling psychologists in general are lamented. A plea is made for encouraging counseling psychologists to construct more…

  10. Advancing science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this editorial to inform both readers and potential authors, the editor provides a few details relevant to the School Psychology Quarterly (SPQ) including: the mission, contemporary context, the new emphases of SPQ, the editorial board, and advice for authors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Understanding Immigrants, Schooling, and School Psychology: Contemporary Science and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Craig L.; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2016-01-01

    Immigration into the United States is a particularly salient topic of current contemporary educational, social, and political discussions. The school-related needs of immigrant children and youth can be well served by rigorous research and effective school psychology preservice training and preparation. This overview highlights key definitions,…

  12. Gender Variance and Educational Psychology: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    The area of gender variance appears to be more visible in both the media and everyday life. Within educational psychology literature gender variance remains underrepresented. The positioning of educational psychologists working across the three levels of child and family, school or establishment and education authority/council, means that they are…

  13. Excel 2016 for educational and psychological statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching educational and psychological statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2013 for Educational and Psychological Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical education and psychology problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in education and psychology courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Educational and Psychological Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and man...

  14. Walking on the sunny side: what positive psychology can contribute to psychiatric rehabilitation concepts and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Galia S; Nemec, Patricia B

    2013-09-01

    This article suggests a positive psychology framework to strengthen and broaden psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery thought and practice. We inform about positive psychology concepts and measures that can be used to further knowledge, enhance practice, and guide research. Foundational concepts are drawn from the published literature. Specific positive psychology concepts and measures are highlighted: complete mental health, well being, flourishing, positive emotions, flow, self-determination, posttraumatic growth, and resilience. Employing a positive psychology framework can advance research on recovery phenomena and be used to assess rehabilitation outcomes. In addition we advocate positive psychology interventions in education and training of service providers that will enhance a positive focus and the culture of recovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Working with LGBT Individuals: Incorporating Positive Psychology into Training and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Megan C.; Vaughan, Michelle D.; Rodriguez, Eric M.; Shmerler, David L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how positive psychology principles can be incorporated into clinical training and practice to work with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) clients. LGBT psychology literature has all too often relied on heterosexual and cisgender reference groups as the norm with respect to psychological health, primarily framing the experiences of LGBT individuals through the lens of psychopathology. As a result, strengths that could be ascribed to the LGBT experience have been overlooked within training and practice. While positive psychology is actively being incorporated into clinical and counseling psychology curricula, broadening the paradigm to include LGBT individuals has generally not been included in the discussion. Specific recommendations for training psychologists to incorporate and foster positive social institutions, positive subjective experiences and character strengths when working with LGBT clients and celebrating their unique experiences are provided. PMID:25544947

  16. The Psychology School Mental Health Initiative: An Innovative Approach to the Delivery of School-Based Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Golden M.; Lean, Debra; Sweet, Susan D.; Moraes, Sabrina C.; Nelson, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that schools have, by default, become the primary mental health system for students in Canada. The goal of the present study was to design, implement, and evaluate the Psychology School Mental Health Initiative (PSMHI). The PSMHI is an innovative attempt to increase the capacity of school-based psychology staff to deliver…

  17. Psychological capital mediates the association between nurses' practice environment and work engagement among Chinese male nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokang Pan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to investigate the environmental and individual factors contributing to male nurses' psychological well-being and to explore the psychological mechanisms that may explain the links between nurses' practice environment and work engagement, thereby presenting the implications for nurse managers. Methods: A total of 161 male nurses from three tertiary first-class hospitals in Changsha City in China participated in the study. We collected the data using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Results: Scores of male nurses' practice environment (2.88 ± 0.31, psychological capital (4.42 ± 0.62, and work engagement (3.17 ± 1.39 were all above the midpoint; however, the subscales “the nursing staffing and resources adequacy” (2.72 ± 0.48, “hope” (4.33 ± 0.72, and “dedication” (2.96 ± 1.61scored lowest. Nurses' practice environment and psychological capital positively predicted nurses' work engagement; psychological capital fully mediated the influence of nurses' practice environment on work engagement. Conclusions: Creating a supportive nursing practice environment can increase male nurses' work engagement by developing their psychological capital. Nurse managers can then provide reasonable workload and pathways for male nurses to achieve goals, thereby fostering their hope. Keywords: Male nurses, Nurses' practice environment, Psychological capital, Work engagement

  18. Psychological first-aid: a practical aide-memoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, J

    1995-07-01

    Despite advances made in recent years in medical first aid, psychiatric intervention, survival training and equipment design, many people still perish quickly during and immediately following a disastrous event. In this study, individuals and groups of survivors of life-threatening events were debriefed and the behavior of those who coped well during such a threat to life were compared with those who did not. The behaviors of those who coped well were distilled into a set of principles for psychological first aid; that is, a series of simple actions for use within a disaster which serves to recover victims to functional behavior as quickly as possible, thus increasing their chance for survival. These principles of psychological first aid have recently been introduced into basic first aid and survival training courses for both military and civilian units.

  19. Computerized Tests. New practical and ethical challenges for Psychological Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Susana Lozzia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to bring the readers in our field of knowledge closer to the new problems and solutions resulting from the application of computer systems to Psychological Assessment. Therefore, this work puts forward a suitable implementation of Computer-based and Internet-delivered Testing, includes a description of the new technologies that can be applied to Psychological Assessment: administration of traditional paper-and-pencil tests through computers, elaboration of automated reports, computerized adaptive tests, automated test construction and automatic generation of items, as well as the specific guidelines and regulations governing the development of each of these areas. This study provides an outline of the current issues connected with the appropriate use of Computerized Tests by way of conclusion and finally encourages psychologists to keep debating and reflecting on these topics.

  20. Towards a comprehensive model of scientific research and professional practice in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Marian Brzeziński

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I present a model of associations between two social domains: the scientific research domain (here psychology and the professional practice domain. In the former case, its quality is determined by social and individual methodological awareness (MA. I introduce my own definition of MA. What determines the validity and usefulness of practical actions undertaken by professionals (e.g., assessment, therapy in the practice domain is the accurately constructed empirical theory high in descriptive power, explanatory power and predictive power. I propose a model (my own conceptualization in which I analyze information flow between the domains of scientific research (psychology as a science and professional practice (psychology as a profession. In the subsequent and final part I discuss my own model which links theory and practice: Scientific Research and Professional Practice in Psychology (SRPPP. The article ends with a presentation of three contexts in which the interrelationship between theory and practice is immersed: the ethical, psychological and cultural contexts.

  1. Relationship Between Postpartum Depression and Psychological and Biological Variables in the Initial Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Morales, Dolores; Toro-Molina, Susana; Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Losa-Iglesias, Marta; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier

    2018-06-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive relationship between psychological symptomatology 24 h postpartum and depression 4 months postpartum, and analyze the relationship between estradiol and postpartum mood. Methods Two hundred women participated in an assessment 24 h postpartum and gave a blood sample for estradiol analysis. One hundred eleven of these women completed the second assessment 4 months postpartum. The Beck Depression Inventory II and the Scale of State-Trait Anxiety were used to assess psychological symptoms. Results At 24 h postpartum, symptoms of depression, trait anxiety, and state anxiety were all significantly correlated with each other. Depression at 24 h postpartum was the only significant independent predictor of depression at 4 months postpartum, explaining 28.7% of the variance. No statistically significant relationship was found between levels of estradiol and mood. Symptoms of depression immediately postpartum thus appear to be a predictor of postpartum depression. Conclusions for Practice These results suggest that early postpartum psychological evaluation of the mother, and intervention as warranted, might prevent or lessen postpartum depression.

  2. Revisioning Clinical Psychology: Integrating Cultural Psychology into Clinical Research and Practice with Portuguese Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Susan; Harris, Sara; Foster, Gary; Clarke, Juanne; Gadermann, Anne; Morrison, Marie; Bezanson, Birdie Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a model for conducting psychotherapy with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. The theoretical foundation for the model is based on clinical and cultural psychology. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology in order to provide a complex understanding of both culture and the individual within his or her cultural context. The model proposed in this article is also based on our clinical experience and mixed-method research with the Portuguese community. The model demonstrates its value with ethnic minority clients by situating the clients within the context of their multi-layered social reality. The individual, familial, socio-cultural, and religio-moral domains are explored in two research projects, revealing the interrelation of these levels/contexts. The article is structured according to these domains. Study 1 is a quantitative study that validates the Agonias Questionnaire in Ontario. The results of this study are used to illustrate the individual domain of our proposed model. Study 2 is an ethnography conducted in the Azorean Islands, and the results of this study are integrated to illustrate the other three levels of the model, namely family, socio-cultural, and the religio-moral levels. PMID:23720642

  3. EMOTIONAL MATURITY OF PERSONALITY: THE PRACTICAL PROBLEM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    O. I. Afonina

    2013-01-01

    In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are u...

  4. Problems and opportunity of personality inventories in clinical - psychological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities and problems of usage of personality inventories in psychological diagnostic of persons with "heavy pathology", from aspect of validity and applicability in the first place. Personality inventories are usually designed for health population. By their usage in clinical psychology we often meet problems like specific tendencies when answering defined questions. This could be the result of situational factors but also the impact of their disorders and personality. The possibilities of classical interpretation of results are in this way limited. Do we have the opportunity of development of the diagnostic instruments that we could, not only recognise, but use such deformations (which represent cognitive style or defence of person in diagnostic purpose? The MMPI-2, most famous inventory in this field, offer us great aid, especially because its items are selected empirically. By the analysis of its items from aspect of sensing and localisation of subjects problems, we found differences between clinical scales which represent patients of different clinical groups. These differences are in accordance with psychoanalytical assumptions about characteristics of sensing self and other people.

  5. Simpson’s Paradox in Psychological Science: A Practical Guide

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    Rogier eKievit

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The direction of an association at the population-level may be reversed within the subgroups comprising that population—a striking observation called Simpson’s paradox. When facing this pattern, psychologists often view it as anomalous. Here, we argue that Simpson’s paradox is more common than conventionally thought, and typically results in incorrect interpretations – potentially with harmful consequences. We support this claim by drawing on empirical results from cognitive neuroscience, behavior genetics, psychopathology, personality psychology, educational psychology, intelligence research, and simulation studies. We show that Simpson’s Paradox is most likely to occur when inferences are drawn across different levels of explanation (e.g., from populations to subgroups, or subgroups to individuals. We propose a set of statistical markers indicative of the paradox, and offer psychometric solutions for dealing with the paradox when encountered—including a toolbox in R for detecting Simpson’s Paradox. We show that explicit modeling of situations in which the paradox might occur not only prevents incorrect interpretations of data, but also results in a deeper understanding of what data tell us about the world.

  6. Do longer consultations improve the management of psychological problems in general practice? A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutton Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological problems present a huge burden of illness in our community and GPs are the main providers of care. There is evidence that longer consultations in general practice are associated with improved quality of care; but this needs to be balanced against the fact that doctor time is a limited resource and longer consultations may lead to reduced access to health care. The aim of this research was to conduct a systematic literature review to determine whether management of psychological problems in general practice is associated with an increased consultation length and to explore whether longer consultations are associated with better health outcomes for patients with psychological problems. Methods A search was conducted on Medline (Ovid databases up to7 June 2006. The following search terms, were used: general practice or primary health care (free text or family practice (MeSH AND consultation length or duration (free text or time factors (MeSH AND depression or psychological problems or depressed (free text. A similar search was done in Web of Science, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library and no other papers were found. Studies were included if they contained data comparing consultation length and management or detection of psychological problems in a general practice or primary health care setting. The studies were read and categories developed to enable systematic data extraction and synthesis. Results 29 papers met the inclusion criteria. Consultations with a recorded diagnosis of a psychological problem were reported to be longer than those with no recorded psychological diagnosis. It is not clear if this is related to the extra time or the consultation style. GPs reported that time pressure is a major barrier to treating depression. There was some evidence that increased consultation length is associated with more accurate diagnosis of psychological problems. Conclusion Further research is needed to

  7. General practice, primary care, and health service psychology: concepts, competencies, and the Combined-Integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Timothy J; Isley, Elayne; Link, Nancy; Shealy, Craig N; Winfrey, LaPearl Logan

    2004-10-01

    The profession of psychology is being impacted profoundly by broader changes within the national system of health care, as mental and behavioral health services are being recognized as essential components of a comprehensive, preventive, and cost-efficient primary care system. To fully define and embrace this role, the discipline of professional psychology must develop a shared disciplinary identity of health service psychology and a generalized competency-based model for doctoral education and training. This very framework has been adopted by Combined-Integrated (C-I) doctoral programs in professional psychology, which train across the practice areas (clinical, counseling, and school psychology) to provide a general and integrative foundation for their students. Because C-I programs produce general practitioners who are competent to function within a variety of health service settings, this innovative training approach has great potential to educate and train psychologists for a changing health care marketplace. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Learning Psychological Research and Statistical Concepts using Retrieval-based Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Wee Hun eLim; Gavin Jun Peng eNg; Gabriel Qi Hao eWong

    2015-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are an indispensable subject in the undergraduate psychology curriculum, but there are challenges associated with engaging students in it, such as making learning durable. Here we hypothesized that retrieval-based learning promotes long-term retention of statistical knowledge in psychology. Participants either studied the educational material in four consecutive periods, or studied it just once and practiced retrieving the information in the subsequent three pe...

  9. Reducing psychological distress and obesity through Yoga practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dhananjai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga practice has been effectively prescribed in conjunction with other medical and yogic procedures in the management of severe psychosomatic diseases, including cancer, bronchial asthma, colitis, peptic and ulcer. It improves strength and flexibility, and may help control physiological variables such as blood pressure, lipids, respiration, heart rate, and metabolic rate to improve overall exercise capacity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Yogic Practice on anxiety/depression associated with obesity. Patients were recruited from the Department of Physiology, C.S.M. Medical University (erstwhile KGMU, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 272 subjects were divided into two groups: 1 group of 205 subjects (with yogic practice and 2 a control group of 67 subjects (with aerobic exercise. Assessment of anxiety and depression were done by Hamilton Rating Scale.

  10. Social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm for organisational psychology in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article is about introducing social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm perspective to organisational psychology, especially as these are applied in organisation development. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm perspective for studying and practising organisational psychology in the South African context. Motivation for the study: The relevance of the paradigm perspective that is currently used in studying and practising organisational psychology in South Africa seems to be biased towards an individual perspective of human behaviour that is incongruent with the African context, which asks for an Afro-centric approach with the emphasis on human relationships. It was argued that social constructionism and relational practices could provide a relevant perspective that can help to transform workplace relationships in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study was based on a non-empirical, theoretical research design. Articles written in English and published between 2002 and 2013 using specific keywords relating to social constructionism and organisational psychology were retrieved. This was supplemented by other relevant electronic and hardcopy resources. The main findings are reported and discussed and recommendations made. Main findings: Although the literature on social constructionism and relational practices is limited in organisational psychology, it does provide an additional perspective, not only on the mainstream theory, but also as a practice in organisation development for transforming workplace relationships in the South African context. Practical/managerial implications: Organisational psychology should be cautious about the possibility of constructing a monologue at the expense of introducing new perspectives on behaviour in the workplace. Organisational

  11. Psychological distress as a predictor of frequent attendance in family practice: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede

    2001-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness........ In 1990, 185 consecutive adults who consulted their primary care physician (PCP) about an illness were rated on two psychometric scales (Hopkins Symptom Check List [SCL-8] and Whiteley-7), and their annual number of face-to-face contacts with a family practice was followed until 1996. Frequent attenders...

  12. Developing Learning Communities: Using Communities of Practice within Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawthom, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The idea that communities need to be inclusive is almost axiomatic. The process, whereby, community members engage in inclusive practices is far less understood. Similarly, UK universities are being encouraged to include the wider community and extent campus boundaries. Here, I suggest a particular theoretical lens which sheds light on engagement…

  13. Guidelines for Psychological Practice in Health Care Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…

  14. From Practice to Praksis - models in Danish coaching psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Kyndesen, Anna Imer; Palmer, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The article gives a brief outline of the broadness of coaching models and moves on to describe in detail the model PRAKSIS, which has been developed from the English language PRACTICE model. This model is considered to be a key tool in solution-focused coaching and therapy. Thus, PRAKSIS...

  15. The First Experience of Clinical Practice on Psychology Students’ Imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Regina Gallo-Belluzzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the academic development of the psychologist as a complex process which articulates the transmission of scientific knowledge and changes in imaginative activity, we psychoanalytically investigate the collective imaginary of Psychology students regarding the first clinical consultation. We conducted a group interview with 52 undergraduate students, using the Thematic Story-Drawing Procedure as a way to open a dialogical field. The material obtained, through the psychoanalytical method, resulted in the creation/gathering of four affective-emotional meaning fields: “I came, I saw and I conquered”, “I know that I (do not know”, “I survived and I will save” and “I am and I do”, from which we see an emotionally immature imaginary about the meeting with the patient, since students are more self-centered than concerned with the patient. The overall situation indicates the need for care regarding student academic development, in order to encourage a more mature approach toward the suffering of the other.

  16. Evidence and potential mechanisms for mindfulness practices and energy psychology for obesity and binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojcher, Renee; Gould Fogerite, Susan; Perlman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic. Chronic stress produces endocrine and immune factors that are contributors to obesity's etiology. These biochemicals also can affect appetite and eating behaviors that can lead to binge-eating disorder. The inadequacies of standard care and the problem of patient noncompliance have inspired a search for alternative treatments. Proposals in the literature have called for combination therapies involving behavioral or new biological therapies. This manuscript suggests that mind-body interventions would be ideal for such combinations. Two mind-body modalities, energy psychology and mindfulness meditation, are reviewed for their potential in treating weight loss, stress, and behavior modification related to binge-eating disorder. Whereas mindfulness meditation and practices show more compelling evidence, energy psychology, in the infancy stages of elucidation, exhibits initially promising outcomes but requires further evidence-based trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Psychological Benefits from Reconceptualizing Music-Making as Mindfulness Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Matthew; Brewer, Judson

    2015-06-01

    While the music psychology and education literatures have devoted considerable attention to how musical instrumentalists practice their instruments, less formal scholarly attention has been given in consideration of what it means to maintain a musical "practice" over time and across context. In this paper, the practice of mindfulness meditation is used as heuristic, arguing for a view of mindfulness meditation as a formalized de-specialization of the infinite number of other activities with which people can achieve mindfulness. Sitting meditation, requiring of one to observe the contents of their mind unmediated, can serve as a useful model for the musician in understanding the phenomenology of the music-making process and the "flow" states that can result from an embodied musical practice. Finally, reconceptualizing music-making as a mindfulness practice is considered with psychological and pedagogical implications relevant for developing musicians.

  18. EMOTIONAL MATURITY OF PERSONALITY: THE PRACTICAL PROBLEM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Afonina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are used to assess emotional maturity explicitly and have a theoretical or empirical veri?cation. The second group includes the methods that are intended to assess emotional maturity as a separate scale complimented by other scales, related to evaluating other aspects of emotionality in  the  structure  of  the  personality.  The  third  group  includes  the  methods  in  which  emotional maturity is mentioned in the description of other psychic phenomena, or in the interpretation of certain factors (scales. Psychodiagnostic methods studying different parameters depending on the theoretical concepts of the authors about the structure and content of the emotional maturity of the personality make references to concepts of emotional development, consciousness, cognitive and volitional capacities of the personality and the coping strategies the individual prefer to use. The problem of developing valid and reliable psychodiagnostic methods of studying emotional maturity of the adult personality as a holistic phenomenon still awaits attention and retains its signi?cance.

  19. GOOD PRACTICES REGARDING PRESCHOOL AND PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS` INITIAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela V. KELEMEN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The training of future preschool and primary school teachers at a high quality level is a main goal of our institution and all our efforts are channelled towards fulfilling it. Being a teacher is a science, a science based on competences acquired while attending well-structured lectures that mingle theoretical knowledge with practical assignments. Students acquire knowledge, abilities and develop field related competences during initial training but three years of study are not enough. The Law of Education regulates the following amendment: in order for a teacher to be well trained to meet the requirements of the third millennium it is necessary for him/her to continue the training in level II i.e. master degree, which provides additional competences. In this article we discuss a master programme developed within an European project that offers educational training according to the requirements of a high quality training both practical and theoretical. The components of the Master programme entitled Psychopedagogy of early education and young schooling containa curriculum adjusted to the requirements of a competitive higher education, the courses and seminars are the result of a thorough analysis of different educational models that have been implemented in other European countries. Currently, we are at the end of the first year and we want to share the good practices obtained so far.

  20. Current problems of foreign practice-related educational psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Andreeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the questions of scientific-methodological provision of psychologist’s activity in an educational settlement which are urgent for the activity of practical educational psychologist in Russia as well. The presented information concerns the psychologist’s particular strands of work which can be both developing (development of ABM and psycho-correcting (reasons and forms of school phobias, bullying displays, lying. The ethical problems of psychologist’s work with families namely in case of the parent-child conflicts is also reviewed in the article.

  1. Learning the psychology of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon through on-line practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ruiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychology undergraduates can benefit from direct experiences with laboratory procedures of psychological phenomena. However, they are not always available for students within a distance education program. The present study included students from the Spanish National Distance Education University (UNED that were to take part in a Basic Psychology examination session. They participated in web-sessions on a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT laboratory procedure. The aim was to study whether their performance at TOT-related items would be differentially improved. Our results support the conclusion that practicing with the TOT application was effective in improving the TOT comprehension among students. Study A showed that the performance level was higher for the TOT-practiced participants relative to the non-practiced ones. Study B showed significant group by item-type interaction. Also, there was a significant effect of group, and item-type. The results are contextualized in the psychological institutions’ mainstream effort for Psychology to be viewed as a STEM discipline by students, the political representatives, and the society.

  2. School Psychology Research and Practice in East Asia: Perspectives on the Past, Present, and Future Directions of the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Watanabe, Yayoi; Lee, Dong Hun; McIntosh, Kent

    2016-01-01

    To engage in a comparison of school psychology research and practice in eastern and western countries, the current study sought to identify key themes that have influenced the field of school psychology in East Asian countries. Forty-six leading school psychology professionals in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan provided their…

  3. Effect of Practice Ownership on Work Environment, Learning Culture, Psychological Safety, and Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Alison; Krist, Alex H; Nichols, Len M; Kuzel, Anton J

    2018-04-01

    Physicians have joined larger groups and hospital systems in the face of multiple environmental challenges. We examine whether there are differences across practice ownership in self-reported work environment, a practice culture of learning, psychological safety, and burnout. Using cross-sectional data from staff surveys of small and medium-size practices that participated in EvidenceNOW in Virginia, we tested for differences in work environment, culture of learning, psychological safety, and burnout by practice type. We conducted weighted multivariate linear regression of outcomes on ownership, controlling for practice size, specialty mix, payer mix, and whether the practice was located in a medically underserved area. We further analyzed clinician and staff responses separately. Participating were 104 hospital-owned and 61 independent practices and 24 federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). We analyzed 2,005 responses from practice clinicians and staff, a response rate of 49%. Working in a hospital-owned practice was associated with favorable ratings of work environment, psychological safety, and burnout compared with independent practices. When we examined separately the responses of clinicians vs staff, however, the association appears to be largely driven by staff. Hospital ownership was associated with positive perceptions of practice work environment and lower burnout for staff relative to independent ownership, whereas clinicians in FQHCs perceive a more negative, less joyful work environment and burnout. Our findings are suggestive that clinician and nonclinician staff perceive practice adaptive reserve differently, which may have implications for creating the energy for ongoing quality improvement work. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  4. Learning Psychological Research and Statistical Concepts using Retrieval-based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wee Hun eLim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research methods and statistics are an indispensable subject in the undergraduate psychology curriculum, but there are challenges associated with teaching it, such as making learning durable. Here we hypothesized that retrieval-based learning promotes long-term retention of statistical knowledge in psychology. Participants either studied the educational material in four consecutive periods, or studied it just once and practised retrieving the information in the subsequent three periods, and then took a final test through which their learning was assessed. Whereas repeated studying yielded better test performance when the final test was immediately administered, repeated practice yielded better performance when the test was administered a week after. The data suggest that retrieval practice enhanced the learning – produced better long-term retention – of statistical knowledge in psychology than did repeated studying.

  5. Adult Dental Anxiety: Recent Assessment Approaches and Psychological Management in a Dental Practice Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Gerry; Spyt, James; Herbison, Alice G; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2016-05-01

    Dental anxiety of patients is a common feature of the everyday experience of dental practice. This article advocates the use of regular assessment of this psychological construct to assist in patient management. Various tools, such as the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), are available to monitor dental anxiety that are quick to complete and easy to interpret. Patient burden is low. A new mobile phone assessment system (DENTANX) is being developed for distribution. This application and other psychological interventions are being investigated to assist patients to receive dental care routinely. Clinical relevance: This article provides evidence and expert opinion on the worth of regular dental anxiety assessment in dental practice using structured tools, such as the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, and consideration of psychological intervention development.

  6. Excel 2013 for educational and psychological statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach educational and psychological statistics effectively. It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical problems in education and psychology. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and practitioners, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in statistics courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2013 for Educational and Psychological Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and practitioners how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. E...

  7. Are Psychology Journals Anti-replication? A Snapshot of Editorial Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G N; Clarke, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Recent research in psychology has highlighted a number of replication problems in the discipline, with publication bias - the preference for publishing original and positive results, and a resistance to publishing negative results and replications- identified as one reason for replication failure. However, little empirical research exists to demonstrate that journals explicitly refuse to publish replications. We reviewed the instructions to authors and the published aims of 1151 psychology journals and examined whether they indicated that replications were permitted and accepted. We also examined whether journal practices differed across branches of the discipline, and whether editorial practices differed between low and high impact journals. Thirty three journals (3%) stated in their aims or instructions to authors that they accepted replications. There was no difference between high and low impact journals. The implications of these findings for psychology are discussed.

  8. Musculoskeletal physiotherapists' use of psychological interventions: a systematic review of therapists' perceptions and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanders, Jenny; Anderson, Anna; Henderson, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Research has demonstrated that incorporating psychological interventions within physiotherapy practice has numerous potential benefits. Despite this physiotherapists have reported feeling inadequately trained to confidently use such interventions in their day-to-day practice. To systematically review musculoskeletal physiotherapists' perceptions regarding the use of psychological interventions within physiotherapy practice. Eligible studies were identified through a rigorous search of AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsychINFO from January 2002 until August 2013. Full text qualitative, quantitative and mixed methodology studies published in English language investigating musculoskeletal physiotherapists' perceptions regarding their use of psychological interventions within physiotherapy practice. Included studies were appraised for risk of bias using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative checklist. Meta-analysis was not possible due to study heterogeneity. Six studies, all with a low risk of bias, met the inclusion criteria. These studies highlighted that physiotherapists appreciate the importance of using psychological interventions within their practice, but report inadequate understanding and consequent underutilisation of these interventions. These results should be noted with some degree of caution due to various limitations associated with the included studies and with this review, including the use of a qualitative appraisal tool for mixed methodology/quantitative studies. These findings suggest that musculoskeletal physiotherapists are aware of the potential benefits of incorporating psychological interventions within their practice but feel insufficiently trained to optimise their use of such interventions; hence highlighting a need for further research in this area and a review of physiotherapist training. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kidney organ donation: developing family practice initiatives to reverse inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation is associated with greater long term survival rates and improved quality of life compared with dialysis. Continuous growth in the number of patients with kidney failure has not been matched by an increase in the availability of kidneys for transplantation. This leads to long waiting lists, higher treatment costs and negative health outcomes. Discussion Misunderstandings, public uncertainty and issues of trust in the medical system, that limit willingness to be registered as a potential donor, could be addressed by community dissemination of information and new family practice initiatives that respond to individuals' personal beliefs and concerns regarding organ donation and transplantation. Summary Tackling both personal and public inertia on organ donation is important for any community oriented kidney donation campaign. PMID:20478042

  10. Administrative Pressure to Practice Unethically and Burnout within the Profession of School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccio, Dana E.; Weisz, Gaston; Lefkowitz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This investigation involved the surveying of school psychology practitioners (N = 291) to determine the possible existence of a relationship between administrative pressure to practice unethically and impaired occupational health, as manifested in elevated levels of burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to exit the workforce. Almost one-third…

  11. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Shauna G.; Eusebio, Eleazar C.; Turton, William J.; Wright, Peter W. D.; Hale, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." United States Supreme Court case could have significant implications for school psychology practice. The Court ruled that the parents of a student with a disability were entitled to private school tuition reimbursement even though T.A. had not been identified with a disability or previously…

  12. The Social Psychology of Black-White Interracial Interactions: Implications for Culturally Competent Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander H.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Sweeton, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Social psychological research suggests that because of concerns about being perceived in stereotypical ways, people may experience negative affect and diminished attention and cognitive capacity during interracial interactions. The authors discuss this research in relation to therapy and assessment and also offer practical suggestions for ensuring…

  13. Bridging Social Justice and Children's Rights to Enhance School Psychology Scholarship and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, David; Desai, Poonam

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the overlap between the common goals of social justice and children's rights advocates as applied to scholarship and practice in school psychology. We argue that these frameworks overlap a great deal, with a primary distinction being the roots of each approach. Specifically, the origins of social justice movements in…

  14. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology: Arthur L. Kovacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology is awarded to Arthur L. Kovacs. He is recognized for making outstanding contributions to achieving statutory recognition and securing insurance reimbursement, and as a pioneer in the professional school movement, having trained several generations of practitioners.

  15. Strategies for bridging the research-practice ‘gap’ in sport and exercise psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegan, Richard James; Cotteril, Stewart; Woolway, Toby; Appaneal, Renee; Hutter, R.I.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the continuing research-practice gap that exists within sport and exercise psychology. It explores the reasons why this gap exists, and, crucially, considers solutions to reduce the magnitude and impact of the gap between researchers and practitioners within the field. In this

  16. Mindfulness and psychologic well-being : Are they related to type of meditation technique practiced?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoormans, D.; Nyklicek, I.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether practitioners of two meditation types differ on self-reported mindfulness skills and psychologic well-being. Design: This was a cross-sectional study comparing two convenience meditation groups drawn from local meditation centers, one group practicing

  17. Mindfulness and psychologic well-being: are they related to type of meditation technique practiced?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoormans, Dounya; Nyklíček, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether practitioners of two meditation types differ on self-reported mindfulness skills and psychologic well-being. This was a cross-sectional study comparing two convenience meditation groups drawn from local meditation centers, one group practicing mindfulness meditation (MM),

  18. Evidence-based practice in Occupational Health Psychology. Current status and further developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricutoiu, Laurentiu P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the status of evidence-based practice in Occupational Health Psychology (OHP. After several searches on large online databases, we have found that OHP papers that discuss interventions are less than 10% of the overall literature. Furthermore, quantitative reviews research that reports interventions on major OHP topics are generally absent. In the last part of the paper, we formulate some reccomendations for increasing the number of papers relevant for evidence-based practice in OHP.

  19. Practice and documentation of palliative sedation: a quality improvement initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, M.; Azevedo, C.; Bush, S.H.; Lawlor, P.; Pereira, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Palliative sedation (ps), the continuous use of sedating doses of medication to intentionally reduce consciousness and relieve refractory symptoms at end of life, is ethically acceptable if administered according to standards of best practice. Procedural guidelines outlining the appropriate use of ps and the need for rigorous documentation have been developed. As a quality improvement strategy, we audited the practice and documentation of ps on our palliative care unit (pcu). Methods A pharmacy database search of admissions in 2008 identified, for a subsequent chart review, patients who had received either a continuous infusion of midazolam (≥10 mg/24 h), regular parenteral dosing of methotrimeprazine (≥75 mg daily), or regular phenobarbital. Documentation of the decision-making process, consent, and medication use was collected using a data extraction form based on current international ps standards. Results Interpretation and comparison of data were difficult because of an apparent lack of a consistent operational definition of ps. Patient records had no specific documentation in relation to ps initiation, to clearly identified refractory symptoms, and to informed consent in 60 (64.5%), 43 (46.2%), and 38 (40.9%) charts respectively. Variation in the medications used was marked: 54 patients (58%) were started on a single agent and 39 (42%), on multiple agents. The 40 patients (43%) started on midazolam alone received a mean daily dose of 21.4 mg (standard deviation: 24.6 mg). Conclusions The lack of documentation and standardized practice of ps on our pcu has resulted in a quality improvement program to address those gaps. They also highlight the importance of conducting research and developing clinical guidelines in this area. PMID:24764700

  20. The White House BRAIN Initiative has the potential to further strengthen multidisciplinary research and training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flattau, Pamela

    2014-12-01

    Comments on the original article by Robiner et al. (see record 2014-07939-001) regarding psychologists in medical schools and academic medical center settings. The current authors also discuss how to advance training in psychology using the Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Impact of the Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative on Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  2. Developing and modifying behavioral coding schemes in pediatric psychology: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorney, Jill MacLaren; McMurtry, C Meghan; Chambers, Christine T; Bakeman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    To provide a concise and practical guide to the development, modification, and use of behavioral coding schemes for observational data in pediatric psychology. This article provides a review of relevant literature and experience in developing and refining behavioral coding schemes. A step-by-step guide to developing and/or modifying behavioral coding schemes is provided. Major steps include refining a research question, developing or refining the coding manual, piloting and refining the coding manual, and implementing the coding scheme. Major tasks within each step are discussed, and pediatric psychology examples are provided throughout. Behavioral coding can be a complex and time-intensive process, but the approach is invaluable in allowing researchers to address clinically relevant research questions in ways that would not otherwise be possible. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Brief report: reporting practices of methodological information in four journals of pediatric and child psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, Jennifer M; Bellinger, Skylar; McCormick, Erica; Roberts, Michael C; Steele, Ric G

    2008-08-01

    To replicate Sifers, Puddy, Warren, and Roberts (2002) examining reporting rates of demographic, methodological, and ethical information in articles published during 1997, and to compare these rates to those found in articles published during 2005, in order to determine whether and how reporting practices of these variables have changed over time. We examined reporting demographic, methodological, and ethical information in articles in four journals: Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, and Child Development. Reporting rates during 2005 were compared to articles published during 1997. These four journals improved on many of the 23 variables compared to Sifers et al. including increases in the reporting of ethnicity, attrition, child assent procedures, socioeconomic status, reliability, and reward/incentive offered to participants. Improvements in descriptive information have implications for interpretation, replication, and generalizability of research findings.

  4. Perfect Match? The Practice Ecology of a Labor Market Initiative for Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Berthou, Sara Kristine Gløjmar

    2018-01-01

    the practices exist and are interconnected in ecological arrangements where practice architectures hold one another in place. The theoretical conceptualization in terms of practice, practices, practice architectures, and practice ecologies helps to explain how a seemingly ideal initiative turned out to have...

  5. Attachment to Parents and Depressive Symptoms in College Students: The Mediating Role of Initial Emotional Adjustment and Psychological Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the role of parental attachment in students' depressive symptoms. We have examined wheather initial emotional adjustment and psychological needs would serve as a mediator of the relationship between attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance and depressive symptoms.A sample consisted of 219 students (143 females randomly selected from the University of Rijeka, Croatia, with mean age 19.02 years. Participants provided self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire at the beginning of the first year of college, and The Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II at the third year of college.Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirm that emotional adjustment had a full mediation effect on anxiety dimension and partial mediation on avoidance dimension. Only a partial mediation effect of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness between attachment and depressive symptoms was found.The findings of this study give support to the researches indicating the importance of parental attachment for college students not only through its direct effects on depressive symptoms, but also through effects on the initial emotional adjustment and satisfaction of psychological needs. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that both attachment dimensions and emotional adjustment as well as psychological need satisfaction have a substantial shared variance when predicting depressive symptoms and that each variable also gives a unique contribution to depressive symptoms.

  6. Immediate newborn care practices delay thermoregulation and breastfeeding initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Howard L; Silvestre, Maria Asuncion A; Mantaring, Jacinto Blas V; Oliveros, Yolanda E; Nyunt-U, Soe

    2011-01-01

    Aim A deadly nosocomial outbreak in a Philippine hospital drew nationwide attention to neonatal sepsis. Together with specific infection control measures, interventions that protect newborns against infection-related mortality include drying, skin-to-skin contact, delayed cord clamping, breastfeeding initiation and delayed bathing. This evaluation characterized hospital care in the first hours of life with the intent to drive policy change, strategic planning and hospital reform. Methods Trained physicians observed 481 consecutive deliveries in 51 hospitals using a standardized tool to record practices and timing of immediate newborn care procedures. Results Drying, weighing, eye care and vitamin K injections were performed in more than 90% of newborns. Only 9.6% were allowed skin-to-skin contact. Interventions were inappropriately sequenced, e.g. immediate cord clamping (median 12 sec), delayed drying (96.5%) and early bathing (90.0%). While 68.2% were put to the breast, they were separated two minutes later. Unnecessary suctioning was performed in 94.9%. Doctors trained in neonatal resuscitation were 2.5 (1.1–5.7) times more likely to unnecessarily suction vigorous newborns. Two per cent died and 5.7% developed sepsis/pneumonia. Conclusions This minute-by-minute observational assessment revealed that performance and timing of immediate newborn care interventions are below WHO standards and deprive newborns of basic protections against infection and death. PMID:21375583

  7. The Legal Quality of Articles Published in School Psychology Journals: An Initial Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2014-01-01

    As a follow-up to a companion study (Zaheer & Zirkel, in press) that focused on the legal content in school psychology, this analysis examined legal quality. The companion study found that only 35 of the more than 7,000 articles in five leading journals of school psychology for the period 1970-2013 met rather relaxed standards for being law…

  8. Witnessing Interparental Violence, Parenting Practices, and Children´s Long-Term Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gámez-Guadix

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine the relationship between witnessing interparental violence and children´s long-term psychological distress, and the extent to which this relation is mediated by deteriorating parenting practices (i.e., harsh discipline, affection/support, interparental and intraparental consistency. The second objective was to analyze the possible gender differences in the relationships specified. The sample comprised 680 Spanish university students (62.4% females selected by random, stratified, and proportional sampling (by faculty and sex. Participants retrospectively reported the physical and psychological violence perpetrated by one of his or her parents against the other, the parenting practices when they were preadolescents, and the psychological distress during the past two weeks. Results revealed that harsh discipline and the level of affection and affection/support partially mediated the association between children´s witnessing interparental violence and their long-term psychological distress. These relationships were not significantly different as a function of participants´ sex. Lastly, we discuss the implications of these findings for the planning and development of intervention programs.

  9. The Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS): Merging clinical practice, training, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Soo Jeong; Castonguay, Louis G; Xiao, Henry; Janis, Rebecca; McAleavey, Andrew A; Lockard, Allison J; Locke, Benjamin D; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this article is to present information about a standardized multidimensional measure of psychological symptoms, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS; Locke et al., 2011; Locke, McAleavey, et al., 2012; McAleavey, Nordberg, Hayes, et al., 2012), developed to assess difficulties specific to college students' mental health. We provide (a) a brief review and summary of the psychometric and research support for the CCAPS; (b) examples of the use of the CCAPS for various purposes, including clinical, training, policy, and counseling center advocacy; and (c) implications of the integration of routine outcome monitoring and feedback for the future of training, research, and clinical practice. In particular, the article emphasizes how the assimilation of and symbiotic relationship between research and practice can address the scientist-practitioner gap. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Enhancing psychological capital and personal growth initiative: working on strengths or deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Maria Christina; van Woerkom, Marianne; de Reuver, Renee S M; Bakk, Zsuzsa; Oberski, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    Personal growth initiative (PGI), defined as being proactive about one's personal development, is critical to graduate students' academic success. Prior research has shown that students' PGI can be enhanced through interventions that focus on stimulating developmental activities. Within this study, we aimed to investigate whether an intervention that stimulates development in the area of one's personal strengths (strengths intervention) has more beneficial effects on students' PGI than an intervention that stimulates development in the area of individual deficiencies (deficiency intervention). We conducted 2 longitudinal field experiments to investigate the effects of the 2 interventions on students' PGI (Experiment 1) and the potential mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in this regard (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 105 (N = 105) university students participated in either a strengths intervention or a deficiency intervention. Results indicated that the strengths intervention increased the students' PGI in the short but not in the long term, whereas the deficiency intervention did not affect PGI. Ninety students (N = 90) participated in Experiment 2, in which we slightly refined both interventions by putting a stronger emphasis on the ongoing development of strengths (strengths intervention) or correction of deficiencies (deficiency intervention) by adding posttraining assignments. Results suggested that participating in both interventions led to increases in PGI over a 3-month period, but that these increases were bigger for the strengths intervention group. Furthermore, the relationship between the strengths intervention and PGI was mediated by hope as one component of PsyCap. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. FORMATION OF SCHOOL MANAGERS: THEORETICAL-PRACTICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF HISTORICAL-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Figueiredo Salmen Seixlack Bulhões

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the experience of training school managers based on the theoretical assumptions of historical-cultural psychology. The intervention took place as one of the actions of the Project Education Without Borders (PESF - a partnership between the Municipal Secretary of Education and the psychology department of a state University of São Paulo in assisting schools that have low IDEB (Basic Education Development Index. Study meetings were held monthly with the managers of the six participating schools and with representatives of the pedagogical department of the Municipal Secretary of Education. The themes of the meetings were established based on the demand of the group, which chose as study goals: 1. understanding the production of motives and interests for the students' learning and 2. understanding how the study activity is formed and developed as a main activity at school age. As a strategy of theoretical-practical articulation, the proposition of study tasks on the themes discussed in each meeting was adopted. As a reference, the concept of study task of Davydov and Markova (1987 was used. The results point out that the application of the theoretical assumptions of historical-cultural psychology to the concrete demands of the organization of teaching in the daily school life makes it possible to overcome the traditional dichotomy between theory and practice in teacher education and promotes the construction of new guidelines for pedagogical practice.

  12. Emotional Benefits and Barriers of Psychological Services Scale: Initial construction and validation among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Singleton, Natalie N; Okunoren, Oladoyin; LoParo, Devon; Hunter, Carla D

    2017-11-01

    The current study used the Health Belief Model to develop a measure that assessed the emotional benefits and barriers of professional psychological services in an African American women sample. Data from 251 African American women recruited from online organizations from across the United States (n = 164) and a Midwestern university psychology subject pool (n = 87) were used for exploratory factor analysis. Results revealed a 2-factor structure of the Emotional Benefits and Barriers of Psychological Services (EBBPS) Scale: Life Enhancement and Concerns about Distress, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed with data from 208 African American women who were recruited from a Midwestern university psychology subject pool (n = 81), Mturk (n = 104), and online organizations across the United States (n = 23). Results confirmed the EFA 2-factor model and demonstrated superior fit compared with a unidimensional model as well as a 3 factor model. Both factors exhibited excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was supported given that EBBPS factors were correlated with theoretically related constructs, like psychological help-seeking attitudes, intentions to seek counseling, and cultural identity, as well as uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated constructs, like psychological distress. These findings support the utility and cultural relevance of the EBBPS with African American women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Improving the dependability of research in personality and social psychology: recommendations for research and educational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, David C; Levine, John M; Mackie, Diane M; Morf, Carolyn C; Sansone, Carol; Vazire, Simine; West, Stephen G

    2014-02-01

    In this article, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) Task Force on Publication and Research Practices offers a brief statistical primer and recommendations for improving the dependability of research. Recommendations for research practice include (a) describing and addressing the choice of N (sample size) and consequent issues of statistical power, (b) reporting effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), (c) avoiding "questionable research practices" that can inflate the probability of Type I error, (d) making available research materials necessary to replicate reported results, (e) adhering to SPSP's data sharing policy, (f) encouraging publication of high-quality replication studies, and (g) maintaining flexibility and openness to alternative standards and methods. Recommendations for educational practice include (a) encouraging a culture of "getting it right," (b) teaching and encouraging transparency of data reporting, (c) improving methodological instruction, and (d) modeling sound science and supporting junior researchers who seek to "get it right."

  14. Impact of professional nursing practice environment and psychological empowerment on nurses' work engagement: test of structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Yanhui

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of professional nursing practice environment and psychological empowerment on nurses' work engagement. Previous researchers have acknowledged the positive influence that nurse work environment and psychological empowerment have on engagement. However, less is known about the mechanisms that explain the links between them. A predictive, non-experimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of 300 clinical nurses from two tertiary first class hospitals of Tianjin, China. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and the Psychological Empowerment Scale were used to measure the study variables. Structural equation modelling revealed a good fit of the model to the data based on various fit indices (P = 0.371, χ(2) /df = 1.056, goodness of fit index = 0.967), which indicated that both professional practice environment and psychological empowerment could positively influence work engagement directly, and professional practice environment could also indirectly influence work engagement through the mediation of psychological empowerment. The study hypotheses were supported. Psychological empowerment was found to mediate the relationship between practice environments and work engagement. Administrators should provide a professional nursing practice environment and empower nurses psychologically to increase nurse engagement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Narcissistic Personality Disorder in Clinical Health Psychology Practice: Case Studies of Comorbid Psychological Distress and Life-Limiting Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacel, Elizabeth L; Ennis, Nicole; Pereira, Deidre B

    2017-01-01

    Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of grandiosity, fantasies of unlimited power or importance, and the need for admiration or special treatment. Individuals with NPD may experience significant psychological distress related to interpersonal conflict and functional impairment. Research suggests core features of the disorder are associated with poor prognosis in therapy, including slow progress to behavioral change, premature patient-initiated termination, and negative therapeutic alliance. The current manuscript will explore challenges of working with NPD within the context of life-limiting illness for two psychotherapy patients seen in a behavioral health clinic at a large academic health science center. The ways in which their personality disorder affected their illness-experience shared significant overlap characterized by resistance to psychotherapeutic change, inconsistent adherence to medical recommendations, and volatile relationships with providers. In this manuscript we will (1) explore the ways in which aspects of narcissistic personality disorder impacted the patients' physical health, emotional well-being, and healthcare utilization; (2) describe psychotherapeutic methods that may be useful for optimizing psychosocial, behavioral, and physical well-being in individuals with co-morbid NPD and life-limiting disease; and (3) review conceptualizations of NPD from the DSM-5 alternative model for assessing personality function via trait domains.

  16. Healthcare utilization in general practice before and after psychological treatment: a follow-up data linkage study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Marijn A; Verhaak, Peter F M; Smit, Dineke; Verheij, Robert A

    2014-09-01

    Literature suggests that serious mental health problems increase the use of health services and psychological interventions can reduce this effect. This study investigates whether this effect is also found in primary care patients with less serious mental health problems. Routine electronic health records (EHR) from a representative sample of 128 general practices were linked to patient files from 150 primary care psychologists participating in the NIVEL Primary Care Database, using a trusted third party. Data were linked using the date of birth, gender, and postcode. This yielded 503 unique data pairs that were listed in one of the participating GP practices in 2008-2010, for people who had psychological treatment from a psychologist that ended in 2009. The number of contacts, health problems presented, and prescribed medication in general practice were analysed before and after the psychological treatment. Nearly all 503 patients consulted their GP during the six months preceding the psychological treatment (90.9%) and also in the six months after this treatment had ended (83.7%). The frequency of contacts was significantly higher before than after the psychological treatment (6.1 vs. 4.8). Fewer patients contacted their GPs specifically for psychological or social problems (46.3% vs. 38.8%) and fewer patients had anxiolytic drug prescriptions (15.5% vs. 7.6%) after psychological treatment. After psychological treatment, patients contact their GPs less often and present fewer psychological or social problems. Although contact rates seem to decrease, clients of psychologists are still frequent GP attenders.

  17. 40 CFR 63.11584 - What are my initial and continuous compliance management practice requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance management practice requirements? 63.11584 Section 63.11584 Protection of Environment... What are my initial and continuous compliance management practice requirements? (a) For each new and... gr/dscf, the management practice requirements are as follows: (1) You must conduct an initial visual...

  18. Recent and Continuing Initiatives and Practices in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann; Adamek, Mary S.

    2017-01-01

    A number of initiatives in special education have occurred in the United States over the years, some mandated by amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Having a working knowledge of these initiatives allows music educators to have informed discussions with colleagues and parents and participate more fully in Individualized…

  19. Improving Public Engagement With Climate Change: Five "Best Practice" Insights From Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Sander; Maibach, Edward; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    Despite being one of the most important societal challenges of the 21st century, public engagement with climate change currently remains low in the United States. Mounting evidence from across the behavioral sciences has found that most people regard climate change as a nonurgent and psychologically distant risk-spatially, temporally, and socially-which has led to deferred public decision making about mitigation and adaptation responses. In this article, we advance five simple but important "best practice" insights from psychological science that can help governments improve public policymaking about climate change. Particularly, instead of a future, distant, global, nonpersonal, and analytical risk that is often framed as an overt loss for society, we argue that policymakers should (a) emphasize climate change as a present, local, and personal risk; (b) facilitate more affective and experiential engagement; (c) leverage relevant social group norms; (d) frame policy solutions in terms of what can be gained from immediate action; and (e) appeal to intrinsically valued long-term environmental goals and outcomes. With practical examples we illustrate how these key psychological principles can be applied to support societal engagement and climate change policymaking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Psychological Trauma and LGBT Caregivers: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaesser, Richard S; Patel, Bina R

    2016-01-01

    LGBT adults face unique risk factors such as social isolation, discrimination, and victimization, and occasionally th ey engage in detrimental behaviors like high alcohol and drug use and risky sexual activity that negatively impacts psychological/physical health. These risks can affect their overall health and stress the relationship with an older caregiver/recipient-partner following exposure to acute medical event. The experience of an acute medical event among a LGBT caregiving partner can result in psychological trauma. In this article the authors present a conceptual framework involving stress process theory, life course theory, and family systems perspective to understand the effect of stressors on LGBT caregiving partners. Implications for social work practice include assessing, coordinating care, counseling and negotiating services at micro level, engaging family-centered approaches to support positive transition to caregiving role at mezzo level, and advocating for policy and cultural shifts to supports and diminish stigma of this group.

  1. Psychological stress in sports coaches: a review of concepts, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David; Scott, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Sports coaches operate within a complex, ever-changing environment that imposes many pressures on them. Here, we address the psychological impact of these demands via a critical review of the literature pertaining to stress in sport coaches. The narrative is divided into three main sections: (1) conceptual and definitional issues, (2) theoretical and empirical issues, and (3) implications for applied practice. The review focuses on the environmental stressors that coaches encounter, their appraisals of and responses to these demands, and the impact this has on their personal well-being and job performance. The influence of various personal and situational characteristics is also discussed. A key message to emerge from this review is that the potential health and performance costs of psychological stress to sports coaches are significant. The rapid rate of change in contemporary sport and the dynamic nature of stress mean that stress in coaches is an ongoing problem that needs to be monitored and addressed.

  2. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multicultural Initiatives across Educational Contexts in Psychology: Becoming Diverse in Our Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adames, Hector Y.; Fuentes, Milton A.; Rosa, Dinelia; Chavez-Dueñas, Nayeli Y.

    2013-01-01

    Educational context plays a role in promoting and maintaining multicultural competence. Whereas in the past decade psychology has considered the impact of multiculturalism in educational training; however, less attention has been paid to the institutional contexts that house these efforts. In this paper, four professional psychologists with…

  4. A Longitudinal Assessment of an Initial Cohort in a Psychology Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Kim; Spaulding, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Discipline-based learning communities have become a popular strategy for improving student performance and satisfaction. This article describes the goals and features of a university-based, first-year psychology learning community (PLC) implemented in Fall 2003. We also report the results of a longitudinal assessment of the impact of the PLC on…

  5. A systematic review of team formulation in clinical psychology practice: Definition, implementation, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geach, Nicole; Moghaddam, Nima G; De Boos, Danielle

    2017-10-03

    Team formulation is promoted by professional practice guidelines for clinical psychologists. However, it is unclear whether team formulation is understood/implemented in consistent ways - or whether there is outcome evidence to support the promotion of this practice. This systematic review aimed to (1) synthesize how team formulation practice is defined and implemented by practitioner psychologists and (2) analyse the range of team formulation outcomes in the peer-reviewed literature. Seven electronic bibliographic databases were searched in June 2016. Eleven articles met inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Extracted data were synthesized using content analysis. Descriptions of team formulation revealed three main forms of instantiation: (1) a structured, consultation approach; (2) semi-structured, reflective practice meetings; and (3) unstructured/informal sharing of ideas through routine interactions. Outcome evidence linked team formulation to a range of outcomes for staff teams and service users, including some negative outcomes. Quality appraisal identified significant issues with evaluation methods; such that, overall, outcomes were not well-supported. There is weak evidence to support the claimed beneficial outcomes of team formulation in practice. There is a need for greater specification and standardization of 'team formulation' practices, to enable a clearer understanding of any relationships with outcomes and implications for best-practice implementations. Under the umbrella term of 'team formulation', three types of practice are reported: (1) highly structured consultation; (2) reflective practice meetings; and (3) informal sharing of ideas. Outcomes linked to team formulation, including some negative outcomes, were not well evidenced. Research using robust study designs is required to investigate the process and outcomes of team formulation practice. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. The direct and indirect effects of initial job status on midlife psychological distress in Japan: evidence from a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inagaki, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated how initial job status at graduation from school is associated with midlife psychological distress, using microdata from a nationwide Internet survey of 3,117 men and 2,818 women aged 30-60 yr. We measured psychological distress using the Kessler 6 (K6) score (range: 0-24) and the binary variable of K6 score ≥5. We found that unstable initial job status substantially raised midlife K6 scores and the probability of a K6 score ≥5 for both men and women. Furthermore, our mediation analysis showed that for men, slightly less than 60% of the effect was mediated by current job status, household income, and marital status. For women, the effect of initial job status was somewhat lesser than that for men, and only 20-30% of it was mediated. Despite these gender asymmetries, the results indicated that initial job status was a key predictor of midlife mental health. The association between job status and mental health should be further investigated with special reference to the institutional attributes of the labor market and their socio-economic/demographic outcomes.

  7. How Religious Beliefs and Practices Influence the Psychological Health of Catholic Priests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, Anthony; Sahker, Ethan; Krinock, Elizabeth; Sim, Wonjin; Hamilton, Deanna

    2016-07-01

    Roman Catholic diocesan priests are a subgroup of men with unique religious and spiritual roles, beliefs, and practices. This qualitative study of 15 priests from the mid-Atlantic area of the United States focused on how priests' relationship with God and promises of celibacy and obedience influenced their psychological health. Using a consensual qualitative research (CQR) design, the analysis revealed that participants described their relationship with God as central to their health and contributing to positive outcomes (e.g., sense of connection and support). The influence of their promises of celibacy and obedience were linked to both positive outcomes (e.g., decreased stress, improved relationships) and negative outcomes (e.g., internal conflict, depression/loneliness). This study highlighted the central role that priests' relationship with God has on positive psychological health. Future research is necessary to understand how to maximize the positive effects and minimize the negative effects of priests' promises of celibacy and obedience, which would benefit programs aimed at supporting priests' psychological health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Reporting Practices and Use of Quantitative Methods in Canadian Journal Articles in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Alyssa; Harlow, Lisa L

    2017-05-01

    With recent focus on the state of research in psychology, it is essential to assess the nature of the statistical methods and analyses used and reported by psychological researchers. To that end, we investigated the prevalence of different statistical procedures and the nature of statistical reporting practices in recent articles from the four major Canadian psychology journals. The majority of authors evaluated their research hypotheses through the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA), t -tests, and multiple regression. Multivariate approaches were less common. Null hypothesis significance testing remains a popular strategy, but the majority of authors reported a standardized or unstandardized effect size measure alongside their significance test results. Confidence intervals on effect sizes were infrequently employed. Many authors provided minimal details about their statistical analyses and less than a third of the articles presented on data complications such as missing data and violations of statistical assumptions. Strengths of and areas needing improvement for reporting quantitative results are highlighted. The paper concludes with recommendations for how researchers and reviewers can improve comprehension and transparency in statistical reporting.

  9. The effect of human resource practices on psychological contracts at an iron ore mining company in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Scheepers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Human resource practices influence the psychological contract between employee and employer and, ultimately, organisational performance. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of human resource practices on the types of psychological contracts in an iron ore mining company in South Africa empirically. Motivation for the study: Although there have been a number of conceptual studies on the effect of human resource practices on psychological contracts, there has been no effort to synthesise the links between these contracts and various human resource practices systematically. This study endeavoured to provide quantitative evidence to verify or refute conceptual studies on this relationship. Its findings could inform human resource strategies and, ultimately, the prioritisation of human resource practices to improve the cost-effective allocation of resources. Research design, approach and method: The researchers administered two questionnaires. These were Rousseau’s Psychological Contract Inventory (2000 and the Human Resource Practices Scale of Geringer, Colette and Milliman (2002. The researchers conducted the study with 936 knowledge workers at an iron ore mining company in South Africa. They achieved a 32% response rate. Main findings: The findings showed that most participants have relational contracts with the organisation. Another 22% have balanced contracts, 8% have transitional contracts whilst only 1% have transactional contracts. The study suggests that there are relationships between these psychological contracts and specific human resource practices. The study found that training and development was the most important human resource practice for developing relational and balanced contracts. Employees thought that they contributed more than their employer did to the relationship. The researchers developed a model to illustrate the influence of the various human resource practices on

  10. The lesser evil? Initiating a benzodiazepine prescription in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthierens, Sibyl; Habraken, Hilde; Petrovic, Mirko; Christiaens, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Objective Chronic benzodiazepine (BZD) use is widespread and linked with adverse effects. There is consensus concerning the importance of initiating BZD as a crucial moment. Nevertheless specific research in this field is lacking. This paper addresses the views of GPs on why they start prescribing BZDs to first-time users. Design Qualitative study with five focus groups analysed using a systematic content analysis. Setting Regions of Ghent and Brussels in Belgium. Subjects A total of 35 general practitioners. Main outcome measure The GPs’ perspective on their initiating of BZD prescribing. Results GPs reported that they are cautious in initiating BZD usage. At the same time, GPs feel overwhelmed by the psychosocial problems of their patients. They show empathy by prescribing. They feel in certain situations there are no other solutions and they experience BZDs as the lesser evil. They admit to resorting to BZDs because of time restraint and lack of alternatives. GPs do not perceive the addictive nature of BZD consumption as a problem with first-time users. GPs do not specifically mention patients’ demand as an element for starting. Conclusion The main concern of GPs is to help the patient. GPs should be aware of the addictive nature of BZD even in low doses and a non-pharmacological approach should be seen as the best first approach. If GPs decide to prescribe a BZD they should make plain to the patient that the medication is only a “temporary” solution with clear agreements with regard to medication withdrawal. PMID:18041658

  11. Promising Practices in Citywide Afterschool Initiatives. CityWorks: Focus on Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Georgia

    This brief is the first in a series featuring promising practices in city-wide after-school initiatives, with a focus at the infrastructure level, focusing on the infrastructure representing the underlying elements or framework that hold a system or initiative together. The brief identifies practices to support the public relations function and…

  12. Development of practice guidelines for psychological interventions in the rehabilitation of patients with oncological disease (breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer): Methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Christina; Weis, Joachim; Schmucker, Dieter; Mittag, Oskar

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this project was to develop evidence- and consensus-based practice guidelines for psychological interventions in the rehabilitation of patients with oncological disease (breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer). First of all, we conducted a literature search and survey of all oncological rehabilitation centers in Germany (N = 145) to obtain a thorough perspective of the recent evidence, guidelines, the structural framework, and practice of psychological services in oncological rehabilitation. Next, an expert workshop was held with national experts from scientific departments, clinicians from rehabilitation centers, and patients. In this workshop, we drafted and agreed upon an initial version of the practice guidelines. Afterwards, the practice guidelines were sent to all head physicians and senior psychologists at oncological rehabilitation centers in Germany for approval (N = 280 questionnaires). In addition, key recommendations were discussed with a group of rehabilitation patients. Finally, the practice guidelines were revised by the expert panel and made available online to the public. The practice guidelines have been widely accepted by both the expert panel and the surveyed clinicians and patients. They include recommendations for psycho-oncological interventions that should be offered to all rehabilitation patients with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. They also comprise recommendations for specific problem areas concerning psychological functions, body functions, and environmental and personal factors. The practice guidelines provide detailed recommendations for high-quality psychosocial care in an oncological rehabilitation context. It is their aim to guide the multidisciplinary team, especially psychologists and physicians, in their daily practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Psychological variables potentially implicated in opioid-related mortality as observed in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passik, Steven D; Lowery, Amy

    2011-06-01

    Opioid-related deaths in the United States have become a public health problem, with accidental and unintended overdoses being especially troubling. Screening for psychological risk factors is an important first step in safeguarding against nonadherence practices and identifying patients who may be vulnerable to the risks associated with opioid therapy. Validated screening instruments can aid in this attempt as a complementary tool to clinicians' assessments. A structured screening is imperative as part of an assessment, as clinician judgment is not the most reliable method of identifying nonadherence. As a complement to formal screening, we present for discussion and possible future study certain psychological variables observed during years of clinical practice that may be linked to medication nonadherence and accidental overdose. These variables include catastrophizing, fear, impulsivity, attention deficit disorders, existential distress, and certain personality disorders. In our experience, chronic pain patients with dual diagnoses may become "chemical copers" as a way of coping with their negative emotion. For these patients, times of stress could lead to accidental overdose. Behavioral, cognitive-behavioral (acceptance and commitment, dialectical behavior), existential (meaning-centered, dignity), and psychotropic therapies have been effective in treating these high-risk comorbidities, while managing expectations of pain relief appears key to preventing accidental overdose. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Advancing Psychologically Informed Practice for Patients With Persistent Musculoskeletal Pain: Promise, Pitfalls, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Francis J; Main, Chris J; George, Steven Z

    2018-05-01

    There has been growing interest in psychologically oriented pain management over the past 3 to 4 decades, including a 2011 description of psychologically informed practice (PIP) for low back pain. PIP requires a broader focus than traditional biomechanical and pathology-based approaches that have been traditionally used to manage musculoskeletal pain. A major focus of PIP is addressing the behavioral aspects of pain (ie, peoples' responses to pain) by identifying individual expectations, beliefs, and feelings as prognostic factors for clinical and occupational outcomes indicating progression to chronicity. Since 2011, the interest in PIP seems to be growing, as evidenced by its use in large trials, inclusion in scientific conferences, increasing evidence base, and expansion to other musculoskeletal pain conditions. Primary care physicians and physical therapists have delivered PIP as part of a stratified care approach involving screening and targeting of treatment for people at high risk for continued pain-associated disability. Furthermore, PIP is consistent with recent national priorities emphasizing nonpharmacological pain management options. In this perspective, PIP techniques that range in complexity are described, considerations for implementation in clinical practice are offered, and future directions that will advance the understanding of PIP are outlined.

  15. Using Smartphones to Collect Behavioral Data in Psychological Science: Opportunities, Practical Considerations, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Gabriella M; Lane, Nicholas D; Wang, Rui; Crosier, Benjamin S; Campbell, Andrew T; Gosling, Samuel D

    2016-11-01

    Smartphones now offer the promise of collecting behavioral data unobtrusively, in situ, as it unfolds in the course of daily life. Data can be collected from the onboard sensors and other phone logs embedded in today's off-the-shelf smartphone devices. These data permit fine-grained, continuous collection of people's social interactions (e.g., speaking rates in conversation, size of social groups, calls, and text messages), daily activities (e.g., physical activity and sleep), and mobility patterns (e.g., frequency and duration of time spent at various locations). In this article, we have drawn on the lessons from the first wave of smartphone-sensing research to highlight areas of opportunity for psychological research, present practical considerations for designing smartphone studies, and discuss the ongoing methodological and ethical challenges associated with research in this domain. It is our hope that these practical guidelines will facilitate the use of smartphones as a behavioral observation tool in psychological science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Is Political Activism on Social Media an initiator of Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisam, Aliya; Safoor, Iqra; Khurshid, Nawal; Aslam, Aakash; Zaid, Farhan; Muzaffar, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    To find out the association of psychological stress with political activism on social networking sites (SNS) in adults. To find association of psychological stress and political activism with age, gender and occupational status. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 8 months (Aug 2014 to March 2015) was conducted on young adults between age group of 20-40 years of different universities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Closed ended standardized questionnaires (i.e. Cohen Perceived Stress-10) were distributed via non-probability convenient sampling among a total sample size of 237. Sample size was calculated using WHO sample size calculator and data was analyzed in STATA version 12. The mean age of participants was 21.06±1.425 years. Out of the 237 participants, 150 (63.3%) were males and 87 (36.7%) females. Regarding their occupation, 13 (51.9%) were military cadets, 8 (3.4%) were consultant, 47 (19.8%) medical officer, 3 (1.3%) PG students and 56 (23.6%) MBBS students. Significant association of occupation was established with both political activism and psychological stress (p=0.4 and p=0.002 respectively). Among 237 individuals, 91 (38.4%) were stressed out and 146 (61.6%) were not. Among whole sample, political activists on SNS were found to be 23 (9.7%). Out of these 23 individuals who were politically active, 15 (65.2%) were stressed out and 8 (34.7%) were not. A significant association between stress and political activism was established (p=0.005). Political activism via social networking sites is playing significant role on adult person's mental health in terms of stress among different occupation.

  17. Open Standards in Practice: An OGC China Forum Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Peng; Zhang, Mingda; Taylor, Trevor; Xie, Jibo; Zhang, Hongping; Tong, Xiaochong; Yu, Jinsongdi; Huang, Juntao

    2016-11-01

    Open standards like OGC standards can be used to improve interoperability and support machine-to-machine interaction over the Web. In the Big Data era, standard-based data and processing services from various vendors could be combined to automate the extraction of information and knowledge from heterogeneous and large volumes of geospatial data. This paper introduces an ongoing OGC China forum initiative, which will demonstrate how OGC standards can benefit the interaction among multiple organizations in China. The ability to share data and processing functions across organizations using standard services could change traditional manual interactions in their business processes, and provide on-demand decision support results by on-line service integration. In the initiative, six organizations are involved in two “MashUp” scenarios on disaster management. One “MashUp” is to derive flood maps in the Poyang Lake, Jiangxi. And the other one is to generate turbidity maps on demand in the East Lake, Wuhan, China. The two scenarios engage different organizations from the Chinese community by integrating sensor observations, data, and processing services from them, and improve the automation of data analysis process using open standards.

  18. The Pedagogical Benefits of Enacting Positive Psychology Practices through a Student-Faculty Partnership Approach to Academic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Sather, Alison; Schlosser, Joel Alden; Sweeney, Abigail; Peterson, Laurel M.; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Colón García, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Academic development that supports the enactment of positive psychology practices through student-faculty pedagogical partnership can increase faculty confidence and capacity in their first year in a new institution. When student partners practice affirmation and encouragement of strengths-based growth, processes of faculty acclimation and…

  19. Theory and practice in sport psychology and motor behaviour needs to be constrained by integrative modelling of brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, D; Holmes, P; Bennett, S; Davids, K; Smith, N

    2000-06-01

    Because of advances in technology, the non-invasive study of the human brain has enhanced the knowledge base within the neurosciences, resulting in an increased impact on the psychological study of human behaviour. We argue that application of this knowledge base should be considered in theoretical modelling within sport psychology and motor behaviour alongside existing ideas. We propose that interventions founded on current theoretical and empirical understanding in both psychology and the neurosciences may ultimately lead to greater benefits for athletes during practice and performance. As vehicles for exploring the arguments of a greater integration of psychology and neurosciences research, imagery and perception-action within the sport psychology and motor behaviour domains will serve as exemplars. Current neuroscience evidence will be discussed in relation to theoretical developments; the implications for sport scientists will be considered.

  20. Implicit Cognition and Gifts: How Does social Psychology help Us Think Differently about Medical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, Nicolae; Washington, Natalia

    2016-05-01

    This article takes the following two assumptions for granted: first, that gifts influence physicians and, second, that the influences gifts have on physicians may be harmful for patients. These assumptions are common in the applied ethics literature, and they prompt an obvious practical question, namely, what is the best way to mitigate the negative effects? We examine the negative effects of gift giving in depth, considering how the influence occurs, and we assert that the ethical debate surrounding gift-giving practices must be reoriented. Our main claim is that the failure of recent policies addressing gift giving can be traced to a misunderstanding of what psychological mechanisms are most likely to underpin physicians' biased behavior as a result of interaction with the medical industry. The problem with gift giving is largely not a matter of malicious or consciously self-interested behavior, but of well-intentioned actions on the part of physicians that are nonetheless perniciously infected by the presence of the medical industry. Substantiating this claim will involve elaboration on two points. First, we will retrace the history of policies regarding gift giving between the medical profession and the medical industry and highlight how most policies assume a rationalistic view of moral agency. Reliance on this view of agency is best illustrated by past attempts to address gift giving in terms of conflicts of interest. Second, we will introduce and motivate an alternate view of moral agency emerging from recent literature in social psychology on implicit social cognition. We will show that proper consideration of implicit social cognition paints a picture of human psychology at odds with the rationalistic model assumed in discussions of COIs. With these two pieces on the table we will be able to show that, without fully appreciating the social-psychological mechanisms (both cognitive and affective) of implicit cognition, policy-makers are likely to overlook

  1. Paternal Caregivers' Parenting Practices and Psychological Functioning among African American Youth Living in Urban Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Otima; Clark Goings, Trenette; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R; Lombe, Margaret; Stephens, Jennifer; Nebbitt, Von E

    2017-09-01

    Structural factors associated with public housing contribute to living environments that expose families to adverse life events that may in turn directly impact parenting and youth outcomes. However, despite the growth in research on fathers, research on families in public housing has practically excluded fathers and the role fathers play in the well-being of their adolescents. Using a sample of 660 African American adolescents recruited from public housing, we examined the relationship between paternal caregivers' (i.e., fathers' and father figures') parenting practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, attitudes toward deviance, and self-efficacy. Using a latent profile analysis (LPA), we confirmed a four-class model of paternal parenting practices ranging from high to low levels of monitoring and encouragement. Results from a one-way ANOVA indicated that paternal caregivers with high (compared to moderate) levels of encouragement and monitoring were associated with youth who reported less depressive symptoms, higher levels of self-efficacy, and less favorable attitudes toward deviance. Discriminant analysis results indicated that approximately half of the sample were correctly classified into two paternal caregiver classes. The findings provide evidence that some of these caregivers engage in parenting practices that support youths' psychological functioning. More research is needed to determine what accounts for the variability in levels of paternal encouragement and supervision, including environmental influences, particularly for paternal caregivers exhibiting moderate-to-low levels of paternal encouragement and monitoring. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  2. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, NL; Lyubomirsky, S

    2009-01-01

    Do positive psychology interventions - that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions - enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.2...

  3. Initial experience with golimumab in clinical practice for ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Castro-Laria

    Full Text Available Background: Golimumab is a TNF-blocking agent indicated as a second-line therapy in ulcerative colitis. Purpose: To research the effectiveness and safety of golimumab in patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical practice. Methods: Retrospective study of the effectiveness and safety of golimumab in patients with ulcerative colitis. All patients received golimumab 200 mg subcutaneously at week 0, and golimumab 100 mg subcutaneously at week 2. After the induction treatment, each patient received 50 mg sc. every 4 weeks in patients with body weight less than 80 kg, and 100 mg every 4 weeks in patients with body weight greater than or equal to 80 kg. Results: Study of a group of 23 ulcerative colitis patients, 7 of whom were naive to any anti-TNF therapy, and 16 patients who had previously been treated with an anti-TNF agent other than golimumab (non-naive patients. The average treatment time with golimumab was 14.3 weeks. Globally, withdrawal of corticosteroids was observed in 74% of cases. Clinical response was observed in 85.5% of patients who had not received biological treatment previously, and in patients who had previously received biological treatment the response rate was 75%. Conclusions: In this short study, golimumab seems to be an alternative treatment in naive and non-naive anti-TNF ulcerative colitis patients. It is also a safe therapy, given that there were no adverse effects in the patients studied.

  4. An overview of clinical governance policies, practices and initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Travaglia, Joanne F

    2008-02-01

    To map the emergence of, and define, clinical governance; to discuss current best practices, and to explore the implications of these for boards of directors and executives wishing to promote a clinical governance approach in their health services. Review and analysis of the published and grey literature on clinical governance from 1966 to 2006. Medline and CINAHL databases, key journals and websites were systematically searched. Central issues were identified in the literature as key to effective clinical governance. These include: ensuring that links are made between health services' clinical and corporate governance; the use of clinical governance to promote quality and safety through a focus on quality assurance and continuous improvement; the creation of clinical governance structures to improve safety and quality and manage risk and performance; the development of strategies to ensure the effective exchange of data, knowledge and expertise; and the sponsoring of a patient-centred approach to service delivery. A comprehensive approach to clinical governance necessarily includes the active participation of boards and executives in sponsoring and promoting clinical governance as a quality and safety strategy. Although this is still a relatively recent development, the signs are promising.

  5. On applying cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Scientific biography, cognitive deficits, and laboratory practice. James McKeen Cattell and early American experimental psychology, 1880-1904.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Despite widespread interest in individual life histories, few biographies of scientists make use of insights derived from psychology, another discipline that studies people, their thoughts, and their actions. This essay argues that recent theoretical work in psychology and tools developed for clinical psychological practice can help biographical historians of science create and present fuller portraits of their subjects' characters and temperaments and more nuanced analyses of how these traits helped shape their subjects' scientific work. To illustrate this thesis, the essay examines the early career of James McKeen Cattell--an influential late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century experimental psychologist--through a lens offered by psychology and argues that Cattell's actual laboratory practices derived from an "accommodation" to a long-standing "cognitive deficit." These practices in turn enabled Cattell to achieve more precise experimental results than could any of his contemporaries; and their students readily adopted them, along with their behavioral implications. The essay concludes that, in some ways, American psychology's early twentieth-century move toward a behavioral understanding of psychological phenomena can be traced to Cattell's personal cognitive deficit. It closes by reviewing several "remaining general questions" that this thesis suggests.

  7. Psychological Practice in the Bodies of Internal Affairs: Current Condition and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyanina O.A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main directions and reveals the content of psychological work in the bodies of internal affairs which is continuously implemented at each stage of staff performance. Among the leading areas of activity of psychologists are the following: professional psychological selection of candidates for service; psychological diagnosis of employees in the course of support of official activity; the study of the socio-psychological climate in the collectives and the moral and psychological state of the personnel; carrying out special psychophysiological studies using a polygraph; adaptation of young employees; professional psychological training of personnel; psychological prevention and correction of negative psychoemotional states; psychological counseling of personal, family and professional problems of employees. Taking into account the described state of the departmental psychological service, the prospective directions of its development are outlined, and the need to implement a systemic, integrated approach when solving problems related to the psychological maintenance of staff performance is emphasized.

  8. The Practice-oriented Model of «School Psychology» Master's Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andruschenko T.Y.,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We presented the experience in the development and testing the module “Psychological diagnosis of students” of the “School psychology” master program in “Psychological and pedagogical education” training direction. We discussed contemporary contexts of design educational modules that are defined by ideas of cultural-historical approach of the scientific school of L.S. Vygotsky, educational theories and activities of developing education by D.B. Elkonin, V.V. Davydov, collectively distributed educational activity of V.V. Rubtsov. We analyzed the issue of professional competence training in educational psychologists at higher education. We presented the connection between the content of masters training and the requirements of the Professional standard “Teacher-psychologist (the psychologist in education”. Within the context of the network of educational organizations we paid special attention to the content and organization of distributed practice as the basic condition of master’s professional competences formation and their readiness for the implementation of the working activities.

  9. Management practices and performance of mergers and acquisitions in Pakistan: mediating role of psychological contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Muhammad Waseem; Fanchen, Meng; Baloch, Muhammad Awais

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effect of management practices (procedural justice, coordination approach, communication system, integration strategy, and coping programs) on merger and acquisition (M&A) performance in the Pakistan banking industry. Psychological contract (PC) acts as a mediator between Management practices and M&A performance. The Present study distributes a structured questionnaire to 700 bank employees of different management cadres. The useful response rate is 76 % (536 employees). It uses PLS-SEM technique for data analysis. (1) procedural justice is a key strategy which has highly significant direct and indirect effect on M&A performance; however integration strategy and the communication system have an only direct effect. (2) PC performs partial mediation at different levels between management practices and M&A financial and non-financial performance. This study provides an effective solution to solve the soft issues during and post-M&A process. This is one of the few studies which effectively integrate the five constructs into a single framework to study their effects on M&A performance. Limitations and future research directions are presented in the last section of the study.

  10. Quagmires for clinical psychology and executive coaching? Ethical considerations and practice challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Judith Ann

    2016-04-01

    As the coaching field burgeons, both the mental health and coaching professionals, and their respective professions, face a myriad of potential quagmires, especially if the unique challenges encountered are ignored. After a short introduction and presentation on ethics and morals related to executive coaching and clinical therapy, a discussion follows on the lengthy and intimate relationship between executive coaching and psychology. Next are definitions and comparisons and 6 areas that are potential quagmires. This includes roles, skill sets/core competencies, education/training, licensing/credentialing-certification, governing bodies and confidentiality, and fees/reimbursement. Each section includes a discussion and several questions to highlight potentially problematic areas, practice challenges, and/or ethical issues, followed with brief responses. This paper concludes with the inquiry, "Where do we go from here?" (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effects of psychological therapies in randomized trials and practice-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkham, Michael; Stiles, William B; Connell, Janice; Twigg, Elspeth; Leach, Chris; Lucock, Mike; Mellor-Clark, John; Bower, Peter; King, Michael; Shapiro, David A; Hardy, Gillian E; Greenberg, Leslie; Angus, Lynne

    2008-11-01

    Randomized trials of the effects of psychological therapies seek internal validity via homogeneous samples and standardized treatment protocols. In contrast, practice-based studies aim for clinical realism and external validity via heterogeneous samples of clients treated under routine practice conditions. We compared indices of treatment effects in these two types of studies. Using published transformation formulas, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores from five randomized trials of depression (N = 477 clients) were transformed into Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) scores and compared with CORE-OM data collected in four practice-based studies (N = 4,196 clients). Conversely, the practice-based studies' CORE-OM scores were transformed into BDI scores and compared with randomized trial data. Randomized trials showed a modest advantage over practice-based studies in amount of pre-post improvement. This difference was compressed or exaggerated depending on the direction of the transformation but averaged about 12%. There was a similarly sized advantage to randomized trials in rates of reliable and clinically significant improvement (RCSI). The largest difference was yielded by comparisons of effect sizes which suggested an advantage more than twice as large, reflecting narrower pre-treatment distributions in the randomized trials. Outcomes of completed treatments for depression in randomized trials appeared to be modestly greater than those in routine care settings. The size of the difference may be distorted depending on the method for calculating degree of change. Transforming BDI scores into CORE-OM scores and vice versa may be a preferable alternative to effect sizes for comparisons of studies using these measures.

  12. Current Australian speech-language pathology practice in addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Jasvinder K; Douglas, Jacinta; Rose, Miranda L

    2015-06-01

    Psychological well-being is essential to overall health; however, there is a paucity of research on how to address psychological well-being in stroke survivors with aphasia. This study describes the current beliefs, attitudes and practices of Australian speech-language pathologists in addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia after stroke. A 26-item web-based survey consisting of open and closed questions was distributed to Australian speech-language pathologists through four electronic databases. Australian speech-language pathologists (n = 111) utilized counselling and clinical approaches to address psychological well-being in people with post-stroke aphasia. The majority of speech-language pathologists did not feel comfortable with addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia and sought support from other health professionals in this practice. Self-perception of being under-skilled was the main barrier identified to adequate practice in this domain, followed by inadequate time, inadequate staffing and people with aphasia declining referral to counselling. The main facilitators reported by speech-language pathologists to address psychological well-being included personal interest, personal and professional experience and availability of counselling health professionals for people with aphasia. There were small-to-medium statistically significant correlations between speech-language pathologists reporting additional training in counselling and perceived knowledge of, confidence in and satisfaction with managing psychological well-being in people with aphasia. This study identifies factors requiring attention in order to enable speech-language pathologists to facilitate improved psychological well-being in people with aphasia.

  13. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Felix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork. We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu" in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180 or Europe (N = 148. Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

  14. The development of pedagogic professional abilities from the Marxist Philosophy in the initial formation of the Pedagogy-psychology career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Maycel Duarte Blanco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presentation has a purpose to base the development of pedagogical, investigative and communicative professional abilities in the career of Pedagogy-psychology, as well as the system of educational tasks from the Marxist Philosophy. The results of the diagnostic revealed cognitive inadequacies and lacks of development of professional abilities when not being integrated with the knowledge of the Marxist Philosophy, it determined an inadequate formative process in the professors in formation. It was used for it methods of investigation of theoretical level, empiric and statistical level that with the determination of dimensions and indicators facilitated the valuation of the system of applied educational tasks. The practical significance is contributed from the system of educational task and as a scientific novelty it is possible to structure this system with their respective didactic demands that allow the students to develop these abilities to apply in a creative way those philosophical contents.

  15. The Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS-62): Acceptance, feasibility, and initial psychometric properties in a UK student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglia, Emma; Millings, Abigail; Barkham, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The burden and severity of student mental health continue to increase in parallel with increasing financial pressures on students and services alike. There is a need for a student-specific measure of distress that acknowledges their unique context. This study examined the feasibility, acceptance, and initial psychometric properties of a US measure, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS), in a UK student sample. A sample of 294 UK help-seeking students from two universities completed the CCAPS-62 and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-10) as a comparator. The factor solution and reliability of the CCAPS-62 were examined. Correlations and clinical boundaries were determined between the CCAPS-62 subscales and CORE-10, and comparisons were made with US published norms. The CCAPS-62 demonstrated a strong factor solution that matched the intended subscales. All subscales had good reliability and correlated significantly with the CORE-10. The agreement on caseness between the two measures was 92.8% with 86.3% reaching clinical threshold on both the CCAPS-62 and CORE-10. Severity was most noticeable for academic distress, depression, anxiety, and social anxiety. Compared to US data, UK students showed higher clinical severity for all psychological symptoms. The CCAPS-62 is a reliable and psychometrically valid assessment measure to use with UK students without revision. The overall distress indicated is similar to that of the CORE-10, but the individual subscales are more informative of specific student concerns including academic distress, social anxiety, and substance abuse. Potential benefits of administering a student-focused assessment measure in student counselling services are discussed. University students attending counselling in the UK demonstrate clinical severity for academic distress, depression, anxiety, and social anxiety. Compared to university students in the US, UK students present with higher clinical severity on

  16. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology : Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagger, M.S.; Luszczynska, A.; de Wit, J.; Benyamini, Y.; Burkert, S.; Chamberland, P.-E.; Chater, A.; Dombrowski, S.U.; van Dongen, A.; French, D.P.; Gauchet, A.; Hankonen, N.; Karekla, M.; Kinney, A.Y.; Kwasnicka, D.; Lo, S.H.; López-Roig, S.; Meslot, C.; Marques, M.M.; Neter, E.; Plass, A.M.; Potthoff, S.; Rennie, L.; Scholz, U.; Stadler, G.; Stolte, E.; ten Hoor, G.; Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Wagner, M.; Oettingen, G.; Sheeran, P.; Gollwitzer, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural

  17. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagger, M.S.; Luszczynska, A.; de Wit, J.; Benyamini, Y.; Burkert, S.; Chamberland, P.E.; Chater, A.; Dombrowski, S.U.; van Dongen, A.; French, D.P.; Gauchet, A.; Hankonen, N.; Karekla, M.; Kinney, A.Y.; Kwasnicka, D.; Lo, S.H.; López-Roig, S.; Meslot, C.; Marques, M.M.; Neter, E.; Plass, A.M.; Potthoff, S.; Rennie, L.; Scholz, U; Stadler, G.; Stolte, E.; Ten Hoor, G.; Verhoeven, A.; Wagner, M.; Oettingen, G.; Sheeran, P.; Gollwitzer, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural

  18. Re-Engineering a Small Oncology Practice for Quality Using the ASCO Quality Oncology Practice Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Carolyn B.

    2013-01-01

    The field of quality improvement is expanding rapidly, and small oncology practices need to adapt and rise to future challenges. Additional quality measures from ASCO and other organizations will likely focus on palliative care, the Top Five, and electronic measures.

  19. A Theoretical Application of Epistemological Oppression to the Psychological Assessment of Special Educational Needs; Concerns and Practical Implications for Anti-Oppressive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    There has been brief but important discussion regarding the concepts of "oppression" and "anti-oppression" in the educational psychology professional practice literature. This article aims to both further and focus this discussion. In particular, the concept of "epistemological oppression" is introduced and the…

  20. Best research practices in psychology: Illustrating epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Eli J; Eastwick, Paul W; Reis, Harry T

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, a robust movement has emerged within psychology to increase the evidentiary value of our science. This movement, which has analogs throughout the empirical sciences, is broad and diverse, but its primary emphasis has been on the reduction of statistical false positives. The present article addresses epistemological and pragmatic issues that we, as a field, must consider as we seek to maximize the scientific value of this movement. Regarding epistemology, this article contrasts the false-positives-reduction (FPR) approach with an alternative, the error balance (EB) approach, which argues that any serious consideration of optimal scientific practice must contend simultaneously with both false-positive and false-negative errors. Regarding pragmatics, the movement has devoted a great deal of attention to issues that frequently arise in laboratory experiments and one-shot survey studies, but it has devoted less attention to issues that frequently arise in intensive and/or longitudinal studies. We illustrate these epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science, one of the many research domains that frequently employ intensive and/or longitudinal methods. Specifically, we examine 6 research prescriptions that can help to reduce false-positive rates: preregistration, prepublication sharing of materials, postpublication sharing of data, close replication, avoiding piecemeal publication, and increasing sample size. For each, we offer concrete guidance not only regarding how researchers can improve their research practices and balance the risk of false-positive and false-negative errors, but also how the movement can capitalize upon insights from research practices within relationship science to make the movement stronger and more inclusive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values.

  2. Psychological Availability between Self-Initiated Expatriates and Host Country Nationals during Their Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Supportive Supervisor Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannesari, Milad; Wang, Zhongming; McCall, Jacob; Zheng, Boyang

    2017-01-01

    This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) and their host-country nationals (HCNs) colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them. PMID:29225587

  3. Psychological Availability between Self-Initiated Expatriates and Host Country Nationals during Their Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Supportive Supervisor Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Jannesari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs and their host-country nationals (HCNs colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them.

  4. Psychology teaching in nursing education: a review of and reflection on approaches, issues, and contemporary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan M A; Timmins, Fiona

    2012-11-01

    This paper highlights the relevance of psychology for nurses and the issues around the inclusion of psychology as an essential part of nursing education. Considerable international variations in the extent to which psychology is incorporated in nursing education suggest a need for discussion and reflection on this topic. This paper aims to (a) examine and reflect on scholarly literature in English addressing psychology of nursing in education and (b) present and reflect on an example of psychology teaching in a school of nursing and midwifery in Ireland. A review of the literature took place, which included a search of various databases and an analysis of emerging psychology for nursing textbooks over the period 1906-2011. Findings were used as a framework for reflection on a local example. The literature review yielded numerous commentaries, discussion papers, textbook reviews and editorials but very few empirical studies. Three topics were identified as appearing most frequently in the literature: the relevance of psychology in the nursing curriculum; depth and content of coverage; and whether integrated or separate instruction of psychology should be chosen. Findings suggest that overall the relevance of psychology to nursing education is not contested, but debates have emerged regarding how best to approach and integrate psychology. The outcomes of these debates are mostly inconclusive at present. Educators are encouraged to become active in these discussions and reflections, which are hampered by lack of empirical evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychological Outcomes and Predictors of Initial Weight Loss Outcomes among Severely Obese Adolescents Receiving Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Devlin, Michael J.; Hildebrandt, Tom B.; Brewer, Stephanie K.; Zitsman, Jeffrey L.; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated rates of psychopathology are noted among severely obese youth presenting for weight loss surgery. The role of mental health providers in this population is not well defined, and the selection of candidates is often the result of clinical judgment alone. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate psychiatric symptoms among a large sample of adolescents receiving laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) by: (1) examining changes in depressive symptoms and quality of life in the year following surgery, (2) evaluating the interaction between patterns of change in depression, quality of life, and weight post-surgery, and (3) identifying pre-surgical psychological predictors of initial weight change. Method Participants were 101 severely obese adolescents aged 14 to 18. Measures of height, weight, depressive symptoms, and quality of life were obtained in the first year following surgery. Changes in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), and body mass index were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Results Significant changes in total BDI [βslope=−0.885 SE=0.279, psurgery (pAdolescents experienced notable improvements in initial depressive symptoms and quality of life after LAGB, and measures of pre-operative binge eating and family conflict affected post-surgery body mass index among youth. PMID:23140654

  6. Learning the psychology of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon through on-line practice

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Ruiz; María José Contreras

    2017-01-01

    Psychology undergraduates can benefit from direct experiences with laboratory procedures of psychological phenomena. However, they are not always available for students within a distance education program. The present study included students from the Spanish National Distance Education University (UNED) that were to take part in a Basic Psychology examination session. They participated in web-sessions on a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) laboratory procedure. The aim was to study whether their perfor...

  7. Estimation of psychological stress in humans: a combination of theory and practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Sood

    Full Text Available Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

  8. Managing the clinical setting for best nursing practice: a brief overview of contemporary initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Amanda; Winch, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Leadership strategies are important in facilitating the nursing profession to reach their optimum standards in the practice environment. To compare and contrast the central tenets of contemporary quality initiatives that are commensurate with enabling the environment so that best practice can occur. Democratic leadership, accessible and relevant education and professional development, the incorporation of evidence into practice and the ability of facilities to be responsive to change are core considerations for the successful maintenance of practice standards that are consistent with best nursing practice. While different concerns of management drive the adoption of contemporary approaches, there are many similarities in the how these approaches are translated into action in the clinical setting. Managers should focus on core principles of professional nursing that add value to practice rather than business processes.

  9. Positive Art Therapy: Linking Positive Psychology to Art Therapy Theory, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…

  10. Exploring Neuropsychology: Seeking Evidence of Added Worth to School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassu, Kari A.; Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Patwa, Shamim

    2015-01-01

    Historically, school psychological assessment has included the core elements of cognitive, academic, and behavioral indices. Neuropsychological assessment has included these and the additional elements of attention, memory, language, visual-spatial, motor, sensory, and executive functioning (American Psychological Association, 2006). With the…

  11. Consultation for and identification of child and adolescent psychological problems in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Ende, J. van der; Bensing, J.M.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent psychological problems are rarely brought to the attention of GPs. Children and adolescents with psychological problems who do visit their GP are seldom identified as such by GPs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate in a general population sample of 2,449 Dutch children and

  12. Effective Consultation in Educational and Child Psychology Practice: Professional Training for Both Competence and Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emma Kate; Cameron, R. J.; Monsen, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    How should applied psychology practitioners be prepared to meet an increasingly challenging and unpredictable working context? This article explores some of the key current issues for educational and child psychology practitioners and their professional trainers in the UK with regard to the topic of effective consultation. The article argues that…

  13. Positive Psychology Theory, Research, and Practice: A Primer for Rehabilitation Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Phillips, Brian; Ditchman, Nicole; Kaseroff, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is a scientific study that explores what makes life most worth living and applies psychological theory to understand the human strengths that are important for enhancing overall well-being and happiness. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis on personal strengths and the importance of enhancing what…

  14. Psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance: theory-driven practice for nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Rebecca M; Greenwald, Beverly J; Lewis, Carolyn C

    2015-04-01

    The authors discuss the psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance and the use of Pender's health promotion model as a guide for the construction of clinical interventions to address these factors. The psychological factors include internal drive for weight maintenance, ongoing self-monitoring, long-term flexibility, positive mood and emotions, appropriate goals, and management of external stimuli. Nurse practitioners can help combat obesity trends through caring for patients in a holistic manner. Periodic psychological needs-assessments for patients who desire to maintain weight loss may further promote long-term success in weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Are Psychology Journals Anti-replication? A Snapshot of Editorial Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, G. N.; Clarke, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent research in psychology has highlighted a number of replication problems in the discipline, with publication bias – the preference for publishing original and positive results, and a resistance to publishing negative results and replications- identified as one reason for replication failure. However, little empirical research exists to demonstrate that journals explicitly refuse to publish replications. We reviewed the instructions to authors and the published aims of 1151 psychology jo...

  16. Principles and practical procedures for acute psychological first aid training for personnel without mental health experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Flynn, Brian W

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities agree that mass disasters leave in their wake a need for some form of acute mental health services. However, a review of current literature on crisis intervention and disaster mental health reveals differing points of view on the methods that should be employed (Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002). Nevertheless, there appears to be virtual universal endorsement, by relevant authorities, of the value of acute "psychological first aid" (American Psychiatric Association, 1954; USDHHS, 2004; Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003; WHO, 2003; DoD/VAPTSD, 2004; Ritchie, et al., 2004; Friedman, Hamblin, Foa, & Charney, 2004). Psychological first aid (PFA), as an acute mental health intervention, seems uniquely applicable to public health settings, the workplace, the military, mass disaster venues, and even the demands of more well circumscribed critical incidents, e.g., dealing with the psychological aftermath of accidents, robberies, suicide, homicide, or community violence. In this document, we shall introduce the notion of psychological first aid (PFA) as one aspect of a psychological continuum of care, offer a rudimentary definition of PFA, and provide the reader with a practicalframework for its implementation utilizing the individual psychological first aid (iPFA)format. The goal of this paper is to better prepare public health, public safety, and other disaster response personnel who do not possess formal clinical mental health degrees or specialized training to provide iPFA services to primary and secondary disaster victims.

  17. Lean and leadership practices: development of an initial realist program theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Donna; Westhorp, Gill; Rotter, Thomas; Dobson, Roy; Bath, Brenna

    2015-09-07

    Lean as a management system has been increasingly adopted in health care settings in an effort to enhance quality, capacity and safety, while simultaneously containing or reducing costs. The Ministry of Health in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada has made a multi-million dollar investment in Lean initiatives to create "better health, better value, better care, and better teams", affording a unique opportunity to advance our understanding of the way in which Lean philosophy, principles and tools work in health care. In order to address the questions, "What changes in leadership practices are associated with the implementation of Lean?" and "When leadership practices change, how do the changed practices contribute to subsequent outcomes?", we used a qualitative, multi-stage approach to work towards developing an initial realist program theory. We describe the implications of realist assumptions for evaluation of this Lean initiative. Formal theories including Normalization Process Theory, Theories of Double Loop and Organization Leaning and the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance help understand this initial rough program theory. Data collection included: key informant consultation; a stakeholder workshop; documentary review; 26 audiotaped and transcribed interviews with health region personnel; and team discussions. A set of seven initial hypotheses regarding the manner in which Lean changes leadership practices were developed from our data. We hypothesized that Lean, as implemented in this particular setting, changes leadership practices in the following ways. Lean: a) aligns the aims and objectives of health regions; b) authorizes attention and resources to quality improvement and change management c) provides an integrated set of tools for particular tasks; d) changes leaders' attitudes or beliefs about appropriate leadership and management styles and behaviors; e) demands increased levels of expertise, accountability and commitment from leaders; f) measures and

  18. A funding model for a psychological service to plastic and reconstructive surgery in UK practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A; Lester, K J; Withey, S J; Butler, P E M

    2005-07-01

    Appearance related distress in both clinical and general populations is associated with the increasing identification of surgery as a solution, leading to referrals for cosmetic surgery and pressure on NHS resources. Cosmetic surgery guidelines are designed to control this growing demand, but lack a sound evidence base. Where exceptions are provided on the basis of psychological need, this may recruit patients inappropriately into a surgical pathway, and creates a demand for psychological assessment which transfers the resource problem from one service to another. The model described below evaluates the impact of a designated psychology service to a plastic surgery unit. Developing an operational framework for delivering cosmetic guidelines, which assesses patients using clearly defined and measurable outcomes, has significantly reduced numbers of patients proceeding to the NHS waiting list and provided a systematic audit process. The associated cost savings have provided a way of funding a psychologist within the plastic surgery service so that psychological assessment becomes routine, alternative methods of treatment are easily available and all patients have access to psychological input as part of the routine standard of care.

  19. Evaluation of the "Foundations in Knowledge Translation" training initiative: preparing end users to practice KT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jamie S; Moore, Julia E; Sayal, Radha; Holmes, Bev J; Scarrow, Gayle; Graham, Ian D; Jeffs, Lianne; Timmings, Caitlyn; Rashid, Shusmita; Johnson, Alekhya Mascarenhas; Straus, Sharon E

    2018-04-25

    Current knowledge translation (KT) training initiatives are primarily focused on preparing researchers to conduct KT research rather than on teaching KT practice to end users. Furthermore, training initiatives that focus on KT practice have not been rigorously evaluated and have focused on assessing short-term outcomes and participant satisfaction only. Thus, there is a need for longitudinal training evaluations that assess the sustainability of training outcomes and contextual factors that may influence outcomes. We evaluated the KT training initiative "Foundations in KT" using a mixed-methods longitudinal design. "Foundations in KT" provided training in KT practice and included three tailored in-person workshops, coaching, and an online platform for training materials and knowledge exchange. Two cohorts were included in the study (62 participants, including 46 "Foundations in KT" participants from 16 project teams and 16 decision-maker partners). Participants completed self-report questionnaires, focus groups, and interviews at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the first workshop. Participant-level outcomes include survey results which indicated that participants' self-efficacy in evidence-based practice (F(1,8.9) = 23.7, p = 0.001, n = 45), KT activities (F(1,23.9) = 43.2, p training initiative helped participants achieve their KT project objectives, plan their projects, and solve problems over time. Contextual factors include teams with high self-reported organizational capacity and commitment to implement at the start of their project had buy-in from upper management that resulted in secured funding and resources for their project. Training initiative outcomes include participants who applied the KT knowledge and skills they learned to other projects by sharing their knowledge informally with coworkers. Sustained spread of KT practice was observed with five teams at 24 months. We completed a longitudinal evaluation of a KT

  20. Sick leave and disability pension before and after initiation of antirheumatic therapies in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neovius, M; Simard, J F; Klareskog, L; Askling, J

    2011-08-01

    To investigate sick leave and disability pension in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to the initiation of biological and non-biological antirheumatic therapies in clinical practice. Patients aged 19-60 years initiating non-biological mono (n=2796) or combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy (n=973), or biological agents (n=4787) were identified in the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register between 1999 and 2007. Sick leave and disability pension data (1995-2010) were retrieved from national registers. During the year before the start of mono DMARD, combination DMARD and biological treatment, 10%, 12% and 43% of patients received disability pension benefits, respectively. The corresponding combined annual sick leave and disability pension days were 78 (54+25), 132 (105+27) and 190 (79+111). Irrespective of treatment type, initiators were characterised by a history of increasing sick leave and disability pension. Treatment start was associated with a break in this trajectory: sick leave decreased while disability pension increased, resulting in a net stabilisation of total days. Higher levels of days on sick leave and disability pension at treatment start were observed in patients initiating biologics in 1999 (236 days/year) compared with 2007 (150 days/year; ppension increased rapidly before the initiation of antirheumatic therapy, which was associated with a halt but not a reversal of this development. Work ability is a metric of importance for clinical practice, signalling large remaining needs in the RA population, and the need for intervention earlier in the disease process.

  1. Description and evaluation of an initiative to develop advanced practice nurses in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Peng, Gangyi; Kan, Eva C; Li, Yajie; Lau, Ada T; Zhang, Liying; Leung, Annie F; Liu, Xueqin; Leung, Vilna O; Chen, Weiju; Li, Ming

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes an initiative to develop Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) in mainland China and evaluation of the outcomes of the described programme. The pioneer project was an APN postgraduate programme involving 38 students conducted in Guangzhou, China during 2004-2005. Data related to curriculum content and process, student performance, self-reported competence and programme effects were collected. Quantitative data such as demographic data, student performance were analysed using descriptive statistics and the pre and post self-reported practice of competence was compared using chi-square test. Qualitative data such as case reports and interviews were examined using thematic analyses. Reflective journals and case studies revealed the attributes of APNs in managing clinical cases at advanced level, applying theory into practice and exercising evidence-based practice. The relatively modest self-reported practice of competence suggested that the graduates were novice APNs and needed continued development after the completion of the programme. This study reports the experience of an initiative in China and suggests a useful curriculum framework for educating APNs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Open access and knowledge sharing: reflections on the Pathfinder projects and Open Access Good Practice initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah DeGroff

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article provides a selection of reflections from a number of higher education institutions and their staff about participation in the UK-wide Pathfinder project scheme. These nine projects (comprising 30 institutions form the core of the Jisc-funded Open Access Good Practice initiative. They have produced a wide range of outputs which endorse and encourage best practice when implementing open access across institutions. Each project has a blog where progress and outputs can be tracked. Details are listed at the end of this article.

  3. Physiotherapy in hip and knee osteoarthritis: development of a practice guideline concerning initial assessment, treatment and evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, W.F.H.; Jansen, M.J.; Hurkmans, E.J.; Bloo, H.; Dekker-Bakker, L.M.M.C.J.; Dilling, R.G.; Hilberdink, W.K.H.A.; Kersten-Smit, C.; Rooij, M. de; Veenhof, C.; Vermeulen, H.M.; Vos, R.J. de; Schoones, J.W.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An update of a Dutch physiotherapy practice guideline in Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis (HKOA) was made, based on current evidence and best practice. METHODS: A guideline steering committee, comprising 10 expert physiotherapists, selected topics concerning the guideline chapters: initial

  4. Towards a creative psychological practice: Preparing for the attention to diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Cupertino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An atypical psychological intervention, the Creativity Workshops, understood as the possibility of transformation of people, environments and/or relationships, which took place in a social Project for youths in the outskirts of Sao Paulo, is presented. Resources common to artistic expression, located in the interface between Art, Psychology, and Education were used, as well as activities of Organic Music (or corporal percussion, offered for the youngsters of the pop-rock band classes of the institution. It is discussed how the abandonment of the expectations and the opening to significant exchanges allowed the establishment, finally, in an unexpected place, of the space in where psychological care could take place, flowing and transitory as the movement of life, creating new ways of professional insertion.

  5. Moving science into state child and adolescent mental health systems: Illinois' evidence-informed practice initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starin, Amy C; Atkins, Marc S; Wehrmann, Kathryn C; Mehta, Tara; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Marinez-Lora, A; Mehlinger, Renee

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the Illinois State Mental Health Authority embarked on an initiative to close the gap between research and practice in the children's mental health system. A stakeholder advisory council developed a plan to advance evidence informed practice through policy and program initiatives. A multilevel approach was developed to achieve this objective, which included policy change, stakeholder education, and clinician training. This article focuses on the evidence-informed training process designed following review of implementation research. The training involved in-person didactic sessions and twice-monthly telephone supervision across 6 cohorts of community based clinicians, each receiving 12 months of training. Training content initially included cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral parent training and was adapted over the years to a practice model based on common element concepts. Evaluation based on provider and parent report indicated children treated by training clinicians generally showed superior outcomes versus both a treatment-as-usual comparison group for Cohorts 1 to 4 and the statewide child population as a whole after 90 days of care for Cohorts 5 to 6. The results indicated primarily moderate to strong effects for the evidence-based training groups. Moving a large public statewide child mental health system toward more effective services is a complex and lengthy process. These results indicate training of community mental health providers in Illinois in evidence-informed practice was moderately successful in positively impacting child-level functional outcomes. These findings also influenced state policy in committing resources to continuing the initiative, even in difficult economic times.

  6. Parental feeding practices in Mexican American families: initial test of an expanded measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although obesity rates are high among Latino children, relatively few studies of parental feeding practices have examined Latino families as a separate group. Culturally-based approaches to measurement development can begin to identify parental feeding practices in specific cultural groups. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to develop and test the Parental Feeding Practices (PFP) Questionnaire for use with Mexican American parents. Items reflected both parent’s use of control over child eating and child-centered feeding practices. Methods In the qualitative phase of the research, 35 Latino parents participated in focus groups. Items for the PFP were developed from focus group discussions, as well as adapted from existing parent feeding practice measures. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 37 adults to evaluate items. In the quantitative phase, mothers and fathers of 174 Mexican American children ages 8–10 completed the PFP and provided demographic information. Anthropometric measures were obtained on family members. Results Confirmatory factor analyses identified four parental feeding practice dimensions: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. Factorial invariance modeling suggested equivalent factor meaning and item response scaling across mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers differed somewhat in their use of feeding practices. All four feeding practices were related to child body mass index (BMI) percentiles, for one or both parents. Mothers reporting more positive involvement had children with lower BMI percentiles. Parents using more pressure to eat had children with lower BMI percentiles, while parents using more restriction had children with higher BMI percentiles. Fathers using food to control behavior had children with lower BMI percentiles. Conclusions Results indicate good initial validity and reliability for the PFP. It can be

  7. Parental feeding practices in Mexican American families: initial test of an expanded measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschann Jeanne M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although obesity rates are high among Latino children, relatively few studies of parental feeding practices have examined Latino families as a separate group. Culturally-based approaches to measurement development can begin to identify parental feeding practices in specific cultural groups. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to develop and test the Parental Feeding Practices (PFP Questionnaire for use with Mexican American parents. Items reflected both parent’s use of control over child eating and child-centered feeding practices. Methods In the qualitative phase of the research, 35 Latino parents participated in focus groups. Items for the PFP were developed from focus group discussions, as well as adapted from existing parent feeding practice measures. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 37 adults to evaluate items. In the quantitative phase, mothers and fathers of 174 Mexican American children ages 8–10 completed the PFP and provided demographic information. Anthropometric measures were obtained on family members. Results Confirmatory factor analyses identified four parental feeding practice dimensions: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. Factorial invariance modeling suggested equivalent factor meaning and item response scaling across mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers differed somewhat in their use of feeding practices. All four feeding practices were related to child body mass index (BMI percentiles, for one or both parents. Mothers reporting more positive involvement had children with lower BMI percentiles. Parents using more pressure to eat had children with lower BMI percentiles, while parents using more restriction had children with higher BMI percentiles. Fathers using food to control behavior had children with lower BMI percentiles. Conclusions Results indicate good initial validity and

  8. [Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.

  9. School Psychology 2010: Demographics, Employment, and the Context for Professional Practice--Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Michael J.; Castillo, Jose M.; Gelley, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) established a policy in 1989 mandating a national study of the field every 5 years. The purpose of the studies was to generate a comprehensive description of the field of school psychology across the United States, as well as to allow for analyses of changes in the field over time. The first…

  10. Culture and Identity in School Psychology Research and Practice: Fact versus Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews and critiques the article by Frisby (2015) in this special issue of "School Psychology Forum" as well as Frisby's book, "Meeting the Psychoeducational Needs of Minority Students: Evidence-Based Guidelines for School Psychologists and Other School Personnel" (Frisby, 2013). The concepts discussed are in the…

  11. The Psychological Study of Video Game Players: Methodological Challenges and Practical Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel; Delfabbro, Paul; Griffiths, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Video game playing has received increased academic interest over the last few decades, particularly with regard to the psychological understanding of addiction. Based on the many studies carried out by the authors, this paper summarises some of the methodological challenges which may arise when studying video game players, including obstacles…

  12. Qualitative Data Analysis and Interpretation in Counseling Psychology: Strategies for Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine J.; Inman, Arpana G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various strategies and methods of engaging in qualitative data interpretations and analyses in counseling psychology. The authors explore the themes of self, culture, collaboration, circularity, trustworthiness, and evidence deconstruction from multiple qualitative methodologies. Commonalities and differences…

  13. Diversification of School Psychology: Developing an Evidence Base from Current Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Graves, Scott; Newell, Markeda; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2016-01-01

    Why is there a need to increase the racial/ethnic diversity of faculty in school psychology? Chiefly, school psychologists serve the most racially/ethnically diverse population: children in US schools. Therefore, developing a knowledge base that is inclusive of this wide range of perspective as well as growing a workforce that is reflective of…

  14. The Elaboration Likelihood Model: Implications for the Practice of School Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Richard E.; Heesacker, Martin; Hughes, Jan N.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a contemporary theory of attitude change, the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion, and addresses its relevance to school psychology. Claims that a key postulate of ELM is that attitude change results from thoughtful (central route) or nonthoughtful (peripheral route) processes. Illustrations of ELM's utility for school…

  15. Recruitment of Diverse Students in School Psychology Programs: Direction for Future Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Simpson, Chamane M.; Levin, Jacqueline; Hackimer, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Lack of racially, ethnically, and linguistically (REL) diverse school psychologists has been a concern for decades. Recent and rapid increases in student diversity within America's public schools require that school psychology address the longstanding lack of diversity within the field. This article details the demographics of school…

  16. The social practice of psychology and the social sciences in a liberal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the relevance of psychology and the social and human sciences in a changing South Africa. The new South Africa embraces a liberal democratic approach to government. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) is a policy document that articulates the goals of this liberal democratic ...

  17. Application of quality-improvement methods in a community practice: the Sandhills Pediatrics Asthma Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroth, Thomas H; Boals, Joseph C

    2005-01-01

    leadership and support. The leaders of the practice saw beyond the usual metrics of patient visit counts and relative value units (RVUs) to embrace the concept of population health: the notion that practices are not only responsible for providing acute, episodic care in the office, but also for improving health outcomes in the community in which they serve. Other important factors included ensuring a basic agreement among providers on the need for improvement and frequent communication about the goals of the project. Although the champions of the project tried to minimize formal meeting time, there was frequent informal communication between team members. In the future, there is a need to develop other approaches to stimulate these endeavors in community practices, such as "pay for performance" programs, continuing education credit, and tying maintenance of board certification to quality improvement initiatives.

  18. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Akram, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed. The maternity staff was trained on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers. There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Conclusion: Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals. (author)

  19. Initiating events of accidents in the practice of oil well logging in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alles Leal, A.; Perez Reyes, Y.; Dumenigo Gonzalez, C.

    2013-01-01

    The oil well logging is an extremely important activity within the oil industry, but in turn, brings risks that occasionally result in damage to health, the environment and economic losses. In this context, risk analysis has become an important tool to control them through their prediction and the study of the factors that determine them, enabling substantiated decisions to, first, foresee accidents and, secondly, to minimize their consequences. This paper proposes the elaboration of a list of initiating events of accidents in the practice of oil well logging which is one of the most important aspects for further evaluation of radiation safety of this practice. For its determination the technique employed to identify risks was 'Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)' by applying it to the different stages and processes of practice. (Author)

  20. A web-based survey of the relationship between buddhist religious practices, health, and psychological characteristics: research methods and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiist, W H; Sullivan, B M; Wayment, H A; Warren, M

    2010-03-01

    A Web-based survey was conducted to study the religious and health practices, medical history and psychological characteristics among Buddhist practitioners. This report describes the development, advertisement, administration and preliminary results of the survey. Over 1200 Buddhist practitioners responded. Electronic advertisements were the most effective means of recruiting participants. Survey participants were mostly well educated with high incomes and white. Participants engaged in Buddhist practices such as meditation, attending meetings and obtaining instruction from a monk or nun, and practiced healthful behaviors such as regular physical activity and not smoking. Buddhist meditative practice was related to psychological mindfulness and general health.

  1. The Role of Social Work Practice and Policy in the Lived and Intimate Citizenship of Young People with Psychological Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the concepts of lived and intimate citizenship and applying a weak theory approach, Warming shows how social work practices at a residence for young people with psychological disorders constitute a social intervention with contested and multidimensional (action-related, emotional......, affective, positioning-related) outcomes for clients’ rights, participation and belonging. Although the clients describe their stay as empowering and characterised by recognition, they also experience discrimination and exclusion. Indeed, the chapter’s socio-spatial analysis show how their time...

  2. The Role of Educational Practice in the Learning of Basic Psychological Concepts (Based on Practical Training of 1st year Master Students Studying “Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach in Education”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulanovskaya I. M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes experience of the practical training for 1st year master students studying «cultural-historical psychology and activity approach in education» entitled “Study of the educational environment of the school”. The basis for training was provided by Moscow school #91 which systematically implemented in the elementary school the program of developing training, developed in the framework of Elkonin-Davydov theory of learning activity. There are examples of tools proposed and developed by teams of master students to evaluate certain characteristics of the educational environment and the results of their use to solve diagnostic problems. It is shown how techniques of deep studying, setting difficult practically significant substantive issues, independent work, group discussions, group projects development and defence, the master students applied, contribute to the formation of the bases of professional critical thinking, reflection and cognitive attitudes.

  3. Comparison of Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) Measure Adherence Between Oncology Fellows, Advanced Practice Providers, and Attending Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jason; Zhang, Tian; Shah, Radhika; Kamal, Arif H; Kelley, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Quality improvement measures are uniformly applied to all oncology providers, regardless of their roles. Little is known about differences in adherence to these measures between oncology fellows, advance practice providers (APP), and attending physicians. We investigated conformance across Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) measures for oncology fellows, advance practice providers, and attending physicians at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DVAMC). Using data collected from the Spring 2012 and 2013 QOPI cycles, we abstracted charts of patients and separated them based on their primary provider. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were calculated for each QOPI measure between fellows, advanced practice providers (APPs), and attending physicians. A total of 169 patients were reviewed. Of these, 31 patients had a fellow, 39 had an APP, and 99 had an attending as their primary oncology provider. Fellows and attending physicians performed similarly on 90 of 94 QOPI metrics. High-performing metrics included several core QOPI measures including documenting consent for chemotherapy, recommending adjuvant chemotherapy when appropriate, and prescribing serotonin antagonists when prescribing emetogenic chemotherapies. Low-performing metrics included documentation of treatment summary and taking action to address problems with emotional well-being by the second office visit. Attendings documented the plan for oral chemotherapy more often (92 vs. 63%, P=0.049). However, after the chart audit, we found that fellows actually documented the plan for oral chemotherapy 88% of the time (p=0.73). APPs and attendings performed similarly on 88 of 90 QOPI measures. The quality of oncology care tends to be similar between attendings and fellows overall; some of the significant differences do not remain significant after a second manual chart review, highlighting that the use of manual data collection for QOPI analysis is an imperfect system, and there may

  4. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors was accounted for by the behavioral model (2adj=0.23. Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity.

  5. Creativity and connections: the future of nursing education and practice: the Massachusetts Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroczynski, Maureen; Gravlin, Gayle; Route, Paulette Seymour; Hoffart, Nancy; Creelman, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Education and practice partnerships are key to effective academic program design and implementation in a time of decreasing supply and increasing demands on the nursing profession. An integrated education/practice competency model can positively impact patient safety, improve patient care, increase retention, and ensure a sufficient and competent nursing workforce, which is paramount to survival of the health care system. Through the contributions of nursing leaders from the broad spectrum of nursing and industry organizations within the state, the Massachusetts Nurse of the Future project developed a competency-based framework for the future design of nursing educational programs to meet current and future practice needs. The Massachusetts Nurse of the Future Nursing Core Competencies(©) expand on the Institute of Medicine's core competencies for all health care professionals and the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses competencies for quality and safety to define the expectations for all professional nurses of the future. The Massachusetts Nurse of the Future Nursing Core Competencies define the knowledge, attitude, and skills required as the minimal expectations for initial nursing practice following completion of a prelicensure professional nursing education program. These competencies are now being integrated into new models for seamless, coordinated nursing curriculum and transition into practice within the state and beyond. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pacemaker diagnostics in atrial fibrillation: limited usefulness for therapy initiation in a pacemaker practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedlapati, Neeraja; Fisher, John D

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to determine the practical value of pacemaker diagnostics for atrial fibrillation (AF) in an unselected general pacemaker practice, specifically workflow and initiation of anticoagulation or antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy. We prospectively followed consecutive pacemaker interrogations over a period of 1 year to identify patients with AF (burden from 1% to 99%). We contacted referring physicians with AF details, and then determined whether the information resulted in therapeutic changes. Of the 1,100 pacemakers interrogated, 728 were dual chamber (DDDs) with AF diagnostic capability. AF was recorded in 73 (10%) but seven had limited information, leaving 66 patients; of these, 42 (63%) patients were already anticoagulated and in five (7%) patients, anticoagulation had been stopped because of complications. Initial diagnosis of AF was made by the pacemaker in 17 patients (26% of 66; 2% of 728); four (6% of 66) patients were newly initiated on anticoagulation. Of the 66 patients, 17 patients were already on AADs; 49 (74%) had satisfactory rate control or had other issues; only two (3% of 66; 0.3% of 728) received new AADs. Of 728 patients with DDD pacemakers, only 17 were newly discovered to have AF, and six (0.8%) had changes in medications based on the pacemaker data. Adding pacemaker-derived data to existing clinical information had little therapeutic impact, due to a combination of cumbersome workflow, and because AF was usually known to practitioners. Developments in automated monitoring systems may provide more accessible and therapeutically useful information. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Documentation of polio eradication initiative best practices: Experience from WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph; Nshimirimana, Deo; Nsubuga, Peter; Mutabaruka, Evariste; Tapsoba, Leonard; Ghali, Emmanuel; Kabir, Shaikh Humayun; Gassasira, Alex; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The African Region is set to achieving polio eradication. During the years of operations, the Polio Eradication Initiative [PEI] in the Region mobilized and trained tremendous amount of manpower with specializations in surveillance, social mobilization, supplementary immunization activities [SIAs], data management and laboratory staff. Systems were put in place to accelerate the eradication of polio in the Region. Standardized, real-time surveillance and response capacity were established. Many innovations were developed and applied to reaching people in difficult and security challenged terrains. All of these resulted in accumulation of lessons and best practices, which can be used in other priority public health intervention if documented. The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa [WHO/AFRO] developed a process for the documentation of these best practices, which was pretested in Uganda. The process entailed assessment of three critical elements [effectiveness, efficiency and relevance] five aspects [ethical soundness, sustainability, involvement of partners, community involvement, and political commitment] of best practices. A scored card which graded the elements and aspects on a scale of 0-10 was developed and a true best practice should score >50 points. Independent public health experts documented polio best practices in eight countries in the Region, using this process. The documentation adopted the cross-sectional design in the generation of data, which combined three analytical designs, namely surveys, qualitative inquiry and case studies. For the selection of countries, country responses to earlier questionnaire on best practices were screened for potential best practices. Another criterion used was the level of PEI investment in the countries. A total of 82 best practices grouped into ten thematic areas were documented. There was a correlation between the health system performances with DPT3 as proxy, level of PEI investment in countries

  8. Amenable to reason: Aristotle's rhetoric and the moral psychology of practical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, A J

    2000-12-01

    An Aristotelian conception of practical ethics can be derived from the account of practical reasoning that Aristotle articulates in is Rhetoric and this has important implications for the way we understand the nature and limits of practical ethics. an important feature of this conception of practical ethics is its responsiveness to the complex ways in which agents form and maintain moral commitments, and this has important implications for the debate concerning methods of ethics in applied ethics. In particular, this feature enables us to understand casuistry, narrative, and principlism as mutually supportive modes of moral inquiry, rather than divergent and mutually exclusive methods of ethics. As a result, an Aristotelian conception of practical ethics clears the conceptual common ground upon which practical ethicists can forge a stable and realistic self-understanding.

  9. Patient engagement in clinical trials: The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative's leadership from theory to practical implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick-Lake, Bray

    2018-02-01

    Patient engagement is an increasingly important aspect of successful clinical trials. Over the past decade, as patient group involvement in clinical trials has continued to increase and diversify, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative has not only recognized the crucial role patients play in improving the clinical trial enterprise but also made a deep commitment to help grow and shape the emerging field of patient engagement. This article describes the evolution of patient engagement including the origins of the patient engagement movement; barriers to successful engagement and remaining challenges to full and valuable collaboration between patient groups and trial sponsors; and Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative's role in influencing the field through organizational practices, formal project work and resulting recommendations, and external advocacy efforts.

  10. The CRINE initiative -- Producing the engineering tools (functional specifications and common working practices)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuft, V.

    1995-01-01

    Alongside culture change, CRINE's other challenge is producing the right tools for the North Sea industry to change its traditional method of operation. CRINE, an acronym for Cost Reduction Initiative for the New Era, is an industry-wide program now underway in the UK Continental Shelf whose main objective is to achieve thirty percent or more savings in capital costs and to half operating costs over the next few years. These tools cover functional specifications, common working practices and quality. Turning these tools into deliverables, and on time, was a mixture of painstaking work and willingness by people to adapt to the needs of the task

  11. Building clinicians-researchers partnerships: lessons from diverse natural settings and practice-oriented initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G; Youn, Soo Jeong; Xiao, Henry; Muran, J Christopher; Barber, Jacques P

    2015-01-01

    In this concluding paper, we identify the type of studies conducted by 11 teams of contributors to a special issue on building clinicians-researchers partnerships. Those studies were conducted across a variety of clinical settings. We also integrate the lessons that have emerged from their collaborative initiatives in terms of obstacles faced, strategies adopted to address these challenges, benefits gained, and general recommendations offered to facilitate studies conducted with or by clinicians. The paper ends with the authors' thoughts about the future success of practice-oriented research in general.

  12. Development and participant assessment of a practical quality improvement educational initiative for surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Morgan M; Hanson, Kristi; Schuller, Mary; Sherman, Karen; Kelz, Rachel R; Fryer, Jonathan; DaRosa, Debra; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2013-06-01

    As patient-safety and quality efforts spread throughout health care, the need for physician involvement is critical, yet structured training programs during surgical residency are still uncommon. Our objective was to develop an extended quality-improvement curriculum for surgical residents that included formal didactics and structured practical experience. Surgical trainees completed an 8-hour didactic program in quality-improvement methodology at the start of PGY3. Small teams developed practical quality-improvement projects based on needs identified during clinical experience. With the assistance of the hospital's process-improvement team and surgical faculty, residents worked through their selected projects during the following year. Residents were anonymously surveyed after their participation to assess the experience. During the first 3 years of the program, 17 residents participated, with 100% survey completion. Seven quality-improvement projects were developed, with 57% completing all DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) phases. Initial projects involved issues of clinical efficiency and later projects increasingly focused on clinical care questions. Residents found the experience educationally important (65%) and believed they were well equipped to lead similar initiatives in the future (70%). Based on feedback, the timeline was expanded from 12 to 24 months and changed to start in PGY2. Developing an extended curriculum using both didactic sessions and applied projects to teach residents the theory and implementation of quality improvement is possible and effective. It addresses the ACGME competencies of practice-based improvement and learning and systems-based practice. Our iterative experience during the past 3 years can serve as a guide for other programs. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice-a systematic review of common misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Anja F; Albers, Casper J

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking.

  14. Attitudes of psychology students to depression and its treatment: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, M; Peppou, L E; Geroulanou, K; Kontoangelos, K; Prokopi, A; Pantazi, A; Zervakaki, A; Stefanis, C N

    2017-01-01

    Stigma and mental health literacy affect access to and quality of treatment of major depression. Though mental health professionals seem better able to recognize major depression than the general public, they often hold similarly stigmatizing attitudes towards people suffering from the disorder. These attitudes are shaped jointly by the public stigma attached to mental illnesses as well as by the content and delivery of mental health professionals' undergraduate training. In line with this, the present study aimed to explore psychology students' ability to recognize major depression, their attitudes towards the disorder, and their views surrounding helpfulness of various interventions. A random sample of 167 undergraduate students was recruited from the psychology department of one public university in Athens. During one university hour, students were administered a vignette describing a woman fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for major depression. A self-report questionnaire exploring students' recognition abilities, attitudes to depression and views on the helpfulness of various treatment modes was also administered. In total, 80.2% of students correctly recognized major depression from the vignette. Concerning their attitudes, students were unsure about the illness and ambivalent towards the person who suffers from it. With regard to available treatments for depression, students considered discussion with a friend to be the most helpful intervention. Counseling, cognitive behavioural therapy and psychoanalysis were also viewed in a positive light. On the contrary, antidepressants were not deemed helpful by most students. Finally, recognition of as well as attitudes towards depression and its treatments seemed to improve during the second year of undergraduate study; however they remained unchanged thereafter. Consistent with these, psychology students seem to have only a rudimentary knowledge on depression, that cannot not be qualified as mental health literacy

  15. School Psychology 2010--Part 2: School Psychologists' Professional Practices and Implications for the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Gelley, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Every 5 years, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) conducts a national study of the field. Surveys are sent to randomly selected regular members of NASP to gather information on school psychologists' demographic characteristics, context for professional practices, and professional practices. The latest iteration of the national…

  16. Social Networking Practices in School Psychology: Have Moral Panic Concerns Been Overstated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segool, Natasha K.; Goforth, Anisa N.; Bowman, Nicholas; Pham, Andy

    2016-01-01

    The almost ubiquitous use of Facebook and other social networking sites (SNSs) by adults in the United States raises important practice considerations for school psychologists. This study examined the SNS practices of school psychologists, graduate trainers, and graduate students to explore (a) SNS use training experiences for school…

  17. Online Counseling: Prioritizing Psychoeducation, Self-Help, and Mutual Help for Counseling Psychology Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tai

    2005-01-01

    This reaction article extends the research and practice recommendations for online counseling from the Major Contribution to the November 2005 issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" by prioritizing research and practice in online psychoeducation, self-help, and mutual help. Research suggests that tens of millions of Americans use the Internet for…

  18. A Family-Focused Delirium Educational Initiative With Practice and Research Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Christina May; Monroe, Todd; McDougall, Graham J; Fick, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Delirium is burdensome and psychologically distressing for formal and informal caregivers, yet family caregivers often have very little understanding or knowledge about delirium. As part of a large multisite intervention study, the Early Nurse Detection of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (END-DSD), the authors identified a need for family educational materials. This educational initiative's purpose was to develop a delirium admission brochure for family members to aid in the prevention and earlier identification of delirium during hospitalization. A brochure was developed using an iterative approach with an expert panel. Following three iterations, a final brochure was approved. The authors found that an iterative expert consensus approach can be used to develop a brochure for families. Major content areas were helping families understand the difference between delirium and dementia, signs and symptoms of delirium, causes of delirium, and strategies family members can use to prevent delirium. A caregiver-focused educational brochure is one intervention to use in targeting older adults hospitalized with delirium.

  19. Mobile, Social, and Wearable Computing and the Evolution of Psychological Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Margaret E; Aguilera, Adrian

    2012-12-01

    Psychological assessment and intervention are extending from the clinic into daily life. Multiple forces are at play: Advances in mobile technology, constrained clinical care, and consumer demand for contextualized, nonstigmatizing, and low-cost alternatives are beginning to change the face of psychological assessment and interventions. Mobile, social, and wearable technologies are now enabling individuals to measure themselves and to integrate myriad forms of help and entertainment. The massive data sets generated by self-tracking of mood and passive sensing of voice, activity, and physiology may eventually reorganize taxonomies of mental health concerns. Compelling mobile therapies will also emerge, involving contextually appropriate, entertaining, and dynamic feedback to provide help in the context of daily life. The efficacy of such applications will be tested through citizen science as well as clinical trials. This article reviews technical advances that can be applied to enhance assessment and intervention and dramatically increase access to psychotherapy. It is recommended that, in addition to exploring clinically oriented products, practitioners should support patients' use of direct-to-consumer applications in ways that align with therapeutic objectives.

  20. Psychology, education and history: the paths offered by social studies of science to analyze the mobilization of conceptual and practice devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Sebastian Soto Triana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a reflection about the way in which the analysis of the history of psychology in Colombia has been constituted. It contributes a conceptual development to the classical tradition of viewing history as a reference to moments and “heroic” characters, neglecting analytical possibilities around various narratives that enable a broad understanding of the movements of psychology as a space for social appropriation of knowledge, sociotechnical network building and practices of translation of interests. Through a brief exposition of the case of psychology and education at the Gimnasio Moderno School of Bogota in the early twentieth century, the way in which Social Studies of Science provide important tools in terms of their epistemology and methodology for monitoring concepts, practices, adaptations and staging of European developmental psychology in an educational institution where childhood is a “mandatory step” in narratives about modernization is presented.

  1. Spanning our differences: moral psychology, physician beliefs, and the practice of medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Moral pluralism is the norm in contemporary society. Even the best philosophical arguments rarely persuade moral opponents who differ at a foundational level. This has been vividly illustrated in contemporary debates in bioethics surrounding contentious issues such as abortion and euthanasia. It is readily apparent that bioethics discourse lacks an empirical explanation for the broad differences about various topics in bioethics and health policy. In recent years, social and cognitive psychology has generated novel approaches for defining basic differences in moral intuitions generally. We propose that if empirical research using social intuitionist theory explains why people disagree with one another over moral issues, then the results of such research might help people debate their moral differences in a more constructive and civil manner. We illustrate the utility of social intuitionism with data from a national physician survey. PMID:25366256

  2. Best Practices: How to Evaluate Psychological Science for Use by Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T; Borgida, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    We discuss how organizations can evaluate psychological science for its potential usefulness to their own purposes. Common sense is often the default but inadequate alternative, and bench-marking supplies only collective hunches instead of validated principles. External validity is an empirical process of identifying moderator variables, not a simple yes-no judgment about whether lab results replicate in the field. Hence, convincing criteria must specify what constitutes high-quality empirical evidence for organizational use. First, we illustrate some theories and science that have potential use. Then we describe generally accepted criteria for scientific quality and consensus, starting with peer review for quality, and scientific agreement in forms ranging from surveys of experts to meta-analyses to National Research Council consensus reports. Linkages of basic science to organizations entail communicating expert scientific consensus, motivating managerial interest, and translating broad principles to specific contexts. We close with parting advice to both sides of the researcher-practitioner divide.

  3. The practice of analytical psychotherapy, counselling and examination. Institute for legal psychology, Uster (Zurich, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinfried H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapy is often regarded as a technique by which convicts can be changed in accordance with the wishes of society. Independent client activity is paid too little attention to. However, it is the one on which it depends whether the therapeutic work will begin, as well as the extent to which the client will be able to transfer the acquired in the course of the therapy awareness so that it can last after his release from a prison. In order to check how deep the mental changes are, you can use some analytical therapeutic approaches that help the therapist to control the process. Therapeutic interventions of different psychological schools make it possible to enhance a customer and to stimulate his activity

  4. The integration of psychology in pediatric oncology research and practice: collaboration to improve care and outcomes for children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Noll, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancers are life-threatening diseases that are universally distressing and potentially traumatic for children and their families at diagnosis, during treatment, and beyond. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as a result of increasingly aggressive multimodal therapies delivered in the context of clinical research trials. Nonetheless, cancers remain a leading cause of death in children, and their treatments have short- and long-term impacts on health and well-being. For over 35 years, pediatric psychologists have partnered with pediatric oncology teams to make many contributions to our understanding of the impact of cancer and its treatment on children and families and have played prominent roles in providing an understanding of treatment-related late effects and in improving quality of life. After discussing the incidence of cancer in children, its causes, and the treatment approaches to it in pediatric oncology, we present seven key contributions of psychologists to collaborative and integrated care in pediatric cancer: managing procedural pain, nausea, and other symptoms; understanding and reducing neuropsychological effects; treating children in the context of their families and other systems (social ecology); applying a developmental perspective; identifying competence and vulnerability; integrating psychological knowledge into decision making and other clinical care issues; and facilitating the transition to palliative care and bereavement. We conclude with a discussion of the current status of integrating knowledge from psychological research into practice in pediatric cancer. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Pre-Practicum Training in Professional Psychology to Close the Research-Practice Gap: Changing Attitudes Towards Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Wadkins, Melanie; Bailin, Abby; Doctoroff, Greta

    2015-02-01

    Despite the rapid proliferation of mental health interventions with proven benefit for youth, empirically supported interventions (ESIs) are underutilized in most service settings. Treatment outcome studies in these community-based settings suggest that the majority of youth do not show improvement, underscoring the importance of addressing the gap between research and practice. Clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice (EBP) may limit the use of ESIs, and efforts to address these attitudes with post-graduate training pose significant challenges. Pre-practicum training in EBP may address these challenges by familiarizing students with the framework of EBP as well as with the current youth treatment evidence base and the theories and strategies of well-supported interventions. We describe a required EBP course within a professional psychology doctoral program. Forty-two students in two class cohorts completed a measure of attitudes toward EBP prior to the first class and after the final class lecture. Students were predominantly Caucasian women with bachelor's degrees. As expected, over the course of the class, student attitudes became significantly more favorable toward EBP. Students who had previously received a master's degree had more favorable attitudes prior to the class, and students with a prior bachelor's degree showed the greatest change in attitude. The results support the use of pre-practicum training in EBP to improve attitudes toward EBP, which may lead to use of effective practices with clients following training.

  6. Mega-Analysis of School Psychology Blueprint for Training and Practice Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Kanive, Rebecca; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Parker, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analytic research is an effective method for synthesizing existing research and for informing practice and policy. Hattie (2009) suggested that meta-analytic procedures could be employed to existing meta-analyses to create a mega-analysis. The current mega-analysis examined a sample of 47 meta-analyses according to the "School…

  7. Recent Reliability Reporting Practices in "Psychological Assessment": Recognizing the People behind the Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carlton E.; Chen, Cynthia E.; Helms, Janet E.; Henze, Kevin T.

    2011-01-01

    Helms, Henze, Sass, and Mifsud (2006) defined good practices for internal consistency reporting, interpretation, and analysis consistent with an alpha-as-data perspective. Their viewpoint (a) expands on previous arguments that reliability coefficients are group-level summary statistics of samples' responses rather than stable properties of scales…

  8. Encouraging Good Writing Practice in First-Year Psychology Students: An Intervention Using Turnitin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R.; Bostock, Stephen J.; Elder, Tracey J.; Trueman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern among many regarding plagiarism within student writing. This has promoted investigation into both the factors that predict plagiarism and potential methods of reducing plagiarism. Consequently, we developed and evaluated an intervention to enhance good practice within academic writing through the use of the plagiarism…

  9. Biomedicine, psychology and the kindergarten: children at risk and emerging knowledge practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontopodis, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study moves in the space between two fields: science and technology studies (STS) and childhood studies; it thus belongs to the broader STS literature that investigates everyday practices outside the laboratory. The interpretation of ethnographic and bibliographic data on contemporary

  10. Biomedicine, Psychology and the Kindergarten: Children at Risk and Emerging Knowledge Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopodis, Michalis

    2013-01-01

    This study moves in the space between two fields: science and technology studies (STS) and childhood studies; it thus belongs to the broader STS literature that investigates everyday practices outside the laboratory. The interpretation of ethnographic and bibliographic data on contemporary cardiovascular and obesity prevention in German…

  11. Reflective Practice for Psychology Students: The Use of Reflective Journal Feedback in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Andreina; Dell'Aversana, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Reflective journals have emerged as an effective means of monitoring and developing reflective practice in higher education, as part of a wider metacognitive strategy to transform traditional learning approaches. In addition, assessment procedures of reflective journals appear to be an important factor in enhancing commitment to learning and…

  12. An initial framework for the language of higher-order thinking mathematics practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Megan E.; Truxaw, Mary P.

    2012-09-01

    This article presents an examination of the language demands of cognitively demanding tasks and proposes an initial framework for the language demands of higher-order mathematics thinking practices. We articulate four categories for this framework: language of generalisation, language of comparison, language of proportional reasoning, and language of analysing impact. These categories were developed out of our collaborative work to design and implement higher-order thinking tasks with a group of Grade 9 (14- and 15-year-olds) teachers teaching in a linguistically diverse setting; analyses of student work samples on these tasks; and our knowledge of the literature. We describe each type of language demand and then analyse student work in each category to reveal linguistic challenges facing students as they engage these mathematical tasks. Implications for teaching and professional development are discussed.

  13. Researching local sports initiatives for young migrants from a political perspective: methodological and practical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi García-Arjona

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of incorporation of young migrants have been studied using a range of new approaches. Among them, sports and physical activity have been claimed as a space for social and cultural integration. To date, most research has been based mainly on ethnographic and grassroots perspectives to better understand the experiences of sports practices of migrants and their families. However, fewer contributions have focused on the political discourse on sports as a field of integration. This article explores methodological challenges arosen when choosing sports policies as a field of study. The main methodological challenges considered include the contested conceptualizations of the target population in sports initiatives and the development of comparative selection criteria for different levels of institutional participants. An indepth analysis of these methodological issues can help to reflect on the ideological constructs of sports as a field of integration and highlight the contribution of the political sociological perspective to existing migration studies.

  14. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  15. Contraception Initiation in the Emergency Department: A Pilot Study on Providers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Iyanna; Haddad, Lisa B; Lathrop, Eva; Hankin, Abigail

    2016-05-01

    Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended; these pregnancies are associated with adverse outcomes. Many reproductive-age females seek care in the emergency department (ED), are at risk of pregnancy, and are amenable to contraceptive services in this setting. Through a pilot study, we sought to assess ED providers' current practices; attitudes; and knowledge of emergency contraception (EC) and nonemergency contraception (non-EC), as well as barriers with respect to contraception initiation. ED physicians and associate providers in Georgia were e-mailed a link to an anonymous Internet questionnaire using state professional databases and contacts. The questionnaire included Likert scales with multiple-choice questions to assess study objectives. Descriptive statistics were generated as well as univariate analyses using χ(2) and Fisher exact tests. A total of 1232 providers were e-mailed, with 119 questionnaires completed. Participants were predominantly physicians (80%), men (59%), and individuals younger than 45 years (59%). Common practices were referrals (96%), EC prescriptions (77%), and non-EC prescriptions (40%). Common barriers were perceived as low likelihood for follow-up (63%), risk of complications (58%), and adverse effects (51%). More than 70% of participants correctly identified the highly effective contraceptive methods, 3% identified the correct maximum EC initiation time, and 42% correctly recognized pregnancy as a higher risk than hormonal contraception use for pulmonary embolism. Most ED providers in this pilot study referred patients for contraception; however, there was no universal contraceptive counseling and management. Many ED providers in this study had an incorrect understanding of the efficacy, risks, and eligibility associated with contraceptive methods. This lack of understanding may affect patient access and be a barrier to patient care.

  16. Did our current initial treatment practice change after EAU/ESPU vesicoureteral reflux risk grouping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokat, Eda; Gurocak, Serhat; Ure, Iyimser; Acar, Cenk; Sınık, Zafer; Tan, Mustafa Ozgur

    2018-06-02

    The "European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines on Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) in Children (September 2012)" established risk classification by analyzing and defining risk factors for each patient. In this study we aimed to investigate how our initial treatment procedures were affected by EAU/ESPU guideline vesicoureteral reflux risk grouping and to compare the early clinical results of treatments performed before and after the risk classification in our patients with VUR. 334 renal units with regular clinical follow-up who were treated owing to VUR (vesicoureteral reflux) between years 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative clinical parameters such as grade and laterality of reflux, presence of renal scar, initial and follow-up treatments, findings of medical treatment and surgical procedures were analyzed. The initial medical and surgical methods were compared by categorizing patients according to risk groups before and after 2013. Mean age and follow-up duration were 71.4(6-216) months and 47(4-141) months, respectively. Among the preoperative parameters, only high EAU risk group (p = 0.01) and treating lower urinary tract symptoms (p age, sex, and presence of renal scar at DMSA were not affecting the success of treatment significantly. While no significant difference in medical and surgical treatment rates is observed after risk grouping system in low risk group, the percentages of patients who are treated with surgical methods initially were significantly decreased in moderate and high risk groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.012, respectively). We determined that VUR risk grouping did not change clinical success significantly in all risk groups. Despite the fact that EAU/ESPU VUR risk classification changed our current practice in terms of initial treatment method, this different approach did not seem to affect early clinical success positively. There is still an absolute need for studies with larger sample size and long

  17. The Initial Training of Geography Teachers at the University of Porto: Model and Training, Practices and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Felisbela

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, the initial training of Geography teachers in Portugal was combined with the initial training of History teachers. This forced union has led to implications in the practices and teaching of geography. This paper intends to explore the thoughts and actions of the student teachers at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of…

  18. 40 CFR Table 38 to Subpart Uuu of... - Initial Compliance With Work Practice Standards for HAP Emissions From Bypass Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initial Compliance With Work Practice... Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU, Table 38 Table 38 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Initial Compliance With Work...

  19. How space design and technology can support the Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative through interprofessional collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Hahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI calls pharmacists to more direct patient care and increased responsibility for medication-related outcomes, as a means of achieving greater safety, improving outcomes and reducing costs. This article acknowledges the value of interprofessional collaboration to the PPMI and identifies the implications of the Initiative for space design and technology, both of which stand to help the Initiative gather additional support. Summary: The profession of pharmacy has for some time now become increasingly vocal about its desire to take on greater responsibility for patient outcomes. With drug costs representing the largest portion of a hospital's pharmacy budget and reimbursements becoming more contingent on readmission avoidance, the pharmacy's influence on a hospital's bottom line is significant. More importantly, study after study is showing that with greater pharmacist intervention, patient outcomes improve. This article addresses the ways in which developments in the fields of technology and facility design can assist in the deployment of the PPMI. Conclusion: As the PPMI achieves a critical level of support from inside and outside the pharmacy, and more empirical research emerges regarding the improved outcomes and cost savings of increasing the roles of both clinical pharmacists and pharmacy technicians, the industry sectors of healthcare technology and healthcare design stand ready to assist in the execution of this new model. By encouraging pharmacists, doctors and nurses to work together - and all caregivers to work with facility designers, biomedical engineers and IT specialists, there is the increased likelihood of these fields turning to each other to problem-solve together, all for the ultimate benefit to patients and their families.   Type: Commentary

  20. [Publication practices of academics in medical psychology and in psychosomatics and psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, O; Brähler, E

    2001-07-01

    When qualifying for higher academic positions junior academics face increasing demands for submitting papers for publication. The criteria for assessing these publications are presently under discussion. Contributions to international English language journals are more highly regarded, and it has become indispensable to have papers published in journals listed in SCI and SSCI. The question remains whether these criteria are valid to judge academic qualifications. Whereas one criterion for validity may be the publication practice of the present academic representatives, it appears that to some extent the chairs themselves would not fulfill the requirements for academic qualification today. Results regarding this are presented and discussed.

  1. Parental practices predict psychological well-being in midlife: life-course associations among women in the 1946 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, F A; Abbott, R A; Ploubidis, G B; Richards, M; Kuh, D

    2010-09-01

    Certain parenting styles are influential in the emergence of later mental health problems, but less is known about the relationship between parenting style and later psychological well-being. Our aim was to examine the association between well-being in midlife and parental behaviour during childhood and adolescence, and the role of personality as a possible mediator of this relationship. Data from 984 women in the 1946 British birth cohort study were analysed using structural equation modelling. Psychological well-being was assessed at age 52 years using Ryff's scales of psychological well-being. Parenting practices were recollected at age 43 years using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Extraversion and neuroticism were assessed at age 26 years using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. In this sample, three parenting style factors were identified: care; non-engagement; control. Higher levels of parental care were associated with higher psychological well-being, while higher parental non-engagement or control were associated with lower levels of psychological well-being. The effects of care and non-engagement were largely mediated by the offspring's personality, whereas control had direct effects on psychological well-being. The psychological well-being of adult women was at least as strongly linked to the parenting style of their fathers as to that of their mothers, particularly in relation to the adverse effects of non-engagement and control. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to examine the effects of parenting practices on psychological well-being in midlife. The effects of parenting, both positive and negative, persisted well into mid-adulthood.

  2. Psychological distress and associated factors among the attendees of traditional healing practices in Jinja and Iganga districts, Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okello Elialilia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems are a major public health concern worldwide. Evidence shows that African communities, including Uganda, use both modern and traditional healing systems. There is limited literature about the magnitude of psychological distress and associated factors among attendees of traditional healing practices. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among attendees of traditional healing practices in two districts in Uganda. Methods Face-to-face interviews with the Lusoga version of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 were carried out with 400 patients over the age of 18 years attending traditional healing in Iganga and Jinja districts in Eastern Uganda. Patients were recruited consecutively in all the traditional healers' shrines that could be visited in the area. Persons with 6 or more positive responses to the SRQ were identified as having psychological distress. Prevalence was estimated and odds ratios of having psychological distress were obtained with multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 387 questionnaire responses were analyzed. The prevalence of psychological distress in connection with attendance at the traditional healers' shrines was 65.1%. Having a co-wife and having more than four children were significantly associated with psyclogical distress. Among the socioeconomic indicators, lack of food and having debts were significantly associated with psychological distress. The distressed group was more likely to need explanations for ill health. Those who visited both the healer and a health unit were less likely to be distressed. Conclusion This study provides evidence that a substantial proportion of attendees of traditional healing practices suffer from psychological distress. Associated factors include poverty, number of children, polygamy, reason for visiting the healer and use of both traditional healing and biomedical health units

  3. Principles of Practical Training Organization in a Networking (Development of the Module "Psychological Prevention of Behavioral Disorders and Abnormalities in Development" as Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich N. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents principles of inserting study subjects and practices in educational modules running with network organizations (internship sites. We proposed a methodological basis of the modular organization of educational process in the framework of the master's program, combied the activity, competence and psychotechnical approaches. Networking of leading chair and specially selected organizations providing the base for practical training solves the problem of organizing activity-related content of educational module. We discussed the main options for networking with the databases of practice and offered methodological principles of designing the educational practice-oriented module, wherein the main principle is the reflexive and activity character of networking. We proposed activity-based content of educational module "Psychological prevention of behavioral disorders and abnormalities in development", based on the substantial psychological definition of psychoprophylaxis as a directions of professional activity of the psychologist.

  4. Improving immediate newborn care practices in Philippine hospitals: impact of a national quality of care initiative 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Maria Asuncion A; Mannava, Priya; Corsino, Marie Ann; Capili, Donna S; Calibo, Anthony P; Tan, Cynthia Fernandez; Murray, John C S; Kitong, Jacqueline; Sobel, Howard L

    2018-03-31

    To determine whether intrapartum and newborn care practices improved in 11 large hospitals between 2008 and 2015. Secondary data analysis of observational assessments conducted in 11 hospitals in 2008 and 2015. Eleven large government hospitals from five regions in the Philippines. One hundred and seven randomly sampled postpartum mother-baby pairs in 2008 and 106 randomly sampled postpartum mothers prior to discharge from hospitals after delivery. A national initiative to improve quality of newborn care starting in 2009 through development of a standard package of intrapartum and newborn care services, practice-based training, formation of multidisciplinary hospital working groups, and regular assessments and meetings in hospitals to identify actions to improve practices, policies and environments. Quality improvement was supported by policy development, health financing packages, health facility standards, capacity building and health communication. Sixteen intrapartum and newborn care practices. Between 2008 and 2015, initiation of drying within 5 s of birth, delayed cord clamping, dry cord care, uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact, timing and duration of the initial breastfeed, and bathing deferred until 6 h after birth all vastly improved (P<0.001). The proportion of newborns receiving hygienic cord handling and the hepatitis B birth dose decreased by 11-12%. Except for reduced induction of labor, inappropriate maternal care practices persisted. Newborn care practices have vastly improved through an approach focused on improving hospital policies, environments and health worker practices. Maternal care practices remain outdated largely due to the ineffective didactic training approaches adopted for maternal care.

  5. Practical Insights from Initial Studies Related to Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follesoe, Knut; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Hollnagel, Erik; Kirwan; Barry

    1996-01-01

    This report presents practical insights made from an analysis of the three initial studies in the Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP), and the first study in the US NRC Staffing Project. These practical insights relate to our understanding of diagnosis in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) emergency scenarios and, in particular, the factors that influence whether a diagnosis will succeed or fail. The insights reported here focus on three inter-related areas: (1) the diagnostic strategies and styles that have been observed in single operator and team-based studies; (2) the qualitative aspects of the key operator support systems, namely VDU interfaces, alarms, training and procedures, that have affected the outcome of diagnosis; and (3) the overall success rates of diagnosis and the error types that have been observed in the various studies. With respect to diagnosis, certain patterns have emerged from the various studies, depending on whether operators were alone or in teams, and on their familiarity with the process. Some aspects of the interface and alarm systems were found to contribute to diagnostic failures while others supported performance and recovery. Similar results were found for training and experience. Furthermore, the availability of procedures did not preclude the need for some diagnosis. With respect to HRA and PSA, it was possible to record the failure types seen in the studies, and in some cases to give crude estimates of the failure likelihood for certain scenarios. Although these insights are interim in nature, they do show the type of information that can be derived from these studies. More importantly, they clarify aspects of our understanding of diagnosis in NPP emergencies, including implications for risk assessment, operator support systems development, and for research into diagnosis in a broader range of fields than the nuclear power industry. (author)

  6. Reviewing the Relationship between Human Resource Practices and Psychological Contract and Their Impact on Employee Attitude and Behaviours: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Upasana; Bhargava, Shivganesh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise literature on the role of human resource practices (HRP) in shaping employee psychological contract (PC). Based on this review, a conceptual framework for examining the relationship between HRP and PC and their impact on employee attitudes as well as behaviour has been put forward for…

  7. Predictors of Survival in Contemporary Practice After Initial Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhacheva, Anna; Pinnix, Chelsea C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Parikh, Neil R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; McAleer, Mary F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chiu, Max S. [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska (United States); Sulman, Erik P.; Mahajan, Anita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Guha-Thakurta, Nandita [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Prabhu, Sujit S. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cahill, Daniel P. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Luo, Dershan; Shiu, Almon S. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Eric L., E-mail: eric.chang@med.usc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The number of brain metastases (BM) is a major consideration in determining patient eligibility for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), but the evidence for this popular practice is equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether, following multivariate adjustment, the number and volume of BM held prognostic significance in a cohort of patients initially treated with SRS alone. Methods and Materials: A total of 251 patients with primary malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (34%), melanoma (30%), and breast carcinoma (16%), underwent SRS for initial treatment of BM. SRS was used as the sole management (62% of patients) or was combined with salvage treatment with SRS (22%), whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT; 13%), or resection (3%). Median follow-up time was 9.4 months. Survival was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression was used to assess the effects of patient factors on distant brain failure (DBF), local control (LC), and overall survival (OS). Results: LC at 1 year was 94.6%, and median time to DBF was 10 months. Median OS was 11.1 months. On multivariate analysis, statistically significant predictors of OS were presence of extracranial disease (hazard ratio [HR], 4.2, P<.001), total tumor volume greater than 2 cm{sup 3} (HR, 1.98; P<.001), age ≥60 years (HR, 1.67; P=.002), and diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (HR, 0.71; P<.001). The presence of extracranial disease was a statistically significant predictor of DBF (HR, 2.15), and tumor volume was predictive of LC (HR, 4.56 for total volume >2 cm{sup 3}). The number of BM was not predictive of DBF, LC, or OS. Conclusions: The number of BM is not a strong predictor for clinical outcomes following initial SRS for newly diagnosed BM. Other factors including total treatment volume and systemic disease status are better determinants of outcome and may facilitate appropriate use of SRS or WBRT.

  8. Factors affecting science reform: Bridging the gap between reform initiatives and teaching practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensak, Karl John

    In response to the perceived deficiencies in science education today, and to the expressed need for research into the culture of schools (due primarily to the failure of many science reforms in the past), this study used a broad based approach to study the gap between science education research and science education practice. This study identified 47 factors that may encourage or inhibit science curriculum reform. A survey was conducted to determine which factors were perceived to be important by local and national K-12 classroom teachers, science supervisors/coordinators, and college/university professors. Continual staff development (scheduled as part of teachers' work day/week/month), funding (for long-term staff development, teacher training and support, science laboratory facilities and materials), teacher motivation and "ownership" of the reform, the need for collaborative opportunities for classroom teachers, teachers' college preparation, textbook reform, community support, and reform initiatives that are "in tune" with assessment, are major factors identified as having a substantial affect on the successful adoption, implementation, and institutionalization of science reforms.

  9. ROLE OF BEST PRACTICES IN ENTREPRENORIAL INITIATION OF STUDENTS ILUSTRATIVE CASE: WEST UNIVERSITY OF TIMISOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Denisa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a competitive and dynamic international context, investment in education and training must take into account the new demands of knowledge based society. Education institution is the organization which, “teaches and produces knowledge" and the role and responsibilities of education are fundamental. Rethinking the way of doing business, reinventing our own business that allows the exploitation of opportunities and constraints of the economic environment can not be achieved without entrepreneurial education, without adaptive and responsive approach to changes in economic environment and beyond. This paper aims to present the role and impact of good practice in creating a culture and entrepreneurial education in Romanian higher education system. Research is a descriptive and analytical one, the conclusions drawn are important as they constitute a starting point in identifying and implementing solutions to reconfigure higher education system so as to meet the challenges of today's economic environment. Personal contribution lies in identifying the multiple ways of expressing entrepreneurship and business culture embodied in innovative projects initiated and implemented in the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration from West University of Timisoara.

  10. Climate Change Professional Development: Design, Implementation, and Initial Outcomes on Teacher Learning, Practice, and Student Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.; Mouza, Chrystalla; Drewes, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present the design, implementation, and initial outcomes of the Climate Academy, a hybrid professional development program delivered through a combination of face-to-face and online interactions, intended to prepare formal and informal science teachers (grades 5-16) in teaching about climate change. The Climate Academy was designed around core elements of successful environmental professional development programs and aligned with practices advocated in benchmarked science standards. Data were collected from multiple sources including observations of professional development events, participants' reflections on their learning, and collection of instructional units designed during the Academy. Data were also collected from a focal case study teacher in a middle school setting. Case study data included classroom observations, teacher interviews, and student beliefs toward climate change. Results indicated that the Climate Academy fostered increased learning among participants of both climate science content and pedagogical strategies for teaching about climate change. Additionally, results indicated that participants applied their new learning in the design of climate change instructional units. Finally, results from the case study indicated positive impacts on student beliefs and greater awareness about climate change. Results have implications for the design of professional development programs on climate change, a topic included for the first time in national standards.

  11. Quality Oncology Practice Initiative Can Guide and Improve Oncology Providers’ Training in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Decat Bergerot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It has become crucial to translate scientific findings and to find ways by which to mobilize local resources to improve the quality and accessibility of cancer care in developing countries. This study seeks to provide insight into challenge through examining differences in clinician documentation of patients with cancer treated at a Brazilian Public University Hospital. Methods: ASCO Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI measures were used to examine the care provided in the departments of breast, colorectal, lymphoma, gynecology, and lung cancers. For this study, data from a representative sample of patients receiving chemotherapy in the previous month were extracted and quality of cancer care indicators examined. Results: Certain elements of medical care were consistently and appropriately documented, including cancer diagnosis and stage, chemotherapy planning, administration, and summary. In general, considering the specific cancer management measures, patients received recommended care in accordance with recognized guidelines. Despite this, a number of important gaps in care were identified, including the assessment and treatment of pain, documentation of chemotherapy intention, symptom and toxicity management, patients’ psychosocial status, and provision of a treatment summary at care completion. Conclusion: These findings are encouraging in terms of adherence to core treatment guidelines in cancer care in Brazil. However, results suggest important opportunities for improving care across a number of domains, many of which represent a challenge throughout both developing and developed countries. This study may also provide preliminary guidance for enhancing educational and training programs for professionals and students alike, to implement high-quality, comprehensive cancer care.

  12. Quality initiatives: improving patient flow for a bone densitometry practice: results from a Mayo Clinic radiology quality initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Kenneth T; Valley, Timothy B; O'Connor, Michael K

    2010-03-01

    Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies have been used in manufacturing for some time. However, Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies also are applicable to radiology as a way to identify opportunities for improvement in patient care delivery settings. A multidisciplinary team of physicians and staff conducted a 100-day quality improvement project with the guidance of a quality advisor. By using the framework of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control), time studies were performed for all aspects of patient and technologist involvement. From these studies, value stream maps for the current state and for the future were developed, and tests of change were implemented. Comprehensive value stream maps showed that before implementation of process changes, an average time of 20.95 minutes was required for completion of a bone densitometry study. Two process changes (ie, tests of change) were undertaken. First, the location for completion of a patient assessment form was moved from inside the imaging room to the waiting area, enabling patients to complete the form while waiting for the technologist. Second, the patient was instructed to sit in a waiting area immediately outside the imaging rooms, rather than in the main reception area, which is far removed from the imaging area. Realignment of these process steps, with reduced technologist travel distances, resulted in a 3-minute average decrease in the patient cycle time. This represented a 15% reduction in the initial patient cycle time with no change in staff or costs. Radiology process improvement projects can yield positive results despite small incremental changes.

  13. Work Hours as a Moderator of the Relationship between Developmental Human Resource Management Practices and the Psychological Contract: A Multilevel Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Håkensen, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose & background – The purpose of this study was to examine if part-time and full-time employees differ in terms of psychological contract content according to level of developmental HRM practices. The study adds to an ongoing research project Organizational antecedents of psychological contracts and work-related outcomes , run by Sabine Raeder, University of Oslo in cooperation with José María Peiró, University of Valencia, Spain. Design & methodology – A survey of 463 employees from 35...

  14. The theory-practice relationship: reflective skills and theoretical knowledge as key factors in bridging the gap between theory and practice in initial nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlevik, Ida Katrine Riksaasen

    2012-04-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of nursing students' acquired reflective skills, practical skills and theoretical knowledge on their perception of coherence between theory and practice. Reflection is considered a key factor in bridging the gap between theory and practice. However, it is not evident whether reflective skills are primarily generic in nature or whether they develop from a theoretical knowledge base or the acquisition of practical skills. This study is a secondary analysis of existing data. The data are part of a student survey that was conducted among third-year nursing students in Norway during the spring of 2007. A total of 446 nursing students participated in this study and the response rate was 71%. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed. The results indicate that students' perception of coherence between theory and practice during initial nursing education is directly influenced by reflective skills and theoretical knowledge. The results also reveal that reflective skills have mediating effects and that practical skills have a fully mediated and theoretical knowledge a partially mediated influence on students' perception of coherence. The findings imply that helping students perceive coherence between theory and practice in nursing education, developing students' reflective skills and strengthening the theoretical components of the initial nursing education programme might be beneficial. The results suggest that reflective thinking is not merely a generic skill but rather a skill that depends on the acquisition of relevant professional knowledge and experience. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. CT colonography: accuracy of initial interpretation by radiographers in routine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burling, D.; Wylie, P.; Gupta, A.; Illangovan, R.; Muckian, J.; Ahmad, R.; Marshall, M.; Taylor, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate performance of computed-assisted detection (CAD)-assisted radiographers interpreting computed tomography colonography (CTC) in routine practice. Materials and methods: Three hundred and three consecutive symptomatic patients underwent CTC. Examinations were double-read by trained radiographers using primary two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) analysis supplemented by 'second reader' CAD. Radiographers recorded colonic neoplasia, interpretation times, and patient management strategy code (S0, inadequate; S1, normal; S2, 6-9 mm polyp; S3, ≥10 mm polyp; S4, cancer; S5, diverticular stricture) for each examination. Strategies were compared to the reference standard using kappa statistic, interpretation times using paired t-test, learning curves using logistic regression and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Of 303 examinations, 69 (23%) were abnormal. CAD-assisted radiographers detected 17/17 (100%) cancers, 21/28 (72%) polyps ≥10 mm and 42/60 (70%) 6-9 mm polyps. The overall agreement between radiographers and the reference management strategy was good (kappa 0.72; CI: 0.65, 0.78) with agreement for S1 strategy in 189/211 (90%) exams; S2 in 19/27 (70%); S3 in 12/19 (63%); S4 in 17/17 (100%); S5 in 5/6 (83%). The mean interpretation time was 17 min (SD = 11) compared with 8 min (SD = 3.5) for radiologists. There was no learning curve for recording correct strategies (OR 0.88; p = 0.12) but a significant reduction in interpretation times, mean 14 and 31 min (last/first 50 exams; -0.46; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Routine CTC interpretation by radiographers is effective for initial triage of patients with cancer, but independent reporting is currently not recommended.

  16. Conceptual and practical challenges for implementing the communities of practice model on a national scale - a Canadian cancer control initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browman George P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer program delivery, like the rest of health care in Canada, faces two ongoing challenges: to coordinate a pan-Canadian approach across complex provincial jurisdictions, and to facilitate the rapid translation of knowledge into clinical practice. Communities of practice, or CoPs, which have been described by Etienne Wenger as a collaborative learning platform, represent a promising solution to these challenges because they rely on bottom-up rather than top-down social structures for integrating knowledge and practice across regions and agencies. The communities of practice model has been realized in the corporate (e.g., Royal Dutch Shell, Xerox, IBM, etc and development (e.g., World Bank sectors, but its application to health care is relatively new. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC is exploring the potential of Wenger's concept in the Canadian health care context. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of Wenger's concept with a focus on its applicability to the health care sector. Discussion Empirical studies and social science theory are used to examine the utility of Wenger's concept. Its value lies in emphasizing learning from peers and through practice in settings where innovation is valued. Yet the communities of practice concept lacks conceptual clarity because Wenger defines it so broadly and sidelines issues of decision making within CoPs. We consider the implications of his broad definition to establishing an informed nomenclature around this specific type of collaborative group. The CoP Project under CPAC and communities of practice in Canadian health care are discussed. Summary The use of communities of practice in Canadian health care has been shown in some instances to facilitate quality improvements, encourage buy in among participants, and generate high levels of satisfaction with clinical leadership and knowledge translation among participating physicians. Despite these individual success

  17. Editorial: Research as Practice: On Critical Methodologies. Qualitative Research in Psychology Sage Publications Ltd., GB ISSN: 1478-0887 Elektronisk ISSN: 1478-0895 FI quality: 2008: 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Table of contents: Motzkau and Jefferson: Research as Practice: On Critical Methodologies (editorial) Jefferson and Huniche: (Re) Searching for persons in practice: Field based methods for critical psychological practice research Khawaja and Mørck: Researcher positioning - Muslim ‘otherness......' and beyond Hasse and Trentemøller: The method of culture contrast Nissen: Objectification and Prototype Lee: Researching Children's Diets in England: Critical Methods in a Consumer Society Nolas: Between the ideal and the real: using ethnography as a way of extending our language of change Motzkau......: The Semiotic of Accusation: Thinking about deconstruction, development, the critique of practice and the practice of critique Zavos and Biglia: Embodying Feminist Research: learning from action research, political practices and collective knowledge...

  18. A cross-sectional study identifying the pattern of factors related to psychological intimate partner violence exposure in Slovenian family practice attendees: what hurt them the most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is yet to be fully acknowledged as a public health problem in Slovenia. This study aimed to explore the health and other patient characteristics associated with psychological IPV exposure and gender-related specificity in family clinic attendees. Methods In a multi-centre cross-sectional study, 960 family practice attendees aged 18 years and above were recruited. In 689 interviews with currently- or previously-partnered patients, the short form of A Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire and additional questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to psychological abuse in the past year were given. General practitioners (GPs) reviewed the medical charts of 470 patients who met the IPV exposure criteria. The Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List was used, collecting data on the patients’ lives and physical, sexual and reproductive, and psychological health status, as well as sick leave, hospitalisation, visits to family practices and referrals to other clinical specialists in the past year. In multivariate logistic regression modelling the factors associated with past year psychological IPV exposure were identified, with P < 0.05 set as the level of statistical significance. Results Of the participants (n = 470), 12.1% (n = 57) were exposed to psychological IPV in the previous year (46 women and 11 men). They expressed more complaints regarding sexual and reproductive (p = 0.011), and psychological and behavioural status (p <0.001), in the year prior to the survey. Unemployment or working part-time, a college degree, an intimate relationship of six years or more and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship, increased the odds of psychological IPV exposure in the sample, explaining 41% of the variance. In females, unemployment and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship explained 43% of the variance. Conclusions The prevalence of psychological IPV above 10% during the past year

  19. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Holloway

    Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  20. Culturally Competent Practice: A Mixed Methods Study Among Students, Academics and Alumni of Clinical Psychology Master’s Programs in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerlings, Lennie R. C.; Thompson, Claire L.; Kraaij, Vivian; Keijsers, Ger P. J.

    2018-01-01

    This is the first research into preparation for multicultural clinical psychology practice in Europe. It applies the theory of multicultural counselling competency (MCC) to a case study in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that cross-cultural practice experience, identification as a cultural minority, and satisfaction with cultural training was associated with MCC. The Multicultural Awareness Knowledge and Skills Survey was completed by 106 participants (22 students, 10 academics, 74 alumni) from clinical psychology masters’ programs. MANOVA detected a main effect of cross-cultural experience on MCC for all groups and universities. The data were enriched with exploratory qualitative data from 14 interviews (5 students, 5 academics, 4 alumni). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis revealed three themes: limitations of clinical psychology, strategies for culturally competent practice, and strategies for cultural competency development. These outcomes suggest that cultural competency continues to require attention in master’s programs. The paper makes recommendations for further research enquiry related to training clinical psychologists to practice in Europe’s multicultural societies. PMID:29899800

  1. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  2. Overcoming the Barriers of Distance: Using Mobile Technology to Facilitate Moderation and Best Practice in Initial Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggatt, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the development process of a model using readily-available technology to facilitate collaboration, moderation and the dissemination of best practice in initial teacher training in the UK. Students, mentors, tutors and external examiners from a number of educational institutions in a UK, higher education-led Lifelong…

  3. Local Governments Supporting Local Energy Initiatives: Lessons from the Best Practices of Saerbeck (Germany) and Lochem (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Graf, Antonia; Warbroek, Wynzen Douwe Beau; Lammers, Imke; Lepping, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    The social dimension of the transition to a low carbon economy is a key challenge to cities. The establishment of local energy initiatives (LEIs) has recently been attracting attention. It is of great importance to draw lessons from best practices when LEIs have been facilitated by local governments

  4. How eight primary care practices initiated and maintained quality monitoring and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Wroth, Thomas; Halladay, Jacquie; Bray, Paul; Spragens, Lynn; Stearns, Sally; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2011-01-01

    Primary care medical practices increasingly are asked by payers, employers, and government agencies to report quality data, but the process of doing so is not well delineated. Providers and office staff in a diverse sample of eight primary care practices in North Carolina comprised this study population. Interviews were conducted and self-administered questionnaires were disseminated in practices that were successfully reporting data to one or more of 4 reporting programs. Our measures included responses to open-ended and Likert scale questions about experiences and potential facilitators and barriers, as well as subscales of the Practice Assessment tool and the Culture of Group Practices instrument. Study practices had stronger change histories, higher information and quality emphases, and lower business emphases than historical comparison practices. Motivation to participate, a leader who catalyzes the process, and establishment of new systems characterized successful practices. Staff time, information technology challenges, and resistance from some providers were common barriers. Practices achieve a sustainability state when numerous barriers have been successfully overcome and tangible results achieved from the process. Implementing and sustaining quality reporting requires a complex set of motivators, facilitators, and strategies to overcome inherent barriers that can present themselves in practices that seek to implement changes in this direction.

  5. Eliminating "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) terminology in clinical breast practice: The cognitive psychology point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Yoder, Whitney R; Riva, Silvia; Mazzocco, Ketti; Arnaboldi, Paola; Galimberti, Viviana

    2016-02-01

    There is evidence from the literature that the terms "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) should be eliminated in clinical breast cancer practice and replaced with the new "ductal intraepithelial neoplasia" (DIN) and "lobular intraepithelial neoplasia" (LIN) terminology. The main purpose of the present article is to expand on this argument from a cognitive psychology perspective and offer suggestions for further research, emphasizing how the elimination of the term "carcinoma" in "in situ" breast cancer diagnoses has the potential to reduce both patient and health care professional confusion and misperceptions that are often associated with the DCIS and LCIS diagnoses, as well as limit the adverse psychological effects of women receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis. We comment on the recent peer-reviewed literature on the clinical implications and psychological consequences for breast cancer patients receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis and we use a cognitive perspective to offer new insight into the benefits of embracing the new DIN and LIN terminology. Using cognitive psychology and cognitive science in general, as a foundation, further research is advocated in order to yield data in support of changing the terminology and therefore, offer a chance to significantly improve the lives and psychological sequelae of women facing such a diagnosis. Typology: Controversies/Short Commentary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Core competencies in the science and practice of knowledge translation: description of a Canadian strategic training initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Sharon E; Brouwers, Melissa; Johnson, David; Lavis, John N; Légaré, France; Majumdar, Sumit R; McKibbon, K Ann; Sales, Anne E; Stacey, Dawn; Klein, Gail; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2011-12-09

    Globally, healthcare systems are attempting to optimize quality of care. This challenge has resulted in the development of implementation science or knowledge translation (KT) and the resulting need to build capacity in both the science and practice of KT. We are attempting to meet these challenges through the creation of a national training initiative in KT. We have identified core competencies in this field and have developed a series of educational courses and materials for three training streams. We report the outline for this approach and the progress to date. We have prepared a strategy to develop, implement, and evaluate a national training initiative to build capacity in the science and practice of KT. Ultimately through this initiative, we hope to meet the capacity demand for KT researchers and practitioners in Canada that will lead to improved care and a strengthened healthcare system.

  7. Core competencies in the science and practice of knowledge translation: description of a Canadian strategic training initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus Sharon E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, healthcare systems are attempting to optimize quality of care. This challenge has resulted in the development of implementation science or knowledge translation (KT and the resulting need to build capacity in both the science and practice of KT. Findings We are attempting to meet these challenges through the creation of a national training initiative in KT. We have identified core competencies in this field and have developed a series of educational courses and materials for three training streams. We report the outline for this approach and the progress to date. Conclusions We have prepared a strategy to develop, implement, and evaluate a national training initiative to build capacity in the science and practice of KT. Ultimately through this initiative, we hope to meet the capacity demand for KT researchers and practitioners in Canada that will lead to improved care and a strengthened healthcare system.

  8. Knowledge Sharing, Communities of Practice, and Learning Asset Integration - DAU's Major Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hickok, John

    2005-01-01

    .... What follows is an overview of Knowledge Sharing through the eyes of the Defense Acquisition University, along with some new initiatives called Learning Asset Integration and Workflow Learning...

  9. Treatment outcomes after initiation of exenatide twice daily or insulin in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Matthaei, Stephan; Reaney, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy (CHOICE) study assessed time to, and reasons for, significant treatment change after patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) initiated their first injectable glucose-lowering therapy (exen...

  10. Initiative Games in Physical Education: A Practical Approach for Teaching Critical Thinking Skills--Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Hunt, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    As teachers prepare children for the future, the need for developing critical thinking skills in students becomes clearly evident. One way to promote this process is through initiative games. Initiative games are clearly defined problems that a group must find a solution to through cooperation, physical effort and cognitive functioning. The…

  11. The Effect of Parents' Ethnic Socialization Practices on Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem and Psychological Adjustment of Multi Ethnic Children in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chua Bee Seok; Rosnah Ismail; Jasmine Adela Mutang; Shaziah Iqbal; Nur Farhana Ardillah Aftar; Alfred Chan Huan Zhi; Ferlis Bin Bahari; Lailawati Madlan; Hon Kai Yee

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the role of parents' ethnic socialization practices contributes to the ethnic identity development, self-esteem and psychological adjustment of multi ethnic children in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 342 multi ethnic children (age range = 10 years old to 14 years old; mean age = 12.65 years, SD = 0.88) and their parents participated in the present study. The modified version of Multi group Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), The Familial Ethnic ...

  12. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  13. Continuous quality improvement programs provide new opportunities to drive value innovation initiatives in hospital-based radiology practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Joseph R; Schomer, Don F

    2009-07-01

    Imaging services constitute a huge portion of the of the total dollar investment within the health care enterprise. Accordingly, this generates competition among medical specialties organized along service lines for their pieces of the pie and increased scrutiny from third-party payers and government regulators. These market and political forces create challenge and opportunity for a hospital-based radiology practice. Clearly, change that creates or builds greater value for patients also creates sustainable competitive advantage for a radiology practice. The somewhat amorphous concept of quality constitutes a significant value driver for innovation in this scenario. Quality initiatives and programs seek to define and manage this amorphous concept and provide tools for a radiology practice to create or build more value. Leadership and the early adoption of these inevitable programs by a radiology practice strengthens relationships with hospital partners and slows the attrition of imaging service lines to competitors.

  14. Evaluating mediation and moderation effects in school psychology: A presentation of methods and review of current practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; McQuillin, Samuel D.

    2010-01-01

    Third variable effects elucidate the relation between two other variables, and can describe why they are related or under what conditions they are related. This article demonstrates methods to analyze two third-variable effects: moderation and mediation. The utility of examining moderation and mediation effects in school psychology is described and current use of the analyses in applied school psychology research is reviewed and evaluated. Proper statistical methods to test the effects are pr...

  15. The Second Annual Student Scientific-Practical Conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Issues of Theory and Practice”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanin P.A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present report contains the report on the work of the Second Annual Student Scientific-Practical Conference in Memory of M.Y. Kondratyev «Social Psychology: Issues of Theory and Practice». The conference was attended by the undergraduate and graduate students of MSUPE who submitted the reports, which reflected modern trends in the study of socialization of the individual, optimization of motivation in learning and professional activity, harmonization of interpersonal and intergroup relations in various spheres of life of a modern man.

  16. Impact of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses on Quality Measures: The Missouri Quality Initiative Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Popejoy, Lori; Vogelsmeier, Amy; Galambos, Colleen; Alexander, Greg; Flesner, Marcia; Murray, Cathy; Crecelius, Charles; Ge, Bin; Petroski, Gregory

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the impact of advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) on the quality measure (QM) scores of the 16 participating nursing homes of the Missouri Quality Initiative (MOQI) intervention. The MOQI was one of 7 program sites in the US, with specific interventions unique to each site tested for the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services Innovations Center. While the goals of the MOQI for long-stay nursing home residents did not specifically include improvement of the QM scores, it was anticipated that improvement most likely would occur. Primary goals of the MOQI were to reduce the frequency of avoidable hospital admissions and readmissions; improve resident health outcomes; improve the process of transitioning between inpatient hospitals and nursing facilities; and reduce overall healthcare spending without restricting access to care or choice of providers. A 2-group comparison analysis was conducted using statewide QMs; a matched comparison group was selected from facilities in the same counties as the intervention homes, similar baseline QM scores, similar size and ownership. MOQI nursing homes each had an APRN embedded full-time to improve care and help the facility achieve MOQI goals. Part of their clinical work with residents and staff was to focus on quality improvement strategies with potential to influence healthcare outcomes. Trajectories of QM scores for the MOQI intervention nursing homes and matched comparison group homes were tested with nonparametric tests to examine for change in the desired direction between the 2 groups from baseline to 36 months. A composite QM score for each facility was constructed, and baseline to 36-month average change scores were examined using nonparametric tests. Then, adjusting for baseline, a repeated measures analysis using analysis of covariance as conducted. Composite QM scores of the APRN intervention group were significantly better (P = .025) than the comparison group

  17. Defense Inventory Improved Management Framework Needed to Guide Navy Best Practice Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    In this report, we discuss our evaluation of the Department of the Navy's best practices implementation schedule for the acquisition and distribution of secondary inventory items, which the Department...

  18. DEFENSE INVENTORY: Improved Management Framework Needed to Guide Air Force Best Practice Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    In this report, we discuss our evaluation of the Air Force's best practices implementation schedule for the acquisition and distribution of secondary inventory items, which the Secretary of the Air...

  19. Keeping it real--building an ROI model for an ambulatory EMR initiative that the physician practices espouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Rńee; Donnelly, John T

    2006-01-01

    The ambulatory electronic medical record initiative at Magic Valley Regional Medical Center (MVRMC) in South Central Idaho underwent a rigorous product evaluation process that resulted in one of the market-leading EMR products being selected for implementation. MVRMC includes four business entities, including a 213-bed regional hospital and a 19-practice management services organization. Early in the process, the organization viewed buy-in from its physicians as a critical success factor. The physicians had been integral to product selection, and it was equally important for them to trust the economic model for its acquisition-especially because it was likely that they would be asked to put "some skin in the game." To make this initiative economically feasible, MVRMC received a grant from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality based on the potential impact of the endeavor on healthcare delivery in the region. However, because the functional analysis did not result in the selection of the least expensive product, the AHRQ grant would only help defray the startup expenses, but not ongoing support and maintenance expenses after implementation; these costs would be borne by anticipated increases in the practice's revenue or reduction in its operating expenses. The ROI model would need to explain how each practice, from the single physician specialist to an almost 20-physician family practice, could pay for the desirable outcomes discussed during the selection phase of the project. The physicians, who had participated in technology initiatives in the past, were skeptical that cost-justifying an IT system was realistic, even though they recognized the potential benefits it could have on the quality and consistency of the care. Because some process standardization within and between practices would be needed to use electronic charting effectively, it was important that the ROI model did not outweigh the benefits of an as-yet untested operational workflow that

  20. Addressing Opioid-Associated Constipation Using Quality Oncology Practice Initiative Scores and Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Varinder; Haider, Sajjad; Sasapu, Appalanaidu; Mehta, Paulette; Arnaoutakis, Konstantinos; Makhoul, Issam

    2017-01-01

    Using the Quality Oncology Practice Initiative, an affiliate program of ASCO, we outlined opioid-associated constipation (OAC) as a subject in need of quality improvement (QI) in our fellowship program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System. We initiated a fellow-led QI project to advance the quality of patient care and provide a valuable avenue for QI training of young physicians. Fellows organized meetings with all stakeholders, addressed the scope of the problem, and devised strategies for OAC management. Monthly meetings were organized using Plan-Do-Study-Act principles. Mandatory check boxes were inserted into our electronic medical record templates to remind all physicians to identify patients on opioid medications and assess and address OAC. Final chart audit and patient satisfaction surveys were performed 6 months after project initiation. Assessment of OAC improved from 52% at baseline to 92% ( P < .003). This improvement corresponded with high patient satisfaction scores, with 90% of surveyed patients reporting adequate management of their constipation. In this QI initiative, we showed that participation in ASCO's Quality Oncology Practice Initiative helps identify areas in need of QI, and such fellow-led QI projects can serve as models for QI training of young physicians.

  1. A survey of critical care nurses' practices and perceptions surrounding early intravenous antibiotic initiation during septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Russel J; Alhammad, Abdullah M; Crossley, Lindsay; Anketell, Eric; Wood, LeeAnn; Schumaker, Greg; Garpestad, Erik; Devlin, John W

    2017-08-01

    Delays in antibiotic administration after severe sepsis recognition increases mortality. While physician and pharmacy-related barriers to early antibiotic initiation have been well evaluated, those factors that affect the speed by which critical care nurses working in either the emergency department or the intensive care unit setting initiate antibiotic therapy remains poorly characterized. To evaluate the knowledge, practices and perceptions of critical care nurses regarding antibiotic initiation in patients with newly recognised septic shock. A validated survey was distributed to 122 critical care nurses at one 320-bed academic institution with a sepsis protocol advocating intravenous(IV) antibiotic initiation within 1hour of shock recognition. Among 100 (82%) critical care nurses responding, nearly all (98%) knew of the existence of the sepsis protocol. However, many critical care nurses stated they would optimise blood pressure [with either fluid (38%) or both fluid and a vasopressor (23%)] before antibiotic initiation. Communicated barriers to rapid antibiotic initiation included: excessive patient workload (74%), lack of awareness IV antibiotic(s) ordered (57%) or delivered (69%), need for administration of multiple non-antibiotic IV medications (54%) and no IV access (51%). Multiple nurse-related factors influence IV antibiotic(s) initiation speed and should be incorporated into sepsis quality improvement efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Theory- and Evidence- Based Intervention: Practice-Based Evidence--Integrating Positive Psychology into a Clinical Psychological Assessment and Intervention Model and How to Measure Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a model for assessment and intervention is presented. This model explains how to perform theory- and evidence- based as well as practice-based assessment and intervention. The assessment model applies a holistic approach to treatment planning, which includes recognition of the influence of community, school, peers, family and the…

  3. Investigation of practical initial attenuation image estimates in TOF-MLAA reconstruction for PET/MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ju-Chieh; Yaqub, Maqsood; Boellaard, Ronald; Salomon, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Time-of-flight joint attenuation and activity positron emission tomography reconstruction requires additional calibration (scale factors) or constraints during or post-reconstruction to produce a quantitative μ-map. In this work, the impact of various initializations of the joint reconstruction was investigated, and the initial average mu-value (IAM) method was introduced such that the forward-projection of the initial μ-map is already very close to that of the reference μ-map, thus reducing/minimizing the offset (scale factor) during the early iterations of the joint reconstruction. Consequently, the accuracy and efficiency of unconstrained joint reconstruction such as time-of-flight maximum likelihood estimation of attenuation and activity (TOF-MLAA) can be improved by the proposed IAM method. Methods: 2D simulations of brain and chest were used to evaluate TOF-MLAA with various initial estimates which include the object filled with water uniformly (conventional initial estimate), bone uniformly, the average μ-value uniformly (IAM magnitude initialization method), and the perfect spatial μ-distribution but with a wrong magnitude (initialization in terms of distribution). 3D GATE simulation was also performed for the chest phantom under a typical clinical scanning condition, and the simulated data were reconstructed with a fully corrected list-mode TOF-MLAA algorithm with various initial estimates. The accuracy of the average μ-values within the brain, chest, and abdomen regions obtained from the MR derived μ-maps was also evaluated using computed tomography μ-maps as the gold-standard. Results: The estimated μ-map with the initialization in terms of magnitude (i.e., average μ-value) was observed to reach the reference more quickly and naturally as compared to all other cases. Both 2D and 3D GATE simulations produced similar results, and it was observed that the proposed IAM approach can produce quantitative μ-map/emission when the corrections

  4. Physiotherapy in hip and knee osteoarthritis: development of a practice guideline concerning initial assessment, treatment and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, W F; Jansen, M J; Hurkmans, E J; Bloo, H; Dekker, J; Dilling, R G; Hilberdink, W; Kersten-Smit, C; de Rooij, M; Veenhof, C; Vermeulen, H M; de Vos, R J; Schoones, J W; Vliet Vlieland, T P

    2011-01-01

    An update of a Dutch physiotherapy practice guideline in Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis (HKOA) was made, based on current evidence and best practice. A guideline steering committee, comprising 10 expert physiotherapists, selected topics concerning the guideline chapters: initial assessment, treatment and evaluation. With respect to treatment a systematic literature search was performed using various databases, and the evidence was graded (1-4). For the initial assessment and evaluation mainly review papers and textbooks were used. Based on evidence and expert opinion, recommendations were formulated. A first draft of the guideline was reviewed by 17 experts from different professional backgrounds. A second draft was field-tested by 45 physiotherapists. In total 11 topics were selected. For the initial assessment, three recommendations were formulated, pertaining to history taking, red flags, and formulating treatment goals. Concerning treatment, 7 recommendations were formulated; (supervised) exercise therapy, education and self management interventions, a combination of exercise and manual therapy, postoperative exercise therapy and taping of the patella were recommended. Balneotherapy and hydrotherapy in HKOA, and thermotherapy, TENS, and Continuous Passive Motion in knee OA were neither recommended nor discouraged. Massage therapy, ultrasound, electrotherapy, electromagnetic field, Low Level Laser Therapy, preoperative physiotherapy and education could not be recommended. For the evaluation of treatment goals the following measurement instruments were recommended: Lequesne index, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, 6-minute walktest, Timed Up and Go test, Patient Specific Complaint list, Visual Analoge Scale for pain, Intermittent and Constant OsteoArthritis Pain Questionnaire, goniometry, Medical Research Council for strength, handheld

  5. Interpreting future physics teachers reflections on their professional practice during initial formation: the search for teaching autonomy construction

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Langhi; Roberto Nardi

    2012-01-01

    This research intends to answer the following main question: which traces of teacher autonomy construction are possible to achieve during reflective formative processes in disciplines like Methodology and Physics Teaching Practice carried out during three semesters, in an undergraduate program designed to physics teachers´ initial education? Using an analytical device based on teachers education research assumptions, which we called convergent formative triangulation for progressive teaching ...

  6. CDC's 6|18 Initiative: A Cross-Sector Approach to Translating Evidence Into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeff, Laura C; McGinnis, Tricia; Heishman, Hilary

    2018-02-22

    As the US health care system continues to undergo dynamic change, the increased alignment between health care quality and payment has provided new opportunities for public health and health care sectors to work together. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 6|18 Initiative accelerates cross-sector collaboration between public health and health care purchasers, payers, and providers and highlights 6 high-burden conditions and 18 associated interventions with evidence of cost reduction/neutrality and improved health outcomes. This evidence can inform payment, utilization, and quality of prevention and control interventions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention focused initially on public payer health insurance interventions for asthma control, unintended pregnancy prevention, and tobacco cessation. Nine state Medicaid and public health agency teams-in Colorado, Georgia, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Rhode Island, and South Carolina-participated in the initiative because they had previously prioritized the health condition(s) and specific intervention(s) and had secured state-level leadership support for state agency collaboration. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Center for Health Care Strategies, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and other partners supported state implementation and dissemination of early lessons learned. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted exploratory interviews to guide improvement of the 6|18 Initiative and to understand facilitators, barriers, and complementary roles played by each sector. Monthly technical assistance calls conducted with state teams documented collaborative activities between state Medicaid agencies and health departments and state processes to increase coverage and utilization. The 6|18 Initiative is strengthening partnerships between state health departments and Medicaid agencies and

  7. Where theory and practice of global health intersect: the developmental history of a Canadian global health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daibes, Ibrahim; Sridharan, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the scope of practice of global health, drawing on the practical experience of a global health initiative of the Government of Canada--the Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership Program. A number of challenges in the practical application of theoretical definitions and understandings of global health are addressed. These challenges are grouped under five areas that form essential characteristics of global health: equity and egalitarian North-South partnerships, interdisciplinary scope, focus on upstream determinants of health, global conceptualization, and global health as an area of both research and practice. Information in this paper is based on the results of an external evaluation of the program, which involved analysis of project proposals and technical reports, surveys with grantees and interviews with grantees and program designers, as well as case studies of three projects and a review of relevant literature. The philosophy and recent definitions of global health represent a significant and important departure from the international health paradigm. However, the practical applicability of this maturing area of research and practice still faces significant systemic and structural impediments that, if not acknowledged and addressed, will continue to undermine the development of global health as an effective means to addressing health inequities globally and to better understanding, and acting upon, upstream determinants of health toward health for all. While it strives to redress global inequities, global health continues to be a construct that is promoted, studied, and dictated mostly by Northern institutions and scholars. Until practical mechanisms are put in place for truly egalitarian partnerships between North and South for both the study and practice of global health, the emerging philosophy of global health cannot be effectively put into practice.

  8. Initiation of traditional birth attendants and their traditional and spiritual practices during pregnancy and childbirth in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziato, Lydia; Omenyo, Cephas N

    2018-03-07

    Prior to the advent of modern obstetric services, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) have rendered services to pregnant women and women in labour for a long time. Although it is anticipated that women in contemporary societies will give birth in hospitals and clinics, some women still patronize the services of TBAs. The study therefore sought to gain an in-depth understanding of the initiation of TBAs and their traditional and spiritual practices employed during pregnancy and childbirth in Ghana. The design was an exploratory qualitative one using in-depth individual interviews. Data saturation was reached with 16 participants who were all of Christian faith. Interviews were conducted with a semi-structured interview guide, audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Content analysis was employed to generate findings. The findings showed that TBAs were initiated through apprenticeship from family members who were TBAs and other non-family TBAs as well as through dreams and revelations. They practice using both spiritual and physical methods and their work was founded on spiritual directions, use of spiritual artefacts, herbs and physical examination. TBAs delay cutting of the cord and disposal of the placenta was associated with beliefs which indicated that when not properly disposed, it will have negative consequences on the child during adulthood. Although, TBAs like maternal health professionals operate to improve maternal health care, some of their spiritual practices and beliefs may pose threats to their clients. Nonetheless, with appropriate initiation and training, they can become useful.

  9. Civic initiatives in urban development : self-governance versus self-organisation in planning practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, Ward

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses two distinct interpretations of self-organisation with regard to civic initiatives in urban development. One concerns urban developments in which citizens deliberately organise themselves in order to realise a collective ambition. This interpretation of self-organisation

  10. Local French Food Initiatives in Practice: The Emergence of a Social Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Giovanangeli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the development of local food systems from a social movement perspective. It examines the case study of a farm market located in France and considers whether and how local initiatives in food distribution can be viewed as a social movement, using social theory as the conceptual framework.

  11. Climate Change Professional Development: Design, Implementation, and Initial Outcomes on Teacher Learning, Practice, and Student Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.; Mouza, Chrystalla; Drewes, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present the design, implementation, and initial outcomes of the Climate Academy, a hybrid professional development program delivered through a combination of face-to-face and online interactions, intended to prepare formal and informal science teachers (grades 5-16) in teaching about climate change. The Climate Academy was…

  12. The Peer Reviewers’ Openness Initiative: Incentivising Open Research Practices through Peer Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Richard D.; Chambers, Christopher D.; Etchells, Peter J.; Harris, Christine R; Hoekstra, Rink; Lakens, Daniël; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Morey, Candice Coker; Newman, Daniel P.; Schönbrodt, Felix; Vanpaemel, Wolf; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Openness is one of the central values of science. Open scientific practices such as sharing data, materials, and analysis scripts alongside published articles have many benefits, including easier replication and extension studies, increased availability of data for theory-building and meta-analysis,

  13. The peer reviewers' openness initiative : incentivizing open research practices through peer review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, R.; Chambers, C.; Etchells, P.; Harris, C.; Hoekstra, R.; Lakens, D.; Lewandowsky, S.; Morey, C.; Newman, D.; Schönbrodt, F.; Vanpaemel, W.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.; Zwaan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Openness is one of the central values of science. Open scientific practices such as sharing data, materials and analysis scripts alongside published articles have many benefits, including easier replication and extension studies, increased availability of data for theory-building and meta-analysis,

  14. The Peer Reviewers’ Openness Initiative : incentivizing open research practices through peer review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, R.D.; Chambers, C.D.; Etchells, P.J.; Harris, C.R.; Hoekstra, R.; Lakens, D.; Lewandowsky, S.; Morey, C.C.; Newman, D.P.; Schönbrodt, F.D.; Vanpaemel, W.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.; Zwaan, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Openness is one of the central values of science. Open scientific practices such as sharing data, materials and analysis scripts alongside published articles have many benefits, including easier replication and extension studies, increased availability of data for theory-building and meta-analysis,

  15. The Peer Reviewers’ Openness Initiative: Incentivizing open research practices through peer review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. Morey (Richard D.); C.D. Chambers (Christopher D.); P.J. Etchells (Peter J.); C.R. Harris (Christine R.); R. Hoekstra (Rink); D. Lakens (Daniël); S. Lewandowsky (Stephan); C.C. Morey (Candice Coker); D.P. Newman (Daniel P.); F.D. Schönbrodt (Felix D.); W. Vanpaemel (Wolf); E.J. Wagenmakers (Eric-Jan); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractOpenness is one of the central values of science. Open scientific practices such as sharing data, materials and analysis scripts alongside published articles have many benefits, including easier replication and extension studies, increased availability of data for theory-building and

  16. Young Children's Initiation into Family Literacy Practices in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie; Hannon, Peter; Lewis, Margaret; Ritchie, Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a study that explored young children's digital literacy in the home. The aim of the study was to identify the range of digital literacy practices in which children are engaged in the home and to explore how these are embedded into family life and involve family members. Four children, two girls and two boys aged between 2 and…

  17. Linux thin-client conversion in a large cardiology practice: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echt, Martin P; Rosen, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    Capital Cardiology Associates (CCA) is a single-specialty cardiology practice with offices in New York and Massachusetts. In 2003, CCA converted its IT system from a Microsoft-based network to a Linux network employing Linux thin-client technology with overall positive outcomes.

  18. Improving Digital Assessment Practice: A Case Study of a Cross-Institutional Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anne-Marie; Ross, Bella; Robbie, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Assessment practice is a crucial component of higher education learning and teaching, however many academic teachers lack formal teaching qualifications and often fall back on teaching and assessing the way they themselves were taught. Furthermore, with increasingly diverse student cohorts, larger classes and increasing components of teaching…

  19. Evaluating mediation and moderation effects in school psychology: a presentation of methods and review of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J; McQuillin, Samuel D

    2010-02-01

    Third variable effects elucidate the relation between two other variables, and can describe why they are related or under what conditions they are related. This article demonstrates methods to analyze two third-variable effects: moderation and mediation. The utility of examining moderation and mediation effects in school psychology is described and current use of the analyses in applied school psychology research is reviewed and evaluated. Proper statistical methods to test the effects are presented, and different effect size measures for the models are provided. Extensions of the basic moderator and mediator models are also described.

  20. Evaluating mediation and moderation effects in school psychology: A presentation of methods and review of current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; McQuillin, Samuel D.

    2017-01-01

    Third variable effects elucidate the relation between two other variables, and can describe why they are related or under what conditions they are related. This article demonstrates methods to analyze two third-variable effects: moderation and mediation. The utility of examining moderation and mediation effects in school psychology is described and current use of the analyses in applied school psychology research is reviewed and evaluated. Proper statistical methods to test the effects are presented, and different effect size measures for the models are provided. Extensions of the basic moderator and mediator models are also described. PMID:20006988

  1. Initial Freudian theories and practices: considerations on discovery of the unconscious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Polimeni Maireno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article compares some theoretical postulates and some clinical practices of early moments of Freudian works, favoring production periods of Studies on Hysteria and the Interpretation of Dreams. Other works are cited in order to complement. The study highlights the role of concepts such as repression, resistance and transference before the emergence of the concept of the unconscious – without which all previous lose much of their senses; suggests that, rather than a Freud’s willful disposition in the formulation of concept of the unconscious, what we see is, instead, his reluctance to admit such a concept, which justifies its late appearance compared to the others. We conclude, finally, that such reluctance itself, conveys a valuable model to psychoanalysts about how theoretical and practical developments of psychoanalysis must happens.

  2. Role of laser myringotomy in a pediatric otolaryngology practice: initial experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Udayan K.

    2001-05-01

    A new technology (OtoLAM) to fenestrate the tympanic membrane with the carbon dioxide laser (CO2), in the office or the operating room, has been introduced over the last three years. While not new conceptually, this product offers the ability to easily create a precise window into the middle ear using a portable system. Controversy regarding the indications and benefits of this technique, amplified by the costs of the system and the marketing of the technology prior to extensive clinical testing, has plagued the clinical application of this technology. We report our experience over the past year with this system in a busy pediatric otolaryngology practice. Laser fenestration of the tympanic membrane has been useful for the insertion of tympanostomy tubes, and for the minimally invasive evaluation of the middle ear. Our small experience to date reveals that there is a limited role for laser tympanic membrane fenestration in a busy pediatric otolaryngology practice.

  3. Writing and teaching education: challenges in writing practice in initial training for teaching in portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Guedes Magalhães

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the result of a research with Portuguese Language students of Federal University of Juiz de Fora (MG that analysed their understanding about academic genres written in supervised internship of Portuguese Language in last period of full time course in 2014. We understand that the student’s insertion in written practices of academic genres is an important socialization process. Methodologically, we used open questionnaire applied at the end of the period when the students wrote their texts, after writing – rewriting – reflection about written. The data show us that a a minority of students is immersed in academic written practice during the Portuguese Language undergraduation; b the students face up difficulties in writing not detected along the course; c there is more student’s engagement in the written of paper and reports in circulation context.

  4. Bilingual practices in the process of initiating and resolving lexical problems in students' collaborative writing sessions

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This study deals with the sequential organization of language choice and code-switching between Persian as a first language and Swedish as a second language in the process of initiating and resolving a problem of understanding and producing the correct version of a lexical item. The data consist of detailed transcripts of audio tapings of two bilingual students' collaborative writing sessions within the frame of a one-year master's program in computer science in a mult...

  5. LGBT psychology and feminist psychology: bridging the divide

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, V.; Peel, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we outline some of the similarities and differences between lesbian and gay psychology (more recently known as LGBT psychology) and feminist psychology. Both fields developed in response to the oppressive practices of psychology; however, lesbian and gay psychologists have been far more willing to using the theoretical and methodological tools of mainstream psychology than have feminist psychologists. Feminist psychologists have enthusiastically embraced qualitative and critica...

  6. The lesser evil? Initiating a benzodiazepine prescription in general practice: a qualitative study on GPs' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthierens, Sibyl; Habraken, Hilde; Petrovic, Mirko; Christiaens, Thierry

    2007-12-01

    Chronic benzodiazepine (BZD) use is widespread and linked with adverse effects. There is consensus concerning the importance of initiating BZD as a crucial moment. Nevertheless specific research in this field is lacking. This paper addresses the views of GPs on why they start prescribing BZDs to first-time users. Qualitative study with five focus groups analysed using a systematic content analysis. Regions of Ghent and Brussels in Belgium. A total of 35 general practitioners. The GPs' perspective on their initiating of BZD prescribing. GPs reported that they are cautious in initiating BZD usage. At the same time, GPs feel overwhelmed by the psychosocial problems of their patients. They show empathy by prescribing. They feel in certain situations there are no other solutions and they experience BZDs as the lesser evil. They admit to resorting to BZDs because of time restraint and lack of alternatives. GPs do not perceive the addictive nature of BZD consumption as a problem with first-time users. GPs do not specifically mention patients' demand as an element for starting. The main concern of GPs is to help the patient. GPs should be aware of the addictive nature of BZD even in low doses and a non-pharmacological approach should be seen as the best first approach. If GPs decide to prescribe a BZD they should make plain to the patient that the medication is only a "temporary" solution with clear agreements with regard to medication withdrawal.

  7. Advantages of the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Initiative and Its Role in Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curro, Frederick A.; Grill, Ashley C.; Thompson, Van P.; Craig, Ronald G.; Vena, Don; Keenan, Analia V.; Naftolin, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a novel venue in which providers can increase their knowledge base and improve delivery of care through participation in clinical studies. This article describes some aspects of our experience with a National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research-supported PBRN and discusses the role it can play in dental education. PBRNs create a structured pathway for providers to advance their professional development by participating in the process of collecting data through clinical research. This process allows practitioners to contribute to the goals of evidence-based dentistry by helping to provide a foundation of evidence on which to base clinical decisions as opposed to relying on anecdotal evidence. PBRNs strengthen the professional knowledge base by applying the principles of good clinical practice, creating a resource for future dental faculty, training practitioners on best practices, and increasing the responsibility, accountability, and scope of care. PBRNs can be the future pivotal instruments of change in dental education, the use of electronic health record systems, diagnostic codes, and the role of comparative effectiveness research, which can create an unprecedented opportunity for the dental profession to advance and be integrated into the health care system. PMID:21828299

  8. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128

  9. Evaluating Mediation and Moderation Effects in School Psychology: A Presentation of Methods and Review of Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; McQuillin, Samuel D.

    2010-01-01

    Third variable effects elucidate the relation between two other variables, and can describe why they are related or under what conditions they are related. This article demonstrates methods to analyze two third-variable effects: moderation and mediation. The utility of examining moderation and mediation effects in school psychology is described…

  10. A Program to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a School Based Upon a Practical Application of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Carl G.

    This practicum report describes a program to aid in reducing the incidence of disruptive behavior of students through the use of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology. The report contains a general definition of the problem, which was the reduction of the disruptive student behavior, and the objectives to be achieved from the program. There is a…

  11. Commentary--A United Front: Using the Range of Psychological Variance in Cutting-Edge Practice and Emerging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Simon Anthony; Kleitman, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and behavioral variance can be explained by differences in the environment, and between and within individuals. Almost 60 years ago, Cronbach (1957) called for converging investigations into all three sources as important for the development of accurate science and useful applications in the real world. Yet rifts among researchers…

  12. Ethical issues surrounding the provider initiated opt--Out prenatal HIV screening practice in Sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Luchuo Engelbert; Dierickx, Kris; Hens, Kristien

    2015-10-24

    Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV remains a key public health priority in most developing countries. The provider Initiated Opt - Out Prenatal HIV Screening Approach, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) lately has been adopted and translated into policy in most Sub - Saharan African countries. To better ascertain the ethical reasons for or against the use of this approach, we carried out a literature review of the ethics literature. Papers published in English and French Languages between 1990 and 2015 from the following data bases were searched: Pubmed, Cochrane literature, Embase, Cinhal, Web of Science and Google Scholar. After screening from 302 identified relevant articles, 21 articles were retained for the critical review. Most authors considered this approach ethically justifiable due to its potential benefits to the mother, foetus and society (Beneficence). The breaching of respect for autonomy was considered acceptable on the grounds of libertarian paternalism. Most authors considered the Opt - Out approach to be less stigmatizing than the Opt - In. The main arguments against the Opt - Out approach were: non respect of patient autonomy, informed consent becoming a meaningless concept and the HIV test becoming compulsory, risk of losing trust in health care providers, neglect of social and psychological implications of doing an HIV test, risk of aggravation of stigma if all tested patients are not properly cared for and neglect of sociocultural peculiarities. The Opt - Out approach could be counterproductive in case gender sensitive issues within the various sociocultural representations are neglected, and actions to offer holistic care to all women who shall potentially test positive for HIV were not effectively ascertained. The Provider Initiated Opt - Out Prenatal HIV Screening option remains ethically acceptable, but deserves caution, active monitoring and evaluation within the translation of this approach into to practice.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Tong Len Meditation Practice in Cancer Patients: Evaluation of a Distant Psychological Healing Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Gioacchino; Pandolfi, Paolo; Collina, Natalina; Frezza, Giovanni; Brandes, Alba; Galli, Margherita; Avventuroso, Federica Marzocchi; De Lisio, Sara; Musti, Muriel Assunta; Franceschi, Enrico; Esposti, Roberta Degli; Lombardo, Laura; Cavallo, Giovanna; Di Battista, Monica; Rimondini, Simonetta; Poggi, Rosalba; Susini, Cinzia; Renzi, Rina; Marconi, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Tong Len meditation is an important therapeutic tool in the Tibetan medicine, and it can be used for self-healing and/or to heal others. Currently, in the West, there is no scientific study concerning the efficacy of a Tong Len distant healing effect on psychological disorders in cancer patients. To evaluate a distant healing effect of Tong Len meditation on stress, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and self-perceived quality of life in cancer patients. These psychological objectives were chosen as a consequence of the limited scientific literature of present day. We performed a double-blind randomized controlled trial on 103 cancer patients with tumors. Overall, 12 meditators used Tong Len in aid of 52 patients randomly selected as experimental group, while the remaining 51 patients constituted the control group. Patients and meditators did not know each other. All patients completed profile of mood states (POMS) and European Quality of Life-5 dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaires before treatment (T0), after two (T1) and three months of treatment (T2), and one month after treatment cessation (T3). With regard to the parameters related to depression, a statistically significant improvement (P = .003) was observed in the treatment group compared to controls. On the other hand, the vigor/activity parameter saw significant improvements in the control group (P = .009). Both groups exhibited significant improvements in the other factors assessed in the POMS and EQ-5D questionnaires. This study did not provide sufficient evidence supporting an efficacy of Tong Len meditation in distant psychological healing as compared to a control condition. The research highlighted some psychological improvements through Tong Len distant meditation in a group of patients unknown to meditators. Therefore, the enhancement detected in most parameters in both treatment and control groups raises interest on in-depth analysis and evaluation of distant meditation on cancer patients to mitigate

  14. Interpreting future physics teachers reflections on their professional practice during initial formation: the search for teaching autonomy construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Langhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to answer the following main question: which traces of teacher autonomy construction are possible to achieve during reflective formative processes in disciplines like Methodology and Physics Teaching Practice carried out during three semesters, in an undergraduate program designed to physics teachers´ initial education? Using an analytical device based on teachers education research assumptions, which we called convergent formative triangulation for progressive teaching autonomy, we had as a main objective the search for the chance to achieve progressive levels of teachers autonomy, according to its three teacher professionalization models, present in a critical and transformative perspective, relating them to the current formative paradigms: the contents based one, the humanist, the activist, the reflective and the technical (approaches we called CHART. Taking into consideration future physics teachers´ collective reflections about their own teaching practice, this research was supported by the following methodological instruments: focus group, coaching, self-confrontation and formative assessment, taking the discourse analysis as background. The outcomes of this research, which followed a sample of 40 future High School physics teachers during three semesters, through the use of five formative steps (planning, implementation, reflection, socialization, involvement and continuity, revealed the evidences of teachers autonomy construction, probably provided by their own teaching practice collective reflections, according to the analytical device used. This research showed that the reflections brakes provided during the process can allow the future teachers to position themselves critically in relation to their future pedagogical activities, even after their initial training. This experience leads us to rethink how subjects like Methodology and Teaching Practice have been teaching in the teachers’ education programs at

  15. CHOICE OF THE INITIAL TREATMENT FOR MILD TO MODERATE ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN MOSCOW PRIMARY PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gatsura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the choice of initial pharmacotherapy of uncomplicated mild to moderate arterial hypertension (HT in Moscow primary care as well as to clear up the influence of regulatory measures on this choice.Material and methods. Results of two similar surveys conducted in 2011-2012 (452 respondents and 2013-2014 (273 respondents were compared to estimate preferences of Moscow primary care physicians regarding initial antihypertensive agents for therapy of uncomplicated mild to moderate HT taking into consideration an influence of regulatory requirement to prescribe medicinal products by international nonproprietary name (INN since July 2012. All participants were proposed to write down their preferred antihypertensive agents for initial mono- or combined therapy of mild to moderate HT with moderate cardiovascular risk and absence of compelling indications.Results. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI remained the leading class of antihypertensive agents, though their popularity slightly but significantly declined from 44.4% in 2011-12 to 37.2% in 2013-14 (р<0.05. Angiotensin receptor blockers partially displaced the leaders and increased their popularity from 11.3% in 2011-12 to 18.0% in 2013-14 (р<0.01. ACEI/diuretic combination remained on the 3rd position (16.4% and 15.3% respectively. Beta-blockers and diuretics as monotherapy shared 4th and 5th places in this rating. Calcium channel blockers popularity among Moscow prescribers remained unchanged and poor – 2.1%. The most popular medicine by trade name was Noliprel, perindopril/indapamide fixed combination, – 14.0% and 13.7% of respondents in 2011-12 and 2013-14, respectively. The share of medicine products recommended by INN went up from 11.9% to 22.8% among top-10 popular medications (р<0.01.Conclusion. Blockers of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system remain the leading drugs for the initial treatment of uncomplicated mild to moderate HT without compelling indications

  16. Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W; Richards, William A; Richards, Brian D; Jesse, Robert; MacLean, Katherine A; Barrett, Frederick S; Cosimano, Mary P; Klinedinst, Maggie A

    2018-01-01

    Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences with participant-attributed increases in well-being. However, little research has examined enduring changes in traits. This study administered psilocybin to participants who undertook a program of meditation/spiritual practices. Healthy participants were randomized to three groups (25 each): (1) very low-dose (1 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2) with moderate-level ("standard") support for spiritual-practice (LD-SS); (2) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with standard support (HD-SS); and (3) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with high support for spiritual practice (HD-HS). Psilocybin was administered double-blind and instructions to participants/staff minimized expectancy confounds. Psilocybin was administered 1 and 2 months after spiritual-practice initiation. Outcomes at 6 months included rates of spiritual practice and persisting effects of psilocybin. Compared with low-dose, high-dose psilocybin produced greater acute and persisting effects. At 6 months, compared with LD-SS, both high-dose groups showed large significant positive changes on longitudinal measures of interpersonal closeness, gratitude, life meaning/purpose, forgiveness, death transcendence, daily spiritual experiences, religious faith and coping, and community observer ratings. Determinants of enduring effects were psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience and rates of meditation/spiritual practices. Psilocybin can occasion enduring trait-level increases in prosocial attitudes/behaviors and in healthy psychological functioning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00802282.

  17. Influencing organisational change in the NHS: lessons learned from workplace wellness initiatives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Holly; Lloyd, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the key issues in influencing organisational change in NHS settings, in the development of workplace wellness interventions to improve employee health and wellbeing. To tackle poor public health and associated rising healthcare costs, there must be a focus on the root cause of many preventable diseases - unhealthy lifestyle choices. Workplace wellness initiatives are now an important prevention strategy adopted by socially responsible organisations to target the health and wellbeing of working age adults. Lessons learned from initiatives in secondary care suggest that effective implementation requires change in organisational 'health culture', through a combination of education, behaviour change intervention, needs-based facilities, and services and strategies for developing supportive and health-promoting work environments. Most of all, employers must demonstrate a commitment to health and wellness that is fully integrated with their mission, values and long-term vision, paving the way for sustainable lifestyle changes. Evaluation systems must be in place to measure the impact and outcomes of wellness schemes.

  18. Exercise recommendations for childhood cancer survivors exposed to cardiotoxic therapies: an institutional clinical practice initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Maki; Meeske, Kathleen A; Menteer, Jondavid; Freyer, David R

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have received treatment with anthracyclines are at risk for developing cardiomyopathy in dose-dependent fashion. Historically, restrictions on certain types of physical activity that were intended to preserve cardiac function have been recommended, based on a mixture of evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations. In the LIFE Cancer Survivorship & Transition Program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, the authors reevaluated their recommendations for exercise in survivors who were exposed to anthracyclines, with or without irradiation in proximity to the myocardium. The primary goal was to develop consistent, specific, practical, safe, and (where possible) evidence-based recommendations for at-risk survivors in the program. To accomplish this, the authors referred to current exercise guidelines for childhood cancer survivors, consulted recent literature for relevant populations, and obtained input from the program's pediatric cardiology consultant. The resulting risk-based exercise recommendations are designed to complement current published guidelines, maximize safe exercise, and help childhood cancer survivors return to a normal life that emphasizes overall wellness and physical activity. This article describes a single institution's experience in modifying exercise recommendations for at-risk childhood survivors and includes the methods, findings, and current institutional practice recommendations along with sample education materials.

  19. Practical Approaches to Evaluating Progress and Outcomes in Community-Wide Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevendale, Heather D; Condron, D Susanne; Garraza, Lucas Godoy; House, L Duane; Romero, Lisa M; Brooks, Megan A M; Walrath, Christine

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the key evaluation components for a set of community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. We first describe the performance measures selected to assess progress toward meeting short-term objectives on the reach and quality of implementation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention interventions and adolescent reproductive health services. Next, we describe an evaluation that will compare teen birth rates in intervention communities relative to synthetic control communities. Synthetic controls are developed via a data-driven technique that constructs control communities by combining information from a pool of communities that are similar to the intervention community. Finally, we share lessons learned thus far in the evaluation of the project, with a focus on those lessons that may be valuable for local communities evaluating efforts to reduce teen pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  1. Development and initial evaluation of a mobile application to help with mindfulness training and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza García, Inmaculada; Sánchez, Carlos Medrano; Espílez, Ángel Sánchez; García-Magariño, Iván; Guillén, Guillermo Azuara; García-Campayo, Javier

    2017-09-01

    Different review articles support the usefulness and effectiveness of mindfulness techniques in health and wellbeing. In this paper we present a first prototype of a mobile application to help with the training and practice of mindfulness, taking into account the lacks detected in a previous literature review. Our aim was to measure acceptance and perceived quality, as well as gather data about app usage. Their dependence on demographic variables and the change in mindful level was also measured. Two versions of a new application were developed, "Mindfulness" and "Mindfulness Sci". The application has been tested in two pilot studies: in traditional face-to-face mindfulness groups and in individual and independent use. 3977 users were involved in this study: 26 in the first trial during an 8-week usage period and 3951 in the second trial during 17 months. In the first study, participants assessed the app with high scores. They considered it as a helping tool for mindfulness practice, user-friendly and with high quality of use. The positive perception was maintained after 8-weeks meditation workshops, and participants considered that its use could contribute to obtain benefits for mental and physical health. In the second study, we found rather weak associations between usage time and age, nationality and educational level. The mindful level showed a weak positive correlation with the session accomplished but slightly above the boundary of statistical significance (p-value=0.051). Videos and information stood out as the most accessed resources. Up to our knowledge, this is the first app developed with the help of health professionals in Spanish that could be used with a general aim, in health and wellbeing. The results are promising with a positive evaluation in face-to-face and independent use situations. Therefore, the number of potential users is enormous in a global worldwide context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The 'Practice Entrepreneur' - An Australian case study of a systems thinking inspired health promotion initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, A; Green, C; Carey, G; Malbon, E

    2017-01-23

    The potential of systems science concepts to inform approaches for addressing complex public health problems, such as obesity prevention, has been attracting significant attention over the last decade. Despite its recent popularity, there are very few studies examining the application of systems science concepts, termed systems thinking, in practice and whether (if at all) it influences the implementation of health promotion in real world settings and in what ways. Healthy Together Victoria (HTV) was based on a systems thinking approach to address obesity prevention alongside other chronic health problems and was implemented across 14 local government areas. This paper examines the experience of practitioners from one of those intervention sites. In-depth interviews with eight practitioners revealed that there was a rigidity with which they had experienced previous health promotion jobs relative to the flexibility and fluidity of HTV. While the health promotion literature does not indicate that health promotion should be overly prescriptive, the experience of these practitioners suggests it is being applied as such in real world settings. Within HTV, asking people to work with 'systems thinking', without giving a prescription about what systems thinking is, enabled practitioners to be 'practice entrepreneurs' by choosing from a variety of systems thinking methods (mapping, reflection) to engage actively in their positions. This highlights the importance of understanding how key concepts, both traditional planning approaches and systems science concepts, are interpreted and then implemented in real world settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Improving access to important recovery information for heart patients with low health literacy: reflections on practice-based initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Biuso, Catuscia; Jennings, Amanda; Patsamanis, Harry

    2018-05-29

    Evidence exists for the association between health literacy and heart health outcomes. Cardiac rehabilitation is critical for recovery from heart attack and reducing hospital readmissions. Despite this, literacy. This brief case study reflects and documents practice-based initiatives by Heart Foundation Victoria to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. Three key initiatives, namely the Six Steps To Cardiac Recovery resource, the Love Your Heart book and the nurse ambassador program, were implemented informed by mixed methods that assessed need and capacity at the individual, organisational and systems levels. Key outcomes included increased access to recovery information for patients with low health literacy, nurse knowledge and confidence to engage with patients on recovery information, improved education of patients and improved availability and accessibility of information for patients in diverse formats. Given the challenges involved in addressing heart health literacy, multifaceted practice-based approaches are essential to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. What is known about the topic? Significant challenges exist for patients with lower health literacy receiving recovery information after a heart attack in hospitals. What does this paper add? This case study provides insights into a practice-based initiative by Heart Foundation Victoria to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. What are the implications for practitioners? Strategies to improve recovery through increased heart health literacy must address the needs of patients, nursing staff and the health system within hospitals. Such strategies need to be multifaceted and designed to build the capacity of nurses, heart patients and their carers, as well as support from hospital management.

  4. How fear of falling can increase fall-risk in older adults: Applying psychological theory to practical observations

    OpenAIRE

    Young, WR; Williams, AM

    2013-01-01

    This article was made available through the Brunel Open Access Fund. It is widely reported that fear of falling (FOF) has a profound and largely detrimental effect on balance performance in older adults. However, the mechanisms by which FOF influence postural stability are poorly understood. In the current article, we use psychological theory to explain FOF-related changes to postural control. First, we review literature describing associations between FOF and the 'stiffening' strategies o...

  5. Making good theory practical: five lessons for an Applied Social Identity Approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Motivational and Adaptation Experiences of Returnees and Migrants to Cyprus: A Grounded Theory Study With Counselling Psychology Application and Practice Implications in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This grounded theory study explored the existential lived experience of migrants and second-generation Greek-Cypriot returnees to Cyprus and implications for counselling psychology. It looked at their motivation to return/migrate, their encounter with the new world and desires to belong. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with four migrants and four returnees, recruited within the Cyprus Euroguidance employment service in three cities, Nicosia, Limassol and Larnaca in Cyprus, E.U. All participants were in the process of seeking employment. Migrants and returnees faced intense dilemmas following relocation. Returnees’ motivations to return were influenced by childhood memories of visiting the country, desires for an improved economic and familial lifestyle, and the need to find a true sense of belonging. Migrants’ motivations included being married to a Cypriot, hoping for better economic prospects and living in a sunny environment. People experienced a cultural transition after choosing to put their ethnic identity in a different ethnic environment to the one where it was formed and in their attempts to find work, develop friendships, be accepted and find a home they experienced an unsettling reality. In Counselling psychology terms, the findings support other literature (Ward, Bochner, & Furnham, 2001 highlighting that migrants go through phases of adjustment, with cultural contact and acceptance by the host society, as well as financial independence being key factors. They described their experience as an outsider in a system dominated by nepotism and in a society new to them, that appeared to be suspicious of them. This transition lived by them was psychologically de-stabilising, characterised by stress, frustration, depression and isolation. Their commitment to find a way to belong was shown through their resilience. These findings are discussed with the application and practice of Counselling Psychology in mind.

  7. Private Finance Initiative (PFI for Road Projects in UK: Current Practice with a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Akbiyikli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sustainable provision of new and high quality maintained road stock is vitally important, especially in times of economic constraint such as Europe is currently experiencing. The Private Finance Initiative (PFI is one method of financing such large-scale, capital intensive projects. An important aspect of this form of financing projects is that the risks are borne not only by the sponsors but are shared by different types of investors such as equity holders, debt providers, and quasi-equity investors. Consequently, a comprehensive and heuristic risk management process is essential for the success of the project. The proposition made within this paper is that the PFI mechanism provides a Value-for-Money and effective mechanism to achieve this. The structure of this PFI finance and investment on a particular road project therefore enables all project stakeholders to take a long-term perspective. This long-term perspective is reflected in the mechanism of a case study of UK – Class A trunk roads which are examined in detail. This paper presents a novel solution to a modern dilemma.

  8. People's initiative to counteract misinformation and marketing practices: the Pembo, Philippines, breastfeeding experience, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salud, M A Lourdes B; Gallardo, Josephine I; Dineros, Juliana A; Gammad, Alma F; Basilio, Juanita; Borja, Vicenta; Iellamo, Alessandro; Worobec, Lana; Sobel, Howard; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2009-08-01

    The Philippines is among 42 countries accounting for 90% of under 5-year-old deaths. Only 16% of 4 to 5 month old Filipinos exclusively breastfeed. In 2006, almost $100 million was spent advertising formula in the Philippines. To counter widespread misinformation and improve breastfeeding a peer counseling intervention was developed to target mothers with infants less than 2 months of age who were not exclusively breastfeeding or had difficulty breastfeeding. Participants received 3 peer counseling visits. At baseline and 3 weeks later, 24-hour food recalls for infants were collected. The number of exclusively formula-fed infants decreased seven-fold (P < .001). Mixed-fed infants decreased 37% (P < .001). Overall, of the 148 nonexclusively breastfeeding infants, 69.5% had changed feeding methods after 3 home visits, 76% of whom to exclusive breastfeeding. Community-based peer counseling was associated with a drastic improvement of exclusive breastfeeding practices. This intervention evolved and became sustainable by engaging political figures, cities, and communities throughout the process. In 2 years, the Department of Health, World Health Organization (WHO) program has scaled up to improve health service delivery for 161,612 persons in depressed urban communities in the Philippines.

  9. Focusing elementary students with active classrooms: exploring teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Foran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to explore the perceptions of elementary teachers who routinely prioritized physical activity in their classrooms. Researchers are reporting improved student academic test results following physical activity sessions, however, classroom teachers are challenged in balancing curricular and other expectations. Hence, teachers who voluntarily implement physical activity have views that are unique and important for promoting the practice to others. We interviewed seven teachers from grades 1-6, using the qualitative constructivist approach to grounded theory qualitative research. Teachers valued physical activity because it enhanced their students’ focus on classroom activities. Common attributes amongst the teachers were active lifestyles, previous employment experiencesusing physical activity, and a pedagogical approach prioritizing physical activity throughout the day. Additionally, the teachers perceived that belonging to schools with a culture of movement was important. Teachers view physical activity as a teaching asset when they perceive a positive impact on their students’ ability to focus. Specific teacher attributes and a school environment that embraces physical activity may predispose teachers to these views, and represent areas that should be further explored. Pre-service courses could be one way to provide teachers with experience and a repertoire of easy physical activities.

  10. Theory and practice of auditor procedures for opening balances during initial audit engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Bondar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased international capital flows requires the adaptation of the corporative relationships mechanisms in domestic entities to the international financial disclosure practices for increase of their investment attractiveness. The professional audit development, increases transparency and fair disclosure of complete and accurate information about the company helps make it. The study proved the importance of predecessor auditor’s working papers for detection of misstatements in opening balances and assessment of the client’s accounting and internal control systems. Consequently a program of opening balances inspecting and other working papers forms have been elaborate for the audit process documentary providing. This provides optimization of the audit resources for obtaining audit evidence and monitoring the quality control in completed audit engagement. Review of the working papers of the predecessor auditor should be used for understanding the managerial staff attitude to making adjustments in terms of financial reporting on the results of its audits. It helps to avoid threats to the auditor independence, reduce the risk of not detecting material misstatement and allow the auditor to determine its confidence in opening balances.

  11. Quality of Colonoscopy Performed in Rural Practice: Experience From the Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative and the Oregon Rural Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Jennifer L; Morris, Cynthia; Fagnan, Lyle J; Logan, Judith R; Michaels, LeAnn C; Lieberman, David A

    2018-02-01

    Colon cancer screening is effective. To complete screening in 80% of individuals over age 50 years by 2018 will require adequate colonoscopy capacity throughout the country, including rural areas, where colonoscopy providers may have less specialized training. Our aim was to study the quality of colonoscopy in rural settings. The Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative (CORI) and the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN) collaborated to recruit Oregon rural practices to submit colonoscopy reports to CORI's National Endoscopic Database (NED). Ten ORPRN sites were compared to non-ORPRN rural (n = 11) and nonrural (n = 43) sites between January 2009 and October 2011. Established colonoscopy quality measures were calculated for all sites. No ORPRN physicians were gastroenterologists compared with 82% of nonrural physicians. ORPRN practices reached the cecum in 87.4% of exams compared with 89.3% of rural sites (P = .0002) and 90.9% of nonrural sites (P 9mm 16.6% vs 18.7% (P = .106). ORPRN sites performed well on most colonoscopy quality measures, suggesting that high-quality colonoscopy can be performed in rural settings. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  12. Are adverse effects incorporated in economic models? An initial review of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D; McDaid, C; Fonseca, T; Stock, C; Duffy, S; Woolacott, N

    2009-12-01

    To identify methodological research on the incorporation of adverse effects in economic models and to review current practice. Major electronic databases (Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Economic Evaluations Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, EconLit, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium, IDEAS, MEDLINE and Science Citation Index) were searched from inception to September 2007. Health technology assessment (HTA) reports commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) HTA programme and published between 2004 and 2007 were also reviewed. The reviews of methodological research on the inclusion of adverse effects in decision models and of current practice were carried out according to standard methods. Data were summarised in a narrative synthesis. Of the 719 potentially relevant references in the methodological research review, five met the inclusion criteria; however, they contained little information of direct relevance to the incorporation of adverse effects in models. Of the 194 HTA monographs published from 2004 to 2007, 80 were reviewed, covering a range of research and therapeutic areas. In total, 85% of the reports included adverse effects in the clinical effectiveness review and 54% of the decision models included adverse effects in the model; 49% included adverse effects in the clinical review and model. The link between adverse effects in the clinical review and model was generally weak; only 3/80 (manipulation. Of the models including adverse effects, 67% used a clinical adverse effects parameter, 79% used a cost of adverse effects parameter, 86% used one of these and 60% used both. Most models (83%) used utilities, but only two (2.5%) used solely utilities to incorporate adverse effects and were explicit that the utility captured relevant adverse effects; 53% of those models that included utilities derived them from patients on treatment and could therefore be interpreted as capturing adverse effects. In total

  13. Baseline Utilization of Breast Radiotherapy Before Institution of the Medicare Practice Quality Reporting Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Benjamin D.; Smith, Grace L.; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In 2007, Medicare implemented the Physician Quality Reporting Initiative (PQRI), which provides financial incentives to physicians who report their performance on certain quality measures. PQRI measure no. 74 recommends radiotherapy for patients treated with conservative surgery (CS) for invasive breast cancer. As a first step in evaluating the potential impact of this measure, we assessed baseline use of radiotherapy among women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer before implementation of PQRI. Methods and Materials: Using the SEER-Medicare data set, we identified women aged 66-70 diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and treated with CS between 2000 and 2002. Treatment with radiotherapy was determined using SEER and claims data. Multivariate logistic regression tested whether receipt of radiotherapy varied significantly across clinical, pathologic, and treatment covariates. Results: Of 3,674 patients, 94% (3,445) received radiotherapy. In adjusted analysis, the presence of comorbid illness (odds ratio [OR] 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.42) and unmarried marital status were associated with omission of radiotherapy (OR 1.65; 95% CI, 1.22-2.20). In contrast, receipt of chemotherapy was protective against omission of radiotherapy (OR 0.25; 95% CI, 0.16-0.38). Race and geographic region did not correlate with radiotherapy utilization. Conclusions: Utilization of radiotherapy following CS was high for patients treated before institution of PQRI, suggesting that at most 6% of patients could benefit from measure no. 74. Further research is needed to determine whether institution of PQRI will affect radiotherapy utilization.

  14. Acute poisoning following ingestion of medicines: initial management. How to treat life-threatening complications and to evaluate the risk of delayed effects and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Acute poisoning following ingestion of medications, both intentional and unintentional, is frequent and more or less severe. It is often unclear whether a toxic dose has been ingested. This review examines the initial management of patients with suspected acute poisoning, based on a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. We examined clinical practice guidelines, which are mostly based on observational, pharmacological and toxicological data, as well as empirical data. Few comparative trials are available. In life-threatening situations, the first priority is to call an emergency response mobile unit and to implement life-support techniques, i.e., resuscitation for cardiorespiratory arrest; respiratory support if necessary; and the left lateral head-down position and glucose injection if the patient is unconscious. Prompt, initial measures may also include: anticonvulsant injection for status epilepticus (diazepam, for example); a sedative for extreme agitation (diazepam or clorazepate if there is no risk of respiratory depression; otherwise haloperidol); atropine for severe bradycardia; elevating the legs for hypotension; and naloxone in case of respiratory depression due to opioids. Drug poisoning can be life-threatening.The extent of the risk should be assessed by questioning the patient and close contacts, examining the immediate environment, and carrying out a clinical examination to identify a major toxic condition. The severity of poisoning is assessed by gathering all information about the patient, the drug(s) ingested, the circumstances of ingestion, and any other substances ingested at the same time. A poison control centre may be called to assist with diagnosis, to predict the clinical consequences, and to guide patient management. Activated charcoal can reduce the gastrointestinal absorption of some drugs. It should be given as soon as possible, preferably within 2 hours after ingestion of a drug known to be adsorbed by

  15. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  16. Crossing the gender boundaries: The gender experiences of male nursing students in initial nursing clinical practice in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Li, Yun Ling

    2017-11-01

    The initial nursing clinical practice is the necessary practicum required for nursing students. Because of the changing learning style, many of them are under great pressure for environmental change and therefore their daily routine is severe affected. Interacting directly with patients in a female-dominated occupation, along with the general gender stereotypes, the impact is especially significant to male nursing students than to female nursing students. The purpose of this preliminary qualitative study is to explore the gendered experiences of male nursing students during their first initial nursing clinical practice. Both focus group interviews and individual interviews are conducted with twenty-two sophomore nursing students from a university of technology in northern Taiwan, with ten male students and twelve female students. Two main themes emerge from the gendered experiences shared by the nursing students: Gender consciousness awakening and thus maintaining masculinity, and male advantage in the learning environments. The results identify the specific gendered experiences of nursing students, providing implications for future nursing education and counseling service. Further, this study may serve to promote an active yet gender-sensitive nursing education for training nursing professionals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Peripheral atherectomy practice patterns in the United States from the Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Sathish; Flahive, Julie M; Arous, Edward J; Judelson, Dejah R; Aiello, Francesco A; Schanzer, Andres; Simons, Jessica P

    2018-06-21

    Peripheral atherectomy has been shown to have technical success in single-arm studies, but clinical advantages over angioplasty and stenting have not been demonstrated, leaving its role unclear. We sought to describe patterns of atherectomy use in a real-world U.S. cohort to understand how it is currently being applied. The Vascular Quality Initiative was queried to identify all patients who underwent peripheral vascular intervention from January 2010 to September 2016. Descriptive statistics were performed to analyze demographics of the patients, comorbidities, indication, treatment modalities, and lesion characteristics. The intermittent claudication (IC) and critical limb ischemia (CLI) cohorts were analyzed separately. Of 85,605 limbs treated, treatment indication was IC in 51% (n = 43,506) and CLI in 49% (n = 42,099). Atherectomy was used in 15% (n = 13,092) of cases, equivalently for IC (15%; n = 6674) and CLI (15%; n = 6418). There was regional variation in use of atherectomy, ranging from a low of 0% in one region to a high of 32% in another region. During the study period, there was a significant increase in the proportion of cases that used atherectomy (11% in 2010 vs 18% in 2016; P < .0001). Compared with nonatherectomy cases, those with atherectomy use had higher incidence of prior peripheral vascular intervention (IC, 55% vs 43% [P < .0001]; CLI, 47% vs 41% [P < .0001]), greater mean number of arteries treated (IC, 1.8 vs 1.6 [P < .0001]; CLI, 2.1 vs 1.7 [P < .0001]), and lower proportion of prior leg bypass (IC, 10% vs 14% [P < .0001]; CLI, 11% vs 17% [P < .0001]). There was lower incidence of failure to cross the lesion (IC, 1% vs 4% [P < .0001]; CLI, 4% vs 7% [P < .0001]) but higher incidence of distal embolization (IC, 1.9% vs 0.8% [P < .0001]; CLI, 3.0% vs 1.4% [P < .0001]) and, in the CLI cohort, arterial perforation (1.4% vs 1.0%; P = .01). Despite a lack of evidence for atherectomy over angioplasty and stenting, its use has

  18. [Tone psychology and music research as catalysts of experimental-scientific practice and methodology in the circle of Carl Stumpf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Sebastian

    2008-09-01

    The study of acoustics, harmonics and of music has been providing scientific models since Greek Antiquity. Since the early modern ages, two separate cultures began to emerge out of the study of music: a technical acoustics and an aesthetically and philosophically inspired musical criticism. In the writings of Johann Friedrich Herbart (1811) a scientific approach to musical aesthetics and to music perception is taking shape that reinstalls the listening process as a highly complex and logical phenomenon. By opening music for a scientific psychological investigation, Herbart pioneered the physiologically and acoustically grounded seminal work by Hermann von Helmholtz On the sensations of tone (1863) which the author considered a prerequisite for musical aesthetics and music theory. Helmholtz in turn inspired the philosopher and psychologist Carl Stumpf to further investigate musical perception (beginning in 1883). To Stumpf, it provided a paradigm for experimental psychology as mental functions and phenomena could be studied in detail. These functions and phenomena are the actual objects of scientific study in Stumpf's inductive and descriptive psychology. Combining insights from statistics, ethnology, anthropology, psychoacoustics and the cultural history of mankind, Stumpf and his team developed a new blend of science which absorbs styles of reasoning, analytical procedures and academic convictions from natural history, the natural sciences and the humanities but at the same time identifies shortcomings of these approaches that fail to grasp the complexities of psychic functions. Despite their reliance on the quasi-objective phonograph and despite their commitment to objectivity, precision and measurement, mental phenomena relating to tonal perception and to music provided too complex a challenge to be easily articulated and shared by the scientific community after 1900. The essay illustrates these tensions against the background of a history of objectivity.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  20. Highly Adoptable Improvement: A Practical Model and Toolkit to Address Adoptability and Sustainability of Quality Improvement Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Christopher William; Goldmann, Don

    2018-03-01

    Failure to consider the impact of change on health care providers is a barrier to success. Initiatives that increase workload and have low perceived value are less likely to be adopted. A practical model and supporting tools were developed on the basis of existing theories to help quality improvement (QI) programs design more adoptable approaches. Models and theories from the diffusion of innovation and work stress literature were reviewed, and key-informant interviews and site visits were conducted to develop a draft Highly Adoptable Improvement (HAI) Model. A list of candidate factors considered for inclusion in the draft model was presented to an expert panel. A modified Delphi process was used to narrow the list of factors into main themes and refine the model. The resulting model and supporting tools were pilot tested by 16 improvement advisors for face validity and usability. The HAI Model depicts how workload and perceived value influence adoptability of QI initiatives. The supporting tools include an assessment guide and suggested actions that QI programs can use to help design interventions that are likely to be adopted. Improvement advisors reported good face validity and usability and found that the model and the supporting tools helped address key issues related to adoption and reported that they would continue to use them. The HAI Model addresses important issues regarding workload and perceived value of improvement initiatives. Pilot testing suggests that the model and supporting tools are helpful and practical in guiding design and implementation of adoptable and sustainable QI interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Participation in Risk Management Decisions: Theoretical, Practical, and Strategic Difficulties in the Evaluation of Public Participation Initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Gene; Frewer, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    A current trend in risk management, and policy setting more generally, is the involvement of members of the public, or other significant stakeholders, in the decision-making process. Such involvement has been argued to have the advantage of increasing the democratic legitimacy of decisions, and allowing the incorporation of lay insight into problems that have a degree of scientific uncertainty (and hence that are based to some extent on value judgments). One significant issue is the quality or validity of such processes, namely, the issue of evaluation. Evaluation is important, not only from a quality control perspective, but because it may indicate potential improvements for the conduct of further exercises, and importantly, may help to assure participants (and the public more widely) that the exercise is more than just a public relations exercise. However, evaluation of public involvement initiatives is relatively rare, and little discussed in the academic literature. It is also beset with a large number of potential problems and uncertainties. In this paper, we will discuss a variety of problems with conducting evaluations of participation initiatives. These problems range from the theoretical (how one defines effectiveness, how one measures this, how one confirms the validity, reliability and utility of one's measures), to the practical (how one conducts evaluations given limitations in time, space, resources, and possible sources of data), to the strategic/political (how one deals with sponsor/organiser resistance to evaluation). These problems will be discussed from a theoretical point of view, and with reference to practical evaluations that we have conducted with a large variety of governmental and non-governmental organisations, predominantly in the UK. The paper will conclude with a number of recommendations regarding best practice in conducting evaluations

  2. Improving pharmacy practice through public health programs: experience from Global HIV/AIDS initiative Nigeria project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oqua, Dorothy; Agu, Kenneth Anene; Isah, Mohammed Alfa; Onoh, Obialunamma U; Iyaji, Paul G; Wutoh, Anthony K; King, Rosalyn C

    2013-01-01

    The use of medicines is an essential component of many public health programs (PHPs). Medicines are important not only for their capacity to treat and prevent diseases. The public confidence in healthcare system is inevitably linked to their confidence in the availability of safe and effective medicines and the measures for ensuring their rational use. However, pharmacy services component receives little or no attention in most public health programs in developing countries. This article describes the strategies, lessons learnt, and some accomplishments of Howard University Pharmacists and Continuing Education (HU-PACE) Centre towards improving hospital pharmacy practice through PHP in Nigeria. In a cross-sectional survey, 60 hospital pharmacies were randomly selected from 184 GHAIN-supported health facilities. The assessment was conducted at baseline and repeated after at least 12 months post-intervention using a study-specific instrument. Interventions included engagement of stakeholders; provision of standards for infrastructural upgrade; development of curricula and modules for training of pharmacy personnel; provision of job aids and tools amongst others. A follow-up hands-on skill enhancement based on identified gaps was conducted. Chi-square was used for inferential statistics. All reported p-values were 2-tailed at 95% confidence interval. The mean duration of service provision at post-intervention assessment was 24.39 (95% CI, 21.70-27.08) months. About 16.7% of pharmacies reported been trained in HIV care at pre-intervention compared to 83.3% at post-intervention. The proportion of pharmacies with audio-visual privacy for patient counseling increased significantly from 30.9% at pre-intervention to 81.4% at post-intervention. Filled prescriptions were cross-checked by pharmacist (61.9%) and pharmacy technician (23.8%) before dispensing at pre-intervention compared to pharmacist (93.1%) and pharmacy technician (6.9%) at post intervention. 40.0% of

  3. Comparison of the Psychological Characteristics of Adaptation in Orphan Students of Initial Learning Stage to Adaptation Potential in Students Brought up in Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamorueva V.V.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of psychological characteristics of preadult orphans, their psychological adaptation to the conditions of learning in high school compared to the norm population (students living in family. We assumed that the level of adaptation of the orphan students is significantly smaller than in other students, because of their special life circumstances (maternal deprivation, living in residential care institutions, sometimes bad heredity, lack of life skills in everyday issues, personal problems. The results of the survey of 49 orphan students (26 girls and 23 boys and 49 first-year students brought up by parents (28 girls and 21 boys, confirmed this hypothesis and allow us to tell that orphan students need special psychological help in the learning process in high school to grow at a personal and professional level.

  4. How fear of falling can increase fall-risk in older adults: applying psychological theory to practical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William R; Mark Williams, A

    2015-01-01

    It is widely reported that fear of falling (FOF) has a profound and largely detrimental effect on balance performance in older adults. However, the mechanisms by which FOF influence postural stability are poorly understood. In the current article, we use psychological theory to explain FOF-related changes to postural control. First, we review literature describing associations between FOF and the 'stiffening' strategies observed during control of posture, including observations of eye and head movements. Second, we present a framework illustrating the interactions between increased age, FOF, and altered attentional processes, which in turn influence balance performance and fall-risk. Psychological theory predicts that anxiety can cause attentional bias for threatening and task-irrelevant stimuli and compromise the efficiency of working memory resources. We argue that while the adoption of stiffening strategies is likely to be beneficial in avoiding a loss of balance during simple postural tasks, it will ultimately compromise performance in dynamic and highly demanding functional tasks. The adoption of stiffening strategies leads to inadequate acquisition of the sensory information necessary to plan and execute dynamic and interactive movements. We conclude with some suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glidewell Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator, behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics. Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model (SM, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to

  6. Child-rearing practices and psychological disorders in children: cross-cultural comparison of Korea and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Shin, Yee Jin; Moon, Kyung Joo; Hudson, Jennifer L; Rapee, Ronald M

    2002-08-01

    The present study was designed to explore cultural differences in the relationship between parenting behaviors and psychological adjustment of the child. Mother-son interaction behaviors of 37 Korean boys (11 with Anxiety Disorder, 10 with Externalizing Disorders and 16 Non-clinical boys) and 54 Australian boys (20 with Anxiety Disorder, 17 with Externalizing Disorders and 17 Non-clinical boys) between the ages of 7 and 15 were compared in terms of parental negativity and involvement. The results indicated that Korean mothers displayed more overall negativity and lower overall involvement than Australian mothers. Furthermore, anxiety diagnosis was associated with low maternal involvement in the Korean subjects, while in the Australian subjects, high maternal involvement was associated with clinical status in the child.

  7. Understanding the psychology of seeking support to increase Health Science student engagement in academic support services. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Francis Hoyne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing student engagement within higher education academic support services is a constant challenge. Whilst engagement with support is positively associated with successful retention, and non-engagement connected to attrition, the most vulnerable students are often the least likely to engage. Our data has shown that Health Science students are reluctant to engage with academic support services despite being made aware of their academic deficiencies. The “psychology of seeking support” was used as a lens to identify some of the multifaceted issues around student engagement. The School of Health Sciences made attendance at support courses compulsory for those students who were below the benchmark score in a post entrance literacy test. Since the policy change was implemented, there has been a 50% reduction in the fail rate of “at risk” students in a core literacy unit. These findings are encouraging and will help reduce student attrition in the long term.

  8. The Practices, Perceptions, and Beliefs of Traditional Birth Attendants Regarding Early Breastfeeding Initiation in Zimbabwe: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Mugadza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Early breastfeeding initiation (EBFI defined as giving breast milk within the first hours following birth, which is recommended as a simple strategy for the enhancement of neonatal health and survival. This descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore the practices, perceptions and beliefs of renowned traditional birth attendants (TBA regarding EBFI in Chipinge rural community, Zimbabwe. Methods: The study population was selected through purposive sampling technique. One-on-one interview was conducted for the purpose of unearthing sensitive issues regarding EBFI. The data were collected using an unstructured in-depth interview to explore the practices, perceptions, and beliefs regarding EBFI. Data analysis was carried out using thematic analysis. To this end, the data were presented in thematic categories using the deductive approach and coded into subthemes, which were then merged into themes. The trustworthiness of the study was enhanced through credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability. Results: The emerged themes included EBFI preparation, EBFI and significance of colostrum, and determinants of EBFI. The findings revealed that EBFI was not only related to physical and emotional interactions, but also associated with a totality of the person, involving sociocultural ties. The EBFI is viewed as a predictor of maternal sociocultural integrity and the legitimacy of the newborn. In the context under study, failure to breastfeed or to initiate breastfeeding early is thought to be a result of the mother’s past immorality. Breastfeeding in Chipinge community goes beyond the mother-baby interaction. Conclusion: It encompasses the whole person,  that is the physical, social, cultural and spiritual ties. Under this condition, the mother should testify and undergo a ritual cleansing to rectify the problem.

  9. Psychological distress and in vitro fertilization outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Lauri A; Gregorich, Steven E; Katz, Patricia K; Millstein, Susan G; Nachtigall, Robert D; Bleil, Maria E; Adler, Nancy E

    2012-08-01

    To examine whether psychological distress predicts IVF treatment outcome as well as whether IVF treatment outcome predicts subsequent psychological distress. Prospective cohort study over an 18-month period. Five community and academic fertility practices. Two hundred two women who initiated their first IVF cycle. Women completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline and at 4, 10, and 18 months' follow-up. IVF cycle outcome and psychological distress. In a binary logistic model including covariates (woman's age, ethnicity, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, and time interval), pretreatment depression and anxiety were not significant predictors of the outcome of the first IVF cycle. In linear regression models including covariates (woman's age, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, assessment point, time since last treatment cycle, and pre-IVF depression or anxiety), experiencing failed IVF was associated with higher post-IVF depression and anxiety. IVF failure predicts subsequent psychological distress, but pre-IVF psychological distress does not predict IVF failure. Instead of focusing efforts on psychological interventions specifically aimed at improving the chance of pregnancy, these findings suggest that attention be paid to helping patients prepare for and cope with treatment and treatment failure. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Local Governments Supporting Local Energy Initiatives: Lessons from the Best Practices of Saerbeck (Germany and Lochem (The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoppe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The social dimension of the transition to a low carbon economy is a key challenge to cities. The establishment of local energy initiatives (LEIs has recently been attracting attention. It is of great importance to draw lessons from best practices when LEIs have been facilitated by local governments and made a substantial contribution to greening local energy systems. The main research questions in this paper are: What lessons can be drawn from successful local low carbon energy transition cases, and which strategies proved successful to support LEIs? We have used analytical notions from the Strategic Niche Management (SNM and grassroots innovation literature to analyze two best-practice cases: Saerbeck (Germany and Lochem (The Netherlands. Data collection involved a set of fourteen in-depth interviews and secondary data. The results show that three key factors from SNM (building networks, managing expectations, and facilitation of learning are of great importance. However, to a great degree it is also strategic, community serving, responsive, reflexive leadership and proper process management by public officials that spurred success, which would not have been possible without close interaction and mutual trust between local government and representatives of the local communities.

  11. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Debbie; Johnston, Marie; Clarkson, Jan E; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Glidewell, Liz; Walker, Anne

    2010-04-08

    Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value. Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that may predict clinical behaviour

  12. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclennan Graeme

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making, and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT, timeline acute (CS-SRM, and outcome expectancy (SCT entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT and attitude (TPB entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for

  13. Reflections on the Journal of Applied Psychology for 1989 to 1994: Changes in major research themes and practices over 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Neal

    2017-03-01

    Informal observations concerning journal content indicates that research investigating organizational behavior topics, including work on the structure of groups and determinants and consequences of group process along with the role of leadership in groups, has increased. Some topics have disappeared (e.g., job analysis, human factors, union-related work, consumer behavior) and others are declining (e.g., research methods, psychometrics). Perhaps the biggest change is in the length of articles, which is mostly a function of the inclusion of greater numbers of references and appendix material. Publishing some of this material in supplementary online materials is now current practice in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Concerns about use of journal space may also be entirely moot, if electronic publishing as opposed to print publishing becomes the norm. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Social and psychological aspects of criminal juvenile justice in the world practice (Anglo-Saxon model of juvenile justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Oshevsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is the final part of the review of existing foreign models of juvenile criminal justice system. We analyze the principles of juvenile justice in the criminal trial: protective orientation, personalization and social richness of the trial, the emphasis on educational influences. We present the foreign experience of incorporating social, psychological and clinical special knowledge into specialized justice concerning juvenile offenders. We analyze modern trends in the development of juvenile justice in the United States and Canada. We present material related to methods of risk assessment of re-offending among adolescents. We highlight approaches to complex long-term follow-up of juvenile offenders in Anglo-Saxon juvenile justice. We describe some aspects of the probation service using the method of case management. In the context of the accepted “National Strategy for Action for the Benefit of Children for 2012-2017”, the prospects for the development of specialized criminal justice for young offenders in the Russian Federation are discussed

  15. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  16. The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate - A European initiative for practical peat bog and climate protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Geerd; Tänzer, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate (EFMK) is an initiative by different local communities, environmental protection NGOs, agricultural services, and partners from the peat and other industries in Lower Saxony (Germany). The Centre aims to integrate practical peat bog conservation with a focus on green house gas emission after drainage and after water logging activities. Together with our partners we want to break new ground to protect the remaining bogs in the region. Sphagnum mosses will be produced in paludiculture on-site in cooperation with the local peat industry to provide economic and ecologic alternatives for peat products used in horticulture business. Land-use changes are needed in the region and will be stimulated in cooperation with agricultural services via compensation money transfers from environmental protection funds. On a global scale the ideas of Carbon Credit System have to be discussed to protect the peat bogs for climate protection issues. Environmental education is an important pillar of the EFMK. The local society is invited to explore the unique ecosystem and to participate in peat bog protection activities. Future generations will be taught to understand that the health of our peat bogs is interrelated with the health of the local and global climate. Besides extracurricular classes for schools the centre will provide infrastructure for Master and PhD students, as well for senior researchers for applied research in the surrounding moor. International partners in the scientific and practical fields of peat bog ecology, renaturation, green house gas emissions from peat bogs, and environmental policy are invited to participate in the European Competence Center for Moor and Climate.

  17. The mystique of first intercourse among college youth: the role of partners, contraceptive practices, and psychological reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, C A; Davidson, J K; Passarello, L C

    1992-02-01

    psychologically satisfying than women (80.6% vs. 28.3% and 67% vs. 28.3%, respectively) (p=.0001).

  18. Self-reported breast feeding practices and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Cynthia; Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola

    2016-12-16

    The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Prospective cohort study. This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Women 36-40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (p<0.01). Breast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; p<0.01). At postpartum discharge, 51% (n=53) of mothers in the BFHI-hospital were breast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. This is the first study assessing the effectiveness of BFHI implementation in Saudi Arabia. Although women

  19. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  20. Practical aspects of treatment with target specific anticoagulants: initiation, payment and current market, transitions, and venous thromboembolism treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Charles E

    2015-04-01

    Target specific anticoagulants (TSOACs) have recently been introduced to the US market for multiple indications including venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in total hip and knee replacement surgeries, VTE treatment and reduction in the risk of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Currently, three TSOACs are available including rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran with edoxaban currently under Food and Drug Administration review for VTE treatment and stroke prevention in NVAF. The introduction of these agents has created a paradigm shift in anticoagulation by considerably simplifying treatment and anticoagulant initiation for patients by giving clinicians the opportunity to use a rapid onset, rapid offset, oral agent. The availability of these rapid onset TSOACs is allowing for outpatient treatment of low risk pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis which can greatly reduce healthcare costs by avoiding inpatient hospitalizations and treatment for the disease. Additionally with this practice, the complications of an inpatient hospitalization may also be avoided such as nosocomial infections. Single-agent approaches with TSOACs represent a paradigm shift in the treatment of VTE versus the complicated overlap of a parenteral agent with warfarin. Transitions between anticoagulants, including TSOACs, are a high-risk period for the patient, and clinicians must carefully consider patient characteristics such as renal function as well as the agents that are being transitioned. TSOAC use appears to be growing slowly with improved payment coverage throughout the US.

  1. Stakeholder Engagement for Inclusive Water Governance: “Practicing What We Preach” with the OECD Water Governance Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Akhmouch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A cursory glance at the literature on water governance reveals that stakeholder engagement has long been considered an integral part of sound governance processes. However, a closer look at the literature reveals that, beyond this general assertion, there is a lack of evidence-based assessment on how engagement processes contribute to water governance objectives. This article addresses this research gap by presenting key findings and policy guidance from a study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD on “Stakeholder Engagement for Inclusive Water Governance”. This study employed comprehensive methods, including a survey administered to 215 stakeholder groups worldwide and separately, 69 case studies of specific stakeholder engagement initiatives on water management. This article also shares the experiences and lessons that have emerged from engaging stakeholders in the OECD Water Governance Initiative—an international multi-stakeholder policy forum created in 2013 to share policy and practical experiences on water governance at different levels. We hope this research will be used to stimulate and enrich discussions about the necessary conditions for results-oriented stakeholder engagement, and to guide decision makers accordingly.

  2. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  3. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  4. Music Therapy for children with special needs - clinical practice and assessment in the light of developmental psychology and communicative musicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    continues with practices on basic improvisational techniques related to time, form and emotions: synchronization, turn-taking, theme-with-variations, matching/attunement, vitality forms, simple musical playing rules, etc. The techniques are connected to macro- and micro-regulation of arousal and emotions......). Turn-taking in music therapy with children with communication disorders. British Journal of Music Therapy, 18(2), 45-53. Malloch, S. & Trevarthen, C. (Eds) (2009). Communicative Musicality. Exploring the basis of human companionship. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Stern, D. N. (2010). Forms...... of Vitality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wigram, T. (2004). Improvisation. Methods and Techniques for Music Therapy Clinicians, Educators and Students. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers....

  5. Initiation of non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and clinical practice guidelines: Single-centre, retrospective, descriptive study in a national reference centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Marjolaine; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Llontop, Claudia; Shoukri, Amr; Salachas, François; Similowski, Thomas; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus

    2017-02-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), respiratory muscle weakness leads to respiratory failure. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) maintains adequate ventilation in ALS patients. NIV alleviates symptoms and improves survival. In 2006, French guidelines established criteria for NIV initiation based on limited evidence. Their impact on clinical practice remains unknown. Our objective was to describe NIV initiation practices of the main French ALS tertiary referral centre with respect to guidelines. In this retrospective descriptive study, 624 patients followed in a single national reference centre began NIV between 2005 and 2013. We analysed criteria used to initiate NIV, including symptoms, PaCO 2 , forced vital capacity, maximal inspiratory pressures and time spent with SpO 2 NIV initiation, 90% of patients were symptomatic. Median PaCO 2 was 48 mmHg. The main criterion to initiate NIV was 'symptoms' followed by 'hypercapnia' in 42% and 34% of cases, respectively. NIV was initiated on functional parameters in only 5% of cases. Guidelines were followed in 81% of cases. In conclusion, despite compliance with French guidelines, the majority of patients are treated at the stage of symptomatic daytime hypoventilation, which suggests that NIV is initiated late in the course of ALS. Whether this practice could be improved by changing guidelines or increasing respiratory-dedicated resources remains to be determined.

  6. Representations of workplace psychological harassment in print news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Andréia De Conto; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2012-06-01

    To analyze discourses on workplace psychological harassment in print media. Documental study on workplace psychological harassment that analyzed news stories published in three major newspapers of the State of São Paulo (southeastern Brazil) between 1990 and 2008. Discourse analysis was performed to identify discursive practices that reflect the phenomenon of psychological harassment in today's society, explanations for its occurrence and impact on workers' health. RESULT ANALYSIS: This theme emerged in the media through the dissemination of books, academic research production and laws. It was initially published in general news then in jobs and/or business sections. Discourses on compensation and precautionary business practices and coping strategies are widespread. Health-related aspects are foregone under the prevailing money-based rationale. Corporate cultures are permissive regarding psychological harassment and conflicts are escalated while working to achieve goals and results. Indifference, embarrassment, ridicule and demean were common in the news stories analyzed. The causal explanations of workplace harassment tend to have a psychological interpretation with emphasis on individual and behavioral characteristics, and minimizing a collective approach. The discourses analyzed trivialized harassment by creating caricatures of the actors involved. People apprehend its psychological content and stigmatization which contributes to making workplace harassment an accepted practice and trivializing work-related violence.

  7. PC_Eyewitness: a computerized framework for the administration and practical application of research in eyewitness psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLin, Otto H; Meissner, Christian A; Zimmerman, Laura A

    2005-05-01

    Eyewitness identification evidence is an important aspect of our legal system. Society relies on witnesses to identify suspects whom they have observed during the commission of a crime. Because a witness has only a mental representation of the individual he or she observed, law enforcement must rely on verbal descriptions and identification procedures to document eyewitness evidence. The present article introduces and details a computer program, referred to as PC_Eyewitness (PCE), which can be used in laboratories to conduct research on eyewitness memory. PCE is a modular program written in Visual Basic 6.0 that allows a researcher to present stimuli to a participant, to conduct distractor tasks, to elicit verbal descriptors regarding a target individual, and to present a lineup for the participant to provide an identification response. To illustrate the versatility of the program, several classic studies in the eyewitness literature are recreated in the context of PCE. The program is also shown to have applications in the conduct of field research and for use by law enforcement to administer lineups in everyday practice. PCE is distributed at no cost.

  8. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  10. Rethinking priorities: experience of an educational initiative to change attitudes, behaviours and clinical practice in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Annette; Barros D'Sa, Viv; Hicks, Fiona

    2017-05-08

    To implement the National End of Life Care strategy and enable more people to express and achieve their preferences about care at the end of life, senior clinicians outside palliative medicine need to make it a routine part of their practice. However, it is acknowledged that recognising that people are entering the last phase of their illness is not always straightforward, and having conversations about aims of treatment and planning for future care may not be easy. In order to begin to address these challenges, funding was sought from the Yorkshire and the Humber Strategic Health Authority (SHA), and subsequently Health Education England, Yorkshire and the Humber (HEEYH), to pilot a development programme in 2 acute trusts. 2 palliative medicine consultants shared the trainer role at each site, supporting hospital consultants from a range of specialties, with a GP to give a community perspective. The programme involved individual clinicians identifying their own learning needs and specific issues for end-of-life care in their patients. The group met together monthly in action learning sets to discuss issues in a safe yet challenging environment. Following evaluation using a combination of training needs analyses, feedback questionnaires, audits and service evaluations, it was modified slightly and repiloted in 2 further trusts as 'Rethinking Priorities'. This paper describes the programme and its outcomes, especially in relation to participants' learning, service development and leadership. It also highlights the challenges, including different learning styles, the concept of action learning, obtaining funding and dedicated time, and how to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme. Overall, it suggests that an educational initiative based on clinicians identifying their own learning needs, and using an action learning approach to explore issues with other colleagues, with the addition of some targeted sessions, can result in positive change in knowledge, behaviour

  11. A national evaluation of a dissemination and implementation initiative to enhance primary care practice capacity and improve cardiovascular disease care: the ESCALATES study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Deborah J.; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Gordon, Leah; Marino, Miguel; Ono, Sarah; Solberg, Leif I.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Stange, Kurt C.; Davis, Melinda; Miller, William L.; Damschroder, Laura J.; McConnell, K. John; Creswell, John

    2016-01-01

    Background The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) launched the EvidenceNOW Initiative to rapidly disseminate and implement evidence-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) preventive care in smaller primary care practices. AHRQ funded eight grantees (seven regional Cooperatives and one independent national evaluation) to participate in EvidenceNOW. The national evaluation examines quality improvement efforts and outcomes for more than 1500 small primary care practices (restricted to...

  12. Recommendations for Training in Pediatric Psychology: Defining Core Competencies Across Training Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, David M.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Mullins, Larry L.; Robins, Paul M.; Wu, Yelena P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective As a field, pediatric psychology has focused considerable efforts on the education and training of students and practitioners. Alongside a broader movement toward competency attainment in professional psychology and within the health professions, the Society of Pediatric Psychology commissioned a Task Force to establish core competencies in pediatric psychology and address the need for contemporary training recommendations. Methods The Task Force adapted the framework proposed by the Competency Benchmarks Work Group on preparing psychologists for health service practice and defined competencies applicable across training levels ranging from initial practicum training to entry into the professional workforce in pediatric psychology. Results Competencies within 6 cluster areas, including science, professionalism, interpersonal, application, education, and systems, and 1 crosscutting cluster, crosscutting knowledge competencies in pediatric psychology, are presented in this report. Conclusions Recommendations for the use of, and the further refinement of, these suggested competencies are discussed. PMID:24719239

  13. A "migrant friendly hospital" initiative in Geneva, Switzerland: evaluation of the effects on staff knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudelson, Patricia; Dominice Dao, Melissa; Perneger, Thomas; Durieux-Paillard, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    International migration poses important challenges to European health care systems. The development of "migrant friendly hospitals" has been identified as a priority in both Europe and Switzerland. A multi-pronged initiative was developed at Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) to improve staff knowledge and use of existing "migrant friendly" resources. A self-administered questionnaire was sent pre and post-intervention to random samples of 4 major professional groups with direct patient contact at the HUG. The questionnaire assessed staff knowledge, attitudes and reported practices regarding the care of migrant patients. Overall response rate was 51% (N = 1460) in 2010 but only 19% (N = 761) in 2013 owing to an institutionally imposed change in survey method. Despite these difficulties, and after adjusting for sample differences, we found that respondents in 2013 were significantly more likely to have received training in how to organize an appointment with an interpreter, how to work with an interpreter and about health and social services available for migrant patients. Respondents were also significantly more likely to have used several Migrant Friendly structures at the HUG. Use of, preference for and perceived skill at working with professional interpreters all improved, and respondents were both more likely to be encouraged by their supervisors to use professional interpreters, and less likely to be encouraged to look for alternative solutions for communicating with non francophone patients. Finally, 2013 respondents encountered fewer difficulties caring for migrant patients, although lack of time and language barriers continued to be the most important sources of difficulty. Our results suggest that an institution-wide information campaign may contribute to increased awareness and use of migrant friendly resources by clinical staff. Hospital commitment and financing, along with inter-departmental participation in all activities were important in creating and

  14. A "migrant friendly hospital" initiative in Geneva, Switzerland: evaluation of the effects on staff knowledge and practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hudelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International migration poses important challenges to European health care systems. The development of "migrant friendly hospitals" has been identified as a priority in both Europe and Switzerland. METHODS: A multi-pronged initiative was developed at Geneva University Hospitals (HUG to improve staff knowledge and use of existing "migrant friendly" resources. A self-administered questionnaire was sent pre and post-intervention to random samples of 4 major professional groups with direct patient contact at the HUG. The questionnaire assessed staff knowledge, attitudes and reported practices regarding the care of migrant patients. RESULTS: Overall response rate was 51% (N = 1460 in 2010 but only 19% (N = 761 in 2013 owing to an institutionally imposed change in survey method. Despite these difficulties, and after adjusting for sample differences, we found that respondents in 2013 were significantly more likely to have received training in how to organize an appointment with an interpreter, how to work with an interpreter and about health and social services available for migrant patients. Respondents were also significantly more likely to have used several Migrant Friendly structures at the HUG. Use of, preference for and perceived skill at working with professional interpreters all improved, and respondents were both more likely to be encouraged by their supervisors to use professional interpreters, and less likely to be encouraged to look for alternative solutions for communicating with non francophone patients. Finally, 2013 respondents encountered fewer difficulties caring for migrant patients, although lack of time and language barriers continued to be the most important sources of difficulty. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that an institution-wide information campaign may contribute to increased awareness and use of migrant friendly resources by clinical staff. Hospital commitment and financing, along with inter

  15. [Structural lag and room for possibilities in old age exemplified by central transitions. Initial results of a novel discipline trialogue between diaconal studies, psychology and theology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiloth, S; Siebert, J; Bachmann, A; Wahl, H-W; Nüssel, F; Eurich, J

    2015-12-01

    Although the need for interdisciplinary research is generally accepted in gerontology, such interdisciplinary communication is often limited to various combinations of psychological, sociological and biomedical scientific approaches. We argue that gerontology requires a continuous examination of novel disciplinary constellations to obtain a better understanding of aging in its complexity and to further develop this scientific field in its entirety. The present study introduced and tested for the first time an innovative disciplinary trialogue, i.e. the combination of psychology, theology and diaconal studies. In particular, it is assumed that this combination can contribute to a more profound interpretation of the prominent concept of structural lag which is underresearched in gerontology. The analysis of structural lag with another overarching concept, "room for possibilities", can provide a synergy-rich interpretation category for a range of challenges connected with old age. In this respect, three major transitions were selected to shed light on these concepts and examined by means of three focus group interviews: transition to retirement, need for long-term care in the private home context and transition to nursing home life. The data were evaluated using qualitative content analysis. The interdisciplinary-oriented evaluation of the interviews and the qualitative data analysis revealed the relevance of different perceptions of time in all three transitions. In addition, different dynamics in terms of the interplay of gains and losses as well as participation were found to be important for a better understanding of the three transitions. In particular, the subjective interpretation of the time remaining for living and the predetermined or self-selected time structuring of the daily routine were important factors for the perception of one's own potential. The results also underline a range of unused room for possibilities and the existence of structural lag for

  16. Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that distinguish ... players' perceived ability to be psychologically well prepared for competitions. ... reference to practical implications for future sport psychological skills training

  17. If I Experience Formative Assessment Whilst Studying at University, Will I Put It into Practice Later as a Teacher? Formative and Shared Assessment in Initial Teacher Education (ITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamodi, Carolina; López-Pastor, Víctor Manuel; López-Pastor, Ana Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse whether having experience of formative assessment during their initial teacher education courses (ITE) influences graduates' subsequent practice as teachers. That is, if the assessment methods that university students are subject to during their learning process are then actually employed by them during their…

  18. Using TPCK as a Lens to Study the Practices of Math and Science Teachers Involved in a Year-Long Technology Integration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kara; Ritzhaupt, Albert; Liu, Feng; Rodriguez, Prisca; Frey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ways teachers enact technological, pedagogical and content practices in math and science lessons and to document the change with teachers involved in a year-long technology integration initiative. Six hundred seventy-two lessons were analyzed in this research using Technological, Pedagogical Content…

  19. Diet and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.

  20. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  1. Psychology of NPP operation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, V.P.

    1993-01-01

    The book is devoted to psychologic investigations into different aspects of NPP operative personnel activities. The whole set of conditions on which successful and accident-free personnel operation depends, is analysed. Based on original engineering and socio-psychologic investigations complex psychologic support for NPP personnel and a system of training and upkeep of operative personnel skills are developed. The methods proposed have undergone a practical examination and proved their efficiency. 154 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  2. A national evaluation of a dissemination and implementation initiative to enhance primary care practice capacity and improve cardiovascular disease care: the ESCALATES study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah J; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Gordon, Leah; Marino, Miguel; Ono, Sarah; Solberg, Leif I; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Stange, Kurt C; Davis, Melinda; Miller, William L; Damschroder, Laura J; McConnell, K John; Creswell, John

    2016-06-29

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) launched the EvidenceNOW Initiative to rapidly disseminate and implement evidence-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) preventive care in smaller primary care practices. AHRQ funded eight grantees (seven regional Cooperatives and one independent national evaluation) to participate in EvidenceNOW. The national evaluation examines quality improvement efforts and outcomes for more than 1500 small primary care practices (restricted to those with fewer than ten physicians per clinic). Examples of external support include practice facilitation, expert consultation, performance feedback, and educational materials and activities. This paper describes the study protocol for the EvidenceNOW national evaluation, which is called Evaluating System Change to Advance Learning and Take Evidence to Scale (ESCALATES). This prospective observational study will examine the portfolio of EvidenceNOW Cooperatives using both qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data include: online implementation diaries, observation and interviews at Cooperatives and practices, and systematic assessment of context from the perspective of Cooperative team members. Quantitative data include: practice-level performance on clinical quality measures (aspirin prescribing, blood pressure and cholesterol control, and smoking cessation; ABCS) collected by Cooperatives from electronic health records (EHRs); practice and practice member surveys to assess practice capacity and other organizational and structural characteristics; and systematic tracking of intervention delivery. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods analyses will be conducted to examine how Cooperatives organize to provide external support to practices, to compare effectiveness of the dissemination and implementation approaches they implement, and to examine how regional variations and other organization and contextual factors influence implementation and effectiveness. ESCALATES is

  3. Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  5. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  6. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  7. Psychologic Outcomes in Implant Prosthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B.; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad W.; Garrett, Neal R.; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J.; Stanford, Clark M.; Wolfaardt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Consensus regarding outcomes of the treatment of tooth loss, especially the psychologic outcomes, is needed to guide discovery of best practices and enable a better understanding of patient management for this chronic condition. This paper presents the findings of the ORONet Psychological Working

  8. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2014 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Bonnie R. Strickland. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Could psychology be critically transformed from within?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Georgievska, Emilija

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way of thinking and speaking about psychology research and practice ? known as critical psychology and qualitative research methodology?which, as we argue throughout the text, is virtually absent in the context of Macedonian psychology. We delineate the key differences...... of the qualitative stance as they correspond to the fundamental assumptions within the more general field of critical psychology.......This paper introduces a new way of thinking and speaking about psychology research and practice ? known as critical psychology and qualitative research methodology?which, as we argue throughout the text, is virtually absent in the context of Macedonian psychology. We delineate the key differences...... between the two main paradigms of psychology today?traditional and critical psychology?by discussing the basic ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions that define each of the two paradigms. Furthermore, we contrast the two fundamentally different sets of assumptions regarding...

  10. A mixed-methods study of system-level sustainability of evidence-based practices in 12 large-scale implementation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Ashley T; Taber-Thomas, Sarah M; Schaffner, Kristen; Pemberton, Joy R; Hunter, Leah; Herschell, Amy D

    2017-12-07

    In recent decades, evidence-based practices (EBPs) have been broadly promoted in community behavioural health systems in the United States of America, yet reported EBP penetration rates remain low. Determining how to systematically sustain EBPs in complex, multi-level service systems has important implications for public health. This study examined factors impacting the sustainability of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) in large-scale initiatives in order to identify potential predictors of sustainment. A mixed-methods approach to data collection was used. Qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys examining sustainability processes and outcomes were completed by participants from 12 large-scale initiatives. Sustainment strategies fell into nine categories, including infrastructure, training, marketing, integration and building partnerships. Strategies involving integration of PCIT into existing practices and quality monitoring predicted sustainment, while financing also emerged as a key factor. The reported factors and strategies impacting sustainability varied across initiatives; however, integration into existing practices, monitoring quality and financing appear central to high levels of sustainability of PCIT in community-based systems. More detailed examination of the progression of specific activities related to these strategies may aide in identifying priorities to include in strategic planning of future large-scale initiatives. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02543359 ; Protocol number PRO12060529.

  11. Network Analysis in Community Psychology: Looking Back, Looking Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Zachary P.; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2017-01-01

    Highlights Network analysis is ideally suited for community psychology research because it focuses on context. Use of network analysis in community psychology is growing. Network analysis in community psychology has employed some potentially problematic practices. Recommended practices are identified to improve network analysis in community psychology.

  12. Counseling Health Psychology: Assessing Health Psychology Training within Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…

  13. Continuing Development and Initial Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Sonographer Skill-Teaching Perceptions in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delwyn Nicholls

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that the SonoSTePs instrument items and factors are underpinned by theories and principles related to teaching a complex psychomotor skill. The initial data suggest that the tool is both reliable and valid.

  14. “There should be a room for self-initiated activity” A narrative inquiry on my teaching practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanung Triyoko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is my endeavour to shorten the gap between the realities in my own teaching practices and those practices presented in books and research reports as effective English teaching. In this paper, through narrative inquiry method of writing, I will refer to my experiences to show my way of knowing as well as my way of writing the specific contexts of my teaching of English. Here and then, I may show my subjectivity upon certain issues in the English teaching-learning process but I do this to enable myself go deeper to my personal values. Nonetheless, for the betterment of my classroom practices specifically and the teaching of English for Islamic studies in Indonesia, in general, my inquiry on my own professional practices and the insights on how I should see and make some changes in my teaching as specified by the AAA perspective discussed in details will become a very good start.

  15. Computer simulation in initial teacher education: a bridge across the faculty/practice divide or simply a better viewing platform?

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Graham

    2011-01-01

    This thesis reports on a mixed methods research project into the emerging area of computer simulation in Initial Teacher Education (ITE). Some areas where simulation has become a staple of initial or ongoing education and training, i.e. in health care and military applications, are examined to provide a context. The research explores the attitudes of a group of ITE students towards the use of a recently developed simulation tool and in particular considers the question of whether they view co...

  16. Selecting and training opinion leaders and best practice collaborators:Experience from the Canadian Chiropractic Guideline Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Bussières, André E.; Maiers, Michele; Grondin, Diane; Brockhusen, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the process for selecting and training chiropractic opinion leaders (OLs) and best practice collaborators (BPCs) to increase the uptake of best practice. Methods: In Phase 1, OLs were identified using a cross-sectional survey among Canadian chiropractic stakeholders. A 10-member committee ranked nominees. Top-ranked nominees were invited to a training workshop. In Phase 2, a national e-survey was administered to 7200 Canadian chiropractors to identify additional OLs an...

  17. APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology: Octavio Andres Santos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded annually by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. The 2017 award winner is Octavio Andres Santos, who has demonstrated through several initiatives "effective engagement with advocacy, professional organizations, and research in the area of health disparities and multicultural/multilingual assessment." Santos's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment of employees in a call centre in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshona Pillay

    2014-12-01

    Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment and intended to determine whether psychological capital and job demands predict call centre employees’ organisational commitment. Motivation for the study: The study aimed to explore potential links between psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment of call centre employees. It is premised on previous research that call centre job demands may be related to commitment to the organisation. Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study sampled 117 call centre employees from Durban, South Africa, and used a biographical questionnaire, psychological capital questionnaire, the job-demands-resources scale and the organisational commitment questionnaire to collect data. Main findings: Findings indicated a statistically significant relationship between psychological capital and work overload, as well as a practically and statistically significant relationship (medium effect between psychological capital and continuance organisational commitment. The results showed that psychological capital has predictive value for continuance organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: Psychological capital has predictive value for continuance organisational commitment. Organisations can develop initiatives to enhance positive psychological states and address this relationship. Contribution: The findings could be beneficial to management and employees in considering ways to boost psychological capital in order to improve organisational commitment.

  19. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective: Different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public communication initiatives build on scientific claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkier, Bente

    2015-08-13

    Public communication initiatives play a part in placing complicated scientific claims in citizen-consumers' everyday contexts. Lay reactions to scientific claims framed in public communication, and attempts to engage citizens, have been important subjects of discussion in the literatures of public understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Constructivist and Behaviorist Approaches: Development and Initial Evaluation of a Teaching Practice Scale for Introductory Statistics at the College Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi A. Hassad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the teaching practices of 227 college instructors of introductory statistics from the health and behavioral sciences. Using primarily multidimensional scaling (MDS techniques, a two-dimensional, 10-item teaching-practice scale, TISS (Teaching of Introductory Statistics Scale, was developed. The two dimensions (subscales are characterized as constructivist and behaviorist; they are orthogonal. Criterion validity of the TISS was established in relation to instructors’ attitude toward teaching, and acceptable levels of reliability were obtained. A significantly higher level of behaviorist practice (less reform-oriented was reported by instructors from the U.S., as well as instructors with academic degrees in mathematics and engineering, whereas those with membership in professional organizations, tended to be more reform-oriented (or constructivist. The TISS, thought to be the first of its kind, will allow the statistics education community to empirically assess and describe the pedagogical approach (teaching practice of instructors of introductory statistics in the health and behavioral sciences, at the college level, and determine what learning outcomes result from the different teaching-practice orientations. Further research is required in order to be conclusive about the structural and psychometric properties of this scale, including its stability over time.

  1. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  2. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations,...... as a Moral Science contains enough controversial ideas to spark great interest among researchers and scholars in psychology and the philosophy of science.......What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...

  3. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  4. Association Between Student Loan Debt on Graduation, Demographic Characteristics and Initial Choice of Practice Setting of Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem A. Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (1 To examine trends in level of student loan indebtedness for groups of pharmacists that were first licensed between 1980 and 2006; (2 To examine if demographic variables are associated with level of student loan indebtedness; (3 To examine the association between student loan debt and choice of practice setting while controlling for demographic variables. Methods: Data for this study were collected from a national random sample of 3,000 pharmacists using a self administered survey. Descriptive statistics were used to examine trends in level of indebtedness. The relationships between level of indebtedness, demographic variables and practice setting choice were examined using Chi-square statistics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of student loan debt and choice of practice setting while controlling for demographic variables. Results: The proportion of licensed pharmacists reporting student loan debt after graduation, and the mean amount of debt incurred increased between 1980 and 2006. Non-white pharmacists incurred debt at a higher proportion compared to white, and they also incurred significantly higher levels of debt. A lower level of indebtedness was associated with choosing independent practice over chain practice. Conclusions: Student loan indebtedness has been increasing over time, especially for non-white pharmacy students. Future research should be done to examine other factors that might influence student debt load, work contributions and choice of practice settings. The affordability of pharmacy education for students of color and how salaries may or may not help off-set these costs also should be examined closely.   Type: Original Research

  5. [Psychological harassment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  6. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  7. Credentialing high school psychology teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kenneth A

    2014-09-01

    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Community Psychology, Evaluation, and Social Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Community psychology blends psychological science, a community-level perspective on social issues, and a social justice orientation. Despite important difference between community psychology and program evaluation, program evaluation is a key component of many community psychologists' practice and holds a central place in my own. In this…

  9. Ensuring New Zealand's Future Prosperity: A Professional Learning Development Initiative to Bridge the Gap between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, I.; Smith, P.; Sexton, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study investigating the effectiveness of a new professional learning development (PLD) initiative in New Zealand, The Sir Paul Callaghan Science Academy (The Academy). The Academy is designed to provide primary and intermediate (students aged 5 to 13) classroom teachers with the knowledge, materials and support needed for…

  10. Are Persistent Early Onset Child Conduct Problems Predicted by the Trajectories and Initial Levels of Discipline Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Michael F.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation we focused on 2 broad sets of questions: Do parental overreactivity, laxness, and corporal punishment show evidence of normative change in early to middle childhood? Are persistently elevated child conduct problems (CPs) associated with deviations from normative changes in, as well as high initial levels of, discipline…

  11. Child-Initiated Pedagogies: Moving toward Democratically Appropriate Practices in Finland, England, Estonia, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinos, Jarmo; Robertson, Leena; Barbour, Nancy; Pukk, Maarika

    2016-01-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child calls for children to be treated as human beings with a distinct set of rights, instead of as passive objects of care. They can and should be agents in their own lives. Child-initiated pedagogy recognizes this by respecting children's individual and collective views, interests, and motivations.…

  12. Practice makes perfect: the longitudinal effect of adolescents’ instant messaging on their ability to initiate offline friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, M.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate whether instant messaging (IM) influences adolescents’ ability to initiate offline friendships. The second aim was to study the validity of two underlying mechanisms that may account for this relationship: (a) the opportunities offered by IM to

  13. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women of reproductive age: a descriptive study of initial management in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Corlien J. H.; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet; Vervoort, Cléo-Lotte A. G.; Ankum, Willem M.; Bindels, Patrick J. E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormal vaginal bleeding (AVB) in women of reproductive age is a common reason for consulting a general practitioner. Nevertheless, how general practitioners (GPs) choose to initially manage AVB is largely unknown, as is the prevalence of underlying pathology of AVB in primary care.

  14. Delivery, Student Engagement and the Implementation of Good Practice in Entrepreneurship Education: Learning from the UK's New Entrepreneur Scholarship Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wing

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the results of a research-informed teaching project carried out to identify key factors in the content and delivery of a successful UK government initiative, the New Entrepreneur Scholarship (NES), from 2001 to 2008. The aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of implementing appropriate changes to…

  15. Factors influencing the intention of perinatal nurses to adopt the baby-friendly hospital initiative in southeastern quebec, Canada: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Guylaine; Lacombe, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses play a major role in promoting the baby-friendly hospital initiative (BFHI), yet the adoption of this initiative by nurses remains a challenge in many countries, despite evidences of its positive impacts on breastfeeding outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing perinatal nurses to adopt the BFHI in their practice. Methods. A sample of 159 perinatal nurses from six hospital-based maternity centers completed a survey based on the theory of planned behavior. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between key independent variables and nurses' intention to adopt the BFHI in their practice. A discriminant analysis of nurses' beliefs helped identify the targets of actions to foster the adoption the BFHI among nurses. Results. The participants are mainly influenced by factors pertaining to their perceived capacity to overcome the strict criteria of the BFHI, the mothers' approval of a nursing practice based on the BFHI, and the antenatal preparation of the mothers. Conclusions. This study provides theory-based evidence for the development of effective interventions aimed at promoting the adoption of the BFHI in nurses' practice.

  16. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) and the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS): nutrition guidelines, indicators, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Christian; McCullough, Keith P; Asano, Yasushi; Ginsberg, Nancy; Maroni, Bradley J; Pifer, Trinh B

    2004-11-01

    Nutritional markers are important predictors of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. The Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure provides guidelines for assessing nutritional status that were evaluated using data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). The level of various nutritional markers (serum albumin, modified subjective global assessment, serum creatinine, normalized protein catabolic rate [nPCR], and body mass index) were described for representative samples of patients and facilities from 7 countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) participating in the DOPPS. A strong inverse association was observed between mortality and serum albumin, with a mortality risk 1.38 times higher for patients with serum albumin concentration less than 3.5 g/dL (35 g/L). There were significant differences by country in the proportion of moderately and severely malnourished patients as determined by the modified subjective global assessment score. In the US sample, severely and moderately malnourished patients had a higher mortality risk compared with those not malnourished, 33% and 5% higher, respectively. An inverse relationship exists between serum creatinine concentration and mortality, with a mortality risk 60% to 70% higher in the lowest quartile group compared with the highest quartile group in Europe and the United States. Levels of nPCR varied significantly between European countries, and there was no association between mortality and nPCR in US data. After adjustment for demographic and comorbidity factors, the mortality risk decreased as body mass index increased in both US and European samples. DOPPS data highlight the importance of routine assessment of nutritional status, using multiple parameters, in clinical practice to improve patient care.

  17. The Environmental Health/Home Safety Education Project: a successful and practical U.S.-Mexico border initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Cox, Susan C; Mangadu, Thenral; Jacquez, Benjamín; Fullerton, Lynne

    2010-05-01

    The Environmental Health/Home Safety Education Project (Proyecto de Salud Ambiental y Seguridad en el Hogar) has been developed in response to a wide array of severe and often preventable environmental health issues occurring in and around homes on the U.S.-Mexico border. Utilizing well-trained community members, called promotoras , homes are visited and assessed for potential environmental hazards, including home fire and food safety issues. Data analyzed from project years 2002 to 2005 shows a significant impact in knowledge levels and initial behavior change among targeted participants as it relates to fire and food safety issues. Since the initiation of the project in 1999, hundreds of participants have improved their quality of life by making their homes safer. The project has proven to be sustainable, replicable, flexible, and attractive to funders.

  18. Researching the psychological therapies in prison: considerations and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Joanna; Bertrand-Godfrey, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The psychological therapies are widely considered within the forensic literature as holding a useful role in the prison system, however, despite this, very little research into the psychological therapies has taken place. Further, where research is carried out, it is often associated with the need for evidence-based practice (EBP), involving quantification and randomization. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This paper will initially introduce the importance of research into the psychological therapies in prison, followed by a consideration of EBP which can be thought of as the current movement governing research in the psychological therapies in the UK. However, in providing a focused critique of EBP, particularly within prisons, this paper will attempt to pave the way for a consideration of alternative research methodologies and resultant methods in researching the psychological therapies in prisons in the UK. Through this it is argued that research within the prison setting should act not to promote interventions and create an evidence-based as such, but to provide an accessible body of knowledge for the psychological therapists working in prisons in the UK.

  19. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  1. A history of women and feminist perspectives in community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, M A; Mulvey, A

    2000-10-01

    Using an historical framework, we document and assess efforts to include women, women's issues, and feminism in community psychology and in the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA). Initiatives of the SCRA Task Force/Committee on Women are traced from its inception to present. We also chronicle the dilemmas and difficulties of moving toward a feminist community psychology. The history is divided into five phases. Each phase is described in terms of women's involvement in the field and efforts to integrate feminist content into research and practice of the field. Reflections on the qualities of contexts that have both supported and inhibited inclusion are identified. We look to this history to try to understand the observation that while women have been increasingly visible in leadership roles and women's professional development has been encouraged, less progress has been made toward building a feminist community psychology.

  2. Making sense of "consumer engagement" initiatives to improve health and health care: a conceptual framework to guide policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittler, Jessica N; Martsolf, Grant R; Telenko, Shannon J; Scanlon, Dennis P

    2013-03-01

    Policymakers and practitioners continue to pursue initiatives designed to engage individuals in their health and health care despite discordant views and mixed evidence regarding the ability to cultivate greater individual engagement that improves Americans' health and well-being and helps manage health care costs. There is limited and mixed evidence regarding the value of different interventions. Based on our involvement in evaluating various community-based consumer engagement initiatives and a targeted literature review of models of behavior change, we identified the need for a framework to classify the universe of consumer engagement initiatives toward advancing policymakers' and practitioners' knowledge of their value and fit in various contexts. We developed a framework that expanded our conceptualization of consumer engagement, building on elements of two common models, the individually focused transtheoretical model of behavior and the broader, multilevel social ecological model. Finally, we applied this framework to one community's existing consumer engagement program. Consumer engagement in health and health care refers to the performance of specific behaviors ("engaged behaviors") and/or an individual's capacity and motivation to perform these behaviors ("activation"). These two dimensions are related but distinct and thus should be differentiated. The framework creates four classification schemas, by (1) targeted behavior types (self-management, health care encounter, shopping, and health behaviors) and by (2) individual, (3) group, and (4) community dimensions. Our example illustrates that the framework can systematically classify a variety of consumer engagement programs, and that this exercise and resulting characterization can provide a structured way to consider the program and how its components fit program goals both individually and collectively. Applying the framework could help advance the field by making policymakers and practitioners aware

  3. Sustained transfer of knowledge to practice in long-term care: facilitators and barriers of a mental health learning initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolee, Paul; McAiney, Carrie A; Hillier, Loretta M; Harris, Diane; Hamilton, Pam; Kessler, Linda; Madsen, Victoria; Le Clair, J Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This article explores facilitators and barriers to the impact and sustainability of a learning initiative to increase capacity of long-term care (LTC) homes to manage the mental health needs of older persons, through development of in-house Psychogeriatric Resource Persons (PRPs). Twenty interviews were conducted with LTC staff. Management support, particularly designation of time for PRP activities, development of PRP teams, and supportive learning strategies were significant factors affecting sustained knowledge transfer. Continuing education that is provided and evaluated on an ongoing basis, secures management commitment, is integrated within a broader system strategy, and provides on-the-job support has the greatest potential to affect care.

  4. Hypertension control after an initial cardiac event among Medicare patients with diabetes mellitus: A multidisciplinary group practice observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddha, Ashish; Smith, Maureen A; Palta, Mari; Johnson, Heather M

    2018-04-23

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease have a high risk of mortality and/or recurrent cardiovascular events. Hypertension control is critical for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. The objective was to determine rates and predictors of achieving hypertension control among Medicare patients with diabetes and uncontrolled hypertension after hospital discharge for an initial cardiac event. A retrospective analysis of linked electronic health record and Medicare data was performed. The primary outcome was hypertension control within 1 year after hospital discharge for an initial cardiac event. Cox proportional hazard models assessed sociodemographics, medications, utilization, and comorbidities as predictors of control. Medicare patients with diabetes were more likely to achieve hypertension control when prescribed beta-blockers at discharge or with a history of more specialty visits. Adults ≥ 80 were more likely to achieve control with diuretics. These findings demonstrate the importance of implementing guideline-directed multidisciplinary care in this complex and high-risk population. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The associations between organizational culture and knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a multicenter Veterans Affairs quality improvement initiative to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkowitz-Cochran, Ronda L; Burkitt, Kelly H; Cuerdon, Timothy; Harrison, Cassandra; Gao, Shasha; Obrosky, D Scott; Jain, Rajiv; Fine, Michael J; Jernigan, John A

    2012-03-01

    Previous research demonstrates that organizational culture (OC) and knowledge, attitudes, and practices of health care personnel are associated with the overall success of infection control programs; however, little attention has been given to the relationships among these factors in contributing to the success of quality improvement programs. Cross-sectional surveys assessing OC and knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were distributed to 16 medical centers participating in a Veterans Affairs MRSA prevention initiative in 2 time periods. Factor analysis was performed on the OC survey responses, and factor scores were generated. To assess associations between OC and knowledge, attitudes, and practices of health care personnel, regression analyses were performed overall and then stratified by job type. The final analyzable sample included 2,314 surveys (43% completed by nurses, 9% by physicians, and 48% by other health care personnel). Three OC factors emerged accounting for 53% of the total variance: "Staff Engagement," "Overwhelmed/Stress-Chaos," and "Hospital Leadership." Overall, higher Staff Engagement was associated with greater knowledge scores, better hand hygiene practices, fewer reported barriers, and more positive attitudes. Higher Hospital Leadership scores were associated with better hand hygiene practices, fewer reported barriers, and more positive attitudes. Conversely, higher Overwhelmed/Stress-Chaos scores were associated with poorer reported prevention practices, more barriers, and less positive attitudes. When these associations were stratified by job type, there were significant associations between OC factors and knowledge for nurses only, between OC factors and practice items for nurses and other health care personnel, and between OC factors and the barriers and attitudes items for all job types. OC factors were not associated with knowledge and practices among physicians. Three OC

  6. A pilot randomized control trial investigating the effect of mindfulness practice on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, and physiological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingston, Jessica; Chadwick, Paul; Meron, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of mindfulness training on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, physiological activity, and the acquisition of mindfulness skills. Methods: Forty-two asymptomatic University students participated in a randomized, single-blind, active control pilot study. ...

  7. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    and a longitudinal approach, differences and similarities in practices of care are identified. The care patterns are studied with a focus on young adults age 30-35. Quantitative as well as qualitative methods are employed. By utilising in-depth qualitative interview data the paper explores the interplay between...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...

  8. Introduction to Positive Psychology in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Phillips, Brian; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology has received increasing attention in rehabilitation counseling research and practice. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis of personal assets and strengths, which provides a solid foundation for the integration of positive psychology into the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling. In…

  9. The Relationship of Engagement in Improvement Practices to Outcome Measures in Large-Scale Quality Improvement Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gregory L; Kenward, Kevin; Hines, Stephen; Joshi, Maulik S

    Hospital engagement networks (HENs) are part of the largest health care improvement initiative ever undertaken. This article explores whether engagement in improvement activities within a HEN affected quality measures. Data were drawn from 1174 acute care hospitals. A composite quality score was created from 10 targeted topic area measures multiplied by the number of qualifying topics. Scores improved from 5.4 (SD = 6.8) at baseline to 4.6 (5.9) at remeasurement; P improvement ( P improvement, whereas hospitals in the West ( P = .0009) did not improve as much as hospitals in other regions. After adjusting for hospital characteristics, hospitals with improvement champions ( P = .008), a higher level of engagement with their state association ( P = .001), and more leadership involvement ( P = .005) in HEN demonstrated greater improvement.

  10. School Psychology in Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sara; McGonnell, Melissa; Noyes, Amira

    2016-01-01

    Registration as a psychologist in Nova Scotia can be at the master's or doctoral level; however, the Nova Scotia Board of Examiners in Psychology has announced a move to the doctoral degree as the entry-level to practice. Many school psychologists in Nova Scotia practice at the master's level; therefore, this change could affect school psychology…

  11. [Breastfeeding (part one): Frequency, benefits and drawbacks, optimal duration and factors influencing its initiation and prolongation. Clinical guidelines for practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantry, A A; Monier, I; Marcellin, L

    2015-12-01

    The objectives were to on assess the frequency and the duration of breastfeeding in France. On the other hand, the objectives were to identify its benefits and drawbacks, and to study the factors influencing its initiation and its extension. Bibliographic research in Medline, Google Scholar and in the Cochrane Library. Breastfeeding concerns in France about 70% of children at birth (EL2). Its median duration is about 15 weeks and 3 weeks ½ for exclusive breastfeeding. At three months, only one third of children breastfed at birth are still being breastfed (EL2). Whether this is due to the composition of breast milk or the behavior of mothers with their children or their socio-cultural level, or even by all these components at once, breastfeeding is associated with better cognitive development children (EL2). This effect is even more reinforced that mothers breastfeed exclusively and prolonged (EL2). As part of the prevention of many diseases (ear infections, gastrointestinal infections, atopic diseases, obesity and cardiovascular diseases…), exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding (grade B) between 4 to 6 months is recommended (professional consensus). Breastfeeding is not a means of preventing postpartum depression (professional consensus). To reduce the incidence of breast cancer, prolonged breastfeeding is recommended (grade B). In order to increase the rate of initiation of breastfeeding as well as its duration, it is recommended that health professionals work closely with mothers in their project (grade A), the breastfeeding promotion messages include message to husbands (grade B), and to promote breastfeeding on demand without fixed interval between feedings (grade B). However, there is not enough data to recommend the use of a specific position during breastfeeding, or the use of one or two breast or to early start breastfeeding or not (professional consensus). Exclusive and extended breastfeeding is recommended (grade B) between 4 to 6 months (professional

  12. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology: Walter C. Borman

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  13. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology: Marcia K. Johnson

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  14. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Bernice Lott

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in…

  15. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    ’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  16. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  17. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...

  18. The Environmental Data Initiative data repository: Trustworthy practices that foster preservation, fitness, and reuse for environmental and ecological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servilla, M. S.; Brunt, J.; Costa, D.; Gries, C.; Grossman-Clarke, S.; Hanson, P. C.; O'Brien, M.; Smith, C.; Vanderbilt, K.; Waide, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Environmental Data Initiative (EDI) is an outgrowth of more than 30 years of information management experience and technology from LTER Network data practitioners. EDI builds upon the PASTA data repository software used by the LTER Network Information System and manages more than 42,000 data packages, containing tabular data, imagery, and other formats. Development of the repository was a community process beginning in 2009 that included numerous working groups for generating use cases, system requirements, and testing of completed software, thereby creating a vested interested in its success and transparency in design. All software is available for review on GitHub, and refinements and new features are ongoing. Documentation is also available on Read-the-docs, including a comprehensive description of all web-service API methods. PASTA is metadata driven and uses the Ecological Metadata Language (EML) standard for describing environmental and ecological data; a simplified Dublin Core document is also available for each data package. Data are aggregated into packages consisting of metadata and other related content described by an OAI-ORE document. Once archived, each data package becomes immutable and permanent; updates are possible through the addition of new revisions. Components of each data package are accessible through a unique identifier, while the entire data package receives a DOI that is registered in DataCite. Preservation occurs through a combination of DataONE synchronization/replication and by a series of local and remote backup strategies, including daily uploads to AWS Glacier storage. Checksums are computed for all data at initial upload, with random verification occurring on a continuous basis, thus ensuring the integrity of data. PASTA incorporates a series of data quality tests to ensure that data are correctly documented with EML before data are archived; data packages that fail any test are forbidden in the repository. These tests are a

  19. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Modified Practice Attitudes Scale: Initial Factor Analysis and a New Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heehoon; Ebesutani, Chad K; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Stanick, Cameo

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create the Korean version of the Modified Practice Attitudes Scale (K-MPAS) to measure clinicians' attitudes toward evidence-based treatments (EBTs) in the Korean mental health system. Using 189 U.S. therapists and 283 members from the Korean mental health system, we examined the reliability and validity of the MPAS scores. We also conducted the first exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis on the MPAS and compared EBT attitudes across U.S. and Korean therapists. Results revealed that the inclusion of both "reversed-worded" and "non-reversed-worded" items introduced significant method effects that compromised the integrity of the one-factor MPAS model. Problems with the one-factor structure were resolved by eliminating the "non-reversed-worded" items. Reliability and validity were adequate among both Korean and U.S. therapists. Korean therapists also reported significantly more negative attitudes toward EBTs on the MPAS than U.S. therapists. The K-MPAS is the first questionnaire designed to measure Korean service providers' attitudes toward EBTs to help advance the dissemination of EBTs in Korea. The current study also demonstrated the negative impacts that can be introduced by incorporating oppositely worded items into a scale, particularly with respect to factor structure and detecting significant group differences.

  20. Principles to guide sustainable implementation of extended-scope-of-practice physiotherapy workforce redesign initiatives in Australia: stakeholder perspectives, barriers, supports, and incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Joanne Morris,1 Karen Grimmer,2 Lisa Gilmore,1 Chandima Perera,3 Gordon Waddington,4 Greg Kyle,4 Bryan Ashman,5 Karen Murphy61The Physiotherapy Department, The Canberra Hospital, ACT Health, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 2International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Department of Rheumatology, The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 4The Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 5Department of Surgical Services, The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 6Office of Allied Health Advisor, ACT Health, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Sustainable implementation of new workforce redesign initiatives requires strategies that minimize barriers and optimize supports. Such strategies could be provided by a set of guiding principles. A broad understanding of the concerns of all the key stakeholder groups is required before effective strategies and initiatives are developed. Many new workforce redesign initiatives are not underpinned by prior planning, and this threatens their uptake and sustainability. This study reports on a cross-sectional qualitative study that sought the perspectives of representatives of key stakeholders in a new workforce redesign initiative (extended-scope-of-practice physiotherapy in one Australian tertiary hospital. The key stakeholder groups were those that had been involved in some way in the development, management, training, funding, and/or delivery of the initiative. Data were collected using semistructured questions, answered individually by interview or in writing. Responses were themed collaboratively, using descriptive analysis. Key identified themes comprised: the importance of service marketing; proactively addressing barriers; using readily understood nomenclature; demonstrating service quality and safety, monitoring adverse events, measuring health and cost outcomes; legislative issues; registration; promoting viable

  1. Guidelines for postdoctoral training in rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, William; Hanson, Stephanie; Turner, Aaron P; Stucky, Kirk; Barisa, Mark; Brownsberger, Mary; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Ashman, Teresa; Kuemmel, Angela

    2012-11-01

    This article describes the methods and results of a national conference that was held to (1) develop consensus guidelines about the structure and process of rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training programs and (2) create a Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs to promote training programs' abilities to implement the guidelines and to formally recognize programs in compliance with the guidelines. Forty-six conference participants were chosen to include important stakeholders in rehabilitation psychology, representatives of rehabilitation psychology training and practice communities, representatives of psychology accreditation and certification bodies, and persons involved in medical education practice and research. Consensus guidelines were developed for rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training program structure and process and for establishing the Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs. The Conference developed aspirational guidelines for postdoctoral education and training programs in applied rehabilitation psychology and established a Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs as a means of promoting their adoption by training programs. These efforts are designed to promote quality, consistency, and excellence in the education and training of rehabilitation psychology practitioners and to promote competence in their practice. It is hoped that these efforts will stimulate discussion, assist in the development of improved teaching and evaluation methods, lead to interesting research questions, and generally facilitate the continued systematic development of the profession of rehabilitation psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  2. The commerce of professional psychology and the new ethics code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koocher, G P

    1994-11-01

    The 1992 version of the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct brings some changes in requirements and new specificity to the practice of psychology. The impact of the new code on therapeutic contracts, informed consent to psychological services, advertising, financial aspects of psychological practice, and other topics related to the commerce of professional psychology are discussed. The genesis of many new thrusts in the code is reviewed from the perspective of psychological service provider. Specific recommendations for improved attention to ethical matters in professional practice are made.

  3. National and subnational HIV/AIDS coordination: are global health initiatives closing the gap between intent and practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhadze Natia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A coordinated response to HIV/AIDS remains one of the 'grand challenges' facing policymakers today. Global health initiatives (GHIs have the potential both to facilitate and exacerbate coordination at the national and subnational level. Evidence of the effects of GHIs on coordination is beginning to emerge but has hitherto been limited to single-country studies and broad-brush reviews. To date, no study has provided a focused synthesis of the effects of GHIs on national and subnational health systems across multiple countries. To address this deficit, we review primary data from seven country studies on the effects of three GHIs on coordination of HIV/AIDS programmes: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR, and the World Bank's HIV/AIDS programmes including the Multi-country AIDS Programme (MAP. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted at national and subnational levels (179 and 218 respectively in seven countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America, between 2006 and 2008. Studies explored the development and functioning of national and subnational HIV coordination structures, and the extent to which coordination efforts around HIV/AIDS are aligned with and strengthen country health systems. Results Positive effects of GHIs included the creation of opportunities for multisectoral participation, greater political commitment and increased transparency among most partners. However, the quality of participation was often limited, and some GHIs bypassed coordination mechanisms, especially at the subnational level, weakening their effectiveness. Conclusions The paper identifies residual national and subnational obstacles to effective coordination and optimal use of funds by focal GHIs, which these GHIs, other donors and country partners need to collectively address.

  4. Martial arts and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J R

    1988-12-01

    The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.

  5. Benefits of implementing pain-related disability and psychological assessment in dental practice for patients with temporomandibular pain and other oral health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Corine M; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Durham, Justin; Goulet, Jean-Paul; Michelotti, Ambra; Roldán Barraza, Carolina; Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Ekberg, EwaCarin; Raphael, Karen G

    2018-04-10

    Evidence in the field of dentistry has demonstrated the importance of pain-related disability and psychological assessment in the development of chronic symptoms. The Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders offer a brief assessment for the diagnostic process in patients with orofacial pain (Axis II). The authors describe relevant outcomes that may guide general oral health care practitioners toward tailored treatment decisions and improved treatment outcomes and provide recommendations for the primary care setting. The authors conducted a review of the literature to provide an overview of knowledge about Axis II assessment relevant for the general oral health care practitioner. The authors propose 3 domains of the Axis II assessment to be used in general oral health care: pain location (pain drawing), pain intensity and related disability (Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS]), and psychological distress (Patient Health Questionnaire-4 [PHQ-4]). In the case of localized pain, low GCPS scores (0-II), and low PHQ-4 scores (0-5), patients preferably receive treatment in primary care. In the case of widespread pain, high GCPS scores (III-IV), and high PHQ-4 scores (6-12), the authors recommend referral to a multidisciplinary team, especially for patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. The authors recommend psychological assessment at first intake of a new adult patient or for patients with persistent TMD pain. The authors recommend the pain-related disability screening tools for all TMD pain symptoms and for dental pain symptoms that persist beyond the normal healing period. A brief psychological and pain-related disability assessment for patients in primary care may help the general oral health care practitioner make tailored treatment decisions. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  7. The temporomandibular opening index, report of headache and TMD, and implications for screening in general practice: an initial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victor J; Karic, Vesna V; Ofec, Ronen; Nehete, Swati R; Smidt, Ami

    2014-01-01

    TMD and the control group. Age serves as a mild protective for reported headache. Younger patients tend to report more headaches. More frequent and severe headache occurred in the high-TOI group. This study serves as a reminder for clinicians in general practice to consider the effect of comorbidity when faced with TMD patients with headache.

  8. The promise and challenge of practice-research collaborations: Guiding principles and strategies for initiating, designing, and implementing program evaluation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secret, Mary; Abell, Melissa L; Berlin, Trey

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a set of guiding principles and strategies to facilitate the collaborative efforts of social work researchers and practitioners as they initiate, design, and implement outcome evaluations of human service interventions and programs. Beginning with an exploration of the interpersonal barriers to practice-research collaborations, and building on their experiences in successfully completing a community-based research evaluation, the authors identify specific relationship-focused principles and strategies and illustrate how these approaches can guide practice-research teams through the various sequential activities of the evaluation research process. In particular, it is suggested that practice-research collaborations can be formed, strengthened, and sustained by emphasis on a spirit of discovery and shared leadership at the start of the relationship, use of a comprehensive evaluation model to clarify and frame the evaluation and program goals, beginning where the client is when selecting research methodology and measurement tools, commitment to keeping the program first and recording everything during the implementation and data-collection stages, discussion of emerging findings and presentation of findings in graphic format at the data-analysis stage, and a total team approach at the dissemination stage.

  9. The Future of Pedagogical Action Research in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormack, Sophie; Bourne, Victoria; Deuker, Charmaine; Norton, Lin; O'Siochcru, Cathal; Watling, Rosamond

    2014-01-01

    Psychology lecturers are well-qualified to carry out action research which would contribute to the theoretical understanding of learning as well as having practical benefits for students. Pedagogical action research demonstrates how knowledge of psychology can be applied to solve practical problems, providing role models of psychological literacy…

  10. Assessing competence in sport psychology : An action research account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutter, R. I (Vana); Pijpers, J. R (Rob); Oudejans, Raôul R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Competent practice in sport psychology is of utmost importance for the professional status of the field, and hence proper assessment of competence for sport psychology practice is needed. We describe three cycles of action research to improve the assessment of competence in a sport psychology

  11. Guidelines for prevention in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Relationship between initial therapy and blood pressure control for high-risk hypertension patients in the UK: a retrospective cohort study from the THIN general practice database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Sharada; Juhasz, Attila; Puelles, Jorge; Tierney, Travis S

    2017-07-28

    To examine the UK practice patterns in treating newly diagnosed hypertension and to determine whether subgroups of high-risk patients are more or less likely to follow particular therapeutic protocols and to reach blood pressure goals. Retrospective cohort study. This study examined adults in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) UK general practice medical records database who were initiated on medication for hypertension. 48 131 patients with essential hypertension diagnosed between 2008 and 2010 who were registered with a participating practice for a minimum of 13 months prior to, and 6 months following, initiation of therapy. We excluded patients with gestational hypertension or secondary hypertension. Patients were classified into risk groups based on blood pressure readings and comorbid conditions. Odds of receiving single versus fixed or free-drug combination therapy and odds of achieving blood pressure control were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The vast majority of patients (95.8%) were initiated on single drug therapy. Patients with high cardiovascular risk (patients with grade 2-3 hypertension or those with high normal/grade 1 hypertension plus at least one cardiovascular condition pretreatment) had a statistically significant benefit of starting immediately on combination therapy when blood pressure control was the desired goal (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.42) but, surprisingly, were less likely than patients with no risk factors to receive combination therapy (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.59). Our results suggest that combination therapy may be indicated for patients with high cardiovascular risk, who accounted for 60.6% of our study population. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline CG34 of 2006 (in effect during the study period) recommended starting with single drug class therapy for most patients, and this advice does seem to have been followed even in cases where a more aggressive approach might

  13. Quality of cancer family history and referral for genetic counseling and testing among oncology practices: a pilot test of quality measures as part of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marie E; Kadlubek, Pamela; Pham, Trang H; Wollins, Dana S; Lu, Karen H; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Neuss, Michael N; Hughes, Kevin S

    2014-03-10

    Family history of cancer (CFH) is important for identifying individuals to receive genetic counseling/testing (GC/GT). Prior studies have demonstrated low rates of family history documentation and referral for GC/GT. CFH quality and GC/GT practices for patients with breast (BC) or colon cancer (CRC) were assessed in 271 practices participating in the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative in fall 2011. A total of 212 practices completed measures regarding CFH and GC/GT practices for 10,466 patients; 77.4% of all medical records reviewed documented presence or absence of CFH in first-degree relatives, and 61.5% of medical records documented presence or absence of CFH in second-degree relatives, with significantly higher documentation for patients with BC compared with CRC. Age at diagnosis was documented for all relatives with cancer in 30.7% of medical records (BC, 45.2%; CRC, 35.4%; P ≤ .001). Referall for GC/GT occurred in 22.1% of all patients with BC or CRC. Of patients with increased risk for hereditary cancer, 52.2% of patients with BC and 26.4% of those with CRC were referred for GC/GT. When genetic testing was performed, consent was documented 77.7% of the time, and discussion of results was documented 78.8% of the time. We identified low rates of complete CFH documentation and low rates of referral for those with BC or CRC meeting guidelines for referral among US oncologists. Documentation and referral were greater for patients with BC compared with CRC. Education and support regarding the importance of accurate CFH and the benefits of proactive high-risk patient management are clearly needed.

  14. Anthropological aspects of health psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Shuvalov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a theoretical study carried out in the framework of the research project «Determinants of psychological health of the modern person». The issue of psychological health is considered in the context of the anthropological crisis that affects public body and causes a decrease in synergetic social life. On the level of specific manifestations, it is associated with damage to the spiritual and moral sphere, distortion of personal way of life and interpersonal relationships, which leads to a general decline in viability. A growing number of people, whose subjective state can be described as mentally fit, but personally sick is identified. Secondary symptoms of such conditions are depression, aggression, dependent behaviour. However, their essential characteristics are not captured by the existing social psychological, psychological pedagogical and medical psychological concepts and also do not fit the typical description of psychological emotional and/or behavioural disorders. The author adheres to the hypothesis that these states have specific spiritual and psychological conditions and symptoms that deserve scientific analysis and philosophical reflection. The leitmotif of the paper is the issue of mental health in its scientific and philosophical sense. Representation of health from the standpoint of modern humanitarian knowledge and traditional spiritual culture are generalized. The theory of general psychological health is developed. The main approaches to the problem of psychological health are presented. Comparative analysis of the humanistic and anthropological models of mental health is shown. Correspondence between the anthropological conditions and criteria of mental health concepts of the modern national educational ideal is presented. Educational activity is described as anthropological practice aimed at acquiring by a child the wide range of values as a person. As such, it is the most conducive to

  15. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  16. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  17. Rogerian Psychology and "Non-Directive" Counselling in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quicke, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the prevalence of the nondirective approach in the school counseling movement and analyzes its psychological rationale and practical implications, centering on the psychological concepts of Carl R. Rogers. (MF)

  18. Initial experience with a novel pre-sign-out quality assurance tool for review of random surgical pathology diagnoses in a subspecialty-based university practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Scott R; Wiehagen, Luke T; Kelly, Susan M; Piccoli, Anthony L; Lassige, Karen; Yousem, Samuel A; Dhir, Rajiv; Parwani, Anil V

    2010-09-01

    We recently implemented a novel pre-sign-out quality assurance tool in our subspecialty-based surgical pathology practice at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. It randomly selects an adjustable percentage of cases for review by a second pathologist at the time the originating pathologist's electronic signature is entered and requires that the review be completed within 24 hours, before release of the final report. The tool replaced a retrospective audit system and it has been in successful use since January 2009. We report our initial experience for the first 14 months of its service. During this time, the disagreement numbers and levels were similar to those identified using the retrospective system, case turnaround time was not significantly affected, and the number of case amendments generated decreased. The tool is a useful quality assurance instrument and its prospective nature allows for the potential prevention of some serious errors.

  19. Breastfeeding Progression in Preterm Infants Is Influenced by Factors in Infants, Mothers and Clinical Practice: The Results of a National Cohort Study with High Breastfeeding Initiation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Hallum, Karin; Frandsen, Annemi; Kyhnaeb, Anne; Svarer, Inge; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants based on questionnaires and structured telephone interviews, including 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with GA of 24–36 weeks. Results Of the preterm infants, 99% initiated breastfeeding and 68% were discharged exclusively breastfed. Breastfeeding milestones were generally reached at different PMAs for different GA groups, but preterm infants were able to initiate breastfeeding at early times, with some delay in infants less than GA 32 weeks. Very preterm infants had lowest mean PMA (35.5 weeks) at first complete breastfeed, and moderate preterm infants had lowest mean PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding (36.4 weeks). Admitting mothers to the NICU together with the infant and minimising the use of a pacifier during breastfeeding transition were associated with 1.6 (95% CI 0.4–2.8) and 1.2 days (95% CI 0.1–2.3) earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding respectively. Infants that were small for gestational age were associated with 5.6 days (95% CI 4.1–7.0) later establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion Breastfeeding competence is not developed at a fixed PMA, but is influenced by multiple factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice. Admitting mothers together with their infants to the NICU and minimising the use of pacifiers may contribute to earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:25251690

  20. ‘It’s quite weird to write … you feel like a nut job’: the practical and emotional consequences of writing personal reflections for assessment in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Setting the tone for reflective writing – should the first person, populated approach that currently dominates be ethically questioned? An active voice is recommended to enhance ‘power’ and emotional investment in reflection, but often presents practical difficulties for students conditioned in ‘scientific’ depopulated ways. Beyond the practical, being instructed to employ a personal tone could exacerbate the emotional risks involved for vulnerable students. Ethical questioning is an area of ...

  1. Study of knowledge, attitude and practice of parents about psychological changes in puberty and its association with adolescent-parent relationship in the female students of seventh and third grade of secondary schools in the city of Zanjan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA MorowatiSharifabadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract   Background:   Puberty is of high importance and physical, psychological and social changes occurs in the period.This period has great impact onadult life and also the futureand given rise to conflict between parents and children and the role of parents, especially mothers in this period due to build healthy families in our country's founding figures of children, this study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and behavior about psychological changes during puberty and its association with the relationships between girls and their mothers were studied.   Method:   In this descriptive study , 161highschool studentsin the first period(n = 74 in seventh gradeand n = 87 in thirdgrade in Zanjan city, selected by the M ulti -stage samplingof the sixhighschool in the first period(secondary school enrolledin this study. Bycollectingdata onknowledge,attitude and practice of questionnairecontaining18 knowledge questionsand20 attitude itemsand20 questionsaboutthefunctional, andby collectingdata onrelationship betweenmother anddaughter of a standard questionnaire PCRS containing 24 questionsto assess child-parent relationship , but studentscompleted.Datacollectedby SPSS-18 softwareandANOVAtests,regression and correlation , and thesignificance levelα = 0.05 wasanalyzed .   Results :   The mean age of maternalage38.17±5.36 years and the average age of students was13.19 ±0.72 years. The mean scores of mothers' knowledge about nonphysical changes of puberty 9.58± 3.48 out of 18 score and the mean attitude score 64.81± 8.84 out of 100 score and the mean score of their practice, 57.4 ± 5.82 out of 80score was thatthe score of the three were in the moderate range. Average score of mother-child relationship during puberty was 20/44 out of 28 score that was in the range of a moderate relationship.Mother-child relationship and the attitude and practice were correlated.mothers' attitude and practice were correlated.   Conclusion:   Many

  2. Professional psychology in health care services: a blueprint for education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In 2010, an interorganizational effort among the American Psychological Association, the Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology, and the Council of Chairs of Training Councils, known as the Health Service Psychology Education Collaborative (HSPEC), was initiated to address mounting concerns related to education and training for the professional practice of psychology. Given that professional psychology includes diverse areas of practice and the mounting concerns about psychology's role in a reformed health care system, HSPEC chose to focus on preparation of psychologists for the delivery of health care services and made seven recommendations that constitute the core of a blueprint for the future. These recommendations require significant changes in graduate education-changes critical to the future of psychology as a health profession. As part of its work, HSPEC developed a statement of core competencies for the preparation of health service psychologists, integrating feedback solicited through public comment and review by the psychology community, including education and training councils and APA governance groups. The articulation of these competencies serves to inform not only the preparation of health service psychologists but students, employers, regulators, and policymakers as well. It also reflects the discipline's commitment to quality and accountability in the preparation of its workforce. HSPEC recognizes that its recommendations to strengthen the core preparation and identity of health service psychologists will result in some limitations on degrees of freedom at the program level but believes such limitation to be in the service of coherent and uniform standards for education and training. This blueprint supports the evolution and development of the profession within a scientific context. It supports standards as meaningful, versus minimum, indicators as part of the profession's obligation to the public. The blueprint also calls for the profession

  3. Decolonizing Liberation: Toward a Transnational Feminist Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğçe Kurtiş; Glenn Adams

    2015-01-01

    This paper engages the theme of “decolonizing psychological science” in the context of a perspective on psychological theory and research—namely, feminist psychology—that shares an emphasis on broad liberation. Although conceived as a universal theory and practice of liberation, scholars across diverse sites have suggested that feminism—perhaps especially as it manifests in psychological science—is not always compatible with and at times is even contradictory to global struggles for decoloniz...

  4. Collaborative leadership and the implementation of community-based fall prevention initiatives: a multiple case study of public health practice within community groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle-Reid, Maureen; Dykeman, Cathy; Ploeg, Jenny; Kelly Stradiotto, Caralyn; Andrews, Angela; Bonomo, Susan; Orr-Shaw, Sarah; Salker, Niyati

    2017-02-16

    Falls among community-dwelling older adults are a serious public health concern. While evidence-based fall prevention strategies are available, their effective implementation requires broad cross-sector coordination that is beyond the capacity of any single institution or organization. Community groups comprised of diverse stakeholders that include public health, care providers from the public and private sectors and citizen volunteers are working to deliver locally-based fall prevention. These groups are examples of collective impact and are important venues for public health professionals (PHPs) to deliver their mandate to work collaboratively towards achieving improved health outcomes. This study explores the process of community-based group work directed towards fall prevention, and it focuses particular attention on the collaborative leadership practices of PHPs, in order to advance understanding of the competencies required for collective impact. Four community groups, located in Ontario, Canada, were studied using an exploratory, retrospective, multiple case study design. The criteria for inclusion were presence of a PHP, a diverse membership and the completion of an initiative that fit within the scope of the World Health Organization Fall Prevention Model. Data were collected using interviews (n = 26), focus groups (n = 4), and documents. Cross-case synthesis was conducted by a collaborative team of researchers. The community groups differed by membership, the role of the PHP and the type of fall prevention initiatives. Seven practice themes emerged: (1) tailoring to address context; (2) making connections; (3) enabling communication; (4) shaping a vision; (5) skill-building to mobilize and take action; (6) orchestrating people and projects; and (7) contributing information and experience. The value of recognized leadership competencies was underscored and the vital role of institutional supports was highlighted. To align stakeholders working

  5. Citizen participation and citizen initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthoefer, H.

    1977-01-01

    Contents: Social conditions for citizen initiatives - technical change and employment - crisis behaviour - socio-psychological analysis of political planning; legitimation - presentation and criticism - conditions for citizen initiatives coming into being within the field of tension citizen : administration - legal problems of citizen initiatives - environmental protection in the energy discussion; participation; models. (HP) [de

  6. Psychological and practical difficulties among parents and healthy siblings of children with Duchenne vs. Becker muscular dystrophy: an Italian comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Vita, Giuseppe; Pane, Marika; D'Amico, Adele; Balottin, Umberto; Angelini, Corrado; Battini, Roberta; Politano, Luisa; Patalano, Melania; Sagliocchi, Alessandra; Civati, Federica; Brighina, Erika; Vita, Gian Luca; Messina, Sonia; Sframeli, Maria; Lombardo, Maria Elena; Scalise, Roberta; Colia, Giulia; Catteruccia, Maria; Berardinelli, Angela; Motta, Maria Chiara; Gaiani, Alessandra; Semplicini, Claudio; Bello, Luca; Astrea, Guja; Zaccaro, Antonella; Scutifero, Marianna

    2014-12-01

    This study explored the burden in parents and healthy siblings of 4-17 year-old patients with Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophies, and whether the burden varied according to clinical aspects and social resources. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, patient's clinical history, parent and healthy children burden, and on parent's social resources were collected using self-reported questionnaires administered to 336 parents of patients with DMD (246) and BMD (90). Parents of patients with DMD reported higher burden than those of patients with BMD, especially concerning feeling of loss (84.3% DMD vs. 57.4% BMD), stigma (44.2% DMD vs. 5.5% BMD) and neglect of hobbies (69.0% DMD vs. 32.5% BMD). Despite the burden, 66% DMD and 62.4% BMD parents stated the caregiving experience had a positive impact on their lives. A minority of parents believed MD has a negative influence on the psychological well-being (31.0% DMD vs. 12.8% BMD), and social life of unaffected children (25.7% vs. 18.4%). In the DMD group, burden correlated with duration of illness and parent age, and burden was higher among parents with lower social contacts and support in emergencies. In DMD, difficulties among healthy children were reported as higher by parents who were older, had higher burden and lower social contacts. In both groups, burden increased in relation to patient disability. These findings underline that the psychological support to be provided to parents of patients with MD, should take into account clinical features of the disease.

  7. Screening the psychological laboratory: Hugo Münsterberg, psychotechnics, and the cinema, 1892-1916.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    According to Hugo Münsterberg, the direct application of experimental psychology to the practical problems of education, law, industry, and art belonged by definition to the domain of psychotechnics. Whether in the form of pedagogical prescription, interrogation technique, hiring practice, or aesthetic principle, the psychotechnical method implied bringing the psychological laboratory to bear on everyday life. There were, however, significant pitfalls to leaving behind the putative purity of the early psychological laboratory in pursuit of technological utility. In the Vocation Bureau, for example, psychological instruments were often deemed too intimidating for a public unfamiliar with the inner workings of experimental science. Similarly, when psychotechnical means were employed by big business in screening job candidates, ethical red flags were raised about this new alliance between science and capital. This tension was particularly evident in Münsterberg's collaboration with the Paramount Pictures Corporation in 1916. In translating psychological tests into short experimental films, Münsterberg not only envisioned a new mass medium for the dissemination of psychotechnics, but a means by which to initiate the masses into the culture of experimental psychology.

  8. Social history of health psychology: context and textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of health psychology it considers how the field is represented in a selection of popular textbooks. It concludes by considering the growth of some critical approaches within health psychology.

  9. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GIFTED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Nikola Stankovska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giftedness is a multidimensional phenomenon that despite numerous studies and different approaches remains underexplored. It is known that there is different views about gifted children in psychological theory and practice. Giftedness represents general intellectual ability, general creative ability, productive and creative ability, the sum of specific skills, the ability of thinking, specific area of intelligence and creativity.Gifted child is a child who has above average skills and specific characteristics, which play an important role in the growth, development and education of these children. Researchers confirm the importance of early socialization, family and the primary teachers in the continually development of the gifted child on intellectual, social, emotional and somatic plan.It is known that e gifted child has specific characteristics and properties, such as originality, individuality, emotional stability, a high degree of intellectual capacity, independence, verbal fluency, perfectionism.Development and manifestation of creativity in gifted children depends of their cognitive component, personality traits, motivation. Gifted child early showed a specific interest in a particular area.This kind of child has a positive self-image, high self-esteem, self-confidence, high goals, a sense of self-worth, greater independence which manifests across the non-conformism and initiative.Every child deserves the special attention of parents, school and society, especially a gifted child which is a child with special needs about their average ability and special educational needs.

  11. Recommendations for training in pediatric psychology: defining core competencies across training levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Tonya M; Janicke, David M; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Mullins, Larry L; Robins, Paul M; Wu, Yelena P

    2014-10-01

    As a field, pediatric psychology has focused considerable efforts on the education and training of students and practitioners. Alongside a broader movement toward competency attainment in professional psychology and within the health professions, the Society of Pediatric Psychology commissioned a Task Force to establish core competencies in pediatric psychology and address the need for contemporary training recommendations.   The Task Force adapted the framework proposed by the Competency Benchmarks Work Group on preparing psychologists for health service practice and defined competencies applicable across training levels ranging from initial practicum training to entry into the professional workforce in pediatric psychology.   Competencies within 6 cluster areas, including science, professionalism, interpersonal, application, education, and systems, and 1 crosscutting cluster, crosscutting knowledge competencies in pediatric psychology, are presented in this report.   Recommendations for the use of, and the further refinement of, these suggested competencies are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Four-Year Durability of Initial Combination Therapy with Sitagliptin and Metformin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Clinical Practice; COSMIC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Jeong Ku

    Full Text Available We investigated the efficacy of initial combination therapy with sitagliptin and metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes for 4 years in clinical practice.Between 2009 and 2010, we reviewed 1,178 patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥7.5% or 58 mmol/mol prescribed initial combination therapy with sitagliptin and metformin. After excluding 288 patients without a second follow-up, 890 individuals (age, 58.0 ± 12.5 years; BMI, 25.4 ± 3.5 kg/m2; HbA1c, 8.6 ± 1.1% were followed up with every 3-6 months for 4 years. Homeostasis model assessments for insulin resistance and β-cell function (HOMA-β were recorded at baseline. The response criterion was HbA1c reduction by ≥0.8% from baseline or attainment of the target HbA1c (≤7.0% or 53 mmol/mol. At the end of every year of treatment, changes in HbA1c from the baseline were assessed.After 1 year, 72.2% of patients with initial combination therapy had responded, defined as HbA1c reduction ≥0.8% or attainment of the target HbA1c ≤7.0%. After 4 years, 35.4% of the patients still showed a response, with an HbA1c level of 7.0 ± 0.9%. A high HbA1c level at baseline was the most significant independent predictor of the long-term response (P<0.001. In addition, low HOMA-β was a significant predictor of a greater reduction in HbA1c. This treatment was generally well tolerated over the 4-year follow-up period, without any serious adverse events.This real-world follow-up study shows a persistent glucose-reducing effect of initial combination therapy with sitagliptin and metformin for up to 4 years.

  13. Health Psychology special series on health disparities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazak, A.E.; Bosch, J.; Klonoff, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and

  14. American Psychological Association: Annual Report, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the 2008 annual reports from the various directorates and offices of the American Psychological Association (APA). In 2008, APA continued to work on initiatives, programs, and products that lend value to the member's psychology career, support the future of their discipline, and serve the public. APA's goal is to strengthen…

  15. Enhancing the Psychology STEM Student Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kimberley M.

    2017-01-01

    Psychology is a valuable Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) discipline, but one which could do far more at communicating its value to the wider public. This paper discusses how popular initiatives, such as "The University of Northampton's STEM Champions" programme, enhance psychology's STEM membership, while…

  16. Psychology and the conduct of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psychology and the Conduct of Everyday Life moves psychological theory and research practice out of the laboratory and into the everyday world. Drawing on recent developments across the social and human sciences, it examines how people live as active subjects within the contexts of their everyday...

  17. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Psychological First Aid

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters."

  18. Psychology for the Classroom: E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, John

    2011-01-01

    "Psychology for the Classroom: E-Learning" is a lively and accessible introduction to the field of technology-supported teaching and learning and the educational psychology associated with those developments. Offering a substantial and useful analysis of e-learning, this practical book includes current research, offers a grounding in both theory…

  19. The Psychology of Education: Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, W. Ray

    2009-01-01

    Psychology has been closely involved with educational research, policy and practice since its emergence as a scientific discipline in the late 19th century but it has occupied a less certain place in recent years. This paper describes aspects of the organisational framework of psychology as a discipline and draws upon Research Assessment Exercise…

  20. Female genital mutilation: psychological and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...