WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychology personal authors

  1. Structure of personality psychology based on cocitation analysis of prominent authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremov Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Author Cocitation Analysis was applied in order to map the personality psychology as a research field. A group of 25 authors were selected from the Haggbloom (1999, 2002 lists of the most cited and prominent psychologists, judged to be the main contributors to the field. All of their cocitations identified in the three year volumes of SSCI were downloaded to be analyzed by cluster analysis and MDS. The analysis resulted in four clusters comprising (1 theorists of individual differences amalgamated with authors of biological orientation with R. Cattell positioned centrally, (2 behaviorists joined by socio-cognitive theorists led by M.E.P. Seligman and A. Bandura, and (3 the group of psychoanalytic (dynamic theorists with A. Adler in the middle. In fourth cluster G. Allport, H. Murray, K. Lewin, W. Mischel, and D. Buss were found mixed together to make a rather heterogeneous group. In two-axes representation one of the dimensions was understood as reflecting methodological and the other one content-specific differences among the authors, although this interpretation is not univocal. The same procedure was repeated on citations given to the same authors in SocioFakt - the Serbian Citation Index for Social Sciences, revealing a reduced picture of the domain. At this portrait, some important authors are missing as a result of their low citation rate, suggesting that in the Serbian personality psychology entire research fields don’t exist. .

  2. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  3. Sociogenomic personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J

    2008-12-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology.

  4. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  5. Theoretical foundations of personality assessment in clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes an important role of personality assessment in clinical psychology, leading theoretical and methodological perspectives, as well as the need for integrating different concepts and methods in personality assessment. Personality assessment in clinical psychology represents methodological frame for better understanding and treatment of psychological (mental disorders. Two principles for personality assessment prevail: one is based on psychological concepts of personality and statistical methodology, and the other relies on findings from clinical practice (clinical psychology, psychiatry and related fields. Since we do not yet have a generally accepted paradigm of personality assessment, clinical psychology needs unified concepts and methodology for personality assessment. Several authors have attempted to integrate and unify psychological concepts and methodology of assessment in the last decade. This is the path to development of clinical psychology and psychological science in general.

  6. Personality Psychology and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Almlund, Mathilde; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J; Kautz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the power of personality traits both as predictors and as causes of academic and economic success, health, and criminal activity. Measured personality is interpreted as a construct derived from an economic model of preferences, constraints, and information. Evidence is reviewed about the "situational specificity" of personality traits and preferences. An extreme version of the situationist view claims that there are no stable personality traits or preference parameters tha...

  7. From psychology of personality to psychology of persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojnov Dušan B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers diverse approaches to human subjectivity conceptualization. On the one hand, a summary is made of an established psychological view of personality as an intrinsic psychological entity responsible for stylistic differences in the behavior of isolated individuals, founded on the traditional Cartesian view. On the other hand more recent views are presented, which take human subjectivity as personhood i.e. responsible action of moral subjects, placed within amongst-people space, and implying allied activity of persons in a social community. In addition, consideration is given to new methodological demands for psychologists who want to research the domain of human personhood as well as to deviations of a "new paradigm" of psychological investigations from scientific tradition in viewing methods that has prevailed in psychology until recently. Clarification of demands for studying personhood is a new trend in psychology, so it should be stressed that such orientation, despite its long-lasting past, virtually has a very short history.

  8. Psychological approach to the problem of personality tipology

    OpenAIRE

    Nemtsow A.

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the traditional approaches to the problem of construction of a psychological personality typology. Discussed the main advantages and disadvantages of typological approach and the limits of its use in psychology as such. The original allocation system of psychological types based on four fundamental, from the point of view of the author, the aspirations of man. The characteristic allocated on this basis, the 24 theoretically possible personality types. They are aligned to ...

  9. The Psychological Self as Actor, Agent, and Author.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Dan P

    2013-05-01

    The psychological self may be construed as a reflexive arrangement of the subjective "I" and the constructed "Me," evolving and expanding over the human life course. The psychological self begins life as a social actor, construed in terms of performance traits and social roles. By the end of childhood, the self has become a motivated agent, too, as personal goals, motives, values, and envisioned projects for the future become central features of how the I conceives of the Me. A third layer of selfhood begins to form in the adolescent and emerging adulthood years, when the self as autobiographical author aims to construct a story of the Me, to provide adult life with broad purpose and a dynamic sense of temporal continuity. An integrative theory that envisions the psychological self as a developing I-Me configuration of actor, agent, and author helps to synthesize a wide range of conceptions and findings on the self from social, personality, cognitive, cultural, and developmental psychology and from sociology and other social sciences. The actor-agent-author framework also sheds new light on studies of self-regulation, self-esteem, self-continuity, and the relationship between self and culture. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

  11. On Grandiosity in Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Dan P.

    2007-01-01

    Responds to the comments by A. Wood and S. Joseph (see record 2006-23492-015); S. R. Maddi (see record 2006-23492-016); and S. Epstein (see record 2006-23492-017) on the current author's original article (see record 2006-03947-002) "A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality" (McAdams & Pals, April 2006).…

  12. Applications of Environmental Psychology in Programming for Severely Handicapped Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dixie Branner

    1980-01-01

    Theory and research from the field of environmental psychology are reviewed and implications regarding environmental programing for severely handicapped individuals are discussed. A challenge is issued to design for severely handicapped persons environments which are both manageable and consistent with normalization tenets. (Author)

  13. Personality characteristics associated with psychological reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, C A; Dowd, E T

    2001-07-01

    This study compared six different personality disorders on level of psychological reactance. Eighty clients met criteria for inclusion in one of six personality disorder groups, including passive-aggressive, dependent, personality disorder NOS (not otherwise specified), no personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline. Instruments included the Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS) and the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Psychological Reactance (QMPR). Four one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted on the scales and subscales of the two reactance measures. All four ANOVAs were significant, although post hoc tests indicated significant differences only among the more extreme groups. The personality disorders were generally ordered on reactance level according to predictions derived from the theory of separation-individuation. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Psychology or semiotics: persons or subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Cultural studies and especially semiological theory has recently sought to re-conceptualise classical problems considered in academic psychology such as perception, identity, and "subjectivity". It is argued that these theorizations are reductionist and/or theoretically incoherent without an adequate epistemology. Yet they have become for many students of the human sciences the conventional modes of analyzing such questions as personal identity.

  15. Little Albert from the Viewpoint of Abnormal Psychology Textbook Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeUnes, Arnold

    1983-01-01

    Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert and conditioned emotional reactions is unquestionably a classic in psychology. Observations are made on what authors of 27 college textbooks in abnormal psychology have to say or not to say about Little Albert. (RM)

  16. Understanding persons with psychological distress in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsdotter, Tina; Marklund, Bertil; Kylén, Sven; Taft, Charles; Ekman, Inger

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences of persons living with psychological distress who seek help in primary care. Psychological distress is a state of emotional suffering associated with stressors and demands that are difficult to cope with in daily life. The lack of effective care for and difficulty in identifying psychological distress is frustrating for patients and health professionals alike. The aim was therefore to gain more knowledge about the experience of living with psychological distress. Twelve persons (nine women and three men) aged 23-51 years were interviewed. Analyses were based on a phenomenological hermeneutic method and indicated that psychological distress may be seen as an imbalance (incongruence) between the self and the ideal self, which slowly breaks down a person's self-esteem. This imbalance was described in three dimensions: Struggling to cope with everyday life, Feeling inferior to others and Losing one's grip on life. It seems to be associated with a gradual depletion of existential capacities and lead to dissatisfaction, suffering, poor self-esteem and lack of control. As psychological distress may be a forerunner to mental, physical and emotional exhaustion, there is a need to initiate preventive or early interventions to avoid mental, physical and emotional chaos in such patients. Patients' with psychological distress need to be involved in a person-centred salutogenic dialogue with health professionals to become aware of and strengthen their own capacities to regain health and well-being. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Attributions of Productive Authors in Educational Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrath, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Are there similarities in the writing approaches and practices among the top-producing authors in our field? If so, perhaps knowing this information may benefit graduate students or recent graduates. In this paper, I asked 13 authors to explain why they were so productive in terms of publishing in educational psychology journals. Four categories…

  18. [Social psychological and sexological aspects of oral contraception (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keep, P A

    1976-01-01

    An inventory is made on the hindrances to the acceptance of contraception in general and oral contraception in particular. They are grouped as hindrances related to the social and psychological significance of "making children", hindrances related to the social and psychological significance of "having children" hindrances, related to the method of oral contraception itself, to be divided in social hindrances, psychological hindrances and medical hindrances and finally hindrances related to the provision of the pill to the individual user. Each of these is amply discussed, the author expresses the hope that by identification of these hindrances, lessons may be learned for the future, when other methods of contreception become available.

  19. A person in a closed environment as a psychological problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuliyaV. Klochko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses an ethically weighted problem which is related to modern psychology: when a person lives in a closed environment. A new approach to solving this problem is being examined. It is based on the finding of substantial new functional aspects of the cognitive processes of making and losing meaning. The study of this sub-discipline started with O.K. Tikhomirov’s theory of thinking. The phenomenon of “adaptability to changes in lifestyle” is being analyzed. The substantial characteristics of the notion of a “closed environment” as well as the psychological manifestations which appear when one is forced to live in a closed environment or choses to live in one of his or her own volition are being revealed. According to the author, the new approach will allow us to come closer to understanding and being able to explain the psychological mechanisms of the mental upheaval which prisoners in solitary confinement experience.

  20. Psychological characteristics of juvenile offenders with personal immaturity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E.G. Dozortseva; A.A. Fedonkina

    2013-01-01

    .... We describe the prevalence of personal immaturity among juvenile offenders. We analyze individual psychological characteristics specific to the minors with personal immaturity and characterize the phenomenon of personal immaturity itself...

  1. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  2. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential pattern

  3. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; Lee, van der Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, R.; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  4. Wide content and psychological continuity views of personal identity

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcran, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Externalism about mental content is the thesis that the content of at least some of a subject’s mental states is individuated by things in the subject’s environment. Psychological continuity accounts of personal identity claim that what it takes for a person to persist over time is to be share a suffi- cient degree of psychological similarity with themselves. I will argue that the truth of externalism about content implies that psychological continuity accounts of personal identity violate a ...

  5. Psychological characteristics of juvenile offenders with personal immaturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Dozortseva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the psychological characteristics of juveniles with personal immaturity who committed socially dangerous actions. We present conceptual psychological approaches to the concepts of “maturity” and “immaturity”, manifestations of maturity and immaturity in adolescents. We describe the prevalence of personal immaturity among juvenile offenders. We analyze individual psychological characteristics specific to the minors with personal immaturity and characterize the phenomenon of personal immaturity itself. We compare the parameters studied in samples of juvenile offenders with personal immaturity and offenders with no personality immaturity, undergoing a comprehensive forensic psychological and psychiatric examination. We describe the main clusters of indices that together represent a psychological symptom of personal immaturity

  6. Personal archetypes, aspects of personality and psychological well-being / Christoffel Johannes (Christo) Els

    OpenAIRE

    Els, Christoffel Johannes

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to theoretically and empirically explore the nature of personal archetypes, aspects of personality and psychological well-being, as well as the relationship between archetypes and aspects of personality and psychological well-being. This study was conducted according to the new paradigm emerging with the field of psychology, focusing on health and psychological well-being, so diverging from the conventional pathogenic meta-perspective in which the focus is on il...

  7. "Attribution" and "Personal Construct" as Heuristic Devices for the Psychological School Consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Joshua

    The author states that consultants generally pursue two goals: establishing communication with the consultee and helping the consultee to become a more effective problem solver. Consistent with these goals for the psychological school consultant are personal construct theory and attribution theory. Personal constructs refer to the dimensions, both…

  8. Existential, theological, and psychological concepts of death: a personal retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawbaugh, William M

    2005-01-01

    Before Freud, the study of death belonged strictly in the contexts of religion and philosophy, but in the 20th Century, death and dying began to enter into dialogue with the social sciences of psychology and sociology. The existentialists began to portray death differently in their literary-based philosophy, and by the end of the century four major American writers had dealt squarely with death in a theological framework. The author's own personal experiences and academic endeavors frame this evolution in theories about death and dying, beginning with a Master's thesis in college and ending with a unit of Clinical Pastoral Education in a shock trauma hospital. In this article the mystery of death is examined from three distinct points of view: literary (including existentialism, a philosophy as literature), theological and psychological, based upon the author's career as a professor of literature, as seminary student, and as a recent participant in Clinical Pastoral Education. An attempt at a synthesis of these three strands of inquiry is made at the end of this personal and academic journey.

  9. Personality: bridging the literatures from human psychology and behavioural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Penke, Lars

    2010-12-27

    The concept of personality has recently begun to attract a great deal of interest in behavioural ecology. However, there is also a large and mature literature on personality within human psychology. These two bodies of work have developed independently and at present make rather little reference to one another. The current paper has two main objectives. First, we seek to acquaint behavioural ecologists with the principal ideas and issues found in the human personality psychology literature. Second, we explore how ideas from the behavioural ecology literature might help advance research in human personality psychology. We suggest strong potential for convergence between the two literatures in the near future. Common themes of this future unified science of personality include the conception of personality traits as reaction norms, a commitment to the importance of direct measurement of behaviour, investigation of both proximate and ultimate explanations for personality variation, and a concern with the impact of personality variation on survival and reproductive success.

  10. From Theory of Work Adjustment to Person-Environment Correspondence Counseling: Vocational Psychology as Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerth, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…

  11. CONCEPTS OF ENVY IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Татьяна Викторовна Бескова

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the foreign and Russian theorists of personality, representing different psychological directions in which there is a reference to the problem of envy. The problem of envy is discussed in the framework of classical psychoanalysis (S. Freud, M. Klein), individual psychology (A. Adler), analytical psychology (C.G. Jung), concept ofhumanistic psychoanalysis (E. Fromm), social-cultural theory (K. Horney), ego-theory (E. Erikson, A. Peeters), dispositional direction (G. Allpor...

  12. Physique-Personality Relationships: Classroom Demonstration of Sheldon's "Constitutional" Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, William B.

    1979-01-01

    Presents method for introducing William Sheldon's approach to psychology through a classroom demonstration using student observations. Sheldon contends that three general body types relate to three types of personality. (KC)

  13. Psychological distress, personality, and adjustment among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warbah, L; Sathiyaseelan, M; Vijayakumar, C; Vasantharaj, B; Russell, S; Jacob, K S

    2007-08-01

    Psychological distress and poor adjustment among a significant number of nursing students is an important issue facing nursing education. The concerns need to be studied in detail and solutions need to be built into the nursing course in order to help students with such difficulty. This study used a cross-sectional survey design to study psychological distress, personality and adjustment among nursing students attending the College of Nursing, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. One hundred and forty five nursing students were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire 12, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Bell's Adjustment Inventory to investigate psychological distress, personality profile and adjustment, respectively. Thirty participants (20.7%) of the 145 students assessed reported high scores on the General Health Questionnaire. Psychological distress was significantly associated with having neurotic personality and adjustment difficulties in different areas of functioning.

  14. Evolutionary Theory's Increasing Role in Personality and Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Webster

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Has the emergence of evolutionary psychology had an increasing impact on personality and social psychological research published over the past two decades? If so, is its growing influence substantially different from that of other emerging psychological areas? These questions were addressed in the present study by conducting a content analysis of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP from 1985 to 2004 using the PsycINFO online abstract database. Specifically, keyword searches for “evol*” or “Darwin*” revealed that the percentage of JPSP articles drawing on evolutionary theory was modest, but increased significantly between 1985 and 2004. To compare the growing impact of evolutionary psychology with other psychological areas, similar keywords searches were performed in JPSP for emotion and motivation, judgment and decision making, neuroscience and psychophysiology, stereotyping and prejudice, and terror management theory. The increase in evolutionary theory in JPSP over time was practically equal to the mean increase over time for the other five areas. Thus, evolutionary psychology has played an increasing role in shaping personality and social psychological research over the past 20 years, and is growing at a rate consistent with other emerging psychological areas.

  15. CONCEPTS OF ENVY IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Викторовна Бескова

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the foreign and Russian theorists of personality, representing different psychological directions in which there is a reference to the problem of envy. The problem of envy is discussed in the framework of classical psychoanalysis (S. Freud, M. Klein, individual psychology (A. Adler, analytical psychology (C.G. Jung, concept ofhumanistic psychoanalysis (E. Fromm, social-cultural theory (K. Horney, ego-theory (E. Erikson, A. Peeters, dispositional direction (G. Allport, R. Cattell, humanistic psychology (A. Maslow, existential psychology (V. Frankl. It is shown that in Russian theories of personality the problem of envy is reflected in the works of A.A. Bodalev, V.N. Myasishchev, V.N. Panferov, A.V. Petrovsky.Purpose.To carry out the analysis of psychological theories of the personality to identify the specific of ideas of psychological essence and envy sources.Methodology.Theoretical analysis and systematization of scientific data.Results.Separation and heterogeneity of scientific ideas of envy is revealed, that, on the one hand, allows looking at it from different points of view, and with another – counteracts the integration of knowledge of envy into uniform theoretical system.Practical implications. Research results can be used in the practice of psychological consultation, the psycho-correction of the envious relation, the outreach activity of psychologists.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-68

  16. [Personality traits, psychological adjustment, and burnout syndrome in nursing staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencomo, Juan; Paz, Cristina; Liebster, Elena

    2004-06-01

    The nursing staff is prone to develop Burnout because of the work environment and the stressful situations that develop among patients and their families. Burnout syndrome it's a persistent negative mental state, work related and present in non pathologic populations. Burnout has been associated to personality traits but the findings are too heterogeneous and do not allow plausible generalizations. To identify the relation between Burnout, Personality Traits and Psychological Adjustment, questionnaires were applied to 117 subjects, all members of the nursing staff from a University Hospital in Maracaibo, Venezuela. Traits in Burnout subjects were: sensibility to criticism, lack of confidence, poor social capacity and low Psychological Adjustment. The non-Burnout subjects presented traits of optimism, reality in the way they viewed events, proper social abilities and high Psychological Adjustment. Burnout Syndrome is not a personality type and the traits associated with this syndrome seems to be associated with Psychological Adjustment.

  17. On the genetic modification of psychology, personality, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzke, Alex B

    2012-12-01

    I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility.

  18. A melding of the minds: when primatology meets personality and social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E; van Vugt, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Social and personality psychology and behavioral primatology both enjoy long histories of research aimed at uncovering the proximate and ultimate determinants of primate-human and nonhuman-social behavior. Although they share research themes, methodologies, and theories, and although their studied species are closely related, there is currently very little interaction between the fields. This separation means that researchers in these disciplines miss out on opportunities to advance understanding by combining insights from both fields. Social and personality psychologists also miss the opportunity for a phylogenetic analysis. The time has come to integrate perspectives on primate social psychology. Here, the authors provide a historical background and document the main similarities and differences in approaches. Next, they present some examples of research programs that may benefit from an integrated primate perspective. Finally, the authors propose a framework for developing a social psychology inclusive of all primates. Such a melding of minds promises to greatly benefit those who undertake the challenge.

  19. The psychology of personal information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdale, M W

    1988-03-01

    A requirement of 'The Office of the Future' is that it provides us with an effective way of storing and retrieving information. But existing IT products go nowhere near supporting the variety of activities which can be observed in paper-based offices, and it is not surprising that concepts of the 'paperless office' are as far off as they were when the idea was first mooted. This paper illustrates how many of the issues involved in the automation of information management are essentially psychological in nature. These principally devolve upon the processes of recall, recognition and categorisation. Examples of existing information management techniques show how there is a trend to automate with a view to simulating office practices, or to develop according to the availability of technological solutions. Both of these are inefficient with respect to the user's psychological needs. A framework for developing user-oriented information management systems is discussed and relevant research issues presented.

  20. Personality attributes as predictors of psychological well-being for NCOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, H Canan; Bilgic, Reyhan; Sumer, Nebi; Erol, Tugba

    2005-11-01

    The authors examined the nature of the relationships between job-specific personality dimensions and psychological well-being for noncommissioned officers (NCOs) in the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF). A job-specific personality inventory, comprising measures of 11 personality dimensions was developed for selection purposes. The inventory was administered to a representative sample of 1,428 NCOs along with a general mental health inventory developed by the authors, which consisted of 6 dimensions of psychological well-being. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested existence of a single factor underlying the 6 psychological well-being dimensions, Mental Health, and 2 latent factors underlying the 11 personality dimensions, Military Demeanor and Military Efficacy. The 2 personality constructs explained 91% of the variance in the Mental Health construct. A stepwise regression indicated that beta weights of the personality measures were significant except for military bearing, orderliness, and dependability. Results suggest that job-specific personality attributes were predictive of mental health. Implications of the findings for the selection of NCOs are discussed.

  1. Personal determinants of positive states and stress in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Kozhukhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report study results of personality characteristics as predictors of positive states (active, optimistic, emotional, subjective comfort and stress experience in adults with one higher education and ongoing training in Psychology. The respondents were 107 people aged 23 to 52 years. Diagnostic methods we used were: "SMIL" (L. Sobchik, Optimism and Activity Scale (adapted by E. Vodopyanova, C. Izard Differential Emotions Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, Subjective Comfort Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, PSM-25 Scale by Lemyr-Tessier-Fillion. The regression analysis revealed that in subjects ongoing training in Psychology, basic predictor of positive emotions and stress experience is anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three types of subjects by their positive states experiences, which differ primarily by the level of baseline anxiety and related personality characteristics. The group of risk comprised Psychology students with a tendency to depression and negative emotions and specific personality profile.

  2. 32 CFR 887.3 - Persons authorized CILs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons authorized CILs. 887.3 Section 887.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL ISSUING... CILs. CILs may be issued only to: (a) A service member whose character of service was honorable or...

  3. Psychological features of personality and perspective of young footballers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukova L.M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research - the identification of a person's psychological, define promising young players. The study involved 56 players aged 13-17 years, enrolled in training groups of at the stage of basic training specialist. The necessity of study of personality's structure in young footballers at prognostication of perspective of young footballers has confirmed. The degree of expression of personality qualities in footballers on the stage of the specialized base preparation was determined. The search of distinctions of indexes of personality qualities of sportsmen perspective and unpromising is conducted. Intercommunication between activity of footballers intellectual and sporting is exposed. Information about psychological features can be instrumental in prognostication of development of the special capabilities of footballers in the sporting activity.

  4. Personality Traits and Psychological Symptoms of Music and Art Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yöndem, Sadik; Yöndem, Zeynep Deniz; Per, Meral

    2017-01-01

    The qualities of artists and musicians have attracted the attention of personality psychologists and researchers studying creativity. Artistic activities are considered by some to be therapeutic, and may offer a buffer effect on psychological health. On the other hand, research has occasionally revealed a positive relationship between creativity…

  5. Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

  6. Cited Author Searching: Implications for Instruction in Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bob; Piotrowski, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Cited author database searches are an effective means of identifying a list of references that have "cited" the works of a particular author. Yet graduate-level instruction on the efficacy of search strategies, when commentary on a specific author are needed, has been largely ignored. This paper presents a framework for cited author searching with…

  7. Common sense, intuition, and theory in personality and social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical work in personality and social psychology benefits from a well-developed understanding of the prior empirical and theoretical work on a problem and from informed intuitions. Intuitions develop about a subject matter through years of study, investigation, and problem solving, just as chess masters develop a sophisticated set of cognitive structures that change the very appearance of the chess board. In part because the subject matter is so personal, students new to personality and social psychology arrive with many intuitions, prior beliefs, and naive theories about social processes and behavior based on unsystematic experiences and observations. These intuitions can hinder or foster theoretical progress. The role of mentors, critiques, and empirical tests in minimizing the deleterious effects of these entry biases is discussed. Refined scientific intuitions are also subject to error, however, so means of minimizing these errors are also discussed.

  8. Role of personal psychological profiles in somatic pathology development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorenko I.O.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to examine the correlation between psychological profile of patients of senior age groups, levels of stress hormones — adrenaline and noradrenaline — in blood serum and their pathology character. A psychological profile of 247 patients aged from 55 to 82 years has been established with the help of Kettle test, Tsung self-assessment scale and Spilberger-Khanin scale. The rate of adrenaline and noradrenaline in blood serum in the period of exacerbation of somatic pathology and in the period of relative well-being has been estimated by means of immune-enzyme analysis method. The survey has identified three psychological profiles. The first and third groups are less resistant to stress factors psychological types. They are more likely to develop somatic pathology and depression (37,8 and 53,2% respectively, in comparison with patients of the second group (12,5%. The significant increase of catecholamines has been established among patients of the third type of psychological profile both in the period of exacerbation of somatic pathology and in the period of relative well-being. The article concludes that correlations between psychological personality characteristics, rate of catecholamines and structure of somatic pathology have been worked out

  9. “WHEN IS A PERSON CHANGING?” PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE OF PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ieva Šidlauskaitė-Stripeikienė; Osvaldas Stripeikis

    2016-01-01

    In the article concept of “Prevention” is presented. Also its importance, solving Lithuanian public mental health problems. Authors presents the division of prevention, measure instruments and effectiveness indicators (like its durability, adaptation to a particular person or group; social and psychological skills of program manager to create warm and authoritybased relationships, ability to combine various preventive methods and to connect knowledge with interpersonal relat...

  10. Ideology: Its Resurgence in Social, Personality, and Political Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T; Nosek, Brian A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2008-03-01

    We trace the rise, fall, and resurgence of political ideology as a topic of research in social, personality, and political psychology. For over 200 years, political belief systems have been classified usefully according to a single left-right (or liberal-conservative) dimension that, we believe, possesses two core aspects: (a) advocating versus resisting social change and (b) rejecting versus accepting inequality. There have been many skeptics of the notion that most people are ideologically inclined, but recent psychological evidence suggests that left-right differences are pronounced in many life domains. Implicit as well as explicit preferences for tradition, conformity, order, stability, traditional values, and hierarchy-versus those for progress, rebelliousness, chaos, flexibility, feminism, and equality-are associated with conservatism and liberalism, respectively. Conservatives score consistently higher than liberals on measures of system justification. Furthermore, there are personality and lifestyle differences between liberals and conservatives as well as situational variables that induce either liberal or conservative shifts in political opinions. Our thesis is that ideological belief systems may be structured according to a left-right dimension for largely psychological reasons linked to variability in the needs to reduce uncertainty and threat. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  11. Personal construct theory and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, E

    1983-12-01

    The concept of 'psychological well-being' (as opposed to 'psychological disorder') is considered from the standpoint of George Kelly's personal construct theory (Kelly, 1955). It is argued that the origin of psychological disorder lies in a difficulty in 'person construing', with particular reference to 'self-construing'. For some (like schizophrenics) this may be a relatively permanent state of affairs, whereas for others it may reflect a temporary crisis or transition. It seems that the ability to maintain a relatively stable, yet flexible, self-construction may be crucial. Social relationships, however, although potentially validating, also carry the risk of invalidating our self-construction. An individual's particular response to 'invalidation' may be substantially determined by commonality of construing in his particular context, e.g. an adolescent female may turn to slimming whereas a young male may turn to alcohol. Although the theory has proved to be most useful at an explanatory level, it has been applied therapeutically only to a limited extent. It is argued that psychologists may make a greater contribution to the enhancement of psychological well-being by applying constructive alternativism within a learning or educational context rather than the clinical setting.

  12. Problems and opportunity of personality inventories in clinical - psychological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities and problems of usage of personality inventories in psychological diagnostic of persons with "heavy pathology", from aspect of validity and applicability in the first place. Personality inventories are usually designed for health population. By their usage in clinical psychology we often meet problems like specific tendencies when answering defined questions. This could be the result of situational factors but also the impact of their disorders and personality. The possibilities of classical interpretation of results are in this way limited. Do we have the opportunity of development of the diagnostic instruments that we could, not only recognise, but use such deformations (which represent cognitive style or defence of person in diagnostic purpose? The MMPI-2, most famous inventory in this field, offer us great aid, especially because its items are selected empirically. By the analysis of its items from aspect of sensing and localisation of subjects problems, we found differences between clinical scales which represent patients of different clinical groups. These differences are in accordance with psychoanalytical assumptions about characteristics of sensing self and other people.

  13. [Hardy personality and psychological capital: the positive personal variables and the processes of exhaustion and vigor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Garrosa, Eva; Corso, Sandra; Boada, Mar; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel

    2012-02-01

    The research examined the effects of personal variables, psychological capital and Hardy Personality (HP), using exhaustion and vigor as criterion variables, reviewing two studies, one of 427 nurses (Spain) and another of 253 teachers (Perú). The results showed significant direct and moderating effects of personal variables on exhaustion and vigor, with a greater effect on vigor. The commitment variable (HP) is the only one that had significant effects on both samples. The discussion emphasizes the importance of positive personal variables to explain exhaustion and vigor, particularly the latter.

  14. Identifying the Costs and Benefits of Educational Psychology: A Preliminary Exploration in Two Local Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Simon; Papps, Ivy

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an account of a small-scale pilot study of the cost and perceived benefits of the educational psychology services in two comparably small local authorities in England. This study is preparatory to a more detailed examination of the costs and likely benefits of state provision of educational psychology services in England. The…

  15. You'll Never Guess Who Wrote That: 78 Surprising Authors of Psychological Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2016-07-01

    One can find psychological authors in the most unexpected places. We present a capsule summary of scholarly publications of psychological interest authored or coauthored by 78 surprising individuals, most of whom are celebrities or relatives of celebrities, historical figures, or people who have otherwise achieved visibility in academic circles, politics, religion, art, and diverse realms of popular culture. Still other publications are authored by individuals who are far better known for their contributions to popular than to academic psychology. The publications, stretching across more than two centuries, encompass a wide swath of domains of psychological inquiry and highlight the intersection of psychology with fields that fall outside its traditional borders, including public health, economics, law, neurosurgery, and even magic. Many of these scholarly contributions have enriched psychology and its allied disciplines, such as psychiatry, in largely unappreciated ways, and they illustrate the penetration of psychological knowledge into multiple scientific disciplines and everyday life. At the same time, our author list demonstrates that remarkable intellectual accomplishments in one scientific domain, such as physics, do not necessarily translate into success in psychology and underscores the distinction between intelligence, on the one hand, and critical thinking and wisdom, on the other.

  16. Analysis of Author Affiliation across Four School Psychology Journals from 2000 to 2008: Where Is the Practitioner Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Erin E.; Skinner, Christopher H.; McCleary, Daniel F.; von Mizener, Briana Hautau; Bliss, Stacy L.

    2009-01-01

    Articles published between 2000 and 2008 in four major school psychology journals--"School Psychology Review," "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," and "School Psychology Quarterly"--were classified based on type (empirical or narrative) and on the primary and secondary authors' affiliations. Results showed that more than…

  17. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-10-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising 5min each of a Stroop task, mirror tracing, and a speech task. Participants subsequently completed the Big Five Inventory to assess neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Those with higher neuroticism scores exhibited smaller cortisol and cardiovascular stress reactions, whereas participants who were less agreeable and less open had smaller cortisol and cardiac reactions to stress. These associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Thus, a negative personality disposition would appear to be linked to diminished stress reactivity. These findings further support a growing body of evidence which suggests that blunted stress reactivity may be maladaptive.

  18. Applying Psychology in Local Authority Emergency Planning Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the work of two EPs involved in a multi-agency project to produce Local Authority (LA) guidelines on psycho/social support following critical incidents and disasters. EPs were involved as participant observers during a simulation of setting up and running a LA reception centre for evacuees. A questionnaire was then…

  19. Striving for LGBTQ rights in Russian psychology and society: A personal narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor I. Lunin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Based on a long personal story of dealing with LGBTQ rights in Russia, the author reviews several transformations in the psychological approach and research to gender and sexual identity. The author describes his professional growth as a psychologist. First his interest was in child sex-role development and then transformed to prevention of sexual crimes, AIDS prevention and sexual education among adolescents. The author shows how his area of expertise in human sexuality brought him to professional ethics for psychologists. Discussion. In the second part of the article the author reviews changes in social attitudes towards same sex- relationships from their criminalization and medicalization to acceptance and respect. The author emphasizes the pioneering role of Professor Igor Kon in changes of mass attitudes towards sexuality and same sex relationships. The author sees Kon’s legacy in his statement that “As long as gays and lesbians are objects of bullying and discrimination, everybody who considers himself/herself as a thinking person must support LGBTQ people’s fight for their human rights.” At the end of this part of the article, the author describes a recent hate crime based in homophobia, and its victim, the talented St. Petersburg journalist, Dmitry Tsilikin. Tsilikin was involved in sex education in the 1990s and published a book about these issues. His murder was not considered by the court to be a hate crime against an LGBTQ person, despite enormous protest from progressive-minded people all over Russia. Conclusion. The author recommends the Russian Psychological Ethics Code as a way to help psychologists support and advocate for people regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity.

  20. Psychology is about persons: on Brinkmann's expansion of Harré's hybrid psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Alfredo; Cornejo, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Brinkmann has recently put forward an integrative theory of the mind by expanding Harré's hybrid psychology. The theory is integrative because it establishes that in order for one to gain a full understanding of the mind-which is represented as a set of dispositions-one has to take into account theories about the brain, the body, social practices, and technological artifacts. All of these are said to be 'mediators' upon which the mind depends. An important claim underlying the theory is that in psychology the basic ontological unit is the person. We agree with Brinkmann both on this and on the dispositional nature of the mind. Still, he does not make a strong case for the latter. Furthermore, we believe the concept of mediation is by no means helpful to produce an integrative view in psychology, not only because the theoretical job of such a concept is unclear but also because qua unifying concept it may end up undermining the ontological primacy of the person (in psychology). In this paper we refer to these issues and suggest some ideas that may help improve Brinkmann's (and Harré's) proposal.

  1. Behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology: unified perspective on personality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, N L; MacDonald, K B

    1998-04-01

    Behavioral geneticists and evolutionary psychologists have generally pursued human behavioral analyses with little theoretical or methodological exchange. However, significant benefits might accrue from increased communication between these disciplines. The primary goals of this article are (1) to identify meaningful junctures between behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology, (2) to describe behavioral genetic research designs and their applications to evolutionary analyses, and (3) to reassess current personality research in light of behavioral genetic and evolutionary concepts and techniques. The five-factor model of personality is conceptualized as subsuming variation in normative species-typical systems with adaptive functions in the human environment of evolutionary adaptation. Considered as universal evolved mechanisms, personality systems are often seen in dynamic conflict within individuals and as highly compartmentalized in their functioning between settings. However, genetically influenced individual differences in personality may also be understood within an evolutionary framework. Studies of the heritability of personality traits indicate broad-sense heritabilities in the 0.40-0.50 range with evidence of substantial nonadditive genetic variation and nonshared environmental influences. Evidence indicates that evolutionary theory (e.g., inclusive fitness theory) predicts patterns of social interaction (e.g., cooperation and bereavement) in relatives. Furthermore, variation in personality may constitute a range of viable strategies matching the opportunities available in the complex niche environment of human societies. Within this wide range of viable strategies, personality variation functions as a resource environment for individuals in the sense that personality variation is evaluated according to the interests of the evaluator (e.g., friendships, coalitions, or mate choice).

  2. Person-Environment Mergence and Separation: Otto Rank's Psychology of Emotion, Personality, and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Between 1924 and 1939 Otto Rank put forward three major elements of a comprehensive theoretical edifice that has yet to be fully articulated. These are conceptually linked by the fundamental importance of person-environment mergence and separation. Rank's theory of emotions highlights anxiety as the affect of separation, and guilt as the feeling that binds the individual to others. His personality theory distinguishes between the partialist, who responds to life fear with identification, and the totalist, who responds to death fear with projection. His cultural psychology contrasts primal collectivism with contemporary individualism, which orients the person toward individual immortality striving. Individualism has produced problematic self-consciousness and neuroticism, in the face of which Rank struggled to find a new psychology.

  3. A Comparison of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory in a Delinquent Sample and a Comparison Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Barry J.; Bolton, Neil

    1981-01-01

    Compared the scores of reformatory inmates and technical college students on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory. Two factors accounted for most of the variance. Neuroticism was common to both groups. The second factor in the delinquent group was extraversion. (Author/JAC)

  4. How Can Evolutionary Psychology Successfully Explain Personality and Individual Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, David M

    2009-07-01

    Although evolutionary psychology has been successful in explaining some species-typical and sex-differentiated adaptations, a large question that has largely eluded the field is this: How can the field successfully explain personality and individual differences? This article highlights some promising theoretical directions for tackling this question. These include life-history theory, costly signaling theory, environmental variability in fitness optima, frequency-dependent selection, mutation load, and flexibly contingent shifts in strategy according to environmental conditions. Tackling the explanatory question also requires progress on three fronts: (a) reframing some personality traits as forms of strategic individual differences; (b) providing a nonarbitrary, evolutionary-based formulation of environments as distributions and salience profiles of adaptive problems; and (c) identifying which strategies thrive and which falter in these differing problem-defined environments.

  5. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  6. “WHEN IS A PERSON CHANGING?” PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE OF PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Šidlauskaitė-Stripeikienė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept of “Prevention” is presented. Also its importance, solving Lithuanian public mental health problems. Authors presents the division of prevention, measure instruments and effectiveness indicators (like its durability, adaptation to a particular person or group; social and psychological skills of program manager to create warm and authoritybased relationships, ability to combine various preventive methods and to connect knowledge with interpersonal relationships and values. Three types of prevention programs are described: universal (for society as a whole, without distinction of any groups or individuals based on their problems; selective (for individuals or groups, with mental and behavioral health problems (risk group; and symptomatic (for persons, with strong mental and behavioral health problems. Answering the question: “When is a person changing in the prevention programs?”, there are presented importance of interpersonal relationships also as transfer of knowledge.

  7. [Personal resources relevant to psychological well-being in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M; Aparicio-Zaldívar, E G

    2016-01-01

    To determine differences in social support, resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among intensive care nursing and nursing staff of other hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in these professionals where relevant personal resources to PWB were included. Correlational and cross-sectional study. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n=133), nursing assistants (n=61), and midwives (n=14), of whom 44 worked in intensive care unit, 50 in other special units, and 114 in wards. Social Support Subscale, 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping), Scales of PWB, and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found and showed that social support, resilience, and coping determined PWB of nursing professionals. The most important personal resource was coping strategies, which determined PWB directly (β=0.68). Social support influenced PWB directly (β=0.33), and indirectly (β=0.32), whereas resilience influenced it indirectly (β=0.57). Differences in PWB, coping, social support and resilience are not determined by hospital service. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive), social support, and resilience, constitute three relevant personal resources that determine the PWB of nursing staff, which can be developed and improved by specific programs. The most important PWB dimensions are self-acceptance and environment mastery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  9. Ethical issues in personality assessment in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, S; VandeCreek, L

    2001-10-01

    In this article we address several ethical issues of concern for psychologists who are engaged in personality assessment in forensic settings such as for courts or attorneys. The ethical issues reviewed include the role of the psychologist as an expert witness, matters of competence, informed consent, confidentiality, multiple relationships, and special issues related to billing. Emphasis is placed on how psychologists can provide useful information to the courts in a manner consistent with the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, the Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologist's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, and the APA's Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings. The practical recommendations made in this article are consistent with the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

  10. 32 CFR 552.122 - Personnel not authorized to possess or retain personal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personal weapons. 552.122 Section 552.122 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... authorized to possess or retain personal weapons. (a) Possession, retention or storage of personal weapons or... enforcement officer authorized to carry the weapon under state or federal law, while on Fort Lewis or a sub...

  11. Time-use, personality psychology, and social suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Meinert

    The scarcity of “time” is a pressing issue for most people in the late-modern industrialized societies. A most salient feature of this issue is how one should use the time at one’s disposal – often backgrounded in lamentation of the reality of most time already being tied up with (often work....... In this paper, I will discuss how studies of persons’ time-use and their experience of everyday life can illuminate contemporary social problems. The study of what people “actually do” in their everyday lives mirrors the theoretical debate in current Personality Psychology about the importance of “behavior......” for understanding personality – and problems in the latter debate can thus shed light on how to understand the former. I will draw on empirical material from my PhD-project, where I’ve carried out a survey study, combining time-use and diary methods. The empirical material contains information about not only...

  12. Handbook of Psychodiagnostic Testing: Analysis of Personality in the Psychological Report. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, Henry; Burry, Anthony

    This handbook offers psychology students, as well as professional psychologists, a central resource for the construction and organization of psychological test reports. It aims to help the reader conceptualize the theory of psychological report development by examining the integration of the concepts and data of personality analysis and the logic…

  13. The relation between specialty choice of psychology students and their interests, personality, and cognitive abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate differences in interests, personality, and cognitive abilities between students majoring in the six specialties of psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Results show that students at Social Psychology and Work and Organizational Psychology

  14. The relation between specialty choice of psychology students and their interests, personality, and cognitive abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate differences in interests, personality, and cognitive abilities between students majoring in the six specialties of psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Results show that students at Social Psychology and Work and Organizational Psychology w

  15. Lack of political diversity and the framing of findings in personality and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2015-01-01

    I extend the arguments of Duarte et al. by examining the implications of political uniformity for the framing of findings in personality and clinical psychology. I argue that the one-sided framing of psychological research on political ideology has limited our understanding of the personality correlates of liberalism and conservatism.

  16. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Personal Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Asquith, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    Conceptions of parental authority and ratings of adolescent-parent conflict were assessed in 6th-, 8th-, and 10th-graders and their parents. Participants judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated the frequency and intensity of conflict regarding 24 hypothetical issues. Adolescents and parents agreed that parents should retain authority…

  17. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Personal Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Asquith, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    Conceptions of parental authority and ratings of adolescent-parent conflict were assessed in 6th-, 8th-, and 10th-graders and their parents. Participants judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated the frequency and intensity of conflict regarding 24 hypothetical issues. Adolescents and parents agreed that parents should retain authority…

  18. Intimate Relationships and Personal Distress: The Invisible Harm of Psychological Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Schkeryantz, Emily L

    2015-10-01

    Aggression in intimate relationships is pervasive, has been implicated in personal distress, and yet may not be perceived as harmful. Two studies (cross-sectional, longitudinal) examined whether being the target of psychologically aggressive behavior by a partner is uniquely associated with personal distress, beyond the effects of general couple functioning, perpetrating aggression, or experiencing physical aggression. New instances of psychological aggression by a partner predicted increases in personal distress. Study 2 also examined participants' perceptions of what causes them stress. Although psychological aggression by a partner predicted personal distress, participants did not perceive their relationship as a source of stress. This suggests a pattern of "invisible harm" in which individuals victimized by psychological aggression may not recognize the harm they are experiencing. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Personal goals and psychological growth: testing an intervention to enhance goal attainment and personality integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Kasser, Tim; Smith, Kendra; Share, Tamara

    2002-02-01

    We hypothesized that semester goal attainment provides a route to short-term psychological growth. In an attempt to enhance this process, we randomly assigned participants to either a goal-training program or to a control condition. Although there were no main effects of program participation on later goal attainment, important interactions were found. Consistent with a "prepared to benefit" model, participants already high in goal-based measures of personality integration perceived the program as most useful and benefited the most from the program in terms of goal attainment. As a result, they became even more integrated and also increased in their levels of psychosocial well-being and vitality. Implications for theories of short-term growth and positive change are discussed, as is the unanswered question of how to help less-integrated persons grow.

  20. Association of Personality Traits with Psychological Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Psychological Distress: A Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to find the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress

  1. Personal Experience in Positive Psychology May Offer a New Focus for a Growing Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This article presents comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham ("American Psychologist," v67 n2 p101-110 Feb-Mar 2012). The authors indicated the need to think beyond positive psychology. In particular, they argued that positive psychology needs "to move beyond labeling psychological traits and processes as positive." In general,…

  2. Is it necessary to discuss person-oriented research in community psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Bogat, G

    2009-03-01

    A brief overview of the person orientation is provided. It is then argued that research in community psychology, similar to every other field in psychology, has mainly focused on variables, not individuals. Suggestions are provided for how the person orientation can be applied to understanding settings and environments as well as the theoretical and methodological contributions community psychologists can make to further person oriented methods.

  3. The history and visions of African American psychology: multiple pathways to place, space, and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Bertha Garrett

    2009-10-01

    The author describes the multiple pathways of events and strategies that served to nurture African American psychology in the United States. Special attention is given to strategies for inclusion and empowerment used in 4 psychological professional and scholarly associations: the American Counseling Association, the American Psychological Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the Society for Research in Child Development. In addition, the author describes 4 major intellectual traditions that informed not only the strategies of inclusion but also the theoretical, research, and intervention perspectives and other professional and academic efforts of African American psychologists. Those perspectives are the Afrocentric/African-centered tradition derived from longstanding nationalist/Pan-African and culturally centered traditions within African American communities; the social contextual/multidisciplinary research tradition of the University of Chicago School of Social Science; the empirical social science research tradition of the University of Michigan; and the Black scholar/activist tradition of Howard University. This article also presents a chronological timeline of major events in the history of African American psychology.

  4. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  5. [Speech behavior and neurotic personality structure (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeppert, S

    1976-02-27

    Speech behavior of the patient and the analyst is considered with regard to the psychoanalytic situation and its regulating factors such as transference and countertransference. If the psychoanalytic situation is regarded as a means to investigate the patient and his symptoms, his verbal behavior seems to depend on the unconscious motives forming his neurotic personality structure. On the other hand, if the psychoanalytic situation is regarded as a communicative situation, the verbal behavior of the patient as well as of the analyst depends rather on their "here-and-now" transference relationship in certain phase of the psychoanalytic process.

  6. 31 CFR 545.510 - Importation of household and personal effects authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of household and personal... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN... household and personal effects authorized. The importation of household and personal effects originating...

  7. Using First-Person Accounts To Teach Students about Psychological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes instructional use of brief first-person accounts of mental disorders. Explores the benefits of using first-person, autobiographical accounts as required reading in a course on abnormal psychology. Finds that first-person accounts were more helpful in increasing student appreciation of the experience of having a disorder and empathy for…

  8. Do Personality Traits Moderate Relations Between Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Problem Behavior in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbe, Elien; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2016-06-01

    This research examined whether and how adolescents' personality traits moderate associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behaviors. On the basis of self-determination theory, we also examined the mediating role of psychological need frustration in the effects of psychologically controlling parenting. A cross-sectional study in two samples (N = 423 and 292; Mage = 12.43 and 15.74 years) was conducted. While in Sample 1 both mothers and adolescents provided reports of parenting and problem behavior, Sample 2 relied on adolescent-reported parenting and mother-reported problem behavior. Psychologically controlling parenting was related to internalizing and externalizing problems in both samples. Little systematic evidence was obtained for the moderating role of personality, with the exception of a moderating effect of Agreeableness. In both samples, psychological control was unrelated to externalizing problems among adolescents high on Agreeableness. Analyses of Sample 2 showed that associations between psychological control and problem behavior were mediated by psychological need frustration. Adolescent personality plays a modest role as a moderator of associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behavior. Frustration of adolescents' basic and universal psychological needs can account for the undermining effects of psychologically controlling parenting. Directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Personality Traits and Psychological Health Concerns: The Search for Psychology Student Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Michael S.; Lymburner, Jocelyn A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored whether an affliction similar to Medical Student Syndrome occurs in psychology students (i.e., Psychology Student Syndrome) by examining the relationship between self ratings of psychological health and the number of psychopathology courses taken. Undergraduate participants rated their level of concern about suffering…

  10. Personal Construct Psychology Model of School Counselling Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truneckova, Deborah; Viney, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing focus on the mental health of young people by schools, greater attention is directed to the responsiveness and effectiveness of models of psychological practice in schools. A model will be presented with a coherent theoretical structure within which the school counsellor can understand the diverse psychological symptoms and…

  11. Personality and Psychological Well-Being of Canadian Forces Officer Candidates: The Role of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    significantly correlated with affect [e.g., 6] and life satisfaction [7]. Personality has been found to consistently predict variance in psychological well ...of variance in psychological well -being ( life satisfaction and psychological health symptoms) and perceptions of training (training satisfaction and...between neuroticism and humour as well as between neuroticism and problem-solving were the only unique predictors of life satisfaction . Specifically, for

  12. Psychological masculinity, femininity and tactics of manipulation in patients with borderline personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mandal, Eugenia; Kocur, Dagna

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the study was a relation between the borderline personality disorder and psychological gender, and tendency to use various manipulation tactics in everyday life and therapeutic context.Methods...

  13. Personality and psychological well-being of adolescents: the moderating role of emotional intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salami, Samuel O

    2011-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the relationship between the Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being of adolescents and the moderating role of emotional intelligence in that relationship. Adolescents (N = 400...

  14. Personal Lineages and the Development of Community Psychology: 1965 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine and document the role of personal influence in the history of community psychology, and (b) to measure the field's inclusion of traditionally marginalized populations. In addition to presenting visually the genealogy of community psychology, results suggest that people have mattered in the…

  15. Personal Lineages and the Development of Community Psychology: 1965 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine and document the role of personal influence in the history of community psychology, and (b) to measure the field's inclusion of traditionally marginalized populations. In addition to presenting visually the genealogy of community psychology, results suggest that people have mattered in the…

  16. Emotional Intelligence and Personality as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Colin; Bore, Miles; Zito, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have reported elevated rates of psychological distress (e.g., depression) in practicing lawyers yet little research has examined predictors of such problems in law students. Specific personality traits have been shown to be predictors of a range of psychological problems. We administered a battery of tests to a cohort of 1st-year…

  17. Presidential address: self-image and compassionate goals and construction of the social self: implications for social and personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    Interpersonal dynamics of self-esteem are explored. The author proposes that the desire to be seen as having positive qualities and avoid being seen as having dreaded qualities paradoxically leads to lowered self-esteem and lowered regard from others through its adverse effects on interpersonal relationships. The author also argues that the human capacity to transcend concerns with the images others hold of oneself, through caring about the well-being of other people, paradoxically leads to higher self-esteem and regard from others through its salutary effects on relationships. Data from two recent studies demonstrate these paradoxical effects and prompt questions about the nature of persons and situations, research methods, and the union between personality and social psychology. Accordingly, the author reflects more broadly on how people create their social situations, which in turn create the self, and what that means about the methods scholars use to understand social behavior.

  18. Psychological distress and personality factors in takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J

    2016-01-01

    Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This

  19. Psychological distress and salivary cortisol covary within persons during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole; Kooistra, Libbe; Kaplan, Bonnie

    The mechanisms whereby maternal stress during pregnancy exerts organizational effects on fetal development require elaboration. The aim of this study was to assess the plausibility of cortisol as a biological link between maternal psychological distress during pregnancy and fetal development.

  20. The similarity of attitudes towards personal and impersonal types of authority among adolescent schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, K; Schofield, P; Slee, P T

    1987-09-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the attitudes of young adolescents towards personal and impersonal types of authority are differentiated. Reliable measures of attitudes towards personal authorities (parents and teachers) and impersonal authorities (the police and the law) were developed with a preliminary sample of 155 secondary school students. These measures were employed with further samples of (a) third year High School students (n = 77) who also completed the Keeves (1974) Attitudes to School and School Learning Scale, and (b) first year High School students (n = 250) who also completed the Ray and Jones (1983) self-report measures of authority-salient behaviours in relation to their parents and teachers. The attitudes of the students were relatively pro-authority and did not differ according to gender. In general, the younger group of students were the more pro-authority, significantly so on the measures of attitude towards personal authorities. For each sample the pro-authority attitude measures loaded substantially (greater than 0.6) on the first factor of a principal components analysis. Correlations between these measures and (a) attitudes to school and school learning and (b) reported authority-salient behaviours were positive and, in general, significant for each sex. Overall, the results provided little support for the view that attitudes towards personal and impersonal type of authority are dissimilar.

  1. Role of personal psychological profiles in somatic pathology development

    OpenAIRE

    Prokhorenko I.O.; Zarubina E.G.

    2011-01-01

    The research goal is to examine the correlation between psychological profile of patients of senior age groups, levels of stress hormones — adrenaline and noradrenaline — in blood serum and their pathology character. A psychological profile of 247 patients aged from 55 to 82 years has been established with the help of Kettle test, Tsung self-assessment scale and Spilberger-Khanin scale. The rate of adrenaline and noradrenaline in blood serum in the period of exacerbation of somatic pathology ...

  2. Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Harry T.; Judd, Charles M.

    2000-03-01

    This volume provides an overview of research methods in contemporary social psychology. Coverage includes conceptual issues in research design, methods of research, and statistical approaches. Because the range of research methods available for social psychology have expanded extensively in the past decade, both traditional and innovative methods are presented. The goal is to introduce new and established researchers alike to new methodological developments in the field.

  3. 75 FR 15413 - Approval for Processing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 196, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Personal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... & Electronics (Personal Navigation Devices), Fort Worth, Texas Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade...) adopts the following Order: Whereas, ATC Logistics & Electronics, an operator of Foreign-Trade Zone...

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan

    2017-01-01

    Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.

  5. Path analysis of relationship among personality, perceived stress, coping, social support, and psychological outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Mazaheri, Mina; Behnamfar, Omid; Hassanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide a structural model of the relationship between personality traits, perceived stress, coping strategies, social support, and psychological outcomes in the general population. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study in which the study group was selected using multistage cluster and convenience sampling among a population of 4 million. For data collection, a total of 4763 individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire on demographics, personality traits, life events, coping with stress, social support, and psychological outcomes such as anxiety and depression. To evaluate the comprehensive relationship between the variables, a path model was fitted. RESULTS: The standard electronic modules showed that personality traits and perceived stress are important determinants of psychological outcomes. Social support and coping strategies were demonstrated to reduce the increasing cumulative positive effects of neuroticism and perceived stress on the psychological outcomes and enhance the protective effect of extraversion through decreasing the positive effect of perceived stress on the psychological outcomes. CONCLUSION: Personal resources play an important role in reduction and prevention of anxiety and depression. In order to improve the psychological health, it is necessary to train and reinforce the adaptive coping strategies and social support, and thus, to moderate negative personality traits. PMID:27354968

  6. The Tragedy of Unbalanced Personality-The Common Personality Psy-chological Reasons of the Destruction of Emily and Usher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡星

    2014-01-01

    A Rose for Emily is the masterpiece of William Faulkner, who is regarded as the founder of Southern literature. The Fall of the House of Usher is one of the most popular short stories written by the great American writer Edgar Allan Poe. They have common ends that the main characters of the two novels-Emily and Usher are all destruction of their unbalanced personality. This thesis will set a new point from a branch view of psychology-personality psychology to analyze the two characters Emily and Usher, how they change from pathological personality to abnormal personality, and finally destruct from flesh to soul. The deep meaning is to announce the human inner world will distract by the outside world.

  7. Seventy Years of Social Psychology: A Cultural and Personal Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Jahoda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces some salient aspects of my research career, focusing largely on work in West Africa. From this lessons are drawn about the shortcomings of social psychology, especially in its laboratory version. It tends to tacitly ignore the effects of cultural influences, assuming that its findings are universally valid. Studies are mainly conducted with adults, generally college students, who are unrepresentative even of the general population of the United States where the bulk of social psychological studies are concentrated. This is justified in terms an alleged ‘psychic unity’. Social psychology pays little attention to the processes whereby children become socialized into particular cultures, which then governs their social behaviour. Methods are usually formal, and observational ones are eschewed, so that research takes place in artificial setting. This brings me to the almost complete absence of links with cognate disciplines, notably anthropology, which could greatly enrich social psychology. Suggestions are made for more wide-ranging approaches which would overcome the aridity of a great deal of current experimental social psychological research.

  8. Moderating Influence of Critical Psychological States on Work Engagement and Personal Outcomes in the Telecom Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Harold Andrew Patrick; Vinayak Anil Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Organizations want their employees to be engaged with their work, exhibiting proactive behavior, initiative, and responsibility for personal development. Existing literature has a dearth of studies that evaluate all the three key variables that lead to optimal employee performance—critical psychological states (CPSs), work engagement, and personal outcomes. The present study attempts to fill that gap by linking the var...

  9. The Problem of Socio-Psychological Adjustment of Personality in the Scientists' Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakova, ?atyana A.; Morozova, Lyudmila B.; Kochneva, Elena M.; Zharova, Darya V.; Skitnevskaya, Larisa V.; Kostina, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    Instability and unpredictability of the present stage of social development make the study of social and psychological adjustment of personality to the social environment a highly topical issue. The article presents the results of an empirical research on social personality adaptation. Evident is the close relations between social and…

  10. Physical and Psychological Health in Persons with Deafblindness that Is due to Usher Syndrome Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Moa; Moller, Claes; Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the study reported here were to describe the physical and psychological health of persons with Usher syndrome Type II (USH2) and to explore any differences in terms of gender. Methods: The participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. In the first step, 122 persons received the questionnaire by mail,…

  11. Creating the Multiple Personality: An Experiential Demonstration for an Undergraduate Abnormal Psychology Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Fredric E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a classroom role-playing exercise in which students and teacher re-enact interviewing techniques that cause subjects to assume characteristics of the multiple personality. Demonstrates the social psychological aspects of multiple personality disorder. Considers the pedagogical and ethical implications of creating the multiple personality…

  12. The Mathematical Abilities and Personality of Undergraduate Psychology Students Relative to Other Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Roy; Wood, Clare; Lawson, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined differences in personality and mathematical ability between students studying Business, Psychology, Sports and Nursing. There were 286 participants who each completed a mathematics diagnostics test and a Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) during the first term of their first year of study. There was a significant…

  13. Creating the Multiple Personality: An Experiential Demonstration for an Undergraduate Abnormal Psychology Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Fredric E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a classroom role-playing exercise in which students and teacher re-enact interviewing techniques that cause subjects to assume characteristics of the multiple personality. Demonstrates the social psychological aspects of multiple personality disorder. Considers the pedagogical and ethical implications of creating the multiple personality…

  14. Assembling the elephant: Integrating perspectives in personality psychology. Comment on "Personality from a cognitive-biological perspective" by Y. Neuman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Holland, Elise

    2014-12-01

    Neuman [1] has made an ambitious attempt to integrate perspectives on the psychology of personality that usually run in parallel. The field calls to mind the fable of the blind men and the elephant: each perspective makes different claims about the person based on the aspect it apprehends. Neuman links cognition, affective neuroscience and psychodynamics in a bold effort to sketch the entire beast. However, his hefty framework has some elephantine elements, and is at times conceptually loose and baggy.

  15. A personal encounter with psychology (1937-2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, H H

    2002-02-01

    An undergraduate assistantship with Abraham Maslow, research with Solomon Asch, and an indirect exposure to Ernest Nagel's philosophy of science encouraged Howard H. Kendler to become involved with methodological issues in psychology. Graduate training with Kenneth Spence led to an active research career that was initially immersed in the latent learning controversy and later, with the collaboration of his wife Tracy Kendler, in the extension of the Hull-Spence model of cognitive development. Methodological concerns from a variety of sources encouraged Kendler to express his ideas on the methodology and history of psychology as well as its role in ethical and social policy issues. A productive symbiotic relationship is created from the interaction of democracy, natural-science psychology, and moral pluralism.

  16. Analytical psychology and its relation to psychoanalysis. A personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astor, James

    2002-10-01

    Jungian analysis is a process based on analytical psychology; it shows local variations giving emphasis to different aspects of Jung's work within the various societies which make up the IAAP. I describe the orientation of the Society of Analytical Psychology (SAP). I have emphasized the different origins of psychoanalysis and analytical psychology and described how, because we encounter the same clinical phenomena, our differences centre on technique and interpretation in the context of our theoretical differences (see Astor 1998, p. 697 & 2001). In the main the link to psychoanalysis has come from the connection forged by Fordham, who recognized that Jung and Klein shared a similar perception of the significance of unconscious phantasy. For Klein unconscious phantasy was the primary unconscious content, and this is different, as Spillius has recently pointed out, from Freud for whom, 'the prime mover, so to speak, is the unconscious wish.

  17. Osobnosť gréckych hrdinov z pohľadu modernej psychológie (Personality of Greek Heroes from the Viewpoint of Modern Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Porubjak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from Homer’s Iliad, the article focuses on characters of ancient Greek heroes and relates them to personality psychology. First, it discusses what major personality characteristics have been identified by modern psychological research and how they can be measured. In the next part, the authors summarize how they attempted to verify the historical and intercultural validity of outlined personality models using theIliad and present the results of their analysis. Concluding that ancient Greek accounts testify to the universality of human nature throughout ages and cultures, the article also provides the expected personality profiles of major heroes—Achilles and Agamemnon. Even more interestingly, the authors discuss how and why their motives and behavioral tendencies might cause clashes in their interaction, and also what occupational options they would probably face nowadays. Interdisciplinary in its nature, the paper concludes with implications of the results for philosophy.

  18. The national psychological/personality profile of Romanians: An in depth analysis of the regional national psychological/personality profile of Romanians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David, D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we perform an in depth analysis of the national psychological/personality profile of Romanians. Following recent developments in the field (see Rentfrow et al., 2013; 2015, we study the regional national psychological/personality profile of Romanians, based on the Big Five model (i.e., NEO PI/R. Using a representative sample (N1 = 1000, we performed a cluster analysis and identified two bipolar personality profiles in the population: cluster 1, called “Factor X-”, characterized by high neuroticism and low levels of extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and cluster 2, called “Factor X+”, characterized by the opposite configuration in personality traits, low neuroticism and high levels of extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. The same two cluster pattern/solution emerged in other samples (N = 2200, with other Big Five-based instruments, and by using various methods of data (e.g., direct vs. reversed item score, controlling for item desirability and cluster (i.e., with and without “running means” analyses. These two profiles are quite evenly distributed in the overall population, but also across all geographical regions. Moreover, comparing the distribution of the five personality traits, we found just few small differences between the eight geographical divisions that we used for our analysis. These results suggest that the regional national psychological/personality profile of Romania is quite homogenous. Directions for harnessing the potential of both personality profiles are presented to the reader. Other implications based on the bipolar and fractal structure of the personality profile are discussed from an interdisciplinary perspective.

  19. Psychological well-being, personality traits, and aims of life in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Páramo, Maria de los Angeles; Facultad de Psicologia. Universidad del Aconcagua. Mendoza. Argentina.; Straniero, Cristina Mariana; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina. Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina.; García, Claudia Silvina; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina. Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina.; Torrecilla, Norma Mariana; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina. Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina.; Escalante Gómez, Eduardo; Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study measures the degree of psychological well-being (PW), its relation with personality traits and the aims of life (AL) of Psychology students. One of the main factors that contributes to the PW is personality. Investigations show that people’s AL are closely connected with the self perception of the PW. This study will be approached from T. Millon’s theory and its general aim is to establish the existing relation between subjective well-being and personality styles in univ...

  20. Influence of Close Friends on the Boundaries of Adolescent Personal Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddis, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Perceptions of close friends' influence on the construction of boundaries between legitimate parental and personal authority were assessed using a semistructured interview with 183 early (M = 11.82 years) and middle (M = 15.72 years) adolescents. Participants described sources relevant to the construction of authority beliefs, processes of friend…

  1. Influence of Close Friends on the Boundaries of Adolescent Personal Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddis, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Perceptions of close friends' influence on the construction of boundaries between legitimate parental and personal authority were assessed using a semistructured interview with 183 early (M = 11.82 years) and middle (M = 15.72 years) adolescents. Participants described sources relevant to the construction of authority beliefs, processes of friend…

  2. Psychological well-being of Canadian Forces officer candidates: the unique roles of hardiness and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomorovsky, Alla; Sudom, Kerry A

    2011-04-01

    Previous research has found that individual characteristics play an important role in psychological wellbeing and perception of stress. Although the Five Factor Model of personality has been found to consistently predict psychological well-being in the general population and among military personnel, hardiness has also been found to be a predictor of well-being. This study examined the unique role of hardiness, above that of personality, in the well-being and stress perceptions of Canadian Forces officer candidates undergoing basic training. The results of the study were consistent with those of previous research, suggesting that military hardiness is an important predictor of well-being and stress perceptions. Furthermore, hardiness was related to all domains of psychological well-being and training perceptions when the Five Factor Model of personality was statistically controlled. These findings demonstrate that hardiness and personality constitute 2 different constructs, both of which have significant contributions to well-being.

  3. A Review of the Multi-Authored Monograph “The Medical (Clinical Psychology Diagnosis: Current State and Prospects”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachkov I.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The monograph presents a number of articles written by leading domestic clinical psychologists on various issues connected with psychological diagnosis. The multi-authored monograph was written for the international research-to-practice conference “The medical (clinical psychology diagnosis: tradition and prospects”. The conference took place in Moscow on November 29-30, 2016. The book consists of the following sections: "Research methodology in clinical psychology", “The development of endogenous mental pathology diagnosis current trends”, “The development of clinical psychology diagnostics current trends: age aspects”, “The main problems of clinical-psychological prevention and rehabilitation”. The materials of the monograph may be interesting and useful for scientists, psychology lecturers, students and post-graduate students, as well as for specialists working in the field of public health, education and social support for the population.

  4. Psychological distress and salivary cortisol covary within persons during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole; Kooistra, Libbe; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby maternal stress during pregnancy exerts organizational effects on fetal development require elaboration. The aim of this study was to assess the plausibility of cortisol as a biological link between maternal psychological distress during pregnancy and fetal development. Previo

  5. Medical and Psychological Determinants on the Development in Aged Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Scherzer, R.

    The relationships between somatic and sociological-psychological variables are complex. Each mental change which occurs in aging is more or less closely accompanied by somatic changes. The reverse is also true. The objective state of health and the subjective feeling of well-being are linked. Both can exert an influence over behavior and…

  6. The big five personality traits: psychological entities or statistical constructs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franić, S.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study employed multivariate genetic item-level analyses to examine the ontology and the genetic and environmental etiology of the Big Five personality dimensions, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and NE

  7. The big five personality traits: psychological entities or statistical constructs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Franić; D. Borsboom; C.V. Dolan; D.I. Boomsma

    2013-01-01

    The present study employed multivariate genetic item-level analyses to examine the ontology and the genetic and environmental etiology of the Big Five personality dimensions, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and NE

  8. Developing a Personal-Learning-Portfolio (PLP) for 1st year students at Department of Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anna Thit; Beck Hansen, Nina; Andersen, Mette Elmose

    Abstract title: Developing a Personal-Learning-Portfolio (PLP) for 1st year students at Department of Psychology Learning outcome of activity: B01 is the first module of the education in Psychology at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The aim of B01 is to give the students a ‘map’ or a ‘schem......Abstract title: Developing a Personal-Learning-Portfolio (PLP) for 1st year students at Department of Psychology Learning outcome of activity: B01 is the first module of the education in Psychology at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The aim of B01 is to give the students a ‘map......’ or a ‘schemata’ of psychology that they will later expand and modify throughout their education. This is done by introducing the students to the history of psychology, its theory of science and its different fields. However, feedback from our students told us that the risk of this objective is that the class...... be an inspiration to others who wish to develop and implements PLPs. Second, we will show the format of our particular Personal-Learning-Portfolio together with reflections on why it was developed in such a way. This includes the students’ opinions about the PLP and the results of the cognitive interviews....

  9. Brief report: Doctoral training origins of authors publishing in Journal of Pediatric Psychology: historical trends 1976-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Skylar A; Roberts, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    To identify historical trends in the field of pediatric psychology by examining the training origins of authors publishing in Journal of Pediatric Psychology since its formation in 1976. The researchers sampled four publication years (1976, 1986, 1996, and 2006) and recorded the authors of each published article. They obtained each author's doctoral training institution using information provided in the article, the American Psychological Association Membership Directory, or the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database and counted authorship totals for each institution in each year. Four institutions (Case Western Reserve University, University of Iowa, University of Kansas, and Purdue University) produced authorship entries in 3 of the 4 years sampled. The number of articles being published, the number of authors per article and the number of institutions consistently increased. The current study provided a historical perspective on graduate training and scholarly productivity in the field of pediatric psychology. Future research should investigate interesting trends revealed, such as how core groups of pediatric psychology scholars have contributed to the notable growth in institutions, specific programs within institutions, and authors published over the last 30 years.

  10. The relationship of personal qualities and efficiency of professional activity of employees of tax authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvashnina N.N.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the relationship of personal qualities and efficiency of professional activity of employees of tax authorities. In work the analysis of professional activity of the employee of the tax authority, attempt to consider a set of actions included in the notion "efficiency of professional activity", and considers personal qualities necessary, from our point of view, for the tax officials of official duties. The article presents the results of empirical research on the relationship of personal qualities and efficiency of professional activity of employees of tax authorities. The study was conducted on the basis of Inspection of Federal tax service of Russia № 26 in Moscow. In research took part the employees of the following departments: in-house departments, field departments, division of work with taxpayers, the division of debt. The relationship between identified qualities as well as differences in manifestation of studied qualities in the employees of tax bodies with different lifetime.

  11. Volumetric hemispheric ratio as a useful tool in personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Wagner, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Weber, Bernd; Quesada, Carlos M

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigates the link between volumetric hemispheric ratios (VHRs) and personality measures in N=267 healthy participants using Eysenck's Personality Inventory-Revised (EPQ-R) and the BIS/BAS scales. A robust association between extraversion and VHRs was observed for gray matter in males but not females. Higher gray matter volume in the left than in the right hemisphere was associated with higher extraversion in males. The results are discussed in the context of positive emotionality and laterality of the human brain.

  12. Interpersonal-Psychological Theory, Alexithymia, and Personality Predict Suicide Ideation among Maladjusted Soldiers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Cheng; Tzeng, Dong-Sheng; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chung, Wei-Ching

    2016-11-24

    This case-control study enrolled 226 maladjusted soldiers and 229 controls to investigate the impact of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, alexithymia, personality, and childhood trauma on suicide risk among Taiwanese soldiers. Assessments included the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Brief Symptom Rating Scale. In addition to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, other risks included less extraversion with higher neuroticism, higher alexithymia, poor academic performance, domestic violence, and life-threatening events. Our study demonstrates the interaction of the interpersonal-psychological theory and other suicide risk factors in Taiwanese soldiers. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  13. The big five personality traits: psychological entities or statistical constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franić, Sanja; Borsboom, Denny; Dolan, Conor V; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-11-01

    The present study employed multivariate genetic item-level analyses to examine the ontology and the genetic and environmental etiology of the Big Five personality dimensions, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual, 1992; Hoekstra et al., NEO personality questionnaires NEO-PI-R, NEO-FFI: manual, 1996]. Common and independent pathway model comparison was used to test whether the five personality dimensions fully mediate the genetic and environmental effects on the items, as would be expected under the realist interpretation of the Big Five. In addition, the dimensionalities of the latent genetic and environmental structures were examined. Item scores of a population-based sample of 7,900 adult twins (including 2,805 complete twin pairs; 1,528 MZ and 1,277 DZ) on the Dutch version of the NEO-FFI were analyzed. Although both the genetic and the environmental covariance components display a 5-factor structure, applications of common and independent pathway modeling showed that they do not comply with the collinearity constraints entailed in the common pathway model. Implications for the substantive interpretation of the Big Five are discussed.

  14. The role of personal protective factors in anchoring psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    whether adolescents with learning difficulties could show resilience, despite the .... which hampers a child's learning and growth towards adulthood from progressing ... The researcher used the first 10 questionnaires returned in each category to .... mindedness and the ability to fight for deserved personal rights in a socially ...

  15. The role of personal protective factors in anchoring psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I report on a study that focused on the concept of resilience, ... of personal attributes in adolescents with learning difficulties, who were able to ... had demonstrated resilience, whilst the other half appeared to have reneged on ...

  16. History of the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the abuse of their civil rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nikola M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of persons with psychological difficulties varied in different historical periods, but in its essence remained similar until today. It included an inhumane relationship towards these persons, involuntary treatment through torture, and isolation from society as a kind of punishment for their diversity. It was not until the late 19th century that the relationship of society towards these individuals started to improve gradually, but in the 21st century isolation of these individuals still remained the dominant form of acceptable social solution for the “problem”, with a somewhat more humane attitude towards them and less cruel treatment. Serbia has followed the trends of treatment of the persons with psychological difficulties from the rest of Europe for centuries, but is still lagging behind the world in the introduction of new methods of treatment. Indeed the first legal solution to regulate the human rights of these people is currently in the process of implementation. The subject of this paper is the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the violation of their civil rights. In a subject specific context the goal of the analysis was the historical review of the treatment towards persons with psychological difficulties by doctors, other practicioners and the community in general, with reference to the current situation regarding their treatment within the psychiatric institutions, as well as the legal regulations and the protection of their civil rights.

  17. Educational Psychology in Scotland: Making a Difference. An Aspect Report on the Findings of Inspections of Local Authority Educational Psychology Services 2006-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides, for the first time, an overview based on inspections of all 32 local authority educational psychology services. The picture it presents is broadly a very positive one although it also points to areas in which there is certainly scope for further improvement. The report shows that services are making a positive difference to…

  18. Frequency and Citations of Published Authors in Two Community Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Steven B.; Adams, Monica; Jason, Leonard A.; Patka, Mazna; Cowman, Shaun; Topliff, Annie

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the development of community psychology through publications in the main journals of the field, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" (AJCP) and "Journal of Community Psychology" (JCP). The investigation assessed which individuals played a major role in shaping the field through their publications by recording…

  19. Personality is of central concern to understand health: towards a theoretical model for health psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets out the case that personality traits are central to health psychology. To achieve this, three aims need to be addressed. First, it is necessary to show that personality influences a broad range of health outcomes and mechanisms. Second, the simple descriptive account of Aim 1 is not sufficient, and a theoretical specification needs to be developed to explain the personality-health link and allow for future hypothesis generation. Third, once Aims 1 and 2 are met, it is necessary to demonstrate the clinical utility of personality. In this review I make the case that all three Aims are met. I develop a theoretical framework to understand the links between personality and health drawing on current theorising in the biology, evolution, and neuroscience of personality. I identify traits (i.e., alexithymia, Type D, hypochondriasis, and empathy) that are of particular concern to health psychology and set these within evolutionary cost-benefit analysis. The literature is reviewed within a three-level hierarchical model (individual, group, and organisational) and it is argued that health psychology needs to move from its traditional focus on the individual level to engage group and organisational levels. PMID:23772230

  20. Personality is of central concern to understand health: towards a theoretical model for health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2013-05-01

    This paper sets out the case that personality traits are central to health psychology. To achieve this, three aims need to be addressed. First, it is necessary to show that personality influences a broad range of health outcomes and mechanisms. Second, the simple descriptive account of Aim 1 is not sufficient, and a theoretical specification needs to be developed to explain the personality-health link and allow for future hypothesis generation. Third, once Aims 1 and 2 are met, it is necessary to demonstrate the clinical utility of personality. In this review I make the case that all three Aims are met. I develop a theoretical framework to understand the links between personality and health drawing on current theorising in the biology, evolution, and neuroscience of personality. I identify traits (i.e., alexithymia, Type D, hypochondriasis, and empathy) that are of particular concern to health psychology and set these within evolutionary cost-benefit analysis. The literature is reviewed within a three-level hierarchical model (individual, group, and organisational) and it is argued that health psychology needs to move from its traditional focus on the individual level to engage group and organisational levels.

  1. 19 CFR 24.2 - Persons authorized to receive Customs collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons authorized to receive Customs collections. 24.2 Section 24.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Customs collections. Port directors, Customs cashiers, Customs inspectors, Customs dock tellers, and...

  2. 14 CFR 43.3 - Persons authorized to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons authorized to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alterations. 43.3 Section 43.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING,...

  3. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE... holder of a repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating may approve an... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft...

  4. Achievements of the first wave personal medical services (PMS) pilots in England. A health authority perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, Brenda; Petchey, Roland

    2003-01-01

    Personal medical services pilots were introduced in England in 1998 to provide increased flexibility to general practitioners practising in deprived areas, to improve service provision and reduce inequalities. The aim of this study was to identify health authority perspectives of the achievements of their pilots. Less than half of the health authorities agreed that their pilots' original objectives had been completely achieved. Support, commitment and enthusiasm from within and outside the pilots, and the ability to be flexible, were helpful in promoting change management. Obstacles were financial difficulties and a lack of understanding of personal medical services. The opinion was that personal medical services had made a highly regarded contribution to the local health economy, especially in the provision of new services and the promotion of new staff roles. The results provide lessons for primary care organisations in England and elsewhere in terms of the factors required to successfully implement change.

  5. First-Person Educational Psychology for Teacher Education Majors: A Biofunctional Understanding Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iran-Nejad, Asghar; Stewart, William; Robinson, Cecil

    2015-01-01

    This is a semester-long study of the development of first-person biofunctional understanding in educational psychology for teacher education majors. We defined biofunctional understanding as a spontaneous intellectual capacity. To reach its deep biological levels, sculpted by countless evolutionary millennia, students identified and dwelled in…

  6. Personal construct psychology: a theory to help understand professional development, a philosophy to support it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.

  7. Personality traits and emotional intelligence as predictors of teachers' psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined predictive validity of the Big Five personality traits and three dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI regarding psychological well-being on the sample of primary and highschool teachers. Notwithstanding relatively high correlations between personality and EI scales, reported by other studies, we predicted that EI still accounts for a significant amount of variability in psychological well-being. This prediction originates in idea that different abilities concerning emotions should help individuals to be more effective in various aspects of positive functioning. One hundred fifty two teachers filled out the Big Five Inventory (BFI, Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ, and the short version of Riff's Psychological Well-Being Scales (RPWB. Results showed good predictive validity of personality traits, for they accounted for 22 to 43% of variability in different psychological well-being scales. Predictive validity of EI is also excellent, but when controlling for personality traits is far worse, since it accounts for only 1 to 3% of variance in well-being scales. Discriminant validity of EI scales measured by ESCQ is therefore unsatisfactory.

  8. Early rheumatoid arthritis, personality and psychological status : A follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, B; Sanderman, R; Suurmeijer, T; Doeglas, D; Van Sonderen, E; Van Rijswijk, M; Van Leeuwen, M; Van den Heuvel, W

    1998-01-01

    This article presents results from a follow-up study in the Netherlands among 292 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The main focus of this paper is on (changes in) personality characteristics, coping strategies and psychological status between the first and second wave (T1 and T2). On p

  9. Psychological Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Oriented Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Marques

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: In summary, the available studies support cognitive-behavioral psychological treatments as an efficacious intervention in borderline personality disorder. However, the existing scientific literature on this topic is still scarce and there is need for more studies, with higher methodological rigor, that should validate these results.

  10. Getting Older, Getting Better? Personal Strivings and Psychological Maturity across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M.; Kasser, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Examined psychological maturity based on personal strivings in 108 adults ages 17 to 82 years. Results supported hypotheses that older people would list more strivings concerning generativity and ego integrity and fewer strivings concerning identity and intimacy, and that maturity and age would be positively associated with subjective well-being.…

  11. Early rheumatoid arthritis, personality and psychological status : A follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, B; Sanderman, R; Suurmeijer, T; Doeglas, D; Van Sonderen, E; Van Rijswijk, M; Van Leeuwen, M; Van den Heuvel, W

    1998-01-01

    This article presents results from a follow-up study in the Netherlands among 292 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The main focus of this paper is on (changes in) personality characteristics, coping strategies and psychological status between the first and second wave (T1 and T2). On

  12. Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, D C

    2001-01-01

    Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.

  13. SVM Based Identification of Psychological Personality Using Handwritten Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Asra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of Personality is a complex process. To ease this process, a model is developed using cursive handwriting. Area based, width based and height based thresholds are set for only character selection, word selection and line selection. The rest is considered as noise. Followed by feature vector construction. Slope feature using slope calculation, shape features and edge detection done using Sobel filter and direction histogram is considered. Based on the direction of handwriting the analysis was done. Writing which rises to the right shows optimism and cheerfulness. Sagging to the right shows physical or mental weariness. The lines which are straight, reveals over-control to compensate for an inner fear of loss of control.The analysis was done using single line and multiple lines. Simple techniques have provided good results. The results using single line were 95% and multiple lines were 91%.The classification is done using SVM classifier.

  14. Psychological Assessment with the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders: Tradition and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Mark H; Hopwood, Christopher J; Krueger, Robert F; Morey, Leslie C; Pincus, Aaron L; Wright, Aidan G C

    2017-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD; APA, 2013) represents an innovative system for simultaneous psychiatric classification and psychological assessment of personality disorders (PD). The AMPD combines major paradigms of personality assessment and provides an original, heuristic, flexible, and practical framework that enriches clinical thinking and practice. Origins, emerging research, and clinical application of the AMPD for diagnosis and psychological assessment are reviewed. The AMPD integrates assessment and research traditions, facilitates case conceptualization, is easy to learn and use, and assists in providing patient feedback. New as well as existing tests and psychometric methods may be used to operationalize the AMPD for clinical assessments.

  15. The hoarding dimension of OCD: psychological comorbidity and the five-factor personality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSalle-Ricci, V Holland; Arnkoff, Diane B; Glass, Carol R; Crawley, Sarah A; Ronquillo, Jonne G; Murphy, Dennis L

    2006-10-01

    Although hoarding has been associated with several psychological disorders, it is most frequently linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study assessed hoarding obsessions and compulsions in 204 individuals with OCD, and evaluated how hoarding was related to obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, psychological comorbidity, and personality as measured by the five-factor model. Results indicated that hoarding in OCD is a dimensional variable that is positively associated with dysphoria, total number of lifetime Axis I disorders, and lifetime histories of bipolar I, PTSD, and body dysmorphic disorder. Hoarding was negatively correlated with the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) factor of Conscientiousness and positively associated with the NEO-PI-R factor of Neuroticism. When all personality and psychopathology variables were entered into a regression equation, dysphoria, bipolar II disorder, Conscientiousness, age, and Extraversion emerged as significant predictors of hoarding severity. Recommendations are made for clinicians and for future research.

  16. Socio-demographic factors, behaviour and personality: associations with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Suzanne Helen; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Passey, Megan; Lyle, David; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Harris, Mark Ford

    2012-04-01

    Anxiety, psychological distress and personality may not be independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however they may contribute via their relationship with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. This study aimed to examine the association between psychological distress, risk behaviours and patient demographic characteristics in a sample of general practice patients aged 40-65 years with at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cross-sectional analytic study. Patients, randomly selected from general practice records, completed a questionnaire about their behavioural risk factors and psychological health as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial of a general practice based intervention to prevent chronic vascular disease. The Kessler Psychological Distress Score (K10) was the main outcome measure for the multilevel, multivariate analysis. Single-level bi-variate analysis demonstrated a significant association between higher K10 and middle age (p = 0.001), high neuroticism (p = 0), current smoking (p = 0), physical inactivity (p = 0.003) and low fruit and vegetable consumption (p = 0.008). Socioeconomic (SES) indicators of deprivation (employment and accommodation status) were also significantly associated with higher K10 (p = 0). No individual behavioural risk factor was associated with K10 on multilevel multivariate analysis; however indicators of low SES remained significant (p factors were considered, psychological distress was not associated with behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Other underlying factors, such as personality type and socioeconomic status, may be associated with both the behaviours and the distress.

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

  18. Personal growth initiative among Industrial Psychology students in a higher education institution in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique de Jager-van Straaten

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Personal growth initiative (PGI is an important characteristic of workplace counsellors. Industrial and organisational (I-O psychologists often assist employees with counselling for work-related and personal problems, and therefore PGI is an important research topic for this profession.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the PGI of I-O psychology students in a higher education institution in South Africa, as well as to explore differences in PGI between demographic groups.Motivation: According to the scope of practice for psychologists, growth and development of employees form part of an I-O psychologist’s responsibilities. PGI is an important characteristic of I-O psychologists as it enables them to efficiently assist employees in growth and development processes.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. A purposive non-probability sample (N = 568 of I-O psychology students was taken from a higher education institution in South Africa. A biographical questionnaire and the personal growth initiative scale (PGIS were used as measuring instruments.Main findings: The results indicated that (1 the PGIS is a valid and reliable measure of PGI, (2 PGI is prevalent amongst I-O psychology students and (3 PGI differs between certain demographic groups.Practical implications: The findings of this study will assist in the future development of a training programme for I-O psychology students to equip them with the counselling skills they need to function in a counselling role.Contribution: This study contributes to knowledge regarding the importance of PGI for I-O psychology students. The study will also assist higher education institutes to adapt their training programmes in order to prepare I-O psychology students for their role as counsellors. More knowledge will also be provided with regard to the functioning of the PGIS.

  19. Psychological underpinning of personalized approaches in modern medicine: syndrome analysis of mitral valve prolapsed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to demonstrate a high efficiency of the methodological means suggested by psychological syndrome analysis approach (Vygotsky-Luria school for solving theoretical and applied issues in contemporary person-centered medicine. This is achieved through an example of empirical study meant to construct a psychosomatic syndrome for 290 patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP. Analysis of all collected data was based on psychological syndrome analysis concept (Vygotsky–Luria school and A.R. Luria’s principles for psychological factors (causes selection, which determine the logic and structure of a neuropsychological syndrome. It demonstrated the association between characteristics of emotional experiences and clinical symptoms manifested in MVP patients. This correlation was statistically verified. The results proved that the most important syndrome-establishment factor (radical is a specific emotionality and dysfunction of emotion regulation and emotional control in MVP patients (excessive emotional repression with insufficient reflection of emotional experiences. Features of the motivation sphere of MVP patients appear as a second psychological syndrome-establishment factor: these are domination of the motive of failure avoidance and unsatisfied self-approval need. We argue that psychological syndrome analysis can be used as a means to approach not only diagnostic but also prognostic tasks both in clinical psychology and medicine, as well as for the development and implementation of the person-centered integrative diagnosis model. We maintained that this approach, applied in theoretical and practical fields of clinical psychology and mental health care is highly efficient at the current stage of the science evolution due to prospects revealed by s new methodological context of postnonclassical model of rationality and a comprehensive character of the cultural-historical concept regarding an individual and his mind as a self

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Women's Psychological Distress: The Roles of Collective and Personal Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Holz, Kenna Bolton

    2007-01-01

    In the spirit of counseling psychology's social justice mission (e.g., L. A. Goodman, B. Liang, J. E. Helms, R. E. Latta, E. Sparks, & S. R. Weintraub, 2004), the authors examined perceptions of discrimination against women as related to women's views of the group women, their views of themselves as individuals, and their psychological…

  1. Perceived Discrimination and Women's Psychological Distress: The Roles of Collective and Personal Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Holz, Kenna Bolton

    2007-01-01

    In the spirit of counseling psychology's social justice mission (e.g., L. A. Goodman, B. Liang, J. E. Helms, R. E. Latta, E. Sparks, & S. R. Weintraub, 2004), the authors examined perceptions of discrimination against women as related to women's views of the group women, their views of themselves as individuals, and their psychological…

  2. Research on the psychological gap, personality and achievement of in-school youth based on regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although our society is in rapid development, the psychological problems among in-school university students are increasingly obvious. According to this problem, this thesis applied the Psychological Gap Scale made by Caixia Ma with EPQ and AMS, and made random questionnaire survey among 400 students in a comprehensive university. The survey found out that the average scores of all psychological gap dimensions exceeded the critical value 3, showing most students in that university have psychological gap. Their personality stability, introversion and extroversion are all above the national norm level while their stubbornness is lower than it. Besides, the students’ motivation in pursuing success is stronger than their motivation in avoiding failure. In the last part, this thesis reached the conclusion that personality leaves a great impact in the students’ psychology through regression analysis model and study of the quantitative relations among personality, achievement and psychological gap.

  3. Psychological and psycho-physical training as a factor of personal anxiety at students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichurin V.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to test the hypothesis that the proposed content of the psychological and psycho-physical preparation of students of railway high schools in the physical education is effective in terms of reducing the high level of personal anxiety. Material : the study involved 120 students who had high levels of trait anxiety. Age of study participants was 17 - 19 years. Psychological diagnostics level of personal anxiety in students was conducted using a scale assessing the level of reactive and personal anxiety Ch.Spilberger. Results : the use in psychological and psycho-physical training in the classroom for physical education for men (significant sports - athletics and powerlifting and girls (aerobics and Sahaja Yoga significantly influenced the decline in their personal anxiety. Conclusions : It is recommended that training on physical education to carry out the following structure. Preparatory part of the class - 10 minutes. Basically - 75 minutes. Of these, 25 minutes - to solve the traditional problems of physical education students to build their motor skills and the development of physical qualities. 20 minutes - was given to the students to perform specific exercise. 30 minutes devoted to the main part of a busy professional significant sport. The final part - 5 minutes.

  4. Translating Personality Psychology to Help Personalize Preventive Medicine for Young-Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-01-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by healthcare reform will soon increase demands on primary-care physicians. Physicians will face more young-adult patients which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the current study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults’ personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the Dunedin Study cohort of 1,000 individuals, we show that very brief measures of young adults’ personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness-to-Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health-risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for healthcare professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing healthcare electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient outcomes. PMID:24588093

  5. Translating personality psychology to help personalize preventive medicine for young adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E; Belsky, Daniel W; Hancox, Robert J; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-03-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by health care reform will soon increase demands on primary care physicians. Physicians will face more young adult patients, which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the present study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults' personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the cohort of 1,000 individuals from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (Moffitt, Caspi, Rutter, & Silva, 2001), we show that very brief measures of young adults' personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for health care professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing health care electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient

  6. Political violence, psychological distress, and perceived health: A longitudinal investigation in the Palestinian Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobfoll, Stevan E; Hall, Brian J; Canetti, Daphna

    2012-01-01

    One thousand one hundred and ninety six Palestinian adults living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem were interviewed beginning in September 2007 and again at 6- and 12-month intervals. Using structural equation modeling, we focused on the effects of exposure to political violence, psychosocial and economic resource loss, and social support, on psychological distress, and the association of each of these variables on subjective health. Our proposed mediation model was partially supported. Exposure to political violence, psychosocial resource loss, and social support were related to subjective health, fully mediated by their relationship with psychological distress. Female sex and being older were also directly related to poorer subjective health and partially mediated via psychological distress. Greater economic resource loss, lower income, and poorer education were directly related to poor subjective health. An alternative model exploring subjective health as a mediator of psychological distress revealed that subjective health partially mediated the relationship between resource loss and psychological distress. The associate between female sex, education, income, and age on psychological distress were fully mediated by subjective health. Social support and exposure to political violence were directly related to psychological distress. These results were discussed in terms of the importance of resource loss on both mental and physical health in regions of chronic political violence and potential intervention strategies.

  7. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL, CRIMINOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERSONALITY OF EXTREMIST, TERRORIST, ENGAGED IN PROPAGANDA AMONG THE YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. KHARZINOVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals: socio-psychological criminological characteristics of personality advocate extremism and terrorism. The focus of the author focuses on specific moral, psychological, spiritual and moral values of the extremist, terrorist propagandizing extremism and terrorism. The purpose of writing this article is to review the socio-psychological, criminological characteristics of persons advocating extremism and terrorism. Criminologists point out that the identity of the perpetrator is characterized by the following data: socio-biological, demographic, criminal law, moral-psychological sphere of life and social relationships. Analysis of the sociobiological data allows you to note that the most active promoters of the involvement of young people in extremist and terrorist activities are males. Extremists propagandists are people who are characterized by the special moral and psychological qualities: 1 a fanatical adherence to an ideology promoted; 2 Group fanaticism and narcissism; 3 the group nature of the action; 4 radicalism, which is expressed in the form of violence and intimidation. [3] Unlike other extremism and terrorism are criminal acts carried out in order to implement some ideas. In this regard, it must be assumed that the moral-psychological features of extremists and terrorists based on the ideology of extremism and terrorism, which are reflected in its specificity, emotional and mental health, ways of perception and attitude towards the outside world, on the interaction between its inner and outer world. Involving youth in terrorist and extremist activities, they realize that they are on offense and even to death, but they do not stop, because they are fans of radical Islam. Representatives of nontraditional radical trend of Islam is peculiar to the religious fanaticism that borders on physical and spiritual violence.

  8. Are Women Underrepresented as Authors and Editors of Educational Psychology Journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson; McKay; Katayama; Fan

    1998-07-01

    To determine the progress women have made in the last 20 years in terms of contributions to the knowledge base (i.e., authorship) and reputations as leading contributors (i.e., appointments as editors and editorial board members) in educational psychology, we analyzed data from six journals: the American Educational Research Journal, Contemporary Educational Psychology, the Educational Psychologist, Educational Psychology Review, the Journal of Experimental Education, and the Journal of Educational Psychology. Results indicated that (a) women's progress in terms of authorships could be predicted by their increasing representation as educational psychologists, (b) opportunities for females to become editorial board members seem to be getting better, and (c) opportunities for females to become editors seem to be getting worse. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  9. Theoretical concepts of personal self and the reconstructive psychotherapy problematics in clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Serhiyvna Maximenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a survey on the problem of theoretical conceptions of the “Self” and specific features applying a reconstructive therapy to Clinical Psychology. A dynamics of self-understanding of a patient and self-destructing influence of different diseases are being traced beginning from the works by W.James and up to the modern researches. The aims and targets of therapeutical and psychocorrectional work depending on the primary, secondary etc. personality features are defined more precisely concerning their dependence on the primary, secondary etc. personality features of a patient or on the nozological and etiological roots of the sufferance. Several groups of factors essential for a psychological therapy are being analyzed.

  10. Psychological and Personality Predictors of Weight Loss and Comorbid Metabolic Changes After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Zaida; García-Ruiz-de-Gordejuela, Amador; Vilarrasa, Nuria; Sanchez, Isabel; Baño, Marta; Camacho, Lucía; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Virgili, Nuria; Lopez-Urdiales, Rafael; de Bernabe, Mónica Montserrat-Gil; Garrido, Pilar; Monasterio, Carmen; Steward, Trevor; Pujol-Gebelli, Jordi; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Menchón, Jose M

    2015-11-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) has proven to be the most effective treatment for weight loss and for improving comorbidities in severe obesity. A comprehensive psychological assessment prior to surgery is proposed to prepare patients for a successful post-surgical outcome. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to assess psychological and personality predictors of BS outcome. The sample comprised 139 severely obese patients who underwent BS. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2, the Symptom Checklist-Revised and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Our results show that favourable BS outcome, after 2 years follow up, was associated with younger age, less depression, moderate anxiety symptoms and high cooperativeness levels. Likewise, metabolic improvements were found to be linked to younger age and certain psychopathological factors. In conclusion, our findings suggest that age, baseline body mass index, psychopathological indexes and personality traits predict successful BS outcome. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Moderating Influence of Critical Psychological States on Work Engagement and Personal Outcomes in the Telecom Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Andrew Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations want their employees to be engaged with their work, exhibiting proactive behavior, initiative, and responsibility for personal development. Existing literature has a dearth of studies that evaluate all the three key variables that lead to optimal employee performance—critical psychological states (CPSs, work engagement, and personal outcomes. The present study attempts to fill that gap by linking the variable CPSs (which measures experienced meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge of results with the other two. The study surveyed 359 sales personnel in the Indian telecom industry and adopted standardized, valid, and reliable instruments to measure their work engagement, CPSs, and personal outcomes. Analysis was done using structural equation modeling (SEM. Findings indicated that CPSs significantly moderate the relationship between personal outcomes and work engagement.

  12. Health psychology and discourse: personal accounts as social texts in grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, K C; Hewison, J

    1998-07-01

    Traditional social psychology has largely located the origins of the social in the mental and emotional processes of individuals. Interview and questionnaire approaches have focused on the personal account as a route to cognitive processes and personality structures. In contrast, qualitative approaches like grounded theory have highlighted the importance of discourse in the constitution of the social world, and the function of talk and text in the construction of meaning. It is argued here that the use of such approaches, informed by insights from discourse analysis and current thinking on textuality, can enable analysts to read the personal account as a socially constructed, and constructing, text. This article uses examples from psychosocial oncology and from original research on the treatment experiences of a group of cancer patients to discuss new ways of reading personal accounts as social texts.

  13. The Psychological Adaptation of CF Augmentees: Effects of Personality, Situational Appraisals, Social Support, and Prior Stressors on Operational Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Personality and Individual Differences , 25...performance. Personality and Individual Differences , 21, 421-429. 48. Gentry, W. D., & Kobasa, S. C. (1984). Psychological resources mediating stress...2003). Big 5 correlates of three measures of subjective well- being. Personality and Individual Differences , 34, 723-727. 53. Hobfoll, S. E., &

  14. Integration of cognitive and personality-based conceptualization and treatment of psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Lating, Jeffrey M

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of the numerous terrorist attacks and horrific natural disasters that have occurred beginning on September 11, 2001, there has been increased interest in the effects of trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of a synergistic multicomponent approach to therapy that incorporates the integrated use of cognitive and personality-guided approaches to conceptualizing and treating psychological trauma. With Millon's personality classification system serving as a foundation, a case example is provided along with an explanation of the therapeutic stages beginning with establishing the therapeutic alliance to decreasing hyperarousal to restoring assumptive worldviews.

  15. Personal and Psychological Factors-Does it Impact the Choice of Advertising Medium?

    OpenAIRE

    Izian Idris; Mohd S.A. Yajid; Ali Khatibi

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Advertising is a multidimensional phenomenon that has been studied in several disciplines. It is one of the most fascinating phenomena in modern capitalist markets. It is pervasive, perplexing, multidimensional and unfathomably rich. The effectiveness of advertising depends on both the quality of the product being advertised and the quality of the ad itself and also the media context in which the ad appears. Personal factors (such as gender and age) and psychological factor...

  16. MANIFESTATION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE PROCESS OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF THE PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Ovsyanik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are description of specific social-psychological adaptation through using of the individual peculiarities of adaptation strategies and building a repertoire of social roles. The reseach also examines aggressive behavior, which we treat as a violation of the rights of others and bringing them damage, leading to the destruction of interpersonal relationships and social problems of the individual. Aggressive behavior is one of the early signs of maladaptive personality.

  17. Personal and Psychological Factors-Does it Impact the Choice of Advertising Medium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izian Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Advertising is a multidimensional phenomenon that has been studied in several disciplines. It is one of the most fascinating phenomena in modern capitalist markets. It is pervasive, perplexing, multidimensional and unfathomably rich. The effectiveness of advertising depends on both the quality of the product being advertised and the quality of the ad itself and also the media context in which the ad appears. Personal factors (such as gender and age and psychological factors (for example status and personality may affect the choice of advertising medium. Consumers’ interest may change due to these factors. The analysis had proved that both factors do impact the choice of advertising medium. The study may help marketers, advertisers and businesses to create and come out with suitable advertisements that suits the interests of consumers’ derived from those factors. It may help them to choose suitable advertising media for different target market. The study searched for to find out whether personal and psychological factors have any impact to the choice of advertising medium. Approach: For this study purposes, questionnaires and copy testing had been used to addresses issues related to the effectiveness of each advertisement. About 100 printed questionnaires were distributed among respondents which comprised age from 18 years old and above where 30 respondents were tested for copy testing from all mediums, online and traditional where these respondents were given a series of all advertisements from newspaper, magazine, TV, radio, Internet, SMS and MMS. Results: The coefficient analysis showed that both personal and psychological factors had positive relationship with customer satisfaction. Between these two factors, personal factors had high level of significant relationship (p = 0.000 compared to psychological factors (p = 0.087. The analysis had proved that both factors do impact the choice of advertising medium. Conclusion

  18. An Empirical Investigation of the Construct of Personality Authority in Late Adolescent Women and Their Level of College Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protinsky, Howard; Gilkey, Joyce Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Assessed a random sample of 102 female students from a small private college concerning levels of individuation, intimacy, intimidation, parental triangulation, and personal authority. These concepts formed the construct of Personal Authority and were tested regarding their relationship to self-esteem, physical health, and college adjustment.…

  19. The psychological effects of providing personal care to a partner: a multidimensional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hansen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The expected increasing demand for informal care in aging societies underscores the importance of understanding the psychological implications of caregiving. This study explores the effect of providing regular help with personal care to a partner on different aspects of psychological well-being. We use cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation study (n. ~15,000; age 40-84 and two-wave panel data from the Norwegian study on Life Course, Ageing and Generation (n. ~3000; age 40-84. To separate the effects of providing care from those of the partner’s disability, caregivers are contrasted with non-caregivers with both disabled and nondisabled partners. We separate outcomes into cognitive well-being (life satisfaction, psychological functioning (self-esteem, mastery, and affective well-being (happiness, depression, loneliness. Findings show that caregiving has important cross-sectional and longitudinal detrimental psychological effects. These effects are fairly consistent across all aspects of well-being, demonstrating that caregiving has a broad-based negative impact. Among women, however, these effects are similar to if not weaker than the effects of a partner’s disability. Caregiving effects are constant by age, education, and employment status, but stronger among caregivers with health problems. Providing personal care to a partner is associated with marked adverse psychological effects for men and women irrespective of age and socio-economic status. Hence, no socio-demographic group is immune from caregiving stress, so programs should be targeted generally. The results also suggest that the health needs of caregivers demand more attention.

  20. Spiritual Transcendence and Psychological Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Personality in Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibeen, Tahira; Mahfooz, Musferah; Fatima, Shamem

    2017-08-30

    The current study examined the moderating role of personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) on the relationship between spiritual transcendence and positive change, and spiritual transcendence and distress in burn patients. The sample (N = 98) comprised adult burn patients (age = 25-50) admitted to three hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. They were assessed according to a demographic information sheet, the NEO Personality Inventory (McCrae and Costa in J Personal Soc Psychol 52:81-90, 1987), the Spiritual Transcendence Index (Seidlitz et al. in J Sci Study Relig 41:439-453, 2002), the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales-21 (Lovibond and Lovibond in Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress scales, Psychology Foundation, Sydney, 1995), and the Perceived Benefit Scales (McMillen and Fisher in Soc Work Res 22(3):173-186, 1998). Stepwise moderated regression analysis showed that both personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) played a moderating role in the relationship between spiritual transcendence and positive change, and spiritual transcendence and distress in burn patients. The findings highlight the potential role spiritual transcendence may have in understanding and improving the psychological adjustment of burn patients.

  1. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress : A six-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Van Hemert, Albert M.; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W.

    Background: Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by

  2. Effects of psychological nursing intervention on personality characteristics and quality of life of patients with esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiao-mei; Kong, Cun-quan; Chang, Shu-ying; Wei, Ai-huan

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the effects of a psychological nursing intervention on personality characteristics and quality of life of esophageal cancer patients. Esophageal cancer patients (n=86) were randomized into either an intervention group (n=45) or a control group (n=41). Patients in the control group were given routine nursing care, and those in the intervention group were provided with psychological nursing interventions in addition to routine nursing care. Personality characteristics, assessed through Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and quality of life, assessed through EORTC QLQ-C30, were compared between the two groups. The results showed that personality characteristics were closely related to quality of life. After the psychological nursing intervention, the main factors were neurosis, psychosis or mood instability, and personality stability. However, introverted and extroverted personality characteristics were not associated with quality of life. The psychological nursing intervention was associated with decreased P-scale and E-scale scores of personality characteristics and improved quality of life in each dimension scored. A psychological nursing intervention can affect the personality characteristics of esophageal cancer patients and improve their quality of life; this approach is worthy of further study and clinical application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents.

  4. Names in Psychological Science: Investigating the Processes of Thought Development and the Construction of Personal Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, Rocco; Longobardi, Claudio; Mendola, Manuela; Prino, Laura Elvira

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the name as an issue of interest in the psychology field. In thinking about the role played by names for some of the most important approaches on the psychology panorama, it has been found that the analysis of names can be used as an instrument for the investigation of thought formation processes, or as an element in the process of constructing personal identity. In the first case, the focus is on the so-called "common" names, which designate objects; in the second case, instead, it is on people's given names and on the way they are perceived by their bearers and those who surround them. We have examined both domains, since it is essential to understand how the psychological concepts related to names develop in children's minds, if we aim to grasp their importance as designators of people's internal and external realities. Lastly, we have proposed our own view of the person's name, linked to the relational systems perspective which essentially sees the name as a signifier or "representative" of the child-parent relationship, while the "relationship" is the signified.

  5. Psychological mechanisms and the ups and downs of personal recovery in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Alyson L; Mezes, Barbara; Lobban, Fiona; Jones, Steven H

    2017-09-01

    Personal recovery is recognized as an important outcome for individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and is distinct from symptomatic and functional recovery. Recovery-focused psychological therapies show promise. As with therapies aiming to delay relapse and improve symptoms, research on the psychological mechanisms underlying recovery is crucial to inform effective recovery-focused therapy. However, empirical work is limited. This study investigated whether negative beliefs about mood swings and self-referent appraisals of mood-related experiences were negatively associated with personal recovery. Cross-sectional online survey. People with a verified research diagnosis of BD (n = 87), recruited via relevant voluntary sector organizations and social media, completed online measures. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression analysed associations between appraisals, beliefs, and recovery. Normalizing appraisals of mood changes were positively associated with personal recovery. Depression, negative self-appraisals of depression-relevant experiences, extreme positive and negative appraisals of activated states, and negative beliefs about mood swings had negative relationships with recovery. After controlling for current mood symptoms, negative illness models (relating to how controllable, long-term, concerning, and treatable mood swings are; β = -.38), being employed (β = .39), and both current (β = -.53) and recent experience of depression (β = .30) predicted recovery. Due to the cross-sectional design, causality cannot be determined. Participants were a convenience sample primarily recruited online. Power was limited by the sample size. Interventions aiming to empower people to feel able to manage mood and catastrophize less about mood swings could facilitate personal recovery in people with BD, which might be achieved in recovery-focused therapy. Personal recovery is an important outcome for people living with bipolar disorder More positive

  6. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  7. Dear readers, authors, reviewers and editorial board members of advances in cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In this letter from the editors, we wanted to inform you that our journal has been selected for coverage in Thomson Reuter's products and services. Beginning with volume 8, issue 1, 2012, Advances in Cognitive Psychology (ACP) will be indexed and abstracted in: •Social Sciences Citation Index •Journal Citation Reports/Social Sciences Edition •Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences.

  8. "Personal narrative and life course" revisited: Bert Cohler's legacy for developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The primary aims of this concluding chapter are to identify common themes across the preceding chapters, to provide an integrative synthesis of these themes, and to draw out the implications of Bertram Cohler's work for narrative psychology and for the field of developmental psychology more generally. As with the previous chapters, the central ideas explored in Personal Narrative and Life Course remain focal to the discussion. So too is the concept of development, in childhood, adolescence, and beyond. By drawing together the retrospective dimension frequently associated with the idea of narrative with the prospective dimension frequently associated with the idea of development, this chapter also seeks to underscore Cohler's seminal contribution to our understanding of the dynamic movement of human lives in and through time.

  9. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress: A six-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by maladaptive personality. A sample of 2947 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history or current episode of depressive and/or anxiety disorders according to the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument were assessed in six waves at baseline (T0) and 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 4 (T4) and 6 years (T6) later. At each wave psychological distress was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Fear Questionnaire. At T0 childhood maltreatment types were measured with a semi-structured interview (Childhood Trauma Interview) and personality traits with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Using latent variable analyses, we found that severity of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect and abuse in particular) predicted higher initial levels of psychological distress and that this effect was mediated by maladaptive personality types. Differences in trajectories of distress between persons with varying levels of childhood maltreatment remained significant and stable over time. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively and maladaptive personality types and level of psychological distress at study entry were assessed concurrently. Routine assessment of maladaptive personality types and possible childhood emotional maltreatment in persons with severe and prolonged psychological distress seems warranted to identify persons who may need a different or more intensive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Imaging the structure of the human anxious brain: a review of findings from neuroscientific personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Markett, Sebastian; Panksepp, Jaak

    2013-01-01

    The emotion of anxiety represents one of the most studied topics in the neurosciences, in part due to its relevance for understanding the evolutionary development of the human brain and its role in the pathogenesis of psychopathological conditions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) has enabled mapping of the anxious human brain and has contributed substantially to the understanding of anxiety. Alongside the fields of clinical psychology/psychiatry, personality psychology aims to support the research endeavor of mapping the anxious brain and has found that individual differences in anxiety-related personality dimensions such as Neuroticism or Harm Avoidance (measured by self-report) are correlated with gray and white matter volumes in different areas of the human brain. This review reveals that structures including parts of the frontal cortex (e.g., the orbitofrontal cortex) and the temporal lobe (e.g., the hippocampus) are often associated with trait anxiety, and it points out the inconsistencies that exist in the personality-sMRI literature on human anxiety. Consequently, we suggest new research strategies to overcome the inconsistencies. This review outlines how results from animal research can guide scientists in developing testable hypotheses in search of the anxious brain. Moreover, genetic imaging is presented as an interesting approach to mapping the anxious brain.

  11. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI.

  12. Person-centered approaches in medicine: clinical tasks, psychological paradigms, and postnonclassic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezzich J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to demonstrate advances in methodological means suggested by Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept in association with a theoretical model of a Person-centered diagnosis and practical use of the construct for clinical psychology and medicine. This, to a greater extent, arises from the fact that the cultural-historical concept (due to its humanistic nature and epistemological content is closely related to the person-centered integrative approach. But for all that the concept corresponds to the ideals of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality with a number of ‘key’ features. Above all it manifests its “methodological maturity” to cope with open self-developing systems, which is most essential at the modern stage of scientific knowledge.The work gives consideration to ‘defining pillars’ of Person-centered approach in modern medicine, to humanistic traditions of the Russian clinical school, and high prospects in diagnostics of such mental constructs as “subjective pattern of disease” and “social situation of personal development in disease” - within the context of person-centered integrative diagnosis.This article discusses the need for implementation a cross-cultural study of subjective pattern of disease and its correlation with a particular “social situation of personality development under disease conditions”. It aims at development and substantiation of the model of person-centered integrative approach, enhancement of its diagnostic scope and, consequently, improvement of the model of person-centered care in modern psychiatry and medicine.

  13. 著作人身权性质辨析%Analysis on the Personal Right of Author and the Personal Right of Civil Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋贻珍

    2014-01-01

    There are two wrong opinions on personal right of an author :one insists on that personal right of an author is the right of identity ,the other considers it as property right .The former view only sees the phenomenon of personal right of an author but ignores its essence ,and the latter view misunder-stands its essential characteristic .It is arguable that personal right of an author is a special social personal right w hich shouldn't be merged into the personal right of civil law ,and that personal right of an author should adhere to its primary meaning and be improved in details .%认为著作人身权是身份权的观点,只看到现象而忽视了著作人身权本质;认为著作人身权是财产权的观点,是对人格权的本质属性存在误解,没有看到社会人格权能够转让的属性。著作人身权是特殊的人格权,取缔或者合并到民法中的人格权中都是不可取的,而应该在现有基础上对著作人身权的内容加以完善。

  14. Psychological diagnostics in the talent development program of the German Soccer Association: A stepwise procedure to examine the relevance of personality characteristics in talented soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Feichtinger, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Sport psychological training and coaching has become increasingly relevant in the context of youth promotion programs in soccer. Likewise, numerous sport psychologists are integrated into support frameworks at clubs and associations. Scientifically sound diagnostics of personality characteristics can be regarded as an important foundation for the optimization of such sport psychological work. The present dissertation examined the relevance of psychological personality characteristics in talen...

  15. The 2008 Leona Tyler Award Address: Core Values that Distinguish Counseling Psychology--Personal and Professional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Ted

    2009-01-01

    The empirical literature and the author's professional experience over four decades have convinced him that concerning practice patterns and work settings there is little to distinguish counseling psychology from other psychological practice specialties. What is distinctive are certain core values that undergird and distinguish this specialty.…

  16. The Role of Communications, Socio-Psychological, and Personality Factors in the Maintenance of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many air transport incidents and accidents are the result of the improper or inadequate utilization of the resources accessible to flight dock crew members. These resources obviously include the hardware and technical information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the flight, but they also Include the human resources which must be coordinated effectively. The focus of this paper is upon the human resources, and how communication styles, socio-psychological factors, and personality characteristics can affect crew coordination.

  17. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  18. Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Method Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Results Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. Conclusions In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one’s health: socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. PMID:22924900

  19. The Person-Event Data Environment: leveraging big data for studies of psychological strengths in soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vie, Loryana L; Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M; Lester, Paul B; Seligman, Martin E P

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) strives to efficiently manage the large volumes of administrative data collected and repurpose this information for research and analyses with policy implications. This need is especially present in the United States Army, which maintains numerous electronic databases with information on more than one million Active-Duty, Reserve, and National Guard soldiers, their family members, and Army civilian employees. The accumulation of vast amounts of digitized health, military service, and demographic data thus approaches, and may even exceed, traditional benchmarks for Big Data. Given the challenges of disseminating sensitive personal and health information, the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE) was created to unify disparate Army and DoD databases in a secure cloud-based enclave. This electronic repository serves the ultimate goal of achieving cost efficiencies in psychological and healthcare studies and provides a platform for collaboration among diverse scientists. This paper provides an overview of the uses of the PDE to perform command surveillance and policy analysis for Army leadership. The paper highlights the confluence of both economic and behavioral science perspectives elucidating empirically-based studies examining relations between psychological assets, health, and healthcare utilization. Specific examples explore the role of psychological assets in major cost drivers such as medical expenditures both during deployment and stateside, drug use, attrition from basic training, and low reenlistment rates. Through creation of the PDE, the Army and scientific community can now capitalize on the vast amounts of personnel, financial, medical, training and education, deployment, and security systems that influence Army-wide policies and procedures.

  20. The Personality Features of Heroin Addicts and Psychological Rehabilitation%海洛因依赖者人格特征及心理康复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显玲; 严明娟; 周宗敏

    2003-01-01

    Objective To analyze the personality features of heroin addicts and their need for psychological rehabilitationto improve personal integrity. Methods The mental health of 35 heroin addicts and 32 normal subjects were assessed by SCL- 90,Social Support Rating Scale and EPQ. Conclusion Heroin addicts have severe personality problems, which warrant long- term psychological rehabilitation after detoxification.

  1. Students Relationships and Teacher's Authority as Axiological, Ethical, Pedagogical, Social and Psychological Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Silvester

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on the research into the problems of education regarding the relations between students (bullying, competiveness and cooperation) and the decreasing teacher's authority in schools and society. We found that relations between pupils and students of elementary and secondary schools show several negative tendencies including harming each other, reduced rate of mutual sensitivity and preference of rivality to cooperation. Authority of teachers is permanently decreasing not only with pupils and students, but with parents and society, too. Society, parents and students much less value study results and wisdom, and these issues consequently influence the decreasing teacher's status. On the other hand, this behavior leads to decreasing the interest in semantic learning. The roots of these problems can be found in the postmodern crisis of Western culture, associated with severe deficiencies of the political system and market economy as well as one-sided rational orientation of Western society at the expense of the spiritual needs of man.

  2. Competitiveness of personality as a psychological phenomenon: The content of the construct and its typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klyueva, Olga A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activity (professional and production-related occurs within the context of explicit or implicit competition and proves to be more or less productive and creative. Operationalization and measurement of the competitiveness of personality without due regard for personal and situational interactions reduces the content of the notion. Competitiveness requires a high degree of personal energy, flexibility, intelligence, and creativity in regulating activity. However, enlarging the domain of psychological studies has necessitated the study of personality in the context of the natural social situations in which it functions. This structural and functional analysis allows expansion of the description of the phenomenology of the competitiveness of personality as well as classification of the strategies of competitive behavior. In this study competitive-behavior strategies (1,064 critical incidents in professional activities were analyzed using the Critical Incident Technique and thematic content analysis. To classify the data set, I used two-step cluster analysis as an exploratory method and analyzed the cross-tables of several categorical variables using the log-linear method of model selection. I applied the Solution Tree method for categorical variables to build a dependent-variable hierarchical model with the relevant predictor values. Through analysis of the results of the cluster analysis, the hierarchical model, and the functional and situational analysis of the context, it is possible to single out and validate three types of competitiveness strategies: the dependent, irrational, destructive, short-term strategy (quasi-competitiveness; the dependent, rational, constructive, short-term strategy; and the free, rational, constructive, long-term strategy. Study of the nature of competition and a subject’s competitive-behavior strategies is required to analyze, predict, and correct destructive strategies for enhancing performance.

  3. [Sensation seeking--critical review of personality psychological concepts and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A; Hell, D; Kröber, H L

    1998-11-01

    The term "sensation seeking" is part of a self-contained theory on personality psychology. It is meant to denote a disposition--peculiar to a certain personality, probably genetically founded and correlating with biological, f. e. neuroendocrine measures--to explore one's social environment in order to find new and diversified stimuli. In their work, researchers mainly refer to Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale in its fifth version (SSS-V), which distinguishes between four aspects of sensation seeking based on factor analysis of the 40 SSS-V-items. There is partly an overlapping of the phenomenon with impulsiveness and extraversion. Whereas application studies show inter alia links between sensation seeking and dangerous driving or dangerous sexual practices, data on the expression of this trait in addictive persons do not point to definitely consistent links. In forensic terms, there is on a link between "boredom susceptibility"--the inability to stand uneventful, monotonous situations--and "disinhibition"--a lack of control of impulses--figuring as subscales of the SSS-V, on the one hand, and hyperkinetic attention deficit syndromes and "disactualisation weakness", as described by Janzarik, on the other. At present, there is no German-language SSS-inventory in line with basal testing theory requirements. Because of the apparently different modi of sensation seeking influenced by other cultural traditions, such a scale must be basically adapted to the life-style in Western Europe.

  4. Enhancing psychological capital and personal growth initiative: working on strengths or deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Maria Christina; van Woerkom, Marianne; de Reuver, Renee S M; Bakk, Zsuzsa; Oberski, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    Personal growth initiative (PGI), defined as being proactive about one's personal development, is critical to graduate students' academic success. Prior research has shown that students' PGI can be enhanced through interventions that focus on stimulating developmental activities. Within this study, we aimed to investigate whether an intervention that stimulates development in the area of one's personal strengths (strengths intervention) has more beneficial effects on students' PGI than an intervention that stimulates development in the area of individual deficiencies (deficiency intervention). We conducted 2 longitudinal field experiments to investigate the effects of the 2 interventions on students' PGI (Experiment 1) and the potential mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in this regard (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 105 (N = 105) university students participated in either a strengths intervention or a deficiency intervention. Results indicated that the strengths intervention increased the students' PGI in the short but not in the long term, whereas the deficiency intervention did not affect PGI. Ninety students (N = 90) participated in Experiment 2, in which we slightly refined both interventions by putting a stronger emphasis on the ongoing development of strengths (strengths intervention) or correction of deficiencies (deficiency intervention) by adding posttraining assignments. Results suggested that participating in both interventions led to increases in PGI over a 3-month period, but that these increases were bigger for the strengths intervention group. Furthermore, the relationship between the strengths intervention and PGI was mediated by hope as one component of PsyCap.

  5. Narcissism at the crossroads: phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Ansell, Emily B

    2008-04-01

    This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds two broad factors representing Grandiosity-Exhibitionism and Vulnerability-Sensitivity-Depletion respectively. However, the majority of psychiatric criteria for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) emphasize expressions of grandiosity. By placing most of the diagnostic emphasis on overt grandiosity, DSM NPD has been limited by poor discriminant validity, modest levels of temporal stability, and the lowest prevalence rate on Axis II. Despite converging support for two phenotypic themes associated with pathological narcissism, psychiatric diagnosis and social/personality psychology research often focus only on grandiosity in the assessment of narcissism. In contrast, clinical theory struggles with a proliferation of labels describing these broad phenotypic variations. We conclude that the construct of pathological narcissism is at a crossroads and provide recommendations for diagnostic assessment, clinical conceptualization, and future research that could lead to a more integrated understanding of narcissistic personality and narcissistic personality pathology.

  6. Psychological masculinity, femininity and tactics of manipulation in patients with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal, Eugenia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was a relation between the borderline personality disorder and psychological gender, and tendency to use various manipulation tactics in everyday life and therapeutic context.Methods. The study used the Psychological Gender Inventory (A. Kuczyńska, 1992, and self-developed questionnaire for evaluating the tendency to use manipulation tactics and a survey evaluating manipulation in therapeutic contact. The studied group included: 30 patients with diagnosed BPD, 30 people a control group and 125 therapists.Results. The study of psychological gender showed that in the patient group the level of masculinity was significantly lower. Results showed that 88% of the therapists participating in the study confirmed that they have experienced manipulation attempts from patients. The therapists assessed the tendency of patientsto use manipulation tactics as greater than it was declared by the patients themselves. When compared to the control group, the patients indeed demonstrated a greater tendency to use the tactics of begging,threatening and threatening to break a close relationship and a lesser tendency to use the tactic of seduction. In the view of the therapists, during therapy patients most often used the tactics of lying and guilt induction.Conclusions. Manipulation is frequently used by BPD patients both in everyday life and in therapeutic contact. The most common reasons for using manipulation is to obtain benefits and to avoid negativeconsequences. It is necessary to conduct further research in this field and educate those who work with psychiatric patients in order to make them develop the ability to detect manipulation attempts and cope with such tactics.

  7. Improving the dependability of research in personality and social psychology: recommendations for research and educational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, David C; Levine, John M; Mackie, Diane M; Morf, Carolyn C; Sansone, Carol; Vazire, Simine; West, Stephen G

    2014-02-01

    In this article, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) Task Force on Publication and Research Practices offers a brief statistical primer and recommendations for improving the dependability of research. Recommendations for research practice include (a) describing and addressing the choice of N (sample size) and consequent issues of statistical power, (b) reporting effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), (c) avoiding "questionable research practices" that can inflate the probability of Type I error, (d) making available research materials necessary to replicate reported results, (e) adhering to SPSP's data sharing policy, (f) encouraging publication of high-quality replication studies, and (g) maintaining flexibility and openness to alternative standards and methods. Recommendations for educational practice include (a) encouraging a culture of "getting it right," (b) teaching and encouraging transparency of data reporting, (c) improving methodological instruction, and (d) modeling sound science and supporting junior researchers who seek to "get it right."

  8. Description of women's personality traits and psychological vulnerability prior to choosing hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loekkegaard, E; Eplov, L F; Køster, A

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Data suggest that women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) represent a special subgroup of the general population regarding, for instance, cardiovascular risk factors and education. OBJECTIVE: To analyse if women who choose HRT are characterised a priori by high neuroticism score...... included Eysencks personality questionnaire concerning intro/extroversion and neuroticism. At the age of 45, the re-examination of the women included a test for psychological vulnerability. The participants reported whether or not they used HRT at the age of 40, 45, 51 and 60 years. The analyses comprised...... "never users" of HRT and "future users", defined as women who started HRT subsequent to baseline registration during the observation period. The groups were compared by multivariate statistical methods to adjust for confounding factors. RESULTS: Women with high neuroticism score at the age of 40 were...

  9. [Interdisciplinary treatment of chronic low back pain: psychological aspects and personality traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K; Sartori, M; Cedraschi, C; Genevay, S; Canuto, A; Rentsch, D

    2012-02-15

    Evidence on chronic low back pain treatments stresses the need for a multidimensional approach that aims a biopsychosocial rehabilitation. The caregiver team of the rheumatology division of the University Hospitals of Geneva has successfully applied this approach over the last years and this article emphasizes the value of a close collaboration with the division of liaison psychiatry. The use of cognitive-behavioral and psycho-educational techniques guaranties the definition of patient-centred and measurable treatment objectives. The inclusion of a psychotherapy group promotes free expression and sharing of psychological distress. Assessment of personality traits allows for considering the global nature of the patients rather than merely aiming the normalization of their deviant aspects.

  10. Footprints in the Sand: Personal, Psychological, and Relational Profiles of Religious, Spiritual, and Atheist LGB Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Aasha B; Brewster, Melanie E; Velez, Brandon L; Eklund, Austin; Keum, Brian T

    2017-01-01

    The present study offers a comparison of the demographic features and lived experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals with religious, spiritual, or atheist (R/S/A) belief systems. In this sample of 212 participants, the relationship of participants' R/S/A beliefs to personal variables (e.g., age, gender, race), mental health variables (e.g., life satisfaction, psychological distress, internalized heterosexism, self-esteem), and relational variables (e.g., outness, connection to LGBTQ communities) were assessed. Correlational analyses indicated that level of R/S/A belief was unrelated to self-esteem, life satisfaction, or psychological distress; however, greater religious belief was correlated positively and significantly with internalized heterosexism and outness as LGB. To test the interactions of R/S/A beliefs and categorical variables of interest (e.g., race), log-linear analyses with follow-up chi-square tests were conducted. Findings suggested more similarities than differences for LGB people across R/S/A systems of belief. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

  11. "Great Ideas" in Russian Psychology: Personality Impact on Psychophysiological Functions and Causal Approach to Self- determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Mironenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian psychology has brought into the world science at least two great ideas: the conditioned reflex (Pavlov and the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky. These concepts were formulated before “iron curtain” fell. Since then Russian science dropped out from the view of western colleagues for decades. Now it is challenged to re-join international mainstream. Are we in a position to contribute?A key concept for Russian psychology is personality impact on psycho-physiological functions and causal approach to self-determination. The concept of selfdetermination appeared in Western theories in 1980-es and since then it has been developed in the context of teleological humanitarian approach. In Russian science the concept of self-determination dates back to 1934, when it was defined by Rubinstein as “sub’ekt”. Self-determination of ontogenesis of psycho physiological functions resulting from confluence of ontogenesis and social development was explicated by Russian scientists whose theoretical reasoning and empirical results are compared to Western counterparts.

  12. Bringing the Psychology of Situations into Flow Research: Personality and Situation Characteristics as Predictors of Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaja Zager Kocjan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to extend the existing findings on environmental flow precursors by adopting the DIAMONDS taxonomy of psychologically meaningful situation characteristics as a comprehensive theoretical framework. It was hypothesized that an individual's perception of the flow-related situation, particularly the dimensions of duty, intellect and positivity, would represent a more powerful predictor of the intensity of flow as compared to his or her basic personality traits. The first sample consisted of 169 employees who had to focus on the most engaging work-related event they had experienced in the past three months. They rated the characteristics of that situation and estimated the intensity of their flow experience. The second sample consisted of 96 students who participated in a challenging group activity. After the activity, they filled-in the same questionnaires as the first sample. Participants from both samples also rated their basic personality traits. Despite differences in the settings and flow-related situations evaluated, the obtained findings were similar for the two samples studied. While the association between flow and personality was weak, the situation characteristics were more strongly related to flow. Although the two samples differed with respect to the mean levels of the flow-related situation characteristics, regression analyses yielded similar results, suggesting that the intensity of flow at work and in studying is most prominently determined by situation characteristics related to intellect and positivity. Stable personality characteristics, on the other hand, had low predictive power in explaining the intensity of flow.

  13. Narrative as Cultural Mediator in Personality Development: Looking through the Lens of Cultural-Historical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turusheva Y.B.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the features of the narrative approach as a new methodology for the study of personality and its development mechanisms. The article discusses the basic settings of social constructionism, in which most of the narrative research are carried out to date, and discloses the basic approaches and concepts of the narrative approach. The article also shows the ability of the narrative approach in the in the research process of socialization and the formation of human identity in the context of the cultural-historical approach, and analyzes some specific narrative function, such as the ability to structure the experience and give it meaning; create a basic system of values; build and rebuild our own identity and influence others; install time order and semantic links between the past, present and future; broadcast the cultural experience and influence in the community. All these functions — structuring, value-orienting, performative, temporal, translates — are invited to consider from the perspective of cultural-historical psychology, assuming a cul- tural narrative means, mediating personal development.

  14. The Model of Unreliable Elements (Human Resources) Intellectual Management System on the Basis of Their Psychological and Personal Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabtsev, Timofey; Antonova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The Article suggests a possible approach to creation of the Intellectual Management System for human resources and personnel (during their professional tasks solving), and that could consider personal characteristics and psychological condition of the human resources as an “unreliable” element. The Article describes some elements of the Intellectual Management System: professional activity model and “unreliable” element (human resources) model.

  15. Psychological attributes and changes in disability among low-functioning older persons : Does attrition affect the outcomes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, GIJM; van Sonderen, E

    2002-01-01

    The impact of attrition was studied in a two-wave panel study on the associations between psychological attributes (mastery, self-efficacy expectancies) and disability increase among low-functioning older persons (n=753, 76.4% participated at the follow-up 2 years later). The results showed that: (1

  16. Community Violence and Psychological Distress: The Protective Effects of Emotional Social Support and Sense of Personal Control among Older Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2008-01-01

    This empirical study investigated three mechanisms of protection (preventive, compensatory, buffering) for two factors (emotional social support, sense of personal control) in the relationship between exposure to community violence and psychological distress among 947 diverse, older adolescents. Findings indicate that social support and sense of…

  17. Creativity as an Attribute of Positive Psychology: The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect on the Creative Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyton, Christine; Hutchison, Shannon; Snow, Lindsay; Rahman, Mohammed A.; Elliott, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology explores how optimism can lead to health, happiness, and creativity. However, questions remain as to how affective states influence creativity. Data on creative personality, optimism, pessimism, positive and negative affect, and current and usual happiness ratings were collected on 161 college students enrolled in an…

  18. Psychological assessment of persons following suicide attempt by self-poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedić Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Urgent psychiatric help and effective psychotherapeutic treatments are required soon after revival of a person after suicide attempt by self-poisoning. The aim of this article was to define an assessment of actual psychological characteristics of a person after suicide attempt by self-poisoning in order to apply psychotherapeutic crisis intervention after suicide attempt, as well as to show an approach to the treatment guided by the assessment that uses a psychodynamic model of suicidal crisis intervention based on our clinical experience. Methods. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, Center for Epidemiological Studies- Depression Scale (CES-D, Defensive Questionnaire Scale (DSQ-40, Scaling of Life Events (Paykel, and Pierce Suicide Intent Scale (SIS were applied in 30 hospitalized persons following suicide attempt by self-poisoning and in 30 patients who had asked for psychiatric examination at the outpatient clinic due to various life crises not resulting in suicide attempt. The examinees of both groups were matched by sex, age, and education, professional and marital status. Comparison of the patient groups was done by the ttest. Logistic regression analysis was used for suicidal risk assessment. Results. The suicide attempters were depressed (HAMD = 22.60 ± 5.93, CES-D = 29.67 ± 7.99, with medium suicide risk factor (SIS = 4.5 ± 4.17, using immature (projection, dissociation, devaluation, acting-out and neurotic (altruism defense mechanisms. The most important motives for suicide attempt were separation problems, problems with parents and a problem of loneliness. The commonest feelings and thoughts of a subject preceding suicide attempt were a wish to escape an unbearable situation, loss of control, desire to show love for a partner and wish to be helped. After a suicide attempt, 90% of the persons felt relief because the attempt failed, although almost half of them intend to repeat it. The risk of repeated suicide

  19. Associations between psychological distress and the most concerning present personal problems among working-age men in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Koji; Eguchi, Hisashi; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Okahisa, Jun; Smith, Derek R

    2015-03-31

    Personal problems are known to influence mental health among workers. The current study investigated the most concerning present personal problems which have the greatest impact on psychological distress among working-age Japanese men, rather than issues relating to work tasks or duties. We obtained data from the 2010 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The original survey interviewed 289,363 households in 5,150 randomly selected municipalities of Japan, from which 228,664 households agreed to participate. We analyzed the data pertaining to men who were 20 to 59 years of age and the head of a family. The questionnaire included occupation, employment status, the most concerning present personal problems, and a measure of psychological distress (the Kessler 6 scale). Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to delineate the association between present personal problems and psychological distress. A total of 76,950 males were included in the analysis, 27.7% of whom reported some type of psychological distress. Statistical analysis revealed that psychological distress was associated with bullying and harassment (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.05, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.50-2.56), divorce (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.53-2.26), concerns about one's purpose in life (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.59-1.88), personal relationships with family members (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.37-1.60), personal relationships with others (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.29-1.48), own diseases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.15-1.33), and financial difficulties (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.12-1.20); when compared with problems related to work tasks or duties. Several personal factors appear to have a greater impact on the mental health of Japanese men of working age, when compared to the influence of work tasks or duties. Asking workers directly about the problems that most concern them in life might help better identify those in need psychological support

  20. American and Chinese children's evaluations of personal domain events and resistance to parental authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Wong, Mun; Ball, Courtney; Yau, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A total of 267 five-, seven-, and ten-year-olds (M = 7.62), 147 in Hong Kong and 120 in the United States, evaluated hypothetical personal (and moral) events described as either essential or peripheral to actors' identity. Except for young Chinese in the peripheral condition, straightforward personal events were overwhelmingly evaluated as acceptable based on personal justifications. Children primarily endorsed compliance, but attributed negative emotions to actors when mothers forbade personal choices, especially when described as essential to identity. Conventional justifications declined among Chinese children and pragmatic justifications for these judgments increased with age for all children, as did judgments that personal events were up to the child. Rules were seen as more legitimate and events were seen as more up to mothers to decide for moral than personal events.

  1. An Investigation into Psychological Well-Being Levels of Higher Education Students with Respect to Personality Traits and Self-Compassion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricaoglu, Halim; Arslan, Coskun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between psychological well-being, personal traits and self-compassion levels, and to find out whether personal traits and self-compassion level significantly predict psychological well-being. The study sample is composed of 232 (36.5%) students from Education Faculty of Selçuk University,…

  2. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  3. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  4. American and Chinese Children's Evaluations of Personal Domain Events and Resistance to Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Wong, Mun; Ball, Courtney; Yau, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A total of 267 five-, seven-, and ten-year-olds (M = 7.62), 147 in Hong Kong and 120 in the United States, evaluated hypothetical personal (and moral) events described as either essential or peripheral to actors' identity. Except for young Chinese in the peripheral condition, straightforward personal events were overwhelmingly evaluated as…

  5. American and Chinese Children's Evaluations of Personal Domain Events and Resistance to Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Wong, Mun; Ball, Courtney; Yau, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A total of 267 five-, seven-, and ten-year-olds (M = 7.62), 147 in Hong Kong and 120 in the United States, evaluated hypothetical personal (and moral) events described as either essential or peripheral to actors' identity. Except for young Chinese in the peripheral condition, straightforward personal events were overwhelmingly evaluated as…

  6. The concept of ego threat in social and personality psychology: is ego threat a viable scientific construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Terry, Meredith L; Batts Allen, Ashley; Tate, Eleanor B

    2009-08-01

    Although widely invoked as an explanation for psychological phenomena, ego threat has been conceptualized and induced in a variety of ways. Most contemporary research conceptualizes ego threat as a threat to a person's self-image or self-esteem, but experimental operationalizations of ego threat usually confound threats to self-esteem with threats to public image or decreased control over negative events, leading to an inability to distinguish the effects of threats to people's personal egos from threats to public image or threats to feelings of control. This article reviews research on ego threat, discusses experimental manipulations that confound ego threat with other processes, and makes recommendations regarding the use of ego threat as a construct in personality and social psychology.

  7. Personality development as predictor of psychological distress in patients of psychological suspected of lung cancer or esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van 't Spijker (Adriaan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractCancer patients suffer from a variety of problems, somatically, socially and psychologically. Somatically, the illness and treatment threaten physical integrity. Cancer is an insidious disease, in which the patient is severely ill before he notices any symptoms. The (mostly) invasive

  8. Α quantitative investigation of personality and psychological characteristics on volunteers in the humanitarian non government organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouliou F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the heart of volunteerism, as derived from the literature review, the protection of human dignity is identified, since through volunteerism the image of the self is reflected. However, little is known today about the personality characteristics of volunteers at a quantitative level. Most studies around volunteerism focus mostly on a more qualitative and theoretical approach of volunteerism. Aim: The present study was designed to investigate specific psychological characteristics of the personality (altruism, happiness, narcissism, religiousness and the overall family environment which are associated with volunteerism in primary nursing services. More specifically, it was attempted to: a compare the volunteers and non volunteers groups as far as the specific characteristics are concerned, b correlate the individual subscale of each variable both for the whole sample and for each group separately. Methods: The study sample was decided to consist of 121 people who came from two main sources: a volunteers in the nursing section of the Humanitarian NGO of the Hellenic Red Cross and b non- volunteers, members of the healthy population of the wider area of health. The volunteers group consisted of 63 people (52.1%, while the control group consisted of 58 people (47.9% who reported that they had never been involved in volunteerism. The data collection was conducted through a written questionnaire filled at a place and time chosen by the participants. The tools used were: a A questionnaire of sociodemographic characteristics, b The Altruism subscale, c The Subjective Happiness Scale, d The Narcissistic Personality Scale and e The Scale for measuring the Family Environment. Results: From the statistical analysis it was shown that the two groups differentiated quite significantly concerning altruism (P=0.000. Also, they were significantly differentiated concerning narcissism (P=0.012 and moral and religious emphasis of the family environment

  9. The psychological contract: the interaction between the personal and the political at the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Cachia, Moira

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The psychological contract refers to the employee’s perception of the employment relationship based on one’s relations with the employing organisation, thus highlighting its political nature. A positive psychological contract has been found to promote desirable employee attitudes such as job satisfaction and intention to stay. However, research has mainly focussed on the negative consequences of psychological contract breach. The presented study investigates psychological contract fo...

  10. The Psychological Efficacy of Education as a Science through Personal, Professional, and Contextual Inquiry of the Affective Learning Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, James Edward

    2013-01-01

    This monograph provides a psychological rational for the novel field of "Educational Science" and how it conducts in-depth research investigations first presented in an article by the author in the i-manager's "Journal on Mathematics" through the trichotomous analysis of the affective domain. Educational Science uses the…

  11. The Future of Counseling Psychology: Improving Quality of Life for Persons with Chronic Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwalisz, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The literature review and focus group findings that compose the Major Contribution illustrate how counseling psychologists can integrate expertise from various subdisciplines (vocational psychology, health psychology, multicultural psychology) to effectively address the needs of those living with HIV. Given changes in the nature of health problems…

  12. Psychological distress, perceived burden and quality of life in caregivers of persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Selwyn; Balakrishnan, Sujeetha; Ilangovan, S

    2017-04-01

    Caregiving in schizophrenia is a demanding and exhausting activity that challenges the physical and emotional resources of family caregivers. In traditional societies such as India, this is further compounded by illiteracy, ignorance and religious and cultural explanations attributed to mental illness. This study aimed to assess primary caregivers of persons with schizophrenia in terms of their perceived burden, manifestation of psychological distress and quality of life (QOL). The study used a quantitative cross-sectional design and survey methodology to collect data from caregivers in a hospital setting in Thanjavur, India. Standardized instruments were used to collect data from patients and their caregivers. High perceived burden and lower QOL were seen in the majority of caregivers. They also manifested high levels of anxiety and depression. Patient characteristics such as age, gender, symptoms and duration of illness did not influence the perceived burden of caregivers, while positive and negative symptoms and the duration of illness were correlated with their QOL. Findings indicate the need for intervention for family caregivers to enable them cope more effectively with the demands of caregiving. Psychoeducation and participation in peer support groups are advocated as low resource and effective outcome strategies for caregivers in India.

  13. Subjective burden, psychological distress, and perceived social support among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elangovan Aravind Raj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Caregivers of persons with schizophrenia experience more stress due to the nature of the symptoms as well as the prolonged duration of illness. The current study is an attempt to understand the subjective components of burden, distress, and social support in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Indian context and its linkage with their sociodemographic profile and patient′s illness profile. Methodology: Thirty-two caregivers of patients with schizophrenia from a psychiatric inpatient facility of a multidisciplinary hospital were studied using descriptive research design. Results: The result shows that negative symptoms of patients, subdomains of burden (burden on well-being, marital burden, burden on relations, and burden due to perceived severity were the predictors of subjective burden. Burden on well-being and respondent′s age were predictors of psychological distress. Conclusion: Inclusive treatment services would enhance the quality of life of the caregivers and would help them in ensuring long-term care for the patients with schizophrenia.

  14. Effects of dance on physical and psychological well-being in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Elsie; Chui, Bo Tsan-keung; Woo, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effects of dancing on the health status of older persons. A pool of 111 community-dwelling subjects were allocated to either an intervention group (IG), which included 23 sessions of dance over 12 weeks, or a control group (CG). All participants were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Physical outcome measures included the 6-min timed walking test (6MWT), trunk flexibility, body composition, lower limb endurance and strength, balance, the timed up-and-go test (TUG), resting heart rate and blood pressure. Quality of life was assessed by the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form (SF-36) questionnaire. The IG's views toward dancing were also evaluated at 12 weeks. Significant difference was observed between the groups in six outcome measures: mean change in resting heart rate, 6MWT, TUG, lower limb endurance and the 'general health' and 'bodily pain' domains of SF-36. The majority of the dance group felt the intervention improved their health status. These findings demonstrate that dancing has physical and psychological benefits, and should be promoted as a form of leisure activity for senior citizens.

  15. Psychology Experiment Authoring Kit (PEAK): formal usability testing of an easy-to-use method for creating computerized experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Walter; Bolger, D J; Eschman, Amy; Neff, Christopher; Zuccolotto, Anthony P

    2005-05-01

    In academic courses in which one task for the students is to understand empirical methodology and the nature of scientific inquiry, the ability of students to create and implement their own experiments allows them to take intellectual ownership of, and greatly facilitates, the learning process. The Psychology Experiment Authoring Kit (PEAK) is a novel spreadsheet-based interface allowing students and researchers with rudimentary spreadsheet skills to create cognitive and cognitive neuroscience experiments in minutes. Students fill in a spreadsheet listing of independent variables and stimuli, insert columns that represent experimental objects such as slides (presenting text, pictures, and sounds) and feedback displays to create complete experiments, all within a single spreadsheet. The application then executes experiments with centisecond precision. Formal usability testing was done in two stages: (1) detailed coding of 10 individual subjects in one-on-one experimenter/subject videotaped sessions and (2) classroom testing of 64 undergraduates. In both individual and classroom testing, the students learned to effectively use PEAK within 2 h, and were able to create a lexical decision experiment in under 10 min. Findings from the individual testing in Stage 1 resulted in significant changes to documentation and training materials and identification of bugs to be corrected. Stage 2 testing identified additional bugs to be corrected and new features to be considered to facilitate student understanding of the experiment model. Such testing will improve the approach with each semester. The students were typically able to create their own projects in 2 h.

  16. Personality in multiple sclerosis (MS): impact on health, psychological well-being, coping, and overall quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, L B

    2017-02-01

    Personality has long been considered a factor that can account for differences in health, well-being, and overall quality of life (QOL). A 'Distressed or Type D Personality' has been studied in medical populations as a predictor of several outcomes. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the presence of Type D Personality in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its role on disease symptoms, disease management, health-related behaviors, coping, psychological well-being, and overall QOL and functioning. Two hundred and thirty (230) individuals with MS completed a survey assessing personality, disease symptoms, disease management, coping, self-efficacy, locus of control (LOC), psychological well-being, and QOL. Thirty-seven (16%) individuals were found to be 'Type D+.' Such individuals reported greater fatigue, pain, depression, and anxiety and worse disease management and adherence. They also reported engaging in maladaptive means of coping. Compared to 'Type D-' they reported lower self-efficacy, LOC, QOL and greater perceived stress. Finally, 'Type D+' individuals were more likely to be considering leaving the workforce. Findings suggest that 'Type D' Personality is associated with various negative outcomes in MS. Consideration of the routine assessment of personality in MS seems warranted and may better inform interventions and ward off poor outcomes.

  17. ETS Research on Cognitive, Personality, and Social Psychology: I. Research Report. ETS RR-13-01. ETS R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-13-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    This is an account of a portion of the research on cognitive, personality, and social psychology at ETS since the organization's inception. The topics in cognitive psychology are the structure of abilities; in personality psychology, response styles and social and emotional intelligence; and in social psychology, prosocial behavior and stereotype…

  18. INTERRELATION OF THE PHYSICAL IMAGE OF "I" AND THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DEFENSE MECHANISM OF DISABLED PERSON WITH THE DEFEAT OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. GOLTSOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of an empirical study based on identifying characteristics of the relationship of psychological defense mechanisms of personality and physical image "I" disabled with damage to the musculoskeletal system. Disability is associated with lesions of the musculoskeletal system and was due to a variety of injuries, according to their psychological effect, is a serious and difficult going through a crisis of identity. The author substantiates the relevance of the study, determines the degree of its scientific elaboration, formulates a hypothesis and tests it in the course of empirical research. The study found that self-pity, self-centeredness determines the attractiveness of anatomical exaggeration and social characteristics of the physical image of "I", as well as resentment, vulnerability, ambition, jealousy, hostility. The desire to overcome the traumatic circumstances, to correct their shortcomings determines an increase in the distortion of the image of the functional characteristics of the physical "I". Rationalization is the mechanism of psychological defense, determines the adequacy of their perception of physicality and desire for self-management of their physical "I".

  19. A longitudinal study of emotional experience, expressivity, and psychopathology in psychotherapy inpatients and psychologically healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel; Grande, Tilman; Faber, Rainer

    2010-10-01

    The authors investigated changes of emotional experience and expressivity in 34 inpatients undergoing psychodynamic therapy and in 29 healthy persons who were assessed at parallel time intervals. Participants completed 2 measures of psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90 Revised and Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64) and took part in relationship episode interviews. The emotional experiences they reported and their nonverbal emotional expressivity during the interviews were assessed by independent raters. Regardless of when they were assessed, the patients reported a greater number of emotions and a greater variety of emotions. Psychopathology in the patient group decreased in the course of treatment, but there were no systematic changes in the emotional domain. The findings challenge the common notion of psychopathology being associated with impaired awareness and expression of emotions.

  20. Personal attributes of authors and reviewers, social bias and the outcomes of peer review: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard; Barros, Beatriz; Conejo, Ricardo; Neumann, Konrad; Telefont, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is the "gold standard" for evaluating journal and conference papers, research proposals, on-going projects and university departments. However, it is widely believed that current systems are expensive, conservative and prone to various forms of bias. One form of bias identified in the literature is "social bias" linked to the personal attributes of authors and reviewers. To quantify the importance of this form of bias in modern peer review, we analyze three datasets providing information on the attributes of authors and reviewers and review outcomes: one from Frontiers - an open access publishing house with a novel interactive review process, and two from Spanish and international computer science conferences, which use traditional peer review. We use a random intercept model in which review outcome is the dependent variable, author and reviewer attributes are the independent variables and bias is defined by the interaction between author and reviewer attributes. We find no evidence of bias in terms of gender, or the language or prestige of author and reviewer institutions in any of the three datasets, but some weak evidence of regional bias in all three. Reviewer gender and the language and prestige of reviewer institutions appear to have little effect on review outcomes, but author gender, and the characteristics of author institutions have moderate to large effects. The methodology used cannot determine whether these are due to objective differences in scientific merit or entrenched biases shared by all reviewers.

  1. Application of psychological diagnosis in the process of establishing criteria for psychodynamic therapy designed for patients with personality disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Cecylia Izydorczyk

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of the result of this research allowed to develop a model of fundamental criteria for selecting an appropriate form of psychotherapy designed for patients with various types of personality disorders. Eight criteria were found to be significant in the process of qualifying the aforementioned individuals for outpatient psychotherapy. They included two psychological dimensions: intrapsychic (describing psychological indicators of the self-structure and maturity level of the patient's identity and interpersonal (describing indicators of the person’s capacity for establishing emotional relations with others. Diagnosis of the aforementioned indicators proves to contribute significantly to the process of selecting effective therapeutic methods for neurotic patients as well as individuals who exhibit symptoms of more severe destabilization of personality organization.

  2. Body Contact and Body Language: Moments of Personal Development and Social and Cultural Learning Processes in Movement Psychology and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Winther

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based on the Dance Therapy Form Dansergia. The author, who is a practi­tioner-researcher, is methodologically inspir­ed by phenomenology, performative methods and a narrative and auto-ethnographic approach. The project will be presented in an organic, cre­at­ive and performative way. Through a moving dia­logue between a written text and a visceral on-line performance involving photographs and music, the reader/audience has the possibility to be touched both sensually and intellectually, although through communication is in cyberspace, missing the liveliness of direct body language. See online performance: http://www.viddler.com/player/c3c7a343/. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802637

  3. Beliefs about Parental Authority Legitimacy among Refugee Youth in Jordan: Between- and Within-Person Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We examined within- and between-person variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee youth (M[subscript age] = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians, in Amman, Jordan. Latent profile analyses of 22 belief items yielded 4 profiles of youth. The "normative" profile (67% of the…

  4. Beliefs about Parental Authority Legitimacy among Refugee Youth in Jordan: Between- and Within-Person Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We examined within- and between-person variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee youth (M[subscript age] = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians, in Amman, Jordan. Latent profile analyses of 22 belief items yielded 4 profiles of youth. The "normative" profile (67% of the…

  5. Diagnostics of psychological determinant of self-realization of personality of sportsman (on the example of womanish powerlifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolkunova I.V.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychological determinant of self-realization of personality of sportswomen of high qualification is considered. Conducted research on the methods of Diagnostician of realization of requirements in self-development and Strategy of self-affirmation of personality of E.P. Nikitina, N.E. Kharlamenkova. 16 sportswomen of high qualification - winners and prize-winner Championship of Ukraine are polled. The sportswomen of high class actively realize the requirements in self-development. The task of trainers and psychologists is an increase of prevailing ideas and decline of self-restrain for sportswomen at frequent unsuccessful appearances.

  6. The relationship of individual psychological and individual-typological characteristics in individuals with personality disorders, committed socially dangerous acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinsky A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between individual psychological and individually-typological characteristics of patients with personality disorders who committed socially dangerous acts were studied, taking into account the severity of the organic factor and the degree of their social dangerousness. 121 males were surveyed, 70 of them were diagnosed with "organic personality disorder" and 33 - personality disorder. The types of personality disorders were diagnosed. The individual variables, the ratio of processes of system activation of behavior and its inhibition, protective styles, especially coping behaviours that constitute aggression, styles of self-regulation were analyzed. It was revealed that low settings of the system activation behavior found in the group of persons with a high degree of social dangerousness, determines the formation of individual psychological treats related to the rigidity behavior, the instability of the motives, impulsivity, negative emotionality, disinhibition. During comparison of samples of individuals with medium and high degree of social dangerousness it has been discovered that self-centeredness, as a component of self-control, high levels of affective components of aggression – anger and immature defense mechanisms significantly distinguish individuals with a high degree of public danger.

  7. Scores on the eysenck personality questionnaire for a sample of children and adolescents receiving psychological treatment in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrata, Jose Luis; Rosa, Abraham; Mendez, Viviana

    2003-08-01

    Personality questionnaire scores obtained by children and adolescents (n = 28) receiving psychological treatment at a health facility in Humacao, Puerto Rico were examined. The scores were compared with those of regular school children of the same age, of Gurabo, Puerto Rico, who were not in treatment (n = 30). The children in treatment obtained higher scores on Psychoticism, lower scores on Extraversion, and similar scores on Neuroticism and Dissimulation by comparison with regular students.

  8. The study of the character strengths in children: Relations with the psychological well-being, social desirability and personality

    OpenAIRE

    Aldana Sol Grinhauz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the existence of associations between character strengths, psychological welfare, social desirability and personality in children of 10 to12 years old. 518 children (254 boys and 263 girls) between 10 and 12 years old and attending public and private schools in the City of Buenos Aires (Argentina) participated on this study. The following were administered: a socio–demographic survey; a survey to assess the PERMA ́s access to welfare theory five elements, the Virtue...

  9. The psychological portrait as a tool to improve the subjective well-being of the client in the context of personal sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseleva Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the concept of relationship marketing is discussed. The notion of personal sale, which emphasizes the importance of knowing the psychology of customers, the ability to demonstrate significant competence and knowledge of modern techniques in sales by the seller is represented. The theory of marketing introduced by the concept of a "personal agent", most accurately reflects the activity of the seller in the context of relationship marketing. The necessity of the application of psychology in marketing is proved. This brief description of the four basic psychological concepts, which are the basis of the marketing strategy, is clarified by leading marketers. The three areas of application of differential psychology in marketing are suggested. The basis of the psychological techniques is represented by the typical characteristics of a person. The first point of the customer portrait is showed by the theory of spirits. The second point of psychological portrait is based on the theory of Socionics. The third point of the customer portrait refers to the theory of the types of perception of the world. Three stages of the process of building a psychological portrait of the client are proposed and described. Recommendations for dealing with clients of different psychological types are discussed. A technique of creation a psychological portrait of the client allows improving subjective well-being of customers and promotes the growth of the main indicators characterizing the effectiveness of personal sales.

  10. Exposure to Psychological Aggression at Work and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Attitudes and Personal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schat, Aaron; Frone, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing literature on workplace aggression and the importance of employee performance at work, few studies have examined the relation between workplace aggression and job performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between psychological aggression at work and two forms of job performance (task performance and contextual performance) and potential mediators of these relations. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and prior research, a model was developed and tested in which overall job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and overall personal health (i.e., physical and psychological health) fully mediate the relations between exposure to psychological aggression at work and both task performance and contextual performance. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of US workers (N = 2376) and the model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results supported the hypothesized model, demonstrating that exposure to psychological aggression at work negatively predicted both task performance and contextual performance, and that these relations were explained by decrements in job attitudes and health associated with exposure to psychological aggression at work.

  11. Inference of personality projected onto fictional characters having an author's first name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, H

    2001-12-01

    Jane Austen projected some of her personality characteristics onto her fictional namesakes Jane Bennet in the novel Pride and Prejudice and Jane Fairfax in the novel Emma. Wishful fantasy seems satisfied by two attributes of both Janes. They are very beautiful, and they marry rich men they love. A feeling of inferiority was expressed by two attributes of both Janes, depicted as deficient in social communication and subordinate to the heroine of the novel.

  12. 个性化心理护理常用心理量表的比较分析%Compared analysis of psychological scale in personalized psychological nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美琴; 何慧红; 许唐权

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨个性化心理护理过程中常用心理量表的特点,对可推荐应用的心理量表种类和组合进行分析。方法:检索中国学术期刊网络出版总库,对2000~2012年期间发表、以“个性化心理护理”为主题的222篇文献进行分类计数分析和统计。结果:2007年以前个性化心理护理文献年发表数基本为10篇以内,2008年起每年文献发表数明显增长,2011年已达到50篇;在222篇个性化心理护理文献中使用心理量表的文献为51篇(22.97%),常用心理量表为焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)、症状自评量表(SCL-90)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)和汉密尔顿抑郁量表( HAMD)。结论:在个性化心理护理过程中使用心理量表对患者进行有效客观的心理评估时,建议使用2~3种心理量表,可选择SCL-90量表、SAS和SDS(或HAMA和HAMD)量表,以全面了解患者心理状况,并施以个性化心理护理措施。%Objective:To analyze the different psychological scale features during implement personalized psychology nursing. Methods:We search subject"personalized psychological nursing" in the China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database ( CAJD) . We do statistical analysis on 222 articles through 2000 to 2012. Results:The literature published less than 10 before 2007. The amount of literature published growth obviously since 2008. The amount of lit-erature published 50 in 2011. The literature number was 51 (23. 0%) with psychological scale. Common psychological scale including Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS),Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS),the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90),Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA),and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale ( HAMD) . Conclusion:We suggested that 2 or 3 kinds of psychological scale be used at the same time in personalized psy-chological nursing. The patients’mental state was evaluated with SCL-90,SAS,and SDS,or SCL-90,HAMA,and HAMD.

  13. 78 FR 40351 - Procedural Rule To Establish Supervisory Authority Over Certain Nonbank Covered Persons Based on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... consumers regarding the offering or provision of consumer financial products or services. \\12\\ Regulation Z... financial products or services. The Bureau is authorized to, among other things, require reports from, and... provision of consumer financial products or services.'' The Bureau must base such reasonable-cause...

  14. "Personal Narrative and Life Course" Revisited: Bert Cohler's Legacy for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The primary aims of this concluding chapter are to identify common themes across the preceding chapters, to provide an integrative synthesis of these themes, and to draw out the implications of Bertram Cohler's work for narrative psychology and for the field of developmental psychology more generally. As with the previous chapters, the…

  15. "Personal Narrative and Life Course" Revisited: Bert Cohler's Legacy for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The primary aims of this concluding chapter are to identify common themes across the preceding chapters, to provide an integrative synthesis of these themes, and to draw out the implications of Bertram Cohler's work for narrative psychology and for the field of developmental psychology more generally. As with the previous chapters, the…

  16. The "psychological map of the brain", as a personal information card (file), - a project for the student of the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Gluskin, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a procedure that is relevant both to electronic performance and human psychology, so that the creative logic and the respect for human nature appear in a good agreement. The idea is to create an electronic card containing basic information about a person's psychological behavior in order to make it possible to quickly decide about the suitability of one for another. This "psychological electronics" approach could be tested via student projects.

  17. Personality, Political Attitudes and Participation in Protests: The Direct and Mediated Effects of Psychological Factors on Political Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Aparecido Ribeiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies combining psychology and political science have shown that personality traits such as extroversion and openness to experiences are conditioning factors of political activism. However, the mechanisms through which this effect occurs are still poorly understood. Aiming to advance this topic, this article presents the results of an investigation that looked to analyse the mediated effects of personality traits in the Brazilian context, taking as mediating conditioning factors various attitudes and subjective dispositions commonly found in the literature, such as interest in politics and subjective political efficacy. Using the Latin American Public Opinion Project data, the hypothesis was tested that personality influences behaviour, since it favours the development of a number of attitudes that function as basic factors conditioning civic engagement. The results indicate the significant mediated effects of extroversion and openness to experience, especially with regard to political knowledge.

  18. Diagnosis of the socionic temperament of personality and creating a psychological portrait of the Western European SPA and wellness tourists in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Milena

    2017-03-01

    Human personality is a set of psychological characteristics that distinguishes it from others. However people can be classified as congenital personality types, interactions that are precisely defined. The aim of this article is to characterize the socionic temperament and psychological profile of the spa and wellness tourists in Bulgaria. The study is based on a survey of 460 tourists who visited Bulgarian spa centers in the summer and autumn of 2015.

  19. Diagnosis of the socionic temperament of personality and creating a psychological portrait of the Western European SPA and wellness tourists in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyanova Milena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human personality is a set of psychological characteristics that distinguishes it from others. However people can be classified as congenital personality types, interactions that are precisely defined. The aim of this article is to characterize the socionic temperament and psychological profile of the spa and wellness tourists in Bulgaria. The study is based on a survey of 460 tourists who visited Bulgarian spa centers in the summer and autumn of 2015.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and perceived needs for psychological care in older persons affected by Hurricane Ike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Southwick, Steven M.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro; Norris, Fran H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and correlates of disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and needs for psychological care in older persons affected by Hurricane Ike. Method A total of 193 adults age 60 or older who resided in the Galveston Bay area were interviewed 2–5 months following Hurricane Ike. Pre-, peri-, and post-disaster variables hypothesized to be related to PTSD and depressive symptoms, and perceived needs for psychological care were assessed. Results Weighted prevalences of past-month Ike-related PTSD and depression were 7.6% and 8.6%, respectively. Risk factors for Ike-related PTSD symptoms were predominantly peri-disaster in nature, with greater hurricane exposure, and peri-event dissociative and autonomic activation symptoms associated positively with these symptoms. Risk factors for depressive symptoms were predominantly pre-disaster in nature, with being married/living with partner associated negatively, and prior disaster exposure and pre-disaster PTSD or depression associated positively with these symptoms. 27.2% of the sample endorsed at least one of the perceived needs for psychological care assessed. A history of PTSD or depression, greater peri-event autonomic activation, and Ike-related PTSD and depressive symptoms were associated with greater need for psychological care. Limitations This study is limited by its cross-sectional design and employment of psychiatric screening instruments. Conclusions A substantial proportion of older adults may have PTSD and depression, as well as perceived needs for psychological care, after a disaster. Assessment of disaster exposures, and peri-event dissociative and autonomic symptoms may help identify older adults at risk for disaster-related psychopathology. Older adults with a history of PTSD or depression, and greater peri-event autonomic activation and PTSD symptoms may be more likely to have needs for psychological care. PMID:22285792

  1. Social Class and Income Inequality in the United States: Ownership, Authority, and Personal Income Distribution from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T

    2016-03-01

    This study outlines a theory of social class based on workplace ownership and authority relations, and it investigates the link between social class and growth in personal income inequality since the 1980s. Inequality trends are governed by changes in between-class income differences, changes in the relative size of different classes, and changes in within-class income dispersion. Data from the General Social Survey are used to investigate each of these changes in turn and to evaluate their impact on growth in inequality at the population level. Results indicate that between-class income differences grew by about 60% since the 1980s and that the relative size of different classes remained fairly stable. A formal decomposition analysis indicates that changes in the relative size of different social classes had a small dampening effect and that growth in between-class income differences had a large inflationary effect on trends in personal income inequality.

  2. Personality psychology: lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts reveal only half of the story--why it is time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2013-03-01

    This article develops a comprehensive philosophy-of-science for personality psychology that goes far beyond the scope of the lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts that currently prevail. One of the field's most important guiding scientific assumptions, the lexical hypothesis, is analysed from meta-theoretical viewpoints to reveal that it explicitly describes two sets of phenomena that must be clearly differentiated: 1) lexical repertoires and the representations that they encode and 2) the kinds of phenomena that are represented. Thus far, personality psychologists largely explored only the former, but have seriously neglected studying the latter. Meta-theoretical analyses of these different kinds of phenomena and their distinct natures, commonalities, differences, and interrelations reveal that personality psychology's focus on lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts entails a) erroneous meta-theoretical assumptions about what the phenomena being studied actually are, and thus how they can be analysed and interpreted, b) that contemporary personality psychology is largely based on everyday psychological knowledge, and c) a fundamental circularity in the scientific explanations used in trait psychology. These findings seriously challenge the widespread assumptions about the causal and universal status of the phenomena described by prominent personality models. The current state of knowledge about the lexical hypothesis is reviewed, and implications for personality psychology are discussed. Ten desiderata for future research are outlined to overcome the current paradigmatic fixations that are substantially hampering intellectual innovation and progress in the field.

  3. Psychological Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniel W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviewing literature on the psychological impact of spinal cord injury suggests: (a) depression may not be a precondition for injury adjustment; (b) many persons sustaining cord injury may have experienced psychological disruption prior to injury; and (c) indexes of rehabilitation success need to be developed for the spinal cord injured. (Author)

  4. The Influence of the Language Personality of the Secondary Text’s Author on the Literary Text: Gender Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Laskova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to show the influence of the translator on the literary text during the process of interpreting the original text into the target language. The article briefly summarizes the latest theory in the linguistic area: performative theory of gender. Through analyzing the men and women’s speech classification the article gives an account of the language personalities of the translators, who interpreted the literary works of the Russian author Anton Chekhov. This research provides valuable information about different gender models, which translators can perform due to the leading tendencies, altering in modern culture and society.

  5. Drugs as research tools in psychology: experiments with drugs in personality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, H J

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that psychotropic drugs act to shift a person's behaviour on the three major dimensions of personality in one direction or another, in predictable ways, and that it is possible to create a taxonomy of psychotropic drugs according to these effects. The history of this concept is traced and many examples given to illustrate how drug action and personality theory interact, and how this interaction can be used to gain greater insight into both personality and drug action.

  6. Personalized Medicine: how to Switch from the Concept to the Integration into the Clinical Development Plan to Obtain Marketing Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquemont, Laurent; Bordet, Régis; Cellier, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of the coming years is to personalize medicine in order to provide each patient with an individualized treatment plan. The three objectives of personalized medicine are to refine diagnosis, rationalize treatment and engage patients in a preventive approach. Personalization can be characterized by various descriptors whether related to the field, biology, imaging, type of lesion of the entity to be treated, comorbidity factors, coprescriptions or the environment As part of personalized medicine focused on biological markers including genetics or genomics, the integration of the clinical development plan to obtain marketing authorization may be segmented in 3 stages with a known descriptor identified before clinical development, a known descriptor discovered during clinical development or a known descriptor known after clinical development. For each stage, it is important to clearly define the technical optimization elements, to specify the expectations and objectives, to examine the methodological aspects of each clinical development phase and finally to consider the fast changing regulatory requirements in view of the few registered therapeutics complying with the definition of personalized medicine as well as the significant technological breakthroughs according to the screened and selected biomarkers. These considerations should be integrated in view of the time required for clinical development from early phase to MA, i.e. more than 10 years. Moreover, business models related to the economic environment should be taken into account when deciding whether or not to retain a biomarker allowing the selection of target populations in a general population. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  7. Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walumbwa, Fred O; Schaubroeck, John

    2009-09-01

    The antecedents and consequences of ethical leadership were examined in a study of 894 employees and their 222 immediate supervisors in a major financial institution in the United States. The leader personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were positively related to direct reports' ratings of the leader's ethical leadership, whereas neuroticism was unrelated to these ratings. Ethical leadership influenced followers' voice behavior as rated by followers' immediate supervisors. This relationship was partially mediated by followers' perceptions of psychological safety. Implications for research on ethical leadership and means to enhance ethical behavior among leaders and nonleaders are discussed.

  8. A Psychological Analysis of Laura’s Personality in Katherine Mans-field’s The Garden Party

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-yun

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores Laura’s inner world, applying Freud’s theory of the unconscious and the structure of the mind, Jung’s idea of archetypes, and Lacan’s concepts of the three orders. The story in The Garden Party depicts, in the movement to⁃ward adulthood, how Laura feels, thinks and acts under the drive of the id, and the adjustment of the ego and the superego. Lau⁃ra’s psychological development indicates Laura has a healthy personality. She can confront her imperfection in her growth.

  9. Use of Student Support Services among University Students: Associations with Problem-Focused Coping, Experience of Personal Difficulty and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julal, F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Universities provide a range of problem-focused social support services to help students who are experiencing personal difficulties. The current study examines how the effectiveness of students' ("N" = 131) problem-coping style, experience of personal difficulty and psychological distress are associated with actual use of support…

  10. Synopsis of key persons, events, and associations in the history of Latino psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Amado M; Olmedo, Esteban

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we present a brief synopsis of six early Latino psychologists, several key conferences, the establishment of research centers, and early efforts to create an association for Latino psychologists. Our chronology runs from approximately 1930 to 2000. This history is a firsthand account of how these early leaders, conferences, and efforts to bring Latinos and Latinas together served as a backdrop to current research and practice in Latino psychology. This history of individuals and events is also intertwined with the American Psychological Association and the National Institute of Mental Health and efforts by Latino psychologists to obtain the professional support necessary to lay down the roots of a Latino presence in psychology.

  11. [The psychological status of acne patients. Personality structure and physician-patient relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, D

    1989-05-10

    The results of various studies dealing with the situation and psychological state of acne sufferers and their relationship to their doctors are presented. It was shown that out of approximately 2.7 to 3.5 million acne sufferers, only some 500,000 are presently undergoing medical treatment. Failure to seek medical treatment is closely associated with the fact that acne sufferers for the most part expect to be disappointed with the results. For a number of psychological reasons (self-consciousness, contact difficulties, low level of frustration tolerance) a substantial number of acne sufferers are particularly sensitive to actual or supposed lack of acceptance on the part of their doctors. Greater consideration of their psychological situation might improve the therapeutic outcome, increase compliance, and lead to a greater confidence in the doctor.

  12. [Situational and differential psychologic determinants of personal satisfaction in advanced age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineken, E; Spaeth, G

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of environmental housing conditions and personality traits on life-satisfaction in late adulthood is studied. "Life satisfaction", "extraversion", "neuroticism", and "locus of control" of 52 persons (aged 65-85 years old) living in different environments (private house, retired home, self organized community) are measured. A multiple regression analysis shows that satisfaction is rather more predictable from personality traits than from housing conditions. The variance of satisfaction scores can be explained, to 64% by the "person factor". In different living environments different pattern of traits predict satisfaction.

  13. Hogan's framework for the study of behavior as applied to personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Michael C

    2015-08-01

    Hogan's framework for the study of behavior can be used as a guide to the study of personality, considered here as interindividual differences in typical behavioral tendency. For any given dimension of personality variation, one can examine its development, its causal biological bases, its genetic and environmental origins, and its function and evolutionary history. These topics are discussed after a brief introduction to personality assessment and structure, and are followed by a brief review of personality research on non-human animals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  14. Psychological model of ART adherence behaviors in persons living with HIV/AIDS in Mexico: a structural equation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarduy, José Luis Ybarra; López, Julio Alfonso Piña; Ramírez, Mónica Teresa González; Dávila, Luis Enrique Fierros

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study has been to test the ability of variables of a psychological model to predict antiretroviral therapy medication adherence behavior. METHODS We have conducted a cross-sectional study among 172 persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), who completed four self-administered assessments: 1) the Psychological Variables and Adherence Behaviors Questionnaire, 2) the Stress-Related Situation Scale to assess the variable of Personality, 3) The Zung Depression Scale, and 4) the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to construct a model to predict medication adherence behaviors. RESULTS Out of all the participants, 141 (82%) have been considered 100% adherent to antiretroviral therapy. Structural equation modeling has confirmed the direct effect that personality (decision-making and tolerance of frustration) has on motives to behave, or act accordingly, which was in turn directly related to medication adherence behaviors. In addition, these behaviors have had a direct and significant effect on viral load, as well as an indirect effect on CD4 cell count. The final model demonstrates the congruence between theory and data (x 2/df. = 1.480, goodness of fit index = 0.97, adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.94, comparative fit index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.05), accounting for 55.7% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study support our theoretical model as a conceptual framework for the prediction of medication adherence behaviors in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Implications for designing, implementing, and evaluating intervention programs based on the model are to be discussed. PMID:28876412

  15. Levels of salivary immunoglobulin A under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Afrishama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The measurement of salivary immunoglobulin A is a useful and non-invasive method for measuring stress. Personality traits and rumination act as possible mediators in the relationship between psychological stressors and the immune system. This study was aimed to evaluate the levels of salivary IgA under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. Methods: In this cross- sectional study, 45 medical students who intended to participate in the final exam were selected by simple random sampling. Two months before the exam, in the basal conditions, the NEO Personality Inventory-Short Form and Emotional Control Questionnaire (ECQ were completed. Saliva samples were taken from students in both the basal conditions and exam stress conditions. Salivary IgA was measured by an ELISA test. Data was analyzed using paired samples T-test, Pearson correlation analysis, and stepwise regression. Results: A significant reduction of salivary IgA levels was found in exam stress conditions. Also, a significant negative correlation was found between traits of neuroticism and rumination with salivary IgA, as well as a significant positive correlation between of openness to experience and emotional inhibition with salivary IgA. Openness to experience and emotional inhibition may predict a substantial variance (34% of salivary IgA under exam stress. Conclusions: Salivary IgA is reduced in response to exam stress. In addition, the rumination and personality traits may reduce or increase stress effects on the immune system, particularly the salivary IgA.

  16. Body Experiences of Persons Who Are Congenitally Blind: A Phenomenological-Psychological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullington, J.; Karlsson, G.

    1997-01-01

    A study of seven people with congenital blindness, three with adventitious blindness, and four sighted people investigated how people with congenital blindness experience body capability, body expression, and the social and psychological, identity creating aspects of the body and body experience. The value of exercise and body-awareness training…

  17. Living a good life with arthritis: managing personal goals to improve psychological health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Roos

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focused on the role that goal-based coping plays for the psychological adaptation of people with arthritis. People with polyarthritis experience elevated levels of distress and lower levels of wellbeing compared with the general population [1-3]. These results have a negative effect on

  18. Discipline, subjectivity and personality : an analysis of the manuals of four psychological tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The administration of psychological tests is highly regulated. Test manuals prescribe the instructions to the test subject, the time the test should take, where it should take place, whether and hen; the test administrator should answer questions from the test subject, and other aspects of the testi

  19. Ideology, politics and personality: shaping forces in Dutch psychology of religion, 1907-1957

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Although the academic establishment of the psychology of religion in the Netherlands has been stronger than in any other Western country, the start of these developments has been remarkably late (in 1957), especially when taking into account that Dutch academic life: (1) before World War II modeled

  20. Psychological-Educational Research of Professionally Essential Characteristics of Law Students’ Personalities, Studying at Bachelor Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A. Polyanskaya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of psychological-educational research, implemented in teaching process of law students’, studying at bachelor level. Special attention is attached to self-determination of future lawyers in professional specialization during introduction training

  1. Living a good life with arthritis: managing personal goals to improve psychological health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Rosa Ymkje

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focused on the role that goal-based coping plays for the psychological adaptation of people with arthritis. People with polyarthritis experience elevated levels of distress and lower levels of wellbeing compared with the general population [1-3]. These results have a negative effect on d

  2. Linking religion and spirituality with psychological well-being: examining self-actualisation, meaning in life, and personal growth initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivtzan, Itai; Chan, Christine P L; Gardner, Hannah E; Prashar, Kiran

    2013-09-01

    Research largely shows that religion and spirituality have a positive correlation to psychological well-being. However, there has been a great deal of confusion and debate over their operational definitions. This study attempted to delineate the two constructs and categorise participants into different groups based on measured levels of religious involvement and spirituality. The groups were then scored against specific measures of well-being. A total of 205 participants from a wide range of religious affiliations and faith groups were recruited from various religious institutions and spiritual meetings. They were assigned to one of four groups with the following characteristics: (1) a high level of religious involvement and spirituality, (2) a low level of religious involvement with a high level of spirituality, (3) a high level of religious involvement with a low level of spirituality, and (4) a low level of religious involvement and spirituality. Multiple comparisons were made between the groups on three measures of psychological well-being: levels of self-actualisation, meaning in life, and personal growth initiative. As predicted, it was discovered that, aside from a few exceptions, groups (1) and (2) obtained higher scores on all three measures. As such, these results confirm the importance of spirituality on psychological well-being, regardless of whether it is experienced through religious participation.

  3. The Analysis of Dimmesdale in the Viewpoint of Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子恒

    2014-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is a psychological romance,which is full of delicate inward description.Based on the author Hawthorne’ s excellent effec-tiveness in the psychological description,this thesis uses Sigmund Freud’ s theory of personality structure and Anna Freud’ s theory of psychological defense mechanisms to analyze Dimmesdale,a leading character in the novel,and to show the development of Dimmesdale’ s psychology and the reasons of his final death.

  4. The Application of Jung's Analytical Psychology to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the application of Jungian analytical psychology to education. The author outlines Jung's concepts which relate to the foundations of education, personality development, cognitive processes, motivation, and curriculum theory. (AM)

  5. The Person-Event Data Environment (PDE: Leveraging Big Data for Studies of Psychological Strengths in Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loryana L. Vie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Defense (DoD strives to efficiently manage the large volumes of administrative data collected and repurpose this information for research and analyses with policy implications. This need is especially present in the United States Army, which maintains numerous electronic databases with information on more than one million Active-Duty, Reserve, and National Guard soldiers, their family members, and Army civilian employees. The accumulation of vast amounts of digitized health, military service, and demographic data thus approaches, and may even exceed, traditional benchmarks for Big Data. Given the challenges of disseminating sensitive personal and health information, the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE was created to unify disparate Army and DoD databases in a secure cloud-based enclave. This electronic repository serves the ultimate goal of achieving cost efficiencies in psychological and healthcare studies and provides a platform for collaboration among diverse scientists. This paper provides an overview of the uses of the PDE to perform command surveillance and policy analysis for Army leadership. The paper highlights the confluence of both economic and behavioral science perspectives elucidating empirically-based studies examining relations between psychological assets, health, and healthcare utilization. Specific examples explore the role of psychological assets in major cost drivers such as medical expenditures both during deployment and stateside, drug use, attrition from basic training, and low reenlistment rates. Through creation of the PDE, the Army and scientific community can now capitalize on the vast amounts of personnel, financial, medical, training and education, deployment and security systems that influence Army-wide policies and procedures.

  6. PHIT for Duty, a Personal Health Intervention Tool for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    14)  myPAL. PHIT-based emotion and behavior regulation for adolescents with high functioning autism . Paul N. Kizakevich, MS, PE (PI). CDMRP.  PHIT...reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215...this project is to help prevent psychological disorders in high -risk individuals with early symptoms of stress, depression, substance use, and other

  7. Introduction to the Special Section on Teaching, Training, and Supervision in Personality and Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D

    2017-01-01

    This special section contains empirical and conceptual articles pertaining to the broad topic of teaching, training, and supervision of assessment. Despite some evidence of a decline in recent decades, assessment remains a defining practice of professional psychologists in many subfields, including clinical, counseling, school, and neuropsychology, that consumes a consequential proportion of their time. To restore assessment to its rightful place of prominence, a clear agenda needs to be developed for advancing teaching and training methods, increasing instruction to state-of-the-art methods, and defining aims that could be elucidated through empirical inquiry. The 7 articles in this special section provide a developmental perspective of these issues that collectively provide practical tools for instructors and begin to set the stage for a research agenda in this somewhat neglected area of study that is vital to the identity of professional psychology. Additionally, 2 comments are provided by distinguished figures in the field concerning the implications of the articles in the special section to health services psychology and the competencies-based movement in applied psychology.

  8. Environmental Psychology Effects on Mental Health Job Satisfaction and Personal Well Being of Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Sodeh; Asaadi, Mohammad Mahdy; Pakpour, Amir H; Hajiaghababaei, Marzieh

    2015-06-01

    Environmental psychology as a science could be useful in understanding the dissociation between the man and the environment. The aim of this study was to compare mental health, job satisfaction and well-being of nurses who work in hospital environments with different designs. This was a quasi-experimental study, in which 250 nurses filled out the mental health, well-being and job satisfaction questionnaires. They were categorized into 3 groups randomly. Group1 included 63 nurses who worked in an environment without any natural elements; group 2 included 100 nurses who worked in an environment with natural elements and group 3 included 87 nurses who worked in an environment without any psychological and ergonomic design. The last group was only stimulated by demonstrating visual stimulus. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey's pursuit statistical method. The nurses who were working in an environment without any natural elements reported significantly lower scores on mental health, well-being and job satisfaction compared to those who were working in other groups, with the exception of social functioning. Moreover, depression and anxiety were more common in nurses who were working in environments without any natural elements compared to those in the other groups (pjob satisfaction, and mental health and well-being of the nurses through the use of natural design and environmental psychology indexes in hospital buildings.

  9. Bridging the personal and the political: practices for a liberation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moane, Geraldine

    2003-03-01

    In the Irish context, legacies of colonialism, the Northern Ireland conflict situation, and the strength of community and women's liberation movements all provide rich resources for understanding the processes involved in both oppression and liberation. This paper draws on the theoretical and research literature and on Irish experiences to develop an understanding of some of the processes and practices that aid in liberation. The research is grounded in diverse writings on oppression and liberation, which include writings on colonialism (E. Duran & B. Duran, 1995; F. Fanon, 1967; V. Kenny, 1985, L. Maracle, 1996), feminist psychology (J. B. Miller, 1986; S. Wilkinson, 1996), liberation psychology (H. A. Bulhan, 1985; L. Comas-Díaz, M. B. Lykes, & R. D. Alarcon, 1998; I. Martín-Baró 1994; Starhawk, 1987), and psychological aspects of racism (b. hooks, 1993; A. Mama, 1995; R. J. Watts, D. M. Griffith, & J. Abdul-Adil, 1999), homophobia (A. R. D'Augelli & C. J. Patterson, 1995), poverty (K. O'Neill, 1992), and other dimensions of oppression.

  10. Environmental Psychology Effects on Mental Health Job Satisfaction and Personal Well Being of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodeh Tavakkoli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: Environmental psychology as a science could be useful in understanding the dissociation between the man and the environment. The aim of this study was to compare mental health, job satisfaction and well-being of nurses who work in hospital environments with different designs.  Material:This was a quasi-experimental study, in which 250 nurses filled out the mental health, well-being and job satisfaction questionnaires. They were categorized into 3 groups randomly. Group1 included 63 nurses who worked in an environment without any natural elements; group 2 included 100 nurses who worked in an environment with natural elements and group 3 included 87 nurses who worked in an environment without any psychological and ergonomic design. The last group was only stimulated by demonstrating visual stimulus. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey’s pursuit statistical method. Results:The nurses who were working in an environment without any natural elements reported significantly lower scores on mental health, well-being and job satisfaction compared to those who were working in other groups, with the exception of social functioning . Moreover, depression and anxiety were more common in nurses who were working in environments without any natural elements compared to those in the other groups (p<0.05.Conclusions:We can increase job satisfaction, and mental health and well-being of the nurses through the use of natural design and environmental psychology indexes in hospital buildings.

  11. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits...... in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly....... Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex...

  12. Person-Oriented Conception of Happiness and Some Personality Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Z. Levit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Person-oriented conception of happiness (POCH worked out by the author of the article is based on the ideas of systemic approach. The model also serves as valuable personality theory integrating essential elements of the conceptions of Z. Freud, C. Jung, A. Maslow, C. Rogers, and some other scientists. We show how to solve some problems of modern psychology within POCH, and outline perspectives of further investigations. For the first time in world psychology, such concepts as “Egoism” and “Personal Uniqueness” are represented as multilevel systems. Their productive interaction at the higher levels helps a person achieve full-fledged, happy life.

  13. The study of the character strengths in children: Relations with the psychological well-being, social desirability and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldana Sol Grinhauz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the existence of associations between character strengths, psychological welfare, social desirability and personality in children of 10 to12 years old. 518 children (254 boys and 263 girls between 10 and 12 years old and attending public and private schools in the City of Buenos Aires (Argentina participated on this study. The following were administered: a socio–demographic survey; a survey to assess the PERMA ́s access to welfare theory five elements, the Virtues and Strengths Inventory for Children; Children’s Personality Questionnaire and Children’s Social Desirability Scale. The results showed that, as in previous studies, vitality, hope and curiosity were the strengths most associated with life satisfaction. At the same time, statistically significant correlations between the PERMA ́s access to welfare theory five elements (Seligman, 2011 and most of the character ́s strengths were found. Meanwhile, the strengths were also found associated with the Five Great Personality Factors model and social desirability. Finally, differences in the presence of the character strengths according to sex and age were found. 

  14. The origins of psychology in Italy: Themes and authors that emerge through a content analysis of the Rivista di Filosofia Scientifica [Journal of Scientific Philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro

    2012-08-01

    This article examines the scientific-cultural context of the second half of the 1800s, during which psychological science emerged in Italy. The article explores the contribution made by the emergence of the primary research traditions of that period, namely, physiological anthropology and phreniatry, by means of a methodology that combines content analysis with a classical historiographical study of the period. Themes and authors deriving from the various disciplines in the human and natural sciences were identified through a content analysis of the Rivista di Filosofia Scientifica [Journal of Scientific Philosophy], a periodical that is representative of Italian positivism. The analysis highlights the epistemological perspective held by scholars who, distancing themselves from the mechanistic reductionism of the proponents of positivism, integrated a naturalistic and evolutionary conceptualization with the neo-Kantian critique. A clearly delineated naturalistic and differential perspective of scientific research that brought about the birth of psychology as an experimental discipline in Italy in the 1900s emerges from the analysis, including psychology and psychopathology as studied by the phreniatrists Gabriele Buccola, Enrico Morselli, and Eugenio Tanzi; Tito Vignoli and Giuseppe Sergi's work in comparative anthropology; Giulio Fano's approach and contribution to physiology; and Enrico Ferri's contribution to criminology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. An Existential-Humanistic View of Personality Change: Co-Occurring Changes with Psychological Well-Being in a 10 Year Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo Hounkpatin, Hilda; Wood, Alex M; Boyce, Christopher J; Dunn, Graham

    Increasingly, psychological research has indicated that an individual's personality changes across the lifespan. We aim to better understand personality change by examining if personality change is linked to striving towards fulfilment, as suggested by existential-humanistic theories of personality dynamics. Using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a cohort of 4,733 mid-life individuals across 10 years, we show that personality change was significantly associated with change in existential well-being, represented by psychological well-being (PWB). Moreover, personality change was more strongly related to change in PWB than changes in other well-being indicators such as depression, hostility and life satisfaction. Personality changed to a similar degree and explained greater variation in our well-being measures than changes in socioeconomic variables. The findings indicate personality change is necessary for the holistic development of an individual, supporting a greater need to understand personality change and increasing room for use of personality measures as indicators of well-being and policy making.

  16. Western psychology and Muslim psychology in dialogue: comparisons between a Qura'nic theory of personality and Freud's and Jung's ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, comparisons are made between a newly developed Qura'nic theory of personality and the Freudian and Jungian theories of the mind. Notable similarities were found between the Freudian id, ego, superego and neurosis and the Qura'nic nafs ammarah besoa' (evil-commanding psyche), a'ql (intellect), al-nafs al-lawammah (the reproachful psyche) and al-nafs al-marid'a (the sick psyche), respectively. Noteworthy resemblances were detected also between the Jungian concepts collective unconscious, archetypes, Self and individuation and the Qura'nic constructs roh (spirit), al-asmaa' (the names), qalb (heart), and al-nafs al-mutmainnah (the serene psyche), respectively. These parallels, as well as the departure points, between the models are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. The comparisons performed in this paper open new avenues for dialogue between western models of the psyche and their Muslim counterparts, a dialogue that can enrich both perspectives and advance the field of psychology.

  17. The Relationship between Individual Personality Traits (Internality-Externality) and Psychological Distress in Employees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the internality-externality (I-E) scale as an indicator of coping styles and the Kessler 6 (K6) scale as an indicator of psychological distress and analyzes the effects of sociodemographic and employment-related factors on this relationship. Employees from Akita prefecture in Japan were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires. A uniform pattern of findings emerged in the relationship between the two scales as follows: all the significant correlations were negative, that is, as the I-E score increased, the K6 score decreased. Furthermore, significant effects were observed for the I-E scale regarding sex, age, education, employee type, and employment status and the K6 scale with multiple regression analyses. Among these, the effect of the K6 scale was significant for the I-E scale in both males and females. The results of this study may help improve mental health clinicians' understanding of psychological distress in employees.

  18. The Relationship between Individual Personality Traits (Internality-Externality and Psychological Distress in Employees in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Fushimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between the internality-externality (I-E scale as an indicator of coping styles and the Kessler 6 (K6 scale as an indicator of psychological distress and analyzes the effects of sociodemographic and employment-related factors on this relationship. Employees from Akita prefecture in Japan were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires. A uniform pattern of findings emerged in the relationship between the two scales as follows: all the significant correlations were negative, that is, as the I-E score increased, the K6 score decreased. Furthermore, significant effects were observed for the I-E scale regarding sex, age, education, employee type, and employment status and the K6 scale with multiple regression analyses. Among these, the effect of the K6 scale was significant for the I-E scale in both males and females. The results of this study may help improve mental health clinicians' understanding of psychological distress in employees.

  19. Bringing the Psychology of Situations into Flow Research: Personality and Situation Characteristics as Predictors of Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaja Zager Kocjan; Andreja Avsec

    2017-01-01

    ... of the intensity of flow as compared to his or her basic personality traits. The first sample consisted of 169 employees who had to focus on the most engaging work-related event they had experienced in the past three months...

  20. Intellectual ability, learning style, personality, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busato, V.V.; Prins, F.J.; Elshout, J.J.; Hamaker, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study is directed towards an integration of intellectual ability, learning style, personality and achievement motivation as predictors of academic success in higher education. Correlational analyses partly confirmed and partly disconfirmed our expectations in a sample of 409 first-year

  1. The Contributions of Psychological Maturity and Personality in the Prediction of Adolescent Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Elisa; Morales-Vives, Fabia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies show that intelligence and impulsiveness are important predictors of academic achievement in adolescence. However, it is not clear what contribution is made by the big five personality traits, because some studies suggest that Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Openness to experience are predictors while others show precisely the…

  2. Clinical, psychophysiological and psychological aspects of risk factors of periodontal disease development in clinically healthy persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Nikulina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine risk factors of periodontal disease development, psychophysiological personal types and their interrelations in clinically healthy persons. 47 first-year cadets of St.-Petersburg Military School of radio electronics have been examined. This group of respondents has been chosen by presence of such social stressor as change of place of living (97,9% cadets have arrived in St.-Petersburg from other cities and republics of the Russian Federation and strict disciplinary conditions. The research has revealed a low level of oral hygiene, cases of mild gingivitis in most respondents. The general mental state of group under study is characterized by raised level of personal anxiety and low indices of reactive anxiety. The examined group has demonstrated anxiety, tension, indecision and lowered stress stability. Clinically healthy persons are more liable to develop inflammatory and inflammatory-destructive periodontal diseases. It was possible to determine psychophysiological features correlated with physiological parameters of risk degree of periodontal diseases. It may have a great significance in defining of periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis

  3. Intellectual ability, learning style, personality, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busato, V.V.; Prins, F.J.; Elshout, J.J.; Hamaker, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study is directed towards an integration of intellectual ability, learning style, personality and achievement motivation as predictors of academic success in higher education. Correlational analyses partly confirmed and partly disconfirmed our expectations in a sample of 409 first-year psycholo

  4. Developing Policy and Practice for Dyslexia across a Local Authority: A Case Study of Educational Psychology Practice at Organisational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kevin; Stothard, Jan; Lydon, Jackie; Reason, Rea

    2013-01-01

    In this paper two premises are set out: first, that within Children's Services educational psychologists (EPs) have a distinctive contribution to make towards policy and practice in relation to "dyslexia"; second, that they may be well placed to lead development work at an organisational level within a local authority. Building on…

  5. 授权管理模式下临床护士的心理授权状况探讨%Study of the nurses' psychological authority status under authorization management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋鸣; 王海燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 在授权管理模式基础上了解目前护理人员心理授权状态,以期分析授权管理的有效性.方法 对364名临床护士采用心理授权量表进行调查,用描述性统计方法与方差分析法对调查结果进行分析.结果 临床护士心理授权平均得分为(3.22-0.70)分,整体处于中等状态,4个维度得分由高到低分别为自我效能、工作意义、自主性和工作影响;不同年龄、不同职称、不同工作时段、不同婚姻状况的临床护士的心理授权感知存在差异;不同学历的临床护士心理授权及各维度得分之间比较无显著差异.结论 护理管理者不应仅注重授权行为本身,更要关注临床护士心理授权状况;采用有效激励手段,从心理上提高她们对授权的认知和体验;激发其工作积极性,进而促进护理工作的创新和拓展.%Objective To acknowledge the psychological authority status under the foundation of autho0rization management,in order to analyze the effectiveness of authorization management.Methods 364 clinical nurses were investigated with Psychological Empowerment Scale and the results were performed statistic analysis through descriptive statistical method and variance analysis.Results The average score of clinical nurses was(3.22±0.70),which was at the moderate point.The four dimensional scores listed in descending order were self efficient,career significance,autonomy and job influence.Clinical nurses of different ages,different ranking,different working period,different marriage status had statistical outstanding variance.But nurses of different education background showed no significant difference in score of each dimension.Conclusions The nursing management shall not only focus on the authorization management itself,but also on the psychological authority status of clinical nurses.Through an efficacious incentive,we can enhance the psychological recognition and experience on authorization and activate

  6. A review of systems for psychology and psychiatry: adaptive systems, personality psychopathology five (PSY-5), and the DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Allan R; Reynolds, Shannon M; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2014-01-01

    We outline a crisis in clinical description, in which atheoretical categorical descriptors, as in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), has turned focus away from the obvious: evolved major adaptive systems. Adaptive systems, at the core of a medical review of systems (ROS), allow models of pathology to be layered over an understanding of systems as they normally function. We argue that clinical psychology and psychiatry would develop more programmatically by incorporating 5 systems evolved for adaptation to the external environment: reality modeling for action, short-term danger detection, long-term cost-benefit projection, resource acquisition, and agenda protection. These systems, although not exhaustive, coincide with great historical issues in psychology, psychopathology, and individual differences. Readers of this journal should be interested in this approach because personality is seen as a relatively stable property of these systems. Thus, an essential starting point in ROS-based clinical description involves personality assessment. But this approach also places demands on scientist-practitioners to integrate across sciences. An ROS promotes theories that are (a) compositional, answering the question: What elements comprise the system?; (b) dynamic, answering: How do the elements and other systems interact?; and (c) developmental: How do systems change over time? The proposed ROS corresponds well with the National Institute of Mental Health's recent research domain criteria (RDoC) approach. We urge that in the RDoC approach, measurement variables should be treated as falsifiable and theory-laden markers, not unfalsifiable criteria. We argue that our proposed ROS promotes integration across sciences, rather than fostering the isolation of sciences allowed by atheoretical observation terms, as in the DSM.

  7. Isolating the Role of Psychological Dysfunction in Smoking Cessation Failure: Relations of Personality and Psychopathology to Attaining Smoking Cessation Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Jorenby, Douglas E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Research exploring psychological dysfunction as a predictor of smoking cessation success may be limited by nonoptimal predictor variables (i.e., categorical psychodiagnostic measures vs. continuous personality-based manifestations of dysfunction) and imprecise outcomes (i.e., summative point prevalence abstinence vs. constituent cessation milestone measures). Accordingly, this study evaluated the unique and overlapping relations of broad-spectrum personality traits (positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint) and past-year psychopathology (anxiety, mood, and substance use disorder) to point prevalence abstinence and three smoking cessation milestones: (1) initiating abstinence; (2) first lapse; and (3) transition from lapse to relapse. Participants were daily smokers (N=1365) enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment study. In single predictor regression models, each manifestation of internalizing dysfunction (lower positive emotionality, higher negative emotionality, and anxiety and mood disorder) predicted failure at one or more cessation milestone. In simultaneous predictor models, lower positive and higher negative emotionality significantly predicted failure to achieve milestones after controlling for psychopathology. Psychopathology did not predict any outcome when controlling for personality. Negative emotionality showed the most robust and consistent effects, significantly predicting failure to initiate abstinence, earlier lapse, and lower point prevalence abstinence rates. Substance use disorder and constraint did not predict cessation outcomes, and no single variable predicted lapse-to-relapse transition. These findings suggest that personality-related manifestations of internalizing dysfunction are more accurate markers of affective sources of relapse risk than mood and anxiety disorders. Further, individuals with high trait negative emotionality may require intensive intervention to promote the initiation and early maintenance of

  8. Psychological and behavioural impact of returning personal results from whole-genome sequencing: the HealthSeq project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Linderman, Michael D; Suckiel, Sabrina A; Zinberg, Randi; Wasserstein, Melissa; Kasarskis, Andrew; Diaz, George A; Schadt, Eric E

    2017-02-01

    Providing ostensibly healthy individuals with personal results from whole-genome sequencing could lead to improved health and well-being via enhanced disease risk prediction, prevention, and diagnosis, but also poses practical and ethical challenges. Understanding how individuals react psychologically and behaviourally will be key in assessing the potential utility of personal whole-genome sequencing. We conducted an exploratory longitudinal cohort study in which quantitative surveys and in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted before and after personal results were returned to individuals who underwent whole-genome sequencing. The participants were offered a range of interpreted results, including Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, pharmacogenomics, rare disease-associated variants, and ancestry. They were also offered their raw data. Of the 35 participants at baseline, 29 (82.9%) completed the 6-month follow-up. In the quantitative surveys, test-related distress was low, although it was higher at 1-week than 6-month follow-up (Z=2.68, P=0.007). In the 6-month qualitative interviews, most participants felt happy or relieved about their results. A few were concerned, particularly about rare disease-associated variants and Alzheimer's disease results. Two of the 29 participants had sought clinical follow-up as a direct or indirect consequence of rare disease-associated variants results. Several had mentioned their results to their doctors. Some participants felt having their raw data might be medically useful to them in the future. The majority reported positive reactions to having their genomes sequenced, but there were notable exceptions to this. The impact and value of returning personal results from whole-genome sequencing when implemented on a larger scale remains to be seen.

  9. Psychological and behavioural impact of returning personal results from whole-genome sequencing: the HealthSeq project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Linderman, Michael D; Suckiel, Sabrina A; Zinberg, Randi; Wasserstein, Melissa; Kasarskis, Andrew; Diaz, George A; Schadt, Eric E

    2017-01-01

    Providing ostensibly healthy individuals with personal results from whole-genome sequencing could lead to improved health and well-being via enhanced disease risk prediction, prevention, and diagnosis, but also poses practical and ethical challenges. Understanding how individuals react psychologically and behaviourally will be key in assessing the potential utility of personal whole-genome sequencing. We conducted an exploratory longitudinal cohort study in which quantitative surveys and in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted before and after personal results were returned to individuals who underwent whole-genome sequencing. The participants were offered a range of interpreted results, including Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, pharmacogenomics, rare disease-associated variants, and ancestry. They were also offered their raw data. Of the 35 participants at baseline, 29 (82.9%) completed the 6-month follow-up. In the quantitative surveys, test-related distress was low, although it was higher at 1-week than 6-month follow-up (Z=2.68, P=0.007). In the 6-month qualitative interviews, most participants felt happy or relieved about their results. A few were concerned, particularly about rare disease-associated variants and Alzheimer's disease results. Two of the 29 participants had sought clinical follow-up as a direct or indirect consequence of rare disease-associated variants results. Several had mentioned their results to their doctors. Some participants felt having their raw data might be medically useful to them in the future. The majority reported positive reactions to having their genomes sequenced, but there were notable exceptions to this. The impact and value of returning personal results from whole-genome sequencing when implemented on a larger scale remains to be seen. PMID:28051073

  10. Methodological and psychological aspects of forming personality of specialist on physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasyuk R.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown problem relationship training specialist personality, different types of physical culture and sport in educational systems work in higher education. 80 students 19 - 20 years of age who will be teachers of physical education took part in experiment. It is reveled four groups of students on the nature of professional - pedagogical orientation. An important condition for the formation of future teachers is the correct organization is not only educational and training session, but also a clear system of educational work. It is established that the purpose of education as a social phenomenon is to provide personal interaction between the generations, to facilitate the development of the individual subject of the specific historical process that involves a painless entry and adaptation of young generations to live under certain conditions.

  11. Triarchic Psychopathy Measure: Validity in Relation to Normal-Range Traits, Personality Pathology, and Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagov, Pavel S; Patrick, Christopher J; Oost, Kathryn M; Goodman, Joshua A; Pugh, Alan T

    2016-02-01

    The triarchic model of psychopathy replaces a syndromal view of this pathological personality condition with a tripartite trait-based conception, positing three distinct phenotypic dispositions as building blocks for what theorists have traditionally termed psychopathy. The Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) offers an efficient means for measuring the three dimensions to facilitate research on the model's validity. We tested the reliability of the TriPM as well as its convergent and discriminant validity with respect to differing models of personality and other criterion variables reflecting social-emotional adjustment and mental health in an undergraduate participant sample (n = 120). The TriPM evidenced excellent internal consistencies, good test-retest reliability, and strong validity consistent with the triarchic model. We discuss the results with respect to prior research and offer suggestions for future research on the validity of the TriPM and the triarchic model.

  12. Assessing psychological health and empowerment in women: the Personal Progress Scale Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M; Worell, Judith; Chandler, Redonna K

    2005-01-01

    Empowerment is a primary outcome of many health interventions with women. Typical outcome measures, however focus exclusively on specific symptoms, neglecting the clinically important attitudes and behaviors associated with increased empowerment and well-being. Empowerment is conceptualized as enabling women to access skills and resources to cope more effectively with current as well as future stress and trauma. This study investigated a new measure of personal empowerment in women, the Personal Progress Scale-Revised (PPS-R). Results suggest that the PPS-R is a promising measure of empowerment in women, demonstrating excellent reliability and validity in diverse sample of women. Additionally, the PPS-R demonstrated preliminary utility with a subgroup of abused women, a vulnerable group of women for whom empowerment is a variable of high importance.

  13. Clinical, psychological, and personality correlates of asceticism in anorexia nervosa: from saint anorexia to pathologic perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Pierò, Andrea; Gramaglia, Carla; Daga, Giovanni Abbate; Gandione, Marina; Rovera, Giovanni Giacomo; Bartocci, Goffredo

    2006-12-01

    This study investigated the personality and clinical correlates of asceticism in 154 anorectic patients. Multiple linear regression models showed that asceticism was related to angry temperament, high control over anger, perfectionism, maturity fears, and number of vomiting episodes per week. These results suggest that the self-discipline and hypercontrol of anorectic patients are related to a temperament prone to angry feelings in subjects with a fear of becoming adult and with a trait of pathologic perfectionism.

  14. Influence of religious aspects and personal beliefs on psychological behavior: focus on anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Agorastos A; Demiralay C; Huber CG

    2014-01-01

    Agorastos Agorastos,1 Cüneyt Demiralay,1 Christian G Huber2 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: The current paper presents literature relevant to the relationship of religiosity, spirituality, and personal beliefs with mental health and, in particular, anxiety disorders as an empirical narrative review, providing an ov...

  15. PHIT for Duty, a Personal Health Intervention Tool for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    muscle relaxation ), tools (e.g., sleep hygiene checklist), and self-monitoring activities (e.g., alcohol use diary). All of these screening instruments...Persons with mild or moderate risk (i.e., subclinical scores), are presented with a suite of interventional, therapeutic, and monitoring activities to...cognitive behavior change (e.g., alcohol use), and self-monitoring activities . The mindfulness content comprises learning materials and meditation

  16. Influence of religious aspects and personal beliefs on psychological behavior: focus on anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agorastos, Agorastos; Demiralay, Cüneyt; Huber, Christian G

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents literature relevant to the relationship of religiosity, spirituality, and personal beliefs with mental health and, in particular, anxiety disorders as an empirical narrative review, providing an overview on the most important and clinically relevant research results on the topic. The relationship between religiosity/spirituality, personal beliefs (ie, magical ideation and paranormal beliefs), and mental health has lately been studied extensively, and results have indicated significant associations among these variables. However, scientific approaches to this field are complex and multidimensional, partly leading to poor operationalization, incomparable data, and contradictory results. Literature demonstrates that higher religiosity/spirituality and magical ideation scores have often been associated with increased obsessive-compulsive traits. Similar results could not be confidently replicated for other anxiety disorders. However, it is still unclear if these differences suggest a specific association with obsessive-compulsive traits and reflect deviating etiopathogenetic and cognitive aspects between obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders, or if these results are biased through other factors. Religiosity/spirituality and personal beliefs constitute important parameters of human experience and deserve greater consideration in the psychotherapeutic treatment of psychiatric disorders.

  17. Influence of religious aspects and personal beliefs on psychological behavior: focus on anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agorastos A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Agorastos Agorastos,1 Cüneyt Demiralay,1 Christian G Huber2 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: The current paper presents literature relevant to the relationship of religiosity, spirituality, and personal beliefs with mental health and, in particular, anxiety disorders as an empirical narrative review, providing an overview on the most important and clinically relevant research results on the topic. The relationship between religiosity/spirituality, personal beliefs (ie, magical ideation and paranormal beliefs, and mental health has lately been studied extensively, and results have indicated significant associations among these variables. However, scientific approaches to this field are complex and multidimensional, partly leading to poor operationalization, incomparable data, and contradictory results. Literature demonstrates that higher religiosity/spirituality and magical ideation scores have often been associated with increased obsessive–compulsive traits. Similar results could not be confidently replicated for other anxiety disorders. However, it is still unclear if these differences suggest a specific association with obsessive–compulsive traits and reflect deviating etiopathogenetic and cognitive aspects between obsessive–compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders, or if these results are biased through other factors. Religiosity/spirituality and personal beliefs constitute important parameters of human experience and deserve greater consideration in the psychotherapeutic treatment of psychiatric disorders. Keywords: spirituality, religiosity, religion, paranormal beliefs, magical ideation anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, OCD, anxiety, coping

  18. Study of Psychological Experiences and Inner Mother-Child Relationships and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Disabled Persons : Analysis of unconscious aspects using Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

    OpenAIRE

    髙野, 恵代

    2013-01-01

    We investigated unconscious aspects of the psychological experiences of siblings of disabled persons by using TAT. The results showed that compared with the control group of college students who had able-bodied brothers and sisters, the siblings of disabled persons easily turned their attention to the internal states of illustrated characters, and expressed greater empathy. Primary circumstances of conflict were family relationships, interpersonal relationships, and identity. Need for externa...

  19. Beliefs in the legitimacy of decision authority among Chinese adolescents and parents: a person-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yudan Chen; Faldowski, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined Chinese parents' and adolescents' beliefs in the legitimacy of decision authority with reference to specific issues from the prudential, conventional, multifaceted, and personal domains. The sample included 698 adolescents aged 12-15 and their parents from southern China. Parents and adolescents reported on their own beliefs respectively. Subgroups of parent and adolescent participants characterized by distinct patterns of beliefs across issues were identified with latent class analyses (LCA). Further, configural frequency analyses (CFA) were conducted to examine the match between parent subgroups and adolescent subgroups. In addition, the LCA-derived subgroups varied across residency status, sibling status, and child gender, and were linked to adolescent depressive symptoms and school misconduct. These associations with external variables provided evidence for the distinctiveness of the latent classes. Results were discussed in light of social domain theory and the socio-historical context where the participants were situated. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Do psychological factors play a crucial role in sport performance? – Research on personality and psychological variables of athletes in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Gyomber, Noemi; Kovacs, Krisztina; Lenart, Agota

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Contemporary research aims to investigate background factors that contribute to successful sport performance. Of these factors the psychological well-being and mental health status should be underlined that have gained a significant role, particularly in the frames of sport psychological counseling. The aim of the present study is to seek for interrelations of psychological variables and sport performance of young athletes, and to reveal what advantages might be ut...

  1. Predicting Personality Resiliency by Psychological Well-Being and Its Components in Girl Students of Islamic Azad University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafnezhad, Hadi; Khaneh Keshi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict psychological resilience by psychological well-being and its components. The research sample consisted of 216 girl students who were selected through multistage random sampling. The data were collected by implementing psychological resilience and psychological well-being questionnaire and analyzed by using…

  2. Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders: An Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Young, Kimberly S; Laier, Christian; Wölfling, Klaus; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-12-01

    Within the last two decades, many studies have addressed the clinical phenomenon of Internet-use disorders, with a particular focus on Internet-gaming disorder. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, we suggest an Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model of specific Internet-use disorders. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework for the processes underlying the development and maintenance of an addictive use of certain Internet applications or sites promoting gaming, gambling, pornography viewing, shopping, or communication. The model is composed as a process model. Specific Internet-use disorders are considered to be the consequence of interactions between predisposing factors, such as neurobiological and psychological constitutions, moderators, such as coping styles and Internet-related cognitive biases, and mediators, such as affective and cognitive responses to situational triggers in combination with reduced executive functioning. Conditioning processes may strengthen these associations within an addiction process. Although the hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders, summarized in the I-PACE model, must be further tested empirically, implications for treatment interventions are suggested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Journeys through the valley of death: multimethod psychological assessment and personality transformation in long-term psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Stephen E

    2011-03-01

    The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM Task Force, 2006) is based on the assumption that an in-depth understanding of clients' underlying emotional, personality, and interpersonal patterns will facilitate their treatment. In this article I show how such an understanding can be achieved through multimethod psychological assessment, and how useful such information can be in long-term psychotherapy with high-achieving, successful clients who struggle with forming and maintaining intimate relationships. Such treatments are extremely difficult, because when these clients attach to their psychotherapists, many of them temporarily become more symptomatic. I illustrate these points with a detailed account of my long-term therapy with a resilient but highly traumatized young man. Repeated use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Disorder-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and Rorschach with my client helped guide us in our work, and also helped create an important therapeutic "opening" into the underlying traumatic material. This and other experiences have convinced me that it is extremely useful for psychologists to have training in both assessment and psychotherapy.

  4. Salivary Testosterone Levels Under Psychological Stress and Its Relationship with Rumination and Five Personality Traits in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrisham, Reza; Sadegh-Nejadi, Sahar; SoliemaniFar, Omid; Kooti, Wesam; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Alamiri, Fatima; Najjar-Asl, Sedigheh; Khaneh-Keshi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary testosterone levels under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. Methods A total of 58 medical students, who wanted to participate in the final exam, were selected by simple random sampling. Two months before the exam, in the basal conditions, the NEO Inventory short form, and the Emotional Control Questionnaire (ECQ) were completed. Saliva samples were taken from students in both the basal conditions and under exam stress. Salivary testosterone was measured by ELISA. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures, paired samples t-test, Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis. Results Salivary testosterone level of men showed a significant increase under exam stress (p<0.05). However, a non-significant although substantial reduction observed in women. A significant correlation was found between extroversion (r=-0.33) and openness to experience (r=0.30) with salivary testosterone (p<0.05). Extraversion, aggression control and emotional inhibition predicted 28% of variance of salivary testosterone under stress. Conclusion Salivary testosterone reactivity to stress can be determined by sexual differences, personality traits, and emotional control variables which may decrease or increase stress effects on biological responses, especially the salivary testosterone. PMID:27909455

  5. Features of the psychological States of a person residing in the area of armed conflict, in the context of the transformation of life strategies in the post-conflict period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryadinskaya E.N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a theoretical study of the psychological characteristics of the effects of armed conflict. In this article the author considers issues of importance to modern psychology, such as mental and emotional state of people in the period of occurrence of the armed conflict, the impact of immediate residence in the area of armed conflict on the mental state of the person, the stressors that affect the mental state of a person in an armed conflict. The author focuses on the fact that the current socio-political situation in the regions where there was armed conflict, seriously affect the population, its relation to reality, setting goals, and vision of prospects in life. In conclusion, the article notes that the experience of life crisis in a situation of armed conflict may manifest in the loss of a sense of integrity and inner balance, the loss of the ability to control and manage their own lives. The study was supported by the grant SFU № 213.01-11/2016-2НМ (job Minobrnauki No. 28.125.2016/NM.

  6. Social desirability and the measurement of psychological well-being in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, L L; Cone, J D

    1983-11-01

    The discriminant validity of two commonly used measures of life satisfaction was investigated. The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, the Life Satisfaction Index-B, and two theoretically unrelated self-report measures were completed by 60 alumni of West Virginia University, aged 66 to 86 years. Convergent validity of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and the Life Satisfaction Index-B was established (r = .64, p less than .0001), but both also correlated significantly with a measure of social desirability (r = .70 and .58, respectively, p less than .0001). The need for more basic work on measurement of life satisfaction in elderly persons was discussed.

  7. The Psychology of Ernest Hemingway : A Writer's Personality and How It Is Displayed in His Work

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersen, Andreas Ruden

    2003-01-01

    How is a writer s personality reflected in his work? In Ernest Hemingway s case, many critics and scholars believe that he used his writing partly as a therapeutic healing of his unstable psyche and his vulnerable self-esteem. This notion is explored from four different angles in the first chapter of this thesis: wounds of war and the Lost Generation , wounds of war and psychoanalysis, androgyny/gender confusion, and Jackson Benson s what if -theory, and I emphasize the factors leading to H...

  8. [The characteristics of socialization of neuro-psychic development, personal psychological status and school progress of adolescents educated in different conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averiyanova, N I; Ryanjva, N A

    2013-01-01

    The analysis was made of socialization of neuro-psychic development, personal psychological status and school progress of adolescents educated in surrogate families, orphanage, and biological families. In a number of indicators, the level of neuro-psychic development of alumni of orphanage was lower that in case of their peers residing in families. The alumni of orphanage have reliably low mood, reticence, aggressiveness, disposition to negative evaluation of what is going on, compulsive motions, pathological habits. The study testifies that location of child to surrogate family influences positively at one's neuro-psychic development, school progress, personal psychological status. The results of study induce to recommend to services of monitoring of surrogate families to more profoundly analyze psychological status of children since quality of adaptation of children in families in many ways depends on it.

  9. Assessing the Effects of a "Personal Effectiveness" Training on Psychological Capital, Assertiveness and Self-Awareness Using Self-Other Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; van Eeuwijk, Erik; Snelder, Margriet; Wild, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to examine the effects of a "personal effectiveness" training on both assertiveness and Psychological Capital (PsyCap) that were monitored before and after the training. Design/methodology/approach: In addition to self-ratings, other-ratings were assembled to explore two ways in which they can contribute to the…

  10. Investigating Burnout and Psychological Well-Being of Staff Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: The Role of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Harding, Carly

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present research extended previous research by broadening the dimensions of personality traits, and focusing on burnout and psychological well-being among staff working with people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey in which 103 staff completed questionnaires…

  11. Assessing the Effects of a "Personal Effectiveness" Training on Psychological Capital, Assertiveness and Self-Awareness Using Self-Other Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; van Eeuwijk, Erik; Snelder, Margriet; Wild, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to examine the effects of a "personal effectiveness" training on both assertiveness and Psychological Capital (PsyCap) that were monitored before and after the training. Design/methodology/approach: In addition to self-ratings, other-ratings were assembled to explore two ways in which they can contribute to the…

  12. A Libertarian Psychology: Self Ownership - A Condition for Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breggin, Peter R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes system of libertarian psychology which is an analysis of human conduct consistent with the principles of maximum personal freedom. The author identifies the concept of voluntary exchange by which individuals relate to each other as they choose as the basis for his psychology of self-determination. Journal availability: see SO 507 190.…

  13. Memory of childhood trauma before and after long-term psychological treatment of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, I P; Van Giezen, A E; Van der Does, A J W; Van Dyck, R; Spinhoven, Ph

    2007-03-01

    The present study investigated the consistency of self-reports of childhood traumatic events in a sample of 50 patients with a borderline personality disorder (BPD) before and after 27 months of intensive treatment with schema focused therapy or transference focused psychotherapy. The mean number of reported sexual, physical and emotional traumatic events did not change following treatment. Test-retest correlations of the trauma-interview also indicated high stability of the total number of sexual, physical and emotional events reported. The majority of the patients, however, did no longer report at least one of the 33 listed events after psychotherapy, and the majority reported at least one event that they had not mentioned before the start of treatment. These findings were not related to type of treatment or changes in suppression, intrusions, avoidance of intrusions, dissociative symptoms, depressive symptoms, and borderline symptoms.

  14. [Acne conglobata: personality and psychological sequelae in 13-cis-retinoic acid therapy. Initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studt, H H; Riehl, A; Gollnick, H

    1986-05-15

    16 patients suffering from acne conglobata were prospectively examined by means of analytical interviews and 5 psychometric procedures before and 6 months after oral treatment with 13-cis retinoic acid (isotretinoin). In comparison with a control group of psychosomatic patients, acne conglobata patients are more frequently affected by childhood influences leading to a neurotic personality structure already before the outbreak of acne; the patients more often complain of disturbed social contact, depressive moods, or general disorders. After successful treatment with isotretinoin, we observed augmented self-confidence and positive aggressiveness, on one hand, and increase of anxiety depressive moods, and general complaints, on the other. These effects are not drug related in a pharmacological way. These observations suggest the influence of psychic factors in the pathogenesis of acne conglobata. Regarding the medical management of these patients, it should be considered that psychic and psychosomatic disorders might be intensified after successful drug therapy.

  15. The survey of the psychological and personality characteristics of delinquent girls and women running away from home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mandana Saki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Saki M1, Safa M2, Jazayeri H3, Asti P4, Jariani M2, Saki M5 1. Instructor, Department of psychology, Faculty of nursing and midwifery, Lorestan University of medical sciences 2. Assistant professor, Department of psychology, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 3. Master of science, psychology 4. Instructor, Department of midwifery, Faculty of nursing and midwifery, Lorestan University of medical sciences 5. Instructor, Department of pediatrics, Faculty of health, Lorestan University of medical sciences Abstract Background: Family environment is the first place in which child may recognize his potentialities and talents and tries to raise those potentialities. If family fails to provide the child with an appropriate situation to grow and evolve his character, he may develop the basis of social delinquencies.All kinds of crimes may form in the family. Studies show family as a social factor and character as an inner factor can create the grounds for the criminal behavior. The present study tries to investigate the psychological and personality factors learning people to run away from their homes. Materials and methods: The present survey is a descriptive- analytical study. The cases were selected by census method. All the women and girls who were kept in the intervening centers were studied during one year. A two-section questionnaire containing demographic, family characteristics as well as the standard questionnaire named SCL 90 were used for data collection. The questionnaire was completed using clinical interview. The data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Among 73 cases participated in the study, 37.5% was under 20 years, 91.7% was housewife and 58.3% had elementary education, 58 % was of those who migrated from villages to towns. Most of them were among the mid born of the families. 36% had imprisonment, 30.6% had substance abuse, and 63.9% was among those who had previous crime records. 46.3% of the married

  16. The value of psychological treatment for borderline personality disorder: Systematic review and cost offset analysis of economic evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuldijk, Denise; McCarthy, Alexandra; Bourke, Marianne E.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a common mental health condition with high patterns of service utilisation of inpatient and community treatment. Over the past five years there has been significant growth in research with economic data, making this systematic review a timely update. Methods Empirical studies written in English or German, published up to December 2015, and cited in major electronic databases were examined using the PRISMA systematic review method. Papers were included that had one of the following: data related to cost of BPD to society, the individual, the carer or families; cost benefits of interventions. Reported cost data were inflated to the year 2015 and converted into US- dollars (USD $) using purchasing power parities. Results We identified 30 economic evaluations providing cost data related to interventions for BPD across 134,136 patients. The methodological quality was good, almost all studies fulfilled ≥ 50% of the quality criteria. The mean cost saving for treating BPD with evidence-based psychotherapy across studies was USD $2,987.82 per patient per year. A further mean weighted reduction of USD $1,551 per patient per year (range $83 - $29,392) was found compared to treatment as usual. Evidence-based psychological treatment was both less expensive as well as more effective, despite considerable differences in health cost arrangements between individual studies and countries. Where it was able to be calculated, a significant difference in cost-savings between different types of evidence-based psychotherapies was found. Discussion Individuals with BPD consistently demonstrate high patterns of service utilization and therefore high costs. The findings of this review present a strong argument in favour of prioritizing BPD treatments in reimbursement decisions, both for the affected individual and the family. The provision of evidence based treatment, irrespective of the type of psychological treatment, may lead to widespread

  17. Personality Characteristics, Job Stressors, and Job Satisfaction: Main and Interaction Effects on Psychological and Physical Health Conditions of Italian Schoolteachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The study proposed an application of the transactional model of stress in teaching elaborated by Travers and Cooper in 1996, and aimed to investigate the influence of personality characteristics (coping strategies, type A behaviors), situational characteristics (sources of pressure), and perceived job satisfaction in the prediction of teachers' psychophysical health conditions. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire was administered to 621 teachers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate significant main and interaction effects of personality characteristics, situational characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction on teachers' self-reported psychophysical health conditions. The findings highlighted specific coping strategies (focused on the problem, on innovation, and on hobbies and pastimes) and dimensions of job satisfaction (related to intrinsic aspects of job and to employee relations) buffering the negative effects of several job stressors. Type A behaviors and coping strategies focused on mobilized social support, suppression of stress, and not confronting the situation had main and interactions with negative effects on psychophysical health. Findings confirmed the necessity to run multi-factor research to analyze the different combinations of individual and situational variables implicated in negative health outcomes and to highlight the most significant buffering or increasing associations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Psychological profiles of gender and personality traces of Brazilian professional athletes of futsal, and their influence on physiological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento MGB

    2016-03-01

    physiological variables (weight, distance, speed, acceleration, strength, power, and fatigue index. Although the results of this research did not reveal statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the assessed variables, we observed that some results related to personality traits associated with both the male and female components could help to clarify and establish relationships with some strategic aspects inherent to futsal. Keywords: futsal, Masculine Inventory of the Self-concept Gender Schemas, fatigue index, anaerobic power, psychological profiles, personality traits

  19. From the perspective of psychology students' positive personality research%积极心理学视角下学生积极人格塑造的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慈; 刘晓峰

    2013-01-01

    The positive psychology is a new research field of psychology emerged in America in the 1990’s, positive psychology, positive personality can help individuals more likely to succeed, in order to get more happiness, is conducive to reflect the individual value. Based on this point of positive psychology is presented by using positive personality theory to undertake to the student positive personality.%  积极心理学是20世纪90年代在美国兴起的一种新的心理学研究领域,积极心理学认为,积极型人格可以帮助个体更容易取得成功,从而获得更多的幸福,有利于个体自我价值的体现。基于这一点积极心理学提出运用积极型人格理论来对学生进行积极型人格塑造。

  20. 道德人格:道德心理学研究的新主题%Moral Personality:A New Theme of Moral Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭本禹; 王云强

    2009-01-01

    The research of moral personality is a new theme of western moral psychology.Researchers have explored the meaning,development and neurobiological roots of moral personality,and have acquired many valuable conclusions.Future researchers should strengthen Chinese research of moral personality,clarify the meaning of moral personality and emphasize developmental research of moral personality.%道德人格研究是西方道德心理学的新主题.研究者深入分析了道德人格的含义、发展和神经生物基础,取得了许多有价值的研究成果.今后应加强中国的道德人格研究,厘清道德人格的含义并注重道德人格的发展研究.

  1. American and Chinese Children's Evaluations of Personal Domain Events and Resistance to Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Wong, Mun; Ball, Courtney; Yau, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A total of 267 five-, seven-, and ten-year-olds (M = 7.62), 147 in Hong Kong and 120 in the United States, evaluated hypothetical personal (and moral) events described as either essential or peripheral to actors' identity. Except for young Chinese in the peripheral condition, straightforward personal events were overwhelmingly evaluated as…

  2. Religious and philosophical psychology in the works of N.M. Bogolyubov

    OpenAIRE

    N.Y. Stoyukhina,

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of historical and psychological research filling the gaps of contemporary knowledge about personalities of religious and philosophical direction of Russian psychology in late XIX – early XX centuries. The author introduces the biography of events and the views of Russian psychologist N.M. Bogolyubov – a man of uneasy fate, embodied in his work the idea of spiritual practice in the analysis and description of a person's inner world. Psychological works of N.M. Bogolyubov...

  3. Balancing personalized medicine and personalized care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornetta, Kenneth; Brown, Candy Gunther

    2013-03-01

    The current description of personalized medicine by the National Institutes of Health is "the science of individualized prevention and therapy." Although physicians are beginning to see the promise of genetic medicine coming to fruition, the rapid pace of sequencing technology, informatics, and computer science predict a revolution in the ability to care for patients in the near future. The enthusiasm expressed by researchers is well founded, but the expectations voiced by the public do not center on advancing technology. Rather, patients are asking for personalized care: a holistic approach that considers physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. This perspective considers psychological, religious, and ethical challenges that may arise as the precision of preventive medicine improves. Psychological studies already highlight the barriers to single gene testing and suggest significant barriers to the predictive testing envisioned by personalized medicine. Certain religious groups will likely mount opposition if they believe personalized medicine encourages embryo selection. If the technology prompts cost-containment discussions, those concerned about the sanctity of life may raise ethical objections. Consequently, the availability of new scientific developments does not guarantee advances in treatment because patients may prove unwilling to receive and act on personalized genetic information. This perspective highlights current efforts to incorporate personalized medicine and personalized care into the medical curriculum, genetic counseling, and other aspects of clinical practice. Because these efforts are generally independent, the authors offer recommendations for physicians and educators so that personalized medicine can be implemented in a manner that meets patient expectations for personalized care.

  4. HIV Testing Among Spanish Youth: Analysis of the Mediating Role of the Big Five Personality and Other Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Ruiz-Palomino, Estefanía; Gil-Llario, María Dolores

    2015-11-01

    Early diagnosis of HIV improves the effectiveness of treatments and stops the progression of the disease. The influence of personality and other psychological variables in testing for HIV is analyzed. The first part of the study is composed of 4,929 young people (M age = 20.45, SD = 2.16). For the second part, young heterosexuals who participated in a broader project on HIV prevention were selected (n = 240, M age = 20.78, SD = 2.29). Only 23.3 % of the total sample have ever been tested for HIV antibodies. The main reason for not testing was fear of positive result (25.4 %). Statistically significant differences in Agreeableness (p = .027), Trust (p = .022) and Straightforwardness (p = .024) were found between HIV-tested and not HIV-tested youth. Trust explained 3.3 % of variance of HIV-test. Knowing barriers to testing and individual differences could be useful in developing preventive campaigns.

  5. A longitudinal study of relationships between previous academic achievement, emotional intelligence and personality traits with psychological health of medical students during stressful periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Esa, Ab Rahman; Mat Pa, Mohamad Najib; Mey, See Ching; Aziz, Rosniza Abdul; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that emotional intelligence, previous academic achievement (i.e. cumulative grade point average (GPA)) and personality are associated with success in various occupational settings. This study evaluated the relationships of these variables with psychological health of first year medical students during stressful periods. A 1-year prospective study was done with students accepted into the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Information on emotional intelligence, GPA and personality traits were obtained prior to admission. The validated Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory and Universiti Sains Malaysia Personality Inventory were used to measure emotional intelligence and personality traits, respectively. Stress, anxiety and depression were measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale during the end-of-course (time 1) and final (time 2) examinations. At the less stressful period (time 1), stress level was associated with agreeableness and the final GPA, anxiety level was associated with emotional control and emotional conscientiousness and depression level was associated with the final GPA and extraversion. At the more stressful period (time 2), neuroticism associated with stress level, anxiety level was associated with neuroticism and emotional expression, and depression level was associated with neuroticism. This study found that neuroticism was the strongest associated factor of psychological health of medical students during their most stressful testing period. Various personality traits, emotional intelligence and previous academic performance were associated factors of psychological health during a less stressful period. These data suggest that early identification of medical students who are vulnerable to the stressful environment of medical schools might help them maintain psychological well-being during medical training.

  6. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  7. The Promise of the Personality Theories Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how college-level personality theory courses can increase student understanding of psychological concepts and assumptions about human nature and behavior. The author describes an activity in which students extract the underlying personality theories found in the works of Kurt Vonnegut and J.R.R. Tolkien. (AM)

  8. On inhibition/disinhibition in developmental psychopathology: views from cognitive and personality psychology and a working inhibition taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, J T

    2000-03-01

    Disinhibition is a common focus in psychopathology research. However, use of inhibition models often is piecemeal, lacking an overarching taxonomy of inhibitory processes. The author organizes key concepts and models pertaining to different kinds of inhibitory control from the cognitive and temperament/personality literatures. Within the rubrics of executive inhibitory processes, motivational inhibitory processes, and automatic attentional inhibition processes, 8 kinds of inhibition are distinguished. Three basic temperament traits may address key executive and motivational inhibitory processes. Future developmental psychopathology research should be based on a systematic conceptual taxonomy of the kinds of inhibitory function relevant to a given disorder. Such an approach can clarify which inhibition distinctions are correct and which inhibition deficits go with which disorders.

  9. The relationship between paranormal beliefs and the personality trait Openness to Experience: A comparison of psychology majors with students in other disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Eric Dogan

    Paranormal beliefs (PB) are those that lie outside the explanatory realm of science. Thus, the existence of PB within a particular field of scholarship might indicate a decreased reliance on scientific methods within that field. This study evaluated the extent of PB among undergraduates majoring in the traditional sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics), psychology, and the arts and humanities. In particular, the relationship between PB and the personality trait Openness to Experience (OTE) was investigated, the goal being to both identify specific determinants of PB and better understand why PB are more prevalent in psychology compared with traditional sciences. Students majoring in the sciences, psychology, or arts and humanities were assessed across six domains of PB and six facets of the global personality trait OTE. Additionally, estimates of science education (SE) and IQ were obtained for each subject. Relationships among these variables were predicted to support the hypothesis that PB are largely determined by OTE rather than SE or IQ. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the prevalence of PB in contemporary psychology could be explained by a relative overabundance of PB and OTE within psychology majors when compared with science majors. The obtained results confirmed that psychology majors were significantly higher in both PB and OTE compared to science majors. Furthermore, psychology majors scored lower than arts and humanities majors in PB and OTE, supporting the notion that psychology as a field occupies a position intermediate between the traditional sciences and the humanities. Regarding the determinants of PB, while SE and IQ were both shown to be significant, OTE was the single most powerful predictor of PB when considering the entire, undifferentiated sample. An unanticipated result was that determinants of PB are substantially gender-related. Among females, PB were predicted by OTE though not SE, while among males, PB were predicted by SE and

  10. On University Students' Psychological Barriers in Inter-personal Communications and the Adjustment%大学生人际交往心理障碍及其调适

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩

    2014-01-01

    人际交往问题不仅关系到大学生的学习生涯,更是大学生能否适应社会生活的重要因素。影响大学生人际交往的心理因素主要有院认知偏差、不良情绪、人格差异障碍等,而家庭教育、学校环境以及社会变革的大背景等促成了这些心理因素的产生。因此,从端正认知、驾驭情绪、完善人格、提升沟通技巧方面对人际交往心理障碍进行调适有着较好的针对性和有效性。%Interpersonal problems not only relate to university students' learning career, but also affect university students' adaptation to social life. The psychological factors affecting uni-versity students' interpersonal communications mainly include cognitive bias, bad mood, personality difference disorders, etc., while such backgrounds as family education, school environment and social change, contribute to the formation of these psycholog-ical factors. Therefore, it is targeted and effective to adjust psy-chological barriers in interpersonal communications from the im-provement of communication skills by correcting cognition, con-trolling emotion, and perfecting personality.

  11. Type D personality is associated with impaired psychological status and unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svansdottir Erla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type D (distressed personality has been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis and poor emotional well-being in cardiac patients, but it is still unclear what mechanisms link Type D personality with poor clinical outcomes in cardiac patients. In the present cohort of Icelandic cardiac patients, we examined potential pathways that may explain this relationship. The objectives were to examine 1 the association between Type D personality and impaired psychological status, and to explore whether this association is independent of disease severity; and 2 the association between Type D personality and an unhealthy lifestyle. Methods A sample of 268 Icelandic coronary angiography patients (74% males (N = 199; mean age 62.9 years (SD 10.5, range 28-85 years completed the Type D Scale (DS14, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS at hospitalization. Health-related behaviors were assessed 4 months following angiography. Clinical data were collected from medical files. Results Type D personality was associated with an increased risk of anxiety (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.55-5.69, depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI:1.42-11.29, and stress (OR 5.99, 95% CI:3.08-11.63, independent of demographic variables and disease severity. Furthermore, fish consumption was lower among Type Ds, as 21% of Type Ds versus 5% of non-Type Ds consumed fish p p = 0.024 and to use antidepressants (17% versus 9%, p = 0.049 and sleeping pills (49% versus 33%, p = 0.019 compared to non-Type Ds. Type D personality was not associated with other health-related behaviors, aside from trends towards less fruit and vegetable consumption, and more weight gain. Conclusion Type D personality was associated with psychological distress and an unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients. Future studies should further investigate the association between Type D personality and health-related behaviors.

  12. PERSONAL AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MIDDLE-LEVEL MANAGERS IN VARIOUS LIVING CONDITIONS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE REGIONAL CENTER AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vladimirovich Soldatov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discovers the influence of middle-level manager’s place of living namely, the regional center and rural areas on the organization of the personal and social-psychological characteristics involved in interaction process. The problem of social labor motives, reflexive processes, life aspirations, time perspective, relation to the management and satisfaction with work in the context of living features in the regional center and rural areas is analyzed. Empirical research with the use of a set of the psychodiagnostic techniques directed on studying of social-psychological and personal features of middle-level managers includes sample of large company staff which has branches in the regional center and rural areas. The obtained results have demonstrated the influence of living place on the organization of personal and social-psychological characteristics of middle-level managers. Less expressed motives of power and success, direction on successful result in activity, the reduced independence and unsociability, higher reflexivity, negative attitude to the past, and low orientation to the future are typical for middle managers in the regional centers. In contrast, middle-level managers in rural areas have more expressed motives of power and success, orientation on successful result and more expressed independence and unsociability.

  13. 21 CFR 1301.11 - Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter) to deliver, distribute, or dispense a controlled substance by means of the Internet if such... online pharmacy and proposes to dispense controlled substances by means of the Internet must obtain a... Act (21 U.S.C. 823(f) and 841(h)), it is unlawful for any person who falls within the definition...

  14. [Acoustic evoked driving reactions in the EEG and their conditioning related to the personality factor extraversion-introversion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidmayer, I; Schulter, G

    1980-12-01

    Clicks were delivered in trains of 2,5 s duration at click repetition rates of 5 or 8/s to provoke rhythmical activity in the vertex-EEG ('driving response') and to condition the driving response to neutral stimuli in a discrimination paradigm. The Eysenck Personality Inventory was administered to define an independent personality variable, i.e. extraversion-introversion; the interaction of background activity, driving and conditioned driving response with the personality dimension was analyzed. In the background EEG there was a significant difference in the absolute power of the fast alpha-band between introverts and extraverts. Driving was only observed in the fundamental frequency of acoustic stimulation, not in the first harmonic. There was no interaction between driving response and extraversion-introversion or resting EEG activity. Classical conditioning of the driving response was successful with introverts only. Results were interpreted within the framework of Eysenck's personality theory. The possibility to study neurophysiological correlates of memory processes in humans by means of conditioned driving responses is discussed.

  15. The Personality and Psychological Stress Predict Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Five Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinling; Zhang, Danyang; Yin, Yue; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Jifu; Liu, Dexiang; Pan, Fang; Chen, Wenqiang

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of personality type and psychological stress on the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) at 5 years in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Two hundred twenty patients with stable angina (SA) or non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) treated with PCI completed type A behavioral questionnaire, type D personality questionnaire, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) at 3 days after PCI operation. Meanwhile, biomedical markers (cTnI, CK-MB, LDH, LDH1) were assayed. MACEs were monitored over a 5-year follow-up. NSTE-ACS group had higher ratio of type A behavior, type A/D behavior, and higher single factor scores of type A personality and type D personality than control group and SAP group. NSTE-ACS patients had more anxiety, depression, lower level of mental health (P Type D patients were at a cumulative increased risk of adverse outcome compared with non-type D patients (P type A and type D personality and this tendency was associated with myocardial injury. They also had obvious anxiety, depression emotion, and lower level of mental health, which were related to personality and coping style. Type D personality was an independent predictor of adverse events.

  16. A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and…

  17. A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and…

  18. Age-Related Differences in the Effect of Psychological Distress on Mortality: Type D Personality in Younger versus Older Patients with Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Denollet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mixed findings in biobehavioral research on heart disease may partly be attributed to age-related differences in the prognostic value of psychological distress. This study sought to test the hypothesis that Type D (distressed personality contributes to an increased mortality risk following implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD treatment in younger patients but not in older patients. Methods. The Type D Scale (DS14 was used to assess general psychological distress in 455 younger (≤70 y,. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, but not Type D personality, was associated with increased mortality in older patients. Among younger patients, however, Type D personality was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio = 1.91 (95% CI 1.09–3.34 and 2.26 (95% CI 1.16–4.41 for all-cause and cardiac mortality; other predictors were increasing age, CRT, appropriate shocks, ACE-inhibitors, and smoking. Conclusion. Type D personality was independently associated with all-cause and cardiac mortality in younger ICD patients but not in older patients. Cardiovascular research needs to further explore age-related differences in psychosocial risk.

  19. Psychological characteristics and subjective intolerance for xenobiotic agents of normal young adults with trait shyness and defensiveness. A parkinsonian-like personality type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, I R; Schwartz, G E; Amend, D; Peterson, J M; Kaszniak, A W; Miller, C S

    1994-07-01

    The present study examines the psychological characteristics and self-reported responses to xenobiotic agents such as tobacco smoke and pesticide of normal young adults with personality traits similar to those claimed for Parkinsonian patients. Previous research, though controversial, has suggested that persons with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) have premorbid personality traits that may include shyness and repressive defensiveness. Other epidemiological evidence indicates that PD patients may have premorbidly increased prevalence of anxiety, affective, and/or somatoform disorders; decreased rates of smoking and alcohol consumption; and elevated exposure to herbicides or pesticides. A total of 783 college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed the Cheek-Buss Scale (shyness), the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (defensiveness), Symptom Checklist 90 (revised), the Mastery Scale, a health history checklist, and rating scales for frequency of illness from alcohol and 10 common environmental chemicals. Subjects were divided into four groups on the basis of above- versus below-median scores on the Cheek-Buss and Marlowe-Crowne scales (persons high in shyness and defensiveness, those high only in shyness, those high only in defensiveness, and those low in both shyness and defensiveness). The group high in shyness but low in defensiveness had the highest, whereas the group low in shyness but high in defensiveness had the lowest, total scores on the SCL-90-R; the two shyest groups were lowest in sense of mastery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Longitudinal hierarchical linear modeling analyses of California Psychological Inventory data from age 33 to 75: an examination of stability and change in adult personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Constance J; Livson, Norman; Peskin, Harvey

    2003-06-01

    Twenty aspects of personality assessed via the California Psychological Inventory (CPI; Gough & Bradley, 1996) from age 33 to 75 were examined in a sample of 279 individuals. Oakland Growth Study and Berkeley Guidance Study members completed the CPI a maximum of 4 times. We used longitudinal hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to ask the following: Which personality characteristics change and which do not? Five CPI scales showed uniform lack of change, 2 showed heterogeneous change giving an averaged lack of change, 4 showed linear increases with age, 2 showed linear decreases with age, 4 showed gender or sample differences in linear change, 1 showed a quadratic peak, and 2 showed a quadratic nadir. The utility of HLM becomes apparent in portraying the complexity of personality change and stability.

  1. A cross-sectional population-based study on the association of personality traits with anxiety and psychological stress: Joint modeling of mixed outcomes using shared random effects approach

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have showed some evidences about the relationship between personality traits particularly neuroticism and extroversion, separately, with psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we clarified the magnitude of joint interdependence (co-morbidity) of anxiety (continuous) and Psychological stress (dichotomous) as dependent variables of mixed type with five-factor personality traits as independent variables. Materials and Methods: Data from 3180 particip...

  2. Publication Criteria and Recommended Areas of Improvement within School Psychology Journals as Reported by Editors, Journal Board Members, and Manuscript Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Craig A.; Floyd, Randy G.; Fuhrmann, Melanie J.; Martinez, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    Two online surveys were completed by editors, associate editors, editorial board members, and members or fellows of the Division 16 of the American Psychological Association. These surveys targeted (a) the criteria for a manuscript to be published in school psychology journals, and (b) the components of the peer-review process that should be…

  3. Psychological symptomatology in spouses and adult children of alcoholics: an examination of the hypothesized personality characteristics of codependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkin, C H; Kahn, M W

    1995-05-01

    The concept of codependency has been advanced to explain certain psychological traits purported to be characteristic of spouses and adult children of alcoholics. To test the validity of this hypothesized syndrome, 97 female subjects living with either an alcoholic (SA), a psychiatric patient (SP), or dentistry patient (SD) were studied; approximately 50% of subjects had a positive family history (FH+) for alcoholism. All subjects were administered an extensive battery of psychological tests. The results revealed significantly greater levels of psychological symptomatology among the SA and FH+ subjects, in part consistent with the hypothesized symptomatology of codependency.

  4. Feasibility of a Personal Health Technology-Based Psychological Intervention for Men with Stress and Mood Problems: Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Lappalainen, Raimo; Hoffrén, Henna; Myllymäki, Tero; Kinnunen, Marja-Liisa; Mattila, Elina; Happonen, Antti P; Rusko, Heikki; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    Background Work-related stress is a significant problem for both people and organizations. It may lead to mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression, resulting in increased work absences and disabilities. Scalable interventions to prevent and manage harmful stress can be delivered with the help of technology tools to support self-observations and skills training. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of the P4Well intervention in treatment of stress-related psychological problems. P4Well is a novel intervention which combines modern psychotherapy (the cognitive behavioral therapy and the acceptance and commitment therapy) with personal health technologies to deliver the intervention via multiple channels, includinggroup meetings, Internet/Web portal, mobile phone applications, and personal monitoring devices. Methods This pilot study design was a small-scale randomized controlled trial that compared the P4Well intervention with a waiting list control group. In addition to personal health technologies for self-assessment, the intervention consisted of 3 psychologist-assisted group meetings. Self-assessed psychological measures through questionnaires were collected offline pre- and post-intervention, and 6 months after the intervention for the intervention group. Acceptance and usage of technology tools were measured with user experience questionnaires and usage logs. Results A total of 24 subjects were randomized: 11 participants were followed up in the intervention group (1 was lost to follow-up) and 12 participants did not receive any intervention (control group). Depressive and psychological symptoms decreased and self-rated health and working ability increased. All participants reported they had benefited from the intervention. All technology tools had active users and 10/11 participants used at least 1 tool actively. Physiological measurements with personal feedback were considered the most useful intervention component. Conclusions

  5. Some psychologic aspects of deafness: Beethoven, Goya, and Oscar Wilde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalat, N I

    1980-04-01

    A personal experience interested the author in the psychologic aspects of deafness early in his career. It is the purpose of this article to discuss potential clues to change in personality by comparing the work of an artist before and after this handicap. Three artists were selected: the composer Ludwig van Beethoven, the painter Francisco Goya, and the author Oscar Wilde. The article develops some concepts and suggests continued appraisal.

  6. When Fairness Clashes with Personal Autonomy and Parental Authority: A Comparison of Daughters' and Mothers' Reasoning in Two Cultural Contexts in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Melike

    2017-01-01

    The author examined religious and secular daughters' and mothers' reasoning about personal autonomy, maternal authority, and moral concepts in family decision-making situations in urban Turkey. Sixty-eight daughters and 34 mothers were individually interviewed about decision-making autonomy in general issues and hypothetical daughter-mother conflicts. Results indicated participants regardless of their family status and religious background assigned more decision-making autonomy to mothers when evaluating general issues. Analysis of controversial issues as hypothetical conflicts indicated that daughters and mothers do not hold unitary social judgments about the social world that were always consistent with the norms of their community and family status. There were some religious background differences in evaluations of some conflict stories as a function of whether they evaluated the choices as moral, conventional, personal, and prudential matters. Although secular and religious participants conceptualized daughters and mothers in relational terms rather than characterizing the relations and social issues by harmony, obedience to authority, and acceptance of norms findings suggested that secular women evaluated the hypothetical adolescent-mother conflicts more consistently when the issue entails violation of a moral principle such as justice, fairness, and well-being of the other.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF A PERSONAL AUTONOMY ON THE PROCESS OF STUDENTS INTEGRATION IN INNOVATIVE-ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Mescheriakova Emma Ivanovna; Larionova Anastasia Vyacheslavovna

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the problem of a personal autonomy as a structural component of personal potential. The problem of a personal autonomy is most widely presented in theories of foreign authors. In domestic psychology the given problem only finds an urgency that causes necessity of its theoretical studying and empirical research. The work presents results of the correlation analysis of a personal autonomy and individual-psychological characteristics of the students involved in is innovativ...

  8. Pioneers in pediatric psychology: integrating nutrition and child development interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M

    2015-05-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; D'Addario, Marco; Magrin, Maria Elena; Miglioretti, Massimo; Monzani, Dario; Pancani, Luca; Sarini, Marcello; Scrignaro, Marta; Vecchio, Luca; Fattirolli, Francesco; Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Riccobono, Salvatore Pio; Greco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed.

  10. 员工主动性人格对其心理资本的影响%The Impact of Employees’ Proactive Personality on Their Psychological Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 马红宇; 殷华敏; 郭永玉; 李爱梅

    2014-01-01

    心理资本是组织行为学与管理学领域中的一个新兴的研究热点,它对许多组织后果变量都有积极影响,但目前关于心理资本的前因变量研究较为缺乏。文章从员工主动性人格这一视角切入,探讨了员工主动性人格对心理资本水平的影响。通过问卷调查,利用相关统计方法对数据进行分析,结果发现:员工的主动性人格能显著地正向预测其整体心理资本及其乐观、希望、韧性、自我效能等四个维度。理论上丰富了主动性人格与心理资本的研究领域,实践上为企业员工的人才选拔与素质培训提供了参考。%Psychological capital is a new research hotspot in the fields of organization behavior and management science,and it has a positive impact on many organizational consequent variables,however,there are few researches on its antecedent vari-ables. From the perspective of employees’proactive personality,the study explores the relationship between employees’proac-tive personality and psychological capital. The paper applies relevant statistical methods to analyze the data collected by ques-tionnaires. The results show that employees’proactive personality can significantly positively predict their overall level of psy-chological capital and its four dimensions,which are optimism,hope,resilience and self-efficacy. The findings enrich theo-retically the research field of proactive personality and psychological capital,and provide some useful guidelines for enterpris-es to select and train employees in practice.

  11. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; van Helmondt, Sanne J

    2013-01-01

    levels and Type D personality. In multivariable linear regression analyses, Type D personality accounted for 25-29% of the variance in anxiety and 23-46% of the variance in depression, while remembered parenting was no longer significantly associated with these domains. Sobel tests and bootstrapping......Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting...... styles may also be associated with Type D personality. We examined whether remembered parenting was associated with anxiety and depression in cardiac patients and whether Type D personality mediated this relationship. Methods: Our sample comprised 435 patients treated with percutaneous coronary...

  12. WHY DEPOPULATION SHOULD NOT (NECESSARILY) BE TAKEN PERSONALLY : A COMMENTARY ON REPOPULATING THE DEPOPULATED PAGES OF SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPEARS, R

    1994-01-01

    Whilst the positive political intent behind Michael Billig's project is to be applauded, his analysis can be contested on practical, pragmatic, psychological, epistemological, but also on political grounds. It is argued that privileging individuals and their experience in accounts of research raises

  13. Impact of personality and psychological distress on health-related quality of life in kidney transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prihodova, Lucia; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Roland, Robert; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    P>Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become an important outcome in the evaluation of kidney transplantation (KT). Although the medical and sociodemographic predictors of HRQoL in patients after KT are well known, there is still a lack of knowledge about the psychological factors involved. T

  14. Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

  15. Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

  16. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…

  17. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, N.L.; Versteeg, H.; Helmondt, S.J. van; Jaegere, P.P. de; Geuns, R.J.M. van; Meine, M.M.; Domburg, R.T. van; Pedersen, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting sty

  18. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, N.L.; Versteeg, H.; Helmondt, S.J. van; Jaegere, P.P. de; Geuns, R.J.M. van; Meine, M.M.; Domburg, R.T. van; Pedersen, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting sty

  19. Slavery, Personality, and Black Culture--Some Theorectical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Vincent P.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews research pertaining to S. Elkins' thesis, discusses the limitation of role analysis in explaining the development of slave personalities; suggests the possible advantages of using Neo-Freudian theories of personality development; and comments on the use of Western psychologies in general to explain the behavior of blacks. (Author/JM)

  20. Facilitating Personal Transformations in Small Groups: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Describes personal transformation in small groups method that employs Matrix Model as its operational structure in Part I of two-part article. Describes method's reliance on metaphors and nature and manner in which they are employed. Defines personal transformation within framework of analytical psychology. (Author/CM)

  1. [Physician and medical psychologist: complementary approaches in providing psychological care to cancer patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulkova, V A; Pesterëva, E V

    2014-01-01

    In providing psychological care to an oncological patient a physician and a medical psychologist come from a variety of professional positions that require different approaches and methods. It is proposed a three-phase model of the dynamics of the psychological state of the person in the situation of cancer reflecting the process of psychological adaptation of a particular patient. Focusing on this model, the authors conclude that psychological care to cancer patient, performed by a doctor and a medical psychologist, are different kinds of psychological care that does not replace but complement each other.

  2. The Difference of Personality Types Between Male and Female Psychological Tutors%男女心理委员人格类型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳

    2012-01-01

    We used the Cattell- 16PF Questionnaire to better understand the personality traits of male and female psychological tutors. All the 519 subjects are qualified psychological tutors from different departments at Huanghuai University. The results show that there is significant difference between male and female psychological tutors in some of the personality factors. Female tutors got higher scores in factors smart ( A), sensitivity (I) and fantasy (M), while male tutors got higher scores in selfreliance(Q2) and vigilance(L). Moreover, compared to the norm of 1996, there is significant difference in other factors except smart(B).%目的对心理委员进行调查与研究,了解心理委员的人格特质。工具运用卡特尔16PF人格量表对黄淮学院理工科、文科合格心理委员共519名进行测试。结果男女心理委员在人格结构上存在差异。其中,女心理委员在乐群性(A)、敏感性(1)、幻想性(M)三个因素上的得分高于男心理委员,而男心理委员在独立性(Q2)以及怀疑性(L)两个因子上的得分高于女心理委员。另外,与1996年的常模相比,男女心理委员都在聪慧性(B)上没有差异,其他各个因子与常模存在显著差异。

  3. Descriptive characterization of psycho-trauma, psychological distress and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among children and adolescent internally displaced persons (IDPs in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Lateef Sheikh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA post election violent conflict in northern Nigeria in April 2011 resulted in 800 deaths and 65,000 displaced people leading to setting up of camp for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs. We set out to determine the prevalence and pattern of psycho-traumatic stressful life events, psychological distress and PTSD among children and adolescents IDPs.MethodsA descriptive cross sectional study of 73 child and adolescent IDPs selected by total sampling. We used the Stressful Life Event checklist to measure conflict-related trauma and Reaction of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress to measure post trauma reaction of children and adolescents. Hopkins Symptoms Checklist 37 for Adolescents measured psychological distress associated with trauma in the participants. Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC used to make a diagnosis of definitive Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. We described the most frequently occurring psycho-traumatic events and psychological distress. We also calculated the prevalence of probable and definitive PTSDResultsOut of 73 respondents, three (4.1% participants had probable PTSD, and two (2.7% had definitive PTSD. The mean score of the children/adolescent IDPs on HSCL-37A and RATS were 44.7 (SD = 6.3 and 31.9 (SD = 5.7 respectively. The most frequently occurring psychological distress among female participants was suddenly scared for no reason 7 (19.5% and, becoming angry easily and feeling fearful 5 (13.9%. The average score and standard deviation of female participants 34.3 (5.2 and 15.1 (3.1 were higher than that for males 29.6 (3.3 and 14.4 (2.2 for depressive and anxiety sub-scale of HSCL-37A respectivelyConclusionWe concluded that children/adolescent IDPs were exposed to psycho-trauma following post election violent conflict and developed psychological distress. However the low prevalence of psychological distress and PTSD suggested that living with parents and psychosocial intervention provided could

  4. When personality and culture clash: the psychological distress of allocentrics in an individualist culture and idiocentrics in a collectivist culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L; Ayçiçegi, Ayse

    2006-09-01

    Because humans need both autonomy and interdependence, persons with either an extreme collectivist orientation (allocentrics) or extreme individualist values (idiocentrics) may be at risk for possession of some features of psychopathology. Is an extreme personality style a risk factor primarily when it conflicts with the values of the surrounding society? Individualism-collectivism scenarios and a battery of clinical and personality scales were administered to nonclinical samples of college students in Boston and Istanbul. For students residing in a highly individualistic society (Boston), collectivism scores were positively correlated with depression, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder and dependent personality. Individualism scores, particularly horizontal individualism, were negatively correlated with these same scales. A different pattern was obtained for students residing in a collectivist culture, Istanbul. Here individualism (and especially horizontal individualism) was positively correlated with scales for paranoid, schizoid, narcissistic, borderline and antisocial personality disorder. Collectivism (particularly vertical collectivism) was associated with low report of symptoms on these scales. These results indicate that having a personality style which conflicts with the values of society is associated with psychiatric symptoms. Having an orientation inconsistent with societal values may thus be a risk factor for poor mental health.

  5. [Design and validation of the scales for the assessment of the psychological impact of past life events: the role of ruminative thought and personal growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Márquez-González, María; Losada-Baltar, Andrés; García, Pablo E; Romero-Moreno, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Older people's emotional distress is often related to rumination processes focused on past vital events occurred during their lives. The specific coping strategies displayed to face those events may contribute to explain older adults' current well-being: they can perceive that they have obtained personal growth after those events and/or they can show a tendency to have intrusive thoughts about those events. This paper describes the development and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Scales for the Assessment of the Psychological Impact of Past Life Events (SAPIPLE): the past life events-occurrence scale (LE-O), ruminative thought scale (LE-R) and personal growth scale (LE-PG). Participants were 393 community dwelling elderly (mean age=71.5 years old; SD=6.9). In addition to the SAPIPLE scales, depressive symptomatology, anxiety, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, physical function and vitality have been assessed. The inter-rater agreement's analysis suggests the presence of two factors in the LE-O: positive and negative vital events. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) supported this two-dimensional structure for both the LE-R and the LE-PG. Good internal consistency indexes have been obtained for each scale and subscale, as well as good criterion and concurrent validity indexes. Both ruminative thoughts about past life events and personal growth following those events are related to older adults' current well-being. The SAPIPLE presents good psychometric properties that justify its use for elderly people. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-01-01

    Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in ...

  7. A cross-sectional population-based study on the association of personality traits with anxiety and psychological stress: Joint modeling of mixed outcomes using shared random effects approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Awat; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Nouri, Fatemeh; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have showed some evidences about the relationship between personality traits particularly neuroticism and extroversion, separately, with psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we clarified the magnitude of joint interdependence (co-morbidity) of anxiety (continuous) and Psychological stress (dichotomous) as dependent variables of mixed type with five-factor personality traits as independent variables. Materials and Methods: Data from 3180 participants who attended in the cross-sectional population-based “study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition” and completed self-administered questionnaires about demographic and life style, gastrointestinal disorders, personality traits, perceived intensity of stress, social support, and psychological outcome was analyzed using shared random effect approach in R Free software. Results: The results indicated high scores of neuroticism increase the chance of high psychological stress (odds ratio [OR] = 5.1; P < 0.001) and anxiety score (B = 1.73; P < 0.001) after adjustment for the probable confounders. In contrast, those who had higher scores of extraversion and conscientiousness experienced lower levels of anxiety score (B = −0.54 and −0.23, respectively, P < 0.001) and psychological stress (OR = 0.36 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.001). Furthermore, higher score of agreeableness had significant negative relationship with anxiety (B = −0.32, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study indicated that the scores of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness strongly predict both anxiety and psychological stress in Iranian adult population. Due to likely mechanism of genetic and environmental factors on the relationships between personality traits and psychological disorders, it is suggested to perform longitudinal studies focusing on both genetic and environmental factors in Iranian population. PMID:25535497

  8. A cross-sectional population-based study on the association of personality traits with anxiety and psychological stress: Joint modeling of mixed outcomes using shared random effects approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awat Feizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have showed some evidences about the relationship between personality traits particularly neuroticism and extroversion, separately, with psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we clarified the magnitude of joint interdependence (co-morbidity of anxiety (continuous and Psychological stress (dichotomous as dependent variables of mixed type with five-factor personality traits as independent variables. Materials and Methods: Data from 3180 participants who attended in the cross-sectional population-based "study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition" and completed self-administered questionnaires about demographic and life style, gastrointestinal disorders, personality traits, perceived intensity of stress, social support, and psychological outcome was analyzed using shared random effect approach in R Free software. Results: The results indicated high scores of neuroticism increase the chance of high psychological stress (odds ratio [OR] = 5.1; P < 0.001 and anxiety score (B = 1.73; P < 0.001 after adjustment for the probable confounders. In contrast, those who had higher scores of extraversion and conscientiousness experienced lower levels of anxiety score (B = −0.54 and −0.23, respectively, P < 0.001 and psychological stress (OR = 0.36 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.001. Furthermore, higher score of agreeableness had significant negative relationship with anxiety (B = −0.32, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study indicated that the scores of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness strongly predict both anxiety and psychological stress in Iranian adult population. Due to likely mechanism of genetic and environmental factors on the relationships between personality traits and psychological disorders, it is suggested to perform longitudinal studies focusing on both genetic and environmental factors in Iranian population.

  9. Exploring the personal and professional impact of reflective practice groups: a survey of 18 cohorts from a UK clinical psychology training course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Katherine; Sperlinger, David; Maltby, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Given the importance of reflective practice within clinical psychology and a lack of empirical research, this study aimed to investigate the personal and professional impact of reflective practice groups (RPGs) for former trainees. This study followed an analytic survey design utilizing a convenience sample of qualified clinical psychologists from a UK training programme. A RPG questionnaire (RPGQ) was developed for the purposes of the study. Following initial pilot work, 297 qualified psychologists were invited to complete the RPGQ. One hundred and twenty-four psychologists (42%) completed the RPGQ. Factor analysis yielded two underlying constructs labelled 'value' and 'distress'. The RPGQ demonstrated significant internal and test-retest reliability. The majority rated the RPGs as valuable for personal and professional development and learning about group processes. Just under half however reported distress as a result of the groups. Whilst some trainees, who reported distress, were able to view the challenges positively, one-sixth were not. Potency of facilitation and group size significantly predicted levels of perceived value and distress. In view of the ethical issues raised by compulsory RPGs, recommendations were made to keep group sizes within an average of 10-13, utilize facilitators with sufficient training in group processes and ensure additional methods of reflective practice development are available. Further suggestions and recommendations for future research in relation to coping and personal learning style were also made.  © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. An Online Assessment of Personality, Psychological, and Sexuality Trait Variables Associated with Self-Reported Hypersexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Michael T; Cantor, James M; Lykins, Amy D

    2017-04-01

    "Hypersexual" behavior represents a perceived inability to control one's sexual behavior. To investigate hypersexual behavior, an international sample of 510 self-identified heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men and women completed an anonymous online self-report questionnaire battery. In addition to age and sex (male), hypersexual behavior was related to higher scores on measures of sexual excitation, sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance failure, trait impulsivity, and both depressed mood and anxiety. In contrast, hypersexual behavior was related to lower scores on sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance consequences. Higher neuroticism and extraversion, as well as lower agreeableness and conscientiousness, also predicted hypersexual behavior. Interestingly, interactions among the variables assessed did not significantly predict hypersexual behavior, suggesting the possible existence of multiple and predominantly independent taxa for various persons reporting hypersexual behavior. Core personality features may also be present in persons with hypersexual behavior. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  11. [Mutual adaptation of elderly patients with schizophrenia and mentally healthy persons in a family (socio-psychological analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha'lskiĭ, Iu E; Dru'z, V F

    1989-01-01

    Clinical and psychosocial examinations of 70 families of senile schizophrenic patients and 40 families of healthy persons showed that in the patients' and controls' families, the identical events were caused by the subjects' age itself: lower status and adaptation of senile persons, rationalistic attitude of the relatives toward them, conflicts, disintegrated families, dysharmonic relations. In line with the schizophrenic process, the patients have less frequently higher status, enjoy more care of siblings, more rationalistic attitude of the relatives, higher conflict rate, larger variety of familial cooperation disorders and adaptations.

  12. Half a century of cross-cultural psychology: A grateful coda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonner, Walter J

    2015-11-01

    This article provides brief commentaries on culture-oriented research in psychology and a synopsis of the author's 50-year involvement in cross-cultural psychology. Overviews of several areas with which he is more familiar are given. These include his career-long stewardship of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, of which he is founding and special issues editor, continuous involvement with the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, ongoing interest in the search for psychological universals, studying the influence of cultures on personality, values, and other psychological dimensions, monitoring the inclusion of culture in introductory psychology texts, contributions to cross-cultural counseling, and sustained involvement with the Online Readings in Psychology and Culture since its inception. Also included are comments on both the ever-expanding research on culture's influence on behavior and thought by a growing network of scholars who have different, yet complementary, agendas and research methods.

  13. The Development, Evolution, and Status of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities: Reflections and Future Directions for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    This article celebrates the 50th anniversary of the introduction of John L. Holland's (1959) theory of vocational personalities and work environments by describing the theory's development and evolution, its instrumentation, and its current status. Hallmarks of Holland's theory are its empirical testability and its user-friendliness. By…

  14. In Search of the Creative Personality: Arnheim Award Address to Division 10 of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helson, Ravenna

    1996-01-01

    Review of the research literature on the characteristics of creative individuals finds them to be concentrated in artistic and investigative occupations. Individuals in different arts and investigative fields differed considerably in personality traits, and more creative individuals did not differ from the less creative in the same ways across…

  15. The Political Is Personal: Measurement and Application of Nation-Level Indicators of Gender Equity in Psychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Grabe, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the dictum, "the personal is political," feminist scholars have maintained that gender equity in security, access to education, economic opportunity, and property ownership are central to women's well-being. Empirical research evaluating this thesis can include nation-level indicators of gender equity, such as the United Nation…

  16. The Development, Evolution, and Status of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities: Reflections and Future Directions for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    This article celebrates the 50th anniversary of the introduction of John L. Holland's (1959) theory of vocational personalities and work environments by describing the theory's development and evolution, its instrumentation, and its current status. Hallmarks of Holland's theory are its empirical testability and its user-friendliness. By…

  17. An investigation of the clinical use of the house-tree-person projective drawings in the psychological evaluation of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, L; Farrar, A R; Valle, M; Ghahary, N; Panella, M; DeGraw, D

    2000-05-01

    Identification and evaluation of child sexual abuse is an integral task for clinicians. To aid these processes, it is necessary to have reliable and valid psychological measures. This is an investigation of the clinical validity and use of the House-Tree-Person (HTP) projective drawing, a widely used diagnostic tool, in the assessment of child sexual abuse. HTP drawings were collected archivally from a sample of sexually abused children (n = 47) and a nonabused comparison sample (n = 82). The two samples were grossly matched for gender, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status. The protocols were scored using a quantitative scoring system. The data were analyzed using a discriminant function analysis. Group membership could not be predicted based on a total HTP score.

  18. [The psychology of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makselon, J

    1998-01-01

    Man's common experience interpreted in the humanities points to the inevitability of suffering. Suffering was even termed a basic border situation (C. Jaspers). The so-called scientific psychology hardly analyses human suffering. S. Freud regarded culture as a source of suffering and the behaviourists did not see the need for an analysis of man's inner experience. Radical change of the view on suffering was brought about in the works of V. E. Frankl who thought man to be homo patients (to be a man means to suffer). There are various sources and kinds of suffering. Based on his own vast researches the author characterizes three kinds of man's suffering: physical (pain, somatic diseases), psychical (hardships, mental disorders and illnesses) and spiritual (lack of a meaningful life, moral dilemmas). He also puts forward a hypothesis that a psychic suffering is a correlative between both mental and spiritual sufferings. Suffering fulfills a variety of functions in the life and personality of a human being; it can cause a personality degradation or can further a personality development. Therefore, we can speak of the ambivalent character of suffering. The elementary psychological problem, encountered in suffering, is to give suffering some meaning. In order to do this one must ask about future: for whom and what do I suffer? Whereas the question about the ultimate origin of suffering (why do I suffer?) not only makes it possible to explain the issue fully but first of all allows us to recognize suffering as a mystery of human existence. The author proves that the analyses carried out by John Paul II in Salvifici doloris are coherent with the principles of logotherapy. However, the analyses are more profound since they point to individual, social, cultural and transcendental dimensions of suffering.

  19. Integrating Health and Vocational Psychology: HIV and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Borges, Nicole J.; McNally, Christopher J.; Maguire, Colleen P.; Britton, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the Major Contribution on integrating health and vocational psychology, using persons with HIV who have work-related concerns as an example. The authors describe the demographics associated with HIV disease and new treatments that have allowed people with HIV to remain healthy and continue working, or consider returning to…

  20. Predictive Value and Psychological Meaning of Vocational Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.; Gottfredson, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    The psychological meaning and predictive value of a person's vocational aspirations were examined by applying Holland's typology to the vocational aspirations of high school juniors (N=140), and a second sample of college students studied over a one-year interval (N-624). (Author)

  1. A Model and a Metalanguage for Research on Psychological Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A model of two-person interaction in psychological counseling, which is derived from Alfred Schutz's phenomenological theory of social relations, and a computer-assisted metalanguage based on case-grammar theory are presented, and their applicability to the analysis of natural language in counseling is argued. (Author)

  2. Integrating Health and Vocational Psychology: HIV and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Borges, Nicole J.; McNally, Christopher J.; Maguire, Colleen P.; Britton, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the Major Contribution on integrating health and vocational psychology, using persons with HIV who have work-related concerns as an example. The authors describe the demographics associated with HIV disease and new treatments that have allowed people with HIV to remain healthy and continue working, or consider returning to…

  3. Developmental Psychology and Public Policy: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a framework for developmentally oriented policy research. Drawing from U. Bronfenbrenner's (1995) dynamic developmental systems theory, the authors suggest ways in which the key tenets of process, persons, context, and time can inform policy research in developmental psychology and can be used to support a causal…

  4. Developmental Psychology and Public Policy: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a framework for developmentally oriented policy research. Drawing from U. Bronfenbrenner's (1995) dynamic developmental systems theory, the authors suggest ways in which the key tenets of process, persons, context, and time can inform policy research in developmental psychology and can be used to support a causal…

  5. Predicting one and three month postoperative Somatic Concerns, Psychological Distress, and Maladaptive Eating Behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Merrell, Julie; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-04-01

    Presurgical psychological screening of bariatric surgery candidates includes some form of standardized psychological assessment. However, associations between presurgical psychological screening and postoperative outcome have not been extensively studied. Here, we explore associations between presurgical Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores and early postoperative Somatic Concerns, Psychological Distress, and Maladaptive Eating Behaviors. The sample consisted of male (n = 238) and female (n = 621) patients who were administered the MMPI-2-RF at their presurgical psychological evaluation and received bariatric surgery. Patients were evaluated at their 1- and 3-month postoperative appointments. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that three latent constructs-somatic concerns, psychological distress, and maladaptive eating behaviors-were represented by responses to a postoperative assessment and that these constructs could be measured consistently over time. Presurgical scores on MMPI-2-RF scales measuring internalizing dysfunction were associated with more psychological distress at postoperative follow-ups, scores on scales measuring somatization were associated with more postoperative somatic concerns, and scores on scales assessing emotional/internalizing, behavioral/externalizing, cognitive complaints, and thought dysfunction prior to surgery were associated with maladaptive eating behaviors after surgery. In conjunction with a presurgical psychological interview, the MMPI-2-RF provides information that can assist in anticipating postoperative outcomes and inform efforts to prevent them.

  6. Eysenck Psychobiological Personality Model: a projected into the future history

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Vanina; Firpo, L; Vion, D.; Oliván, M E De Costa; Casella, L.; L Cuenya; G D Blum; Pedrón, V

    2010-01-01

    In this article, particular circumstances, author and ideas that influenced on the elaboration of one of the most solid personality models that Psychology has till nowadays: Eysenck Personality Model, are revised. Its main characteristics are presented, which defined it as a dispositional, dimensional, hierarchic and psychobiological model. The intention of improving dimensions description, explanation, and measurement, took this author to propose changes to his original theory and instrument...

  7. Eysenck Psychobiological Personality Model: a projected into the future history

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Vanina; Firpo, L; Vion, D.; Oliván, M E De Costa; Casella, L.; L Cuenya; G D Blum; V Pedrón

    2010-01-01

    In this article, particular circumstances, author and ideas that influenced on the elaboration of one of the most solid personality models that Psychology has till nowadays: Eysenck Personality Model, are revised. Its main characteristics are presented, which defined it as a dispositional, dimensional, hierarchic and psychobiological model. The intention of improving dimensions description, explanation, and measurement, took this author to propose changes to his original theory and instrument...

  8. Adult attachment status and psychological disorder: the predictive validity of adult attachment in violent, personality-disordered patients

    OpenAIRE

    McGauley, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of attachment in a group of violent, personality-disordered patients in a high secure hospital. The research examines the mental representation of attachment and the perception of parenting, as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview and the Parental Bonding Instrument, in this patient group and examines whether these differ from those of non-violent psychiatric patients. A prospective study examines whether the attachment measures predict change across a rang...

  9. Pain and psychological well-being of older persons living in nursing homes: an exploratory study in planning patient-centred intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi; Leung, Rincy; Ho, Suki

    2012-02-01

    This article is a report on a study to examine the pain situation, the use of oral analgesics and non-pharmacological strategies and the psychological well-being of older patients living in nursing homes; the relationships between pain and psychological well-being were also explored. Pain is common among older adults world-wide, and tends to be under-treated. Indeed, the high prevalence of pain may further hinder the fulfilment of psychological needs in a Maslow hierarchy of needs model. It was a quantitative cross-sectional study; older adults from six nursing homes were invited to join the study in 2007-2009, with a response rate of 100%. Pain was measured using the Geriatric Pain Assessment, happiness using the Subjective Happiness Scale, life satisfaction using the Life Satisfaction Index - A Form, loneliness using the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and depression was measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale. A convenience sample of 302 older patients (213 females and 89 males aged from 60 to 101, mean age of 84·99) joined the study. The majority of them had experienced pain in the previous 3 months, with a pain intensity of 4·51 on a 10-point scale. Pain sites were mainly the knee, back, shoulder and musculoskeletal areas. Only 50% of them took oral analgesics, and 70% used non-pharmacological measures for pain relief. The pain group reported significantly more loneliness and depression when compared with their no-pain counterparts. As the number of older patients increases, so does the need for alternative accommodation; thus, pain management education is urgently needed for staff and nursing home residents. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The impact of personality traits on psychology majors’ academic performance%心理学专业学生人格特征对其学业成绩的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马平贤; 丁凤琴

    2012-01-01

      本研究采用卡特尔16种人格因素量表(16-PF)和艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)对187名心理学专业学生进行人格特征调查,探讨心理学专业学生的人格特征对其学习成绩的影响.结果表明:(1)心理学专业学生的聪慧性、兴奋性与学习成绩呈正相关(ps<0.01);世故性与学习成绩呈负相关(ps<0.01).(2)心理学专业学生神经质、精神质人格与学习成绩呈显著负相关(p<0.01,p<0.05).%  With 187 psychology majors as subjects, using Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Inventory (16-PF) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) for personality traits, this study explored the impact of personality traits on psychology majors’ academic performance. The results indicate that:(1) psychology majors’ academic performance have positive correlation with bright,excitability (Ps<.01) of 16-PF. and negative causal relation with privateness (P<.01). (2) psychology majors’ academic performance have negative correlation with psychoticism(p<.05), nervouseness(P<.01) of EPQ.

  11. Study on the personality and psychology of the patients with AIDS%艾滋病患者的个性心理特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪音; 刘雨莹; 何昊; 闫怡欣; 程文惠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the personality and psychology of the patients with AIDS,give mental nursing and mental treatment on patients of the AIDS , improve the life quality of AIDS patients and provide a theoretical basis for taking reasonable social support.Methods The treatment group (TG) was composed of 26 patients with AIDS,and the control group (CG) composed of 26 health persons. By Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) and symptom cheek list 90 (SCL-90),the people in two groups were investigated. SPSS 13.0 FOR WINDOWS were performed to analyze the results investigated.Results ①The result of EPQ showed that the stability of temperament,psychoticism and concealment was significantly different between the TG and CG (P<0.05); ②The result of SCL-90 showed that the features of somatization,depression,anxiety,hostility,crankiness,psychosis and other features were significantly different, but stubborn, between the TG and CG (P<0.05).Conclusion The patients with AIDS have bad personality and psychology,and should be treated with psychology therapy.%目的:探讨艾滋病患者的个性心理特征,为临床开展艾滋病的心理治疗和心理护理、提高艾滋病患者的生活质量以及采取合理的社会支持提供理论依据。方法采用盲法对本地区26例(T组)艾滋病患者及对照组健康人群26例(C组)进行问卷调查,均使用艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)和症状自评量表(SCL-90)评估,对结果进行分析。结果 EPQ统计分析结果显示,艾滋病患者的内向性、气质稳定性、精神质、掩饰性4个方面与健康人群比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);SCL-90统计结果显示,艾滋病患者除偏执因子外,其余因子包括躯体化、强迫性、人际敏感、抑郁、焦虑、敌对、恐怖等因子2组之间比较均存在统计学差异(P<0.05)。结论艾滋病患者存在不良个性心理,因此提供心理治疗、心理护理、

  12. What psychology means to me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sugarman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The author takes on the task of describing the interface between emotion and cognition by way of a narrative about psychology, and its meaning to his life. Using time as an overall metaphor, or perhaps a foundation stone underpinning a series of seemingly unconnected events, some insight is given into the author's personal life. The author invokes the works of feminist philosopher and author, Susan Faludi, to portray some aspects of his journey through fantasy, and then the reality of a disparate practice on two continents in psychology and neuropsychology. With particular reference to Faludi's portrayal of men as failed heroes without a role in modern society, the author discovers that all of his work with others has been a work with his own troubled soul, and his failed heroism. Calling on his early role models, and life with and without a sense of purpose, he learns from his clients the value of courage and patience, a spiritual as well as intellectual journey that leads him to become many things to many people in order to heal them, and himself.

  13. Smartphone-based point-of-care testing of salivary α-amylase for personal psychological measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Wentao; Yang, Yuankui; Liu, Hong; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-11-07

    Here we report a smartphone-based potentiometric biosensor for point-of-care testing of salivary α-amylase (sAA), which is one of the most sensitive indices of autonomic nervous system activity, and therefore a promising non-invasive biomarker for mental health. The biosensing system includes a smartphone having a sAA-detection App, a potentiometric reader and a sensing chip with preloaded reagents. The saliva sample wicks into the reaction zone on the sensing chip so that the sAA reacts with the preloaded reagents, resulting in conversion of an electron mediator Fe(CN)6(3-) to Fe(CN)6(4-). The sensing chip is then pressed by fingers to push the reaction mixture into the detection zone for the potentiometric measurement. The potential measured by the smartphone-powered potentiometric reader is sent to the smartphone App via the USB port, and converted into sAA concentration based on a calibration curve. Using our method, sAA in real human sample is quantitatively analyzed within 5 min. The results are in good agreement with that obtained using a reference method, and correlated to psychological states of the subjects.

  14. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  15. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  16. The Effectiveness of Group Psychological Therapy on Prisoners’ Prisonalized Personality%团体心理干预服刑人员监狱化人格的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何燕平

    2013-01-01

      以福建省某监狱服刑人员作为被试,挑选20名监狱化人格高分者,随机分为实验组和对照组,对实验组进行16次、每次2小时的团体心理干预,采用等组前后测准实验设计,以探讨团体心理干预服刑人员监狱化人格的有效性。结果显示:实验组的监狱化人格总分以及悲观思维、低信任、低自尊、被动、对抗等因子分明显下降,前后测结果之间差异达到显著性水平,但双重性、冷漠、说谎成性改变不明显;对照组监狱化人格以及各因子前后测量分数没有显著性差异。%Prisoners in a prison of Fujian Province were measured by Prisoners’ Prisonized Personality Scale, to explore the effectiveness group psychological therapy on prisoners’ prisonalized personality. 20 Prisoners with higher prisonized personality were selected and were divided into experimental group and controlled group. Participants in the experimental group received group sychological therapy for 16 times, with 2 hours for every time. This was an equal group pre-post experimental design. The results showed: After intervention , the sore of prisonized personality and pessimistic thought, lowly-trust, antagonism, passive, lowly-self-esteem of the experimental group had dropped significantly, but it was not easy to change indifferent, lying-nature , dual nature in short term;The post-test and the pre-test of of the control group’s Prisonalized Personality and eight dimensions had no significant difference.

  17. Psychological and Pedagogical Features of Teaching Students with Visual Deprivation in Training to Work on a Personal Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov V. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how children with profound sight impairment percieve visual information from a computer screen using synthesized speech and the tactile display system Braille. Describes research of characteristics of user skills development in children with visual deprivation. Illustrated are the main differences in the perception of information from the screen of the user's computer using a visual interface, and users forced to use special software to non-visual access. Provide the most significant results of research and a number of methodical recommendations on educating children of this category in work on the personal computer without visual control. The article may be interest to teachers of informatics, teaching students with profound visual impairment, for parents with children in this category, as well as for scientists, whose professional interests are in the area of pedagogy of the blind

  18. Self-worth and psychological adjustment of obese children: An analysis through the Draw-A-Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Alborghetti, Amelia; Bruno, Antonio; Troili, Giulia Maria; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate psychopathological correlates of child obesity via the Draw-A-Person test (DAP). METHODS The participants were 50 children with a mean age of 9.74 years. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of body fat. Children were divided into normal (n = 17), overweight (n = 14) and obese (n = 19). Two qualitative methods of scoring the DAP based on an integrative approach were used to assess self-concept (ESW) and overall level of children’s adjustment (EAC). A procedure for judging interpretative skills of clinicians was implemented before they evaluated children’s drawings. RESULTS As predicted by our hypothesis, BMI was negatively correlated with ESW, r (50) = -0.29, P children. CONCLUSION It was concluded that there is a negative bias toward females that reveals how the stigma of obesity is widespread in Western society. PMID:27679772

  19. Effects of Cognition, Function, and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms on Medicare Expenditures and Health Care Utilization for Persons With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkowitz, Eric; Kane, Robert L; Dowd, Bryan; Gaugler, Joseph E; MacLehose, Richard F; Kuntz, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    Clinical features of dementia (cognition, function, and behavioral/psychological symptoms [BPSD]) may differentially affect Medicare expenditures/health care utilization. We linked cross-sectional data from the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study to Medicare data to evaluate the association between dementia clinical features among those with dementia and Medicare expenditures/health care utilization (n = 234). Cognition was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Function was evaluated as the number of functional limitations (0-10). BPSD was evaluated as the number of symptoms (0-12). Expenditures were estimated with a generalized linear model (log-link and gamma distribution). Number of hospitalizations, institutional outpatient visits, and physician visits were estimated with a negative binomial regression. Medicare covered skilled nursing days were estimated with a zero-inflated negative binomial model. Cognition and BPSD were not associated with expenditures. Among individuals with less than seven functional limitations, one additional limitation was associated with $123 (95% confidence interval: $19-$227) additional monthly Medicare spending. Better cognition and poorer function were associated with more hospitalizations among those with an MMSE less than three and less than six functional limitations, respectively. BPSD had no effect on hospitalizations. Poorer function and fewer BPSD were associated with more skilled nursing among individuals with one to seven functional limitations and more than four symptoms, respectively. Cognition had no effect on skilled nursing care. No clinical feature was associated with institutional outpatient care. Of individuals with an MMSE less than 15, poorer cognition was associated with fewer physician visits. Among those with more than six functional limitations, poorer function was associated with fewer physician visits. Poorer function, not cognition or BPSD, was associated with higher Medicare

  20. Recovery and positive psychology: parallel themes and potential synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sandra G; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    The positive psychology movement studies the sources of human strength and the foundations of the "good life." Like the recovery movement, it focuses on personal fulfillment and well-being more than on mental illness. These movements have followed separate but parallel tracks. Positive psychology has traveled an academic and empirical path and the recovery movement has followed a grassroots advocacy model. The authors describe the successful use of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths in a Department of Veterans Affairs psychiatric rehabilitation program. They argue for the integration of positive psychology and the recovery movement: positive psychology provides a potentially useful framework for further defining and fostering the goals of recovery, and the recovery movement can expand the hitherto limited application of positive psychology.

  1. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Smashing Silos and Breaking Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertlieb, Donald

    2016-11-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of my career as a pediatric psychologist. Educational and professional experiences often involved confrontations with silos and boundaries set by traditions limiting understanding and impact on children's healthy development. A pedigree in developmental psychology clashed with identity, guild, and loyalty dimensions of clinical psychology. A research emphasis challenged the emergent harmony of the scientist-practitioner models. The medical center and its silos collided with those of arts and sciences academia. Evolving as an applied developmental scientist specializing in pediatric psychology allowed for a gratifying and meaningful career with a range of scientific, pedagogical, and policy contributions. An abiding orientation toward human rights and social justice sustained progress and generativity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sujeito e alteridade: reflexões a partir da psicologia histórico-cultural Person and otherness: reflections from historical-cultural psychology onwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Vieira Zanella

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A temática constituição do sujeito vem se caracterizando como objeto de discussões em diferentes orientações teórico-metodológicas da Psicologia e é importante na medida em que problematiza tanto o objeto dessa ciência como a forma com que é abordado. A temática é discutida neste texto tendo como referencial de base os aportes teóricos de L.S.Vygotski. Na perspectiva desse autor, a especificidade humana decorre da dupla relação que se estabelece com a realidade: via atividade, o ser humano se apropria da cultura e concomitantemente nela se objetiva, constituindo-se assim como sujeito. Desse modo, a dimensão singular é inexoravelmente constituída e constituidora do social, o que pode ser tematizado como alteridade, como a dimensão de um outro ou das relações com outros.The theme of the subject's constitution has been characterized as object of updated discussions within different areas of knowledge and most specifically in severeal theoretical-methodological orientations in Psychology. This matter is relevant because it enquires about the object of this science as well as the way it is approached. Based on the presupposition of the eminently social character of human gender, it brings out the need of entering into dialogue with other areas of knowledge as well as delimiting specific areas of analysis, which allow the psychological science to develop and justify itself as locus of knowledge. The historical-cultural psychology perspective says that the human specificity comes from the dual relation established with reality: through activity the human being assimilates culture and concomitantly develops himself as person. Consequently, the singular dimension is inexorably developed and it develops social, which can be known as otherness, as well as the other's dimension or the relations with the other. Additionaly, other issues need to be inquired, such as the consciousness, the unconsciousness, and the affections, which will

  3. Psychological distress and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R; Young, T B; Schoenherr, R A

    1982-04-01

    Psychologically distressed patients and clients of health care and social service organizations are found to report somewhat more dissatisfaction with services than do the nondistressed. Four explanations for this relationship are examined: 1) the psychologically distressed are generally dissatisfied; 2) service providers react negatively to the psychologically distressed; 3) psychologically distressed patients are dissatisfied when service providers do not respond to their psychological needs; and 4) patients who deny their psychological distress tend to be dissatisfied. The results show that the psychologically distressed report more dissatisfaction because of the very high levels of dissatisfaction found among patients who deny having personal problems.

  4. The psychology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swencionis, Charles; Rendell, Sarah Litman

    2012-10-01

    G. Stanley Hall, the first person to earn a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States, did research on eating behaviors in the nineteenth century (Lepore in The New Yorker, 2011). Research on psychological aspects of obesity accelerated in the 1950s and there has been a great deal done at this point. We review areas of considerable activity and relevance.

  5. Discovering the Nature of Competitive Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Klyueva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “competitiveness” has been most thoroughly developed in theframework of modern economics and management. Apart from economic factors,this concept also embraces social and psychological factors, but economic modelsdo not reveal the psychological essence of the concept of “competitive personality.”Analytical review of the psychological and educational case studies of the competitive-personality problem has brought to light the ambiguity in this concept alongwith a multitude of models that distinguish individual aspects of a competitivepersonality. Most creators of the various models emphasize the quality of the conditionsnecessary for forming and developing a competitive personality.In economics, competition is an essential, inherent feature of various types of activitywhere conflicts of interest occur. However, the established economic modelof competitive personality reduces and replaces the psychological content of theconcept.Theoretically and experimentally the authors of this article substantiate their disclosureof the competitive-personality concept via its creative potential. Results ofan in-depth study confirm that the ability to achieve success through one’s owninitiative, anticipating the demands of competition, appears to be the backbonefor competitiveness of personality.

  6. Deep Personality Development:An Effective Technique to Cure Serious Psychological Problems of University Students%人格深层扩展:矫治大学生心理障碍的有效技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛斌

    2015-01-01

    近年来,大学生心理障碍的严重性、复杂性困扰着学生工作者。人们不断探索各种心理干预与矫治的技术。实践证明:在深层心理学和本土深层文化结构基础上形成的由“共感”“归本”“显现”三个技术环节所构成的人格深层扩展心理矫治技术对帮助心理障碍的大学生较快恢复心理健康具有良好的效果。%In recent years, psychological workers have been always perplexed by the seriousness and complica-tion of psychological problems of university students. All kinds of psychological intervention and correction approach-es have been explored continuously. Practice shows that deep personality development, which consists of“synesthesi-a”“nature-returning”“positive personality-appearance”and is based on deep psychology and locative deep cultural structure, is an effective technique to cure serious psychological problems of university students.

  7. Formation of social and personal experience of preschoolers in gaming activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydiya Tseeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors deals with retrospective modern psychological and pedagogical research on the game, sets out the principles and conditions of socio-personal experience of preschool children in the game; revealed relations game and experience that eventually allows to understand the phenomenon of "social experience" more deeply and further outline the path of formation of personality development in gaming activities.

  8. 被试功能差异分析在心理测量中的应用%An Introduction of Differential Person Functioning in Applied Psychology Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰天; 戴晓阳

    2011-01-01

    被试功能差异(Differential Person Functioning,DPF),是指某个被试对于不同内容或形式的项目具有不同的反应概率,表现出不同的反应模式,它被视为项目功能差异的一种拓展.DPF分析结合了每个项目的信息与每个被试的信息,是一种检测被试反应偏差的理想方法.能针对个体进行综合而全面的评价,了解被试之间的差异与被试个体内差异.在人格测评、情绪和认知诊断以及评分者一致性的研究中有很大的应用价值.本文主要介绍了DPF的概念、计算方法以及近年来它在心理测量领域中的应用.%Differential person function (DPF) is an extension of differential item function (DIF), which refers to a technique that can be used to identify if the responses of a given individual are different among different groups of items. In IRT perspective, DPF is an ideal technique, which combines information about the properties of each individual and the properties of each item, can give a comprehensive assessment to an individual. This article mainly introduces the concept,calcution, and application of DPF in the field of psychological measurement in recent years.

  9. [The Role of Psychological and Technology-related Personality Traits and Knowledge Levels as Factors Influencing Adoption of Telemonitoring by Medical Professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockweiler, C; Hornberg, C

    2015-11-09

    Objectives: Information and communication technologies are becoming increasingly important in health care. Randomized clinical trials have shown that telemonitoring in particular leads to improved quality of care as well as shortened hospital stays and reduced health care costs. For its long-term anchoring in medical care, user-oriented technology needs to be developed, taking into account the complex structures of technology acceptance Methods: Knowledge of and attitudes towards telemonitoring amongst medical professionals were investigated using an online-based approach with a random sample of n=614; the response rate was 21% (n=133). The emergence of positive attitude patterns towards telemonitoring was analyzed using the relationships between psychological and technology-related personality traits, and perceived knowledge was determined using a regression model. Results: Positive attitudes towards telemonitoring are significantly influenced by the individual's knowledge and agreeableness, which is strongly characterized by altruistic traits and interpersonal trust. There is a strong association with an improvement in the quality of care, while there are differences in attitudes towards telemonitoring between health care sectors and gender. Overall, only 57% of the physicians surveyed feel sufficiently informed about the use of telemonitoring. Conclusion: Medical evidence is crucial for the further development of telemedicine in general and telemonitoring in particular. Improvements need to be made in knowledge transfer, the exchange of best practice solutions and the anchoring of telemedicine in education and training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. [The personality structure as a basis for the organization of psychological support in the process of medical rehabilitation of the patients presenting with motor function disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukshina, A A; Kotel'nikova, A V; Gozulov, A S

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed the relationships between personality traits and the quality of life in 95 in-patients with motor function disorders undergoing the rehabilitative treatment. It was shown that the high quality of life in the patients suffering from motor function disorders as a result of an acute cerebral circulation disorder correlated with the positive attitudes towards recovering and stress resistance. In the patients presenting with degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the joints, the high quality of life correlated with the purpose-oriented behaviour and discipline expressed as the commitment to the goal. It was suggested based on the results of the study that the correction of the level of situational and trait anxiety should be regarded as the main end-point of the psychological treatment of the patients with acute cerebral circulation disorders, while the patients suffering from degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the joints could benefit from education designed to enhance compliance to the treatment and motivation for recovery.

  11. MODELO DE INTERVENCIÓN PSICOLÓGICA EN PERSONAS ENFRENTADAS A PSICOTRAUMAS Model of psychological intervention in persons faced to psycho traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudys Torres Martínez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo teórico es presentar un modelo de intervención psicológica en personas que han enfrentado un evento traumático. Sus antecedentes parten de la experiencia de la autora en este campo y en la revisión de la literatura pertinente para estas intervenciones. El modelo tiene tres ejes, los cuales se conjugan entre si para dar cuerpo a la estructura del mismo. Estos ejes son: la resiliencia, la logoterapia y la narrativa, esta última dentro del enfoque de la terapia cognitiva. El artículo explica cada uno de los componentes e indica que la intervención en una primera instancia debe ser un acompañamiento y solo en los casos que lo ameriten se hará una intervención psicoterapéutica.The purpose of this theoretical article is to present a model of psychological intervention in persons who have faced a traumatic event. Antecedents depart from the authoress‘ experience in this field and a critical review of the pertinent literature for these interventions. This model in based on three axes: resilience, logotherapy and narrative. The latest within cognitive therapy. This article explains each of the components and indicates that intervention in the first instance must be an accompaniment, and only if needed, a psychotherapeutic intervention must be done.

  12. Behavioral variability and consistency: Experimental bases for a psychological theory of personality (Variabilidad y Consistencia individual: Bases experimentales de la teoría de la personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Santacreu Mas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain how and why individual differences emerge despite accounting for biological andsocio-cultural differences, why people behave differently in the same context, and how behavior becomes stable and consistent. We review the experimental work on variability and stereotypy. In animal research, in contrast to expectations, there is interindividual variability in behavior under extreme environmental control. In addition, intraindividual consistency (stereotypy is detected in animals whose behavior is not fully adjusted to the contingencies. The differences in what is learned (the kind of contingency relations among laboratory animals can be explained by: a the differences between effective contingencies and programmed contingencies, and b the relationship between exploration and rate of reinforcement. In experimental studies in humans, learning differences in identical environments depend, further to the above, onwhat was previously learned by the individual (experience and education and the thoroughness and internal consistency of task instructions. From these concepts, we propose a psychological theory of personality that explains: (a how we learn different relationships from the same experience; (b how behavioral individual differences emerge (variability; and (cwhy each individual’s behavior becomes stable and consistent.

  13. Providing a Model to Predict Purchase Behavior of Mobile Phone Buyers in Iran: Identify Cultural, Social, Personal and Psychological Factors of Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiumars Mohsenimehr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowing an insight on factors affecting intentions of customers not enables marketers for better understanding and predicting demand for products or services, but raises motivation and frequency of purchase products or services. More importantly, if the factors are considered for developing new products, those developing products will have a higher probability of success. Therefore, in this research, we will analyze theoretical aspects of consumer’s purchasing behavior and the factors affecting the behavior. The present research is applicable objectively; while it is descriptivesurvey and correlation type in terms of method. Its population consist students of Islamic Azad University's Business Administration. The research data were collected from 386 students according the standardized questionnaires with Likert five-point. Finally, we tested its hypotheses by considering to normality of the data and using parametric methods as well as Pearson Correlation Coefficient and regression. The results indicated a positive impact of all cultural, social, personal and psychological factors on purchasing behavior of mobile phone buyers. Therefore, this article will help marketing managers to better understand of consumers’ decision-making that helping them causes that they use better the factors for providing marketing strategy. Finally, this study will help companies to affect consumers’ decisions by adopting detailed marketing strategies and full knowledge and insight.

  14. The Counseling, Self-Care, Adherence Approach to Person-Centered Care and Shared Decision Making: Moral Psychology, Executive Autonomy, and Ethics in Multi-Dimensional Care Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Anders; Munthe, Christian; Törner, Marianne; Forsander, Gun

    2016-08-01

    This article argues that standard models of person-centred care (PCC) and shared decision making (SDM) rely on simplistic, often unrealistic assumptions of patient capacities that entail that PCC/SDM might have detrimental effects in many applications. We suggest a complementary PCC/SDM approach to ensure that patients are able to execute rational decisions taken jointly with care professionals when performing self-care. Illustrated by concrete examples from a study of adolescent diabetes care, we suggest a combination of moral and psychological considerations to support the claim that standard PCC/SDM threatens to systematically undermine its own goals. This threat is due to a tension between the ethical requirements of SDM in ideal circumstances and more long-term needs actualized by the context of self-care handled by patients with limited capacities for taking responsibility and adhere to their own rational decisions. To improve this situation, we suggest a counseling, self-care, adherence approach to PCC/SDM, where more attention is given to how treatment goals are internalized by patients, how patients perceive choice situations, and what emotional feedback patients are given. This focus may involve less of a concentration on autonomous and rational clinical decision making otherwise stressed in standard PCC/SDM advocacy.

  15. Exemption from registration for persons authorized under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission or agreement state medical use licenses or permits and administering the drug product DaTscan(TM). Interim final rule with request for comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-25

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is amending its regulations to waive the requirement of registration for persons who are authorized under United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission or Agreement State medical use licenses or permits and administer the drug product DaTscan(TM).

  16. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  17. Characteristics of psychological violence (mobbing in terms of emigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchishina N.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of psychological violence (mobbing in organizations, his psychological characteristics in emigration. Analyzes the types of mobbing, its negative influence on the personality, negative consequences which not only affect physical and psychological health, but also lead to physical diseases, and suicide. The author emphasizes that in conditions of exile (in Israel psychological violence is experienced more acutely and is characterized by a prolonged depressed state. One important reason for this situation is the decline of the former social status of the emigrant, being able to quickly inclusion in the new society, loss of important social ties, the need to adopt different social norms, sometimes contradicting previously established views. Against the background of such negative phenomena in humans appear aggression, desire to dominate at any cost to regain lost status. The problem of mobbing in the modern world is very important and requires a robust approach at the state level. That psychological safety is a condition for ensuring the formation and development of functional comfort, maintaining a high level of personal emotional security and social-psychological skills, optimization of reserve possibilities of the person in activities.

  18. Positive psychology and ideas of cultural-historical school of L.S. Vygotsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilev V.K.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article was carried out a comparative analysis between two distinctive psychology schools: the cultural-historical psychology of L.V. Vygotsky and the positive psychological school. Distinct are a number of significant similarities between their basic ideas that are valuable both for the development of human knowledge and for public practice. The authors have outlined and systematized the leading personal and intellectual qualities of the famous psychologists who have created the most promising theories in the psychological science. The category is highlighted as well as a small group of visionary psychologists who have identified the most important problems of man and psychology and have offered the best quality solutions to these problems. These are W. James, S. Freud, L. Vygotsky, E. Eriksson and A. Maslow; We’ve noticed that Vygotsky alone meets all the criteria, as if the concept of insightful psychologists was modeled over his creative work and his personality.

  19. Relationship of Student Characteristics and Performance in a Personalized System of Instruction Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The author examined college student characteristics and their relation to performance in a psychology course which employed a personalized system of instruction (PSI). Findings indicated that dependable predictors, such as past performance and ability measures, were as applicable to PSI courses as to traditional ones. (Author/DB)

  20. Stability of Scores on the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory in an Outpatient Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, Jan Bernard

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports a test-retest study of the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory for 257 children, ages 7-16, receiving psychological services in a British Columbia public health facility. Findings support the test author's claims over a 30-day period of relative score stability on extraversion and neuroticism. (Author/SJL)

  1. University students' psychological quality education from the perspective of “personality trait theory”%基于“人格特质理论”视角下的大学生心理素质教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅鑫; 樊慧鑫; 任晓萌

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, students are more likely to produce a variety of psychological problems. Therefore, it is urgent to carry out the education of psychological quality education in University. Based on the theory of personality traits, it will discuss the necessity of University Students' psychological quality education.%目前处在青年时期的大学生更容易产生各种心理问题。因此,在大学中开展心理素质教育刻不容缓。本文基于人格特质理论,浅谈在此前提下的大学生心理素质教育的必要性。

  2. 留守初中生心理适应性及其与人格特征的关系%Relationship on psychological adaptability and personality traits of junior high school students left in rural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文华

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究留守初中生心理适应性及其与人格特征的关系,为针对性的心理健康教育提供理论依据.方法 采用青少年心理适应性量表(APAS)和艾森克人格问卷EPQ(儿童版)对332名留守初中生进行问卷调查.结果 不同年级、安置方式在心理适应性总分以及陌生情境与学习情境适应、考试焦虑情境2个因子上得分的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).多元回归分析结果显示,神经质、内外向、掩饰性对心理适应性有预测作用.结论 安置方式、人格特征对 .心理适应性有影响.%OBJECTIVE To research relationship on psychological adaptability and personality traits .of junior high school students left in rural, so as to provide references for mental health education. METHODS Adopted the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (for children) and Adolescence Psychological Adaptability Scale to measure the 332 children left in rural areas. RESULTS Students with different grades and placement ways were statistically significant in psychological adaptability, adaptability to unfamiliar situations and learning, and test anxiety. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that neuroticism, extraver-sion and concealing may predict psychological adaptability. CONCLUSION Placement ways and personality traits impact psychological adaptability.

  3. Psychology for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Nash

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical psychology…

  4. 人格对职校生就业质量的影响:心理资本的中介作用%The Influence of Personality on Employment Quality:Moderating Effect of Psychological Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江连凤; 高金金; 陈毅文

    2013-01-01

    为了探索人格和心理资本对就业质量的影响,研究采用问卷调查的方法,对303名职校毕业生进行调查.结果发现:①大五人格5个维度均显著影响心理资本;②大五人格的外向性会在一定程度上影响收入水平,但心理资本会完全中介人格对收入的预测作用.大五人格的宜人性、尽责性能显著影响工作满意度,但心理资本也会完全中介人格对工作满意度的预测作用.表明心理资本是影响就业质量的重要因素,学校录用学生、企业招聘员工可适当的考察其心理资本状况.%To explore the relationship among personality, psychological capital and employment quality, 303 vocational college graduates were surveyed by questionnaires. The main findings of this study: 1. Personality could influence psychological capital significantly. 2. Extraversion could affect income slightly, but the effect would be moderated by psychological capital. Similarly, although agreeableness and conscientiousness could affect job satisfaction remarkably, the effect would be moderated by psychological capital, too. It is indicated that psychological capital can influence employment quality greatly, therefore, psychological capital condition is a key factor in recruiting students or employees.

  5. Social Psychology as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  6. Eysenck Psychobiological Personality Model: a projected into the future history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Schmidt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, particular circumstances, author and ideas that influenced on the elaboration of one of the most solid personality models that Psychology has till nowadays: Eysenck Personality Model, are revised. Its main characteristics are presented, which defined it as a dispositional, dimensional, hierarchic and psychobiological model. The intention of improving dimensions description, explanation, and measurement, took this author to propose changes to his original theory and instrument. Hence, different periods of this model are analyzed. In spite of proliferation of personality theories, Eysenck model has an empirical validity that only a few have. Thus, we argue that in Personality Psychology there is a background available which represents the Paradigm into which we will probably be moving in the next years

  7. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  8. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  9. Psychological motivation and physiological consequences of smoking in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhutdinova, E.T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and physiological characteristics were assessed in thirteen students aged 19-23 who are smokers for more than a year. Psychological status was studied with the use of the Spilberger-Khanin inventory of reactive and personality anxiety; physiological status was assessed through the analysis of cardio-rhythm. Fagerstrom tobacco dependence and Horn smoking motivation questionnaires were used as well. Study participants demonstrated high levels of personal anxiety, while changes in physiological and psychological characteristics after smoking were insignificant. Most common motivation to smoke was associated with desire to relax and cope with anxiety. Author concludes that smoking inhibits physiological functions but does not influence emotional status significantly. (Full text is in Russian

  10. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    , and explore the implications of your findings for future research and for clinical practice or policy. Do not repeat in detail data or other information given in other parts of the manuscript, such as in the Introduction or the Results section.Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data. In particular, distinguish between clinical and statistical significance, and avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless the manuscript includes the appropriate economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority or alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted, but label them clearly. g. References i. General Considerations Related to ReferencesAuthors should provide direct references to original research sources whenever possible. References should not be used by authors, editors, or peer reviewers to promote self-interests. Although references to review articles can be an efficient way to guide readers to a body of literature, review articles do not always reflect original work accurately. On the other hand, extensive lists of references to original work on a topic can use excessive space. Fewer references to key original papers often serve as well as more exhaustive lists, particularly since references can now be added to the electronic version of published papers, and since electronic literature searching allows readers to retrieve published literature efficiently.Do not use conference abstracts as references: they can be cited in the text, in parentheses, but not as page footnotes. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as “in press” or “forthcoming.” Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source.Avoid citing a “personal communication” unless it provides essential information

  11. Os tipos psicológicos na psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung e o inventário de personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contribuições para a psicologia educacional, organizacional e clínica/The psychological types in analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung and the inventory of personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contributions for the educational, organizational and clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta os princípios da Teoria dos Tipos Psicológicos, a mais conhecida face da Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, bem como os fundamentos do Inventário de Personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituído a partir da tipologia junguiana, e que vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado nos campos da Psicologia Educacional, Organizacional e Clínica. The text presents the principles of the Theory of Psychological Types, the most known face of the Analytical Psychology of the Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, as well as the fundamentals of the Inventory of Personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituted from the Jungian typology, and which has been more used nowadays by Educational, Organizational and Clinical Psychology.

  12. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the Content 1.1.1   Subheading of the Content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  13. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  14. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  15. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second p age and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.teachingenglish.org

  16. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Back Matter| 79 80 | STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2014 Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v

  17. Impact of Pressure Source and Pressure Level on Psychological Health of Undergraduates with Type D Personality%压力源与压力强度对D型人格大学生心理健康的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立; 贾斐; 吉峰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨压力源、压力强度与D型人格大学生心理健康之间的关系.方法 采用14条目版本D型人格量表(DS14)、Beck-Srivastava压力量表(BSSI)对800名大学生的人格特征、压力源、压力强度进行检测,同时结合症状自评量表(SCL-90)对其心理健康情况进行相关评定.结果 D型人格大学生的检出率为23.38%,女生数量明显多于男生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);D型人格大学生BSSI平均得分(81.34±11.24)分,明显高于非D型人格大学生BSSI平均得分(76.41±12.33)分,其差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);D型人格大学生SCL-90量表的9个因子得分均高于非D型人格大学生,但仅在人际关系和抑郁两个因子上得分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 虽然在同样的学习、生活环境下D型人格大学生的压力强度大于非D型人格大学生,但造成的心理负担差异不大,通过积极心理干预和疏导措施,可以有效缓解其心理压力,减轻压力造成的各种心理问题.%To investigate the relation of psychological health of college students with type D personality with pressure source and pressure level. Methods The type D personality scale - 14 items ( DS14 ) and Beck - Srivastava stress scale ( BSSI ) were taken to test the personalistic features, pressure source and pressure level of 800 college students, and the symptom check list - 90 ( SCL - 90 ) was used to evaluate psychological health of them. Results The detection rate of type D personality among the college students was 23. 38% , and the rate in females was higher than that in males ( P<0. 01 ). The average BSSI score in the students of type D personality ( 81. 34 ± 11. 24 ) was higher than that in the students of non - type D personality (76. 41 ±12. 33 ) ( P <0. 01 ). The SCL -90 scores in 9 factors in the students of type D personality were higher than those in the students of non - type D personality, however only the differences in the scores of two

  18. Suicide and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nahit Ozmenler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personality is quite important for developing strategies in order to prevent suicide attempt. In this field, the data show variability based on scales used for the evaluation of personality, its definition and classification in the research. For example, while some authors used DSM criteria or ICD criteria, others preferred to focus on the temperament and character dimensions of personality. In studies based on diagnostic criteria; B group personality disorders, such as antisocial and borderline personality disorders were found to be most common comorbid personality disorder diagnosis. In studies aiming to investigate the relationship among suicide attempt, temperament and character features, the suicide attempters were found to have lower levels of self directedness, cooperativeness, and higher scores for self transcendence. Suicidal patients were inclined to have higher scores in several temperament groups like harm avoidance, novelty seeking, and reward dependence. Tendency to impulsive behavior is reported as a common denominator for suicidal patients. Individuals, who have familial or acquired tendency of impulsivity, could react more dramatically and present with depressive and pessimistic mood when they have difficulties and encounter stress factors in their daily routine and could easily develop depressive disorders. These factors as a whole could lead to self destructive actions like suicide. Individual or familial history of suicide attempts or completed

  19. The Practice of Zhu Xi's Literary Criticism Manifests the Authors'Personality%朱熹文艺批评实践对主体人格的彰显

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万里

    2014-01-01

    In the process of literary criticism , personality determines artistic character , which constitutes Zhu Xi's consistent principle .This principle could be applicable not only to his poetry assessment , but also to his calli-graphy and painting criticism .His calligraphy criticism to some extent relates to the workstation and the skill levels . But the personality was the deciding factor .Too good personality or too bad personality would not be good for the as-sessment of the workstation and skills .Usually Zhu Xi analyzed the relation between calligraphy and subjects from two aspects, namely, commenting on calligraphy according to the personality and observing the character of the writer according to his calligraphy .The unity of the calligraphy and personality influenced Zhu Xi's discussion of the main cultivation and creation mentality .%朱熹在品评文艺的过程中秉承的一贯宗旨即是以人格定艺格。他评诗文如此,评字画亦毫无例外。他论书法虽在一定程度上也涉及工拙、技法层面的问题,但起决定作用的还是主体之人格。人格过人则不复论其工拙,人格不佳则文艺作品再精工其格亦属低下。朱熹在论及书法与主体关系时大抵涉及两个向度,即以人论书和以书观人。而书格与人格的统一性又影响着朱熹对主体修养与创作心态的论述。

  20. The Reintegration of Vocational Psychology and Counseling Psychology: Training Issues for a Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitschek, Christine; DeBell, Camille

    2002-01-01

    In the past 20 years, there have been numerous calls for a reinvigoration of vocational psychology. Now, as vocational psychology has grown again within counseling psychology, the authors argue that what is needed is not a reinvigoration but rather a new paradigm that reintegrates vocational psychology and the rest of counseling psychology. The…

  1. Personality Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality is the integration of characteristics acquired or brought by birth which separate the individual from others. Personality involves aspects of the individual's mental, emotional, social, and physical features in continuum. Several theories were suggested to explain developmental processes of personality. Each theory concentrates on one feature of human development as the focal point, then integrates with other areas of development in general. Most theories assume that childhood, especially up to 5-6 years, has essential influence on development of personality. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors reveals a unique personality along growth and developmental process. It could be said that individual who does not have any conflict between his/her basic needs and society's, has well-developed and psychologically healthy personality.

  2. 授权氛围、心理授权与知识员工主动性的关系研究%A Study on the Relationships among Empowerment Climate, Psychological Empowerment and Personal Initiative of Knowledge Employees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 孙春玲; 安珣; 宋红

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship among empowerment atmosphere, psychological empowerment and the personal initiative of knowledge workers, and provides a new perspective for the management of knowledge workers. Structural equation is used to analyze the data collected from employees of companies. The results show that empower-ment atmosphere and psychological empowerment have a positive prediction effect on the personal initiative of knowledge workers, meanwhile empowerment atmosphere also has a positive prediction effect on psychological empowerment of knowledge workers, and psychological empowerment is the intermediate variable, and the intermediate effect is realized through the two facets of psychological empowerment:competency and work meaning.%本文探索了授权氛围、心理授权与知识员工个人主动性的关系,为知识员工的管理提供了新的视角。通过对28家企业308名知识员工进行调查,采用结构方程对数据进行分析,研究结果表明,授权氛围和心理授权对知识员工主动性的三个维度:自发性、克服困难和前瞻性均有正向预测作用,同时授权氛围对知识员工的心理授权有正向预测,并且心理授权是授权氛围与个人主动性之间关系的中介变量,这一中介效用主要是通过胜任力和工作意义两个维度来实现的。

  3. Domain-specific antecedents of parental psychological control and monitoring: the role of parenting beliefs and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Daddis, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    This research examined the effects of domain-differentiated beliefs about legitimate parental authority and ratings of restrictive parental control on adolescent- and mother-reported psychological and behavioral control. The influence of parenting beliefs and practices regarding socially regulated (moral and conventional) and ambiguously personal (multifaceted and personal) issues was examined in 93 middle-class African American early adolescents (M = 13.11 years, SD = 1.29) and their mothers, who were followed longitudinally for 2 years. Domain-specific parenting beliefs and ratings predicted adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and parental monitoring, but the nature and direction of the relations differed. Adolescents who rated parents as more restrictive in their control of personal issues and who believed that parents should have less legitimate authority over these issues rated their mothers as higher in psychological control. In contrast, more adolescent-reported parental monitoring was associated with gender (being female) and adolescents' beliefs that parents have more legitimate authority to regulate personal issues. As expected, adolescent age and gender influenced mother-reported monitoring and psychological control; in addition, the effects of mothers' ratings of restrictive control on both psychological control and monitoring were moderated by gender. The results indicate that psychological control and monitoring can be understood in terms of the particular behaviors that are controlled, as well as the style in which control is exercised.

  4. Research about reactor operator's personability characteristics and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan [Tsinghua Univ., Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    To predict and evaluate the reactor operator's performance by personality characteristics is an important part of reactor operator safety assessment. Using related psychological theory combined with the Chinese operator's fact and considering the effect of environmental factors to personality analysis, paper does the research about the about the relationships between reactor operator's performance and personality characteristics, and offers the reference for operator's selection, using and performance in the future. (author)

  5. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2015-12-01

    statements on economic benefits and costs unless the manuscript includes the appropriate economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority or alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when war¬ranted, but label them clearly.g. Referencesi. General Considerations Related to References Authors should provide direct references to original research sources whenever possible. References should not be used by authors, editors, or peer reviewers to promote self-interests. Although references to review articles can be an efficient way to guide readers to a body of literature, review articles do not always reflect original work accurately. On the other hand, extensive lists of references to original work on a topic can use excessive space. Fewer references to key original papers often serve as well as more exhaustive lists, particularly since references can now be added to the electronic version of published papers, and since electronic literature searching allows readers to retrieve published literature efficiently.Do not use conference abstracts as references: they can be cited in the text, in parentheses, but not as page footnotes. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as “in press” or “forthcoming.” Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source.Avoid citing a “personal communication” unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. For scientific articles, obtain written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication.Some but not all journals check the accuracy of all reference citations; thus, citation errors sometimes appear in the published version of articles. To minimize such errors, references should be verified using

  6. Personal attributes of authors and reviewers, social bias and the outcomes of peer review: a case study [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5gj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Walker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer review is the "gold standard" for evaluating journal and conference papers, research proposals, on-going projects and university departments. However, it is widely believed that current systems are expensive, conservative and prone to various forms of bias. One form of bias identified in the literature is “social bias” linked to the personal attributes of authors and reviewers. To quantify the importance of this form of bias in modern peer review, we analyze three datasets providing information on the attributes of authors and reviewers and review outcomes: one from Frontiers - an open access publishing house with a novel interactive review process, and two from Spanish and international computer science conferences, which use traditional peer review. We use a random intercept model in which review outcome is the dependent variable, author and reviewer attributes are the independent variables and bias is defined by the interaction between author and reviewer attributes. We find no evidence of bias in terms of gender, or the language or prestige of author and reviewer institutions in any of the three datasets, but some weak evidence of regional bias in all three. Reviewer gender and the language and prestige of reviewer institutions appear to have little effect on review outcomes, but author gender, and the characteristics of author institutions have moderate to large effects. The methodology used cannot determine whether these are due to objective differences in scientific merit or entrenched biases shared by all reviewers.

  7. The Global Is Local: Adding Culture, Ideology, and Context to International Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecek, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    "The Political is Personal" (Else-Quest & Grabe, 2012) opens the door to transnational feminist research. Else-Quest and Grabe (2012) invite "Psychology of Women Quarterly" (PWQ) readers to make use of country-level indices to examine connections between sociopolitical gender disparities and women's distress and deprivation. The author shares…

  8. [Psychological resistances of women to the principal female methods of contraception. Clinical classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauty-Dancot, M C; Rucquoy, G

    1975-01-01

    According to the literature and to the experience of the authors gathered at the family department at the Louvain Faculty of Medicine, these psychological resistances may schematically be classified as follows: normative and socio-cultural resistances; medical resistances (wish of pregnancy, personality traits, narcissm, sexual and technical resistances); psychopathological resistances (unspecific neurotic behavior, phobias, hypochondriasis, obsessive-compulsive neurosis, character neurosis); secondary resistances.

  9. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  10. [Comparative assessment of cognitive styles forming personal behavior in health and borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, N P

    2006-01-01

    The author suggests a cognitive-analytical concept of personality focusing on cognitively mediated processes of cyclic interaction of different levels of consciousness and subconsciousness represented in the form of emotional-behavioral potential and functional-dynamic system. A cognitive type (cognitype)--a type of personality-centered cognitive operations that determines the pattern of behavioral cycle and distinctive features of social adaptation--is singled out as an integrative basic individual and psychological component of personality. Presented is classification of personality cognitypes, their adaptive and maladaptive variants, correlations between cognitypes and anomalies of personality. The principles of psychotherapy of maladaptive behavior, borderline and addictive disorders (positive reintegration of personality) are substantiated.

  11. Effect of personalized psychological nursing on the inter ventional treatment of liver cancer patients with pain%个性化心理护理对肝癌介入治疗患者疼痛的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭维英

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the effect of personalzed psychological nursing on the interventional treatment of liver cancer patients with pain. Methods; 66 patients admitted to our hospital from March 2009 to March 2011 were randomly divided into two groups. The control group were treated with routine nursing intervention,the experimental group were treated with a personalized psychological nursing intervention,To compare the patient's pain,anxiety and sleep quality after the intervention between the two groups. Results: The experimental group of patients after personalized psychological nursing, the pain of was reduced decreased patient's,the lower state anxiety,sleep quality in patients with better, and control group of patients with various indicators were statistical significance ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion: Personalized psychology nursing of interventional therapy of liver cancer patients had a good result, the need for nurses to accurately judge the psychological status of the patients,to develop better psychological nursing plan.%目的:探讨个性化心理护理对肝癌介入治疗患者疼痛的影响.方法:将我院2009年3月~2011年3月收治的66例肝癌介入治疗患者随机分为两组.对照组患者给予常规护理干预,试验组患者给予个性化心理护理干预,比较两组患者护理干预后的疼痛感、焦虑状态和睡眠质量.结果:试验组患者经过个性化心理护理后,患者的疼痛感降低,其焦虑状态更低,患者的睡眠质量更好,与对照组患者的各个指标比较均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:个性化心理护理对肝癌介入治疗患者具有较好的效果,其需要护士准确判断患者的心理状态,以制定较好的心理护理计划.

  12. On the Cultivation of Students' Sound Personality in Po-lice Colleges from the Perspective of Positive Psychology%积极心理学视角下公安院校大学生健全人格的塑造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程慧芳

    2016-01-01

    公安工作的特性,要求公安院校的大学生在校期间不仅要学习公安专业文化知识,为以后工作打下坚实的基础,还要塑造健全的人格,树立良好的思想道德,培养奉献精神,从而更好地为人民服务,满足现代社会对公安人员综合素质的要求,实现自身价值。公安院校要想塑造健全的大学生人格,就必须坚持积极心理学的指导,本文主要介绍了积极心理学的基本概念,并就积极心理学对公安院校大学生人格塑造的作用以及具体的措施进行了简单的分析。%The properties of police work require that police college students should not only learn professional police knowledge, but also develop sound personality, establish good ideological and moral quality and cultivate the spirit of self-less dedication during college period, as the former lays a solid foundation for their future work and the latter helps them better serve the people, meet the social demands for the comprehensive quality of police officers, and realize their value. To cultivate sound personality, police colleges must adhere to the guidance of positive psychology. This paper mainly introduces the definition of positive psychology, and briefly analyzes the role of positive psychology in the cultivation of police college students' person-ality and the specific measures for the cultivation.

  13. A short personal memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubback, Judith

    2005-02-01

    The history of the formation of the different analytical psychology groups in Britain is briefly described to illustrate the recurring splitting that has taken place throughout the development of the profession of analytical psychology. The author discusses her role as editor of the Journal of Analytical Psychology.

  14. Mathematical modeling in psychological researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zyolko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the nature of mathematical modeling and its significance in psychological researches. The author distinguishes the types of mathematical models: deterministic, stochastic models and synergetic models. The system approach is proposed as an instrument of implementation of mathematical modelling in psychological research.

  15. Research on the Relation Between Big Five Personality of Poor College Students and Psychology Health%贫困大学生大五人格与心理健康的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衡书鹏

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relation between Big Five personality of poor college students and psychological health. 452 participants participated this survey. Correlation analyses were conducted to test the proposed hypotheses. Results indicate that there are differences in personalitical and psychology health level among different types of poor college students. Psychology has great influence on psychological health. Extraversion, agreeableness was negatively correlated with mental health, neuroticism was positively correlated with mental health, responsibility and openness is not significantly associated with mental health.%探讨贫困大学生大五人格与心理健康的关系。对452名贫困大学生进行了问卷调查,结果表明:不同类型贫困大学生在大五人格各因素上和心理健康水平均存在显著差异(F〈0.01);人格特征对心理健康有重要影响,外倾性、宜人性与心理健康呈负相关,神经质与心理健康呈正相关,并且大部分指标相关显著,而责任心和开放性与心理健康相关不显著。

  16. Psychological Characteristics of Chronic Depression : A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T. E.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is

  17. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  18. Talking Briefly about the Need of Personal Behavioral Psychology in Private Courtyard Space%浅谈私家庭院空间中人的行为心理需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔怀祖; 胡青青; 何凤苗

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly elaborates the appliance of the personal behavioral psychological need in private courtyard space design in environmental psychology. When designing the private courtyard space, we should take the various needs into consideration to create an hommization and functionalized beautiful private courtyard space.%文章主要阐述环境心理学中关于人的行为心理需求在私家庭院空间设计的运用.设计时应结合环境心理学,综合考虑人的多方面的需求,创造出人性化、功能化的美的私家庭院空间.

  19. The function of physical education on shaping personality based on psychological perspective%基于心理学视角下的体育教育人格塑造功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文昌; 张丽艳; 邵金龙; 李琳

    2011-01-01

    从心理学视角探究了体育教育的人格塑造功能,剖析了这一功能背后的心理学机制,对于正确认知和把握体育教育的功能和价值,引导体育教育的实践具有重要的理论意义和现实意义.%From the psychological perspective we explored the function of physical education on the shaping of personality, analyzed the psychological mechanisms behind this function. It is important to understand and grasp the function and value of physical education, and has important theoretical and practical significance to guide the practice of physical education.

  20. Relationships between Myers-Briggs type indicator measure of psychological type and neo measure of big five personality factors in Polish University students: a preliminary cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacyk, Jerome J; Livingston, Mary M; Robbins, James E

    2008-10-01

    English-language versions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G) measure of psychological type and the NEO-FFI measure of the Big Five personality factors were completed by 57 Polish university students fluent in the English language. The pattern of correlations between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales for the Polish sample was compared to the pattern of correlations for measures of these same constructs reported for Americans. Four of the five significant relationships between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales reported in the American sample were also recorded in the Polish sample: MBTI Extraversion-Introversion with NEO Extraversion, MBTI Sensing-Intuition and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO-Openness, and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO Conscientiousness. Pending replication with a larger, more representative sample, this preliminary study supports the validity of psychological type in Polish society.

  1. Young Chinese Children's Authority Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jenny; Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Using multilevel analyses, we examined the influence of domain (moral, conventional, and personal) and the familiarity of different authority figures (mother, teacher, person in charge, and stranger) in public, school, or home settings in 123 four to seven-year-old Chinese children (M = 5.6 years) in Hong Kong. Children affirmed authority more for…

  2. Psychodiagnosis of personality structure: psychotic personality organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acklin, M W

    1992-06-01

    Recent developments in Rorschach psychology, including nomothetic approaches focused on scores, ratios, and indices and idiographic approaches focused on content emerging from psychoanalytic theory, offer the Rorschach clinician a rich and potent interpretive methodology. This article examines the structural diagnosis of personality organization with a focus on psychotic personality structure. Rorschach approaches to the differential diagnosis of psychotic personality organization are presented. The Rorschach is viewed as indispensible in the differential diagnosis of personality organization, especially in the so-called "borderline" cases.

  3. Mystery Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this…

  4. Mystery Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this…

  5. 人格特质、心理弹性对军校医学研究生心理健康状态的预测作用%Predictive Effects of Personality Trait and Psychological Resilience on Military Medical Postgraduates' Psychological Health Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿伟; 马红燕; 谷珊珊; 朱才众; 宫海燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:探索心理测评项目对军校医学研究新生心理健康状态的预测作用。方法采用卡特尔16项人格问卷( Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire,16PF)、心理弹性量表( Connor - Davidson Resilience Scale,CD - RISC)、症状自评量表(Symptom ChecKlist 90,SCL -90)对237名军校医学研究生进行评定。结果①心理不健康组入学前后 SCL -90总分及阳性项目数差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),心理健康组 SCL -90总分及阳性项目数差异无统计学意义;②心理健康组心理弹性总分(73.83±10.21)显著高于心理不健康组(69.5±10.34)(P <0.05);心理健康组16PF 人格特质中的乐群性、聪慧性、稳定性、有恒性、世故性、独立性评分均显著高于心理不健康组(P <0.05);心理不健康组16PF 人格特质量表中敏感性、幻想性、忧虑性、紧张性显著高于心理健康组(P <0.05);③心理弹性及乐群性、稳定性、世故性、敏感性、忧虑性、紧张性能有效预测心理健康状态,总解释率为41.9%。结论心理弹性评定量表、16PF 人格量表中的乐群性、稳定性、世故性、敏感性、忧虑性、紧张性可以作为心理健康的预测因子。%Objective To explore predictive effects of psychological evaluation project on military medical post-graduates' psychological health status. Methods 237 military medical postgraduates were measured with Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire(16PF),Connor - Davidson Resilience Scale(CD - RISC)and Symptom ChecKlist 90(SCL - 90). Results ①There were significant differences in SCL - 90 total score and number of positive items before and after entering school in psychological unhealthy group(P < 0. 05). There were no significant differences in SCL - 90 total score and number of positive items before and after entering school in psychological healthy group. ②Total score of psychological resilience in

  6. Analysis of psychological defense mechanism and personality character in patients with alcohol dependence%酒依赖患者心理防御机制及人格特征的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟健

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨酒依赖患者心理防御机制和人格特征. 方法:64例酒依赖患者于人院治疗2周后完全戒断酒精及躯体不适消除后运用防御方式问卷(DSQ)及艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)分别评定其防御机制及人格类型,并与129名健康对照者比较. 结果:酒依赖患者心理防御机制为不成熟及中间型;EPQ精神质和神经质评分显著高于正常对照者(P<0.05或P<O.01);不成熟及中间型防御机制与EPQ精神质和神经质评分正相关. 结论:酒依赖患者可能存在不良人格,其与不成熟防御机制相互关联.%Objective:To explore the psychological defense mechanism and personality character in patients with alcohol dependence.Method:After 2 weeks treatment in hospital,the 64 patients with alcohol dependence were completely eliminated withdrawal after alcohol and body discomfort.Then,the psychological defense mechanism and personality type were assessed by defense style questionnaire (DSQ) and Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ).The results were compared with 129 normal controls.Results:The psychological defense mechanisms in the patients were immature type and middle type.The scores of psychoticism and neuroticism of EPQ were significantly higher than normal controls (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).The styles of immature and middle psychological defense mechanisms were positively correlated to the scores of psychoticism and neuroticism in EPQ.Conclusion:The patients with alcohol dependence may have ill-personality; which correlated with immature defense mechanism.

  7. [Web of Science production quality indicators of ten professors' at the area of personality, assessment and psychological treatment: additional contributions to Olivas-Ávila y Musi-Lechuga study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Antón; Becoña, Elisardo; Botella, Cristina; Colom, Roberto; Echeburúa, Enrique; Forns, María; Pérez, Miguel; Vila, Jaime

    2011-04-01

    Rankings of scientific productivity are increasingly relevant both from an individual and a collective perspective. Therefore, making sure they are based on reliable and exhaustive information is really important. This study clearly shows that available rankings change dramatically when internationally acknowledged bibliometric indices are considered. Data from the 10 Professors belonging to the 'Personality, Assessment, and Psychological Treatment' Department considered in the recent analysis by Olivas-Ávila y Musi-Lechuga ( Psicothema 2010. Vol. 22, nº 4, pp. 909-916) are revisited here for illustrative purposes.

  8. 高师生性心理健康与其人格特质关系的实证研究%The Empirical Research on the Relationship of Personality Traits with Sex Psychological Health among Normal Students in Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹; 刘延金; 龙雪娜

    2015-01-01

    The paper has investigated the sex psychological health of 1400 students from the six different normal universities. The results have indicated that there is a negative relationship between sex psychological health and personal traits. The level of psychological health will decrease due to the rise of level of psychological quality, which means that the higher the psychological personality score is, the lower the psychological health level is. Therefore, psychological quality can predict the situation of sex psychological health. In this case, psychological quality not only provides practical basis in terms of understanding students’personal trait and strengthening personality, but also provides theoretical basis for the normal universities to improve the psychological quality of student.%本文通过对6所师范院校的1400名高师生性心理健康进行综合分析,得出高师生性心理健康水平与其人格特质的精神质之间有着极其显著的负相关,心理健康水平随着精神质值的增高而降低,高师生的精神质可以显著地预测其性心理健康水平状况。为高师生了解人格特质,健全其人格,提高性心理健康水平提供了可参考的实践依据,为师范院校提升师范生的心理素质提供了科学依据。

  9. Historiography of Czech psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskovcová, Simona; Hoskovec, Jirí; Plháková, Alena; Sebek, Michael; Svancara, Josef; Voboril, Dalibor

    2010-08-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the development of the Czech historiography of psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychotherapy is mentioned as a special thematic development. Contemporary problems and perspectives in the field of the history of psychology in the Czech Republic are discussed, sources of information are given.

  10. Psychological emergency attendance as a psychological service in educational psychology: limits and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson do Nascimento Bezerra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The School Psychology Emergency Practices differs from others School Psychology practices, is more than type of psychology service and should have more institutional visibility. This paper reflects on these references from both the practice of the author and the currently literature in school psychology. To this purpose, we use as reference the concept of Extended Clinic and its relation with Psychology Emergency Service area. We discuss the opportunity of the school psychologist has, among other things, to be able to listen and to welcome spontaneously anyone in the school community seeking for support in case of emergency. In so doing, the author reflects on the condition of psychological emergency service as service and as a type of treatment at school, and school psychology as an area of expertise inserted in this complex environment different of views and perspectives.

  11. 《红色英勇勋章》死亡心理变化之解读--以人格结构理论为视域%An Interpretation of Psychological Changes Confronting Death in The Red Badge of Courage from Freud’s Personality Structure Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲丹

    2014-01-01

    美国著名作家斯蒂芬·克莱恩的代表作《红色英勇勋章》,小说中对主人公亨利·弗莱明的心理活动进行了细致的刻画,把他的恐惧和悲伤,懦弱和勇敢描绘得淋漓尽致。主人公在战争中面对死亡的心理变化状态,主要分为三个阶段:参战前对死亡的无意识心理,参战中对死亡的逃避心理,参战后直面死亡的抗争心理,它们恰恰契合了弗洛伊德人格结构理论中的“本我-自我-超我”,巧妙运用这一点,从人格结构理论视阈下对这部小说主人公面对死亡的心理变化进行细致解读的。%The Red Badge of Courage is the masterpiece of the famous American writer--Stephen Crane. He vividly described the protagonist (Henry Fleming)’s psychological state, soldiers’fear and sorrow, cowardice and bravery. This paper lays emphasis on the protagonist’s psychological changes confronting death in the war. The process mainly consists of three parts:the pre-war unconsciousness about death, escaping from death in the war, facing and fighting against the death. They coincide with the“id-ego-superego”of Freud’s personality structure theory, and the author skillfully applies this point to interpret protagonist’s psychological changes confronting death.

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Communal Relationship Strength as Predictors of ... Relationship between parenting style, family type, personality dispositions and ... Assessment of Social Anxiety among Adolescents in Lagos Metropolis

  13. [Traits of personality in hypochondriacal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vanna, M; Cauzer, M; Spreafichi, A

    1995-06-01

    Among the several mental originated clinical syndromes, hypochondria is not still well understood and listed. Indeed, hypochondria is often a complicating element in other psychopathological pictures; a slight form of hypochondria can appear in phobic-obsessing neurosis, and a worse one at the beginning of psychosis. The Authors, trying to explain the complex questions about diagnosis and prognosis of hypochondria, look for common personality traits in these patients. The research instrument was the Adjective Check List (ACL), a psychological test highly standardized and diffused, composed of 300 adjectives, or adjectival sentences, used to describe a person's attributes. The ACL was given to 65 subjects divided into two groups. The first group was made of 15 subjects, 10 women and 5 men, ambulatory treated at the Psychiatric Clinic in Trieste for the following diagnosis: psychosis (4 persons), depressing syndrome (3 persons), hypochondria (6 persons), obsessive neurosis (1 persons), anxiety syndrome (1 person). The second group was made of 50 subjects, 28 women and 22 men, diagnosed as hypochondriac by their medical officers. The results point out that some personality traits rising above the others are suggesting for an apathetical patient, not ready to accept himself, easily overcome by everyday life problems. These subjects are introverted, intolerant to frustrations, and inclined to take refuge in their own imaginary world, not able to self-governing. In the considered group the Authors find a moderate tendency to change, and it could be interpreted like a good prognostic element for a psychotherapeutic treatment.

  14. Relations psychological health with personality and coping style in 100 medical college students%100名医学生人格特质及应对方式与心理健康关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟娣; 杨雪梅; 任冰; 周曼颖; 林勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective Medical students are the mainstay of medical professionals for future health service, therefore, their mental health is arousing more and more concern. Probing into the ways of the influence of personality and coping style on the psychological health of medical college students, we provide scientific basis and guidance for pertinent psychological intervention. Methods A total of 100 medical college students were evaluated by Symptom Checklist 90 ( SCL-90) , Eysenck' s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) , and Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ). Results ①The average scores of total and those of obsession compulsive, depression, anxiety and psychoticism were all above the norm. The scores of somatization, interpersonal relationship, fear and paranoia were all below the norm. ②Neuroticism had an significant positive correlation with the average SCL-90 scores of total and those of obsession, depression and fear. Immature coping style has a significant positive correlation with the average SCL-90 scores of total and all the tested factors. ③Personality trait, coping style have influence on psychological health. Coping style take the rule of mediating effect, which is reflected in the aspect of immature coping. Conclusion Personality trait and coping style have an influence on psychological health of medical college students. Personality factors influence psychological health in an indirect manner.%目的 医学生作为未来从事健康服务的医务人员的主体,其心理健康状况受到越来越多的关注.文中探讨人格特质、应对方式对医学生心理健康的影响方式和途径,为进一步开展针对性心理干预提供科学依据和指导. 方法 对100名医学生进行症状自评量表( SCL-90)、艾森克个性问卷(Eysenck personality questionnaire,EPQ)与应对方式问卷(copingstyle questionnaire,CSQ)测评与分析. 结果 ①症状自评量表总均分,以及强迫、抑郁、焦虑和精神病性因子分

  15. Classroom Demonstrations of Social Psychological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Royce Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Describes eight classroom activities which instruct college level sociology students about major concepts and principles of social psychology. Concepts include gestalt psychology, nonverbal communication, adaptation level, relative deprivation, selective exposure, labeling, sexism, and perceptual distortion. (Author/DB)

  16. Effect of personal characteristics, victimization types, and family- and school-related factors on psychological distress in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Lung; Kao, Senyeong; Tou, Shao-Wen; Lin, Fu-Gong

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bullying victimization among adolescents with intellectual disabilities and the influence of victimization experience on their mental health in Taiwan. Data on 706 adolescents from the 2011 Special Needs Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to variables comprising 7 items of psychological distress, 4 types of bullying victimization, and family-, school-, and peer-related factors. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents had experienced at least one type of victimization, and 44% of them had experienced at least two types of victimization. Exclusion (50%) and verbal bullying (70%) were the most commonly reported types. In addition, exclusion and verbal bullying were found to be significantly associated with psychological distress in these adolescents. Our findings suggest that victimization is a common experience among adolescents with disabilities, and a notable risk factor for the psychological well-being of adolescents with intellectual disabilities. However, a good relationship with parents and peers can relieve psychological distress and its effect on mental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  18. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...

  19. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...

  20. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...