WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychology major disorders

  1. Psychological features in panic disorder: a comparison with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Yasmin A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the psychodymanic model for panic disorder (PD formulated by Shear et al. (1993, comparing PD patients and major depression (MD patients. METHOD: We evaluated these parameters in open interviews in 10 PD patients and 10 patients with MD (DSM-IV. The data were recorded on videotape and were examined by 5 diagnostic blind appraisers. RESULTS: The data allowed a comparative analysis that underscores the existence of a psychological model for PD vs MD: 1 the protracted symbiotic phase of development and the existence of problems with separation in PD patients; 2 patients with MD tended to have a particularly negative impression of relationship with the first objects; furthermore, they had remarkable experiences of loss; and 3 while the PD patients tended to be shy and inhibited in childhood, especially showing a clear difficulty in expressing aggressiveness, the depressed patients tended to disclose an impulsive aggressiveness from infancy to adulthood. CONCLUSION: Exposure to parental behaviours that augment fearfulness may result in disturbances in object relations and persistence of conflicts between dependence and independence may predispose to anxiety symptoms and fears of PD.

  2. Psychological vulnerabilities in patients with major depression vs panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B J; Enns, M W; Walker, J R; Kjernisted, K; Pidlubny, S R

    2001-05-01

    The tripartite model (Clark & Watson, 1991: Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336) posits that anxiety and depression share nonspecific features of neuroticism but that somatic arousal appears unique to anxiety, and low positive affect appears unique to depression. The present study controlled for these higher-order effects and evaluated the relative contributions of four, specific lower-order vulnerabilities (anxiety sensitivity, rumination, self-criticism, self-oriented perfectionism). Participants were 38 depressed patients and 38 patients with panic disorder matched as closely as possible for age and gender, and all were diagnosed using the same structured interview by an experienced clinician. Results from hierarchical logistic regression analysis were consistent with predictions from the tripartite model in that only the unique features of arousal and positive affectivity differentiated the two diagnostic groups. At a lower-order level, only anxiety sensitivity (and its facet of fear of physical symptoms) and a ruminative response style demonstrated incremental predictive ability. The discussion focuses on the relationships among these higher-order and lower-order variables, and their potential importance for understanding specific manifestations of psychopathology.

  3. Correlates of Psychological Distress and Major Depressive Disorder among African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important…

  4. Correlates of Psychological Distress and Major Depressive Disorder Among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C; Chatters, Linda M

    2011-05-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important demographic differences in depressive symptoms (measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale [CES-D]), SPD (measured by the K6), and 12-month and lifetime MDD among African American men. Findings illuminate the heterogeneity within the African American male population. Findings also demonstrate the need for additional research focusing on within-group differences and a comprehensive research and mental health promotion agenda that recognizes the importance of improving access to education and employment and promoting healthy coping behaviors, while acknowledging the larger social context in which African American men live.

  5. Delivering happiness: translating positive psychology intervention research for treating major and minor depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layous, Kristin; Chancellor, Joseph; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; Wang, Lihong; Doraiswamy, P Murali

    2011-08-01

    Despite the availability of many treatment options, depressive disorders remain a global public health problem. Even in affluent nations, 70% of reported cases either do not receive the recommended level of treatment or do not get treated at all, and this percentage does not reflect cases of depression that go unreported due to lack of access to health care, stigma, or other reasons. In developing countries, the World Health Organization estimates that <10% receive proper depression care due to poverty, stigma, and lack of governmental mental health resources and providers. Current treatments do not work for everyone, and even people who achieve remission face a high risk of recurrence and residual disability. The development of low-cost effective interventions that can serve either as initial therapy for mild symptoms or as adjunctive therapy for partial responders to medication is an immense unmet need. Positive activity interventions (PAIs) teach individuals ways to increase their positive thinking, positive affect, and positive behaviors. The majority of such interventions, which have obtained medium-size effect sizes, have been conducted with nondepressed individuals, but two randomized controlled studies in patients with mild clinical depression have reported promising initial findings. In this article, the authors review the relevant literature on the effectiveness of various types of PAIs, draw on social psychology, affective neuroscience and psychophamacology research to propose neural models for how PAIs might relieve depression, and discuss the steps needed to translate the potential promise of PAIs as clinical treatments for individuals with major and minor depressive disorders.

  6. Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for major depressive disorder in a university psychology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupiñá Puig, Francisco José; Labrador Encinas, Francisco Javier

    2012-11-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent mental disorder in our environment, and one of the main causes of disability. While several empirically supported treatments (ESTs) for MDD exist, some doubts have been cast on the applicability--in time, components, and effectiveness--of these ESTs in routine clinical practice. A few attempts have been made to contrast the effectiveness of ESTs, but usually the precise components of the treatment developed are not considered in detail. The purpose of this study is to analyze the components of an EST-based treatment on a sample of 69 MDD cases from a University Psychology Clinic, and to benchmark them against the results of published efficacy studies on ESTs (behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy). Results show that treatments delivered at this clinical facility are similar in components, length, and effectiveness (in effect size, completers and improved ratio) to the benchmarked studies. Cognitive restructuring is the most frequent component of the delivered treatments. Therapy results show a 3.12 effect size, and a 55.1% improved ratio over initial sample, an 80% of completers. Results and limitations of the current study, especially those related to sample and center characteristics, are discussed.

  7. Catechol-o-methyltransferase polymorphism and susceptibility to major depressive disorder modulates psychological stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Kema, Ido R.; van der Pompe, Gieta; Meerman, Gerard J. te; Ormel, Johan; den Boer, Johan A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The stress response is related to both physiological and psychological factors and is strongly marked by a neuroendocrine component. Genetic factors are believed to underlie individual differences in the degree of stress resilience and thereby contribute in determining susceptibility to s

  8. A lifetime approach to major depressive disorder: The contributions of psychological interventions in preventing relapse and recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockting, Claudi L; Hollon, Steven D; Jarrett, Robin B; Kuyken, Willem; Dobson, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly disabling and typically runs a recurrent course. Knowledge about prevention of relapse and recurrence is crucial to the long-term welfare of people who suffer from this disorder. This article provides an overview of the current evidence for the prevention of relapse and recurrence using psychological interventions. We first describe a conceptual framework to preventive interventions based on: acute treatment; continuation treatment, or; prevention strategies for patients in remission. In brief, cognitive-behavioral interventions, delivered during the acute phase, appear to have an enduring effect that protects patients against relapse and perhaps others from recurrence following treatment termination. Similarly, continuation treatment with either cognitive therapy or perhaps interpersonal psychotherapy appears to reduce risk for relapse and maintenance treatment appears to reduce risk for recurrence. Preventive relapse strategies like preventive cognitive therapy or mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) applied to patients in remission protects against subsequent relapse and perhaps recurrence. There is some preliminary evidence of specific mediation via changing the content or the process of cognition. Continuation CT and preventive interventions started after remission (CBT, MBCT) seem to have the largest differential effects for individuals that need them the most. Those who have the greatest risk for relapse and recurrence including patients with unstable remission, more previous episodes, potentially childhood trauma, early age of onset. These prescriptive indications, if confirmed in future research, may point the way to personalizing prevention strategies. Doing so, may maximize the efficiency with which they are applied and have the potential to target the mechanisms that appear to underlie these effects. This may help make this prevention strategies more efficacious.

  9. Rock climbing and acute emotion regulation in patients with major depressive disorder in the context of a psychological inpatient treatment: a controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinstäuber M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria Kleinstäuber,1,2 Merle Reuter,3 Norbert Doll,4 Andreas J Fallgatter4 1Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Psychology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany; 2Department of Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany, 4Department of General Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany Background: Major depressive disorder is characterized by deficits in emotion regulation. This study examined associations between rock climbing and acute emotion regulating effects in patients with major depression. Patients and methods: In a nonrandomized, controlled study, 40 major depressive disorder inpatients were assigned to either a climbing session (n=20 or a relaxation session (n=20. Positive and negative affect, depressiveness, and coping emotions were assessed immediately before and after the session. Results: Mixed analyses of variance and covariance revealed significant time × group interaction effects for all assessed outcomes (p≤0.012: positive affect and coping emotions significantly increased and negative affect and depressiveness significantly decreased after the climbing session (1.04≤ Cohen’s d ≤1.30, in contrast to a relaxation session (0.16≤ Cohen’s d ≤0.36. Conclusion: The results show that rock climbing is associated with acute emotion regulatory effects. These findings have to be replicated with a randomized design, and future research should pay attention to possible mechanisms of rock climbing in regard to emotion regulation. Keywords: physical activity, controlled trial, relaxation, inpatient treatment

  10. Empirically derived dietary patterns in relation to psychological disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosseinzadeh, Mahdieh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Majdzadeh, Reza; Afshar, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Psychological disorders are highly prevalent worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and prevalence of psychological disorders in a large sample of Iranian adults...

  11. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  12. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  13. Differences between effects of psychological versus pharmacological treatments on functional and morphological brain alterations in anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidé, Yann; Witteveen, Anke B; El-Hage, Wissam; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The most prevalent mental disorders, anxiety and mood disorders, are associated with both functional and morphological brain changes that commonly involve the 'fear network' including the (medial) prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. Patients suffering from anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder often show excessive amygdala and reduced prefrontal cortex functioning. It is, however, still unclear whether these brain abnormalities disappear or diminish following effective treatment. This review aims to compare the effects of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy on functional and morphological brain measures in these disorders. Sixty-three studies were included, 30 investigating psychotherapy effects and 33 investigating pharmacotherapy effects. Despite methodological differences, results suggest a functional normalization of the 'fear network'. Pharmacotherapy particularly decreases over-activity of limbic structures (bottom-up effect) while psychotherapy tends to increase activity and recruitment of frontal areas (top-down effect), especially the anterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, pharmacotherapy, but not psychotherapy, has been associated with morphological changes, depending on the disorder. These findings suggest that both types of treatments normalize (functional) brain abnormalities each in specific ways.

  14. Psychological Disorders among Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Ofovwe et al. Psychological Disorders in PLWHA ... Keywords: Psychological disorders, HIV/AIDS, Southern Nigeria. Résumé ... and psychological treatment or for research purposes. ... Phobic Anxiety (Irrational fears and avoidance of objects ...

  15. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable an

  16. Measuring the Quality of Care for Psychological Health Conditions in the Military Health System: Candidate Quality Measures for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Axis I Disorders SDS Sheehan Disability Scale SI suicide ideation SIT Stress Inoculation Training...depression, behavioral health, mental health, MDD, PTSD, suicide , post-traumatic stress disorder, post- traumatic stress disorder, trauma, traumatic...gender, family history of suicide , same-sex orientation) and modifiable risk factors (e.g., unstable housing, financial problems, psychiatric disorders

  17. Somatic disease and psychological disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The association between physical and psychological disorders has been demonstrated repeatedly. There are a number of explanations for this association, each of them pointing to specific diseases and operationalizions of mental distress. In this article, the relationship between various somatic disea

  18. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable and unpredictable time-courses of the depressive episodes. The main supporting observations are: (1) mood transitions within minutes or days have been reported during deep brain stimulation, naps after sleep deprivation and bipolar mood disorders; (2) sleep deprivation, electroconvulsive treatment and experimental drugs (e.g., ketamine) may facilitate mood transitions in major depressive disorder within hours or a few days; (3) epidemiological and clinical studies show that the time-to-recovery from major depressive disorder can be described with decay models implying very short depressive episodes; (4) lack of relationship between the length of depression and recovery episodes in recurrent depression; (5) mood fluctuations predict later therapeutic success in major depressive disorder. We discuss some recent models aimed to describe random mood transitions. The observations together suggest that the mood transitions have a wide variety of apparently unrelated causes. We suggest that the mechanism of mood transition is compromised in major depressive disorder, which has to be recognized in diagnostic systems.

  19. Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescence: The Role of Subthreshold Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Seeley, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the longitudinal association between individual subthreshold symptoms and onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Method: Data for analysis come from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a prospective epidemiological study of psychological disorders among adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from the…

  20. Psychological treatments for gambling disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rash CJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carla J Rash, Nancy M Petry Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA Abstract: This review discusses the research evidence for psychological treatment of gambling disorder. Several treatment options for gamblers have been explored, ranging from self-help and peer support, to brief and motivational interventions, to more intensive therapy approaches. Involvement in peer support programs seems to be optimal when combined with professional treatment; however, engagement and retention in peer support is limited. Self-directed interventions appear to benefit some gamblers; however, the involvement of therapist support, either in person or by telephone, may bolster these effects and such support need not be extensive. These self-directed options reduce the barriers associated with treatment-seeking, and may reach a wider range of gamblers than professionally delivered treatments alone. Brief and motivational approaches similarly may extend treatment options to more gamblers, namely at-risk and problem gamblers and those not seeking treatment. Of more extensive therapies, no consistent benefit of one approach emerges, although cognitive–behavioral interventions have been most often applied. Overall, several treatments have been developed for gambling disorder and results are promising, but variability in findings suggests a need for further systematic evaluation. Keywords: gambling treatment, cognitive behavioral treatment, brief interventions, pathological gambling, problem gambling, behavioral addictions

  1. Neurobiology of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Villanueva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We survey studies which relate abnormal neurogenesis to major depressive disorder. Clinically, descriptive gene and protein expression analysis and genetic and functional studies revised here show that individual alterations of a complex signaling network, which includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; the production of neurotrophins and growth factors; the expression of miRNAs; the production of proinflammatory cytokines; and, even, the abnormal delivery of gastrointestinal signaling peptides, are able to induce major mood alterations. Furthermore, all of these factors modulate neurogenesis in brain regions involved in MDD, and are functionally interconnected in such a fashion that initial alteration in one of them results in abnormalities in the others. We highlight data of potential diagnostic significance and the relevance of this information to develop new therapeutic approaches. Controversial issues, such as whether neurogenesis is the basis of the disease or whether it is a response induced by antidepressant treatments, are also discussed.

  2. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  3. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  4. Does Publication Bias Inflate the Apparent Efficacy of Psychological Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of US National Institutes of Health-Funded Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Driessen

    Full Text Available The efficacy of antidepressant medication has been shown empirically to be overestimated due to publication bias, but this has only been inferred statistically with regard to psychological treatment for depression. We assessed directly the extent of study publication bias in trials examining the efficacy of psychological treatment for depression.We identified US National Institutes of Health grants awarded to fund randomized clinical trials comparing psychological treatment to control conditions or other treatments in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder for the period 1972-2008, and we determined whether those grants led to publications. For studies that were not published, data were requested from investigators and included in the meta-analyses. Thirteen (23.6% of the 55 funded grants that began trials did not result in publications, and two others never started. Among comparisons to control conditions, adding unpublished studies (Hedges' g = 0.20; CI95% -0.11~0.51; k = 6 to published studies (g = 0.52; 0.37~0.68; k = 20 reduced the psychotherapy effect size point estimate (g = 0.39; 0.08~0.70 by 25%. Moreover, these findings may overestimate the "true" effect of psychological treatment for depression as outcome reporting bias could not be examined quantitatively.The efficacy of psychological interventions for depression has been overestimated in the published literature, just as it has been for pharmacotherapy. Both are efficacious but not to the extent that the published literature would suggest. Funding agencies and journals should archive both original protocols and raw data from treatment trials to allow the detection and correction of outcome reporting bias. Clinicians, guidelines developers, and decision makers should be aware that the published literature overestimates the effects of the predominant treatments for depression.

  5. Does Publication Bias Inflate the Apparent Efficacy of Psychological Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of US National Institutes of Health-Funded Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Ellen; Hollon, Steven D.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Cuijpers, Pim; Turner, Erick H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of antidepressant medication has been shown empirically to be overestimated due to publication bias, but this has only been inferred statistically with regard to psychological treatment for depression. We assessed directly the extent of study publication bias in trials examining the efficacy of psychological treatment for depression. Methods and Findings We identified US National Institutes of Health grants awarded to fund randomized clinical trials comparing psychological treatment to control conditions or other treatments in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder for the period 1972–2008, and we determined whether those grants led to publications. For studies that were not published, data were requested from investigators and included in the meta-analyses. Thirteen (23.6%) of the 55 funded grants that began trials did not result in publications, and two others never started. Among comparisons to control conditions, adding unpublished studies (Hedges’ g = 0.20; CI95% -0.11~0.51; k = 6) to published studies (g = 0.52; 0.37~0.68; k = 20) reduced the psychotherapy effect size point estimate (g = 0.39; 0.08~0.70) by 25%. Moreover, these findings may overestimate the "true" effect of psychological treatment for depression as outcome reporting bias could not be examined quantitatively. Conclusion The efficacy of psychological interventions for depression has been overestimated in the published literature, just as it has been for pharmacotherapy. Both are efficacious but not to the extent that the published literature would suggest. Funding agencies and journals should archive both original protocols and raw data from treatment trials to allow the detection and correction of outcome reporting bias. Clinicians, guidelines developers, and decision makers should be aware that the published literature overestimates the effects of the predominant treatments for depression. PMID:26422604

  6. Predictors of psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances; Bell, Caroline; Ali, Anthony; McKenzie, Janice; Boden, Joseph M; Wilkinson, Timothy; Bell, Caroline

    2016-05-06

    To identify predictors of self-reported psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes in Canterbury in 2010 and 2011. Two hundred and fifty-three medical students from the Christchurch campus, University of Otago, were invited to participate in an electronic survey seven months following the most severe earthquake. Students completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Post-traumatic Disorder Checklist, the Work and Adjustment Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Likert scales and other questions were also used to assess a range of variables including demographic and historical variables (eg, self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes), plus the impacts of the earthquakes. The response rate was 78%. Univariate analyses identified multiple variables that were significantly associated with higher resilience. Multiple linear regression analyses produced a fitted model that was able to explain 35% of the variance in resilience scores. The best predictors of higher resilience were: retrospectively-rated personality prior to the earthquakes (higher extroversion and lower neuroticism); higher self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes; not being exposed to the most severe earthquake; and less psychological distress following the earthquakes. Psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes was able to be predicted to a moderate extent.

  7. Psychology Degree Beliefs and Stereotypes: Differences in the Perceptions of Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.

    2016-01-01

    Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…

  8. Psychology Degree Beliefs and Stereotypes: Differences in the Perceptions of Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.

    2016-01-01

    Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…

  9. Popular Psychological Myths: A Comparison of Students' Beliefs across the Psychology Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the frequency and confidence with which college students endorse popular psychological myths, contrasting introductory psychology students (at the beginning and end of the course) with upper-level psychology majors and students who have never taken Introduction to Psychology. This study builds on the existing…

  10. Is evolutionary psychology a metatheory for psychology? A discussion of four major issues in psychology from an evolutionary developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a metatheoretical framework for psychology. We argue that evolutionary psychology should be expanded if it is to offer new insights regarding the major issues in psychology. Evolutionary developmental biology can provide valuable new insights into issues

  11. Molecular epidemiology of major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyohara, Chikako; Yoshimasu, Kouichi

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder causes significant morbidity, affecting people’s ability to work, function in relationships, and engage in social activities. Moreover, major depressive disorder increases the risk of suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and death by completed suicide. There is evidence that chronic stress can cause major depressive disorder. As for genetic factors, only minor susceptibility genes have been reliably identified. The serotonin system provides a logical source of suscep...

  12. Molecular epidemiology of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Chikako; Yoshimasu, Kouichi

    2009-03-01

    Major depressive disorder causes significant morbidity, affecting people's ability to work, function in relationships, and engage in social activities. Moreover, major depressive disorder increases the risk of suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and death by completed suicide. There is evidence that chronic stress can cause major depressive disorder. As for genetic factors, only minor susceptibility genes have been reliably identified. The serotonin system provides a logical source of susceptibility genes for depression, because this system is the target of selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor drugs that are effective in treating depression. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) transporter (5-HTT) has received particular attention because it is involved in the reuptake of serotonin at brain synapses. One common polymorphic variant of the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), which affects the promoter of the 5-HTT gene, causes reduced uptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin into the presynaptic cells in the brain. The authors discussed the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and major depressive disorder, with special emphasis on the 5-HTTTLPR polymorphism. As the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder, the 5-HTT gene may be a candidate for a major depressive disorder susceptibility gene. As major depressive disorder is a multifactorial disease, an improved understanding of the interplay of environmental and genetic polymorphisms at multiple loci may help identify individuals who are at increased risk for major depressive disorder. Hopefully, in the future we will be able to screen for major depressive disorder susceptibility by using specific biomarkers.

  13. Support Tool in the Diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Luciano Comin; Pinheiro, Plácido Rogério; Pequeno, Tarcísio Cavalcante; Pinheiro, Mirian Calíope Dantas

    Major Depressive Disorder have been responsible for millions of professionals temporary removal, and even permanent, from diverse fields of activities around the world, generating damage to social, financial, productive systems and social security, and especially damage to the image of the individual and his family that these disorders produce in individuals who are patients, characteristics that make them stigmatized and discriminated into their society, making difficult their return to the production system. The lack of early diagnosis has provided reactive and late measures, only when the professional suffering psychological disorder is already showing signs of incapacity for working and social relationships. This article aims to assist in the decision making to establish early diagnosis of these types of psychological disorders. It presents a proposal for a hybrid model composed of expert system structured methodologies for decision support (Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis - MCDA) and representations of knowledge structured in logical rules of production and probabilities (Artificial Intelligence - AI).

  14. Adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Zavaschi Maria Lucrécia Scherer; Graeff Maria Elisa; Menegassi Marcos Tatit; Mardini Victor; Pires Denise Winkler Simões; Carvalho Rafael Homem de; Rohde Luis Augusto; Eizirik Cláudio Laks

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma in a developing country. METHOD: Adults with and without mood disorders were assessed in a case-control study using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Assessment of childhood trauma included physical and sexual abuse, frequent exposure to violence, and parental loss. RESULTS: In two independent multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found...

  15. Psychological Disorder in Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantam, Digby

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome suggests that these individuals commonly develop a psychological disorder secondary to Asperger syndrome including affective disorders, anxiety-related disorders, and conduct disorders. Treatment usually involves a combination of psychoeducation, social change,…

  16. Discriminating Between Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vöhringer, Paul A; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-03-01

    Rates of misdiagnosis between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder have been reported to be substantial, and the consequence of such misdiagnosis is likely to be a delay in achieving effective control of symptoms, in some cases spanning many years. Particularly in the midst of a depressive episode, or early in the illness course, it may be challenging to distinguish the 2 mood disorders purely on the basis of cross-sectional features. To date, no useful biological markers have been reliably shown to distinguish between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

  17. Neural and psychological underpinnings of gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    is associated with dysfunction across multiple cognitive domains which can be considered in terms of impulsivity and compulsivity. Neuroimaging data suggest structural and functional abnormalities of networks involved in reward processing and top-down control. Gambling disorder shows 50-60% heritability...... and it is likely that various neurochemical systems are implicated in the pathophysiology (including dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and opioidergic). Elevated rates of certain personality traits (e.g. negative urgency, disinhibition), and personality disorders, are found. More research...... is required to evaluate whether cognitive dysfunction and personality aspects influence the longitudinal course and treatment outcome for gambling disorder. It is hoped that improved understanding of the biological and psychological components of gambling disorder, and their interactions, may lead to improved...

  18. Subcortical volumes differentiate Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and remitted Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Livermore, Emily E; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Glover, Gary H; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-09-01

    Subcortical gray matter regions have been implicated in mood disorders, including Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD). It is unclear, however, whether or how these regions differ among mood disorders and whether such abnormalities are state- or trait-like. In this study, we examined differences in subcortical gray matter volumes among euthymic BD, MDD, remitted MDD (RMD), and healthy (CTL) individuals. Using automated gray matter segmentation of T1-weighted MRI images, we estimated volumes of 16 major subcortical gray matter structures in 40 BD, 57 MDD, 35 RMD, and 61 CTL individuals. We used multivariate analysis of variance to examine group differences in these structures, and support vector machines (SVMs) to assess individual-by-individual classification. Analyses yielded significant group differences for caudate (p = 0.029) and ventral diencephalon (VD) volumes (p = 0.003). For the caudate, both the BD (p = 0.004) and the MDD (p = 0.037) participants had smaller volumes than did the CTL participants. For the VD, the MDD participants had larger volumes than did the BD and CTL participants (ps disorders are characterized by anomalies in subcortical gray matter volumes and that the caudate and VD contribute uniquely to differential affective pathology. Identifying abnormalities in subcortical gray matter may prove useful for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mood disorders.

  19. Review: Psychological intervention in temporomandibular disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Araneda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD frecuently present psychological and psychiatric problems. These patients often show increased somatization, depression, anxiety, stress reaction and catastrophism, wich plays a role in the predisposition, initiation and perpetuation of TMD and treatment response. This review presents thaerapeutic options that compromise the psychological axis of patients with TMD, wich primarily seek to reduce the anxiety and the emotional stress present, modify different perceptions of pain and coping. There are different posibilities, within wich are: patient education, identifying situations that increase the tension to avoid them, teaching relaxation techniques such as biofeedback, hipnosis and yoga. As for psychological treatment, the most common for chronic orofacial pain is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. The appropriate and effective psychological intervention can reduce TMD pain, decreasing the probability that the symptoms become more complex. Within psychological treatment options for TMD, conservative standard treatment (education, self-instruction, avoidance of painful movements, soft diet, even the shortest, may be sufficient in the short term for most patients with TMD, especially in cases of acute conditions. The addition of CBT, by a specialist, gives coping skills that will add to the effectiveness, especially in chronic cases, obtaining better results in the long term.

  20. [Psychological classification of functional voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiese-Himmel, C; Kruse, E

    1997-01-01

    In an explorative study the classification of a collective of patients with different voice disorders by discriminant and cluster analysis was tried. 21 variables, obtained from 128 patients with various diagnoses of voice disorders, were used. A first discriminant analysis on the basis of diagnoses-groups permitted no differentiation. A subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis indicated a four-cluster-solution. The clusters showed only little association with the phoniatric diagnoses. Cluster 1 is characterized by patients with non-organic voice disorders. Cluster 2 is marked by emotional unstable patients with organic dysphonia. Cluster 3 consists of patients with psychosomatic dysphonia by laryngeal contact granuloma, and cluster 4 contains emotional stable patients suffering from organic dysphonia and from spasmodic dysphonia. Thirteen psychological variables discriminated the clusters significantly: Anxiety about appearing in public, emotionality (neuroticism), life satisfaction, aggressiveness, anxiety, about physical injuries, extraversion.

  1. Disordered Eating-Related Cognition and Psychological Flexibility as Predictors of Psychological Health among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…

  2. Disordered Eating-Related Cognition and Psychological Flexibility as Predictors of Psychological Health among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…

  3. Psychologic theories in functional neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, A; Ludwig, L; Welch, K

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we review key psychologic theories that have been mooted as possible explanations for the etiology of functional neurologic symptoms, conversion disorder, and hysteria. We cover Freudian psychoanalysis and later object relations and attachment theories, social theories, illness behavior, classic and operant conditioning, social learning theory, self-regulation theory, cognitive-behavioral theories, and mindfulness. Dissociation and modern cognitive neuroscience theories are covered in other chapters in this series and, although of central importance, are omitted from this chapter. Our aim is an overview with the emphasis on breadth of coverage rather than depth.

  4. Training in Counseling Psychology: An Introduction to the Major Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Charles R.; Mollen, Debra

    2011-01-01

    This Major Contribution, consisting of four articles, critically evaluates the status of training in counseling psychology, especially at the entry level, and offers a model for moving the field forward. In this first article, we provide a rationale for the contribution, laying the foundation for the subsequent three articles. Specifically, we ask…

  5. Migraine symptomatology and major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Lannie; Penninx, Brenda; Nyholt, Dale R.; Distel, Marijn A.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Migraine and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occur, but it is unclear whether depression is associated with a specific subtype of migraine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether migraine is qualitatively different in MDD patients (N = 1816)

  6. Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredysa, Dana M.; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eating disordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eating disorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016

  7. Emerging antidepressants to treat major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Samantha G; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2014-12-01

    Depression is a common disorder with an annual risk of a depressive episode in the United States of 6.6%. Only 30-40% of patients remit with antidepressant monotherapy, leaving 60-70% of patients who do not optimally respond to therapy. Unremitted depressive patients are at increased risk for suicide. Considering the prevalence of treatment resistant depression and its consequences, treatment optimization is imperative. This review summarizes the latest treatment modalities for major depressive disorder including pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and psychotherapy. Through advancements in research to better understand the pathophysiology of depression, advances in treatment will be realized.

  8. Early Maladaptive Schemas: A Comparison Between Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; Nielsen Straarup, Krista; Halvorsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    It is still unclear how bipolar disorder (BD) differentiates from major depressive disorder (MDD) outside major mood episodes. To further elucidate this area, the present study compared the two mood disorders in terms of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) during remission. The sample consisted of 49 participants with BD and 30 participants with MDD who were currently in remission. The participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire. The BD group scored significantly higher than the MDD group on seven EMSs: abandonment, failure to achieve, insufficient self-control, subjugation, unrelenting standards, enmeshment and entitlement. By suggesting that EMSs are more severe in BD compared with MDD, the findings highlight potential vulnerabilities in BD, which merit further examination in terms of their underlying causes and potential treatment implications. Early maladaptive schemas are relevant psychological dimensions to consider in remitted phases of major mood disorders. Findings from the current study suggest that early maladaptive schemas are more prevalent in adults with bipolar disorder compared to adults with major depressive disorder when measured during remission. Interventions targeting early maladaptive schemas may be valuable in treatment of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder : findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, D. J.; van Erp, T. G. M.; Saemann, P. G.; Frodl, T.; Jahanshad, N.; Loehrer, E.; Tiemeier, H.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W. J.; Vernooij, M. W.; Ikram, M. A.; Wittfeld, K.; Grabe, H. J.; Block, A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Voelzke, H.; Hoehn, D.; Czisch, M.; Lagopoulos, J.; Hatton, S. N.; Hickie, I. B.; Goya-Maldonado, R.; Kraemer, B.; Gruber, O.; Couvy-Duchesne, B.; Renteria, M. E.; Strike, L. T.; Mills, N. T.; de Zubicaray, G. I.; McMahon, K. L.; Medland, S. E.; Martin, N. G.; Gillespie, N. A.; Wright, M. J.; Hall, G.B.; MacQueen, G. M.; Frey, E. M.; Carballedo, A.; van Velzen, L. S.; van Tol, M. J.; van der Wee, N. J.; Veer, I. M.; Walter, H.; Schnell, K.; Schramm, E.; Normann, C.; Schoepf, D.; Konrad, C.; Zurowski, B.; Nickson, T.; McIntosh, A. M.; Papmeyer, M.; Whalley, H. C.; Sussmann, J. E.; Godlewska, B. R.; Cowen, P. J.; Fischer, F. H.; Rose, M.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Thompson, P. M.; Hibar, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristic

  10. Perceptions of psychology as a science among university students: the influence of psychology courses and major of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M; Hinds, Ryan M; Glass, Laura A; Ryan, Joseph J

    2009-10-01

    The goal was to examine the relationship between the number of psychology courses students have taken and their perceptions of psychology as a science. Additionally, differences in perceptions of psychology among psychology, education, and natural science majors were examined. Results indicated that students who had taken four or more psychology courses had more favorable perceptions of psychology as a science compared to those who had taken no courses or one course and those who had taken two to three courses. No significant differences in overall perceptions of psychology emerged among students in the three majors.

  11. Empirically derived dietary patterns in relation to psychological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Mahdieh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Majdzadeh, Reza; Afshar, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-02-01

    Psychological disorders are highly prevalent worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and prevalence of psychological disorders in a large sample of Iranian adults. A cross-sectional study was done to identify dietary patterns derived from factor analysis. Dietary data were collected through the use of a validated dish-based semi-quantitative FFQ. Psychological health was examined by use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the General Health Questionnaire. The study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran, within the framework of the Study on Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition (SEPAHAN). Iranian adults (n 3846) aged 20-55 years. After adjustment for potential confounders, greater adherence to the lacto-vegetarian dietary pattern was protectively associated with depression in women (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·91). Normal-weight participants in the top quintile of this dietary pattern tended to have decreased odds of anxiety compared with those in the bottom quintile (OR=0·61; 95 % CI 0·38, 1·00). In addition, the traditional dietary pattern was associated with increased odds of depression (OR=1·42; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·99) and anxiety (OR=1·56; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·42) in women. Normal-weight participants in the highest quintile of the traditional dietary pattern had greater odds for anxiety (OR=1·89; 95 % CI 1·12, 3·08) compared with those in the lowest quintile. The Western dietary pattern was associated with increased odds of depression in men (OR=1·73; 95 % CI 1·07, 2·81) and anxiety in normal-weight participants (OR=2·05; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·46). There was a significant increasing trend in the odds of psychological distress across increasing quintiles of the fast food dietary pattern in women (P-trend=0·02). Recommendation to increase the intake of fruits, citrus fruits, vegetables, tomato and low-fat dairy products and to reduce the intakes of snacks, high-fat dairy

  12. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Saavedra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  13. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Kathleen; Molina-Márquez, Ana María; Saavedra, Nicolás; Zambrano, Tomás; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-08-05

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  14. Sheehan's Syndrome Presenting as Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Mehmood I; Mushtaq, Mohsin Bin; Qazi, Iram; Yousuf, Sameena; Rashid, Aaliya

    2015-01-01

    Sheehan's syndrome or Simmond's disease is a rare endocrine disorder seen in clinical practice. The clinical spectrum is diverse and a high index of suspicion together with a good clinical acumen and proper diagnostic approach helps in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this endocrinopathy. Sheehan's syndrome presenting as a major depressive disorder finds less mention in the literature. The patient discussed here is a 45-year-old female who had been on antidepressants and psychiatry follow up for a long time until she presented to our Out Patient Department (OPD), where she was evaluated in detail and diagnosed as a case of Sheehan's syndrome. The patient is doing well and is on a regular follow-up with us. Further studies are required to demystify the strength of this association in more detail and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanism.

  15. Evaluation of Xerostomia in Different Psychological Disorders: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrappa, Pramod Redder; Patil, Snehal; Roodmal, Seema Yadav; Kumarswamy, Akshay; Chappi, Mounesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psychiatric diseases like anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are increasing at an alarming rate. These diseases can affect the quantity and quality of saliva leading to multiple oral diseases. Although many researchers have evaluated xerostomia in general population, its prevalence is not been assessed in patients suffering from different psychological disorders. Aim To investigate the prevalence of xerostomia and to assess the correlation between xerostomia and dryness of lip and mucosa in different psychological disorders. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of six months in Department of Psychiatry and Department of Oral Medicine. Patients with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as diagnosed by an experienced psychiatrist, were given a questionnaire to evaluate the xerostomia. Patients with symptoms of xerostomia were subjected to oral examination by a skilled oral diagnostician to check for dryness of lips and mucosa. One hundred patients from each group of psychiatric diseases were included in the study using a consecutive sampling technique. An equal number of healthy individuals reporting to oral medicine department for routine oral screening were included as control group after initial psychiatric evaluation. Results In this study statistically significant increase in the xerostomia in psychiatric patients was recorded when compared to the control group (p<0.01). Xerostomia was significantly higher in anxiety patients (51%) followed by depression (47%), bipolar disorder (41%), schizophrenia (39%) and control group (27%). The majority of the psychiatric patients had ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ xerostomia whereas the control group had ‘mild’ xerostomia. Xerostomia was significantly higher in younger age group (18–49 years) than in older age group and females patients had higher xerostomia than male patients. Psychiatric patients had

  16. Desvenlafaxine succinate for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Beth A; Hazra, Monica; Pollock, Bruce G

    2008-07-01

    Desvenlafaxine (O-desmethylvenlafaxine) is the major active metabolite of venlafaxine. Desvenlafaxine succinate is now undergoing active evaluation for its therapeutic efficacy in a variety of disorders, including major depressive disorder, vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, fibromyalgia and diabetic neuropathy. Desvenlafaxine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) with similar activity to its parent compound venlafaxine, and little affinity for other brain targets, including muscarinic, cholinergic, histamine H(1) and alpha-adrenergic receptors. Desvenlafaxine has linear pharmacokinetics, low protein binding, a half-life of approximately 10 hours and is metabolized primarily via glucuronidation, and to a minor extent through CYP3A4. The desvenlafaxine succinate formulation appears to have good oral bioavailability. Clearance rates are reduced in the elderly, those with severe renal dysfunction and those with moderate to severe hepatic dysfunction, which may require dosage adjustments. Three published clinical trials have shown supportive but mixed results for the efficacy of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depressive disorder with daily doses ranging from 100 mg to 400 mg. One published clinical trial has shown mixed results for the efficacy of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause with daily doses ranging from 50 mg to 200 mg. In these four clinical trials, desvenlafaxine was associated with several mild adverse effects, with the most common effect being nausea. Less common, but more serious, adverse effects reported in these trials included hypertension, QTc interval prolongation, exacerbation of ischemic cardiac disease, elevated lipids and elevated liver enzymes. The exact nature of these serious adverse effects, including the prevalence, clinical significance and potential risk factors, still needs to be fully elucidated. Desvenlafaxine has a low propensity for pharmacokinetic

  17. Automaticity in Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A.; Joormann, Jutta; Steinman, Shari; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the nature of automatic cognitive processing in anxiety disorders and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Rather than viewing automaticity as a unitary construct, we follow a social cognition perspective (Bargh, 1994) that argues for four theoretically independent features of automaticity: unconscious (processing of emotional stimuli occurs outside awareness), efficient (processing emotional meaning uses minimal attentional resources), unintentional (no goal is needed to engage in processing emotional meaning), and uncontrollable (limited ability to avoid, alter or terminate processing emotional stimuli). Our review of the literature suggests that most anxiety disorders are characterized by uncontrollable, and likely also unconscious and unintentional, biased processing of threat-relevant information. In contrast, MDD is most clearly typified by uncontrollable, but not unconscious or unintentional, processing of negative information. For the anxiety disorders and for MDD, there is not sufficient evidence to draw firm conclusions about efficiency of processing, though early indications are that neither anxiety disorders nor MDD are characterized by this feature. Clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed and directions for future research are offered. In particular, it is clear that paradigms that more directly delineate the different features of automaticity are required to gain a more comprehensive and systematic understanding of the importance of automatic processing in emotion dysregulation. PMID:22858684

  18. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  19. Depression and major depressive disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2010-01-15

    The prevalence of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) varies greatly. In this study, we investigated major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms without MDD in patients with PD. The psychopathological characteristics of depressive symptoms were assessed by a psychiatric interview. A total of 105 Japanese patients with PD without dementia were included. The Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) with a cutoff score of 13/14 was used to screen for depression. Using a structured interview, a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation of patients with BDI-II scores >13 (high BDI patients) was completed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR. Forty patients (38%) had a BDI-II >13, but 29 did not show any depressed mood. Five cases met the criteria for MDD (three current, two past) and one patient was diagnosed with minor depressive disorder. A slight depressed mood that was associated with worrying about PD was seen in 6 of 34 patients without any depressive disorder and fluctuated with aggravation of PD symptoms in two of these patients. For the diagnosis of MDD, the number of positive items from the DSM-IV-TR definition of MDD is most important and useful for differentiating MDD and non-MDD. The low-prevalence rate of MDD in our patient population suggests that PD may be a psychological stressor for MDD, but does not necessarily induce MDD.

  20. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... in a fronto-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute...... to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission...

  1. Advances in biomarkers of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tiao-Lai; Lin, Chin-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by mood, vegetative, cognitive, and even psychotic symptoms and signs that can cause substantial impairments in quality of life and functioning. Biomarkers are measurable indicators that could help diagnosing MDD or predicting treatment response. In this chapter, lipid profiles, immune/inflammation, and neurotrophic factor pathways that have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD are discussed. Then, pharmacogenetics and epigenetics of serotonin transport and its metabolism pathway, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and abnormality of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis also revealed new biomarkers. Lastly, new techniques, such as proteomics and metabolomics, which allow researchers to approach the studying of MDD with new directions and make new discoveries are addressed. In the future, more data are needed regarding pathophysiology of MDD, including protein levels, single nucleotide polymorphism, epigenetic regulation, and clinical data in order to better identify reliable and consistent biomarkers for diagnosis, treatment choice, and outcome prediction.

  2. [Cognition - the core of major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosan, M; Lemogne, C; Jardri, R; Fossati, P

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive deficits have been only recently recognized as a major phenotype determinant of major depressive disorder, although they are an integral part of the definition of the depressive state. Congruent evidence suggest that these cognitive deficits persist beyond the acute phase and may be identified at all ages. The aim of the current study was to review the main meta-analyses on cognition and depression, which encompasses a large range of cognitive domains. Therefore, we discuss the "cold" (attention, memory, executive functions) and "hot" (emotional bias) cognitive impairments in MDD, as well as those of social cognition domains (empathy, theory of mind). Several factors interfere with cognition in MDD such as clinical (melancholic, psychotic...) features, age, age of onset, illness severity, medication and comorbid condition. As still debated in the literature, the type of relationship between the severity of cognitive symptoms and functioning in depression is detailed, thus highlighting their predictive value of functional outcome, independently of the affective symptoms. A better identification of the cognitive deficits in MDD and a monitoring of the effects of different treatments require appropriate instruments, which may be developed by taking advantage of the increasing success of computing tools. Overall, current data suggest a core role for different cognitive deficits in MDD, therefore opening new perspectives for optimizing the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomarkers for Major Depressive Disorder: Economic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Lakic, Dragana

    2016-11-01

    Preclinical Research Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major psychiatric illness and it is predicted to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 with a lifetime prevalence of about 13%. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly used therapeutic class for MDD. However, response to SSRI treatment varies considerably between patients. Biomarkers of treatment response may enable clinicians to target the appropriate drug for each patient. Biomarkers need to have accuracy in real life, sensitivity, specificity, and relevance to depression. Introduction of MDD biomarkers into the health care system can increase the overall cost of clinical diagnosis of patients. Because of that, decisions to allocate health research funding must be based on drug effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The assessment of MDD biomarkers should include reliable evidence of associated drug effectiveness, adverse events and consequences (reduced productivity and quality of life, disability) and effectiveness of alternative approaches, other drug classes or behavioral or alternative therapies. In addition, all the variables included in an economic model (probabilities, outcomes, and costs) should be based on reliable evidence gained from the literature-ideally meta-analyses-and the evidence should also be determined by informed and specific expert opinion. Early assessment can guide decisions about whether or not to continue test development, and ideally to optimize the process. Drug Dev Res 77 : 374-378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Current understanding of the neurobiology of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriţă, Anca Livia; Gheorman, Victor; Bondari, Dan; Rogoveanu, Ion

    2015-01-01

    Depression is highly prevalent worldwide and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately 340 million people worldwide suffer from depression at any given time. Based on estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is responsible for the greatest proportion of burden associated with non-fatal health outcomes and accounts for approximately 12% total years lived with disability. Probably no single risk factor can be completely isolated in major depressive disorder (MDD), as interactions between many sources of vulnerability are the most likely explanation. Buttressing the identification of grief, demoralization, hopelessness and styles of psychological coping of the depressed patient are vital, ongoing scientific developments that flow from an increased understanding of this interplay amongst the immune system, endocrine system and brain. The rapidly accumulating body of neurobiological knowledge has catalyzed fundamental changes in how we conceptualize depressive symptoms and has important implications regarding the treatment and even prevention of depressive symptoms in patients.

  5. Mitochondrial variants in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi Rollins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria provide most of the energy for brain cells by the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial abnormalities and deficiencies in oxidative phosphorylation have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ, bipolar disorder (BD, and major depressive disorder (MDD in transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies. Several mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence have been reported in SZ and BD patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC from a cohort of 77 SZ, BD, and MDD subjects and age-matched controls (C was studied for mtDNA sequence variations and heteroplasmy levels using Affymetrix mtDNA resequencing arrays. Heteroplasmy levels by microarray were compared to levels obtained with SNaPshot and allele specific real-time PCR. This study examined the association between brain pH and mtDNA alleles. The microarray resequencing of mtDNA was 100% concordant with conventional sequencing results for 103 mtDNA variants. The rate of synonymous base pair substitutions in the coding regions of the mtDNA genome was 22% higher (p = 0.0017 in DLPFC of individuals with SZ compared to controls. The association of brain pH and super haplogroup (U, K, UK was significant (p = 0.004 and independent of postmortem interval time. CONCLUSIONS: Focusing on haplogroup and individual susceptibility factors in psychiatric disorders by considering mtDNA variants may lead to innovative treatments to improve mitochondrial health and brain function.

  6. Advances in psychological interventions for lifestyle disorders: overview of interventions in cardiovascular disorder and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Paulomi M

    2017-09-01

    The present review examines the recent advances in psychological interventions for two major lifestyle disorders in adults namely, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. The review summarizes findings from studies carried out between the years 2015 and 2017. The effectiveness of psychological interventions in the management of lifestyle disorders has been examined with respect to adaptation, self-care, adherence, negative emotions and improving quality of life. There is an increasing recognition that psychological interventions are important for prevention of lifestyle disorders and promotion of health. Key psychological interventions include self-management and educational interventions based on learning and motivational principles, patient empowerment, cognitive behaviour therapy, behavioural skills and coaching. Recent developments also include the use of information technology to deliver these interventions through internet, mobile applications and text messages. Another significant development is that of mindfulness-based interventions within the third-generation behaviour therapy approaches to reduce distress and increase acceptance. In addition, family and couples interventions have also been emphasised as necessary in maintenance of healthy behaviours. Studies examining psychological interventions in cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes mellitus support the efficacy of these interventions in bringing about changes in biochemical / physiological parameters and in psychological outcomes such as self-efficacy, knowledge, quality of life and a sense of empowerment.

  7. Prolidase activity in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Demir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prolidase enzyme, which exists in plasma, brain and various organs, is a cytosolic exopeptidase, that divisor the imidodipeptides with carboxyl terminal position of proline and hydroxyproline. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum prolidase activity level in major depressive disorder (MDD. Methods: This study included 22 patients with MDD as the study group, and 26 healthy subjects without any psychiatric disorders as the control group. Each patient underwent a detailed diagnostic evaluation by experienced psychiatrists. The sociodemographic information form given to both patients and the control subjects, while Hamilton Depression Scale Scoring (HDS, Hamilton Anxiety Scale Scoring (HAS, Clinical Global Impression Scoring (CGI applied to patients. Blood samples were obtained for biochemical analyses. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 31.3±10.1 years old, whereas the mean age of the control group was 32.3±8.8 years old. The mean duration of the education for the patient group was 8.1±6.2 years, whereas for the control group was 10.2±3.8 years. There was no significant differences in terms of the mean age of participants and the mean duration of the education between two groups (p>0.05. The level of prolidase activity of patient group was 510.3±480.8 U/L, whereas the level of prolidase activity of control group was 457.8±386.0 U/L. No significant difference was observed in serum prolidase activity between patient and the control groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: In our study similar level of prolidase activity was found in MDD and healthy subjects. We suggest that this finding may be an evidence indicating that MDD and bipolar depression may be different clinical entities. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 296-300

  8. Psychological aspects of temporomandibular disorders – literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorders (TMD constitute a group of clinical problems involving the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint and associated structures. An etiological connection of TMD with psychological factors was proposed as early as the 1980’s. Indeed, the interdependence of psychological and health aspects in the patient’s treatment, place light upon the more important variables contributing to the various mental disorders that may accompany TMD. Current literature suggests a close relationship between TMD and selected psychological factors, such as personality traits, stress, depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing. Of note, anxiety-depressive disorders, somatisation and catastrophizing contribute to chronic TMD, mainly in the form of myofascial pain. Hence, knowledge of the influence of psychological factors affecting TMD, enables the identification of patients with an increased risk of chronic painful TMD.

  9. Hippocampal neuroplasticity in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykhin, N V; Coupland, N J

    2015-11-19

    One of the most replicated findings has been that hippocampus volume is decreased in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that localized differences in hippocampal volume may be more prominent than global differences. Preclinical and post-mortem studies in MDD indicated that different subfields of the hippocampus may respond differently to stress and may also have differential levels of plasticity in response to antidepressant treatment. Advances in high-field MRI allowed researchers to visualize and measure hippocampal subfield volumes in MDD patients in vivo. The results of these studies provide the first in vivo evidence that hippocampal volume reductions in MDD are specific to the cornu ammonis and dentate gyrus hippocampal subfields, findings that appear, on the surface, consistent with preclinical evidence for localized mechanisms of hippocampal neuroplasticity. In this review we discuss how recent advances in neuroimaging allow researchers to further understand hippocampal neuroplasticity in MDD and how it is related to antidepressant treatment, memory function, and disease progression.

  10. Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-07-14

    Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology.

  11. Affective Priming in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle eLeMoult

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on cognitive biases in depression has provided considerable evidence for the impact of emotion on cognition. Individuals with depression tend to preferentially process mood-congruent material and to show deficits in the processing of positive material leading to biases in attention, memory, and judgments. More research is needed, however, to fully understand which cognitive processes are affected. The current study further examines the impact of emotion on cognition using a priming design with facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, this study tested whether the presentation of facial expressions of emotion affects subsequent processing of affective material in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls (CTL. Facial expressions displaying happy, sad, angry, disgusted, or neutral expressions were presented as primes for 500ms, and participants’ speed to identify a subsequent target’s emotional expression was assessed. All participants displayed greater interference from emotional versus neutral primes, marked by slower response times to judge the emotion of the target face when it was preceded by an emotional prime. Importantly, the CTL group showed the strongest interference when happy emotional expressions served as primes whereas the MDD group failed to show this bias. These results add to a growing literature that shows that depression is associated with difficulties in the processing of positive material.

  12. Characteristics of Programs That Maximize Psychology Major Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoloff, Michael L.; Good, Megan Rodgers; Smith, Kristen L.; Brewster, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a national survey of psychology department chairs, and, based on their responses, we concluded that psychology programs differ in the number of students enrolled in various types of classes; the degree of focus on each of the goals recommended by the "American Psychological Association (APA) Guidelines for an Undergraduate…

  13. Characteristics of Programs That Maximize Psychology Major Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoloff, Michael L.; Good, Megan Rodgers; Smith, Kristen L.; Brewster, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a national survey of psychology department chairs, and, based on their responses, we concluded that psychology programs differ in the number of students enrolled in various types of classes; the degree of focus on each of the goals recommended by the "American Psychological Association (APA) Guidelines for an Undergraduate…

  14. Outcomes of Introduction to the Psychology Major: Careers and Opportunities Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Lauren J.; McMahan, Ethan A.

    2014-01-01

    University career courses have become a more standard offering at many colleges and universities over the past few decades. Similarly, there has been an increase in the number of psychology departments offering a careers course for psychology majors or an introduction to the psychology major course. This study examines the outcomes of a course…

  15. Outcomes of Introduction to the Psychology Major: Careers and Opportunities Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Lauren J.; McMahan, Ethan A.

    2014-01-01

    University career courses have become a more standard offering at many colleges and universities over the past few decades. Similarly, there has been an increase in the number of psychology departments offering a careers course for psychology majors or an introduction to the psychology major course. This study examines the outcomes of a course…

  16. Anger in psychological disorders: Prevalence, presentation, etiology and prognostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ephrem; Johnson, Sheri L

    2016-06-01

    Anger is present as a key criterion in five diagnoses within DSM-5: Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. This review amasses scientific literature demonstrating that within each of these disorders, anger is a central clinical feature that is highly prevalent and predictive of important outcomes. For each disorder, we also discuss the phenomenology and etiology of anger. Although models of anger have been quite distinct across these disorders, few empirical studies have truly tested whether anger stems from different etiological factors across these different conditions. We end with a discussion of transdiagnostic research that draws from cognitive psychology, affective science, and the neuroscience of anger, and that also fits with integrative approaches to treatment.

  17. Psychological Diagnostics of Developmental Disorders: A New Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubovsky V.I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a fundamentally new, theoretically grounded and empirically supported approach to psycho-pedagogical diagnostics of developmental disorders. It is shown that in Russia psychological diagnostics of developmental disorders still has no proper theoretical foundations and is carried out rather intuitively and empirically, even on the stage of differential diagnosis. The situation abroad is quite similar despite the use of standardized intelligence tests as they can only measure quantitative differences in subjects’ performance. The authors emphasize core components of cognitive activity different correlation of which determines the differences between various types of intellectual disorders that are similar in presentation. The proposed approach allows us to fully use the relevant characteristics of different types of developmental disorders. Features of the dynamics of cognitive activity, which are identified in observations and ignored in testing, significantly complement the psychological characteristics of developmental disorders.

  18. Social and psychological predictors of onset of anxiety disorders: results from a large prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The vast majority of studies investigating the association between social and psychological factors and anxiety disorders have been cross-sectional, making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. The purpose of the study was to investigate in a prospective longitudinal study whether...... social and psychological factors are associated with the later risk of being admitted to a hospital and receive a diagnosis of anxiety disorders. METHOD: The study population comprised 4,497 members of The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort (CPC) who in 1993 answered a mailed questionnaire containing questions...... on a range of social and psychological factors. In 2007, the study population was linked to The Danish Hospital Discharge Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register to obtain information on registration with anxiety disorders. Multiple Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the risk of anxiety...

  19. Attachment Disorder, Basic Trust and Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael G.; Newnham, Karyn

    2008-01-01

    The label Attachment Disorder (AD) is used as either a description of a child's presentation, or as a diagnostic category. It is unclear whether this label is intended to be identical with the DSM-IV Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) diagnostic category, or if it is a separate diagnosis based on Randolph's Questionnaire and the premises…

  20. The potential of transcranial photobiomodulation therapy for treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Farzad; Rasta, Seyed Hossein

    2017-02-23

    Major depressive disorder is a common debilitating mood disorder that affects quality of life. Prefrontal cortex abnormalities, an imbalance in neurotransmitters, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the major factors in the etiology of major depressive disorder. Despite the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder, 30%-40% of patients do not respond to antidepressants. Given this, exploring the alternative therapies for treatment or prevention of major depressive disorder has aroused interest among scientists. Transcranial photobiomodulation therapy is the use of low-power lasers and light-emitting diodes in the far-red to near-infrared optical region for stimulation of neuronal activities. This non-invasive modality improves the metabolic capacity of neurons due to more oxygen consumption and ATP production. Beneficial effects of transcranial photobiomodulation therapy in the wide range of neurological and psychological disorders have been already shown. In this review, we focus on some issues relating to the application of photobiomodulation therapy for major depressive disorder. There is some evidence that transcranial photobiomodulation therapy using near-infrared light on 10-Hz pulsed mode appears to be a hopeful technique for treatment of major depressive disorder. However, further studies are necessary to find the safety of this method and to determine its effective treatment protocol.

  1. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Licht, C.M.; Spijker, J.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHODS: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the

  2. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Sanne M.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Spijker, Jan; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the Netherl

  3. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Sanne M.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Spijker, Jan; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the

  4. Influence of Attachment Style on Major Psychological Capacities to Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Micha; Amit, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Addressing psychological literature's deficiency in research on the early development of leaders in everyday life (e.g., leaders in the workplace, leaders in social settings, leaders in organizational settings), this study assumed that central psychological capacities required for such leaders can be predicted and explained by J. Bowlby's (1969)…

  5. Psychological implications of a vision disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Brian E

    2017-04-01

    The paper discusses how the condition of crossed-eyes affects a baby's eye contact with mother and potentially results in the loss of a vital emotional connection with her during the earliest days of life. This loss may contribute to a rupture that arrests emotional development at a deep psychic level. It is suggested that, in the same way as premature separation, the rupture can precipitate a 'fusional complex', a defence that develops to protect the infant against psychotic anxieties. The paper proposes that psychological development atrophies in this place and creates a blind spot. These ideas are explored through analytic theory and developmental literature. The dreams of a patient and his art are used to illustrate a 10-year 'alchemical' process of bringing repressed material into consciousness and transformation. Healing the psychological wounds of deficits in early eye contact may be found to bring sight to a blind spot that was created by the nature of the condition itself. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  6. Psychological Diagnostics of Developmental Disorders: A New Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Lubovsky V.I.; Korobeynikov I.A.,; Valyavko S.M.,

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose a fundamentally new, theoretically grounded and empirically supported approach to psycho-pedagogical diagnostics of developmental disorders. It is shown that in Russia psychological diagnostics of developmental disorders still has no proper theoretical foundations and is carried out rather intuitively and empirically, even on the stage of differential diagnosis. The situation abroad is quite similar despite the use of standardized intelligence tests as they can only measur...

  7. Psychological characteristics of patients with functional and inflammatory bowel disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova I.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the psychological characteristics of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, ulcerative colitis (UC, Crohn's disease (CD. Material and methods. The study group included 98 patients with IBD (inflammatory bowel disease and IBS, the control group included 30 healthy individuals. Set of psychological tests included questionnaire (multifactorial systemic examination of the person, the Luscher color test, Beck Depression Inventory, a test on health, activity, mood. Results. Premorbid personality traits, communication disorders with stress have been revieled. According to the nosology different types of emotional response to the disease, changes in health and activity have been marked. There is a high level of frustration needs, increased frequency of anxiety and depression in all patients. Conclusion. Psychological mechanisms of pathology are similar in functional and organic bowel diseases with the greatest influence on the course of functional disorders.

  8. Objective Sleep in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Bertocci, Michele A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine sleep problems encountered in anxiety and depressive disorders among children and adolescents is conducted. Results indicated subjective and objective sleep problems in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and need to be kept in mind when treating young anxious people.

  9. Objective Sleep in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Bertocci, Michele A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine sleep problems encountered in anxiety and depressive disorders among children and adolescents is conducted. Results indicated subjective and objective sleep problems in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and need to be kept in mind when treating young anxious people.

  10. Psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Graaf, de R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Older meta-analyses of the effects of psychological treatments of social anxiety disorder have found that these treatments have moderate to large effects. However, these earlier meta-analyses also included non-randomized studies, and there are many featured studies in this area w

  11. The cognitive psychology of Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2014-06-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has received nomenclatural recognition as a potential mental health disorder, despite evident variability in its core psychopathology and psychometric assessment. Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is considered an efficacious treatment for IGD, the underlying cognitions of the disorder are not well understood. This review aimed to synthesise research evidence on Internet gaming cognition toward identification of cognitive factors underlying IGD. A systematic review of 29 quantitative studies on Internet gaming cognition and 7 treatment studies employing cognitive therapy for IGD was conducted. Four cognitive factors underlying IGD were identified. Factors included (a) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (b) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behaviour, (c) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (d) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. It is proposed that IGD-related cognition may be more complex than "preoccupation" (i.e., criterion A of IGD). IGD cognition may involve the persistent overvaluation of video gaming rewards, activities, and identities, combined with a need to adhere to maladaptive rules governing use and completion of video games. Greater understanding of the proposed cognitive factors may advance clinical research agendas on identification of individuals with IGD, as well as the expansion and improvement of cognitive therapies for the disorder.

  12. Psychological disorders in adults with inherited cardiomyopathies and Takotsubo syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Bagnasco, Mariana; Núñez-Gil, Iván J

    2016-06-03

    We performed a narrative review about psychological disorders in adults with Takotsubo syndrome and inherited cardiomyopathies. Through the electronic database PubMed and PsycINFO we searched all relevant related manuscripts published between 2000 and 2015. We found twelve studies that explore psychological disorders in Takotsubo syndrome and eight about inherited cardiomyopathies: five enrolled patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, two dilated cardiomyopathy, and one arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. All papers reported the presence of psychological disorders. In Takotsubo syndrome, depression fluctuates between 20.5 and 48% and anxiety was present among 26 and 56%. A study reported that anxiety increases the probability of developing Takotsubo syndrome. In dilated cardiomyopathy, anxiety was present in 50% and depression in 22%. In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, younger age, poorer functional capacity and having experienced at least one implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock, were significant independent predictors of both device-specific and generalized anxiety. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, anxiety and depression were present in 45.2% and 17.9%, respectively. Thirty seven percent met diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders and 21% for mood disorders. Nearby half hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients report triggering of chest pain, dyspnea, and dizziness by emotional stress. Due to the small number of studies, conclusions are limited. However, we discuss some results.

  13. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, S.M.; Licht, C.M.M.; Spijker, J; Beekman, A T F; Hardeveld, F.; de Graaf, R.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose MDD and GAD. Cognitive profiles were measured using the Leiden Index of Depression S...

  14. Poststructuralist historicism and the psychological construction of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, K

    1993-01-01

    When applied to the construction of anxiety disorders, theories of poststructuralist historicism emphasize acts of interpretation that constitute and construct the disorders and problematize the processes by which meaning is constructed. An examination of the historical formulations of anxiety disorders, and in particular, agoraphobia, provides the opportunity for reanalyzing traditional approaches to the classifications of disorders. Psychological issues of paradox, attachment, and personal identity, which are crucial to current conceptualizations of agoraphobia, are acutely problematized within a poststructuralist historicist hermeneutic. A rethinking of disorder construction from within this hermeneutic suggests replacing individualistic conceptualizations of personal identity with a broader view that recognizes and celebrates multiplicity and that displays formulations of the self in a contextualized and historicized status, thus enabling a fuller engagement with the social world.

  15. Metacognitive strategies in reading comprehension of majors in education and psychology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotaeva I.V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at how well students majoring in educational sciences and psychology were able to use spontaneously metacognitive strategies for reading comprehension. Students majoring in education have demonstrated ineffective learning goals and strategies. The results of the study show that only 7 percent of education majors sought to establish logical connections between the text fragments in multiple-choice assessment by contrast with 48 percent of psychology majors. The study showed that the number of education and psychology majors with metacognitive strategy of systematization has increased in the situation of self-formulated answer.

  16. Preferred Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Anxiety Disorders, Parenting Problems, Eating Disorders, and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Laura; Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

    Although the Internet offers information about psychological problems and support resources for behavioral health problems, the quality of this information varies widely. So as to offer guidance in this area, preferred sites pertaining to anxiety disorders, parenting problems, eating disorders, and chemical dependency were analyzed. A total of 365…

  17. Psychological Assessment with the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders: Tradition and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Mark H; Hopwood, Christopher J; Krueger, Robert F; Morey, Leslie C; Pincus, Aaron L; Wright, Aidan G C

    2017-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD; APA, 2013) represents an innovative system for simultaneous psychiatric classification and psychological assessment of personality disorders (PD). The AMPD combines major paradigms of personality assessment and provides an original, heuristic, flexible, and practical framework that enriches clinical thinking and practice. Origins, emerging research, and clinical application of the AMPD for diagnosis and psychological assessment are reviewed. The AMPD integrates assessment and research traditions, facilitates case conceptualization, is easy to learn and use, and assists in providing patient feedback. New as well as existing tests and psychometric methods may be used to operationalize the AMPD for clinical assessments.

  18. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  19. Is there a relationship between sinusitis and psychological disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Mohammad Reza; Feyzabadi, Zohre

    2016-12-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis refers to inflammation of the nasal and sinuses mucosa and the main criteria for diagnosis of this disease related to the nasal cavity or the facial area. According to several reports based on the relationship of this disease with mental disorders, psychological issues are missing in the criteria of chronic rhinosinusitis diagnosis. In this study the etiology and clinical symptoms of the disease were studied by searching scientific databases and authentic Iranian Medicine books such as Avicenna's book The Canon of Medicine (Al-Qanun fi't-Tibb) that now taught in medicine schools of the Traditional East Asian; the results of this study showed that rhinosinusitis accompaniment with psychological symptoms are listed in abundance not only in old books but also in scientific literature before 1928 but after the discovery of antibiotics and extreme attention in the context of physiopathological assignment of diseases to pathogens, this relationship has been weakened. Given the positive results of recent studies on rhinosinusitis accompaniment with psychological disorders it is suggested that more studies are needed to explore the relationship between chronic rhinosinusitis and psychological diseases and, if necessary, to be included in the diagnostic criteria as a diagnostic standard.

  20. Relationship of Personality Disorders to the Course of Major Depressive Disorder in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Keyes, Katherine; Geier, Timothy; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of specific personality disorder co-morbidity on the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally-representative sample. Method Data were drawn from 1,996 participants in a national survey. Participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder at baseline in face-to-face interviews (2001–2002) were re-interviewed three years later (2004–2005) to determine persistence and recurrence. Predictors included all DSM-IV personality disorders. Control variables included demographic characteristics, other Axis I disorders, family and treatment histories, and previously established predictors of the course of major depressive disorder. Results 15.1% of participants had persistent major depressive disorder and 7.3% of those who remitted had a recurrence. Univariate analyses indicated that avoidant, borderline, histrionic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders all elevated the risk for persistence. With Axis I co-morbidity controlled, all but histrionic personality disorder remained significant. With all other personality disorders controlled, borderline and schizotypal remained significant predictors. In final, multivariate analyses that controlled for age at onset of major depressive disorder, number of previous episodes, duration of current episode, family history, and treatment, borderline personality disorder remained a robust predictor of major depressive disorder persistence. Neither personality disorders nor other clinical variables predicted recurrence. Conclusions In this nationally-representative sample of adults with major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder robustly predicted persistence, a finding that converges with recent clinical studies. Personality psychopathology, particularly borderline personality disorder, should be assessed in all patients with major depressive disorder, considered in prognosis, and addressed in treatment. PMID:21245088

  1. Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol Use Disorders Are a Major Problem..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol use disorders are a major problem …" Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents George Koob, Ph.D., is Director of the NIH's ...

  2. Major depressive disorder as a co-morbid diagnosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    schizophrenia, major depressive disorder is excluded and should rather be diagnosed .... Whilst one includes the assessment of hopelessness, suicidality and the ..... ing to Abramson's reformulated learned-helplessness model.48 This entails ...

  3. Risk factors to suicidal attempt in major depressive disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics related to suicidal attempt in major depressive disorder patients.Methods A total of 1 172 major depressive disorder patients were consecutively examined in 13 mental health centers in China from September 1,2010 to February 28,2011.The patients’socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure.

  4. Literature and art therapy in post-stroke psychological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Yeongcheol; Yim, Jongeun

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and long-term disability worldwide, and post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common and serious psychiatric complication of stroke. PSD makes patients have more severe deficits in activities of daily living, a worse functional outcome, more severe cognitive deficits and increased mortality as compared to stroke patients without depression. Therefore, to reduce or prevent mental problems of stroke patients, psychological treatment should be recommended. Literature and art therapy are highly effective psychological treatment for stroke patients. Literature therapy divided into poetry and story therapy is an assistive tool that treats neurosis as well as emotional or behavioral disorders. Poetry can add impression to the lethargic life of a patient with PSD, thereby acting as a natural treatment. Story therapy can change the gloomy psychological state of patients into a bright and healthy story, and therefore can help stroke patients to overcome their emotional disabilities. Art therapy is one form of psychological therapy that can treat depression and anxiety in stroke patients. Stroke patients can express their internal conflicts, emotions, and psychological status through art works or processes and it would be a healing process of mental problems. Music therapy can relieve the suppressed emotions of patients and add vitality to the body, while giving them the energy to share their feelings with others. In conclusion, literature and art therapy can identify the emotional status of patients and serve as a useful auxiliary tool to help stroke patients in their rehabilitation process.

  5. The impact of major earthquakes on the psychological functioning of medical students: a Christchurch, New Zealand study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances A; Bell, Caroline J; Ali, Anthony N; McKenzie, Janice; Wilkinson, Timothy J

    2014-07-18

    No previous studies have systematically assessed the psychological functioning of medical students following a major disaster. To describe the psychological functioning of medical students following the earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, and identify predictors of adverse psychological functioning. 7 months following the most severe earthquake, medical students completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, the Work and Adjustment Scale, and Likert scales assessing psychological functioning at worst and currently. A substantial minority of medical students reported moderate-extreme difficulties on the DASS subscales 7 months following the most severe earthquake (Depression =12%; Anxiety =9%; Stress =10%). Multiple linear modelling produced a model that predicted 27% of the variance in total scores on the DASS. Variables contributing significantly to the model were: year of medical course, presence of mental health problems prior to the earthquakes, not being New Zealand European, and being higher on retrospectively rated neuroticism prior to the earthquakes. Around 10% of medical students experienced moderate-extreme psychological difficulties 7 months following the most severe earthquake on 22 February 2011. Specific groups at high risk for ongoing psychological symptomatology were able to be identified.

  6. What patients with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    convenience sampling based on the availability of suitable subjects ... Adverse life events (ALEs) as precipitants of a major depressive episode (MDE) have been the subject of many studies. These .... more likely to cause a sense of hopelessness, which may .... relevance of depressive subtype. ... biopsychosocial theories.

  7. Prospective mental imagery in patients with major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Deeprose, C.; Pusowski, C.; Schmid, M.; Holmes, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prospective negative cognitions are suggested to play an important role in maintaining anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about positive prospective mental imagery. This study investigated differences in prospective mental imagery among 27 patients with

  8. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder: findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaal, L; Veltman, D J; van Erp, T G M; Sämann, P G; Frodl, T; Jahanshad, N; Loehrer, E; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Niessen, W J; Vernooij, M W; Ikram, M A; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Block, A; Hegenscheid, K; Völzke, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Lagopoulos, J; Hatton, S N; Hickie, I B; Goya-Maldonado, R; Krämer, B; Gruber, O; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Wright, M J; Hall, G B; MacQueen, G M; Frey, E M; Carballedo, A; van Velzen, L S; van Tol, M J; van der Wee, N J; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schnell, K; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schoepf, D; Konrad, C; Zurowski, B; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Sussmann, J E; Godlewska, B R; Cowen, P J; Fischer, F H; Rose, M; Penninx, B W J H; Thompson, P M; Hibar, D P

    2016-06-01

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristics and brain morphology. To address this, we meta-analyzed three-dimensional brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 1728 MDD patients and 7199 controls from 15 research samples worldwide, to identify subcortical brain volumes that robustly discriminate MDD patients from healthy controls. Relative to controls, patients had significantly lower hippocampal volumes (Cohen's d=-0.14, % difference=-1.24). This effect was driven by patients with recurrent MDD (Cohen's d=-0.17, % difference=-1.44), and we detected no differences between first episode patients and controls. Age of onset ⩽21 was associated with a smaller hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.20, % difference=-1.85) and a trend toward smaller amygdala (Cohen's d=-0.11, % difference=-1.23) and larger lateral ventricles (Cohen's d=0.12, % difference=5.11). Symptom severity at study inclusion was not associated with any regional brain volumes. Sample characteristics such as mean age, proportion of antidepressant users and proportion of remitted patients, and methodological characteristics did not significantly moderate alterations in brain volumes in MDD. Samples with a higher proportion of antipsychotic medication users showed larger caudate volumes in MDD patients compared with controls. This currently largest worldwide effort to identify subcortical brain alterations showed robust smaller hippocampal volumes in MDD patients, moderated by age of onset and first episode versus recurrent episode status.

  9. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaipisuttikul P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Papan Thaipisuttikul, Pichai Ittasakul, Punjaporn Waleeprakhon, Pattarabhorn Wisajun, Sudawan Jullagate Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Psychiatric comorbidities are common in major depressive disorder (MDD. They may worsen outcome and cause economic burden. The primary objective was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in MDD. The secondary objectives were to compare the presence of comorbidities between currently active and past MDD, and between patients with and without suicidal risk.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 250 patients with lifetime MDD and age ≥18 years were enrolled. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, Thai version, was used to confirm MDD diagnosis and classify comorbidities. MDD diagnosis was confirmed in 190, and 60 patients were excluded due to diagnosis of bipolar disorder.Results: Of the 190 MDD patients, 25.8% had current MDD and 74.2% had past MDD. Eighty percent were women. The mean age at enrollment was 50 years, and at MDD onset was 41 years. Most patients were married (53.2%, employed (54.8%, and had ≥12 years of education (66.9%. There were 67 patients (35.3% with one or more psychiatric comorbidities. Comorbidities included dysthymia (19.5%, any anxiety disorders (21.1% (panic disorder [6.8%], agoraphobia [5.8%], social phobia [3.7%], obsessive–compulsive disorder [OCD] [4.7%], generalized anxiety disorder [5.3%], and post-traumatic stress disorder [4.2%], alcohol dependence (0.5%, psychotic disorder (1.6%, antisocial personality (1.1%, and eating disorders (0%. Compared with past MDD, the current MDD group had significantly higher OCD (P<0.001, psychotic disorder (P=0.048, past panic disorder (P=0.017, and suicidal risk (P<0.001. Suicidal risk was found in 32.1% of patients. Patients with suicidal risk had more comorbid anxiety disorder of any type (P=0.019 and

  10. Self-stigma in borderline personality disorder – cross-sectional comparison with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grambal A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ales Grambal,1 Jan Prasko,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Marketa Marackova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Milos Slepecky3 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Psychiatry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Department of Psychology Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Introduction: Self-stigma arises from one’s acceptance of societal prejudices and is common in psychiatric patients. This investigation compares the self-stigma of a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCH, major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar affective disorder (BAD, and anxiety disorders (AD and explores of the self-stigma with the subjective and objective measures of the severity of the disorder and demographic factors. Methods: The total of 184 inpatients admitted to the psychotherapeutic department diagnosed with BPD, SCH, MDD, BAP, and AD were compared on the internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI scale. The ISMI-total score was correlated with the subjective and objective evaluation of the disorder severity (clinical global impression, and clinical and demographic factors. Results: The self-stigma levels were statistically significantly different among the diagnostic groups (BPD 71.15±14.74; SCH 63.2±13.27; MDD 64.09±12.2; BAD 62.0±14.21; AD 57.62±15.85; one-way analysis of variance: F=8.698, df=183; P<0.005. However after applying the Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test, the only significant difference was between the BPD patients and the patients with AD (P<0.001. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the strongest factors connected with the higher level of self-stigma were being without partner, the number of hospitalization, and the severity of the disorder. Conclusion: The BPD patients

  11. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population.

  12. [Treatment of the psychological and behavioural disorders of Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancrazi, M-P; Metais, P

    2005-05-14

    When psychological and behavioral disorders of Alzheimer's disease appear suddenly, somatic, iatrogenic and reactive or relational psychological causes must be ruled out or treated before concluding that the cause is lesional. Non-pharmacological interventions should be privileged for the prevention and management of behavioral manifestations of mild to moderate intensity: psychological support of the patient (short therapies), training the caregiver, work on daily habits, reorganization of the home, behavioral measures against apathy and especially agitation, rehabilitation strategies, and therapy involving music, light, aromas, etc. Pharmacological therapies are only moderately effective in these disorders. They must be targeted and follow a sequence of prescription that maximizes tolerance and distinguishes treatment of acute and chronic states. Anticholinesterase agents may be useful in this domain to prevent or ease some symptoms (especially apathy). The efficacy of memantine must be confirmed by additional data. Some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors agents may be useful not only in depression but also anxiety, emotional disturbances, irritability and compulsiveness. Atypical neuroleptics are better tolerated than the classic ones. They are most effective in this context but must be reserved for specific indications and limited in time because of the increased risk of stroke. Other psychotropics (benzodiazepines, carbamates, antiepileptics) should be used cautiously in this context.

  13. Identification of Psychological Dysfunctions and Eating Disorders in Obese Women Seeking Weight Loss: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Panchaud Cornut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to analyse associations between eating behaviour and psychological dysfunctions in treatment-seeking obese patients and identify parameters for the development of diagnostic tools with regard to eating and psychological disorders. Design and Methods. Cross-sectional data were analysed from 138 obese women. Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 assessed eating behaviours. Beck Depression Inventory II, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, form Y, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, and Marks and Mathews Fear Questionnaire assessed psychological profile. Results. 61% of patients showed moderate or major depressive symptoms and 77% showed symptoms of anxiety. Half of the participants presented with a low degree of assertiveness. No correlation was found between psychological profile and age or anthropometric measurements. The prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and assertiveness increased with the degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness explained a large degree of score variance. It explained 30 to 50% of the variability of assertiveness, phobias, anxiety, and depression. Conclusion. Psychological dysfunctions had a high prevalence and their severity is correlated with degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness constitutes the major predictor of the psychological profile and could open new ways to develop screening tools.

  14. [Homicide and major mental disorder: what are the social, clinical, and forensic differences between murderers with a major mental disorder and murderers without any mental disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, S; Chocard, A-S; Bourdel, M-C; Gohier, B; Duflot, J-P; Lhuillier, J-P; Garré, J-B

    2009-09-01

    To establish the social, clinical, and forensic differences between murderers suffering from a major mental disorder and murderers without any psychiatric disorder and, in particular, to compare their respective records of psychiatric symptoms and their respective relationship with their victims. We studied 210 forensic examinations of murderers, the offences related to the murders, and the social and clinical information collected from psychiatric court reports on persons convicted of homicide. Firstly, we identified the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological profiles of 210 murderers from which were distinguished murderers with major mental disorder. Then, we compared the profiles of murderers suffering from a major mental disorder with those of murderers without any mental disease. In other words, we compared 37 persons affected with major mental disorder (schizophrenia, paranoiac delusional disorder, and affective disorder) with 73 persons without any mental disorder. We deliberately excluded subjects with personality disorder or abuse of/dependency on drugs, mental retardation or dementia. With the exception of certain variables, murderers with major mental disorder have the same characteristics as others murderers: young man, living alone, with psychiatric and offence records and substance abuse. Murderers with major mental disorder are older (37.8 versus 31.7 years old) than perpretators without any mental disorder, and the former have a psychiatric record more often than the latter (81 versus 32.9%). In addition, contrary to the latter, the former show clinical symptoms of a psychopathological process. Depression, delusional and suicidal ideas are frequent among murderers with a major mental disorder, whereas the persons without mental disorder quarrel or have a row with their victim just before their crime. The victim was known to the perpetrator significantly more often in the major mental disorder group than in the no mental disorder group (94

  15. Genetic association between NRG1 and schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder in Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zujia; Chen, Jianhua; Khan, Raja Amjad Waheed; Song, Zhijian; Wang, Meng; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Li, Wenjin; Shi, Yongyong

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder are three major psychiatric disorders affecting around 0.66%, 3.3%, and 1.5% of the Han Chinese population respectively. Several genetic linkage analyses and genome wide association studies identified NRG1 as a susceptibility gene of schizophrenia, which was validated by its role in neurodevelopment, glutamate, and other neurotransmitter receptor expression regulation. To further investigate whether NRG1 is a shared risk gene for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder as well as schizophrenia, we performed an association study among 1,248 schizophrenia cases, 1,056 major depression cases, 1,344 bipolar disorder cases, and 1,248 controls. Totally 15 tag SNPs were genotyped and analyzed, and no population stratification was found in our sample set. Among the sites, rs4236710 (corrected Pgenotye  = 0.015) and rs4512342 (Pallele  = 0.03, Pgenotye  = 0.045 after correction) were associated with schizophrenia, and rs2919375 (corrected Pgenotye  = 0.004) was associated with major depressive disorder. The haplotype rs4512342-rs6982890 showed association with schizophrenia (P = 0.03 for haplotype "TC" after correction), and haplotype rs4531002-rs11989919 proved to be a shared risk factor for both major depressive disorder ("CC": corrected P = 0.009) and bipolar disorder ("CT": corrected P = 0.003). Our results confirmed that NRG1 was a shared common susceptibility gene for major mental disorders in Han Chinese population.

  16. Neuroinformatic analyses of common and distinct genetic components associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lotan, Amit; Fenckova, Michaela; Bralten, Janita; Alttoa, Aet; Dixson, Luanna; Williams, Robert W.; van der Voet, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (Anx), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). We curate...

  17. Psychological and Behavioral Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-01-01

    Several psychological and behavioral treatment options exist for patients who have been diagnosed with binge-eating disorder (BED). Cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy are the most strongly supported interventions for BED, but they do not produce weight loss; behavioral weight loss therapy, a more widely available "generalist" intervention, achieves good outcomes for BED plus produces modest weight loss over the short-term. Relatively little is known about reliable predictors or moderators of treatment outcomes, but research has generally supported 2 significant predictors: (1) the presence of overvaluation of body shape and weight and (2) the occurrence of rapid response to treatment. Clinicians should train to provide patients with evidence-supported psychological and behavioral treatments and follow these intervention protocols faithfully to increase the chances of good outcomes. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. Psychological interventions in pervasive developmental disorder: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvabrata Poddar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs are characterized by several impairments in the domains of social communication, social interaction and expression of social attachment, and other aspects of development like symbolic play. As the role of drugs in treating these impairments is extremely limited, a variety of psychological interventions have been developed to deal with them. Some of these have strong empirical support, while others are relatively new and hence controversial. Though it may prove to be a daunting task to begin with, the final reward of being able to improve the life of a child with PDD is enormous and hugely satisfying. Therefore, knowledge of these psychological interventions is important for a mental health professional, in order to be effective in the profession. Present paper presents an overview of these techniques in the management of PDD.

  19. Eating behavior and psychological profile: associations between daughters with distinct eating disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María

    2017-09-06

    Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.

  20. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  1. The functional anatomy of psychomotor disturbances in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eLiberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor disturbances (PMD are a classic feature of depressive disorder that provide rich clinical information. The aim our narrative review was to characterize the functional anatomy of PMD by summarizing findings from neuroimaging studies. We found evidence across several neuroimaging modalities that suggest involvement of fronto-striatal neurocircuitry, and monoaminergic pathways and metabolism. We suggest that PMD in major depressive disorder emerge from an alteration of limbic signals, which influence emotion, volition, higher-order cognitive functions, and movement.

  2. Aspects of animal models for major neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefter Radu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will review the main animal models for the major neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, anxiety and autism. Although these mental disorders are specifically human pathologies and therefore impossible to perfectly replicate in animals, the use of experimental animals is based on the physiological and anatomical similarities between humans and animals such as the rat, and mouse, and on the fact that 99% of human and murine genomes are shared. Pathological conditions in animals can be assessed by manipulating the metabolism of neurotransmitters, through various behavioral tests, and by determining biochemical parameters that can serve as important markers of disorders.

  3. Common mental disorders and psychological distress in systemic lupus erythematosus are not associated with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarpa, E; Babul, M; Calderón, J; González, M; Martínez, M E; Bravo-Zehnder, M; Henríquez, C; Jacobelli, S; González, A; Massardo, L

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is controversial: variations have been reported in frequency, diagnostic assays, associations with disease activity, autoantibodies, and contributing social factors. Eighty-three consecutive non-selected Chilean patients with SLE were evaluated for: (i) 26 common mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-plus); (ii) psychological suffering measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); (iii) ACR 1999 neuropsychiatric (NP)SLE criteria; (iv) SLE disease activity (SLEDAI-2K); (v) cumulative damage (SLICC/ACR); and (vi) anti-ribosomal P antibodies by enzyme-linked immunoassay and immunoblot. Psychiatric diagnoses occurred in 44.6% of patients; the most frequent (21.7%) was major depressive episode (MDE). No association with lupus activity was observed in patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis or MDE or psychological suffering. ACR 1999 NPSLE criteria were present in 42.2% of patients, the majority corresponding to mood (28.9%) or anxiety disorders (15.6%). Suicidal risk was present in 9.6% of patients. Anti-ribosomal P antibodies (13.3%) were not associated with DSM-IV diagnosis. Severe psychiatric disorders in SLE are common and not associated with disease activity.

  4. Psychological Aspects in Young Adults with Beta-Thalassemia Major, control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Hosseini, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Beta-thalassemia major (TM, a chronic, genetically determined hematological disorder, has received little investigation on the psychological aspects of the disease and the psychosocial adjustment of patients with this anemia. In the present study, the aim was to explore the nature of psychopathology according to age, sex, school performance, severity and complications of the disease in TM patients compared with demographically matched healthy persons.Materials and Methods: A controlled anterograde cohort study was conducted at the Thalassemia Unit of Boo-Ali Hospital from June 2003 to November 2005 in Sari, Iran. Psychological aspects were evaluated by the Persian version of symptoms checklist-90-revised questionnaire. Information on relevant demographic characteristics, school performance, severity and complications of the disease was collected by one of the investigators who had created the questionnaire.Results: 125 persons with TM completed the questionnaires and were compared with 125 controls and 250 totally. The mean age of the participants was 18.51± 2.0 years and with a range of 15-25 years. 132 (52.8% were female with equal family status, social and economic status. Patients group reported a significantly lower level of marital status (P<0.01, education level (P<0.0001, school performance (P<0.0001. TM patients were found to have significantly more psychiatric disorders than the control subjects with GSI: 1.16 ± 0.47 vs. 1.01 ± 0.6; (P<0.03, PSD: 54.99 ± 12.59 vs. 46.42 ± 18.76 (P<0.0001, and PSDI 2.02±1.02 vs 2.45 ± 2.22 (P<0.05. We recorded significant changes in the mean scores of somatization (P<0.0001, interpersonal sensitivity (P<0.0001, depression (P<0.003, anxiety (P<0.05 and psychoticism (P<0.03 in the TM patients as compared to the control subjects.Conclusion: These findings show that beta-thalassemia major patients are at risk for psychiatric symptomatology and need appropriate psychiatric

  5. [Risk of homicide and major mental disorders: a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, S; Olie, J-P; Gourevitch, R

    2009-12-01

    Tragic and high profile killings by people with mental illness have been used to suggest that the community care model for mental health services has failed. It is also generally thought that schizophrenia predisposes subjects to homicidal behaviour. The aim of the present paper was to estimate the rate of mental disorder in people convicted of homicide and to examine the relationship between definitions. We investigated the links between homicide and major mental disorders. This paper reviews studies on the epidemiology of homicide committed by mentally disordered people, taken from recent international academic literature. The studies included were identified as part of a wider systematic review of the epidemiology of offending combined with mental disorder. The main databases searched were Medline. A comprehensive search was made for studies published since 1990. There is an association of homicide with mental disorder, most particularly with certain manifestations of schizophrenia, antisocial personality disorder and drug or alcohol abuse. However, it is not clear why some patients behave violently and others do not. Studies of people convicted of homicide have used different definitions of mental disorder. According to the definition of Hodgins, only 15% of murderers have a major mental disorder (schizophrenia, paranoia, melancholia). Mental disorder increases the risk of homicidal violence by two-fold in men and six-fold in women. Schizophrenia increases the risk of violence by six to 10-fold in men and eight to 10-fold in women. Schizophrenia without alcoholism increased the odds ratio more than seven-fold; schizophrenia with coexisting alcoholism more than 17-fold in men. We wish to emphasize that all patients with schizophrenia should not be considered to be violent, although there are minor subgroups of schizophrenic patients in whom the risk of violence may be remarkably high. According to studies, we estimated that this increase in risk could be

  6. Mixed features in major depressive disorder: diagnoses and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppes, Trisha; Ostacher, Michael

    2017-04-01

    For the first time in 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) updated the psychiatric diagnostic system for mood disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Perhaps one of the most notable changes in the DSM-5 was the recognition of the possibility of mixed symptoms in major depression and related disorders (MDD). While MDD and bipolar and related disorders are now represented by 2 distinct chapters, the addition of a mixed features specifier to MDD represents a structural bridge between bipolar and major depression disorders, and formally recognizes the possibility of a mix of hypomania and depressive symptoms in someone who has never experienced discrete episodes of hypomania or mania. This article reviews historical perspectives on "mixed states" and the recent literature, which proposes a range of approaches to understanding "mixity." We discuss which symptoms were considered for inclusion in the mixed features specifier and which symptoms were excluded. The assumption that mixed symptoms in MDD necessarily predict a future bipolar course in patients with MDD is reviewed. Treatment for patients in a MDD episode with mixed features is critically considered, as are suggestions for future study. Finally, the premise that mood disorders are necessarily a spectrum or a gradient of severity progressing in a linear manner is argued.

  7. [Clinical and psychological disorders of pregnant women induced by abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diquelou, J-Y; Amar, P; Boyer, S; Montilla, F; Karoubi, R

    2008-06-01

    This study is performed on a population of pregnant women during the second trimester of their pregnancy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that clinical symptoms noticeable by the obstétricians during their consultations. Eight hundred and fifty-three patients have been involved in this study by responding to an anonymous questionnary. Hundred and seventy-five patients(groupI) have been abuse either physically or psychologically or sexually. The study shows that there is a strong difference between the groupI and the group without abuse in their medical past history (678 patients) about the occurracy of several disorders. The most frequently observed troubles are sexuals disorders, school failures, deficients relationship with others persons, anxiety and troubles of humor. We can concluded, about those clinical manifestations, that they do exist during pregnancy and probably thoses symptoms are linked to traumatism occured during their past history. Obstetricians must look after thoses symptoms very seriously to propose a good management of the pregnancy either about their psychological problems or about the social environnement in which they live.

  8. An Investigation of Comorbid Psychological Disorders, Sleep Problems, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Arlene; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated comorbidity in eighty-nine children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland. Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders in addition to a primary disorder. The prevalence of comorbid psychological disorders, behaviours associated with comorbid psychopathology, epilepsy, gastrointestinal…

  9. St. John's Wort for Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Alicia Ruelaz; Hempel, Susanne; Apaydin, Eric; Shanman, Roberta M.; Booth, Marika; Miles, Jeremy N V; Sorbero, Melony E.

    2016-01-01

    RAND researchers conducted a systematic review that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of St. John's wort (SJW)—used adjunctively or as monotherapy—to provide estimates of its efficacy and safety in treating adults with major depressive disorder.

  10. [Gap junctions: A new therapeutic target in major depressive disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrouilhe, D; Dejean, C

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder is a multifactorial chronic and debilitating mood disease with high lifetime prevalence and is associated with excess mortality, especially from cardiovascular diseases and through suicide. The treatments of this disease with tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors are poorly tolerated and those that selectively target serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake are not effective in all patients, showing the need to find new therapeutic targets. Post-mortem studies of brains from patients with major depressive disorders described a reduced expression of the gap junction-forming membrane proteins connexin 30 and connexin 43 in the prefrontal cortex and the locus coeruleus. The use of chronic unpredictable stress, a rodent model of depression, suggests that astrocytic gap junction dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Chronic treatments of rats with fluoxetine and of rat cultured cortical astrocytes with amitriptyline support the hypothesis that the upregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication between brain astrocytes could be a novel mechanism for the therapeutic effect of antidepressants. In conclusion, astrocytic gap junctions are emerging as a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder.

  11. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  12. Sertraline in Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Craig L.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Rynn, Moira; Ambrosini, Paul; Landau, Phyllis; Yang, Ruoyong; Wohlberg, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore time to first response and time to first persistent response of sertraline versus placebo and compare these parameters between children (6-11 years old, n = 177) and adolescents (12-17 years old, n = 199) with major depressive disorder. Method: A 10-week placebo-controlled treatment was followed by a 24-week open-label…

  13. Familiality of major depressive disorder and gender differences in comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M.; Meij, A. van der; Franke, B.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Graaf, R. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Janzing, J.G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Gender differences exist in the prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study investigates whether familiality of MDD contributes to observed gender differences in comorbidity. Method: Familial (f-MDD) and non-familial (nf-MDD) MDD cases from a popu

  14. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  15. The relationship between interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety disorders and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Kay; Boyce, Philip; Brownhill, Suzanne

    2004-04-01

    While interpersonal sensitivity, as rated by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM) has previously been found to be an efficient predictor of depression, there has been less interest in the relationship between the IPSM and anxiety disorders. This study examines the performance of the IPSM in discriminating between cases and non-cases of the various anxiety disorders. The contribution of depression and the perception of parental environment, to any relationships found, are also examined. A cohort of 156 men and women has been assessed at 5-yearly intervals since baseline in 1978, in their last year of teacher training. In this fourth wave of follow-up, subjects completed a series of self-report questionnaires, including the IPSM, and scales measuring neuroticism and trait depression. Perceived parental environment, measured at baseline, was also included. DSM-III-R major depression and anxiety disorders were generated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The IPSM subscales were moderately stable over time. 'Timidity' was associated with agoraphobia and simple phobia, and 'separation anxiety' with agoraphobia, panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. 'Separation anxiety' and 'timidity' showed differential gender effects for simple phobia. 'Fragile inner self' and 'separation anxiety' were associated with subjects with a history of repeated episodes of major depression, and the former, with perception of poor parental care. The IPSM was not available for inclusion prior to the 1988 wave. While the IPSM subscales were consistently correlated with neuroticism, they displayed differential associations with specific anxiety disorders, episodes of major depression and early parental environment. These findings offer greater understanding of mechanisms concerning the relationship of vulnerability to anxiety disorders and depression.

  16. Neurological, psychological, and cognitive disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative and replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Silvia; Mecarelli, Oriano; Pulitano, Patrizia; Romanello, Roberto; Davi, Leonardo; Zarabla, Alessia; Mariotti, Amalia; Carta, Maria; Tasso, Giorgia; Poli, Luca; Mitterhofer, Anna Paola; Testorio, Massimo; Frassetti, Nicla; Aceto, Paola; Galani, Alessandro; Lai, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent condition in the world. Neurological, psychological, and cognitive disorders, related to CKD, could contribute to the morbidity, mortality, and poor quality of life of these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the neurological, psychological, and cognitive imbalance in patients with CKD on conservative and replacement therapy. Seventy-four clinically stable patients affected by CKD on conservative therapy, replacement therapy (hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD)), or with kidney transplantation (KT) and 25 healthy controls (HC), matched for age and sex were enrolled. Clinical, laboratory, and instrumental examinations, as renal function, inflammation and mineral metabolism indexes, electroencephalogram (EEG), psychological (MMPI-2, Sat P), and cognitive tests (neuropsychological tests, NPZ5) were carried out. The results showed a significant differences in the absolute and relative power of delta band and relative power of theta band of EEG (P = 0.008, P 2D3) (P 2D3, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), phosphorus, and cynical and hysterical personality, are correlated with higher relative power of delta (P = 0.016) and theta band (P = 0.016). Moreover, all NPZ5 scores showed a significant difference between the means of nephropathic patients and the means of the HC, and a positive correlation with eGFR, serum nitrogen, CRP, iPTH, and vitamin D. In CKD patients, simple and noninvasive instruments, as EEG, and cognitive-psychological tests, should be performed and careful and constant monitoring of renal risk factors, probably involved in neuropsychological complications (inflammation, disorders of mineral metabolism, electrolyte disorders, etc.), should be carried out. Early identification and adequate therapy of neuropsychological, and cognitive disorders, might enable a better quality of life and a major compliance with a probable reduction in the healthcare costs. PMID

  17. Comparison of Initial Psychological Treatment Selections by US and Japanese Early-Career Psychiatrists for Patients with Major Depression: A Case Vignette Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Aya; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Sado, Mitsuhiro; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Mischoulon, David; Smith, Felicia; Mimura, Masaru; Sato, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    The authors compared early-career psychiatrists' selection of psychological treatments for patients with mild to moderate major depressive disorder (MDD) in the US and Japan. A total of 120 early-career psychiatrists from two residency programs in the US and Japan participated in web-based surveys. The psychiatrists selected first- and second-line psychological treatments in response to two case vignettes of patients with mild and moderate MDD. Eighty-one psychiatrists (68%) returned the surveys, of whom 39 (48%) were American and 42 (52%) Japanese. In response to the mild MDD case, more US psychiatrists selected high-intensity psychological treatments (P US psychiatrists selected high-intensity psychological treatments (P cultural beliefs may shape differences in treatment selections, which in turn may impact the dissemination and implementation of psychological treatment in clinical practice across cultures.

  18. Neighborhood disorder, sleep quality, and psychological distress: testing a model of structural amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terrence D; Burdette, Amy M; Hale, Lauren

    2009-12-01

    Using data from the 2004 Survey of Texas Adults (n=1504), we examine the association between perceived neighborhood disorder and psychological distress. Building on previous research, we test whether the effect of neighborhood disorder is mediated and moderated by sleep quality. Our specific analytic strategy follows a two-stage theoretical model of structural amplification. In the first stage, perceptions of neighborhood disorder increase psychological distress indirectly by reducing sleep quality. In the second stage, the effect of neighborhood disorder on psychological distress is amplified by poor sleep quality. The results of our analyses are generally consistent with our theoretical model. We find that neighborhood disorder is associated with poorer sleep quality and greater psychological distress. We also observe that the positive association between neighborhood disorder and psychological distress is mediated (partially) and moderated (amplified) by poor sleep quality.

  19. Comorbidity of anxiety disorders in major depressive disorder: A clinical trial to evaluate neuropsychological deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixchel Herrera-Guzmán

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Various clinical aspects of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD are related to the neuropsychological impairments characteristic of this illness. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between certain clinical variables of MDD - in particular the presence of comorbid anxiety disorders - and the neuropsychological performance of patients with MDD selected for a clinical trial. Methods: Using cluster analyses, we generated two groups of patients: one group with Major Depressive Disorder and a Comorbid Anxiety Disorder (MDDAD, and the other with Pure Major Depressive Disorder (PMDD. Both groups were assessed clinically and neuropsychologically before and after 24 weeks of pharmacological treatment. Neuropsychological performance prior to treatment was comparable in the two groups. Results: After treatment, both groups showed cognitive improvement in attention tasks, memory, and executive functions Conclusions: The PMDD group obtained greater neurocognitive benefits from the antidepressive treatment than the MDDAD group.

  20. The Role of Statistics and Research Methods in the Academic Success of Psychology Majors: Do Performance and Enrollment Timing Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freng, Scott; Webber, David; Blatter, Jamin; Wing, Ashley; Scott, Walter D.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension of statistics and research methods is crucial to understanding psychology as a science (APA, 2007). However, psychology majors sometimes approach methodology courses with derision or anxiety (Onwuegbuzie & Wilson, 2003; Rajecki, Appleby, Williams, Johnson, & Jeschke, 2005); consequently, students may postpone…

  1. The Role of Statistics and Research Methods in the Academic Success of Psychology Majors: Do Performance and Enrollment Timing Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freng, Scott; Webber, David; Blatter, Jamin; Wing, Ashley; Scott, Walter D.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension of statistics and research methods is crucial to understanding psychology as a science (APA, 2007). However, psychology majors sometimes approach methodology courses with derision or anxiety (Onwuegbuzie & Wilson, 2003; Rajecki, Appleby, Williams, Johnson, & Jeschke, 2005); consequently, students may postpone…

  2. Behavioral Activation in the Treatment of Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 10-weeks of Behavioral Activation (BA) in the treatment of comorbid Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in four adults using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. All participants met full "DSM-IV" criteria for both MDD and PTSD at the…

  3. The network structure of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and somatic symptomatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, E.; Schoevers, R. A.; van Borkulo, C. D.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.; Boschloo, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often co-occur with somatic symptomatology. Little is known about the contributions of individual symptoms to this association and more insight into their relationships could help to identify symptoms that are central

  4. Common Genetic and Environmental Influences on Major Depressive Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Anjali; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Young, Susan E.; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence for common genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder (CD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents was examined. A sample of 570 monozygotic twin pairs, 592 dizygotic twin pairs, and 426 non-twin siblings, aged 12-18 years, was recruited from the Colorado Twin Registry. For the past year data, there was a…

  5. The network structure of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and somatic symptomatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, E.; Schoevers, R. A.; van Borkulo, C. D.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.; Boschloo, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often co-occur with somatic symptomatology. Little is known about the contributions of individual symptoms to this association and more insight into their relationships could help to identify symptoms that are central

  6. The network structure of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and somatic symptomatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, E.; Schoevers, R.A.; van Borkulo, C.D.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Boschloo, L.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often co-occur with somatic symptomatology. Little is known about the contributions of individual symptoms to this association and more insight into their relationships could help to identify symptoms that are central in the proc

  7. The inflammatory cytokines: molecular biomarkers for major depressive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charlotte; Tansey, Katherine E; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Powell, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are pleotropic cell signaling proteins that, in addition to their role as inflammatory mediators, also affect neurotransmitter systems, brain functionality and mood. Here we explore the potential utility of cytokine biomarkers for major depressive disorder. Specifically, we explore how genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic information relating to the cytokines might act as biomarkers, aiding clinical diagnosis and treatment selection processes. We advise future studies to investigate whether cytokine biomarkers might differentiate major depressive disorder patients from other patient groups with overlapping clinical characteristics. Furthermore, we invite future pharmacogenetic studies to investigate whether early antidepressant-induced changes to cytokine mRNA or protein levels precede behavioral changes and act as longer-term predictors of clinical antidepressant response.

  8. The Relationship between Major Depressive Disorder and Personality Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bensaeed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the clinical temperaments and characters of Iranian patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD with healthy controls.The study participants included 47 outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and 120 normal controls with no psychiatric disorders. Sampling method was convenience. The MDD patients were diagnosed as MDD by a psychiatrist using the Persian structured clinical interview for axis I disorders (SCID-I, and they completed at least 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment. All the patients filled out the Persian version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17, Chi square, T test and Multiple Regression. The level of significance was set at 5%.The present study demonstrates a link between depression and lower persistence (p≤0.001, self-directedness (p≤0.001 and cooperativeness (p≤0.001 scores. A negative correlation between age and Harm Avoidance (p≤0.001 was observed in both groups.Lower scores of persistence (P, self-directedness (SD and cooperativeness (CO were observed in patients with depression more than controls even in the remission phase which could indicate a relationship between these traits and depression.

  9. Pathological publishing: A new psychological disorder with legal consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Buela-Casal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with an important problem that currently affects scientists and society, namely, the falsification and manipulation of research and researchers' CVs, which has considerably increased in recent years. This is shown by some studies, the authors of which have found high percentages of researchers who falsify their CV or manipulate data. We analyze the system used to evaluate science and researchers, which is almost exclusively based on the impact factor. We review the main critiques on the inappropriate use of the impact factor to assess researchers and argue that this has generated a new style of thinking in which the only goal is to obtain publications with an impact factor. Over the last few years, the pressure to publish has led to an obsession among researchers to disseminate the multiple indicators of their scientific publications over the Internet, to the extent that such initiatives look like marketing campaigns where researchers advertise themselves. For all these reasons, we propose that this may be a new psychological disorder, given that several criteria indicating maladaptation are clearly met: falsification and/or manipulation of data, falsification of publication indicators, distortion of reality, belief in manipulated data, and an obsession to conduct marketing campaigns of oneself. We address the important ethical and legal implications of such falsifications. Finally, we discuss the need to change the system used to evaluate science and researchers, which undoubtedly promotes these dishonest behaviors or this psychological dysfunction.

  10. Community College Students with Psychological Disorders and Their Perceptions of Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Gretchen Winifred Langford

    2014-01-01

    Research focusing on students with learning disabilities is abundant for secondary and higher education. Studies utilizing data on students with psychological disorders cover secondary and 4-year university education. However, community college students with psychological disorders and their perception of online classes is an area of educational…

  11. Exploring Clinical Psychology Doctoral Students' Attitudes towards Adults with Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundon, Chandra R.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether clinical psychology doctoral students hold uniquely stigmatizing views of adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) compared to adults with other clinical disorders. Through the use of clinical vignettes and attitudinal measures, three hypotheses investigated clinical psychology doctoral students' attitudes…

  12. Exploring Clinical Psychology Doctoral Students' Attitudes towards Adults with Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundon, Chandra R.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether clinical psychology doctoral students hold uniquely stigmatizing views of adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) compared to adults with other clinical disorders. Through the use of clinical vignettes and attitudinal measures, three hypotheses investigated clinical psychology doctoral students'…

  13. Community College Students with Psychological Disorders and Their Perceptions of Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Gretchen Winifred Langford

    2014-01-01

    Research focusing on students with learning disabilities is abundant for secondary and higher education. Studies utilizing data on students with psychological disorders cover secondary and 4-year university education. However, community college students with psychological disorders and their perception of online classes is an area of educational…

  14. Defense mechanisms in patients with fibromyalgia and major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormod Landmark

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Fibromyalgia (FM and depression has been suggested to share a common underlying etiology. Few studies have investigated the role of emotional regulation processes in FM compared to depressive disorders.The purpose of the current study was to explore the use of defense mechanisms in FM patients with and without comorbid lifetime depressive disorder (LDD, and to compare their use of defenses to healthy control subjects and patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. Methods: A total of 91 participants were included (17 with FM and LDD, 25 with FM but not LDD, 24 with MDD, and 25 healthy controls. Depressive disorders were identified by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I disorders (SCID-I. All diagnosis of FM were confirmed to meet the American College of Rheumatology's criteria for FM. The Life Style Index (LSI was used to measure defense mechanisms. Results and Conclusions: Group comparisons indicated that MDD patients and FM patients with LDD made significantly more use of defenses than healthy controls, whereas FM patients without LDD made significantly less use of defenses than both MDD patients and FM patients with LDD, but did not differ from healthy controls. Follow up analyses indicated significant main effects for the defense mechanisms of regression, compensation and displacement. This study suggests that FM and depression do not share common risk factors in terms of restricted affects or avoidance of conflicted feelings.

  15. Comparative effectiveness of psychological treatments for depressive disorders in primary care: network meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background A variety of psychological interventions to treat depressive disorders have been developed and are used in primary care. In a systematic review, we compared the effectiveness of psychological treatments grouped by theoretical background, intensity of contact with the health care professional, and delivery mode for depressed patients in this setting. Methods Randomized trials comparing a psychological treatment with usual care, placebo, another psychological treatment, pharmacothera...

  16. Neuroinformatic Analyses of Common and Distinct Genetic Components Associated with Major Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Amit eLotan; Michaela eFenckova; Janita eBralten; Aet eAlttoa; Luanna eDixson; Williams, Robert W.; Monique evan der Voet

    2014-01-01

    Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, autistic spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. We curated a well-vetted list of genes based o...

  17. First-Person Educational Psychology for Teacher Education Majors: A Biofunctional Understanding Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iran-Nejad, Asghar; Stewart, William; Robinson, Cecil

    2015-01-01

    This is a semester-long study of the development of first-person biofunctional understanding in educational psychology for teacher education majors. We defined biofunctional understanding as a spontaneous intellectual capacity. To reach its deep biological levels, sculpted by countless evolutionary millennia, students identified and dwelled in…

  18. Content-Based Internet-Assisted ESP Teaching to Ukrainian University Students Majoring in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the issues of teaching ESP to Ukrainian tertiary students majoring in psychology. The suggested approach is based on teaching English through the content matter of special subjects included in the program of training practical psychologists. The example of an ESP textbook for psychologists is used for demonstrating the…

  19. Psychological co-morbidity in children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children under 19 years of age constitute over 40% of India′s population and information about their mental health needs is a national imperative. Children with specific learning disorders (SLDs exhibit academic difficulties disproportionate to their intellectual capacities. Prevalence of SLD ranges from 2% to 10%. Dyslexia (developmental reading disorder is the most common type, affecting 80% of all SLD. About 30% of learning disabled children have behavioral and emotional problems, which range from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (most common to depression, anxiety, suicide etc., to substance abuse (least common. Co-occurrence of such problems with SLD further adds to the academic difficulty. In such instances, diagnosis is difficult and tricky; improvement in academics demands comprehensive holistic treatment approach. SLD remains a large public health problem because of under-recognition, inadequate treatment and therefore merits greater effort to understand the co-morbidities, especially in the Indian population. As the literature is scarce regarding co-morbid conditions in learning disability in Indian scenario, the present study has tried to focus on Indian population. The educational concessions (recent most given to such children by Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi are referred to. The issues to be addressed by the family physicians are: Low level of awareness among families and teachers, improper dissemination of accurate information about psychological problems, available help seeking avenues, need to develop service delivery models in rural and urban areas and focus on the integration of mental health and primary care keeping such co-morbidity in mind.

  20. Major depressive disorder with religious struggle and completed suicide after hair transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Ceylan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Psychological outcomes of aesthetic surgical procedures like hair transplantation are mostly positive including decreased anxiety, depression and social phobia and increased general well-being, self-efficacy and self-esteem. However, some patients may suffer from post-surgical depression and post-surgical increased suicide rates have been reported for breast augmentation patients. Difficulty adapting to the new image, unfulfilled psychological needs expected to be met by the surgery, side effects of the surgery like tissue swelling or bruising, uncontrolled pain, presence of body dysmorphic disorder and previous history of mood disorder may be some of the risk factors for post-surgical depression. Methods: Here, we present a case without prior psychiatric history who developed major depressive disorder after hair transplantation and died of suicide. Results: He started experiencing religious struggle related to his decision about the hair transplant which he interpreted as acting against God’s will. While religious involvement has been reported to be a protective factor against depression, spiritual struggle, which includes religious guilt, has been described as an important risk factor for depression, hopelessness and suicidality which might explain the severity of depression in our patient. Conclusions: This case highlights the importance of a detailed psychiatric evaluation and exploration of religious concerns of any patient before any type of aesthetic surgery. Major depressive disorder is a treatable condition; however, mild depression can go unnoticed. Religious belief and related religious practices affect an individual’s personal health attitudes; therefore, we think that every physician is needed to explore the religious concerns of any patient during any medical examination or surgical procedure. Relevant religious authorities should be consulted when necessary.

  1. Major depressive disorder with religious struggle and completed suicide after hair transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Mehmet Emin; Önen Ünsalver, Barış; Evrensel, Alper

    2017-01-01

    Psychological outcomes of aesthetic surgical procedures like hair transplantation are mostly positive including decreased anxiety, depression and social phobia and increased general well-being, self-efficacy and self-esteem. However, some patients may suffer from post-surgical depression and post-surgical increased suicide rates have been reported for breast augmentation patients. Difficulty adapting to the new image, unfulfilled psychological needs expected to be met by the surgery, side effects of the surgery like tissue swelling or bruising, uncontrolled pain, presence of body dysmorphic disorder and previous history of mood disorder may be some of the risk factors for post-surgical depression. Here, we present a case without prior psychiatric history who developed major depressive disorder after hair transplantation and died of suicide. He started experiencing religious struggle related to his decision about the hair transplant which he interpreted as acting against God's will. While religious involvement has been reported to be a protective factor against depression, spiritual struggle, which includes religious guilt, has been described as an important risk factor for depression, hopelessness and suicidality which might explain the severity of depression in our patient. This case highlights the importance of a detailed psychiatric evaluation and exploration of religious concerns of any patient before any type of aesthetic surgery. Major depressive disorder is a treatable condition; however, mild depression can go unnoticed. Religious belief and related religious practices affect an individual's personal health attitudes; therefore, we think that every physician is needed to explore the religious concerns of any patient during any medical examination or surgical procedure. Relevant religious authorities should be consulted when necessary.

  2. Major depressive disorder alters perception of emotional body movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eKaletsch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Much recent research has shown an association between mood disorders and an altered emotion perception. However, these studies were conducted mainly with stimuli such as faces. This is the first study to examine possible differences in how people with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls perceive emotions expressed via body movements. 30 patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls observed video scenes of human interactions conveyed by point–light displays (PLDs. They rated the depicted emotions and judged their confidence in their rating. Results showed that patients with MDD rated the depicted interactions more negatively than healthy controls. They also rated interactions with negative emotionality as being more intense and were more confident in their ratings. It is concluded that patients with MDD exhibit an altered emotion perception compared to healthy controls when rating emotions expressed via body movements depicted in PLDs.

  3. Desvenlafaxine succinate for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohoff, Falk W; Rickels, Karl

    2008-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) remains one of the most common psychiatric disorders with high morbidity and mortality. Effective treatment is limited and response/remission to antidepressant pharmacotherapy remains poor and unpredictable. The development of new antidepressants is thus of great importance to the field. Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) is the active metabolite of the serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor venlafaxine and was recently FDA approved for the treatment of MDD. DVS showed efficacy in clinical trials in MDD with doses ranging from 50 - 400 mg. Advantages compared to other antidepressants include once daily dosing at effective doses, no CYP450 metabolism and low drug-drug interactions. Concerns include side effect profile and moderate efficacy. DVS might be a useful addition to the arsenal of antidepressants available to the clinician. Additional studies, in particular head-to-head comparison to other antidepressants and long-term treatment studies, will be necessary to comprehensively evaluate DVS safety and efficacy for clinical practice.

  4. Sheehan’s Syndrome Presenting as Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Mehmood I; Mushtaq, Mohsin Bin; Qazi, Iram; Yousuf, Sameena; Rashid, Aaliya

    2015-01-01

    Sheehan’s syndrome or Simmond’s disease is a rare endocrine disorder seen in clinical practice. The clinical spectrum is diverse and a high index of suspicion together with a good clinical acumen and proper diagnostic approach helps in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this endocrinopathy. Sheehan’s syndrome presenting as a major depressive disorder finds less mention in the literature. The patient discussed here is a 45-year-old female who had been on antidepressants and psychiatry follow up for a long time until she presented to our Out Patient Department (OPD), where she was evaluated in detail and diagnosed as a case of Sheehan’s syndrome. The patient is doing well and is on a regular follow-up with us. Further studies are required to demystify the strength of this association in more detail and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanism. PMID:25648343

  5. Role of Janus-Kinases in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gulbins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Major depressive disorder is a severe, common and often chronic disease with a significant mortality due to suicide. The pathogenesis of major depression is still unknown. It is assumed that a reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder. However, the mechanisms that control proliferation of neuronal stem cells in the hippocampus require definition. Here, we investigated the role of Janus-Kinase 3 (Jak-3 for stress-induced inhibition of neurogenesis and the induction of major depression symptoms in mice. Methods: Stress was induced by the application of glucocorticosterone. Brain sections were stained with phospho-specific antibodies and analysed by confocal microscopy to measure phosphorylation of Jak-3 specifically in the hippocampus. Jak-3 inhibitors and the antidepressant amitriptyline were applied to counteract stress. The effects of the inhibitors were determined by a set of behavioural tests and analysis of Jak-3 phosphorylation in brain sections. Acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice were employed to test whether Jak3 is downstream of ceramide. Results: The data show that stress reduces neurogenesis, which is restored by simultaneous application of Jak-3 inhibitors. Inhibition of neurogenesis correlated with an anxious-depressive behaviour that was also normalized upon application of a Jak-3-inhibitor. Confocal microscopy data revealed that stress triggers a phosphorylation and thereby activation of Jak-3 in the hippocampus. Amitriptyline, a commonly used antidepressant that blocks the acid sphingomyelinase, or acid sphingomyelinase-deficiency reduced stress-induced phosphorylation of Jak-3. Conclusion: Our data show that Jak-3 is activated by stress at least partially via the acid sphingomyelinase and is involved in the mediation of stress-induced major depression.

  6. Milnacipran in panic disorder with agoraphobia and major depressive disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Liou, Ying-Jay

    2011-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman had panic disorder with agoraphobia and major depressive disorder sequentially. The aforementioned symptoms subsided significantly after treatment with milnacipran, 125 mg, administered daily for 2 months. However, panic attacks with agoraphobia were noted frequently when she tapered down milnacipran to 50 mg daily. She consequently experienced depression that gradually increased in degree, with poor energy, poor sleep, thoughts of helplessness, and ideas of death. After administration of a daily dose of 125 mg of milnacipran for 1 month, her panic attacks with agoraphobia and depressed mood were again alleviated. The present report shows significant effects of milnacipran on the comorbidity of panic disorder with agoraphobia and major depressive disorder.

  7. Major depressive disorder induced by prolactinoma--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Ting; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Prolactinomas, the most common type of pituitary tumor, can induce hyperprolactinemia and cause some psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and even psychotic symptoms. However, in previous case reports, no information about estrogen levels was mentioned. Here, we present a 48-year-old female patient who had a recurrent episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) and amenorrhea. Hyperprolactinemia (167 ng/ml), low estrogen (15.31 pg/ml) and a pituitary prolactinoma were found by MRI. After a dopamine agonist (Dostinex) and aripiprazole were prescribed, the patient's depressed mood remitted and her menstruation normalized. The possible mechanism of MDD induced by prolactinoma is discussed.

  8. DNA methylation in a Scottish family multiply affected by bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, familial psychiatric condition. Progress in understanding the aetiology of BD has been hampered by substantial phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. We sought to mitigate these confounders by studying a multi-generational family multiply affected by BD and major depressive disorder (MDD), who carry an illness-linked haplotype on chromosome 4p. Within a family, aetiological heterogeneity is likely to be reduced, thus conferring greater power to det...

  9. Comorbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder: alternative explanations and treatment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Janine D; Yehuda, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    Approximately half of people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also suffer from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The current paper examines evidence for two explanations of this comorbidity. First, that the comorbidity reflects overlapping symptoms in the two disorders. Second, that the co-occurrence of PTSD and MDD is not an artifact, but represents a trauma-related phenotype, possibly a subtype of PTSD. Support for the latter explanation is inferred from literature that examines risk and biological correlates of PTSD and MDD, including molecular processes. Treatment implications of the comorbidity are considered.

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

  11. Augmentation treatment in major depressive disorder: focus on aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Craig Nelson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available J Craig Nelson1, Andrei Pikalov2, Robert M Berman31University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA; 2Otsuka Pharmaceutical Inc., Rockville, MD, USA; 3Bristol-Myers Squibb, Wallingford, CT, USAAbstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD is a disabling psychiatric condition for which effective treatment remains an outstanding need. Antidepressants are currently the mainstay of treatment for depression; however, almost two-thirds of patients will fail to achieve remission with initial treatment. As a result, a range of augmentation and combination strategies have been used in order to improve outcomes for patients. Despite the popularity of these approaches, limited data from double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are available to allow clinicians to determine which are the most effective augmentation options or which patients are most likely to respond to which options. Recently, evidence has shown that adjunctive therapy with atypical antipsychotics has the potential for beneficial antidepressant effects in the absence of psychotic symptoms. In particular, aripiprazole has shown efficacy as an augmentation option with standard antidepressant therapy in two, large, randomized, double-blind studies. Based on these efficacy and safety data, aripiprazole was recently approved by the FDA as adjunctive therapy for MDD. The availability of this new treatment option should allow more patients with MDD to achieve remission and, ultimately, long-term, successful outcomes.Keywords: major depression, antipsychotic, mood disorder, aripiprazole

  12. Kappa Opioids, Salvinorin A and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George T; Manzella, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are traditionally associated with pain, analgesia and drug abuse. It is now clear, however, that the opioids are central players in mood. The implications for mood disorders, particularly clinical depression, suggest a paradigm shift from the monoamine neurotransmitters to the opioids either alone or in interaction with monoamine neurons. We have a special interest in dynorphin, the last of the major endogenous opioids to be isolated and identified. Dynorphin is derived from the Greek word for power, dynamis, which hints at the expectation that the neuropeptide held for its discoverers. Yet, dynorphin and its opioid receptor subtype, kappa, has always taken a backseat to the endogenous b-endorphin and the exogenous morphine that both bind the mu opioid receptor subtype. That may be changing as the dynorphin/ kappa system has been shown to have different, often opposite, neurophysiological and behavioral influences. This includes major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we have undertaken a review of dynorphin/ kappa neurobiology as related to behaviors, especially MDD. Highlights include the unique features of dynorphin and kappa receptors and the special relation of a plant-based agonist of the kappa receptor salvinorin A. In addition to acting as a kappa opioid agonist, we conclude that salvinorin A has a complex pharmacologic profile, with potential additional mechanisms of action. Its unique neurophysiological effects make Salvinorina A an ideal candidate for MDD treatment research.

  13. Comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and its association with quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongjie; Cao, Zhongqiang; Yang, Mei; Xi, Xiaoyan; Guo, Yiyang; Fang, Maosheng; Cheng, Lijuan; Du, Yukai

    2017-01-01

    The comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common and often predicts poorer outcomes than either disorder alone. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of comorbid GAD and its association with quality of life (QOL) among MDD patients. A total of 1225 psychiatric outpatients were screened using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Those who scored ≥8 on the HADS were interviewed using DSM-IV criteria by two senior psychiatrists. Patients diagnosed with MDD were further assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, Social Support Rating Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and World Health Organization QOL Scale, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF). Ultimately, 667 patients were diagnosed with MDD, of 71.7% of whom had GAD. Compared to those with MDD alone, comorbid patients had lower scores on the physical (38.64 ± 10.35 vs.36.54 ± 12.32, P = 0.026) and psychological (35.54 ± 12.98 vs. 30.61 ± 14.66, P WHOQOL-BREF. The association between comorbid GAD and poor QOL on the two domains remained statistically significant in the multiple linear regression (unstandardized coefficients: −1.97 and −4.65, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of comorbid GAD in MDD patients is high, and co-occurring GAD may exacerbate impaired physical and psychological QOL in Chinese MDD patients. PMID:28098176

  14. Joint analysis of psychiatric disorders increases accuracy of risk prediction for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Robert; Moser, Gerhard; Chen, Guo-Bo;

    2015-01-01

    approach significantly increases the prediction accuracy for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder in the discovery as well as in independent validation datasets. By grouping SNPs based on genome annotation and fitting multiple random effects, we show that the prediction accuracy...... could be further improved. The gain in prediction accuracy of the multivariate approach is equivalent to an increase in sample size of 34% for schizophrenia, 68% for bipolar disorder, and 76% for major depressive disorders using single trait models. Because our approach can be readily applied to any......Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of risk...

  15. Fat distribution and major depressive disorder in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, William H; Butcher, Brandon D; Burns, Trudy L; Dindo, Lilian N; Schlechte, Janet A; Calarge, Chadi A

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to indicate bidirectional relationships between obesity and depressive disorders and the importance of fat distribution to this relationship. This analysis used a well-characterized sample of individuals in late adolescence to determine the association between depressive illness and fat distribution. Medically healthy 15- to 20-year-olds, one-half of whom had recently begun treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, underwent a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation that resulted in diagnostic classification and weekly psychiatric disorder ratings over the prior 4 months using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation. A whole-body scan, using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, allowed estimations of total body less head (TBLH), total mass, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass. Assessments occurred between September 2010 and April 2014. Multivariable linear regression analyses, adjusted for relevant covariates, examined the association between DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed major depressive disorder (MDD) and VAT, the primary outcome of interest. These procedures also determined whether significant associations were confined to overweight/obese participants. The analysis included data from 200 participants (71% female; mean age = 19.0 ± 1.6 years), of whom 128 had current MDD. The presence of MDD was associated with increased fat mass among overweight/obese participants (Cohen d = 0.79, P adolescents, relationships between central adiposity and MDD may be confined to those who are overweight/obese. Despite the high comorbidity of GAD and depressive disorders, only the latter appeared to be significantly associated with central adiposity. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Positive mood on negative self-statements: paradoxical intervention in geriatric patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Claudia; Müller, Christine; Riepe, Matthias W

    2017-03-30

    Mood regulation is said to be age-specific. Negative self-statements (NST) are used to induce negative mood. However, little is known about NST in older persons and geriatric patients with major depressive disorder. We investigated healthy young (YC) and older (OC) control subjects and older patients with major depressive disorder (OP). Subjects were exposed to NST subsequent to baseline assessment comprising psychological and psychometric tests. Preferences for emotionally salient stimuli were measured with an eye-tracking task. Mood in YC shifted towards depressive mood or remained stable on NST. In OC and more so in OP some subjects responded paradoxically subsequent to NST with mood being more positive than at baseline. Extent and direction of mood change correlated with prevailing mood at baseline and total score in the Hamilton Depression Anxiety Scale. At baseline, YC had a preference for 'happy' stimuli. Subsequent to NST view preference shifted towards 'sad.' In contrast, OC had no preference at baseline but shifted towards 'happy' on NST. Mood change on NST is age-specific. In geriatric patients with depressive disorder, however, NST may induce a shift towards more positive mood and thus may be used in future as a therapeutic intervention.

  17. Neurological, psychological, and cognitive disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative and replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Silvia; Mecarelli, Oriano; Pulitano, Patrizia; Romanello, Roberto; Davi, Leonardo; Zarabla, Alessia; Mariotti, Amalia; Carta, Maria; Tasso, Giorgia; Poli, Luca; Mitterhofer, Anna Paola; Testorio, Massimo; Frassetti, Nicla; Aceto, Paola; Galani, Alessandro; Lai, Carlo

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent condition in the world. Neurological, psychological, and cognitive disorders, related to CKD, could contribute to the morbidity, mortality, and poor quality of life of these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the neurological, psychological, and cognitive imbalance in patients with CKD on conservative and replacement therapy.Seventy-four clinically stable patients affected by CKD on conservative therapy, replacement therapy (hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD)), or with kidney transplantation (KT) and 25 healthy controls (HC), matched for age and sex were enrolled. Clinical, laboratory, and instrumental examinations, as renal function, inflammation and mineral metabolism indexes, electroencephalogram (EEG), psychological (MMPI-2, Sat P), and cognitive tests (neuropsychological tests, NPZ5) were carried out.The results showed a significant differences in the absolute and relative power of delta band and relative power of theta band of EEG (P = 0.008, P therapy, and Grade 2-3 in KT patients. The scales of MMPI-2 hysteria and paranoia, are significantly correlated with creatinine, eGFR, serum nitrogen, CRP, 1,25-(OH)2D3, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), phosphorus, and cynical and hysterical personality, are correlated with higher relative power of delta (P = 0.016) and theta band (P = 0.016). Moreover, all NPZ5 scores showed a significant difference between the means of nephropathic patients and the means of the HC, and a positive correlation with eGFR, serum nitrogen, CRP, iPTH, and vitamin D.In CKD patients, simple and noninvasive instruments, as EEG, and cognitive-psychological tests, should be performed and careful and constant monitoring of renal risk factors, probably involved in neuropsychological complications (inflammation, disorders of mineral metabolism, electrolyte disorders, etc.), should be carried out. Early identification and adequate therapy of neuropsychological

  18. Ethnicity matters for undergraduate majors in challenges, experiences, and perceptions of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Bernice; Rogers, Margaret R

    2011-04-01

    In this investigation of a national sample of undergraduate psychology majors, we directly compare the experiences and perceptions of students of color with those of European Americans. Our aim was to identify factors that might contribute to our discipline's educational pipeline, in which the relative lack of ethnic diversity is a recognized problem. We found that students of color and European American majors are similar in a number of ways but also different in others. Students of color are challenged by less encouragement from and interaction with faculty, perceive a lack of respect, and wish to see more attention to diversity in curriculum, research, faculty, and textbooks. It is not surprising that students of color were significantly less satisfied than European Americans with their studies in psychology.

  19. Comparative analysis of psychological adaptation in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and shizotypal disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stepanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was the comparing of psychological adaptation characteristics (type of attitude to a disease, psychological defense mechanisms, special aspects of coping-strategy as exemplified by 2 groups of schizophrenia disorder patients: 1 schizotypal disorders (F-21 according to ICD-10; 2 paranoid schizophrenia (F-20 according to ICD-10. The authors arrived at the conclusion of the same nature if special aspects of psychological adaptation in the groups compared. At the same time, both groups compared showed imbalance of «the level of success» between individual characteristics constituting the module of psychological adaptation. This circumstance testifies to the fact that psychological adaptation in the patients with schizophrenic disorders should be evaluated on a case- bycase basis. In conclusion, the study revealed the necessity to take into consideration of these characteristics during rehabilitation of these patients.

  20. Psychological distress in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Cairney, John; Pollock, Nancy; Campbell, Wenonah; Russell, Dianne J; Macdonald, Kathryn; Schmidt, Louis; Heath, Nancy; Veldhuizen, Scott; Cousins, Martha

    2014-05-01

    This study explored whether or not a population-based sample of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), with and without comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), experienced higher levels of psychological distress than their peers. A two-stage procedure was used to identify 244 children: 68 with DCD only, 54 with ADHD only, 31 with comorbid DCD and ADHD, and 91 randomly selected typically developing (TD) children. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured by child and parent report. Child sex and caregiver ethnicity differed across groups, with a higher ratio of boys to girls in the ADHD only group and a slightly higher proportion of non-Caucasian caregivers in the TD group. After controlling for age, sex, and caregiver ethnicity, there was significant variation across groups in both anxiety (by parent report, F(3,235)=8.9, pdisorder groups had significantly higher levels of symptoms than TD children, but most pairwise differences among those three groups were not significant. The one exception was the higher level of depressive symptoms noted by parent report in the ADHD/DCD group. In conclusion, children identified on the basis of motor coordination problems through a population-based screen showed significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than typically developing children. Children who have both DCD and ADHD are particularly at heightened risk of psychological distress.

  1. Psychological masculinity, femininity and tactics of manipulation in patients with borderline personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mandal, Eugenia; Kocur, Dagna

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the study was a relation between the borderline personality disorder and psychological gender, and tendency to use various manipulation tactics in everyday life and therapeutic context.Methods...

  2. Preventing psychological disorders in service members and their families: an assessment of programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denning, Laura Aiuppa; Meisnere, Marc; Warner, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    .... It is well documented in the literature that there are high rates of psychological disorders among military personnel serving in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom...

  3. Treatment of Neurosensory Disorders Improves Psychological Well-Being in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlander, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…

  4. A Comparison of Female College Athletes and Nonathletes: Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Shaffer, Carey

    2002-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and psychological wellbeing among female nonathletes and college athletes. Data from participant surveys revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning among athletes, suggesting that female athletic involvement could be associated with…

  5. Treatment of Neurosensory Disorders Improves Psychological Well-Being in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlander, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…

  6. Descriptive epidemiology of major depressive disorder in Canada in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Wang, Jian Li; McDonald, Keltie; Bulloch, Andrew G M

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) was first described in the Canadian national population in 2002. Updated information is now available from a 2012 survey: the Canadian Community Health Study-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). The CCHS-MH employed an adaptation of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview and had a sample of n=25 113. Demographic variables, treatment, comorbidities, suicidal ideation, and perceived stigma were assessed. The analysis estimated adjusted and unadjusted frequencies and prevalence ratios. All estimates incorporated analysis methods to account for complex survey design effects. The past-year prevalence of MDD was 3.9% (95% CI 3.5% to 4.2%). Prevalence was higher in women and in younger age groups. Among respondents with past-year MDD, 63.1% had sought treatment and 33.1% were taking an antidepressant (AD); 4.8% had past-year alcohol abuse and 4.5% had alcohol dependence. Among respondents with past-year MDD, the prevalence of cannabis abuse was 2.5% and that of dependence was 2.9%. For drugs other than cannabis, the prevalence of abuse was 2.3% and dependence was 2.9%. Generalized anxiety disorder was present in 24.9%. Suicide attempts were reported by 6.6% of respondents with past-year MDD. Among respondents accessing treatment, 37.5% perceived that others held negative opinions about them or treated them unfairly because of their disorder. MDD is a common, burdensome, and stigmatized condition in Canada. Seeking help from professionals was reported at a higher frequency than in prior Canadian studies, but there has been no increase in AD use among Canadians with MDD.

  7. An IRT Analysis of the Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Brown, Timothy A

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of a major depressive episode using a large sample (N = 2,907) of outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. A two-parameter logistic model yielded item threshold and discrimination parameters. A two-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate gender bias. Item thresholds fell along a continuum with the core features of depressed mood and anhedonia, along with fatigue, endorsed at lower levels of depression, and change in appetite and suicidal ideation endorsed at more severe levels. Item discriminations were highest for depressed mood and anhedonia, and lowest for change in appetite and suicidal ideation. The data indicate that the symptoms of depression assess a range of severity, with varying precision in discriminating depression. No gender differences were observed. Three exploratory symptom sets were compared with the full symptom set for depression, offering quantitative evidence that can be used to modify the psychiatric classification system.

  8. Review: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies of Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Kondo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper focuses on the application of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS to the study of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD in children and adolescents. Method. A literature search using the National Institutes of Health's PubMed database was conducted to identify indexed peer-reviewed MRS studies in pediatric patients with MDD. Results. The literature search yielded 18 articles reporting original MRS data in pediatric MDD. Neurochemical alterations in Choline, Glutamate, and N-Acetyl Aspartate are associated with pediatric MDD, suggesting pathophysiologic continuity with adult MDD. Conclusions. The MRS literature in pediatric MDD is modest but growing. In studies that are methodologically comparable, the results have been consistent. Because it offers a noninvasive and repeatable measurement of relevant in vivo brain chemistry, MRS has the potential to provide insights into the pathophysiology of MDD as well as the mediators and moderators of treatment response.

  9. Neurokinin-1 receptors are decreased in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmeier, Craig A; Shi, Xiaochun; Konick, Lisa; Overholser, James C; Jurjus, George; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Friedman, Lee; Blier, Pierre; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2002-07-02

    Treatment with an antagonist at the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor may alleviate depression, however the brain region(s) in which the NK-1 receptor antagonist exerts its therapeutic effect is unknown. [125I]BH-Substance P was used to measure NK-1 receptors postmortem in cytoarchitectonically defined areas of rostral orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 47) of subjects with major depressive disorder (n = 12, six females) and psychiatrically normal subjects (n = 11, five females). Six subjects with depression died by suicide. Subjects with depression showed decreased binding to NK-1 receptors across all cortical layers (p = 0.024). The pathophysiology of depression, and the reported therapeutic benefit of NK-1 receptor antagonists, may thus involve NK-1 receptors in prefrontal cortex.

  10. Pharmacological Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Farley

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD affects a significant number of adolescents today. Its consequences (including social isolation, failure to achieve crucial developmental milestones, and suicide mandate close attention in clinical practice. While tricyclics and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs have been used infrequently and with questionable efficacy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, particularly fluoxetine, consistently have been shown to be of benefit in treating outpatient adolescents with MDD. Despite some success with other drugs in its class, fluoxetine remains the only SSRI that is FDA approved for treatment of children and adolescents with depression. A review of recent studies is presented, including the controversy regarding the relationship of antidepressants and suicidal behavior in this patient population.

  11. Escitalopram for the treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höschl, Cyril; Svestka, Jaromír

    2008-04-01

    Escitalopram is the S-enantiomer of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, which contains equal amounts of the S- and R-forms in a racemic mixture. Escitalopram is the most selective SSRI, with almost no significant affinity to other tested receptors. It has been demonstrated that it is escitalopram that carries the therapeutic potential of citalopram, and has statistically superior and clinically relevant properties compared with citalopram. Escitalopram is at least as effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety as other SSRIs, as well as venlafaxine, bupropion and duloxetine. Owing to multiple metabolic degrading pathways, the clinically relevant interactions of escitalopram with other drugs are minimal. Compared with other antidepressants, escitalopram is generally better tolerated, its onset of action is relatively fast, and its use may have cost-effectiveness and cost-utility advantages. Escitalopram is an effective first-line option in the management of patients with major depression, including severe forms, and various anxiety disorders.

  12. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Executive Attention Impairment in Adolescents With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeldt, Sasha L; Cullen, Kathryn R; Han, Georges; Fryza, Brandon J; Houri, Alaa K; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Neural network models that guide neuropsychological assessment practices are increasingly used to explicate depression, though a paucity of work has focused on regulatory systems that are under development in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsystems of attention related to executive functioning including alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks, as well as sustained attention with varying working memory load, in a sample of depressed and well adolescents. Neuropsychological functioning in 99 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 63 adolescent healthy controls (M = 16.6 years old) was assessed on the Attention Network Test (ANT) and the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs. Adolescents with MDD, particularly those who were not medicated, were slower to process conflict (slower reaction time on the Executive Attention scale of the ANT) compared to controls, particularly for those who were not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. Tentative evidence also suggests that within the MDD group, orienting performance was more impaired in those with a history of comorbid substance use disorder, and alerting was more impaired in those with a history of a suicide attempt. Adolescents with depression showed impaired executive attention, although cognitive performance varied across subgroups of patients. These findings highlight the importance of examining neurocognitive correlates associated with features of depression and suggest an avenue for future research to help guide the development of interventions.

  14. Biomarkers in major depressive disorder: the role of mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Alisa G; Iosifescu, Dan V; Darie, Costel C

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common. Despite numerous available treatments, many individuals fail to improve clinically. MDD continues to be diagnosed exclusively via behavioral rather than biological methods. Biomarkers-which include measurements of genes, proteins, and patterns of brain activity-may provide an important objective tool for the diagnosis of MDD or in the rational selection of treatments. Proteomic analysis and validation of its results as biomarkers is less explored than other areas of biomarker research in MDD. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a comprehensive, unbiased means of proteomic analysis, which can be complemented by directed protein measurements, such as Western Blotting. Prior studies have focused on MS analysis of several human biomaterials in MDD, including human post-mortem brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood components, and urine. Further studies utilizing MS and proteomic analysis in MDD may help solidify and establish biomarkers for use in diagnosis, identification of new treatment targets, and understanding of the disorder. The ultimate goal is the validation of a biomarker or a biomarker signature that facilitates a convenient and inexpensive predictive test for depression treatment response and helps clinicians in the rational selection of next-step treatments.

  15. Desvenlafaxine and Weight Change in Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurent, Claire; Graepel, Jay; Ninan, Philip T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To characterize weight change during short- and longer-term treatment with desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) for major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: Data from 9 short-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and 1 longer-term relapse-prevention trial conducted between September 2002 and January 2007 were analyzed. Adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of MDD using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition received fixed- or flexible-dose desvenlafaxine or placebo for 8 weeks in the short-term studies. In the longer-term study, responders to 12 weeks of open-label desvenlafaxine treatment were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with desvenlafaxine or placebo for 6 months. Mean weight changes and incidence of potentially clinically important changes were evaluated. Results: In the short-term studies (desvenlafaxine: n = 1,834; placebo: n = 1,116), mean decreases in weight associated with desvenlafaxine were small but statistically significant compared with baseline (P desvenlafaxine vs + 0.05 kg placebo; P desvenlafaxine (n = 190) and placebo (n = 185) throughout the relapse-prevention phase, with no statistical difference between desvenlafaxine- and placebo-treated patients at the final evaluation. Less than 1% of desvenlafaxine-treated patients experienced a clinically meaningful weight change. Conclusions: Desvenlafaxine was not associated with clinically significant weight change during short- or longer-term treatment. PMID:20582292

  16. Psychological therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder and comorbid substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Neil P; Roberts, Pamela A; Jones, Neil; Bisson, Jonathan I

    2016-04-04

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating mental health disorder that may develop after exposure to traumatic events. Substance use disorder (SUD) is a behavioural disorder in which the use of one or more substances is associated with heightened levels of distress, clinically significant impairment of functioning, or both. PTSD and SUD frequently occur together. The comorbidity is widely recognised as being difficult to treat and is associated with poorer treatment completion and poorer outcomes than for either condition alone. Several psychological therapies have been developed to treat the comorbidity, however there is no consensus about which therapies are most effective. To determine the efficacy of psychological therapies aimed at treating traumatic stress symptoms, substance misuse symptoms, or both in people with comorbid PTSD and SUD in comparison with control conditions (usual care, waiting-list conditions, and no treatment) and other psychological therapies. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) all years to 11 March 2015. This register contains relevant randomised controlled trials from the Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov, contacted experts, searched bibliographies of included studies, and performed citation searches of identified articles. Randomised controlled trials of individual or group psychological therapies delivered to individuals with PTSD and comorbid substance use, compared with waiting-list conditions, usual care, or minimal intervention or to other psychological therapies. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included 14 studies with 1506 participants, of which 13 studies were included in the quantitative synthesis. Most studies involved adult

  17. The effects of cognitive therapy versus 'treatment as usual' in patients with major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Lindschou Hansen, Jane; Storebø, Ole Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Cognitive therapy may be an effective treatment option for major depressive disorder, but the effects have only had limited assessment in systematic reviews....

  18. The effects of cognitive therapy versus 'no intervention' for major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Hansen, Jane Lindschou; Storebø, Ole Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Cognitive therapy may be an effective treatment option for major depressive disorder, but the effects have only had limited assessment in systematic reviews....

  19. Mental rotation evoked potentials P500 in patients with major depressive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the difference on mental rotation ability between major depressive disorders and healthy subjects.Methods Twenty-three patients with major depressive disorders and 24 healthy subjects

  20. Brain tumors in children and adolescents: cognitive and psychological disorders at different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Geraldina; Liscio, Mariarosaria; Galbiati, Susanna; Adduci, Annarita; Massimino, Maura; Gandola, Lorenza; Spreafico, Filippo; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Fossati-Bellani, Franca; Sommovigo, Michela; Castelli, Enrico

    2005-05-01

    Cognitive and psychological disorders are among the most frequently observed sequelae in brain tumor survivors. The goal of this work was to verify the presence of these disorders in a group of children and adolescents diagnosed with brain tumor before age 18 years, differentiate these disorders according to age of assessment, identify correlations between the two types of impairments and define possible associations between these impairments and clinical variables. The study involved 76 patients diagnosed with brain tumor before age 18 years. Three age groups were formed, and all the patients received a standardized battery of age-matched cognitive and psychological tests. According to our findings, all three groups present with cognitive and psychological-behavioral disorders. Their frequency varies according to age of onset and is strongly associated to time since diagnosis. The performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) was more impaired than the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ). Internalizing problems, withdrawal and social problems were the most frequent psychological disorders. Correlations were found between cognitive impairment and the onset of the main psychological and behavioral disorders. These findings are relevant as they point out the long-term outcome of brain tumor survivors. Hence, the recommendation to diversify psychological interventions and rehabilitation plans according to the patients' age.

  1. Associations in the Longitudinal Course of Body Dysmorphic Disorder with Major Depression, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Stout, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an impairing and relatively common disorder that has high comorbidity with certain Axis I disorders. However, the longitudinal associations between BDD and comorbid disorders have not previously been examined. Such information may shed light on the nature of BDD’s relationship to putative “near-neighbor” disorders, such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and social phobia. This study examined time-varying associations between BDD and th...

  2. Pre-surgical Psychological and Neuroendocrine Predictors of Psychiatric Morbidity Following Major Vascular Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony P.; Abelson, James L.; Gholami, Bardia; Upchurch, Gilbert R.; Henke, Peter; Graham, Linda; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Major life stressors, including major surgeries, are often followed by psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Prior retrospective work found abdominal-aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is followed by increased psychiatric morbidity, which may adversely influence physical and functional recovery. Identifying risk factors prior to surgery, such as dysregulation in stress response systems, might be useful to improving preventative intervention. Methods Two hundred and sixteen patients receiving open AAA or aortofemoral bypass (AFB) surgeries, endovascular AAA repair (EVAR), or nonsurgical AAA treatment were recruited from two vascular surgery services. Psychiatric symptoms and salivary cortisol measures (waking, 4 pm, and 11 pm, before and after low-dose dexamethasone) were obtained at intake and 3 and 9 month followups. Results Following open surgeries, 18% of patients had new psychiatric disorders, compared to 4% of patients receiving EVAR or nonsurgical treatment (odds ratio = 6.0, 95% CI 1.6 - 22.1, p=.007). Having a history of major depression predicted onset of new disorders in surgical patients. Pre-surgical cortisol levels were associated with both baseline (r=.23, p<.05) and 9 month (r=.32, p<.01) psychiatric symptoms (cortisol B=1.0, SE=0.48, p<.05 in repeated measures mixed model). Conclusion Open AAA repair surgery is prospectively linked to development of psychiatric morbidity, and history of depression elevates risk. Cortisol measures prior to surgery are associated with current and future psychological functioning, suggesting potential neurobiological mechanisms that may contribute to vulnerability. These results can help identify surgical patients at risk, and point to potential targets for risk reduction interventions. PMID:26461854

  3. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of major depressive disorder with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniela; Tavakoli, Sason

    2015-08-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promising results in treating individuals with behavioral disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. A number of applications of rTMS to different regions of the left and right prefrontal cortex have been used to treat these disorders, but no study of treatment for MDD with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been conducted with application of rTMS to both the left and right prefrontal cortex. We hypothesized that applying low-frequency rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) before applying it to the left DLPFC for the treatment of depression would be anxiolytic in patients with MDD with GAD. Thirteen adult patients with comorbid MDD and GAD received treatment with rTMS in an outpatient setting. The number of treatments ranged from 24 to 36 over 5 to 6 weeks. Response was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in symptoms from baseline, and remission was defined as a score of depressive symptoms on the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-21). At the end of the treatment period, for the GAD-7 scale, 11 out of 13 (84.6%) patients' anxiety symptoms were in remission, achieving a score of depressive symptoms. In this small pilot study of 13 patients with comorbid MDD and GAD, significant improvement in anxiety symptoms along with depressive symptoms was achieved in a majority of patients after bilateral rTMS application.

  4. Joint Analysis of Psychiatric Disorders Increases Accuracy of Risk Prediction for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Robert; Moser, Gerhard; Chen, Guo-Bo; Ripke, Stephan; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayés, Mònica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H.R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, René; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Cormican, Paul; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craddock, Nicholas; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Daly, Mark J.; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; De Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Devlin, Bernie; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Faraone, Stephen V.; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisén, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; De Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A.; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hultman, Christina M.; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andrés; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stéphane; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelsoe, John R.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landén, Mikael; Långström, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lee, Phil H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A.; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGough, James J.; McGrath, Patrick J.; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G.; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, William M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Mowry, Bryan J.; Muglia, Pierandrea; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Benjamin M.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; O’Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Perlis, Roy H.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Potash, James B.; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Purcell, Shaun M.; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnström, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Ripke, Stephan; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Scheftner, William A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Shi, Jianxin; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sklar, Pamela; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.; St Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Sutcliffe, James; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thapar, Anita; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Uhr, Manfred; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.; Van Grootheest, Gerard; Van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weiss, Lauren A.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wiersma, Durk; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wray, Naomi R.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zöllner, Sebastian; Coryell, William; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Hultman, Christina M.; Landén, Mikael; Levinson, Douglas F.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Wray, Naomi R.; Lee, S. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of risk prediction is low. Here we use a multivariate linear mixed model and apply multi-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction for genetic risk prediction. This method exploits correlations between disorders and simultaneously evaluates individual risk for each disorder. We show that the multivariate approach significantly increases the prediction accuracy for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder in the discovery as well as in independent validation datasets. By grouping SNPs based on genome annotation and fitting multiple random effects, we show that the prediction accuracy could be further improved. The gain in prediction accuracy of the multivariate approach is equivalent to an increase in sample size of 34% for schizophrenia, 68% for bipolar disorder, and 76% for major depressive disorders using single trait models. Because our approach can be readily applied to any number of GWAS datasets of correlated traits, it is a flexible and powerful tool to maximize prediction accuracy. With current sample size, risk predictors are not useful in a clinical setting but already are a valuable research tool, for example in experimental designs comparing cases with high and low polygenic risk. PMID:25640677

  5. Italian neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, G; Serrati, C; Zolo, P; Cataldo, N; Ripellino, C

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of cognition is an important part of major depressive disorder (MDD) evaluation and a crucial issue is the physicians' perception of cognitive dysfunction in MDD that remains nowadays a little known matter. The present study aims at investigating the understanding of neurologists' perception about cognitive dysfunction in MDD. An on-line survey addressed to 85 Italian neurologists in the period between May and June 2015 was performed. The questionnaire comprised three sections: the first section collecting information on neurologists' socio-demographic profile, the second investigating cognitive symptoms relevance in relation with different aspects and the third one explicitly focusing on cognitive symptoms in MDD. Cognitive symptoms are considered most significant among DSM-5 symptoms to define the presence of a Major Depressive Episode in a MDD, to improve antidepressant therapy adherence, patients' functionality and concurrent neurological condition, once resolved. Furthermore, an incongruity came to light from this survey: the neurologists considered cognitive symptoms a not relevant aspect to choose the antidepressant treatment in comparison with the other DSM-5 symptoms on one side, but they declared the opposite in the third part of the questionnaire focused on cognitive symptoms. Cognitive symptoms appeared to be a relevant aspect in MDD and neurologists have a clear understanding of this issue. Nevertheless, the discrepancy between neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms and the antidepressant treatment highlights the feeling of an unmet need that could be filled increasing the awareness of existing drugs with pro-cognitive effects.

  6. Desvenlafaxine for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornstein, Susan G; McIntyre, Roger S; Thase, Michael E; Boucher, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic and debilitating condition often characterized by inadequate treatment. Notwithstanding the availability of more than a dozen first-line agents across disparate classes (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), the majority of individuals with MDD do not achieve and sustain a recovered state. A substantial percentage of MDD patients require a treatment change due to poor efficacy or tolerability. This review focuses on recent (≤ 5 years) literature describing the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and tolerability of desvenlafaxine , one of the more recently approved antidepressant drugs. Published papers identified via PubMed search and congress presentations were included. Results from short-term, placebo-controlled, MDD trials and randomized withdrawal trials, as well as post hoc analyses in patient subgroups, are reviewed. Desvenlafaxine has been shown to be an effective antidepressant with a favorable safety and tolerability profile in the general MDD population and in important patient subgroups. It has several notable differences from other serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and those differences suggest populations in which it may have the most clinical benefit.

  7. Desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Maria Teresa C; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is among the most incapacitating conditions in the world. The emergence of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) antidepressants has improved the treatment of MDD. Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) is the succinate salt of the isolated major active metabolite of venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine: it is the third SNRI to become available in the United States, and was approved in 2008 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of MDD. Early investigations showed therapeutic efficacy for doses between 50 and 400 mg/day; however in doses above 100 mg/day there were incremental increases in side effects. Nausea was the most frequent adverse effect. Hence the recommended dosing for DVS is in the 50 to 100 mg range. Desvenlafaxine is excreted in urine, it is minimally metabolized via the CYP450 pathway, and is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6. A reduced risk for pharmacokinetic drug interactions is a potential advantage over other SNRI. Further head-to-head trials involving comparisons of DVS in the 50 to 100 mg dose range with currently available SSRI and SNRI antidepressants are required. Evidence for relapse prevention is available in the 200 to 400 mg dose range, but this needs to be demonstrated in the 50 to 100 mg dose range, as well as health economic measures and quality of life evaluations. PMID:19557107

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence predicts onset of major depressive disorder through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Michael C; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Seeley, John R; Gau, Jeff M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waxmonsky, James G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in mid-adolescence and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) through early adulthood in a large school-based sample. A secondary aim was to examine whether this relationship was robust after accounting for comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. One thousand five hundred seven participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project completed rating scales in adolescence and structured diagnostic interviews up to four times from adolescence to age 30. Adolescents with a lifetime history of ADHD were at significantly higher risk of MDD through early adulthood relative to those with no history of ADHD. ADHD remained a significant predictor of MDD after controlling for gender, lifetime history of other psychiatric disorders in adolescence, social and academic impairment in adolescence, stress and coping in adolescence, and new onset of other psychiatric disorders through early adulthood (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04, 3.06). Additional significant, robust predictors of MDD included female gender, a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder, and poor coping skills in mid-adolescence, as well as the onset of anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance-use disorder after mid-adolescence. A history of ADHD in adolescence was associated with elevated risk of MDD through early adulthood and this relationship remained significant after controlling for psychosocial impairment in adolescence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms of risk and to inform depression prevention programs for adolescents with ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Alcohol use disorders and the Division 12 Task Force of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrady, B S

    2000-09-01

    The Division 12 Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures promulgated guidelines to identify treatments with empirical support for effectiveness. No treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence was rated as efficacious; 4 treatments for other drug use disorders were rated "probably efficacious." The alcohol treatment research community has questioned why alcohol treatments with strong empirical support are not in the task force's list. This article presents results of the application of task force standards to 13 major psychosocial alcohol treatments viewed as having strong empirical support. Brief intervention and relapse prevention met task force criteria for "efficacious" treatments. However, in 1996, when the task force last published a list of empirically supported treatments (D. L. Chambless et al., 1996), there were insufficient published studies meeting task force criteria for these 2 treatments. Motivational enhancement met criteria to be rated "probably efficacious."

  10. Serotonin pathway polymorphisms and the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Sarah G; Lohoff, Falk W

    2015-01-01

    While antidepressants are widely used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders, only half of the patients will respond to antidepressant treatment and only a third of patients will experience a remission of symptoms. Identification of genetic biomarkers that predict antidepressant treatment response could thus greatly improve current clinical practice by providing guidance on which drug to use for which patient. Most antidepressant drugs for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders have effects on the serotonergic neurotransmitter system; thus, genetic polymorphisms in the genes involved in this pathway represent logical candidates for investigation. This article reviews recent findings on the pharmacogenetics of antidepressant drugs with a focus on serotonergic pathway polymorphisms and discusses future clinical applications.

  11. Altered choroid plexus gene expression in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortney Ann Turner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the emergent interest in biomarkers for mood disorders, we assessed gene expression in the choroid plexus, the region that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD. Genes that are expressed in the choroid plexus (CP can be secreted into the CSF and may be potential biomarker candidates. Given that we have previously shown that fibroblast growth factor family members are differentially expressed in post-mortem brain of subjects with MDD and the CP is a known source of growth factors in the brain, we posed the question whether growth factor dysregulation would be found in the CP of subjects with MDD. We performed laser capture microscopy of the choroid plexus at the level of the hippocampus in subjects with MDD and psychiatrically normal controls. We then extracted, amplified, labeled and hybridized the cRNA to Illumina BeadChips to assess gene expression. In controls, the most highly abundant known transcript was transthyretin. Moreover, half of the 14 most highly expressed transcripts in controls encode ribosomal proteins. Using BeadStudio software, we identified 169 transcripts differentially expressed (p< 0.05 between control and MDD samples. Using pathway analysis we noted that the top network altered in subjects with MDD included multiple members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR confirmed downregulation of several transcripts that interact with the extracellular matrix in subjects with MDD. These results suggest that there may be an altered cytoskeleton in the choroid plexus in MDD subjects that may lead to a disrupted blood-CSF-brain barrier.

  12. Increased amygdala response to shame in remitted major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Pulcu

    Full Text Available Proneness to self-blaming moral emotions such as shame and guilt is increased in major depressive disorder (MDD, and may play an important role in vulnerability even after symptoms have subsided. Social psychologists have argued that shame-proneness is relevant for depression vulnerability and is distinct from guilt. Shame depends on the imagined critical perception of others, whereas guilt results from one's own judgement. The neuroanatomy of shame in MDD is unknown. Using fMRI, we compared 21 participants with MDD remitted from symptoms with no current co-morbid axis-I disorders, and 18 control participants with no personal or family history of MDD. The MDD group exhibited higher activation of the right amygdala and posterior insula for shame relative to guilt (SPM8. This neural difference was observed despite equal levels of rated negative emotional valence and frequencies of induced shame and guilt experience across groups. These same results were found in the medication-free MDD subgroup (N = 15. Increased amygdala and posterior insula activations, known to be related to sensory perception of emotional stimuli, distinguish shame from guilt responses in remitted MDD. People with MDD thus exhibit changes in the neural response to shame after symptoms have subsided. This supports the hypothesis that shame and guilt play at least partly distinct roles in vulnerability to MDD. Shame-induction may be a more sensitive probe of residual amygdala hypersensitivity in MDD compared with facial emotion-evoked responses previously found to normalize on remission.

  13. Psychological disorders associated with rosacea: Analysis of unscripted comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah A. Cardwell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conditions affecting the face are particularly prone to causing psychological comorbidity; patients may be reluctant to inform their physician about their psychological distress. Unscripted comments could provide novel insight regarding the psychological impact of rosacea. Aim: To assess psychologically distressing aspects of rosacea reported in an informal medical setting. Methods: Random sample of 10% of 27,051 posts analyzed, 446 comments addressed psychological effects of rosacea. Comments analyzed for symptoms of depression, anxiety, low confidence/self-esteem, and aspects of rosacea which cause distress, including symptoms, lifestyle change and difficulty with treatments. Brand names were changed to generic equivalent. Results: Symptoms of depression (n = 44 and the desire to end life (n = 6 were mentioned, but no comments expounded on any suicide plan. Anxiousness (n = 7 and negative impact on confidence/self-esteem (n = 5 were mentioned. Symptoms, or clinical manifestations (n = 29, were the most frequently mentioned distress factor, followed by lifestyle change (n = 20. Patients also voiced difficulty with treatments (n = 15. Limitations: Online forums may provide patient perceptions that patients would not share with a doctor, but the sample may not be representative of all rosacea patients. Conclusions: Inquiring about psychological impact of rosacea might be helpful in identifying patients who would benefit from supportive psychological measures.

  14. Anatomical and functional brain abnormalities in unmedicated major depressive disorder

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    Yang X

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Yang,1,2,* Xiaojuan Ma,3,* Mingli Li,1,2 Ye Liu,1 Jian Zhang,1 Bin Huang,4 Liansheng Zhao,1,2 Wei Deng,1,2 Tao Li,1,2 Xiaohong Ma1,2 1Psychiatric Laboratory and Department of Psychiatry, 2National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 3Chengdu First People’s Hospital, Chengdu, 4Dong Feng Mao Jian Hospital, Shiyan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI to explore the mechanism of brain structure and function in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. Patients and methods: Fifty patients with MDD and 50 matched healthy control participants free of psychotropic medication underwent high-resolution structural and rsfMRI scanning. Optimized diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra and the Data Processing Assistant for rsfMRI were used to find potential differences in gray-matter volume (GMV and regional homogeneity (ReHo between the two groups. A Pearson correlation model was used to analyze associations of morphometric and functional changes with clinical symptoms. Results: Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significant GMV increase in the left posterior cingulate gyrus and GMV decrease in the left lingual gyrus (P<0.001, uncorrected. In ReHo analysis, values were significantly increased in the left precuneus and decreased in the left putamen (P<0.001, uncorrected in patients with MDD compared to healthy controls. There was no overlap between anatomical and functional changes. Linear correlation suggested no significant correlation between mean GMV values within regions with anatomical abnormality and ReHo values in regions with functional abnormality in the patient group. These changes were not significantly correlated with symptom severity. Conclusion: Our study suggests a dissociation

  15. Recollection deficiencies in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakeford, Justine L; Edelstyn, Nicola M J; Oyebode, Femi; Srivastava, Shrikant; Calthorpe, William R; Mukherjee, Tirthankar

    2010-02-28

    Neuropsychological research suggests that recognition memory (RM) and recall memory are impaired in patients with a major depressive disorder or a dysphoric mood state. This study examines the proposal that abnormalities in recollection (a form of recall) result from a breakdown in frontal strategic memory processes involved in encoding and retrieval, and executive functions linked to reality monitoring, planning, problem-solving, reasoning and decision-making. We investigated two predictions arising from this theory. Firstly, patients diagnosed with a major depressive disorder (MDD) will display a dissociation between (deficient) recollection and (preserved) familiarity. Secondly, if recollection impairments are indicative of a breakdown in prefrontal strategic memory processes which are dependent, at least in part, on executive processes, then an explicit correlational approach predicts that recollection will be positively associated with the severity of executive dysfunction in MDD patients. The remember/know paradigm was used to investigate RM for words and neutral faces in 16 MDD patients and 16 healthy volunteers, matched for age, gender and estimates of premorbid IQ. Measures of executive function included working memory, reasoning and decision-making. Applying the Dual Process Signal Detection interpretation of the remember/know data, the MDD group displayed significant impairments in RM and recollection rates for both verbal and neutral facial memoranda. In contrast, familiarity-aware rates were preserved. There was no evidence of executive dysfunction in the patient group, and little evidence that recollection rates correlated with executive function. Furthermore, a single process signal detection approach suggested that the MDD patients displayed a reduction in sensitivity for RM and remember rates but not know responses. The criteria for detecting studied from unstudied items, and remembering from knowing, were the same in both patient and healthy

  16. Childhood developmental disorders: an academic and clinical convergence point for psychiatry, neurology, psychology and pediatrics.

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    Reiss, Allan L

    2009-01-01

    Significant advances in understanding brain development and behavior have not been accompanied by revisions of traditional academic structure. Disciplinary isolation and a lack of meaningful interdisciplinary opportunities are persistent barriers in academic medicine. To enhance clinical practice, research, and training for the next generation, academic centers will need to take bold steps that challenge traditional departmental boundaries. Such change is not only desirable but, in fact, necessary to bring about a truly innovative and more effective approach to treating disorders of the developing brain. I focus on developmental disorders as a convergence point for transcending traditional academic boundaries. First, the current taxonomy of developmental disorders is described with emphasis on how current diagnostic systems inadvertently hinder research progress. Second, I describe the clinical features of autism, a phenomenologically defined condition, and Rett and fragile X syndromes, neurogenetic diseases that are risk factors for autism. Finally, I describe how the fields of psychiatry, psychology, neurology, and pediatrics now have an unprecedented opportunity to promote an interdisciplinary approach to training, research, and clinical practice and, thus, advance a deeper understanding of developmental disorders. Research focused on autism is increasingly demonstrating the heterogeneity of individuals diagnosed by DSM criteria. This heterogeneity hinders the ability of investigators to replicate research results as well as progress towards more effective, etiology-specific interventions. In contrast, fragile X and Rett syndromes are 'real' diseases for which advances in research are rapidly accelerating towards more disease-specific human treatment trials. A major paradigm shift is required to improve our ability to diagnose and treat individuals with developmental disorders. This paradigm shift must take place at all levels - training, research and clinical

  17. Using First-Person Accounts To Teach Students about Psychological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes instructional use of brief first-person accounts of mental disorders. Explores the benefits of using first-person, autobiographical accounts as required reading in a course on abnormal psychology. Finds that first-person accounts were more helpful in increasing student appreciation of the experience of having a disorder and empathy for…

  18. Prediction of 6-yr symptom course trajectories of anxiety disorders by diagnostic, clinical and psychological variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Batelaan, Neeltje; Rhebergen, Didi; van Balkom, Anton; Schoevers, Robert; Penninx, Brenda W.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify course trajectories of anxiety disorder using a data-driven method and to determine the incremental predictive value of clinical and psychological variables over and above diagnostic categories. 703 patients with DSM-IV panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraph

  19. Use of medication and psychological counselling among Canadians with mood and/or anxiety disorders

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    Siobhan O'Donnell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study describes the use of prescription medications and psychological counselling in the past 12 months among Canadian adults with a self-reported mood and/or anxiety disorder diagnosis; the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with their use; and reasons for not using them. Methods: We used data from the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada-Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component. The study sample (n = 2916 was divided into four treatment subgroups: (1 taking medication only; (2 having received counselling only; (3 both; or (4 neither. We combined the first three subgroups and carried out descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses comparing those who are taking medication and/or have received counselling in the past 12 months, versus those doing neither. Estimates were weighted to represent the Canadian adult household population living in the 10 provinces with diagnosed mood and/or anxiety disorders. Results: The majority (81.8% of Canadians with a mood and/or an anxiety disorder diagnosis reported they are taking medications and/or have received counselling (47.6% taking medications only; 6.9% received counselling only; and 27.3% taking/having received both. Upon controlling for individual characteristics, taking medications and/or having received counselling was significantly associated with older age; higher household income; living in the Atlantic region or Quebec versus Ontario; and having concurrent disorders or mood disorders only. Symptoms controlled without medication was the most common reason for not taking medications, while preferring to manage on their own and taking medications were among the common reasons for not having received counselling. Conclusion: The majority of Canadian adults with a mood and/or an anxiety disorder diagnosis are taking medications, while few have received counselling. Insights gained regarding the factors associated with these

  20. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C.; Ravitz, Paula; Rosenbluth, Michael; Pavlova, Barbara; Grigoriadis, Sophie; Velyvis, Vytas; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Lam, Raymond W.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Milev, Roumen V.; Ravindran, Arun V.; Uher, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) has revised its 2009 guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults by updating the evidence and recommendations. The target audiences for these 2016 guidelines are psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Methods: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. “Psychological Treatments” is the second of six sections of the 2016 guidelines. Results: Evidence-informed responses were developed for 25 questions under 5 broad categories: 1) patient characteristics relevant to using psychological interventions; 2) therapist and health system characteristics associated with optimizing outcomes; 3) descriptions of major psychotherapies and their efficacy; 4) additional psychological interventions, such as peer interventions and computer- and technology-delivered interventions; and 5) combining and/or sequencing psychological and pharmacological interventions. Conclusions: First-line psychological treatment recommendations for acute MDD include cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), and behavioural activation (BA). Second-line recommendations include computer-based and telephone-delivered psychotherapy. Where feasible, combining psychological treatment (CBT or IPT) with antidepressant treatment is recommended because combined treatment is superior to either treatment alone. First-line psychological treatments for maintenance include CBT and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Patient preference, in combination with evidence-based treatments and clinician/system capacity, will yield the optimal treatment strategies for improving individual outcomes in MDD. PMID

  1. Desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depressive disorder

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    Maria Teresa C Lourenco1

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Teresa C Lourenco1, Sidney H Kennedy1,21Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, Toronto; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD is among the most incapacitating conditions in the world. The emergence of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI antidepressants has improved the treatment of MDD. Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS is the succinate salt of the isolated major active metabolite of venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine: it is the third SNRI to become available in the United States, and was approved in 2008 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of MDD. Early investigations showed therapeutic efficacy for doses between 50 and 400 mg/day; however in doses above 100 mg/day there were incremental increases in side effects. Nausea was the most frequent adverse effect. Hence the recommended dosing for DVS is in the 50 to 100 mg range. Desvenlafaxine is excreted in urine, it is minimally metabolized via the CYP450 pathway, and is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6. A reduced risk for pharmacokinetic drug interactions is a potential advantage over other SNRI. Further head-to-head trials involving comparisons of DVS in the 50 to 100 mg dose range with currently available SSRI and SNRI antidepressants are required. Evidence for relapse prevention is available in the 200 to 400 mg dose range, but this needs to be demonstrated in the 50 to 100 mg dose range, as well as health economic measures and quality of life evaluations.Keywords: desvenlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, Pristiq®, SNRIs, MDD

  2. Psychological support for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders via traditional Russian tea party

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    Belopolskaya N.L.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to discuss the possibility of providing psychological support for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders via traditional Russian tea party. Questionnaire results, according to which mothers of children with ASD are essentially focused on receiving psychological counseling in the area of child development and education are presented. However personal problems of the woman, including psychological weightiness is usually taken a back seat. The research supports a hypothesis that informal format of tea party allows mothers decreasing psychological distance with psychologist, feeling at ease. The article includes an analysis of psychological meetings focused on personal life questions of participants. The results obtained in the research showed effectiveness of this approach. The Russian tea party is a meeting form that fosters the growth of confidence toward psychologist, expanding the range of personal questions that could be discussed. The mothers had the opportunity of open communication with each other, reported psychological safety valve.

  3. Selegiline transdermal system: in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, James E; Plosker, Greg L

    2007-01-01

    The monamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor selegiline is selective for MAO-B at the low oral dosages used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, MAO-A is also inhibited at the high oral dosages needed to effectively treat depression (not an approved indication), necessitating a tyramine-restricted diet. The selegiline transdermal system was designed to deliver antidepressant drug concentrations to the CNS, without substantially impairing small intestine MAO-A activity. At the target dose of 6 mg/24 hours, tyramine dietary restrictions are not needed. Short-term treatment with fixed (6 mg/24 hours) or flexible (6, 9 or 12 mg/24 hours) doses of selegiline transdermal system was superior to placebo on most measures of antidepressant activity in 6- or 8-week, randomised, double-blind, multicentre studies in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Likewise, long-term treatment with a fixed dose of selegiline transdermal system 6 mg/24 hours was superior to placebo as maintenance therapy in a 52-week, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, relapse-prevention trial in patients with MDD. Selegiline transdermal system therapy was generally well tolerated in placebo-controlled studies; application site reactions, mostly of mild to moderate severity, were the most commonly reported adverse events. The incidence of sexual adverse effects and weight gain was low and similar to that with placebo.

  4. Phonologically-based biomarkers for major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Andrea Carolina; Quatieri, Thomas Francis; Malyska, Nicolas

    2011-12-01

    Of increasing importance in the civilian and military population is the recognition of major depressive disorder at its earliest stages and intervention before the onset of severe symptoms. Toward the goal of more effective monitoring of depression severity, we introduce vocal biomarkers that are derived automatically from phonologically-based measures of speech rate. To assess our measures, we use a 35-speaker free-response speech database of subjects treated for depression over a 6-week duration. We find that dissecting average measures of speech rate into phone-specific characteristics and, in particular, combined phone-duration measures uncovers stronger relationships between speech rate and depression severity than global measures previously reported for a speech-rate biomarker. Results of this study are supported by correlation of our measures with depression severity and classification of depression state with these vocal measures. Our approach provides a general framework for analyzing individual symptom categories through phonological units, and supports the premise that speaking rate can be an indicator of psychomotor retardation severity.

  5. Phonologically-based biomarkers for major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevino Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Of increasing importance in the civilian and military population is the recognition of major depressive disorder at its earliest stages and intervention before the onset of severe symptoms. Toward the goal of more effective monitoring of depression severity, we introduce vocal biomarkers that are derived automatically from phonologically-based measures of speech rate. To assess our measures, we use a 35-speaker free-response speech database of subjects treated for depression over a 6-week duration. We find that dissecting average measures of speech rate into phone-specific characteristics and, in particular, combined phone-duration measures uncovers stronger relationships between speech rate and depression severity than global measures previously reported for a speech-rate biomarker. Results of this study are supported by correlation of our measures with depression severity and classification of depression state with these vocal measures. Our approach provides a general framework for analyzing individual symptom categories through phonological units, and supports the premise that speaking rate can be an indicator of psychomotor retardation severity.

  6. Smoking and major depressive disorder in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors that contribute to smoking in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and the clinical features in depressed smokers. METHODS: We examined the smoking status and clinical features in 6120 Han Chinese women with MDD (DSM-IV between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between clinical features of MDD and smoking status and between risk factors for MDD and smoking status. RESULTS: Among the recurrent MDD patients there were 216(3.6% current smokers, 117 (2.0% former smokers and 333(5.6% lifetime smokers. Lifetime smokers had a slightly more severe illness, characterized by more episodes, longer duration, more comorbid illness (panic and phobias, with more DSM-IV A criteria and reported more symptoms of fatigue and suicidal ideation or attempts than never smokers. Some known risk factors for MDD were also differentially represented among smokers compared to non-smokers. Smokers reported more stressful life events, were more likely to report childhood sexual abuse, had higher levels of neuroticism and an increased rate of familial MDD. Only neuroticism was significantly related to nicotine dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Although depressed women smokers experience more severe illness, smoking rates remain low in MDD patients. Family history of MDD and environmental factors contribute to lifetime smoking in Chinese women, consistent with the hypothesis that the association of smoking and depression may be caused by common underlying factors.

  7. Peripheral biomarkers in animal models of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of preclinical biomarkers for major depressive disorder (MDD) encompass the quantification of proteins, peptides, mRNAs, or small molecules in blood or urine of animal models. Most studies aim at characterising the animal model by including the assessment of analytes or hormones affected in depressive patients. The ultimate objective is to validate the model to better understand the neurobiological basis of MDD. Stress hormones or inflammation-related analytes associated with MDD are frequently measured. In contrast, other investigators evaluate peripheral analytes in preclinical models to translate the results in clinical settings afterwards. Large-scale, hypothesis-free studies are performed in MDD models to identify candidate biomarkers. Other studies wish to propose new targets for drug discovery. Animal models endowed with predictive validity are investigated, and the assessment of peripheral analytes, such as stress hormones or immune molecules, is comprised to increase the confidence in the target. Finally, since the mechanism of action of antidepressants is incompletely understood, studies investigating molecular alterations associated with antidepressant treatment may include peripheral analyte levels. In conclusion, preclinical biomarker studies aid the identification of new candidate analytes to be tested in clinical trials. They also increase our understanding of MDD pathophysiology and help to identify new pharmacological targets.

  8. Urinary peptidomics identifies potential biomarkers for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Liang; Zheng, Peng; Xu, Hong-Bo; Lu, Jia; Zhong, Jiaju; Lei, Yang; Zhou, Chanjuan; Ma, Qingwei; Li, Yan; Xie, Peng

    2014-06-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric illness with no available objective laboratory-based diagnostic test. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based peptidomics was applied to identify potential urinary diagnostic biomarkers for MDD. A training set of 42 first-episode drug-naive MDD patients and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) was used to develop a peptide diagnostic pattern. Then, the diagnostic efficacy of this pattern was assessed in an independent blinded test set consisting of 24 MDD patients and 13 age- and gender-matched HC. A combination of five potential biomarkers was identified, yielding a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 84.6% in the test set. Moreover, the protein precursors of four of the five peptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometric analysis: serum albumin, apolipoprotein A-I, protein AMBP, and basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein. Taken together, the peptide pattern may be valuable for establishing an objective laboratory-based diagnostic test for MDD.

  9. Altered fecal microbiota composition in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiyin; Ling, Zongxin; Zhang, Yonghua; Mao, Hongjin; Ma, Zhanping; Yin, Yan; Wang, Weihong; Tang, Wenxin; Tan, Zhonglin; Shi, Jianfei; Li, Lanjuan; Ruan, Bing

    2015-08-01

    Studies using animal models have shown that depression affects the stability of the microbiota, but the actual structure and composition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are not well understood. Here, we analyzed fecal samples from 46 patients with depression (29 active-MDD and 17 responded-MDD) and 30 healthy controls (HCs). High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that, according to the Shannon index, increased fecal bacterial α-diversity was found in the active-MDD (A-MDD) vs. the HC group but not in the responded-MDD (R-MDD) vs. the HC group. Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria strongly increased in level, whereas that of Firmicutes was significantly reduced in the A-MDD and R-MDD groups compared with the HC group. Despite profound interindividual variability, levels of several predominant genera were significantly different between the MDD and HC groups. Most notably, the MDD groups had increased levels of Enterobacteriaceae and Alistipes but reduced levels of Faecalibacterium. A negative correlation was observed between Faecalibacterium and the severity of depressive symptoms. These findings enable a better understanding of changes in the fecal microbiota composition in such patients, showing either a predominance of some potentially harmful bacterial groups or a reduction in beneficial bacterial genera. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the temporal and causal relationships between gut microbiota and depression and to evaluate the suitability of the microbiome as a biomarker.

  10. High-dose desvenlafaxine in outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, James M; Tourian, Karen A; Rosas, Gregory R

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the safety and efficacy of long-term treatment with high-dose desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this multicenter, open-label study, adult outpatients with MDD aged 18-75 were treated with flexible doses of desvenlafaxine (200-400 mg/d) for ≤ 1 year. Safety assessments included monitoring of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), patient discontinuations due to adverse events, electrocardiograms, vital signs, and laboratory determinations. The primary efficacy measure was mean change from baseline in the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D(17)] total score. The mean daily desvenlafaxine dose range over the duration of the trial was 267-356 mg (after titration). The most frequent TEAEs in the safety population (n = 104) were nausea (52%) and headache (41%), dizziness (31%), insomnia (29%), and dry mouth (27%). All TEAEs were mild or moderate in severity. Thirty-four (33%) patients discontinued from the study because of TEAEs; nausea (12%) and dizziness (9%) were the most frequently cited reasons. The mean change in HAM-D(17) total score for the intent-to-treat population (n = 99) was -9.9 at the last on-therapy visit in the last-observation-carried-forward analysis and -14.0 at month 12 in the observed cases analysis. Conclusion High-dose desvenlafaxine (200-400 mg/d) was generally safe and effective in the long-term treatment of MDD.

  11. St. John's Wort for Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Alicia Ruelaz; Hempel, Susanne; Apaydin, Eric; Shanman, Roberta M; Booth, Marika; Miles, Jeremy N V; Sorbero, Melony E

    2016-05-09

    RAND researchers conducted a systematic review that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of St. John's wort (SJW)-used adjunctively or as monotherapy-to provide estimates of its efficacy and safety in treating adults with major depressive disorder. Outcomes of interest included changes in depressive symptomatology, quality of life, and adverse effects. Efficacy meta-analyses used the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. In total, 35 studies met inclusion criteria. There is moderate evidence, due to unexplained heterogeneity between studies, that depression improvement based on the number of treatment responders and depression scale scores favors SJW over placebo, and results are comparable to antidepressants. The existing evidence is based on studies testing SJW as monotherapy; there is a lack of evidence for SJW given as adjunct therapy to standard antidepressant therapy. We found no systematic difference between SJW extracts, but head-to-head trials are missing; LI 160 (0.3% hypericin, 1-4% hyperforin) was the extract with the greatest number of studies. Only two trials assessed quality of life. SJW adverse events reported in included trials were comparable to placebo, and were fewer compared with antidepressant medication; however, adverse event assessments were limited, and thus we have limited confidence in this conclusion.

  12. Major depressive disorder, suicidal behaviour, bipolar disorder, and generalised anxiety disorder among emerging adults with and without chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, M A

    2016-10-01

    Despite the considerable physical, emotional and social change that occurs during emerging adulthood, there is little research that examines the association between having a chronic health condition and mental disorder during this developmental period. The aims of this study were to examine the sex-specific prevalence of lifetime mental disorder in an epidemiological sample of emerging adults aged 15-30 years with and without chronic health conditions; quantify the association between chronic health conditions and mental disorder, adjusting for sociodemographic and health factors; and, examine potential moderating and mediating effects of sex, level of disability and pain. Data come from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health. Respondents were 15-30 years of age (n = 5947) and self-reported whether they had a chronic health condition. Chronic health conditions were classified as: respiratory, musculoskeletal/connective tissue, cardiovascular, neurological and endocrine/digestive. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 was used to assess the presence of mental disorder (major depressive disorder, suicidal behaviour, bipolar disorder and generalised anxiety disorder). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorder was significantly higher for individuals with chronic health conditions compared with healthy controls. Substantial heterogeneity in the prevalence of mental disorder was found in males, but not in females. Logistic regression models adjusting for several sociodemographic and health factors showed that the individuals with chronic health conditions were at elevated risk for mental disorder. There was no evidence that the level of disability or pain moderated the associations between chronic health conditions and mental disorder. Sex was found to moderate the association between musculoskeletal/connective tissue conditions and bipolar disorder (β = 1.71, p = 0.002). Exploratory analyses suggest that the levels of

  13. Psychological Factors Predict Eating Disorder Onset and Maintenance at 10-year Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Lauren A.; Bodell, Lindsay P.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to identify psychological factors that predict onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from an epidemiological study of health and eating behaviors in men and women (N=1320; 72% female) to examine the prospective and independent influence of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, and Maturity Fears subscales in predicting the onset and maintenance of eating disorders at 10-year follow-...

  14. [Interest of scopolamine as a treatment of major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigal, A; Mouchabac, S; Peretti, C S

    2016-12-01

    The number of patients with depression in the world is 350 millions according to estimates. The search for new treatments, particularly in forms of resistant depression, is necessary given the growing number of patients experiencing treatment failure and resistance. Scopolamine, an anticholinergic antimuscarinic molecule, is one of the treatments under evaluation. It falls within the assumptions of cholinergic disruption of the pathophysiology of depression, at different levels (genetic, receptorial [muscarinic and glutamate receptors], hormonal, synaptic…). In 2006, a pilot study made to evaluate the role of the cholinergic system in cognitive symptoms of depression found unexpected results regarding the antidepressant effect of scopolamine in depressive patients. Since that time other studies have been conducted to evaluate the benefits of treatment with intravenous injections of scopolamine. Our main objective was to evaluate the interest of scopolamine as an antidepressant treatment in depressed populations. We conducted a literature review with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of treatment with scopolamine in uni- and bipolar patients with depressive symptoms. The protocol consisted of two injection blocks (each block consisting of three injections spaced fifteen minutes apart within three to five days) of active ingredient or placebo crossover. The selected patients were between 18 and 45years and had the DSM-IV major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder criteria. Regarding the methods of measurement, the primary endpoint was the reduction in scores of the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) with a total response defined by a decrease of more than 50 % of the score and remission corresponding to a MADRS scoretreatment was well tolerated by patients with relatively mild and transient side effects the most common being the sensation of sleepiness that was also found in the placebo group. There were no serious side effects such as

  15. Neural temporal dynamics of stress in comorbid major depressive disorder and social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Christian E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in neurobiological research on Major Depressive Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, little is known about the neural functioning of individuals with comorbid depression/social anxiety. We examined the timing of neural responses to social stress in individuals with major depression and/or social anxiety. We hypothesized that having social anxiety would be associated with earlier responses to stress, having major depression would be associated with sustained responses to stress, and that comorbid participants would exhibit both of these response patterns. Methods Participants were females diagnosed with pure depression (n = 12, pure social anxiety (n = 16, comorbid depression/social anxiety (n = 17, or as never having had any Axis-I disorder (control; n = 17. Blood oxygenation-level dependent activity (BOLD was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. To induce social stress, participants prepared a speech that was ostensibly to be evaluated by a third party. Results Whereas being diagnosed with depression was associated with a resurgence of activation in the medial frontal cortex late in the stressor, having social anxiety was associated with a vigilance-avoidance activation pattern in the occipital cortex and insula. Comorbid participants exhibited activation patterns that generally overlapped with the non-comorbid groups, with the exception of an intermediate level of activation, between the level of activation of the pure depression and social anxiety groups, in the middle and posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions These findings advance our understanding of the neural underpinnings of major depression and social anxiety, and of their comorbidity. Future research should elucidate more precisely the behavioral correlates of these patterns of brain activation.

  16. Association between latent toxoplasmosis and major depression, generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Brown, Bruce L; Berrett, Andrew; Erickson, Lance D; Hedges, Dawson W

    2014-08-01

    Latent infection with the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) has been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and self-harm behaviour. However, the potential relationship between T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG) seropositivity and generalised-anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) has not been investigated. The associations between serum reactivity to T. gondii and major depressive disorder (MDD), GAD and PD were evaluated in a total sample of 1 846 adult participants between the ages of 20 and 39 years from the United States Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Approximately 16% of the overall sample was seropositive for T. gondii and 7% of the sample met criteria for MDD, 2% for GAD and 2% for PD. There were no significant associations between T. gondii IgG seroprevalence and MDD (OR = 0.484, 95% CI = 0.186-1.258), GAD (OR = 0.737, 95% CI = 0.218-2.490) or PD (OR = 0.683, 95% CI = 0.206-2.270) controlling for sex, ethnicity, poverty-to-income ratio and educational attainment. However, limited evidence suggested a possible association between absolute antibody titres for T. gondii and GAD and PD but not MDD. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was not associated with MDD, GAD or PD within the context of the limitations of this study, although there may be an association of T. gondii serointensity with and GAD and PD, which requires further study.

  17. Personality traits in the differentiation of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder during a depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Jaciana Marlova Gonçalves; dos Passos, Miguel Bezerra; Molina, Mariane Lopez; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos

    2016-02-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in personality traits between individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) during a depressive episode, when it can be hard to differentiate them. Data on personality traits (NEO-FFI), mental disorders (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus) and socioeconomic variables were collected from 245 respondents who were in a depressive episode. Individuals with MDD (183) and BD (62) diagnosis were compared concerning personality traits, clinical aspects and socioeconomic variables through bivariate analyses (chi-square and ANOVA) and multivariate analysis (logistic regression). There were no differences in the prevalence of the disorders between socioeconomic and clinical variables. As for the personality traits, only the difference in Agreeableness was statistically significant. Considering the control of suicide risk, gender and anxiety comorbidity in the multivariate analysis, the only variable that remained associated was Agreeableness, with an increase in MDD cases. The brief version of the NEO inventories (NEO-FFI) does not allow for the analysis of personality facets. During a depressive episode, high levels of Agreeableness can indicate that MDD is a more likely diagnosis than BD.

  18. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized databases in May 2014 augmented by hand searches of reference lists. We included original articles in which MDD participants (or their healthy first-degree relatives) and a healthy control group were compared on standard measures of emotional processing or reward/ punishment processing as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A total of 116 articles met the inclusion criteria of which 97 were original studies. Negative biases in perception, attention and memory for emotional information, and aberrant reward/punishment processing occur in MDD. Imbalanced responses to negative stimuli in a fronto-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission and to subtle 'hot' cognition deficits in healthy relatives of patients with MDD. Taken together, these findings suggest that abnormalities in 'hot' cognition may constitute a candidate neurocognitive endophenotype for depression.

  19. [THE RESULTS OF CLINICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATIONS EMPLOYEES OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS WHICH WERE IDENTIFIED NEUROTIC DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyova, M

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of the clinical and psychopathological and psychological diagnostic, investigations mental health employees of financial institutions, description and analysis of clinical forms identified disorders.

  20. [Clinical, neurophysiological and psychological characteristics of neurosis in patients with panic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuter, N V

    2008-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with panic disorders (PD), aged 31,5 years, 17 men, 31 women, were studied. The results were analyzed in comparison to a control group which comprised 16 healthy people, 6 men, 10 women, mean age 29,5 years. A traditional clinical approach, including somatic, neurologic and psychiatric examination, was used in the study. Also, a neurophysiological study using compression and spectral analyses, EEG, cognitive evoked potentials, skin evoked potentials, was conducted. A psychological examination included assessment of personality traits (Cattell's test), MMPI personality profile, mechanisms of psychological defense, the "Life style index" and Sondy test. A decrease of - and -rhythms was found that implied the reduction of activation processes. The psychological data mirror as common signs characteristic of all PD, as well as psychological features characteristic of neurotic disorders. The results obtained confirm the heterogeneity of PD in nosological aspect that demands using differential approach to the problems of their diagnostics and treatment.

  1. Major depressive disorder following terrorist attacks: A systematic review of prevalence, course and correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Terrorist attacks are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of psychological disorders for people exposed. This review aimed to systematically assess the current evidence on major depressive disorder (MDD) after terrorist attacks. Methods A systematic review was performed. Studies included assessed the impact of human-made, intentional, terrorist attacks in direct victims and/or persons in general population and evaluated MDD based on diagnostic criteria. Results A total of 567 reports were identified, 11 of which were eligible for this review: 6 carried out with direct victims, 4 with persons in general population, and 1 with victims and general population. The reviewed literature suggests that the risk of MDD ranges between 20 and 30% in direct victims and between 4 and 10% in the general population in the first few months after terrorist attacks. Characteristics that tend to increase risk of MDD after a terrorist attack are female gender, having experienced more stressful situations before or after the attack, peritraumatic reactions during the attack, loss of psychosocial resources, and low social support. The course of MDD after terrorist attacks is less clear due to the scarcity of longitudinal studies. Conclusions Methodological limitations in the literature of this field are considered and potentially important areas for future research such as the assessment of the course of MDD, the study of correlates of MDD or the comorbidity between MDD and other mental health problems are discussed. PMID:21627850

  2. Major depressive disorder, personality disorders, and coping strategies are independent risk factors for lower quality of life in non-metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, Paul; Champagne, Anne-Laure; Huguet, Grégoire; Suzanne, Isabelle; Senon, Jean-Louis; Body, Gilles; Rusch, Emmanuel; Magnin, Guillaume; Voyer, Mélanie; Réveillère, Christian; Camus, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to identify risk factors for lower quality of life (QOL) in non-metastatic breast cancer patients. Our study included 120 patients from the University Hospital Centers of Tours and Poitiers. This cross-sectional study was conducted 7 months after patients' breast cancer diagnosis and assessed QOL (Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 = QLQ-C30), socio-demographic characteristics, coping strategies (Brief-COPE), physiological and biological variables (e.g., initial tumor severity and types of treatment received), the existence of major depressive disorder (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), and pain severity (Questionnaire de Douleur Saint Antoine). We assessed personality disorders 3 months after diagnosis (Vragenlijst voor Kenmerken van de Persoonlijkheid questionnaire). We used multiple linear regression models to determine which factors were associated with physical, emotional, and global QOL. Lower physical QOL was associated with major depressive disorder, younger age, a more severe initial tumor stage, and the use of the behavioral disengagement coping. Lower emotional QOL was associated with major depressive disorder, the existence of a personality disorder, a more severe pain level, higher use of self-blame, and lower use of acceptance coping strategies. Lower global QOL was associated with major depressive disorder, the existence of a personality disorder, a more severe pain level, higher use of self-blame, lower use of positive reframing coping strategies, and an absence of hormone therapy. Lower QOL scores were more strongly associated with variables related to the individual's premorbid psychological characteristics and the manner in which this individual copes with the cancer (e.g., depression, personality, and coping) than to cancer-related variables (e.g., treatment types and cancer severity). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph E.; Strauss, John; Strohmaier, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium: a......: autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia.......Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium...

  4. A prospective study of diagnostic conversion of major depressive disorder to bipolar disorder in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder; Xie, Bin; Campbell, M Karen; Penava, Debbie; Hampson, Elizabeth; Mazmanian, Dwight; Pope, Carley J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of, and risk factors for, a change in diagnosis from major depressive disorder to bipolar disorder, and from bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder in pregnancy and postpartum. Patients with a prior history of major depressive disorder or bipolar II disorder were recruited between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation and followed through to one year postpartum. Diagnostic interviews were conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV at study intake and repeated using the Mini-International Psychiatric Interview at one, three, six, and 12 months after childbirth. Fisher's exact test was used to assess the association between various risk factors and diagnostic switch. A total of 146 participants completed the intake interview and at least one follow-up interview postpartum. Of these, 92 were diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 54 with bipolar II disorder at intake. Six women (6.52%) experienced a diagnostic change from major depressive disorder to bipolar II disorder during the first six months after childbirth. There were no cases of switching to bipolar I disorder, but in one participant the diagnosis changed from bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder during the three months after childbirth. Bipolar switch was associated with a family history of bipolar disorder. The postpartum period appears to be a time of high risk for a new onset of hypomania in women with major depressive disorder. Our rate of diagnostic switching to bipolar II disorder (6.52%) is at least 11- to 18-fold higher than the rates of switching in similar studies conducted in both men and women. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Sebastião Sousa Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED) in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), theBody Shape Questionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD) and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE), respectively. Partici...

  6. Association and Correlation between Temporomandibular Disorders and Psychological Factors in a Group of Dental Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Sood; Arun V Subramaniam; Tulsi Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and presence of psychological factors (i.e.,anxiety and depression levels) in dental undergraduate students. Second purpose was to assess the association and correlation between TMD degree and psychological factors viz. anxiety and depression. Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 400 Dental undergraduatestudents aged 18- 25 years, including both the genders. TMD degree was evaluated usi...

  7. Positive Psychology in the Prevention of Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Erin L.; Abrams, Laura M.; Phelps, LeAdelle

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally the identification of, and treatment for, eating disorders has been based on developmental psychopathology theory and research, thereby emphasizing risk factors and the elimination of maladaptive behaviors. This article seeks to reconceptualize the prevention of, and protective factors for, eating disordered behavior from the…

  8. Psychological therapies for the treatment of anxiety disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Zafar A; Carson, Kristin V; Heslop, Karen; Esterman, Adrian J; De Soyza, Anthony; Smith, Brian J

    2017-03-21

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (commonly referred to as chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a chronic lung condition characterised by the inflammation of airways and irreversible destruction of pulmonary tissue leading to progressively worsening dyspnoea. It is a leading international cause of disability and death in adults. Evidence suggests that there is an increased prevalence of anxiety disorders in people with COPD. The severity of anxiety has been shown to correlate with the severity of COPD, however anxiety can occur with all stages of COPD severity. Coexisting anxiety and COPD contribute to poor health outcomes in terms of exercise tolerance, quality of life and COPD exacerbations. The evidence for treatment of anxiety disorders in this population is limited, with a paucity of evidence to support the efficacy of medication-only treatments. It is therefore important to evaluate psychological therapies for the alleviation of these symptoms in people with COPD. To assess the effects of psychological therapies for the treatment of anxiety disorders in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We searched the specialised registers of two Cochrane Review Groups: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders (CCMD) and Cochrane Airways (CAG) (to 14 August 2015). The specialised registers include reports of relevant randomised controlled trials from The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. We carried out complementary searches on PsycINFO and CENTRAL to ensure no studies had been missed. We applied no date or language restrictions. We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials and cross-over trials of psychological therapies for people (aged over 40 years) with COPD and coexisting anxiety disorders (as confirmed by recognised diagnostic criteria or a validated measurement scale), where this was compared with either no intervention or education only. We included studies in which the psychological therapy was

  9. Comorbidity structure of psychological disorders in the online e-PASS data as predictors of psychosocial adjustment measures: psychological distress, adequate social support, self-confidence, quality of life, and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2014-10-28

    A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of comorbidity of 21 psychological disorders assessed by an automated online electronic psychological assessment screening system (e-PASS). The resulting comorbidity factor scores were then used to assess the association between comorbidity factor scores and measures of psychosocial adjustments (ie, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, adequate social support, self-confidence in dealing with mental health issues, and quality of life). A total of 13,414 participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnoses for 21 psychological disorders on dimensional severity scales. The scores on these severity scales were used in a principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting comorbidity factor scores were related to 4 measures of psychosocial adjustments. A PCA based on 17 of the 21 psychological disorders resulted in a 4-factor model of comorbidity: anxiety-depression consisting of all anxiety disorders, major depressive episode (MDE), and insomnia; substance abuse consisting of alcohol and drug abuse and dependency; body image-eating consisting of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; depression-sleep problems consisting of MDE, insomnia, and hypersomnia. All comorbidity factor scores were significantly associated with psychosocial measures of adjustment (P<.001). They were positively related to psychological distress and

  10. Psychological treatments for mental disorders in adults: A review of the evidence of leading international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Gálvez-Lara, Mario; Corpas, Jorge

    2017-06-01

    Most mental health services throughout the world currently regard evidence-based psychological treatments as best practice for the treatment of mental disorders. The aim of this study was to analyze evidence-based treatments drawn from RCTs, reviews, meta-analyses, guides, and lists provided by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA), Cochrane and the Australian Psychological Society (APS) in relation to mental disorders in adults. A total of 135 treatments were analyzed for 23 mental disorders and compared to determine the level of agreement among the organizations. The results indicate that, in most cases, there is little agreement among organizations and that there are several discrepancies within certain disorders. These results require reflection on the meaning attributed to evidence-based practice with regard to psychological treatments. The possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Based on these findings, proposals to unify the criteria that reconcile the realities of clinical practice with a scientific perspective were analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Course of major depressive disorder and labor market outcome disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhehui; Cowell, Alexander J; Musuda, Yuta J; Novak, Scott P; Johnson, Eric O

    2010-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been found to be negatively associated with labor market outcomes. However, MDD has many different courses that are chronic or persistent, relapsing and remitting, or limited to a single lifetime episode. Such heterogeneity has been ignored in most past analyses. We examine the impact of heterogeneity in course of MDD on labor market outcomes. Wave I (2001-2002) respondents of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - a nationally representative panel survey - were interviewed on average 3 years later (2004-2005). We categorized changes in MDD before and after wave I and before wave II into six courses: incident, recent remission, persistent remission, relapse, persistent depression, and no history of MDD. Odds ratios (ORs) and marginal effects of MDD transitions in multivariable multinomial regressions of labor market outcomes (being out of the labor force, being unemployed, working part-time, and working full-time -- the reference outcome) are reported. Men and women who exhibited persistent remission (2 to 3 years) were equally likely to be in the labor force, employed, and working full-time, compared to those with no history of MDD (reference group). For men, recently remitted MDD (less than 1 year), compared to the reference group, increased the likelihood of being unemployed (3.2% higher probability of being unemployed conditional on being in the labor force; OR = 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13--3.44) and working part-time (5.8% higher probability of working part-time conditional on being employed; OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.10-2.80). For women, no statistically significant effect for recent remission was found. The negative effects of incident onset, relapse, and persistence of MDD were found on some labor market outcomes for men and, to a lesser extent, for women. Clinical treatment for depression should be coordinated and/or integrated with work-related interventions that help

  12. Personalized medicine in major depressive disorder -- opportunities and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2013-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome in the early days of this millennium was greeted with great fanfare as this accomplishment was expected to revolutionize medicine and result in individualized treatments based on the genetic make-up of the patient. The ultimate promise of personalized medicine would be fulfilled with the identification of disease biomarkers that would be widely available for use in diagnosis and treatment. Progress, however, has been slow in providing disease biomarkers or approved diagnostic tests. This is true for major depressive disorder (MDD), despite its prevalence in the general population and the widespread acceptance of its biological basis. Studies using strategies like genome-wide association and candidate gene analyses have identified a number of possible biomarkers of MDD, including serum levels of neurotrophic factors, inflammatory cytokines and HPA axis hormones, but none have proven sufficiently powerful for clinical use. The lack of biologically based tests available for use in identifying patients with MDD is a significant impediment to personalized and more effective treatment, because it means diagnosis continues to be driven by subjective symptoms. While genetic studies of MDD have not yet led to diagnostic and treatment biomarkers, progress in determining the role of the genome in drug metabolism heralds the first effort in personalized prescribing for the antidepressants. The FDA suggested and approved genotyping tests for common variants of drug metabolism genes, such as the cytochrome p450s. By using these tests a physician can select an appropriate antidepressant for a given patient, as differences in clearance, half-life, and peak blood concentrations are controlled by genetic variability in drug metabolism. Personalization in drug choice can be achieved because these tests: (1) identify responders and non-responders; (2) provide alerts to possible adverse drug events; and (3) help optimize dose. Improved ways of

  13. Levomilnacipran for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnis GA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gregory M Asnis,1,2 Margaret A Henderson21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 2Anxiety and Depression Clinic, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Levomilnacipran (LVM, Fetzima® was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of major depressive disorder. It is a unique dual neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitor. In contrast with other selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, including duloxetine, venlafaxine, and desvenlafaxine, it has greater selectivity for inhibiting norepinephrine reuptake than serotonin reuptake. Our review focuses on the efficacy, safety, and tolerability data for five double-blind, placebo-controlled, short-term studies and two long-term studies. In the short-term studies, LVM was found to be more effective than placebo in reducing depression (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores as well as improving functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Scale scores. Long-term studies found LVM to be similarly effective but in the only placebo-controlled long-term study, LVM was not significantly superior to placebo. LVM is fairly well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being nausea, headache, dry mouth, hyperhidrosis, and constipation. Discontinuation rates were mildly increased in those being treated with LVM (9% versus placebo (3%. Adverse events were not dose-related except for urinary hesitancy and erectile dysfunction. LVM was weight neutral, was not toxic to the liver, and did not cause clinically significant QTc prolongation. Consistent with being a predominant potentiator of norepinephrine, pulse and blood pressure were significantly elevated by LVM but rarely induced tachycardia or hypertension. LVM is a relatively safe alternative antidepressant treatment with minimal drug–drug interactions. It is the only antidepressant that has in its labeling that it is not only effective in

  14. Major Channels Involved In Neuropsychiatric Disorders And Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eImbrici

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated ion channels are important mediators of physiological functions in the central nervous system. The cyclic activation of these channels influences neurotransmitter release, neuron excitability, gene transcription and plasticity, providing distinct brain areas with unique physiological and pharmacological response. A growing body of data has implicated ion channels in the susceptibility or pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. Indeed, population studies support the association of polymorphisms in calcium and potassium channels with the genetic risk for bipolar disorders or schizophrenia. Moreover, point mutations in calcium, sodium and potassium channel genes have been identified in some childhood developmental disorders. Finally, antibodies against potassium channel complexes occur in a series of autoimmune psychiatric diseases. Here we report recent studies assessing the role of calcium, sodium and potassium channels in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders, and briefly summarize promising pharmacological strategies targeted on ion channels for the therapy of mental illness and related genetic tests.

  15. Psychological disorders in patients with retinitis pigmentosa in iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Adhami-Moghadam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To identify mental disorders and their prevalence in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP.This descriptive study was carried out between January 2009 and January 2010 on 417 patients with RP, who were members of Iran RP Center. The necessary data were collected using questionnaires consisting two parts: The background characteristics and questions assessing the mental health and screening personality and psychosocial disorders, which were designed based on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Data were analyzed using SPSS software with Chi-square test to assess the relationship between background characteristics and each mental disorder. Scores in the range of 30 and 70 were considered normal.Patients with RP suffered from eight mental disorders with the following prevalence: Obsessive compulsive disorder (39.3%, schizophrenia (38.1%, antisocial personality (37.6%, paranoia (36.7%, hypochondrias (35.3%, depression (31.2%, hysteria (26.9%, and hypomania (23.7%. No one had all the eight mental disorders simultaneously. Statistical analysis showed no significant relationship between obsessive compulsive disorder, paranoia, depression, and hysteria and background characteristics. A significant association was found between schizophrenia and onset of RP (P = 0.047. Furthermore, a significant association was seen between hypochondrias and educational level (P = 0.026 as well as income (P = 0.037, and smoking (P = 0.009. There was also a significant association between hypomania and marital status (P = 0.027.The findings showed that RP might lead to various mental disorders, especially obsessive compulsive disorder.

  16. Misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: a comparison with ADHD and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilakamarri, Jagan K; Filkowski, Megan M; Ghaemi, S Nassir

    2011-02-01

    Controversy surrounds the frequency of underdiagnosis vs overdiagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) in children and adolescents compared with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Sixty-four children and adolescents (age 7 to 18) treated in a community setting were systematically assessed for diagnostic and treatment histories. Best estimate consensus diagnosis was made using DSM-IV criteria. ADHD was overdiagnosed (all patients with ADHD had received the diagnosis, as did 38% of patients with MDD and 29% of patients with BD, respectively), while MDD was partially underdiagnosed and partially overdiagnosed (57% of MDD patients received the diagnosis, 43% did not; 33% of patients with BD were incorrectly diagnosed with MDD). BD was underdiagnosed, not overdiagnosed (38% received the diagnosis, 62% did not; BD was not diagnosed in the ADHD sample, and in only 5% of the patients with MDD). The absence of a positive family history predicted misdiagnosis of BD (relative risk = 2.48, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 5.56). Observational treatment response to stimulants was equally high in all groups (75% to 82%). In the first controlled study on this topic, BD was not over-diagnosed in children and adolescents, as it is often claimed, and ADHD was. Stimulant response was nonspecific and diagnostically uninformative. Studies with larger samples are needed to replicate or refute these results.

  17. Psychosocial Functioning in Depressive Patients: A Comparative Study between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar affective disorder (BAD are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression. Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT. Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P=0.031 with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression.

  18. Psychiatry and the Necker Cube. Neurological and Psychological Conceptions of Psychiatric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rogers

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychological conceptions of psychiatric disorder are in conflict at the present time. This conflict is considered in the context of the history of psychiatry and the philosophy of science. Its practical consequences are considered for the motor disorder of schizophrenia, the cognitive impairment in psychiatric illnesses, the use of the terms organic and functional and the association of neurological disorder with psychotic and neurotic disorders. The conflict is also examined in individual cases and the implications for treatment assessed.

  19. Frequency of Psychological Disorders amongst Children in Urban Areas of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Joshaghani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of different psychiatric disorders among 7 to 12 years old children in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: A sample of 799 children (6 to 11 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method from 250 clusters from the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran. . After responding to a Persian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ parent-report form, the Persian version of Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL was administered to 241 children and their families. The frequency of child psychological disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "n Results:The overall frequency of any psychological disorders in the sample of children was 17.9 percent. Among the interviewed children childrenwho were interviewed, the most prevalent diagnoses were Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD (8.6 percent8.6%, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD (7.3 percent7.3%, and separation anxiety disorder (SAD (5.9 percent5.9%. There were not any statistically significant differences between sexes in the frequency of psychological disorders except enuresis that was more frequent in the boys and anorexia nervosa that was observed more frequently in the girls . "nConclusion:Higher frequency of ADHD and ODD and SAD among the studied children warrantswarrants more specific evaluation of frequency and possible causes of these high frequency rates. The frequency of psychological disorders in the studied children was comparable to the that of other studies.

  20. Psychological responses after a major fatal earthquake: The effect of preitraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms on anxiety and depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Esma; Dorahy, Martin J; Hanna, Donncha; Bagshaw, Sue; Blampied , Neville

    2013-01-01

    Following trauma, most people with initial symptoms of stress recover, but it is important to identify those at risk for continuing difficulties so resources are allocated appropriately. There has been limited investigation of predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder following natural disasters. This study assessed psychological difficulties experienced in 101 adult treatment seekers following exposure to a significant earthquake. Peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic stress symptoms, ...

  1. Maladaptive perfectionism as mediator among psychological control, eating disorders, and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The current study examined the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism among parental psychological control, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms by gender in habitual exercisers. Methods Participants were 348 Italian exercisers (n = 178 men and n = 170 women; M age = 20.57, SD = 1.13) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing their parental psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms. Results Results of the present study confirmed the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism for eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms for the male and female exercisers in the maternal data. In the paternal data, maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationships between paternal psychological control and eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms as full mediator for female participants and as partial mediator for male participants. Discussion Findings of the present study suggest that it may be beneficial to consider dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism and parental psychological control when studying eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

  2. CTLA-4 confers a risk of recurrent schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder in the Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Li, Junyan; Li, Tao; Wang, Ti; Li, You; Zeng, Zhen; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Peng; Hu, Zhiwei; Zheng, Lingqing; Ji, Jue; Lin, He; Feng, Guoyin; Shi, Yongyong

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have reported that the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene, which is related to immunological function such as T-cell regulation, is associated with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we studied the relationship between CTLA-4 and three major psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder in the Chinese Han population. We recruited 1140 schizophrenia patients, 1140 major depressive disorder patients, 1140 bipolar disorder patients, and 1140 normal controls to examine the risk conferred by 6 tag SNPs (rs231777, rs231775, rs231779, rs3087243, rs5742909, rs16840252) in the CTLA-4 gene. We found that rs231779 conferred a risk for schizophrenia (P(allele)=0.0003, P(genotype)=0.0016), major depressive disorder (P(allele)=0.0006, P(genotype)=0.0026) and bipolar disorder (P(allele)=0.0004, P(genotype)=0.0018). In addition, rs231777 and rs16840252 had a significant association with schizophrenia (rs231777: P(allele)=0.0201, rs16840252: P(allele)=0.0081, P(genotype)=0.0117), and rs231777 had significant association with bipolar disorder (rs231777: P(allele)=0.0199). However, after 10,000 permutations, only rs231779 remained significant (schizophrenia: P(allele)=0.0010, P(genotype)=0.0145, major depressive disorder: P(allele)=0.0010, P(genotype)=0.0201, bipolar disorder: P(allele)=0.0008, P(genotype)=0.0125). Our results suggest that shared common risk factors for schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder exist in the CTLA-4 gene in the Chinese Han population.

  3. Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Alice A. (Jill)

    Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34

  4. Major affective disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with other chronic respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk, Sangnual Pisalthanapuna, Nonglak Chetsadaphan, Juthamas InchaiDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailanBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and other chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs have significant impacts on quality of life including psychomotor domain.Purpose: To evaluate three major affective disorders in subjects with COPD compared with other CRDs and nonill population.Materials and methods: The Thai version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used as a diagnostic instrument for three major affective disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and panic disorder by face-to-face interview in assessing patients with CRDs [COPD, asthma, rhinasthma, all asthma (asthma and rhinasthma, and chronic rhinitis], and nonill subjects. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relation between major affective disorders and CRDs adjusting for age, sex, and disease severity.Results: Major affective disorders were more prevalent in CRDs than nonill groups (adjusted OR =2.6 [95% CI, 1.8-3.9], P<0.001. COPD patients had significantly more generalized anxiety and panic disorder (adjusted OR =4.0 [95% CI, 1.4-11.9], P=0.011, and 4.4 [95% CI, 1.1-18.1], P=0.038, respectively but not major depressive disorder (adjusted OR =2.7 [95% CI, 0.8-9.0, P=0.105] than nonill group. Comparing with all asthma, COPD patients had lower occurrence of major depressive and panic disorders (adjusted OR =0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.4], P=0.002, and 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.9], P=0.043, respectively. There was no difference in major mood disorders in COPD, rhinasthma, and chronic rhinitis patients. Major affective disorders were not increased by disease severity in COPD.Conclusion: Major affective disorders were significantly higher in CRDs than nonill

  5. A psychological typology of females diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadetta Izydorczyk

    2015-01-01

    Background The present paper reports the results of research aimed at identifying intra-group differences among females suffering from different eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder) in terms of the subjects’ psychological traits, adoption of socio-cultural norms (through media pressure, internationalization of norms, and exposure to information concerning body image standards), and the level of body dissatisfaction. The following research question...

  6. A magnetoencephalography analysis of resting state power spectrum of inpatients with major depressive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤浩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the discrepancies of magne-toencephalography(MEG) spectral power between female patients with major depressive disorder and nondepressed subjects in resting state. Methods Whole head MEG recordings were obtained in 12 female patients with major

  7. Augmented Reality: A Brand New Challenge for the Assessment and Treatment of Psychological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicchi Giglioli, Irene Alice; Pallavicini, Federica; Pedroli, Elisa; Serino, Silvia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Augmented Reality is a new technological system that allows introducing virtual contents in the real world in order to run in the same representation and, in real time, enhancing the user's sensory perception of reality. From another point of view, Augmented Reality can be defined as a set of techniques and tools that add information to the physical reality. To date, Augmented Reality has been used in many fields, such as medicine, entertainment, maintenance, architecture, education, and cognitive and motor rehabilitation but very few studies and applications of AR exist in clinical psychology. In the treatment of psychological disorders, Augmented Reality has given preliminary evidence to be a useful tool due to its adaptability to the patient needs and therapeutic purposes and interactivity. Another relevant factor is the quality of the user's experience in the Augmented Reality system determined from emotional engagement and sense of presence. This experience could increase the AR ecological validity in the treatment of psychological disorders. This paper reviews the recent studies on the use of Augmented Reality in the evaluation and treatment of psychological disorders, focusing on current uses of this technology and on the specific features that delineate Augmented Reality a new technique useful for psychology.

  8. Augmented Reality: A Brand New Challenge for the Assessment and Treatment of Psychological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicchi Giglioli, Irene Alice; Pallavicini, Federica; Pedroli, Elisa; Serino, Silvia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Augmented Reality is a new technological system that allows introducing virtual contents in the real world in order to run in the same representation and, in real time, enhancing the user's sensory perception of reality. From another point of view, Augmented Reality can be defined as a set of techniques and tools that add information to the physical reality. To date, Augmented Reality has been used in many fields, such as medicine, entertainment, maintenance, architecture, education, and cognitive and motor rehabilitation but very few studies and applications of AR exist in clinical psychology. In the treatment of psychological disorders, Augmented Reality has given preliminary evidence to be a useful tool due to its adaptability to the patient needs and therapeutic purposes and interactivity. Another relevant factor is the quality of the user's experience in the Augmented Reality system determined from emotional engagement and sense of presence. This experience could increase the AR ecological validity in the treatment of psychological disorders. This paper reviews the recent studies on the use of Augmented Reality in the evaluation and treatment of psychological disorders, focusing on current uses of this technology and on the specific features that delineate Augmented Reality a new technique useful for psychology. PMID:26339283

  9. Augmented Reality: A Brand New Challenge for the Assessment and Treatment of Psychological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Alice Chicchi Giglioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality is a new technological system that allows introducing virtual contents in the real world in order to run in the same representation and, in real time, enhancing the user’s sensory perception of reality. From another point of view, Augmented Reality can be defined as a set of techniques and tools that add information to the physical reality. To date, Augmented Reality has been used in many fields, such as medicine, entertainment, maintenance, architecture, education, and cognitive and motor rehabilitation but very few studies and applications of AR exist in clinical psychology. In the treatment of psychological disorders, Augmented Reality has given preliminary evidence to be a useful tool due to its adaptability to the patient needs and therapeutic purposes and interactivity. Another relevant factor is the quality of the user’s experience in the Augmented Reality system determined from emotional engagement and sense of presence. This experience could increase the AR ecological validity in the treatment of psychological disorders. This paper reviews the recent studies on the use of Augmented Reality in the evaluation and treatment of psychological disorders, focusing on current uses of this technology and on the specific features that delineate Augmented Reality a new technique useful for psychology.

  10. [Psychological comorbidities in patients with psychosomatic disorders of micturition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenfellner, U

    2016-08-01

    Many patients with chronic urological diseases report a long-term suffering. Because of previous failure to recognize the psychosomatic diagnosis they are inefficiently treated or even suffer from complications of unsuccessful therapy attempts, which in retrospect were not indicated. The patients are desperate and put all their hopes and expectations in every new doctor, which is why they put us urologists under tremendous pressure to perform and are a challenge for our diagnostic and therapeutic expertise. Knowledge of psychological comorbidities and their effect on the urogenital tract are essential for the differential diagnostics of the urological complaints and for a purposeful therapy.

  11. Major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder and response to treatment in hepatitis C patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MM, Bassiony; A, Yousef; U, Youssef; GM, Salah El-Deen; M, Abdelghani; H, Al-Gohari; E, Fouad; MM, El-Shafaey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder in hepatitis C virus patients before and after treatment and to investigate the relationship between major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder and treatment response. A total of 116 consecutive hepatitis C virus patients from hepatitis C virus treatment center in Zagazig city, Egypt, were included in the study and divided into treated group (N = 58) and untreated group (N = 58). All hepatitis C virus patients were screened for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder using hospital anxiety and depression scale, and those who screened positive were interviewed to confirm the diagnosis of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder using DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. These measures were done at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment or observation. At baseline, 3.5% and 12.1% of hepatitis C virus patients (treated group) had major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment 37.9% of hepatitis C virus patients (treated group) had major depressive disorder and 46.6% had generalized anxiety disorder. There was a significant statistical difference between hospital anxiety and depression scale scores for depression (3.3 ± 2.3 vs. 6.4 ± 3.2, t = 9.6, p = 0.001) and for anxiety (4.6 ± 2.4 vs. 7.3 ± 3.0, t = 10.2, p = 0.001) before and after treatment. There was also significant statistical difference between treated group and untreated group regarding hospital anxiety and depression scale scores after treatment and observation (depression, treated group 6.4 ± 3.2 vs. untreated group 4.0 ± 2.4, t = 3.7, p = 0.001; anxiety, treated group 7.3 ± 3.0 vs. untreated group 4.5 ± 2.3, t = 4.4, p = 0.001). There was no association between major depressive disorder

  12. The Relationship Between Post-Migration Stress and Psychological Disorders in Refugees and Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan S Y; Liddell, Belinda J; Nickerson, Angela

    2016-09-01

    Refugees demonstrate high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological disorders. The recent increase in forcible displacement internationally necessitates the understanding of factors associated with refugee mental health. While pre-migration trauma is recognized as a key predictor of mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers, research has increasingly focused on the psychological effects of post-migration stressors in the settlement environment. This article reviews the research evidence linking post-migration factors and mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers. Findings indicate that socioeconomic, social, and interpersonal factors, as well as factors relating to the asylum process and immigration policy affect the psychological functioning of refugees. Limitations of the existing literature and future directions for research are discussed, along with implications for treatment and policy.

  13. Creativity, Bipolar Disorder Vulnerability and Psychological Well-Being: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostoli, Sara; Cerini, Veronica; Piolanti, Antonio; Rafanelli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the relationships between creativity, subclinical bipolar disorder symptomatology, and psychological well-being. The study method was of descriptive, correlational type. Significant tests were performed using multivariate regression analysis. Students of the 4th grade of 6 different Italian colleges…

  14. Psychological treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with medical disorders: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, van A.; Geraedts, A.S.; Leeuw, de I.M.; Andersson, G.; Cuijpers, P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective It is widely acknowledged that the prevalence of depression in the general population is high, but that it is even higher for patients with medical disorders. Yet, the effectiveness of psychological treatments in these patient populations has not been firmly established. Methods We conduct

  15. A Review of Metacognition in Psychological Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive…

  16. Temporomandibular disorders and psychological status in adult patients with a deep bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and psychological status were examined in adult patients with a deep bite and compared with an adult age- and gender-matched control group with neutral occlusion. The deep bite group consisted of 20 females (mean age 30.3 years) and 10 males (mean age 33.1 years...

  17. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…

  18. Teaching about Psychological Disorders: A Case for Using Discussion Boards in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Mercedes; AlJassmi, Maryam A.; Jordan, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the traditional use of case studies against the novel use of discussion boards to teach naive students in the United Arab Emirates about anxiety disorders. Sixty-six female students from an abnormal psychology class were randomly assigned to either the case study condition (CSC) or the discussion board condition (DBC). Students…

  19. Psychological Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Oriented Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Marques

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: In summary, the available studies support cognitive-behavioral psychological treatments as an efficacious intervention in borderline personality disorder. However, the existing scientific literature on this topic is still scarce and there is need for more studies, with higher methodological rigor, that should validate these results.

  20. Parental Attachment, Psychological Separation and Eating Disorder Symptoms among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen E.

    In this study the relationship of parental attachment and psychological separation to levels of eating disorder symptoms was examined for a sample of college women (N=162) from English classes at a private, urban, coeducational Jesuit university in the northeast. Participants resonded to the Parental Attachment Questionnaire, the Parental…

  1. Publishing about Autism Spectrum Disorder in Six School Psychology Journals: 2002-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenney, Elizabeth L. W.; Dorencz, Julie; Bristol, Ryan M.; Hall, Lacey P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a rise in the number of students identified with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with increasing estimates of prevalence still emerging from cohorts monitored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, dissemination to a school psychology audience about these students' needs has been disparate, with…

  2. Psychological factors related to eating disordered behaviors: a study with Portuguese athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz; Gomes, A Rui; Martins, Carla

    2011-05-01

    This study analyzes eating disordered behaviors in a sample of Portuguese athletes and explores its relationship with some psychological dimensions. Two hundred and ninety nine athletes (153 male, 51.2%) practicing collective (65.2%) or individual sports (34.8%) were included. The assessment protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994); the Sport Condition Questionnaire (Bruin et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2007); the Sport Anxiety Scale (Smith et al., 2006); the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1992; Duda & Whitehead, 1998); the Cognitive Evaluation of Sport-Threat Perceptions (Cruz, 1994; Lazarus, 1991); and the Self-Presentation Exercise Questionnaire (Gammage et al., 2004). Results revealed that: i) no case of clinical significance was detected in the four dimensions of the EDE-Q simultaneously; ii) females scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score, and athletes with the better sport results scored higher on the Restraint subscale; iii) athletes with a higher desire to weigh less scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score; iv) athletes with lower scores on EDE-Q displayed more positive results on the psychological measures; v) several psychological dimensions were identified as predictors of eating disordered behaviors. In conclusion, the prevalence of eating disordered behaviors was negligible in this study, yet the relationship of this problem with personal, sport and psychological factors was evident.

  3. Creativity, Bipolar Disorder Vulnerability and Psychological Well-Being: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostoli, Sara; Cerini, Veronica; Piolanti, Antonio; Rafanelli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the relationships between creativity, subclinical bipolar disorder symptomatology, and psychological well-being. The study method was of descriptive, correlational type. Significant tests were performed using multivariate regression analysis. Students of the 4th grade of 6 different Italian colleges…

  4. Pediatric Psychology: Applications to the Schools Needs of Children with Health Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Joseph D.; Flanagan, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A review of pediatric psychology considers interventions by school personnel to promote the school adjustment of children with serious medical illness. Psychosocial and educational impacts of cancer, spina bifida, enuresis, and encopresis are discussed; and suggestions for managing children with chronic health disorders, serious illness, and…

  5. A Review of Metacognition in Psychological Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive…

  6. Spousal burden in partners of patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Borowiecka-Karpiuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the burden level of spouses of patients in the symptomatic remission state of the major depressive disorder (MDD; 60 patients or bipolar disorder (BD; 65 patients and coping styles. Methods. The Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire was used to assess the burden magnitude. Coping styles were evaluated by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation. Information concerning patients’ clinical histories, a marriages characteristics and sociodemographic data were obtained from a structured clinical interview. Results. There were significant levels of the perceived burden in spouses of patients with either BD or MDD. In both groups the burden level was significantly higher for spouses with worse appraisal of the marital adjustment and functioning. A positive correlation between higher perceived level of burden and emotion-focused coping style was found in both groups. For the problem-oriented coping style a negative correlation with the perceived burden level was found in the BD group only. The quality of ‘current sexual satisfaction’ was significantly lower among the spouses of BD patients. The sense of illness-driven deterioration of the quality of their sexual lives implied higher level of total and objective burden of spouses in the MDD sample. This was not the case among the spouses of patients diagnosed with BD. Conclusions. Spouses of patients with affective disorders should be offered with opportunities of training in more effective methods of coping (including problem-solving methods with an illness of a family member, in order to decrease the level of burden.

  7. Disorder-specific volumetric brain difference in adolescent major depressive disorder and bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P; Carrey, Normand; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Jaworska, Natalia; Crawford, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Structural abnormalities in frontal, limbic and subcortical regions have been noted in adults with both major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In the current study, we examined regional brain morphology in youth with MDD and BD as compared to controls. Regional brain volumes were measured in 32 MDD subjects (15.7 ± 2.1 years), 14 BD subjects (16.0 ± 2.4 years) and 22 healthy controls (16.0 ± 2.8 years) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Regions of interest included the hippocampus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, putamen and thalamus. Volumetric differences between groups were significant (F26,80 = 1.80, p = 0.02). Post-hoc analyses indicated that individuals with MDD showed reduced left hippocampus volumes (p = 0.048) as well as right ACC white and gray matter volumes (p = 0.003; p = 0.01) compared to controls. BD participants also displayed reduced left hippocampal and right/left putamen volumes compared to controls (p < 0.001; p = 0.015; p = 0.046 respectively). Interestingly, right and left ACC white matter volumes were smaller in MDD than in BD participants (p = 0.019; p = 0.045 respectively). No volumetric group differences were observed for the DLPFC and thalamus. Discriminant analysis was able to correctly classify 81.0 % of subjects as having BD or as MDD based on imaging data. Confirmation and extension of our findings requires larger sample sizes. Our findings provide new evidence of distinct, specific regional brain volumetric differences between MDD and BD that may be used to distinguish the two disorders.

  8. Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

  9. Association and Correlation between Temporomandibular Disorders and Psychological Factors in a Group of Dental Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and presence of psychological factors (i.e.,anxiety and depression levels in dental undergraduate students. Second purpose was to assess the association and correlation between TMD degree and psychological factors viz. anxiety and depression. Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 400 Dental undergraduatestudents aged 18- 25 years, including both the genders. TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire (modified version of Helkimo’s anamnestic index. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess of levels of anxiety (HADSa and depression (HADSd in the dental undergraduate students. Results: Onbasisof the TMD anamnestic index, 74% of students were TMD free. 24.5% of subjects presented with mild degree of TMD and only 1.5% of subjects presented with moderate degree of TMD. According to the results obtained from HADSa, 35.3% of subjects presented with mild anxiety level, 13.8% with moderate anxiety level, and only 1.3% with severe anxiety level. According to the results obtained from HADSd, 10.3% of subjects presented with mild depression level and only 2.3% with moderate depression level. A definite association between TMD degree and Anxiety level (HADSa was found. A definite association between TMD degree and Depression level (HADSd was found. Therewas significant association between TMD degree and occlusion. Conclusions: On the basis of anamnestic index, this study revealed a 26% TMD prevalence in the dental undergraduate students included in the study; majority of cases being of mild degree. Both anxiety and depression were found to be associated with TMD degree/severity. Both anxiety and depression are weakly correlated with TMD in the present study.

  10. The effect of comorbid major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder on cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracalanza, Katie; McCabe, Randi E; Taylor, Valerie H; Antony, Martin M

    2014-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) commonly co-occur in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD), yet whether these comorbidities influence the outcomes of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for SAD is unclear. The present study examined the degree to which individuals with SAD and comorbid MDD (SAD+MDD; n=76), comorbid BD (SAD+BD; n=19), a comorbid anxiety disorder (SAD+ANX; n=27), or no comorbid diagnoses (SAD+NCO; n=41) benefitted from CBT for SAD. Individuals were screened using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and then completed the Social Phobia Inventory and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales before and after 12-weeks of group CBT for SAD. At pretreatment the SAD+MDD and SAD+BD groups reported higher social anxiety symptoms than the SAD+ANX and SAD+NCO groups. All groups reported large and significant improvement in social anxiety with CBT. However, at posttreatment the SAD+MDD and SAD+BD groups continued to have higher social anxiety symptoms than the SAD+NCO group, and the SAD+ANX group did not differ in social anxiety symptoms from any group. The sample also showed small and statistically significant improvement in depressive symptoms with CBT for SAD. Information about medication was not collected in the present study, and we did not assess the long-term effects of CBT. Our results suggest that CBT for SAD is an effective treatment even in the presence of comorbid mood disorders in the short-term, although extending the course of treatment may be helpful for this population and should be investigated in future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceived parental psychological control and eating-disordered symptoms: maladaptive perfectionism as a possible intervening variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Vandereycken, Walter; Luyten, Patrick; Sierens, Eline; Goossens, Luc

    2008-02-01

    Recent developmental theorizing conceptualizes perfectionism as a mediator of the relation between intrusive parenting and psychopathology. Research addressing this hypothesis in relation to eating disorders (EDs), however, is lacking. This case-control study (a) examined mean-level differences between ED patients and normal controls in psychologically controlling parenting and perfectionism and (b) addressed the intervening role of perfectionism in associations between psychological control and ED symptoms, distinguishing between maladaptive and relatively more adaptive types of perfectionism. Hypotheses were examined in a sample of normal controls (N = 85) and a sample of ED patients (N = 60). Findings indicate that ED patients and bulimics in particular show elevated levels of paternal (but not maternal) psychological control and elevated levels of maladaptive perfectionism compared with normal controls. Mediation analyses show that maladaptive perfectionism is a significant intervening variable between parental psychological control and ED symptoms. Directions for future research on controlling parenting, perfectionism, and ED are outlined.

  12. Prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD and other psychological disorders among Saudi firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alghamd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighters have a high probability of being exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Potentially traumatic events can occur during a single rescue such as: providing aid to seriously injured or helpless victims. Moreover, firefighters who are injured in the line of duty may have to retire as a consequence of their injury. The psychological cost of this exposure may increase the risk of long-term problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and assess related variables such as coping strategies and social support among Saudi firefighters. Method: Two hundred firefighters completed the Fire-fighter Trauma History Screen (FTHS to measure the number of traumatic events, Screen for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS scale to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS to assess depression and anxiety, Brief Cope (BC scale to measure coping strategies used, and Social Support scale was used to evaluate the firefighter's support received. Results: The results showed that 84% (169/200 of firefighters were exposed to at least one traumatic event. The result presented that 57% (96/169 of exposure firefighters fully met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD with high levels of depression and anxiety; 39% (66/169 partially met the PTSD criteria. However, only 4% participants have not met the PTSD criteria. The results also revealed that adaptive coping strategies and higher perceived social support was associated with lower levels of PTSD. Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of PTSD related to the type and severity of the traumatic events and years of experience in the job. Accordingly, many firefighters were severely affected by their experiences, and we should be developing methods to help them.

  13. Treatment of comorbid adolescent cannabis use and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Connor, Daniel F; Curry, John F

    2008-09-01

    The comorbidity of unipolar depression with substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescents is well established and accounts for 24 to 50 percent in clinical samples. Very little empirical data exist on the treatment of dually diagnosed youth. The objective of this paper is twofold: 1) We will review the literature on SUD and unipolar depression; and 2) we will provide guidelines for a combined pharmacological and psychosocial intervention based on a clinical case example.

  14. Validation of the bipolar disorder etiology scale based on psychological behaviorism theory and factors related to the onset of bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors related to the onset of bipolar I disorder (BD. To do so, the Bipolar Disorder Etiology Scale (BDES, based on psychological behaviorism, was developed and validated. Using the BDES, common factors related to both major depressive disorder (MDD and BD and specific factors related only to BD were investigated. METHOD: The BDES, which measures 17 factors based on psychological behaviorism hypotheses, was developed and validated. This scale was administered to 113 non-clinical control subjects, 30 subjects with MDD, and 32 people with BD. ANOVA and post hoc analyses were conducted. Subscales on which MDD and BD groups scored higher than controls were classified as common factors, while those on which the BD group scored higher than MDD and control groups were classified as specific factors. RESULTS: The BDES has acceptable reliability and validity. Twelve common factors influence both MDD and BD and one specific factor influences only BD. Common factors include the following: learning grandiose self-labeling, learning dangerous behavior, reinforcing impulsive behavior, exposure to irritability, punishment of negative emotional expression, lack of support, sleep problems, antidepressant problems, positive arousal to threat, lack of social skills, and pursuit of short-term pleasure. The specific factor is manic emotional response. CONCLUSIONS: Manic emotional response was identified as a specific factor related to the onset of BD, while parents' grandiose labeling is a candidate for a specific factor. Many factors are related to the onset of both MDD and BD.

  15. Validation of the bipolar disorder etiology scale based on psychological behaviorism theory and factors related to the onset of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Park, Kee Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors related to the onset of bipolar I disorder (BD). To do so, the Bipolar Disorder Etiology Scale (BDES), based on psychological behaviorism, was developed and validated. Using the BDES, common factors related to both major depressive disorder (MDD) and BD and specific factors related only to BD were investigated. The BDES, which measures 17 factors based on psychological behaviorism hypotheses, was developed and validated. This scale was administered to 113 non-clinical control subjects, 30 subjects with MDD, and 32 people with BD. ANOVA and post hoc analyses were conducted. Subscales on which MDD and BD groups scored higher than controls were classified as common factors, while those on which the BD group scored higher than MDD and control groups were classified as specific factors. The BDES has acceptable reliability and validity. Twelve common factors influence both MDD and BD and one specific factor influences only BD. Common factors include the following: learning grandiose self-labeling, learning dangerous behavior, reinforcing impulsive behavior, exposure to irritability, punishment of negative emotional expression, lack of support, sleep problems, antidepressant problems, positive arousal to threat, lack of social skills, and pursuit of short-term pleasure. The specific factor is manic emotional response. Manic emotional response was identified as a specific factor related to the onset of BD, while parents' grandiose labeling is a candidate for a specific factor. Many factors are related to the onset of both MDD and BD.

  16. Disorders of the spine. A major health and social problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciborski, Filip; Gasik, Robert; Kłak, Anna

    2016-01-01

    According to the data published in The Lancet, in 2010 musculoskeletal disorders were the cause of nearly 166 million years lived with disability (YLDs), with neck and low back pain accounting for 69.9% of the total. In Poland, in 2014 low back pain was self-reported by 28.4% of women and 21.2% of men aged 15 years and over, neck pain by 21% of women and 13% of men, and middle back pain by 19% of women and 12.9% of men. In 2015, nearly 33 million man-days were lost due to spine disorders, and nearly 2.7 million medical certificates were issued for back pain (15% of the total). With the current demographic changes (population ageing) and lifestyle-related factors increasing the potential for back problems, the demand for a wide range of medical services to treat disorders of the spine and their symptoms may be expected to increase substantially over the coming years.

  17. Peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, E; Han, L K M; Connolly, C G; Ho, T C; Lin, J; LeWinn, K Z; Simmons, A N; Sacchet, M D; Mobayed, N; Luna, M E; Paulus, M; Epel, E S; Blackburn, E H; Wolkowitz, O M; Yang, T T

    2015-11-10

    Several studies have reported that adults with major depressive disorder have shorter telomere length and reduced hippocampal volumes. Moreover, studies of adult populations without major depressive disorder suggest a relationship between peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume. However, the relationship of these findings in adolescents with major depressive disorder has yet to be explored. We examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder is associated with altered peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume, and whether these measures relate to one another. In 54 unmedicated adolescents (13-18 years) with major depressive disorder and 63 well-matched healthy controls, telomere length was assessed from saliva using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, and bilateral hippocampal volumes were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. After adjusting for age and sex (and total brain volume in the hippocampal analysis), adolescents with major depressive disorder exhibited significantly shorter telomere length and significantly smaller right, but not left hippocampal volume. When corrected for age, sex, diagnostic group and total brain volume, telomere length was not significantly associated with left or right hippocampal volume, suggesting that these cellular and neural processes may be mechanistically distinct during adolescence. Our findings suggest that shortening of telomere length and reduction of hippocampal volume are already present in early-onset major depressive disorder and thus unlikely to be only a result of accumulated years of exposure to major depressive disorder.

  18. Does major depressive disorder in parents predict specific fears and phobias in offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Matthew G; Klein, Rachel G; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Roizen, Erica R; Truong, Nhan L; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests a relationship between parental depression and phobias in offspring as well as links between childhood fears and risk for major depression. This study examines the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders in parents and specific fears and phobias in offspring. Three hundred and eighteen children of parents with lifetime MDD, anxiety disorder, MDD+anxiety disorder, or neither were psychiatrically assessed via parent interview. Rates of specific phobias in offspring did not differ significantly across parental groups. Specific fears were significantly elevated in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder relative to the other groups (MDD, anxiety disorder, and controls, which did not differ). We failed to find increased phobias in offspring of parents with MDD without anxiety disorder. Elevated rates of specific fears in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder may be a function of more severe parental psychopathology, increased genetic loading, or unmeasured environmental influences. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The psychological impact of prolonged disorders of consciousness on caregivers: a systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeterik, Sonja M; Connolly, Sarah; Playford, E Diane; Duport, Sophie; Riazi, Afsane

    2017-10-01

    Systematic review of the nature, frequency and severity of psychological experiences of people who have a close relationship with a person with a prolonged disorder of consciousness. Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase(®), MEDLINE(®), Allied and Complementary Medicine™, were searched from inceptions until December 2016 with additional hand searching of reference lists of included articles. Studies were included that used quantitative methodologies and psychological measures to investigate experiences. The PRISMA statement was followed with inclusion criteria set a priori. A data synthesis summarized psychological constructs studied. A total of 18 studies (ranging between n = 16-487 participants) met the inclusion criteria with 15 of 18 studies focused on the primary caregiver. A total of 23 standardized psychological measures were identified to assess four primary psychological constructs: Loss and grief, psychological wellbeing changes, burden and use of coping strategies. Small sample sizes, limited variables and reliance on observational methods affected quality. Caregivers do find ways to manage independently, but some exhibit clinically significant psychological distress that does not change over time alone and may get worse.

  20. Musculoskeletal disorders, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan

    2017-01-01

    Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.

  1. Psychological and sleep quality differences between chronic daily headache and temporomandibular disorders patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Delgado, E; Schmidt, J E; Carlson, C R; DeLeeuw, R; Okeson, J P

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic daily headache (CDH) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients present with different psychological and sleep quality characteristics. Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with CDH, according to classification criteria from Silberstein et al., were matched by age and sex with 67 patients who had a primary diagnosis of myofascial pain (MP) and 67 patients with a primary diagnosis of TMJ intracapsular pain (IC) according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. The CDH group was comprised of three mutually exclusive diagnostic groups: chronic migraine (n = 35); chronic tension-type headache (n = 26); 'other CDH' (n = 6). All patients completed a battery of psychological and sleep quality questionnaires. All CDH subgroups showed similar psychological and sleep quality profiles. Pain intensity and duration were controlled in the multivariate analyses (Mancova) by treating them as covariates. The CDH and MP groups revealed higher levels of psychological distress than the IC group on most psychological domains. The MP group also revealed numerically higher levels of psychological distress in most psychological domains than the CDH group, although these differences were generally not significant. We did not find significant differences between the three groups on post traumatic stress symptoms either. Sleep quality was significantly worse in the MP group than in the CDH and IC groups. These results are discussed in the context of multimodal patient evaluation and treatments that are often necessary for successful clinical management.

  2. Alterations of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Major Depressive Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Chung, Yong An; Seo, Ye Young; Yoo, Ik Dong; Na, Sae Jung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ki Jun [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The authors analyzed how the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings of patients with major depression differ from the normal control, and our results were compared to previous reports. Twelve patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for major depression who were off all psychotropic medications for > 4 weeks (male: 7, female: 5, age range: 19approx52 years, average age: 29.3+-9.9 years) and 14 normal volunteers (male: 8, female: 6, age range: 19approx53 years, average age: 31.4+-9.2 years) were recruited. Images of brain perfusion SPECT were obtained using Tc-99m ECD and patterns of the rCBF were compared between patients with major depression and the healthy control subjects. The patients with major depression showed increase of the r-CBF in right lingual gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left precuneus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and showed decrease of r-CBF in right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus of left limbic lobe, cingulate gyrus of right frontal lobe, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe compared to the normal control. The Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT findings in our study did not differ from the previously reported regional cerebral blood flow pattern of patients with major depression. Especially, decreased rCBF pattern typical to major depression patients in the right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, and cingulate regions was clearly demonstrated

  3. Rapid response in psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E; Wilson, G Terence

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across 3 different treatments for binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by Week 4, was determined for remission from binge eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and nonrapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than nonrapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and nonrapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based, stepped-care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and nonrapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of nonrapid response to first-line CBTgsh. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Attachment insecurity and psychological resources associated with adjustment disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders.

  5. Psychological therapy for anxiety in bipolar spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Hannah J; Cooper, Myra J; Di Simplicio, Martina; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A

    2015-02-01

    Comorbid anxiety is common in bipolar spectrum disorders [BPSD], and is associated with poor outcomes. Its clinical relevance is highlighted by the "anxious distress specifier" in the revised criteria for Bipolar Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition [DSM-5]. This article reviews evidence for the effectiveness of psychological therapy for anxiety in adults with BPSD (bipolar I, II, not otherwise specified, cyclothymia, and rapid cycling disorders). A systematic search yielded 22 treatment studies that included an anxiety-related outcome measure. Cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT] for BPSD incorporating an anxiety component reduces anxiety symptoms in cyclothymia, "refractory" and rapid cycling BPSD, whereas standard bipolar treatments have only a modest effect on anxiety. Preliminary evidence is promising for CBT for post-traumatic stress disorder and generalised anxiety disorder in BPSD. Psychoeducation alone does not appear to reduce anxiety, and data for mindfulness-based cognitive therapy [MBCT] appear equivocal. CBT during euthymic phases has the greatest weight of evidence. Where reported, psychological therapy appears acceptable and safe, but more systematic collection and reporting of safety and acceptability information is needed. Development of psychological models and treatment protocols for anxiety in BPSD may help improve outcomes.

  6. Mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for major depressive disorder in the community mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gallop, Robert; Diehl, Caroline K; Yin, Seohyun; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the relation of change in theory-relevant cognitive variables to depressive symptom change over the course of cognitive therapy, as well as the specificity of change mechanisms to cognitive therapy as compared with dynamic therapy. There were 237 adult outpatients who were randomized to either cognitive (n = 119) or dynamic (n = 118) therapy for major depressive disorder in a community mental health setting. Assessments of compensatory skills (Ways of Responding Community Version and Self-Report Version), dysfunctional attitudes (Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale), and depressogenic schemas (Psychological Distance Scaling Task) were obtained at baseline and months 1, 2, and 5 following baseline. Primary outcome was measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Across both therapy conditions, change in all 3 cognitive domains was associated with concurrent change in depressive symptoms. After controlling for other cognitive variables, increased interconnectedness of the positive achievement-related schema was significantly associated with concurrent symptom change in cognitive (rp = .26, p therapy (rp = .08, p = .29). Increases in positive compensatory skills were associated with subsequent change in depressive symptoms in cognitive therapy (rp = -.36, p = .003), but not in dynamic therapy (rp = .11, p = .386). Results provide support for the compensatory skills model of cognitive therapy (CT) within a community mental health setting. Additional research is necessary to understand other possible mechanisms of change in CT in the community setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Comparison of Clinical Features and Personality Dimensions between Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Normal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Ji-Won; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2009-09-01

    Personality dimension is considered as a risk factor of depression. This study was to compare aggression, impulsivity, hopelessness, and TCI (temperament and character dimensions) between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and normal controls. A total of 56 MDD patients and the same number of normal controls who were matched for age, gender, and education were recruited. All subjects completed the following questionnaires; Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, 11th Version (BIS-11), and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). MDD patients were significantly higher scores in anger, hostility of AQ, BHS, motor impulsivity of BIS-11, and Harm Avoidances (HA) of TCI with all subscales of HA than normal controls, whereas novelty seeking 1 (NS1) (Exploratory of NS), Reward Dependence (RD) with RD3 (Attachment) . RD4 (Dependence), Self-Directedness (SD) with most subscales of SD, Cooperativeness (CO), and ST3 (Spiritual Acceptance) showed lower scores than normal controls. Moreover, BHS and HA, BIS and NS showed moderate positive correlation in MDD patients, while BHS and SD, HA and SD were negatively correlated. The present study showed unique clinical features, especially personality dimensions of patients with MDD. Our results could be applicable to suggest treatment process and to predict one's prognosis for depression in that psychological properties are important for drug compliance and treatment response.

  8. Deficits of cognitive restructuring in major depressive disorder: Measured by textual micro-counseling dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nengzhi; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Wencai; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-04-30

    Cognitive restructuring is an important strategy in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The present study aimed to observe cognitive restructuring in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients using textual micro-counseling dialogue situations. A set of textual micro-counseling dialogues was used to trigger cognitive restructuring in 25 MDD patients and 27 healthy adults. The participants read descriptions ("problems") and explanations ("solutions") for psychologically distressing situations. High-, low-, and zero-restructuring solutions were randomly matched to the problems. The participants evaluated the adaptability and emotional valence of the problems and the insightfulness, adaptability, novelty, and emotional valence of the solutions. Insightfulness ratings for high-restructuring solutions were significantly higher relative to those of low-restructuring solutions in healthy adults, while adaptability ratings for low-restructuring solutions were significantly higher relative to those of high-restructuring solutions in MDD patients. Insightfulness ratings for the solutions were significantly predicted by novelty and adaptability in healthy adults and emotional valence in MDD patients. Lower insightfulness in high-restructuring solutions and higher adaptability in low-restructuring solutions in MDD patients may reflect deficits in cognitive control.

  9. Stress-evoked opioid release inhibits pain in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Ashley K; Drummond, Peter D

    2008-10-15

    To determine whether stress-evoked release of endogenous opioids might account for hypoalgesia in major depressive disorder (MDD), the mu-opioid antagonist naltrexone (50mg) or placebo was administered double-blind to 24 participants with MDD and to 31 non-depressed controls. Eighty minutes later participants completed a painful foot cold pressor test and, after a 5-min interval, began a 25-min arithmetic task interspersed with painful electric shocks. Ten minutes later participants completed a second cold pressor test. Negative affect was greater in participants with MDD than in non-depressed controls throughout the experiment, and increased significantly in both groups during mental arithmetic. Before the math task, naltrexone unmasked direct linear relationships between severity of depression, negative affect while resting quietly, and cold-induced pain in participants with MDD. In contrast, facilitatory effects of naltrexone on cold- and shock-induced pain were greatest in controls with the lowest depression scores. Naltrexone strengthened the relationship between negative affect and shock-induced pain during the math task, particularly in the depressed group, and heightened anxiety in both groups toward the end of the task. Thus, mu-opioid activity apparently masked a positive association between negative affect and pain in the most distressed participants. These findings suggest that psychological distress inhibits pain via stress-evoked release of opioid peptides in severe cases of MDD. In addition, tonic endogenous opioid neurotransmission could inhibit depressive symptoms and pain in people with low depression scores.

  10. Factors associated with psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Dolores; Alarcón, Renato D; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel

    We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants' residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies.

  11. 躯体形式障碍病人的心理护理及心理治疗%Somatoform disorders the patient's psychological care and psychological treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓兵

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨心理护理及心理治疗对躯体形式障碍病人的影响.方法:对48例躯体形式障碍病人进行心理护理及心理治疗,采用90项症状自评量表(SCL-90)的测定和自我感觉的评定.结果:给予心理护理及心理治疗的病人与对照组的比较,经统计学分析,均p<0.05,差异具有统计学意义.结论:通过对躯体形式障碍病人的心理治疗及心理护理,使其好转、治愈出院的明显增加.%Objective To explore the impact of psychological care and psychological treatment of patients with somatoform disorders.Methods: 48 cases of patients with somatoform disorders, psychological care and psychological treatment, 90 symptoms of determination and self-assessment rating scale (scl-90). Results: The give psychological care and psychological treatment of patients with the control group comparison, statistical analysis, all p <0.05, statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The psychological treatment and psychological care of patients with somatoform disorders, making it better, cured significantly increased.

  12. Acute stress disorder and major depressive disorder in flood victims from Tingo Maria: prevlence and the effect of relocating

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and comorbidity with major depressive disorder (ASD+MDD) in flood victims from Tingo María, Huánuco (Peruvian central jungle), 20 days after the traumatic event. Material and methods: One hundred and twenty injured (people relocated after disaster) and 110 affected (people living in their own homes) were surveyed and compared. Was applied to structured clinical interview for disorders axis I from DSM-IV, clinical versi...

  13. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    . Further case register studies and a clinical follow-up study by the author showed in accordance with previous studies that unipolar and bipolar affective disorders seem to be associated with increased risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia and that the risk seems to increase with the number...... the individual is changed biologically by experiencing an affective episode or not. A biological change may be reflected in a changed risk of experiencing new episodes and changed chances of recovery from these episodes for the individual, and may possibly also be reflected in persisting altered cognitive...

  14. Further evidence of emotional allodynia in unmedicated young adults with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ushinsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that sensitivity to the emotional sequela of experimental thermal pain(measured by emotional unpleasantness is heightened in individuals with major depressive disorder(MDD, a phenomenon we termed "emotional allodynia". The aim of this study was to examine whether acute happy and sad mood induction alters emotional allodynia in MDD. We hypothesized that emotional allodynia will be a robust characteristic of individuals with MDD compared to healthy controls. Thus, it would remain following acute mood induction, independent of valence. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects with current MDD and 21 well-matched healthy subjects(HC received graded brief temperature stimuli following happy and sad mood inductions procedures(MIP. All subjects rated the intensity and affect(pleasantness/unpleasantness of each stimulus. Sensory(pain intensity and affective(pain unpleasantness thresholds were determined by methods of constant stimuli. RESULTS: The MIPs reliably induced happy and sad mood and the resulting induced mood and subjective arousal were not different between the groups at the time of temperature stimulation. Compared to HC, MDD individuals demonstrated emotional allodynia. We found significantly decreased affective pain thresholds whereby significantly lower temperatures became unpleasant in the MDD compared to the HC group. This was not observed for the sensory pain thresholds. Within the MDD, the affective pain thresholds were significantly lower than the corresponding pain intensity thresholds, whereby non-painful temperatures were already unpleasant for the MDD irrespective of the induced mood. This was not observed for the HC groups where the affective and pain intensity thresholds were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that emotional allodynia may be a chronic characteristic of current MDD. Future studies should determine if emotional allodynia persists after psychological or pharmacological

  15. Psychological traits and platelet monoamine oxidase activity in eating disorder patients: their relationship and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Iris; Jaanisk, Maiken; Allik, Jüri; Harro, Jaanus

    2007-01-30

    Self-reported behavior and attitudes towards eating [Eating Disorder Inventory-2; Garner DM (1991). Eating Disorder Inventory-2: Professional Manual. Odessa, Fl.: Psychological Assessment Resources; Estonian version Podar I, Hannus A, Allik J (1999). Personality and Affectivity Characteristics Associated With Eating Disorders: a Comparison of Eating Disordered, Weight-Preoccupied, and Normal Samples. J Pers Assess; 73(1), 133-147] and the activity of platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) was studied in 11 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 43 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and a healthy control group (n=138). Nineteen patients filled in the EDI-2 questionnaire and donated blood samples three times with three month intervals in order to determine platelet MAO activity. Eating disordered (ED) patients scored higher on all EDI-2 subscales and had lower MAO activity compared to the control group. They also scored higher than the control group on the Neuroticism domain but lower on the Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness domains of the NEO-PI-R questionnaire. The average stability of MAO on different occasions (r=.56) was slightly smaller than the stability of the EDI-2 scores (r=.70). The lack of correlations between personality dispositions and MAO activity indicates that they have independent influence on eating disorders. A possible relationship between neurochemical mechanisms and psychological symptoms of eating disordered behavior is discussed.

  16. Explaining heterogeneity in disability associated with current major depressive disorder : Effects of illness characteristics and comorbid mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, E.; Verboom, C.E.; Penninx, Brenda; Nolen, W.A.; Ormel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with disability, some persons do function well despite their illness. Aim of the present study was to examine the effect of illness characteristics and comorbid mental disorders on various aspects of disability among persons with a c

  17. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  18. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  19. Supporting students with mental, psychological and behavioral disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    The presentation will introduce a successful method of helping students with mental, neurological and psychosocial problems that is being developed at the University of Aarhus in Denmark. It includes learning disabilities at university because of schizophrenia, personality disorders, autism...... is in many ways similar to being put to a trade, and important for the academic success of the students is their ability to learn certain explicit and tacit abilities. To study medicine, law or arts the students have to learn how to study medicine, law or arts and that includes learning certain study...

  20. Selective Neurocognitive Impairments in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network…

  1. St. John’s Wort for Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    St. John’s Wort for Major Depressive Disorder A Systematic Review Alicia Ruelaz Maher, Susanne Hempel, Eric Apaydin, Roberta M. Shanman, Marika...effectiveness of St. John’s wort for major depressive disorder (MDD), conducted during year two of a two-year project on integrative medicine approaches for...the web page). v Abstract This systematic review synthesized evidence of St. John’s wort (SJW) for the treatment of major depressive

  2. Race and Ethnic Group Differences in Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chronic Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2015-09-01

    This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups.

  3. Risk of developing major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among adolescents and adults with atopic dermatitis: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Bai, Ya-Mei; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Yang, Albert C; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested a comorbid association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and depressive disorder as well as anxiety disorders, but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 8208 AD patients aged 12 and older without psychiatric history and age-/sex-matched (1:1) controls between 1998 and 2008 were enrolled in our study and followed to the end of 2011. Subjects who developed major depression, any depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders during the follow-up were identified. The Cox regression analysis after adjusting for demographic data and atopic comorbidities demonstrated that patients with AD had an elevated risk of developing major depression (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.64-11.84), any depressive disorder (HR: 5.44, 95% CI: 3.99-7.44), and anxiety disorders (HR: 3.57, 95% CI: 2.55-4.98). Stratified by age group, both adolescents and adults with AD were prone to developing major depression (HR: 4.26, 95% CI: 1.39-13.13; HR: 7.56, 95% CI: 3.75-15.23), any depressive disorder (HR: 4.38, 95% CI: 2.09-9.18; HR: 5.66, 95% CI: 4.01-7.99), and anxiety disorders (HR: 5.40, 95% CI: 2.02-14.39; HR: 3.36, 95% CI: 2.38-4.80). AD in both adolescence and adulthood increased the risk of developing major depression, any depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders in later life. Further studies would be required to clarify the possible underlying mechanism between AD and depression as well as anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    the individual is changed biologically by experiencing an affective episode or not. A biological change may be reflected in a changed risk of experiencing new episodes and changed chances of recovery from these episodes for the individual, and may possibly also be reflected in persisting altered cognitive...... function as an expression of brain function affected during a longer period. Previous studies of the course of affective episodes are flawed by a number of drawbacks such as various definitions of recovery and recurrence, various kinds of bias and confounders, low statistical power, and statistical...... of illness played a role. The chances of recovery from an episode were found not to change during the course of unipolar or bipolar disorder. In contrast, a review of studies from the era before active treatment revealed that the duration of untreated episodes seemed to increase during the course of illness...

  5. Functional versus syndromal recovery in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Trijntje Y G; Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Meijel, Berno; Goossens, Peter J J; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Kupka, Ralph W

    2015-06-01

    Many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD) experience impairments in daily life. We investigated whether patients with single-episode MDD (MDD-s), recurrent MDD (MDD-r), and BD differ in functional impairments, whether time since last episode (syndromal state, in 4 categories) contributes to impairment, whether this association is moderated by diagnosis, and the role of depressive symptoms. Data were derived from 1,664 participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (MDD-s, n = 483; MDD-r, n = 1,063; BD, n = 118), from 2006 into 2009. In additional analyses, 530 healthy controls were included. DSM-IV-TR diagnosis and information about syndromal state were based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Psychosocial impairment was assessed with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). Adjusted associations between diagnosis, syndromal state, impairment, and depression severity were investigated. Syndromal state not being taken into account, patients with BD experienced more functional impairment than patients with MDD-s or with MDD-r, and in all diagnostic groups, impairments decreased with increasing time since last episode. However, impact of syndromal state on functioning showed a different course between diagnostic groups (mean [SD] WHODAS score: current: MDD-s 30.8 [2.8], MDD-r 32.7 [0.9], BD 37.7 [2.1], P = .07; recently remitted: MDD-s 21.7 [3.5], MDD-r 24.0 [1.2], BD 22.1[3.2], P = .7; remitted: MDD-s 10.6 [3.7], MDD-r 21.6 [1.4], BD 19.2 [4.4], P = .02; remitted > 1 year: MDD-s 13.3 [0.6], MDD-r 14.7 [0.5], BD 17.1 [2.2], P = .8). Depression severity accounted for these differences. Moreover, functioning in all remitted patients remained impaired when compared to that in healthy controls. Functional recovery may take up to 1 year after syndromal remission in recurrent depressive and bipolar disorder, mainly due to residual depressive symptoms, emphasizing the

  6. The association between idiopathic environmental intolerance and psychological distress, and the influence of social support and recent major life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Signe; Rasmussen, Alice; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    this association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether the association is confounded by social support and major life events. Methods Data were collected by postal questionnaires; other results from...... Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, and the second included individuals who had been diagnosed with environmental intolerance (n = 136). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted with four IEI-related domains, i.e., mucosal and CNS symptoms, chemical intolerances and social...... consequences, as the dependent variables, and psychological distress, social support and major life events as the independent variables. Results Our study confirmed positive and statistically significant associations between psychological distress and IEI. The associations remained statistically significant...

  7. Unexplained Painful Physical Symptoms in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Prevalence, Pathophysiology and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaracz, Jan; Gattner, Karolina; Jaracz, Krystyna; Górna, Krystyna

    2016-04-01

    Patients with major depression often report pain. In this article, we review the current literature regarding the prevalence and consequences, as well as the pathophysiology, of unexplained painful physical symptoms (UPPS) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). UPPS are experienced by approximately two-thirds of depressed patients. The presence of UPPS makes a correct diagnosis of depression more difficult. Moreover, UPPS are a predictor of a poor response to treatment and a more chronic course of depression. Pain, in the course of depression, also has a negative impact on functioning and quality of life. Frequent comorbidity of depression and UPPS has inspired the formulation of an hypothesis regarding a shared neurobiological mechanism of both conditions. Evidence from neuroimaging studies has shown that frontal-limbic dysfunction in depression may explain abnormal pain processing, leading to the presence of UPPS. Increased levels of proinflamatory cytokines and substance P in patients with MDD may also clarify the pathophysiology of UPPS. Finally, dysfunction of the descending serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways that normally suppress ascending sensations has been proposed as a core mechanism of UPPS. Psychological factors such as catastrophizing also play a role in both depression and chronic pain. Therefore, pharmacological treatment and/or cognitive therapy are recommended in the treatment of depression with UPPS. Some data suggest that serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are more effective than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the alleviation of depression and UPPS. However, the pooled analysis of eight randomised clinical trials showed similar efficacy of duloxetine (an SNRI) and paroxetine (an SSRI) in reducing UPPS in depression. Further integrative studies examining genetic factors (e.g. polymorphisms of genes for interleukins, serotonin transporter and receptors), molecular factors (e.g. cytokines

  8. Aspects of Piaget's cognitive developmental psychology and neurobiology of psychotic disorders - an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Stefan; Grant, Phillip; von Georgi, Richard; Huber, Martin T

    2008-09-01

    Psychological, neurobiological and neurodevelopmental approaches have frequently been used to provide pathogenic concepts on psychotic disorders. However, aspects of cognitive developmental psychology have hardly been considered in current models. Using a hypothesis-generating approach an integration of these concepts was conducted. According to Piaget (1896-1980), assimilation and accommodation as forms of maintenance and modification of cognitive schemata represent fundamental processes of the brain. In general, based on the perceived input stimuli, cognitive schemata are developed resulting in a conception of the world, the realistic validity and the actuality of which is still being controlled and modified by cognitive adjustment processes. In psychotic disorders, however, a disproportion of environmental demands and the ability to activate required neuronal adaptation processes occurs. We therefore hypothesize a failure of the adjustment of real and requested output patterns. As a consequence autonomous cognitive schemata are generated, which fail to adjust with reality resulting in psychotic symptomatology. Neurobiological, especially neuromodulatory and neuroplastic processes play a central role in these perceptive and cognitive processes. In conclusion, integration of cognitive developmental psychology into the existing pathogenic concepts of psychotic disorders leads to interesting insights into basic disease mechanisms and also guides future research in the cognitive neuroscience of such disorders.

  9. Headache disorders in children and adolescents: their association with psychological, behavioral, and socio-environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Gassmann, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    This cross-sectional study on a randomly drawn population sample of children and adolescents (n = 3399; aged 9 to 15) aimed at the assessment of patterns of associations between psychosocial variables and primary headache disorders like migraine (MIG) or tension-type headache. A headache-free group served as a control. Data on headache and psychological trait variables (eg, internalizing symptoms), behavioral factors (eg, physical activities), and socio-environmental factors (eg, life events) were gathered by questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with headache types (MIG, tension-type, and non-classifiable headache) as dependent variables. The pattern of correlations was largely congruent between the headache disorders. Associations were closest regarding maladaptive psychological traits (in particular internalizing symptoms with an odds ratio > 4 regarding MIG) compared with socio-environmental factors and particularly the behavioral factors. Unfavorable psychological traits and socio-environmental strains demonstrated distinctly stronger associations with MIG than tension-type headache and explained more variance in the occurrence of pediatric headache disorders than parental headache. Sex-specific analyses showed similarities as well as differences regarding the correlations, and in general, the associations were stronger in girls than boys. A common path model as posited by several researchers in the field may explain the parallelism in biopsychosocial vulnerability regarding the different headache disorders. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  10. 'Third wave' cognitive therapy versus mentalization-based therapy for major depressive disorder. A protocol for a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian Nyfeldt; Kongerslev, Mickey Toftkjær

    2012-01-01

    Background: Most interventions for depression have shown small or no effects. 'Third wave' cognitive therapy and mentalization-based therapy have both gained some ground as treatments of psychological problems. No randomised trial has compared the effects of these two interventions for patients...... with major depression.Methods/ design: We plan a randomised, parallel group, assessor-blinded superiority clinical trial. During two years we will include 84 consecutive adult participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder. The participants will be randomised to either 'third wave' cognitive therapy...... versus mentalization-based therapy. The primary outcome will be the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at cessation of treatment at 18 weeks. Secondary outcomes will be the proportion of patients with remission, Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, Beck's Depression Inventory, and The World Health...

  11. The 'resting-state hypothesis' of major depressive disorder-a translational subcortical-cortical framework for a system disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg; Wiebking, Christine; Feinberg, Todd; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has traditionally been characterized by various psychological symptoms, involvement of diverse functional systems (e.g., somatic, affect, cognition, reward, etc.), and with progress in neuroscience, an increasing number of brain regions. This has led to the general assumption that MDD is a stress-responsive brain 'system disorder' where either one or several alterations infiltrate a large number of functional systems in the brain that control the organism's somatic, affective, and cognitive life. However, while the effects or consequences of the abnormal changes in the functional systems of, for instance affect, cognition or reward have been investigated extensively, the underlying core mechanism(s) underlying MDD remain unknown. Hypotheses are proliferating rapidly, though. Based on recent findings, we will entertain an abnormality in the resting-state activity in MDD to be a core feature. Based on both animal and human data, we hypothesize that abnormal resting-state activity levels may impact stimulus-induced neural activity in medially situated core systems for self-representation as well as external stimulus (especially stress, specifically separation distress) interactions. Moreover, due to nested hierarchy between subcortical and cortical regions, we assume 'highjacking' of higher cortical affective and cognitive functions by lower subcortical primary-process emotional systems. This may account for the predominance of negative affect in somatic and cognitive functional system operations with the consecutive generation of the diverse symptoms in MDD. We will here focus on the neuroanatomical and biochemical basis of resting-state abnormalities in MDD including their linkage to the diverse psychopathological symptoms in depression. However, our 'resting-state hypothesis' may go well beyond that by being sufficiently precise to be linked to genetic, social, immunological, and endocrine dimensions and hypotheses as well as to

  12. Postbaccalaureate Salaries of Psychology Majors from a Historically Black University: How Much Does a Master's Degree Add?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibulkin, Amy E.; Butler, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of predominantly African American psychology major baccalaureates from a historically Black university self-reported job types, salaries, and master's degree completion. For this pre-2009 recession sample, we found that (a) the rates of employment were quite high; (b) most jobs were related to health, mental health, social work, and…

  13. A Content Analysis of the Four Major Journals in Counseling Psychology: Biracial and Multiracial Literature over the Last Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Robbie J.; Giordano, Nancy G.; Goldsworthy, Sarah B.; Stallworth, Tamari C.; Stevens, Kerry L.

    This article presents the findings of a literature review conducted in order to assess the degree to which the biracial/multiracial population has been addressed in the four major journals of counseling psychology: "Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development,""Journal of Counseling and Development,""The Counseling Psychologist," and the…

  14. Eating Disorders and Major Depression: Role of Anger and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbate-Daga Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate comorbidity for MD in a large ED sample and both personality and anger as clinical characteristics of patients with ED and MD. We assessed 838 ED patients with psychiatric evaluations and psychometric questionnaires: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. 19.5% of ED patients were found to suffer from comorbid MD and 48.7% reported clinically significant depressive symptomatology: patients with Anorexia Binge-Purging and Bulimia Nervosa were more likely to be diagnosed with MD. Irritable mood was found in the 73% of patients with MD. High Harm Avoidance (HA and low Self-Directedness (SD predicted MD independently of severity of the ED symptomatology, several clinical variables, and ED diagnosis. Assessing both personality and depressive symptoms could be useful to provide effective treatments. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the pathogenetic role of HA and SD for ED and MD.

  15. Self-stigma in borderline personality disorder - cross-sectional comparison with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambal, Ales; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Latalova, Klara; Holubova, Michaela; Marackova, Marketa; Ociskova, Marie; Slepecky, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Self-stigma arises from one's acceptance of societal prejudices and is common in psychiatric patients. This investigation compares the self-stigma of a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCH), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar affective disorder (BAD), and anxiety disorders (AD) and explores of the self-stigma with the subjective and objective measures of the severity of the disorder and demographic factors. The total of 184 inpatients admitted to the psychotherapeutic department diagnosed with BPD, SCH, MDD, BAP, and AD were compared on the internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) scale. The ISMI-total score was correlated with the subjective and objective evaluation of the disorder severity (clinical global impression), and clinical and demographic factors. The self-stigma levels were statistically significantly different among the diagnostic groups (BPD 71.15±14.74; SCH 63.2±13.27; MDD 64.09±12.2; BAD 62.0±14.21; AD 57.62±15.85; one-way analysis of variance: F=8.698, df=183; Pmultiple comparison test, the only significant difference was between the BPD patients and the patients with AD (Pdisorder. The BPD patients suffer from a higher level of self-stigma compared to patients with AD. In practice, it is necessary to address the reduction of self-stigma by using specific treatment strategies, such as cognitive therapy.

  16. A meta-analysis of the risk of major affective disorder in relatives of individuals affected by major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, A; Chan, H-N; Rahman, B; Meiser, B; Mitchell, P B; Schofield, P R; Green, M J

    2014-04-01

    To conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of probands affected by MDD or BD. The risk for MDD in FDR of BD probands and vice versa is also investigated. A systematic review of case-control and cohort studies, which were published between 1977 and 2012; reported relative risks (RR) or odd ratios (OR) or equivalent raw data; made an explicit distinction between MDD and BD; used operational diagnostic criteria; and reported systematic proband recruitment and ascertainment of relatives. Studies were obtained by electronic MEDLINE and EMBASE searches and hand-searching. Estimates were derived from pooled data using random effects methods. Of an initial sample of 241 articles, 22 were eligible for inclusion. For FDRs of one proband with MDD compared to healthy control probands, estimates for MDD were OR=2.14 (95% CI 1.72-2.67), increasing to OR=3.23 (95% CI 2.11-4.94) for two MDD probands. For FDRs of one BD proband compared to healthy control probands, estimates for BD were OR=7.92 (95% CI 2.45-25.61), and OR=6.58 (95% CI 2.64-16.43) for FDRs of two BD probands. These findings support previously published data indicating strong familiality for both MDD and BD. Data will be useful in providing individuals with a family history of MDD or BPD with tailored risk estimates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Risks of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among Thais with alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use: findings from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttajit, Sirijit; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the risks of mood and anxiety disorders among Asians with alcohol use disorders and the effect of illicit drug use in this population. All participants from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey (N=17,140) were assessed for current major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and were interviewed for illicit drug use within one year prior to their assessment. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine (a) whether alcohol use disorders were associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and (b) whether the use of illicit drugs increased these associations. Sex, age, marital status, region, and educational level were found to be significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and were taken into account in the regression analysis. Compared with the general population, individuals with alcohol use disorders alone had significantly increased risks of major depressive disorder (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.76-3.53 in men and OR 4.09, 95%CI 2.31-7.26 in women) and anxiety disorders (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.46-3.36 in men and OR 4.34, 95%CI 2.35-8.03 in women). The risks became higher among individuals with both alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.64-8.01 in men and OR 11.53, 95%CI 1.32-100.65 in women for major depressive disorder, and OR 3.20, 95%CI 1.36-7.51 in men and OR 13.10, 95%CI 1.48-115.60 in women for anxiety disorders). In conclusion, alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Illicit drug use was an important factor in increasing these associations, especially in women. Screening for depression, anxiety, and illicit drug use should be done in individuals with alcohol use disorders.

  18. Psychological characteristics of emotional intelligence of teachers working with children with developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHRISTINA SAYKO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses emotional intelligence as a factor of effective teaching. Emotional intelligence, in broad interpretation, is defined as the ability to differentiate between positive and negative emotions, and the ability to change one’s emotional condition from a poor to a better one. Internal and external components are inherent in the emotional component, and they can provide stress protecting and adaptive functions of this integral concept. Also it highlights psychological characteristics of teachers working with children with developmental disorders. Psychological requirements for specialists who work with individuals with special educational needs include psychological willingness of a personality for this work. This willingness can be considered as an integrated quality of a personality including a system of motivation, knowledge, skills, certain experience, personal qualities that ensure successful activity. Keywords: ; ; ; ;

  19. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for treating agitation in dementia (major neurocognitive disorder) - a promising option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Oliver M; Forester, Brent P; Hermida, Adriana P

    2017-05-01

    Agitation in patients with dementia increases caretaker burden, increases healthcare costs, and worsens the patient's quality of life. Antipsychotic medications, commonly used for the treatment of agitation in patients with dementia have a box warning from the FDA for elevated mortality risk. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has made significant advances over the past several years, and is efficacious in treating a wide range of psychiatric conditions. We provide a systematic review of published literature regarding the efficacy of ECT for the treatment of agitation in patients with dementia (major neurocognitive disorder). We searched PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, UptoDate, Embase, and Cochrane for literature concerning ECT for treating agitation in dementia using the title search terms "ECT agitation dementia;" "ECT aggression dementia;" "ECT Behavior and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia;" and "ECT BPSD." The term "dementia" was also interchanged with "Major Neurocognitive Disorder." No time frame restriction was placed. We attempted to include all publications that were found to ensure a comprehensive review. We found 11 papers, with a total (N) of 216 patients. Limited to case reports, case series, retrospective chart review, retrospective case-control, and an open label prospective study, ECT has demonstrated promising results in decreasing agitation in patients with dementia. Patients who relapsed were found to benefit from maintenance ECT. Available studies are often limited by concomitant psychotropic medications, inconsistent use of objective rating scales, short follow-up, lack of a control group, small sample sizes, and publication bias. A future randomized controlled trial will pose ethical and methodological challenges. A randomized controlled trial must carefully consider the definition of usual care as a comparison group. Well-documented prospective studies and/or additional case series with explicit selection criteria, a wide range of outcome

  20. Analyzing prefrontal cortex hemoglobin concentration exchange spectrum in patients with major depressive disorder combined with anxiety and obsession through near-infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective Exploring the characteristics of prefrontal cortex activation in patients of major depressive disorder(MDD)combined with anxiety and obsession through functional near-infrared spectroscopy(fN IRS).Methods Prefrontal cortex hemoglobin concentration exchange of30 MDD patients combined with anxiety and obsession was detected by fN IRS under voice fluency task(VFT),then psychological assessment was made using Hanmilton Depression Scale(HAMD),Hamilton Anxiety Scale

  1. Predictors of persistence of comorbid generalized anxiety disorder among veterans with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Dinesh; Fortney, John C; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Wetherell, Julie L

    2011-11-01

    A limited number of randomized clinical trials show that efficacious pharmacologic treatments exist for comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The aims of this effectiveness study were to describe the impact of a depression care management intervention on the persistence of comorbid GAD symptoms in a sample of primary care patients with MDD and to identify risk factors for persistent GAD. Data were collected from April 2003 to September 2005 for the Telemedicine-Enhanced Antidepressant Management (TEAM) study, a multisite, randomized effectiveness trial targeting US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care patients with depression. Veterans aged 26.59-88.36 years received either the TEAM intervention or usual care in small VA community-based outpatient clinics. The TEAM care management intervention focused on optimizing antidepressant therapy through patient education and activation, symptom monitoring, adherence promotion, and side-effect management. Veterans who screened positive for MDD using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (based on DSM-IV criteria) and who met the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview criteria (maintaining consistency with DSM-IV-TR) for comorbid GAD at baseline were selected for the present study (N = 168). The primary outcome was persistence of GAD at 6 months and 12 months. All predictors available in the TEAM study data that were described in the literature to be associated with influencing GAD outcomes were examined. Persistence of depression was the strongest predictor of persistence of comorbid GAD at both 6 months (OR = 5.75; 95% CI, 2.38-13.86; P < .05) and 12 months (OR = 15.56; 95% CI, 6.10-39.68; P < .05). Although the TEAM intervention significantly reduced depression symptom severity, it was not significantly associated with GAD persistence. Insomnia was a significant protective factor for persistence of GAD at 6 months (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.99; P < .05). Early

  2. Social psychological theories of disordered eating in college women: review and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E

    2011-11-01

    Because peer interaction, weight/shape, and self-concept formation are particularly salient to college women, the implications of social psychological theories may be especially far-reaching during the college years. College women may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of social comparison, objectification, and uses and gratifications theories, which describe social-cognitive mechanisms that provide an individual with information regarding her own view of her body and how she perceives that others perceive her body. The current paper will review and integrate findings related to these three theories of disordered eating in college women in an effort to present a more comprehensive understanding of the social psychological mechanisms that play a role in the development and maintenance of such pathology for this group of young women. Limitations of and future directions for research on these theories will be discussed, as will their potential integration with other factors that contribute to disordered eating and implications for treatment and prevention.

  3. Cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of primary care patients presenting with psychological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Khoury

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental disorders affect a great number of people worldwide. Four out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the world are mental disorders. Because of the scarcity of specialists around the world and especially in developing countries, it is important for primary care physicians to provide services to patients with mental disorders. The most widely researched and used psychological approach in primary care is cognitive behavioral therapy. Due to its brief nature and the practical skills it teaches, it is convenient for use in primary care settings. The following paper reviews the literature on psychotherapy in primary care and provides some practical tips for primary care physicians to use when they are faced with patients having mental disorders.

  4. DISC1 pathway in brain development: exploring therapeutic targets for major psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eKamiya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic risk factors for major psychiatric disorders play key roles in neurodevelopment. Thus, exploring the molecular pathways of risk genes is important not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying brain development, but also to decipher how genetic disturbances affect brain maturation and functioning relevant to major mental illnesses. During the last decade, there has been significant progress in determining the mechanisms whereby risk genes impact brain development. Nonetheless, given that the majority of psychiatric disorders have etiological complexities encompassing multiple risk genes and environmental factors, the biological mechanisms of these diseases remain poorly understood. How can we move forward in our research for discovery of the biological markers and novel therapeutic targets for major mental disorders? Here we review recent progress in the neurobiology of Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1, a major risk gene for major mental disorders, with a particular focus on its roles in cerebral cortex development. Convergent findings implicate DISC1 as part of a large, multi-step pathway implicated in various cellular processes and signal transduction. We discuss links between the DISC1 pathway and environmental factors, such as immune/inflammatory responses, which may suggest novel therapeutic targets. Existing treatments for major mental disorders are hampered by a limited number of pharmacological targets. Consequently, elucidation of the DISC1 pathway, and its association with neuropsychiatric disorders, may offer hope for novel treatment interventions.

  5. Patterns of co-morbidity with anxiety disorders in Chinese women with recurrent major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y; Shi, S; Yang, F.; Gao, J.; Li,Youhui; M. Tao; Wang, G.; Zhang, K; Gao, C.; Liu, L.; Li, Kan; Li, Keqing; Liu, Y.; Wang, Xumei; Zhang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies conducted in Europe and the USA have shown that co-morbidity between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders is associated with various MDD-related features, including clinical symptoms, degree of familial aggregation and socio-economic status. However, few studies have investigated whether these patterns of association vary across different co-morbid anxiety disorders. Here, using a large cohort of Chinese women with recurrent MDD, we examine the prevalence a...

  6. Parental sexual abuse and suicidal behaviour among women with major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Çankaya, Banu; Talbot, Nancy L.; Ward, Erin A.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Women with major depressive disorder (MDD) and childhood sexual abuse histories have an increased risk for suicidal behaviours, but it is unclear whether specific abuse characteristics contribute to risk. We aimed to examine the contributions of abuse characteristics to lifetime history of suicide attempts and multiple suicide attempts, independent of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder. Method: Women with MDD and sexual abuse histories (n = 106) w...

  7. Elucidating the Role of Neurotensin in the Pathophysiology and Management of Major Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M Boules

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurotensin (NT is a neuropeptide that is closely associated with, and is thought to modulate, dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems involved in the pathophysiology of various mental disorders. This review outlines data implicating NT in the pathophysiology and management of major mental disorders such as schizophrenia, drug addiction, and autism. The data suggest that NT receptor analogs have the potential to be used as novel therapeutic agents acting through modulation of neurotransmitter systems dys-regulated in these disorders.

  8. Is Anorexia Nervosa a Disorder of the Self? A Psychological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Northoff, Georg; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo; Tasca, Giorgio A.

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning the pathogenesis and the maintaining factors of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa in particular, is ongoing especially since therapeutic interventions do not result in satisfactory and enduring rates of remission. This paper presents a model for the pathogenesis of eating disorders, based on the hypothesis of a deficiency in the development of the self. We present the theory in light of new evidence concerning the role of attachment insecurity in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. In particular, we define the self in eating disorders in a comprehensive way by taking into account recent evidence from experimental psychology and neurobiology. The paper considers the development of the self in terms of its synchronic (i.e., experienced in the moment) and diachronic (i.e., experienced as continuous over time) aspects. Both synchronic and diachronic aspects of the self are relevant to the expression of eating disorder symptoms. Further, the maturation of the self is interwoven with the development of attachment functioning from infancy to adolescence. This interplay between these developmental processes of the self and of attachment could be crucial in understanding the pathogenesis of eating disorders. The final part of the paper suggests a neurobiological link between the theory of the self in the eating disorders and the spatiotemporal functioning of the brain. Disturbances in spatiotemporal functioning may represent the neurobiological pathway by which deficiencies in the self is related to attachment functions in individuals with eating disorders. PMID:27378967

  9. Is Anorexia Nervosa a Disorder of the Self? A Psychological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Northoff, Georg; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo; Tasca, Giorgio A

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning the pathogenesis and the maintaining factors of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa in particular, is ongoing especially since therapeutic interventions do not result in satisfactory and enduring rates of remission. This paper presents a model for the pathogenesis of eating disorders, based on the hypothesis of a deficiency in the development of the self. We present the theory in light of new evidence concerning the role of attachment insecurity in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. In particular, we define the self in eating disorders in a comprehensive way by taking into account recent evidence from experimental psychology and neurobiology. The paper considers the development of the self in terms of its synchronic (i.e., experienced in the moment) and diachronic (i.e., experienced as continuous over time) aspects. Both synchronic and diachronic aspects of the self are relevant to the expression of eating disorder symptoms. Further, the maturation of the self is interwoven with the development of attachment functioning from infancy to adolescence. This interplay between these developmental processes of the self and of attachment could be crucial in understanding the pathogenesis of eating disorders. The final part of the paper suggests a neurobiological link between the theory of the self in the eating disorders and the spatiotemporal functioning of the brain. Disturbances in spatiotemporal functioning may represent the neurobiological pathway by which deficiencies in the self is related to attachment functions in individuals with eating disorders.

  10. Positive psychology and subclinical eating disorders in South Africa : a literature review / Kirsten D.K.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Rapid escalation of Subclinical Eating Disorders (SED) in the form of high levels of body–dissatisfaction (BD) and drive for thinness (DT) globally and locally, and the at–risk status of university females are underscored by recent studies. As yet there exists no South African program tailored to the needs of afflicted female students and which includes a risk–protective focus grounded in Positive Psychology theory. In this chapter a theoretical overview on the nature and definition of SED, i...

  11. A psychological typology of females diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Izydorczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The present paper reports the results of research aimed at identifying intra-group differences among females suffering from different eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder in terms of the subjects’ psychological traits, adoption of socio-cultural norms (through media pressure, internationalization of norms, and exposure to information concerning body image standards, and the level of body dissatisfaction. The following research question was asked: is it possible to distinguish specific profiles of psychological characteristics, as well as levels of body dissatisfaction, social pressure, media exposure and internalization of common standards of body image? Participants and procedure The clinical population consisted of 121 females aged 20-26. The research was conducted in the years 2007-2012. The following research methods and procedures were applied: 1 a clinical interview, 2 the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, 3 the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, 4 a Polish translation of the Socio-cultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3. Results Cluster analysis of the research data allowed four significantly different clusters to be distinguished in the group of 121 examined females suffering from eating disorders. In the next step, analysis of variance (the ANOVA test was used to compare the differences between the examined clusters in terms of the investigated variables and their indicators. Conclusions Due to significant differences between the examined females in terms of the strength levels and the configuration of psychological and socio-cultural variables investigated in the present study, the females were classified into four different psychological types referred to as neurotic, perfectionist, impulsive and adolescent-narcissistic.

  12. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ehring, T.; Welboren, R; Morina, N; Wicherts, J.M.; J. Freitag; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could b...

  13. Recent advances in psychological therapies for eating disorders [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Waller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen substantial consolidation and development of the evidence base for psychological therapies for eating disorders. This review summarises the key changes over that time period. Specific forms of cognitive behavioural therapy and family-based treatment have consolidated and extended their positions as treatments of choice despite the development of novel approaches. However, there is still a significant need for further development and testing to improve recovery rates, particularly in anorexia nervosa.

  14. Food insecurity in adults with mood disorders: prevalence estimates and associations with nutritional and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Karen M; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2015-01-01

    Because little is known about food insecurity in people with mental health conditions, we investigated relationships among food insecurity, nutrient intakes, and psychological functioning in adults with mood disorders. Data from a study of adults randomly selected from the membership list of the Mood Disorder Association of British Columbia (n = 97), Canada, were analyzed. Food insecurity status was based on validated screening questions asking if in the past 12 months did the participant, due to a lack of money, worry about or not have enough food to eat. Nutrient intakes were derived from 3-day food records and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Psychological functioning measures included Global Assessment of Functioning, Hamilton Depression scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale. Using binomial tests of two proportions, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Poisson regression we examined: (1) food insecurity prevalence between the study respondents and a general population sample from the British Columbia Nutrition Survey (BCNS; n = 1,823); (2) differences in nutrient intakes based on food insecurity status; and (3) associations of food insecurity and psychological functioning using bivariate and Poisson regression statistics. In comparison to the general population (BCNS), food insecurity was significantly more prevalent in the adults with mood disorders (7.3% in BCNS vs 36.1%; p food-insecure had lower median intakes of carbohydrates and vitamin C (p food insecurity had protein, folate, and zinc intakes below the DRI benchmark of potential inadequacy (p food insecurity and mania symptoms (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.37, 95% CI 1.49-3.75, p Food insecurity is associated with both nutritional and psychological health in adults with mood disorders. Investigation of interventions aimed at food security and income can help establish its role in enhancing mental health.

  15. Chronic neck pain : An epidemiological, psychological and SPECT study with emphasis on whiplash-associated disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Chronic neck pain, a common cause of disability, seems to be the result of several interacting mechanisms. In addition to degenerative and inflammatory changes and trauma, psychological and psychosocial factors are also involved. One common type of trauma associated with chronic neck pain is whiplash injury; this sometimes results in whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), a controversial condition with largely unknown pathogenetic mechanisms. We studied the prevalence of chronic neck pain of tra...

  16. Stress-related Psychological Disorders Among Surgical Care Nurses in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Kristaps Circenis; Liana Deklava

    2011-01-01

    Background: The subject of stress related psychological disorders is considered to be one of the mostcritical problems in the 21st century. Latvia’s social-economic situation is stressful and a lot of nurses stillneed to work more than one shift. There are no complete studies about surgical care nurses and operatingroom nurses burnout, depression, anxiety and compassion fatigue situation in Latvia.Aim and Objectives: Research aim was to find out burnout, depression, compassion fatigue and anx...

  17. DNA modification study of major depressive disorder: Beyond locus-by-locus comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oh, G.; Wang, S.C.; Pal, M.; Chen, Z.F.; Khare, T.; Tochigi, M.; Ng, C.; Yang, Y.A.; Kwan, A.; Kaminsky, Z.A.; Mill, J.; Gunasinghe, C.; Tackett, J.L.; Gottesman, I.I.; Willemsen, G.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Vink, J.M.; Slagboom, P.E.; Wray, N.R.; Heath, A.C.; Montgomery, G.W.; Turecki, G.; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.; McGuffin, P.; Kustra, R.; Petronis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibits numerous clinical and molecular features that are consistent with putative epigenetic misregulation. Despite growing interest in epigenetic studies of psychiatric diseases, the methodologies guiding such studies have not been well defined.

  18. Gender differences in major depressive disorder : Results from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuch, Jerome J. J.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Jonge, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology, treatme

  19. Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder: Relationship to Acute Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    A study examined maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of acute pediatric treatment of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Results suggested a direct and possible reciprocal association between maternal and child depression severity.

  20. The impact of perfectionism and anxiety traits on action monitoring in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, D.L.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Destoop, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Perfectionism and anxiety features are involved in the clinical presentation and neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In MDD, cognitive control mechanisms such as action monitoring can adequately be investigated applying electrophysiological registrations of the error-related negativity

  1. DNA modification study of major depressive disorder: Beyond locus-by-locus comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oh, G.; Wang, S.C.; Pal, M.; Chen, Z.F.; Khare, T.; Tochigi, M.; Ng, C.; Yang, Y.A.; Kwan, A.; Kaminsky, Z.A.; Mill, J.; Gunasinghe, C.; Tackett, J.L.; Gottesman, I.I.; Willemsen, G.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Vink, J.M.; Slagboom, P.E.; Wray, N.R.; Heath, A.C.; Montgomery, G.W.; Turecki, G.; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.; McGuffin, P.; Kustra, R.; Petronis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibits numerous clinical and molecular features that are consistent with putative epigenetic misregulation. Despite growing interest in epigenetic studies of psychiatric diseases, the methodologies guiding such studies have not been well defined. Methods

  2. The impact of perfectionism and anxiety traits on action monitoring in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, D.L.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Destoop, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Perfectionism and anxiety features are involved in the clinical presentation and neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In MDD, cognitive control mechanisms such as action monitoring can adequately be investigated applying electrophysiological registrations of the error-related negativity

  3. Safety and Tolerability of Desvenlafaxine in Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Findling, Robert L; Groark, James; Chiles, Deborah; Ramaker, Sara; Yang, Lingfeng; Tourian, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess long-term safety and tolerability of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD).

  4. Shared Genetic Influences on Negative Emotionality and Major Depression/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether genetic contributions to major depressive disorder and conduct disorder comorbidity are shared with genetic influences on negative emotionality. Method: Primary caregivers of 2,022 same- and opposite-sex twin pairs 6 to 18 years of age comprised a population-based sample. Participants were randomly selected across…

  5. Stimulated Gene Expression Profiles as a Blood Marker of Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Sabine; Van Zanten, Jeroen S.; De Jong, Simone; Penninx, Brenda; van Dyck, Richard; Zitman, Frans G.; Smit, Jan H.; Ylstra, Bauke; Smit, August B.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a moderately heritable disorder with a high lifetime prevalence. At present, laboratory blood tests to support MDD diagnosis are not available. Methods: We used a classifier approach on blood gene expression profiles of a unique set of unmedicated subje

  6. Genetic effects influencing risk for major depressive disorder in China and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigdeli, T. B.; Ripke, S.; Peterson, R. E.; Trzaskowski, M.; Bacanu, S-A; Abdellaoui, A.; Andlauer, T. F. M.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Berger, K.; Blackwood, D. H. R.; Boomsma, D. I.; Breen, G.; Buttenschon, H. N.; Byrne, E. M.; Cichon, S.; Clarke, T-K; Couvy-Duchesne, B.; Craddock, N.; de Geus, E. J. C.; Degenhardt, F.; Dunn, E. C.; Edwards, A. C.; Fanous, A. H.; Forstner, A. J.; Frank, J.; Gill, M.; Gordon, S. D.; Grabe, H. J.; Hamilton, S. P.; Hardiman, O.; Hayward, C.; Heath, A. C.; Henders, A. K.; Herms, S.; Hickie, I. B.; Hoffmann, P.; Homuth, G.; Hottenga, J-J; Ising, M.; Jansen, R.; Kloiber, S.; Knowles, J. A.; Lang, M.; Li, Q. S.; Lucae, S.; MacIntyre, D. J.; Madden, P. A. F.; Martin, N. G.; McGrath, P. J.; McGuffin, P.; McIntosh, A. M.; Medland, S. E.; Mehta, D.; Middeldorp, C. M.; Milaneschi, Y.; Montgomery, G. W.; Mors, O.; Mueller-Myhsok, B.; Nauck, M.; Nyholt, D. R.; Noethen, M. M.; Owen, M. J.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Pergadia, M. L.; Perlis, R. H.; Peyrot, W. J.; Porteous, D. J.; Potash, J. B.; Rice, J. P.; Rietschel, M.; Riley, B. P.; Rivera, M.; Schoevers, R.; Schulze, T. G.; Shi, J.; Shyn, S. I.; Smit, J. H.; Smoller, J. W.; Streit, F.; Strohmaier, J.; Teumer, A.; Treutlein, J.; Van der Auwera, S.; van Grootheest, G.; van Hemert, A. M.; Voelzke, H.; Webb, B. T.; Weissman, M. M.; Wellmann, J.; Willemsen, G.; Witt, S. H.; Levinson, D. F.; Lewis, C. M.; Wray, N. R.; Flint, J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Kendler, K. S.

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, complex psychiatric disorder and a leading cause of disability worldwide. Despite twin studies indicating its modest heritability (similar to 30-40%), extensive heterogeneity and a complex genetic architecture have complicated efforts to detect associated

  7. Shared Genetic Influences on Negative Emotionality and Major Depression/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether genetic contributions to major depressive disorder and conduct disorder comorbidity are shared with genetic influences on negative emotionality. Method: Primary caregivers of 2,022 same- and opposite-sex twin pairs 6 to 18 years of age comprised a population-based sample. Participants were randomly selected across…

  8. Biomarker approaches in major depressive disorder evaluated in the context of current hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentsch, Mike C.; Van Buel, Erin M.; Bosker, Fokko J.; Gladkevich, Anatoliy; Klein, Hans C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Ruhe, Eric G.; Eisel, Uli L. M.; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a heterogeneous disorder, mostly diagnosed on the basis of symptomatic criteria alone. It would be of great help when specific biomarkers for various subtypes and symptom clusters of depression become available to assist in diagnosis and subtyping of depression, and to e

  9. [Current aspects of attachment theory and development psychology as well as neurobiological aspects in psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Rupprecht, R

    2003-11-01

    This review covers basic principles of attachment research and its relationship to and implications for psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. A great number of studies deal with the importance of attachment theory in the development of these disorders associated with distinct attachment styles. The most well-known concept is the attachment theory created by John Bowlby (1907-1990), which has strengthened our knowledge on early mother-infant relationships and influenced guidelines for child care. Within this concept, family structure is of great importance for the psychological development of the child and later the adult. Attachment research indicates that disturbances of patients with psychosomatic, e.g., somatoform disorders, in establishing relations must be seen in a developmental genetic context. A model of vulnerability is introduced which describes the development of psychopathology concerning the formation of representations taking advantage of attachment theory. Additionally, recent progress in cognitive neurosciences addresses attachment theory. During the last decade, neurobiological studies in rodents, primates, and humans indicate that early influences of psychosocial factors could have permanent consequences for brain structure and function. Besides the psychoanalytical and behavioral view concerning psychiatric and especially psychosomatic disorders, the integration of neurobiological findings will be a major challenge for the generation of further concepts.

  10. The problem of mental disorders and psychological effects of antitumour treatment in children with cancer pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Владимировна Пионтковская

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim – analysis of the problem of psychological and psychiatrical aspects of impact of cancer disease on child and its parents for detection of the main directions of medical and psychological help to this contingent.Results. In the younger age group the most stress factors that provoke the development of psychogenic fears, anxiety states and the derivative mood disorders are the “hospital routine” – limitation of activity (playing, motor, subjectively heavy procedures and manipulations, pain. In the group of elder children and teenagers the main stress stimulus is connected with a fear of social consequences of disease and the fact of mortally dangerous disease is interpreted in mind as a threat to the successful social functioning as something that spread its negative impact on the future life. Reactively caused mood disorders prevail in this age group over the other psychogenic formations. Behavior reactions in these cases are the secondary ones relating to the mood disorders – to the acceptance or rejection the situation of disease (as an anxious hypochondriacal fixation or as an emotional denial and ignoring the possible grave effects of cancer process.Conclusion. The diversity of problems in child psycho-oncology causes the multilevelness and versatility of medical, psychological and psychosocial help and psycho rehabilitation of children and their parents

  11. Impact of psychological disorders after female genital mutilation among Kurdish girls in Northern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ilhan Kizilhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: This study investigated the mental health status of young girls after genital mutilation in Northern Iraq. Although experts assume that circumcised girls are more prone to psychiatric illnesses than non-circumcised girls, little research has been conducted to confirm this claim. For the purpose of this study, it was assumed that female genital mutilation is connected with a high rate of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD. Methods: The psychological impact of female genital mutilation was assessed in Northern Iraq with 79 circumcised Kurdish girls who were between 8 and 14 years of age. Thirty uncircumcised girls from the above area and thirty-one uncircumcised girls from other areas of Iraq served as comparison subjects. A psychological interview and further questionnaires were used to assess traumatization and psychiatric illnesses. Results: The circumcised girls showed a significantly higher prevalence of PTSD (44.3%, depression disorder (33.6%, anxiety disorder (45.6% and somatic disturbance (36.7% than the uncircumcised girls. We could not find any significant differences between the two control groups. Conclusions: Within the circumcised group, a mental health problem can be diagnosed that may constitute the first evidence for the severe psychological consequences of juvenile girls´ genital mutilation.

  12. [Screening for bipolar disorder in primary care patients with psychological symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Escobar-Rabadán, Francisco; Téllez-Lapeira, Juan; Mínguez, José; Párraga, Ignacio; Suárez-Hernández, Tatiana; Piñero, María José; Guzón, Marta-Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of positive results in the screening of bipolar disorder (BD) among primary care patients presenting with psychological symptoms, and to analyze their characteristics. Multicenter cross-sectional study. Nineteen Primary Care clinics in different Spanish regions. A total of 360 consecutive primary care patients aged 18 to 70, presenting with psychological symptoms. Screening for BP was performed by means of the Mood Disorders Questionnaire. Data on quality of life (EuroQol-5D) and functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Inventory) were obtained. Data on psychiatric comorbidity and data on the use of psychotropic medication were acquired by review of medical records. Of the patients screened, 11.9% were positive (95%CI: 8.8%-15.7%). Only two patients had a diagnosis of BP in their clinical records and, although more than half received treatment with antidepressants, only two received treatment with mood stabilizers. Positive screening is associated with work, social and family dysfunction, greater perceived stress and poor quality of life. BD screening in primary care patients with psychological problems leads to a striking proportion of positive results, indicating that there may be a significant prevalence of BP patients, most of them undiagnosed and untreated. Further research is needed to determine the role that Primary Care can or should assume in the screening, diagnosis and management of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction of 6-yr symptom course trajectories of anxiety disorders by diagnostic, clinical and psychological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Batelaan, Neeltje; Rhebergen, Didi; van Balkom, Anton; Schoevers, Robert; Penninx, Brenda W

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify course trajectories of anxiety disorder using a data-driven method and to determine the incremental predictive value of clinical and psychological variables over and above diagnostic categories. 703 patients with DSM-IV panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder were selected from a prospective cohort study. Latent Growth Mixture Modeling was conducted, based on symptoms of anxiety and avoidance as assessed with the Life Chart Interview covering a 6-year time period. In 44% of the participants symptoms of anxiety and avoidance improved, in 24% remained stable, in 25% slightly increased, and in 7% severely increased. Identified course trajectories were predicted by baseline DSM-IV anxiety categories, clinical variables (i.e., severity and duration and level of disability) and psychological predictors (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety sensitivity, worry, and rumination). Clinical variables better predicted unfavorable course trajectories than psychological predictors, over and above diagnostic categories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreased Prostaglandin D2 Levels in Major Depressive Disorder Are Associated with Depression-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cuilin; Wei, Hui; Zhu, Wanwan; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is the most abundant prostaglandin in the mammalian brain. The physiological and pharmacological actions of PGD2 in the central nervous system seem to be associated with some of the symptoms exhibited by patients with major depressive disorder. Previous studies have found that PGD2 synthase was decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of major depressive disorder patients. We speculated that there may be a dysregulation of PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a stable isotopic-labeled internal standard was used to determine PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice. A total of 32 drug-free major depressive disorder patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited. An animal model of depression was constructed by exposing mice to 5 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress. To explore the role of PGD2 in major depressive disorder, selenium tetrachloride was administered to simulate the change in PGD2 levels in mice. Mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress exhibited depression-like behaviors, as indicated by reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice were both decreased compared with their corresponding controls. Further inhibiting PGD2 production in mice resulted in an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test that could be reversed by imipramine. Decreased PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder are associated with depression-like behaviors.

  15. Has analytical flexibility increased in imaging studies of bipolar disorder and major depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafò, M R; Kempton, M J

    2015-02-01

    There has been extensive discussion of problems of reproducibility of research. Analytical flexibility may contribute to this, by increasing the likelihood that a reported finding represents a chance result. We explored whether analytical flexibility has increased over time, using human imaging studies of bipolar disorder and major depression. Our results indicate that the number of measures collected per study has increased over time for studies of bipolar disorder, but not for studies of major depression.

  16. Association between toll-like receptors expression and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yi-Yung; Kang, Hong-Yo; Huang, Kai-Wei; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2014-12-15

    Accumulating evidences suggest that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. TLR4 was thought to be associated with major depressive disorder in animal model, but the others were still unknown. In order to examine TLR1-9 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood and their relationships with the psychopathology of major depressive disorder, 30 patients with major depressive disorder were compared with 29 healthy controls. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) was used to assess the severity of major depression. The mRNA expression levels of TLRs were examined in parallel with a housekeeping gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of covariance with age and body mass index adjustment revealed a significantly higher expression of TLR3, 4, 5 and 7 mRNA but lower expression of TLR1 and 6 in patients with major depressive disorder as compared with healthy controls. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that TLR4 was an independent risk factor relating to severity of major depression. These findings suggest that TLRs, especially TLR4, may be involved in the psychopathology of major depression.

  17. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National Guide

  18. Self-stigma in borderline personality disorder – cross-sectional comparison with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambal, Ales; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Latalova, Klara; Holubova, Michaela; Marackova, Marketa; Ociskova, Marie; Slepecky, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Self-stigma arises from one’s acceptance of societal prejudices and is common in psychiatric patients. This investigation compares the self-stigma of a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCH), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar affective disorder (BAD), and anxiety disorders (AD) and explores of the self-stigma with the subjective and objective measures of the severity of the disorder and demographic factors. Methods The total of 184 inpatients admitted to the psychotherapeutic department diagnosed with BPD, SCH, MDD, BAP, and AD were compared on the internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) scale. The ISMI-total score was correlated with the subjective and objective evaluation of the disorder severity (clinical global impression), and clinical and demographic factors. Results The self-stigma levels were statistically significantly different among the diagnostic groups (BPD 71.15±14.74; SCH 63.2±13.27; MDD 64.09±12.2; BAD 62.0±14.21; AD 57.62±15.85; one-way analysis of variance: F=8.698, df=183; P<0.005). However after applying the Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test, the only significant difference was between the BPD patients and the patients with AD (P<0.001). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the strongest factors connected with the higher level of self-stigma were being without partner, the number of hospitalization, and the severity of the disorder. Conclusion The BPD patients suffer from a higher level of self-stigma compared to patients with AD. In practice, it is necessary to address the reduction of self-stigma by using specific treatment strategies, such as cognitive therapy. PMID:27703362

  19. Learning from Negative Feedback in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder is Attenuated by SSRI Antidepressants

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    Mohammad M. Herzallah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One barrier to interpreting past studies of cognition and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD has been the failure in many studies to adequately dissociate the effects of MDD from the potential cognitive side effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI use. To better understand how remediation of depressive symptoms affects cognitive function in MDD, we evaluated three groups of subjects: medication-naïve patients with MDD, medicated patients with MDD receiving the SSRI paroxetine and healthy control subjects. All were administered a category-learning task that allows for dissociation between learning from positive feedback (reward versus learning from negative feedback (punishment. Healthy subjects learned significantly better from positive feedback than medication-naïve and medicated MDD groups, whose learning accuracy did not differ significantly. In contrast, medicated patients with MDD learned significantly less from negative feedback than medication-naïve patients with MDD and healthy subjects, whose learning accuracy was comparable. A comparison of subject’s relative sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback showed that both the medicated MDD and healthy control groups conform to Kahneman and Tversky’s (1979 Prospect Theory, which expects losses (negative feedback to loom psychologically slightly larger than gains (positive feedback. However, medicated MDD and HC profiles are not similar, which indicates that the state of medicated MDD is not ‘normal’ when compared to HC, but rather balanced with less learning from both positive and negative feedback. On the other hand, medication-naïve patients with MDD violate Prospect Theory by having significantly exaggerated learning from negative feedback. This suggests that SSRI antidepressants impair learning from negative feedback, while having negligible effect on learning from positive feedback. Overall, these findings shed light on the importance of dissociating the

  20. Using summary data from the Danish National Registers to estimate heritabilities for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder

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    Naomi R Wray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of heritability of psychiatric disorders quantify the genetic contribution to their etiology. Estimation of these parameters requires affected status on probands and their family members. Traditionally, heritabilities have been estimated from families ascertained from specific hospital registers, but accumulating sufficient numbers of families can be difficult. Larger sample sizes are achievable from national registries, but calculation of heritability from individual level data from these data sets is accompanied by other problems. Here, we use published summary data from a national population-based cohort of > 2.6 million persons in Denmark to estimate heritabilities of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. The summary data comprised cumulative incidences up to 52 years of age for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and up to 51 years for major depressive disorder in offspring where either one or both parents were diagnosed with one of these disorders. Estimates of the heritabilities of the liability to developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.64-0.71, 0.62 (95%CI 0.58-0.65 and 0.32 (95%CI 0.30-0.34 respectively. The estimates may be inflated by common environmental effects, but despite this, they are somewhat lower for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder than those estimated from contemporary twin samples. The lower estimates may reflect the diverse environments (including diagnostic interpretation that contribute to national data, compared to twin/family studies. Our estimates are similar to those estimated previously from national data of Sweden, and they may be more representative of the international samples brought together for large-scale genome-wide association studies. We investigated estimation of genetic correlations from these data. We used simulation to conclude that estimates may not be interpretable and so only report them in

  1. Potential Use of Singing in Educational Settings with Pre-Pubertal Children Possessing Speech and Voice Disorders: A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinta, Tiija

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether children who possess speech and voice disorders could benefit from engaging in singing activities in educational settings, based on the psychological benefits of such activities. The impact of singing on children's psychological state and well-being was investigated with a participant population…

  2. Psychological responses after a major, fatal earthquake: the effect of peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms on anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Esma; Dorahy, Martin J; Hanna, Donncha; Bagshaw, Sue; Blampied, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Following trauma, most people with initial symptoms of stress recover, but it is important to identify those at risk for continuing difficulties so resources are allocated appropriately. There has been limited investigation of predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder following natural disasters. This study assessed psychological difficulties experienced in 101 adult treatment seekers following exposure to a significant earthquake. Peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, depression, and emotional support were assessed. Path analysis was used to determine whether the experience of some psychological difficulties predicted the experience of other difficulties. As hypothesized, peritraumatic dissociation was found to predict posttraumatic stress symptoms and anxiety. Posttraumatic stress symptoms then predicted anxiety and depression. Depression and anxiety were highly correlated. Contrary to expectations, emotional support was not significantly related to other psychological variables. These findings justify the provision of psychological support following a natural disaster and suggest the benefit of assessing peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms soon after the event to identify people in need of monitoring and intervention.

  3. Hemicrania Continua Headache in a Veteran with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder without Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Duncan, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Hemicrania continua is a headache characterized by chronic unremitting unilateral pain associated with ipsilateral autonomic findings. This type of headache responds to high-flow oxygen and indomethacin. This case report describes a male veteran with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder who suffers from comorbid hemicrania continua. The psychiatric symptoms were recalcitrant to psychopharmacological intervention. However, when the patient's hemicrania continua was treated appropriately, the patient's psychiatric symptoms also abated. This case demonstrates the need to address physical comorbidities that may exacerbate psychiatric disorders, such as PTSD.

  4. Hemicrania Continua Headache in a Veteran with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder without Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon A. Kohrt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemicrania continua is a headache characterized by chronic unremitting unilateral pain associated with ipsilateral autonomic findings. This type of headache responds to high-flow oxygen and indomethacin. This case report describes a male veteran with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and major depressive disorder who suffers from comorbid hemicrania continua. The psychiatric symptoms were recalcitrant to psychopharmacological intervention. However, when the patient's hemicrania continua was treated appropriately, the patient's psychiatric symptoms also abated. This case demonstrates the need to address physical comorbidities that may exacerbate psychiatric disorders, such as PTSD.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological interventions for generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzenroeder, Louise; Donnelly, Marie; Haby, Michelle M; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Rossell, Ruth; Carter, Rob; Andrews, Gavin; Vos, Theo

    2004-08-01

    To assess from a health sector perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of interventions for generalized anxiety disorder (cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT] and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]) and panic disorder (CBT, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs]). The health benefit is measured as a reduction in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), based on effect size calculations from meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. An assessment on second stage filter criteria ("equity", "strength of evidence", "feasibility" and "acceptability to stakeholders") is also undertaken to incorporate additional factors that impact on resource allocation decisions. Costs and benefits are calculated for a period of one year for the eligible population (prevalent cases of generalized anxiety disorder/panic disorder identified in the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, extrapolated to the Australian population in the year 2000 for those aged 18 years and older). Simulation modelling techniques are used to present 95% uncertainty intervals (UI) around the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Compared to current practice, CBT by a psychologist on a public salary is the most cost-effective intervention for both generalized anxiety disorder (A$6900/DALY saved; 95% UI A$4000 to A$12 000) and panic disorder (A$6800/DALY saved; 95% UI A$2900 to A$15 000). Cognitive behavioural therapy results in a greater total health benefit than the drug interventions for both anxiety disorders, although equity and feasibility concerns for CBT interventions are also greater. Cognitive behavioural therapy is the most effective and cost-effective intervention for generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. However, its implementation would require policy change to enable more widespread access to a sufficient number of trained therapists for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  6. Organic vs. functional neurological disorders: The role of childhood psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Howard, Ruth; Power, Kevin; Socherel, Florentina; Heath, Craig; Livingstone, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Although the relationship between psychological trauma and medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) is well established, this relationship is less well understood in people with medically unexplained neurological symptoms. In the present study, we set out to compare people with functional neurological disorders, and organic neurological disorders, in terms of childhood and adulthood traumatic events, traumatic stress, emotional dysregulation and symptoms of depression and anxiety. We have hypothesised that those with functional neurological disorders would be more likely to report childhood and adulthood traumatic life events, traumatic symptomatology, emotional dysregulation and symptoms of anxiety and depression, compared to those with organic neurological disorders. Sample consisted of a consecutive series of people with functional neurological disorders and with organic neurological disorders (n=82) recruited from a hospital in Scotland. Participants completed measures of life events, traumatic stress, emotional regulation, anxiety and depression. The two groups were found to significantly differ in relation to all measures, with the MUS group being more likely to report childhood and adulthood life events, more severe emotional dysregulation, traumatic stress and symptoms of anxiety and stress. Logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to childhood traumatic life events, specifically childhood sexual abuse, and childhood physical neglect, were the only factors which were significantly associated with membership of the medically unexplained neurological symptoms group. Although further research is required to confirm our findings, our results suggest that identifying and addressing the impact of childhood trauma, may alleviate distress and aid recovery from functional neurological disorders.

  7. [A case of major depressive disorder barely distinguishable from narcissistic personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinnosuke; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The recent increase in cases of depression with a narcissistic tendency, especially among young individuals, has been pointed out. When the narcissistic tendency is conspicuous, patients may be treated for a personality disorder or pervasive developmental disorder, and not for a mood disorder. A case is described of a man in his late twenties who developed depression due to his failure in research work and job hunting, and, after a time, due to the break off of his engagement with his fiancée, manifested with narcissistic symptoms including an exaggerated opinion of himself, a sense of entitlement, interpersonal exploitation, lack of empathy, strong feelings of envy, and an extrapunitive tendency. He was regarded at the start of treatment as having narcissistic personality disorder. However, persevering treatment, mainly with supportive psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy including antidepressants (high dose of maprotiline combined with low dose of mirtazapine), sodium valprote and aripiprazole, finally improved not only his depressive symptoms, but also the symptoms regarded as a deriving from a personality disorder. He presented fierce anger and aggression regarded as a mixed state, and showed the rapid improvement in his depressive state after hospitalization, which we considered to show potential bipolarity. We diagnosed the patient with narcissistic depression, emphasizing the aspect which suggested a mood disorder, such as the episodic presence of narcissistic symptoms as long as a depressive state resided, his circular, recursive discourse, and his potential bipolarity. To accurately evaluate the aspect of mood disorders which patients appearing to show personality disorders have, it is considered useful to grasp a patient's condition from the viewpoint of a personality structure and viable dynamics. From a therapeutic standpoint, we suggest the importance of simple but persevering psychotherapy and a sufficient quantity of antidepressant medication for

  8. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction among Nutrition Major College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael

    2016-10-26

    Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18-25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.

  9. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction among Nutrition Major College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8% enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.

  10. Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

  11. Association of Psychological Disorders with Extra-intestinal Symptoms in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    Leila Mirbagher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraintestinal symptoms are common in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. In the present study, we determined the relationship between psychological disorders and extraintestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. Methods: Adult patients with IBS referred to 4 gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan, Iran, completed the irritable bowel severity scoring system, extraintestinal symptoms scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: The patients included 113 females and 45 males with mean age of 34.8 ± 11.1 years. Cumulative frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was 3.3 ± 2.4 (0 to 10. Anxiety and depression were present in 79.7% and 54.4% of the patients, respectively. Frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was correlated with anxiety and depression (r = 0.289 to 0.531, IBS severity (r = 0.373 to 0.505, and quality of life (r = -0.317 to -0.398. Severity of IBS was independently associated with extraintestinal digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = 0.248. Female gender, education level, and anxiety were independently associated with extraintestinal non-digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = -0.225 to 0.260. Severity of IBS and frequency of non-digestive symptoms were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.494 and -0.218. After controlling for psychological factors, IBS severity and depression were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.435 and -0.318. Conclusion: Extraintestinal symptoms and psychological disorders are common in patients with IBS and impact their quality of life. Psychological disorders are associated with extraintestinal symptoms, especially non-digestive symptoms. These results highlight the need for an integrated biopsychosocial approach to the management of IBS patients with physical and mental comorbidities.

  12. Are major dissociative disorders characterized by a qualitatively different kind of dissociation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, Frauke; Dell, Paul F; Wilhelm-Gossling, Claudia; Gast, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    A total of 66 patients with a major dissociative disorder, 54 patients with nondissociative disorders, and 30 nonclinical controls were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation, and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Dissociative patients reported significantly more dissociative and nondissociative symptoms than did nondissociative patients and nonclinical controls. When general psychopathology was controlled, the dissociation scores of dissociative patients were still significantly higher than those of both other groups, whereas the dissociation scores of nondissociative patients and nonclinical controls no longer differed. These findings appear to be congruent with a typological model of dissociation that distinguishes between 2 qualitatively different kinds of dissociation. Specifically, the results of this study suggest that the dissociation that occurs in major dissociative disorders (i.e., dissociative identity disorder [DID] and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, Type 1 [DDNOS-1]) is qualitatively different from the dissociation that occurs in persons who do not have a dissociative disorder. In contrast to previous research, the dissociation of persons who do not have a dissociative disorder is not limited to absorption; it covers a much wider range of phenomena. The authors hypothesize that different mechanisms produce the dissociation of persons with DID and DDNOS-1 as opposed to the dissociation of persons who do not have a dissociative disorder.

  13. Cultural aspects of major mental disorders: a critical review from an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Biju; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2012-10-01

    Major mental disorders such as schizophrenia and affective disorders are highly disabling illnesses. The cultural factors that influence the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders are of paramount clinical significance. We attempted to critically review the cultural factors in relation to the epidemiology, phenomenology, treatment, and outcome of major mental disorders from an Indian perspective, and tried to compare these with the cultural factors identified in major international studies. The clinical expression of major mental disorders was noted to vary across cultures in the review. In addition, the outcome of major mental disorders is reported to be better in developing nations than in the developed countries. Transcultural variations are also noted to exist in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, traditional healing practices, and psychotherapeutic approaches. The role of cultural factors in severe mental illnesses needs adequate attention from mental health professionals. Continued research on the cultural aspects is required to understand the interplay of all social, cultural, and biological factors. It is important to consider other cultural, traditional, and folk methods for understanding and management of mental illnesses.

  14. A population-based longitudinal study of risk factors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Pagura, Jina; Enns, Murray W; Grant, Bridget; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-10-01

    No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3 years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC), a large nationally representative longitudinal survey of mental illness in adults [Wave 1 (2001-2002); Wave 2 (2004-2005) n=34,653]. Logistic regression examined associations between risk factors present at Wave 1 and suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=169) among individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline assessment (n=6004). Risk factors for incident suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=63) were identified among those with major depressive disorder at Wave 1 and no lifetime history of suicide attempts (n=5170). Results revealed specific comorbid anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders to be associated with incident suicide attempts at Wave 2. Comorbid borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with suicide attempts in all models. Several comorbid disorders were strongly associated with suicide attempts at Wave 2 even after adjusting for previous suicidal behavior, notably posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27-3.83) and dependent personality disorder (AOR=4.43; 95% CI 1.93-10.18). These findings suggest that mental illness comorbidity confers an increased risk of future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder that is not solely accounted for by past suicidal behavior.

  15. Bipolar Disorder and the TCI: Higher Self-Transcendence in Bipolar Disorder Compared to Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Harley

    2011-01-01

    With correction for mood state, total harm avoidance (HA was higher than unaffected in both MDD and BP groups, but the mood disorder groups did not differ from each other. However, BP1 individuals had higher self-transcendence (ST than those with MDD and unaffected relatives. HA may reflect a trait marker of mood disorders whereas high ST may be specific to BP. As ST is heritable, genes that affect ST may be of relevance for vulnerability to BP.

  16. Neuroinformatic Analyses of Common and Distinct Genetic Components Associated with Major Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eLotan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, autistic spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies and verified their appearance on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies. A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (<10-5. 22% of genes overlapped two or more disorders. The most widely shared subset of genes—common to five of six disorders–included ANK3, AS3MT, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CNNM2, CSMD1, DPCR1, ITIH3, NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density, expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain.. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 20–30% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Nevertheless, the convergence of different analytical approaches on similar targets may bear important implications. Thus, although adding mostly confirmatory findings, higher resolution of shared and unique genetic factors provided in this manuscript could ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of

  17. Neuroinformatic analyses of common and distinct genetic components associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Amit; Fenckova, Michaela; Bralten, Janita; Alttoa, Aet; Dixson, Luanna; Williams, Robert W; van der Voet, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (Anx), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies based on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density (PSD), expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 20-30% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Our systematic comparative analysis of shared and unique genetic factors highlights key gene sets and molecular processes that may ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of these debilitating disorders.

  18. Homer1a protein expression in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, Stefan L; Llenos, Ida C; Miller, Christine L; Dulay, Jeannette R; Haybaeck, Johannes; Weis, Serge

    2017-08-16

    In recent years, there was growing interest in postsynaptic density proteins in the central nervous system. Of the most important candidates of this specialized region are proteins belonging to the Homer protein family. This family of scaffolding proteins is suspected to participate in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. The present study aims to compare Homer1a expression in the hippocampus and cingulate gyrus of patients with major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze changes of Homer1a protein expression in the hippocampal formation and the cingulate gyrus from the respective disease groups. Glial cells of the cingulate gyrus gray matter showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls. The same results were seen when comparing cingulate gyrus gray matter glial cells in bipolar disorder with major depression. Stratum oriens glial cells of the hippocampus showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls and major depression. Stratum lacunosum glial cells showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to major depression. In stratum oriens interneurons Homer1a levels were increased in all disease groups when compared to controls. Stratum lucidum axons showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls. Our data demonstrate altered Homer1a levels in specific brain regions and cell types of patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. These findings support the role of Homer proteins as interesting candidates in neuropsychiatric pathophysiology and treatment.

  19. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children’s social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation. PMID:17469991

  20. Individual psychological and social risk factors for violent criminal behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova A.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the risk factors for criminal aggression in adolescents with an organic mental disorder depending on the level of social deviations or severity of pathopsychological factor. The study involved 113 male adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. The main group consisted of juvenile offenders with organic mental disorder. We used the methods of investigation to determine the individual psychological characteristics, we also used structured risk assessment methods. It is shown that risk factors for criminal aggressive behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder are a high level of proactive and reactive aggression, combined with underdeveloped mechanisms deter aggressive intentions. With the increase of organic disease, these features become more stable. An important role in shaping the aggressive criminal behavior plays an unsuccessful social environment. Interfamily problems, social deprivation, learning difficulties, communication in antisocial groups and substance abuse - all this increases the risk of aggressive illegal actions.

  1. Social outcomes in childhood brain disorder: a heuristic integration of social neuroscience and developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-05-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children's social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation.

  2. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, pstress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  3. Study on psychological disorder and related%退休老人心理失调相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺西征; 卢乐萍; 尹富敏

    2001-01-01

    @@ Background: The state of psychological health of veteran cadres is related with plenty of factors. Psychological disorder directly affects social function of veteran cadres. Objective: To investigate the state of psychological disorder and its related factors in veteran cadres. Design: 336 cases were drawn randomly from veteran cadres in Shenyang area, except malignancies, serious ill and emergencies within one month. Unit:Shenyang Army General Hospital Subject: All of 336 cases were male, at the age of over 60 years, mean (67.4± 5.3) years.

  4. A Complexity Approach to Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: Major Strengths and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Monica; Casas, Ferran; Coenders, Germa

    2007-01-01

    Psychological well-being in adolescence is an increasing field of study. Deepening in its knowledge during this period of life can be of a lot of help to the designing of more adjusted prevention programs aimed to avoid or reduce the problems adolescents might be experiencing. Complexity theories can be a productive alternative to the important…

  5. PsychMate: providing psychology majors the tools to do real experiments and learn empirical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschman, Amy; St James, James; Schneider, Walter; Zuccolotto, Anthony

    2005-05-01

    PsychMate is a set of software tools for undergraduate psychology students to run, develop, and analyze computerized experiments. It includes 30 psychological experiments in the areas of perception, cognition, social psychology, human factors, and cognitive neuroscience. Students run experiments themselves and see basic results immediately. The automatic spreadsheet analysis forms allow them to aggregate data and create analyses, presentations, and Web pages with a single click. Students can use the Psychology Experiment Authoring Kit experiment editor to create their own experiments in minutes and run experiments with other students using Web-based experiment-management tools. The BrainTutor and BrainViewer applications teach brain anatomy and permit students to analyze fMRI brain imaging data from subjects who have performed the same memory experiments in which they participated. PsychMate has been used in 83 classes in which 1,533 students submitted 5,464 completed experiments with few (less than 1%) requests for help and a very positive rating of the research experience.

  6. Combining Pharmacological and Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder: Current Status, Limitations, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; Reas, Deborah L; Mitchell, James E

    2016-06-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress about binge eating without the extreme compensatory behaviors for weight control that characterize other eating disorders. BED is prevalent, associated strongly with obesity, and is associated with heightened levels of psychological, psychiatric, and medical concerns. This article provides an overview of randomized controlled treatments for combined psychological and pharmacological treatment of BED to inform current clinical practice and future treatment research. In contrast to the prevalence and significance of BED, to date, limited research has been performed on combining psychological and pharmacological treatments for BED to enhance outcomes. Our review here found that combining certain medications with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or behavioral weight loss (BWL) interventions produces superior outcomes to pharmacotherapy only but does not substantially improve outcomes achieved with CBT/BWL only. One medication (orlistat) has improved weight losses with CBT/BWL albeit minimally, and only one medication (topiramate) has enhanced reductions achieved with CBT in both binge eating and weight. Implications for future research are discussed.

  7. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociskova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie Ociskova, Jan Prasko, Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Ales Grambal Department of Psychiatry, Olomouc University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. Subjects and methods: A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory – revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective the Beck Depression Inventory – second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Results: Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial

  8. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Maekawa, Motoko; Toyota, Tomoko; Dean, Brian; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2015-06-30

    Postmortem brain studies have shown abnormal levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid, in the frontal cortex (particularly the orbitofrontal cortex) of patients with depression, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder. However, the results from regions in the frontal cortex other than the orbitofrontal cortex are inconsistent. In this study we investigated whether patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder have abnormalities in PUFA levels in the prefrontal cortex [Brodmann area (BA) 8]. In postmortem studies, fatty acids in the phospholipids of the prefrontal cortex (BA8) were evaluated by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. Specimens were evaluated for patients with schizophrenia (n=15), bipolar disorder (n=15), or major depressive disorder (n=15) and compared with unaffected controls (n=15). In contrast to previous studies, we found no significant differences in the levels of PUFAs or other fatty acids in the prefrontal cortex (BA8) between patients and controls. Subanalysis by sex also showed no significant differences. No significant differences were found in any individual fatty acids between suicide and non-suicide cases. These psychiatric disorders might be characterized by very specific fatty acid compositions in certain areas of the brain, and BA8 might not be involved in abnormalities of PUFA metabolism.

  9. Psychological approaches to chronic catatonia-like deterioration in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amitta; Wing, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    The psychological dysfunctions that may underlie catatonia-like deterioration in autism spectrum disorders are discussed. Clinical observation suggests that an important factor is ongoing stress. The evidence for this from research and clinical observation is considered. The lack of evidence concerning the most appropriate medical treatments is discussed. A psychological approach designed for individual needs by relevant professionals and applied by parents and/or caregivers is described. This can be helpful whether or not medical treatments are used. It involves detailed holistic assessment of the individual and their circumstances to highlight possible precipitating stress factors in view of their underlying autism and cognitive/psychological functioning. The overall aim of this approach is to restructure the individual's lifestyle, environment and resolve cognitive/psychological factors to reduce the stress. An eclectic approach is used to find individual strategies in order to provide external goals and stimulation to increase motivation and keep the person engaged and active in meaningful and enjoyable pursuits. The approach describes ways of using verbal and physical prompts as external stimuli to overcome the movement difficulties and emphasizes maintaining a predictable structure and routine for each day. The importance of educating caregivers and service providers to understand the catatonia-like behavior is emphasized. Advice is given on management of specific problems such as incontinence, freezing in postures, eating problems, and episodes of excitement.

  10. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  11. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  12. Predictors of response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzon, G; Timour, Q; Saoud, M

    2017-02-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, consists of applying series of magnetic impulses to the cerebral cortex so as to modulate neurone activity in a target zone. This technique, still experimental, could prove promising in the field of psychiatry, in particular for the treatment of major depressive disorder. It is important for the clinician to be able to assess the response potential of a given patient to rTMS, and this among other things requires relevant predictive factors to be available. This review of the literature aims to determine and analyse reported predictive factors for therapeutic response to rTMS treatment in major depressive disorder. Different parameters are studied, in particular age, the severity of the depressive episode, psychological dimensions, genetic factors, cerebral blood flows via cerebral imagery, and neuronavigation. The factors found to be associated with better therapeutic response were young age, low level of severity of the depressive episode, motor threshold intensity over 100%, more than 1000 stimulations per session, more than 10 days treatment, L/L genotype on the 5-HTTLPR transporter gene, C/C homozygosity on the promotor regions of the 5-HT1A receptor gene, Val/Val homozygosity on the BDNF gene, cordance analyses by EEG, and finally the accurate localisation provided by neuronavigation. The authors conclude that investigations in larger patient samples are required in the future, and that the work already achieved should provide lines of approach for the coming experimental studies.

  13. Major depressive disorder in the general hospital: adaptation of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellinger, Rachel; Berney, Alexandre; Baumann, Pierre; Annoni, Jean Marie; Bryois, Christian; Buclin, Thierry; Büla, Christophe; Camus, Vincent; Christin, Laurent; Cornuz, Jacques; de Goumoëns, Pierre; Lamy, Olivier; Strnad, Jindrich; Burnand, Bernard; Stiefel, Frederic

    2003-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder is particularly frequent among physically ill inpatients. Despite the considerable human burden and financial costs, Major Depressive Disorder remains under-detected and under-treated. To improve this situation, clinical practice guidelines for the management of Major Depressive Disorder were developed for patients in the general hospital. They were adapted from existing good quality guidelines. A literature search has been conducted to identify guidelines and systematic reviews about the management of Major Depressive Disorder. The quality of the existing guidelines was evaluated by means of the AGREE instrument (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation). Complementary literature searches were necessary to answer questions such as "depression and physical illness" or "antidepressants and somatic medication". The guidelines were discussed by a multidisciplinary internal panel. The final version was reviewed by an external panel. This paper presents the development process and a summary of these guidelines for the management of Major Depressive Disorder. The adaptation of good quality guidelines to local needs requires much time, effort and skills. Easier ways for the adaptation and use of high quality guidelines at the local level may result from better coordination, organization and updating of guidelines at a national or supranational level.

  14. Evaluation of the knowledge level of psychology students on Attention Deficiency and Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Şebnem Soysal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since ADHD is a matter of clinical diagnosis, occupational proficiency gains utmost importance on behalf of psychologists. The aim of this research is to determine the knowledge level of students on attention deficiency and hyperactivity disorder, who study in different classes of the Psychology Department in Uludağ University. The study is conducted on a total of 151 volunteering students from four different classes in the Psychology Department of Uludağ University. A questionnaire was administered to measure the knowledge level of these students on ADHD, who participated in the research. The points received from the questionnaire that was used to measure the participants’ level of knowledge on ADHD were compared in terms of sex, age and socio-demographic characteristics and no significant differences were found among the groups. The results of the study demonstrate that pschology students’ accumulation of knowledge on ADHD is unsatisfactory.

  15. Treatment of psychological co-morbidities in common gastrointestinal and hepatologic disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonina; A; Mikocka-Walus

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders frequently coexist with gastrointestinal and hepatologic conditions.Despite their high prevalence,approach to treating these co-morbidities is not always straightforward.This paper aims to review the current literature into etiology of psychological comorbidities and their treatment in three conditions commonly encountered at gastroenterology outpatient clinics,namely inflammatory bowel disease(IBD),irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) and chronic hepatitis C(HepC).The paper demonstrates that although psychotherapy(and cognitive-behavioural therapy in particular) has been established as an effective treatment in IBS,more studies are needed in HepC and IBD.Antidepressants have been recognized as an effective treatment for psychological and somatic symptoms in IBS and for depression in HepC,but good quality studies in IBD are lacking despite the promising preliminary findings from animal models and case studies.Further studies in this area are needed.

  16. Effect of hypnosis on oral function and psychological factors in temporomandibular disorders patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Randi; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypnosis in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) with focus on oral function and psychological outcomes. Forty women (mean age +/- s.d.: 38.6 +/- 10.8 years) suffering from TMD (mean duration 11.9 +/- 9.9 years) were randomized to four individual 1......, psychological symptoms (Symptom Check List 60), pain coping strategies (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), sleep difficulties (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and use of analgesics. Data were analyzed with between-groups within-subjects anovas. The hypnosis group significantly reduced the daily NRS pain scores...... from 4.5 +/- 2.1 at baseline to 2.9 +/- 2.4 after treatment (P hypnosis group also increased use of the coping strategy...

  17. Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE, respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p < .05 the variance of females’ EAT-26 scores, whereas BD, DPCE, fat percentage, age, ethnicity and competitive level significantly explained ( p < .05 the variance of risk behaviours for males’ ED. Thus, only BD influenced risk behaviours for ED in both sexes.

  18. Evaluation and Management of Behavioral Health Disorders in Women: An Overview of Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, and Sleep in the Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitelson, Elizabeth; McGibbon, Cheryl

    2016-06-01

    Providers of obstetric and gynecologic care are often the most commonly seen medical providers for adult women, providing primary and reproductive care. Even where psychiatric care is readily available, obstetricians/gynecologists are frequently the front line for recognition, education, and initial management of many mental health problems. In settings where psychiatric treatment is a more scarce resource, obstetricians/gynecologists often are responsible for ongoing treatment of these disorders. This review focuses on the impact of the female reproductive life cycle on the presentation and management of some of the most common behavioral health problems in women: major depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and primary sleep disorders.

  19. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory - revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective) the Beck Depression Inventory - second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial dissociation level, harm avoidance, and self-stigma, and higher amounts of hope and self-directedness. Also, individuals without a comorbid personality disorder improved considerably more than comorbid patients. According to backward-stepwise multiple regression, the best

  20. Evolution of psychological condition in caregivers of patients with disorders of consciousness: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corallo, Francesco; Bonanno, Lilla; Lo Buono, Viviana; De Salvo, Simona; Allone, Cettina; Palmeri, Rosanna; La Gattuta, Elena; Rifici, Carmela; Alagna, Antonella; Todaro, Antonino; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate mood disorders and needs in caregivers of disorders of consciousness (DOC) patients during the admission to Neurorehabilitation Unit. A total of 80 caregivers was enrolled and divided in two groups (caregivers of vegetative state-VS patients and caregivers of minimally conscious state-MCS patients). Paired sample t tests were carried out to test differences between baseline observation (T0) and after 6 months (T1). Caregivers of VS patients showed an improvement between T0 and T1 especially, in vitality, mean health, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y (STAI-Y), Prolonged Grief Disorder (PG 12) and Caregiver Needs Assessment (CNA). On the other hand, caregivers of MCS patients showed a significant improvement in: BDI II, STAI Y and CNA. These data confirmed that the presence of psychological problems, the quality of life and the psychological wellbeing of caregivers of DOC patients improved over the time.

  1. Clinical, psychological and environmental predictors of prospective suicide events in patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antypa, Niki; Antonioli, Marco; Serretti, Alessandro

    2013-11-01

    Patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) have high rates of suicide compared to the general population. The present study investigates the predictive power of baseline clinical, psychological and environmental characteristics as risk factors of prospective suicide events (attempts and completions). Data was collected from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) study. 3083 bipolar patients were included in this report, among these 140 (4.6%) had a suicide event (8 died by suicide and 132 attempted suicide). Evaluation and assessment forms were used to collect clinical, psychological and socio-demographic information. Chi-square and independent t-tests were used to evaluate baseline characteristics. Potential prospective predictors were selected on the basis of prior literature and using a screening analysis of all risk factors that were associated with a history of suicide attempt at baseline and were tested using a Cox regression analysis. The strongest predictor of a suicide event was a history of suicide attempt (hazard ratio = 2.60, p-value personality disorder questionnaire and a high percentage of days spent depressed in the year prior to study entry. In conclusion, the present findings may help clinicians to identify patients at high risk for suicidal behavior upon presentation for treatment.

  2. Psychological Disorders and Psychosocial Resources of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder and Kidney Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Long Yang

    Full Text Available Psychological disorders have been proven to be associated with poor physiological, psychological and immune outcomes in cancer patients. However, despite of many challenges of the changed self-image/body image and the altered sexual/urinary function, relatively little is known about psychological disorders of patients with newly diagnosed bladder and kidney cancer. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and the associated psychosocial factors among bladder/kidney cancer patients.A cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients with bladder/kidney cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 489 early-stage cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinical variables, depression, anxiety, PTSD, perceived social support and positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and resilience anonymously during October 2013 and August 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and psychological disorders, while controlling for possible covariates.The prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD was 77.5%, 69.3% and 25.2%, respectively, while 24.9% of patients had psychological co-morbidity. Psychosocial resources together explained more than one-third of the variance on psychological disorders. Under standardized estimate (β sequence, patient's perception of social support from family was significantly associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD (p < 0.01. Optimism and resilience showed integrated and independent effects on psychological disorders, and hope represented the significant association with PTSD only (p < 0.01.The high prevalence of psychological disorders in newly diagnosed patients with early-stage bladder/kidney cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings

  3. The role of major depression in neurocognitive functioning in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nijdam, Mirjam J.; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occur after traumatic experiences and share neurocognitive disturbances in verbal memory and executive functioning. However, few attempts have been made to systematically assess the role of a comorbid MDD diagnosis in neuropsychological studies in PTSD.Objective: The purpose of the current study is to investigate neurocognitive deficits in PTSD patients with and without MDD. We hypothesized that...

  4. Adjunctive minocycline treatment for major depressive disorder: A proof of concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Olivia M; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Ashton, Melanie; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Ng, Chee Hong; Maes, Michael; Berk, Lesley; Sughondhabirom, Atapol; Tangwongchai, Sookjaroen; Singh, Ajeet B; McKenzie, Helen; Smith, Deidre J; Malhi, Gin S; Dowling, Nathan; Berk, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Conventional antidepressant treatments result in symptom remission in 30% of those treated for major depressive disorder, raising the need for effective adjunctive therapies. Inflammation has an established role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder, and minocycline has been shown to modify the immune-inflammatory processes and also reduce oxidative stress and promote neuronal growth. This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial examined adjunctive minocycline (200 mg/day, in addition to treatment as usual) for major depressive disorder. This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial investigated 200 mg/day adjunctive minocycline (in addition to treatment as usual) for major depressive disorder. A total of 71 adults with major depressive disorder ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition) were randomised to this 12-week trial. Outcome measures included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (primary outcome), Clinical Global Impression-Improvement and Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, Social and Occupational Functioning Scale and the Range of Impaired Functioning Tool. The study was registered on the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: www.anzctr.org.au , #ACTRN12612000283875. Based on mixed-methods repeated measures analysis of variance at week 12, there was no significant difference in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores between groups. However, there were significant differences, favouring the minocycline group at week 12 for Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score - effect size (95% confidence interval) = -0.62 [-1.8, -0.3], p = 0.02; Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire score - effect size (confidence interval) = -0.12 [0.0, 0.2], p depressive disorder. Further studies are warranted to confirm the potential of this accessible agent to optimise

  5. Treatment of Comorbid Obesity and Major Depressive Disorder: A Prospective Pilot Study for their Combined Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy F. Faulconbridge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obese individuals who suffer from major depressive disorder are routinely screened out of weight loss trials. Treatments targeting obesity and depression concurrently have not been tested. Purpose. To test the short-term efficacy of a treatment that combined behavioral weight management and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for obese adults with depression. Methods. Twelve obese females diagnosed with major depressive disorder received weekly group behavioral weight management, combined with CBT for depression, for 16 weeks. Weight, symptoms of depression, and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors were measured at baseline and week 16. Results. Participants lost 11.4% of initial weight and achieved significant improvements in symptoms of depression and CVD risk factors. Conclusions. Obese individuals suffering from major depressive disorder can lose weight and achieve improvements in symptoms of depression and CVD risk factors with 16 weeks of combined treatment. A larger randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the efficacy of this treatment.

  6. Influence of family history of major depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide on clinical features in patients with major depression and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serretti, Alessandro; Chiesa, Alberto; Calati, Raffaella; Linotte, Sylvie; Sentissi, Othman; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Kasper, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; De Ronchi, Diana; Mendlewicz, Julien; Amital, Daniela; Montgomery, Stuart; Souery, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The extent to which a family history of mood disorders and suicide could impact on clinical features of patients suffering from major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD) has received relatively little attention so far. The aim of the present work is, therefore, to assess the clinical implications of the presence of at least one first- and/or second-degree relative with a history of MD, BD and suicide in a large sample of patients with MD or BD. One thousand one hundred and fifty-seven subjects with MD and 686 subjects with BD were recruited within the context of two large projects. The impact of a family history of MD, BD, and suicide-considered both separately and together-on clinical and socio-demographic variables was investigated. A family history of MD, BD, and suicide was more common in BD patients than in MD patients. A positive family history of mood disorders and/or suicide as well as a positive family history of MD and BD separately considered, but not a positive history of suicide alone, were significantly associated with a comorbidity with several anxiety disorders and inversely associated with age of onset. The clinical implications as well as the limitations of our findings are discussed.

  7. Psychological and behavioral problems in children of war veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Krešić Ćorić

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD caused by war trauma experiences affects veterans'; ability to meet their parental obligations, which can lead to the appearance of psychological and behavioral problems in their children. We explored, based on the parents'; assessment, whether the children of veterans with PTSD exhibit more psychological and behavioral problems and whether there are differences in relation to the age and sex of the child. Methods: The study group consisted of 91 children from 50 veterans receiving treatment for the war-related PTSD at the Psychiatric Department of the University Clinical Hospital Mostar. The control group consisted of 98 children of 50 war veterans without PTSD who were selected from veteran associations by the snowball method. The following instruments were used in the study: General Demographic Questionnaire, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Bosnia and Herzegovina version and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for children. Results: Children of veterans with PTSD have more pronounced psychological and behavioral problems (U = 2372.5; P < 0.001 compared to the children of veterans without PTSD. Male children of veterans with PTSD have more frequent behavioral problems (χ² = 7.174; P = 0.025 compared to the female children, and overall, they more frequently exhibit borderline or abnormal psychological difficulties (χ² = 6.682; P = 0.029. Children exhibiting abnormal levels of hyperactivity are significantly younger than children who exhibit normal or borderline levels of hyperactivity (Kruskal-Wallis = 3.982; P = 0.046. Conclusions: The children of war veterans with PTSD have more psychological and behavioral problems in comparison with the children of veterans without PTSD.

  8. Major depressive disorder in an adolescent with Turner syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shujiong; Sun, Liying; Li, Rong; Zhao, Zhengyan; Yang, Rongwang

    2016-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal abnormality, of which the presence and impact of coexisting psychiatric morbidity has received little attention. The present report describes an adolescent with mosaic karyotype TS who had major depressive disorder with the predisposing cause of psychosocial burden, and relieved with the treatment of sertraline and complete remission with combined use of estradiol valerate. The report suggests us to pay more attention on the mood disorders in children with TS, especially in adolescents. For treatment aspect, medications for improving the puberty development and short stature should be added to in addition to antidepressants if they had mood disorders.

  9. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    -Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery...

  10. Abnormal reward functioning across substance use disorders and major depressive disorder: Considering reward as a transdiagnostic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Foti, Dan

    2015-11-01

    A common criticism of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is that its criteria are based more on behavioral descriptions than on underlying biological mechanisms. Increasingly, calls have intensified for a more biologically-based approach to conceptualizing, studying, and treating psychological disorders, as exemplified by the Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC). Among the most well-studied neurobiological mechanisms is reward processing. Moreover, individual differences in reward sensitivity are related to risk for substance abuse and depression. The current review synthesizes the available preclinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging literature on reward processing from a transdiagnostic, multidimensional perspective. Findings are organized with respect to key reward constructs within the Positive Valence Systems domain of the RDoC matrix, including initial responsiveness to reward (physiological 'liking'), approach motivation (physiological 'wanting'), and reward learning/habit formation. In the current review, we (a) describe the neural basis of reward, (b) elucidate differences in reward activity in substance abuse and depression, and (c) suggest a framework for integrating these disparate literatures and discuss the utility of shifting focus from diagnosis to process for understanding liability and co-morbidity. Ultimately, we believe that an integrative focus on abnormal reward functioning across the full continuum of clinically heterogeneous samples, rather than within circumscribed diagnostic categories, might actually help to refine the phenotypes and improve the prediction of onset and recovery of these disorders.

  11. Citicoline Combination Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi-Azizi, Mahtab; Arabzadeh, Somaye; Amidfar, Meysam; Salimi, Samrand; Zarindast, Mohammad Reza; Talaei, Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    Residual symptoms of major depressive disorder are a source of long-term morbidity. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate this morbidity and enhance patient quality of life. Citicoline has been used for vascular accidents and has been effective in cognitive rehabilitation. It has been used successfully to reduce craving in patients with substance abuse disorder and for mood management of bipolar disorder. Here, we test citicoline effectiveness as an adjuvant therapy in major depression. A double-blind randomized trial was designed on 50 patients with major depressive disorder who were under treatment with citalopram. Patients were allocated to 2 groups and received citicoline (100 mg twice a day) or placebo as an adjuvant treatment for 6 weeks. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, and 6. Significantly greater improvement was observed in the HDRS scores of the citicoline group compared with the placebo group from baseline to weeks 2, 4, and 6 (Ps = 0.030, 0.032, and 0.021, respectively). Repeated-measures general linear model demonstrated a significant effect for time × treatment interaction on the HDRS score (F2.10,101.22 = 3.12, P = 0.04). Remission rate was significantly higher in the citicoline group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.045). Citicoline was an effective adjuvant to citalopram in the therapy of major depressive disorder.

  12. Major depressive disorder: a qualitative study on the experiences of Iranian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Kourosh; Negarandeh, Reza; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Eftekhar, Mehrdad

    2013-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one the most common mental disorders; it affects about 5-10% of the world population. This study explores the experiences of people with major depressive disorder in Zanjan, Iran. In order to identify recurring themes and patterns in individuals' experiences of major depressive disorder, semi-structured interviews with 18 patients were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were then analyzed based on conventional qualitative content analysis. Five main categories emerged. The first category was called emotional paralysis and included the subcategories feeling severely depressed; feeling anxious; feeling impatient and irritable; and having dyshedonia. The second category was disturbance of thinking and was comprised of the subcategories of preoccupation, instable spiritual beliefs, and guilt. Cognitive decline was the third identified category and was further divided into subcategories of frustration, unawareness of the disorder, negative evaluation, indecisiveness, and loss of focus and loss of memory. Another major category was physical illnesses with the subcategories of physical discomfort, sleep problems, appetite disturbance, facial changes, sexual dysfunction, and medical conditions. The final category was failure in life, which had failure in personal affairs, jeopardized interpersonal relations, and unstable work life as subcategories. These findings provide a base for further research in this area. They also have clinical relevance for health care providers working with patients with MDD. Related cultural issues also are discussed.

  13. The Cost Effectiveness of Psychological and Pharmacological Interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Model-Based Economic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifigeneia Mavranezouli

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder is one of the most persistent and common anxiety disorders. Individually delivered psychological therapies are the most effective treatment options for adults with social anxiety disorder, but they are associated with high intervention costs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the relative cost effectiveness of a variety of psychological and pharmacological interventions for adults with social anxiety disorder.A decision-analytic model was constructed to compare costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs of 28 interventions for social anxiety disorder from the perspective of the British National Health Service and personal social services. Efficacy data were derived from a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Other model input parameters were based on published literature and national sources, supplemented by expert opinion.Individual cognitive therapy was the most cost-effective intervention for adults with social anxiety disorder, followed by generic individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, phenelzine and book-based self-help without support. Other drugs, group-based psychological interventions and other individually delivered psychological interventions were less cost-effective. Results were influenced by limited evidence suggesting superiority of psychological interventions over drugs in retaining long-term effects. The analysis did not take into account side effects of drugs.Various forms of individually delivered CBT appear to be the most cost-effective options for the treatment of adults with social anxiety disorder. Consideration of side effects of drugs would only strengthen this conclusion, as it would improve even further the cost effectiveness of individually delivered CBT relative to phenelzine, which was the next most cost-effective option, due to the serious side effects associated with phenelzine. Further research needs to determine more accurately the long

  14. The Cost Effectiveness of Psychological and Pharmacological Interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Model-Based Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Dias, Sofia; Kew, Kayleigh; Clark, David M.; Ades, A. E.; Pilling, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder is one of the most persistent and common anxiety disorders. Individually delivered psychological therapies are the most effective treatment options for adults with social anxiety disorder, but they are associated with high intervention costs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the relative cost effectiveness of a variety of psychological and pharmacological interventions for adults with social anxiety disorder. Methods A decision-analytic model was constructed to compare costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) of 28 interventions for social anxiety disorder from the perspective of the British National Health Service and personal social services. Efficacy data were derived from a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Other model input parameters were based on published literature and national sources, supplemented by expert opinion. Results Individual cognitive therapy was the most cost-effective intervention for adults with social anxiety disorder, followed by generic individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), phenelzine and book-based self-help without support. Other drugs, group-based psychological interventions and other individually delivered psychological interventions were less cost-effective. Results were influenced by limited evidence suggesting superiority of psychological interventions over drugs in retaining long-term effects. The analysis did not take into account side effects of drugs. Conclusion Various forms of individually delivered CBT appear to be the most cost-effective options for the treatment of adults with social anxiety disorder. Consideration of side effects of drugs would only strengthen this conclusion, as it would improve even further the cost effectiveness of individually delivered CBT relative to phenelzine, which was the next most cost-effective option, due to the serious side effects associated with phenelzine. Further research needs to determine more accurately

  15. Electroconvulsive therapy in a physically restrained man with comorbid major depression, severe agoraphobia with panic disorder, and histrionic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Romano, Silvia; Milioni, Mara; Capezzuto, Silvia; Carbonetti, Paolo; Angeletti, Gloria; Fensore, Claudio; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-03-01

    A 36-year-old man with comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia, major depression, and histrionic personality disorder since age 21 was resistant to combined drug and psychotherapy treatment. His conditions had progressively worsened with time, causing him to withdraw socially and to simultaneously require continuous physical restraint, which further worsened his functioning. He spent almost 3 consecutive years in restraint, until he consented to receive bilateral ECT treatment. He improved after 13 sessions in all areas (social and role functioning, and panic, depressive, and histrionic symptoms) and is well 3 months later with a lithium-atypical antipsychotic combination.

  16. ITIH family genes confer risk to schizophrenia and major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kuanjun; Wang, Qingzhong; Chen, Jianhua; Li, Tao; Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Wenjin; Wen, Zujia; Qiang, Yu; Wang, Meng; Shen, Jiawei; Song, Zhijian; Ji, Jue; Feng, Guoyin; Qi, Shuguang; Lin, He; Shi, Yongyong; Cheng, Zaohuo

    2014-06-03

    As a major extracellular matrix component, ITIHs played an important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Several genome-wide association studies have reported that some positive signals which were derived from the tight linkage disequilibrium region on chromosome 3p21 were associated with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in the Caucasian population. To further investigate whether this genomic region is also a susceptibility locus of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population, we conducted this study by recruiting 1235 schizophrenia patients, 1045 major depressive disorder patients and 1235 healthy control subjects in the Han Chinese samples for a case-control study. We genotyped seven SNPs within this region using TaqMan® technology. We found that rs2710322 was significantly associated with schizophrenia (adjusted P(allele) = 0.0018, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.006, OR [95% CI] = 1.278 [1.117-1.462]) while rs1042779 was weakly associated with schizophrenia (adjusted P(allele) = 0.048, OR [95% CI] = 1.164 [1.040-1.303]) and major depressive disorder (adjusted P(allele) = 0.042, OR [95% CI] = 1.178 [1.047-1.326]); it was also our finding that rs3821831 was positively associated with major depressive disorder (adjusted P(allele) = 0.003, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.006, OR [95% CI] = 1.426 [1.156-1.760]). Furthermore, no haplotype was found to be associated with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Via the association analysis which combines the schizophrenia and major depressive disorder cases, we also notice that rs1042779 and rs3821831 were significantly associated with combined cases (rs1042779: adjusted P(allele) = 0.012, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.018, OR [95% CI] = 1.171 [1.060-1.292]; rs3821831:adjusted P(genotype) = 0.012, OR [95% CI] = 1.193 [1.010-1.410]). Our results revealed that the shared genetic risk factors of both schizophrenia and major depressive disorder exist in ITIH family genes in the Han Chinese

  17. Narrative therapy for adults with major depressive disorder: improved symptom and interpersonal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromans, Lynette P; Schweitzer, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated depressive symptom and interpersonal relatedness outcomes from eight sessions of manualized narrative therapy for 47 adults with major depressive disorder. Post-therapy, depressive symptom improvement (d=1.36) and proportions of clients achieving reliable improvement (74%), movement to the functional population (61%), and clinically significant improvement (53%) were comparable to benchmark research outcomes. Post-therapy interpersonal relatedness improvement (d=.62) was less substantial than for symptoms. Three-month follow-up found maintenance of symptom, but not interpersonal gains. Benchmarking and clinical significance analyses mitigated repeated measure design limitations, providing empirical evidence to support narrative therapy for adults with major depressive disorder.

  18. White matter abnormalities: Insights into the pathophysiology of major affective disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) has been commonly associated with poor outcome in subjects with major affective disorders. Unfortunately, WMHs may be frequently confounded by the use of psychoactive medications and duration of illness. Although findings from the current literature are quite conflicting, we proposed that subjects with WMHs may be at higher suicidal risk when compared to other subgroups without. Based on the Fazekas modified scale, the severity of WMHs may serve as a trait marker of disease. Interestingly, the presence of WMHs may represent a neurobiological marker between the underlying vulnerability and clinical presentation of major affective disorders. PMID:24976925

  19. Explaining heterogeneity in disability associated with current major depressive disorder: effects of illness characteristics and comorbid mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, E; Verboom, C E; Penninx, B W J H; Nolen, W A; Ormel, J

    2010-12-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with disability, some persons do function well despite their illness. Aim of the present study was to examine the effect of illness characteristics and comorbid mental disorders on various aspects of disability among persons with a current MDD episode. Data were derived from 607 participants with a current MDD based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Severity was assessed via the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms self-report (IDS-SR). For disability three outcome measures were used: World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS) disability and its 7 dimensions, days out of role, and work absence. Using multiple regression analysis the effects of MDD characteristics and comorbid mental disorders were estimated. The IDS-SR score was the best predictor of all disability outcomes. Of the comorbid mental disorders, agoraphobia was significantly associated with overall disability. Collectively, all illness characteristics accounted for 43% of variance in WHODAS disability, 13% in days out of role and 10% in work absence, suggesting substantial unexplained variance. Only self-report measures of disability were used. There were no assessments of other diagnoses than depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders. Although heterogeneity in disability of persons with current MDD is partially explained by illness characteristics of MDD (especially symptom severity) and comorbid mental disorders, most of the variance is not accounted for. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Personality disorders, but not cancer severity or treatment type, are risk factors for later generalised anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder in non metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Anne-Laure; Brunault, Paul; Huguet, Grégoire; Suzanne, Isabelle; Senon, Jean-Louis; Body, Gilles; Rusch, Emmanuel; Magnin, Guillaume; Voyer, Mélanie; Réveillère, Christian; Camus, Vincent

    2016-02-28

    This study aimed to determine whether personality disorders were associated with later Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in breast cancer patients. This longitudinal and multicentric study included 120 French non-metastatic breast cancer patients. After cancer diagnosis (T1) and 7 months after diagnosis (T3), we assessed MDD and GAD (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0). We assessed personality disorders 3 months after diagnosis (VKP). We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine what were the factors associated with GAD and MDD at T3. At T3, prevalence rate was 10.8% for MDD and 19.2% for GAD. GAD at T3 was significantly and independently associated with GAD at T1 and with existence of a personality disorder, no matter the cluster type. MDD at T3 was significantly and independently associated with MDD at T1 and with the existence of a cluster C personality disorder. Initial cancer severity and the type of treatment used were not associated with GAD or MDD at T3. Breast cancer patients with personality disorders are at higher risk for GAD and MDD at the end of treatment. Patients with GAD should be screened for personality disorders. Specific interventions for patients with personality disorders could prevent psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Learning from negative feedback in patients with major depressive disorder is attenuated by SSRI antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Mohammad M; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Natsheh, Joman Y; Abdellatif, Salam M; Taha, Mohamad B; Tayem, Yasin I; Sehwail, Mahmud A; Amleh, Ivona; Petrides, Georgios; Myers, Catherine E; Gluck, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    One barrier to interpreting past studies of cognition and major depressive disorder (MDD) has been the failure in many studies to adequately dissociate the effects of MDD from the potential cognitive side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) use. To better understand how remediation of depressive symptoms affects cognitive function in MDD, we evaluated three groups of subjects: medication-naïve patients with MDD, medicated patients with MDD receiving the SSRI paroxetine, and healthy control (HC) subjects. All were administered a category-learning task that allows for dissociation between learning from positive feedback (reward) vs. learning from negative feedback (punishment). Healthy subjects learned significantly better from positive feedback than medication-naïve and medicated MDD groups, whose learning accuracy did not differ significantly. In contrast, medicated patients with MDD learned significantly less from negative feedback than medication-naïve patients with MDD and healthy subjects, whose learning accuracy was comparable. A comparison of subject's relative sensitivity to positive vs. negative feedback showed that both the medicated MDD and HC groups conform to Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) Prospect Theory, which expects losses (negative feedback) to loom psychologically slightly larger than gains (positive feedback). However, medicated MDD and HC profiles are not similar, which indicates that the state of medicated MDD is not "normal" when compared to HC, but rather balanced with less learning from both positive and negative feedback. On the other hand, medication-naïve patients with MDD violate Prospect Theory by having significantly exaggerated learning from negative feedback. This suggests that SSRI antidepressants impair learning from negative feedback, while having negligible effect on learning from positive feedback. Overall, these findings shed light on the importance of dissociating the cognitive consequences of MDD

  2. Major depressive disorder schizophrenia Bipolar disorder obsessive-compulsive disorder | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e disorder is a scale used to assess the severity of obsessions and compulsions o...ivo-compulsivo es una escala empleada para valorar la severidad de las obsesiones y compulsiones de los paci

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychological Distress and Psychiatric Disorders in Asylum Seekers and Refugees Resettled in an Italian Catchment Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Turrini, Giulia; Imoli, Maria; Ballette, Francesca; Ostuzzi, Giovanni; Cucchi, Francesca; Padoan, Chiara; Ruggeri, Mirella; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-07-20

    In recent years there has been a progressive rise in the number of asylum seekers and refugees displaced from their country of origin, with significant social, economic, humanitarian and public health implications. The aim of this study is to describe the frequency and correlates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in asylum seekers and refugees resettled in an Italian catchment area. In the catchment area of Verona, all male asylum seekers and refugees aged 18 or above included in the Italian protection system for asylum seekers and refugees during a period of 1 year were screened for psychological distress and psychiatric disorders using validated questionnaires. During the study period, 109 asylum seekers or refugees were recruited. The frequency of traumatic events experienced was very high. More than one-third of the participants (36%) showed clinically relevant psychological distress, and one-fourth (25%), met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis, mainly PTSD and depressive disorders. In multivariate analyses, time after departure, length of stay in the host country and number of traumatic events were independent factors associated with psychological distress and psychiatric disorders. In an unselected sample of male asylum seekers and refugees, after around 1 year of resettlement in an Italian catchment area, the frequency of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders was substantial and clinically relevant. Health care systems should include a mental health component to recognise and effectively treat mental health conditions.

  4. Theory of mind ability predicts prognosis of outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuo; Inoue, Yumiko; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2015-12-15

    A theory of mind (ToM) deficit in patients with major depressive episodes is associated with difficulty in social adjustment, and thus may indicate a poorer prognosis. We investigated the association between ToM deficits and the outcome in patients who had recovered from major depressive episodes. We evaluated ToM abilities of 100 patients with major depressive disorder during a period of remission. The patients were followed up for one year and their outcomes observed. After one year, patients who had a ToM deficit according to a second-order false belief question relapsed significantly more frequently than did patients who did not have a deficit (Fisher's exact test Pmajor depressive disorder predicts a higher relapse rate and lower social function one year after recovering from a major depressive episode.

  5. VA Health Care: Improvements Needed in Monitoring Antidepressant Use for Major Depressive Disorder and in Increasing Accuracy of Suicide Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    VA HEALTH CARE Improvements Needed in Monitoring Antidepressant Use for Major Depressive Disorder and in Increasing...00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VA Health Care: Improvements Needed in Monitoring Antidepressant Use for Major Depressive Disorder and in Increasing... disorder with mixed anxiety and depressed mood. 29American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Depression not otherwise

  6. Patterns of Nonrandom Mating Within and Across 11 Major Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsletten, Ashley E.; Larsson, Henrik; Crowley, James J.; Almqvist, Catarina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Mataix-Cols, David

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Psychiatric disorders are heritable, polygenic traits, which often share risk alleles and for which nonrandom mating has been suggested. However, despite the potential etiological implications, the scale of nonrandom mating within and across major psychiatric conditions remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To quantify the nature and extent of nonrandom mating within and across a broad range of psychiatric conditions at the population level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Population-based cohort using Swedish population registers. Participants were all Swedish residents with a psychiatric diagnosis of interest (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia, or substance abuse), along with their mates. Individuals with select nonpsychiatric disorders (Crohn’s disease, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, or rheumatoid arthritis) were included for comparison. General population samples were also derived and matched 1:5 with each case proband. Inpatient and outpatient diagnostic data were derived from the Swedish National Patient Register (1973-2009), with analyses conducted between June 2014 and May 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Correlation in the diagnostic status of mates both within and across disorders. Conditional logistic regression was used to quantify the odds of each diagnosis in the mates of cases relative to matched population controls. RESULTS Across cohorts, data corresponded to 707 263 unique case individuals, with women constituting 45.7% of the full population. Positive correlations in diagnostic status were evident between mates. Within-disorder correlations were marginally higher (range, 0.11-0.48) than cross-disorder correlations (range, 0.01-0.42). Relative to matched populations, the odds of psychiatric case probands having an affected mate were

  7. Predictors of outcomes of psychological treatments for disordered gambling: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkouris, S S; Thomas, S A; Browning, C J; Dowling, N A

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesise the evidence relating to pre-treatment predictors of gambling outcomes following psychological treatment for disordered gambling across multiple time-points (i.e., post-treatment, short-term, medium-term, and long-term). A systematic search from 1990 to 2016 identified 50 articles, from which 11 socio-demographic, 16 gambling-related, 21 psychological/psychosocial, 12 treatment, and no therapist-related variables, were identified. Male gender and low depression levels were the most consistent predictors of successful treatment outcomes across multiple time-points. Likely predictors of successful treatment outcomes also included older age, lower gambling symptom severity, lower levels of gambling behaviours and alcohol use, and higher treatment session attendance. Significant associations, at a minimum of one time-point, were identified between successful treatment outcomes and being employed, ethnicity, no gambling debt, personality traits and being in the action stage of change. Mixed results were identified for treatment goal, while education, income, preferred gambling activity, problem gambling duration, anxiety, any psychiatric comorbidity, psychological distress, substance use, prior gambling treatment and medication use were not significantly associated with treatment outcomes at any time-point. Further research involving consistent treatment outcome frameworks, examination of treatment and therapist predictor variables, and evaluation of predictors across long-term follow-ups is warranted to advance this developing field of research.

  8. Augmentation Strategies for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder with an Inadequate Response to Antidepressant Monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moica Th

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Major depressive disorder is a chronic and debilitating disease characterized by a wide range of emotional and physical symptoms that coexist during a depressive episode and may reoccur at some point during the progression of the disease for the majority of patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate psychiatrists’ experience regarding the response to antidepressive treatment and their options regarding augmentation strategies in depression with incomplete response to antidepressant monotherapy.

  9. Explanations of educational differences in major depression and generalised anxiety disorder in the Irish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazelle, Emilie; Lemogne, Cédric; Morgan, Karen; Kelleher, Cecily C; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Social inequalities in mental disorders have been described, but studies that explain these inequalities are lacking, especially those using diagnostic interviews. This study investigates the contribution of various explanatory factors to the association between educational level and major depression and generalised anxiety disorder in Irish men and women. The study population comprised a national random sample of 5771 women and 4207 men aged 18 or more in Ireland (SLÁN 2007 survey). Major depression and generalised anxiety disorder were measured using a standardised diagnostic interview (CIDI-SF). Four groups of explanatory factors were explored: material, psychosocial, and behavioural factors, and chronic disease. For both genders, low educational level increased the risk of both mental disorders. Material factors, especially no private health insurance, but also no car, housing tenure, insufficient food budget, and unemployment (for men), made the highest contribution (stronger for men than for women) in explaining the association between education and both mental disorders. Psychosocial (especially formal social participation, social support and marital status) and behavioural factors (smoking and physical activity for both genders, and alcohol and drug use for men) and chronic disease made low independent contributions in explaining the association between education and both mental disorders. Given the cross-sectional study design, no causal conclusion could be drawn. Targeting various material, psychosocial, and behavioural factors, as well as chronic diseases may help to reduce educational differences in depression and anxiety in the general population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological factors and the incidence of temporomandibular disorders in early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano José Pereira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between psychological variables and the clinical diagnosis of temporomandbular disorders (TMD in 12-year-old adolescents. TMD pain was assessed by RDC/TMD examination (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (Axis I and II. Five-hundred and fifty-eight subjects (330 girls and 228 boys were examined. Bivariate analyses were performed using the Chi-square test (χ2. The logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratios (OR, their 95% confidence intervals (CI, and significance levels. Only 2.19% of the boys and 8.18% of the girls presented one of the Axis I categories. All variables from axis II were related to TMD diagnosis (p < 0.001. Gender was significantly related to TMD diagnosis (p = 0.0028. The risk of TMD incidence for girls was 3.5 times higher than that for boys (Odds Ratio = 3.52, Confidence Interval 1.31-9.43. The individuals who presented the variable "characteristics of pain intensity" (CPI higher than 0 had 31 times more risk of TMD incidence (Odds Ratio = 31.361, Confidence interval 6.01-163.5. We concluded that psychological variables and female gender are important risk indicators related to TMD incidence, even in adolescents.

  11. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Goals, events, and actions can be mentally represented within a hierarchical framework that ranges from more abstract to more concrete levels of identification. A more abstract level of identification involves general, superordinate, and decontextualized mental representations that convey the meaning of goals, events, and actions, “why” an action is performed, and its purpose, ends, and consequences. A more concrete level of identification involves specific and subordinate mental representations that include contextual details of goals, events, and actions, and the specific “how” details of an action. This review considers three lines of evidence for considering that dysregulation of level of goal/action identification may be a transdiagnostic process. First, there is evidence that different levels of identification have distinct functional consequences and that in non-clinical samples level of goal/action identification appears to be regulated in a flexible and adaptive way to match the level of goal/action identification to circumstances. Second, there is evidence that level of goal/action identification causally influences symptoms and processes involved in psychological disorders, including emotional response, repetitive thought, impulsivity, problem solving and procrastination. Third, there is evidence that the level of goal/action identification is biased and/or dysregulated in certain psychological disorders, with a bias towards more abstract identification for negative events in depression, GAD, PTSD, and social anxiety. PMID:20579789

  12. Abdominoplasty improves quality of life, psychological distress, and eating disorder symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saariniemi, Kai M M; Salmi, Asko M; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H; Helle, Marjo H; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O M

    2014-01-01

    Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic) abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three outcome measures were completed: the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), Raitasalo's modification of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI), and the 15D general quality of life questionnaire. Results. The mean age at baseline was 42 years and the mean body mass index (BMI) 26.4. Fifty-three (83%) women completed all the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 5 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women's overall quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, and self-esteem. The women were significantly less depressive and had significantly less drive for thinness as well as bulimia, and their overall risk of developing an eating disorder also decreased significantly. Conclusions. Abdominoplasty results in significantly improved quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and mental health. The risk of developing an eating disorder is decreased significantly. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02151799.

  13. Abdominoplasty Improves Quality of Life, Psychological Distress, and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai M. M. Saariniemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three outcome measures were completed: the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, Raitasalo’s modification of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI, and the 15D general quality of life questionnaire. Results. The mean age at baseline was 42 years and the mean body mass index (BMI 26.4. Fifty-three (83% women completed all the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 5 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women’s overall quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, and self-esteem. The women were significantly less depressive and had significantly less drive for thinness as well as bulimia, and their overall risk of developing an eating disorder also decreased significantly. Conclusions. Abdominoplasty results in significantly improved quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and mental health. The risk of developing an eating disorder is decreased significantly. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02151799.

  14. Sensory Hypersensitivity Predicts Reduced Sleeping Quality in Patients With Major Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gonda, Xenia; Walker, Muffy; Rihmer, Zoltan; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the sensory profile (expressed as hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity) of patients with major affective disorders and its relative contribution to the prediction of sleep quality while considering affective temperaments and depression, which may impact sleep quality. We recruited 176 participants (mean age, 47.3 y), of whom 56.8% had a diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder and 43.2% a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Reduced sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Affective temperaments were assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego. Sensory hypersensitivity, assessed using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile, significantly distinguished between poor and good sleepers. Sleep quality was mainly predicted by the Beck Depression Inventory-II total score and anxious temperament. Sensory hypersensitivity contributed to this prediction mainly with regard to sleep efficiency and related daytime dysfunction.

  15. Local cortical thinning links to resting-state disconnectivity in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, M. -J.; Li, M.; Metzger, C. D.; Hailla, N.; Horn, D. I.; Li, W.; Heinze, H. J.; Bogerts, B.; Steiner, J.; He, H.; Walter, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Local structural and metabolic as well as inter-regional connectivity abnormalities have been implicated in the neuropathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). How local tissue properties affect intrinsic functional connectivity is, however, unclear. Using a cross-sectional, multi-mod

  16. Using patient self-reports to study heterogeneity of treatment effects in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, R C; van Loo, H. M.; Wardenaar, K J; Bossarte, R M; Brenner, L A; Ebert, D D; de Jonge, P; Nierenberg, A A; Rosellini, A J; Sampson, N A; Schoevers, R A; Wilcox, M A; Zaslavsky, A M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS: Clinicians need guidance to address the heterogeneity of treatment responses of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). While prediction schemes based on symptom clustering and biomarkers have so far not yielded results of sufficient strength to inform clinical decision-making, p

  17. Structural MRI correlates for vulnerability and resilience to major depressive disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Amico, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), it is unclear to what extent structural brain changes are associated with depressive episodes or represent part of the mechanism by which the risk for illness is mediated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether structural abnormalities are related to risk for the development of MDD.

  18. Quantitative review of the efficacy of slow-frequency magnetic brain stimulation in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Slow-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the frontal cortex has been suggested as a safer and better tolerable alternative to fast-frequency rTMS in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of s

  19. Indicators of patients with major depressive disorder in need of highly specialized care: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C.W. van Krugten (Frédérique); M. Kaddouri (Meriam); M. Goorden (Maartje); A.J.L.M. van Balkom (Anton); C.L.H. Bockting (Claudi ); F.P.M.L. Peeters (Frenk ); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Early identification of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) that cannot be managed by secondary mental health services and who require highly specialized mental healthcare could enhance need-based patient stratification. This, in turn, may reduce the number of treatm

  20. Explaining heterogeneity in disability with major depressive disorder : Effects of personal and environmental characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, C.E.; Sentse, M.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Nolen, W.A.; Ormel, J.; Penninx, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with disability, yet some patients function surprisingly well. The reason for this heterogeneity between patients is unclear. Building on the International Classification of Functioning (ICE) model, this study aims to examine effects of perso

  1. Vascular Pathology and Trajectories of Late-Life Major Depressive Disorder in Secondary Psychiatric Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musliner, Katherine L; Zandi, Peter P; Liu, Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine 5-year trajectories of psychiatrist-treated late-life major depressive disorder (MDD), and evaluate whether previous vascular pathology is associated with more severe trajectories of late-life MDD. METHODS: Data were obtained from nationally representative civil, psychiatric...

  2. Explaining heterogeneity in disability with major depressive disorder : Effects of personal and environmental characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, C.E.; Sentse, M.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Nolen, W.A.; Ormel, J.; Penninx, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with disability, yet some patients function surprisingly well. The reason for this heterogeneity between patients is unclear. Building on the International Classification of Functioning (ICE) model, this study aims to examine effects of perso

  3. A mega-analysis of genome-wide association studies for major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Daly, Mark J.; Ripke, Stephan; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Wray, Naomi R.; Neale, Benjamin; Levinson, Douglas F.; Breen, Gerome; Byrne, Enda M.; Wray, Naomi R.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Rietschel, Marcella; Hoogendijk, Witte; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Hamilton, Steven P.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Ripke, Stephan; Weissman, Myrna M.; Wray, Naomi R.; Breuer, Rene; Cichon, Sven; Degenhardt, Franziska; Frank, Josef; Gross, Magdalena; Herms, Stefan; Hoefels, Susanne; Maier, Wolfgang; Mattheisen, Manuel; Noeethen, Markus M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Schulze, Thomas G.; Steffens, Michael; Treutlein, Jens; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco J.; Hoogendijk, Witte; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jung-Ying, Tzeng; Lin, Dan-Yu; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda P.; Smit, Johannes H.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; van Grootheest, Gerard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zitman, Frans G.; Coryell, William H.; Knowles, James A.; Lawson, William B.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Holsboer, Florian; Muglia, Pierandrea; Tozzi, Federica; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco J.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; MacIntyre, Donald J.; McIntosh, Andrew; McLean, Alan; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Penninx, Brenda P.; Ripke, Stephan; Smit, Johannes H.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; van Grootheest, Gerard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zitman, Frans G.; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; Holsboer, Florian; Lucae, Susanne; Binder, Elisabeth; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Ripke, Stephan; Czamara, Darina; Kohli, Martin A.; Ising, Marcus; Uhr, Manfred; Bettecken, Thomas; Barnes, Michael R.; Breen, Gerome; Craig, Ian W.; Farmer, Anne E.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; McGuffin, Peter; Muglia, Pierandrea; Byrne, Enda; Gordon, Scott D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hickie, Ian B.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant M.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Wray, Naomi R.; Hamilton, Steven P.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Slager, Susan L.; Oskarsson, Hoegni; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari; Steinberg, Stacy; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Guipponi, Michel; Lewis, Glyn; O'Donovan, Michael; Tansey, Katherine E.; Uher, Rudolf; Coryell, William H.; Knowles, James A.; Lawson, William B.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Castro, Victor M.; Churchill, Susanne E.; Fava, Maurizio; Gainer, Vivian S.; Gallagher, Patience J.; Goryachev, Sergey; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Kohane, Isaac S.; Murphy, Shawn N.; Perlis, Roy H.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Weilburg, Jeffrey B.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Preisig, Martin; Grabe, Hans J.; Nauck, Matthias; Schulz, Andrea; Teumer, Alexander; Voelzke, Henry; Landen, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik; Pedersen, Nancy; Viktorin, Alexander

    Prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of major depressive disorder (MDD) have met with limited success. We sought to increase statistical power to detect disease loci by conducting a GWAS mega-analysis for MDD. In the MDD discovery phase, we analyzed more than 1.2 million autosomal and X

  4. Diagnosing major depressive disorder I: A psychometric evaluation of the DSM-IV symptom criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; McGlinchey, Joseph B; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona

    2006-03-01

    The diagnostic criteria for depression were developed on the basis of clinical experience rather than empirical study. Although they have been available and widely used for many years, few studies have examined the psychometric properties of the DSM criteria for major depression. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we examined whether criteria such as insomnia, fatigue, and impaired concentration that are also diagnostic criteria for other disorders are less specific than the other DSM-IV depression symptom criteria. We also conducted a regression analysis to determine whether all criteria are independently associated with the diagnosis of major depressive disorder. A total of 1538 psychiatric outpatients were administered a semistructured diagnostic interview. We inquired about all of the symptoms of depression for all patients. All of the DSM-IV symptom criteria for major depressive disorder were significantly associated with the diagnosis. Contrary to our prediction, symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue, and impaired concentration, which are also criteria of other disorders, generally performed as well as the criteria that are unique to depression such as suicidality, worthlessness, and guilt. The results of the regression analysis, which controlled for symptom covariation, indicated that five symptoms (increased weight, decreased weight, psychomotor retardation, indecisiveness, and suicidal thoughts) were not independently associated with the diagnosis of depression. The implications of these results for revising the diagnostic criteria for major depression are discussed.

  5. The error processing system in major depressive disorder: cortical phenotypal marker hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) ensues reduced goal-directed cognition and behaviour. Cognitive and emotional flexibility to disengage and adapt future responses was examined in the error processing system (error-related negativity/ERN, error-positivity/Pe event-related potentials) of 58 depressed p

  6. 24-Hour motor activity and autonomic cardiac functioning in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Volkers (Anita)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe studies of this thesis concern the spontaneous pattern of motor activity and autonomic cardiac functioning in major depressive disorder. The main purpose of the studies was to obtain insight in the psychomotor and autonomic cardiac dysfunction in depression by investigating the 24-ho

  7. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Problems: Effects of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2-18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1…

  8. Childhood Maltreatment and Differential Treatment Response and Recurrence in Adult Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate L.; Bagby, R. Michael; Kennedy, Sidney H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A substantial number of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond to treatment, and recurrence rates remain high. The purpose of this study was to examine a history of severe childhood abuse as a moderator of response following a 16-week acute treatment trial, and of recurrence over a 12-month follow-up. Method:…

  9. Psychotherapy, Pharmacotherapy, and Their Combination for Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikita; Reece, John

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis aims to inform clinical practice of treatment strategies for adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). The efficacy of three empirically validated treatments was compared to determine the most effective treatment. These were: cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Pediatric Responders to Pharmacotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…

  11. A mega-analysis of genome-wide association studies for major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Daly, Mark J.; Ripke, Stephan; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Wray, Naomi R.; Neale, Benjamin; Levinson, Douglas F.; Breen, Gerome; Byrne, Enda M.; Wray, Naomi R.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Rietschel, Marcella; Hoogendijk, Witte; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Hamilton, Steven P.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Ripke, Stephan; Weissman, Myrna M.; Wray, Naomi R.; Breuer, Rene; Cichon, Sven; Degenhardt, Franziska; Frank, Josef; Gross, Magdalena; Herms, Stefan; Hoefels, Susanne; Maier, Wolfgang; Mattheisen, Manuel; Noeethen, Markus M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Schulze, Thomas G.; Steffens, Michael; Treutlein, Jens; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco J.; Hoogendijk, Witte; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jung-Ying, Tzeng; Lin, Dan-Yu; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda P.; Smit, Johannes H.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; van Grootheest, Gerard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zitman, Frans G.; Coryell, William H.; Knowles, James A.; Lawson, William B.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Holsboer, Florian; Muglia, Pierandrea; Tozzi, Federica; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco J.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; MacIntyre, Donald J.; McIntosh, Andrew; McLean, Alan; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Penninx, Brenda P.; Ripke, Stephan; Smit, Johannes H.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; van Grootheest, Gerard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zitman, Frans G.; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; Holsboer, Florian; Lucae, Susanne; Binder, Elisabeth; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Ripke, Stephan; Czamara, Darina; Kohli, Martin A.; Ising, Marcus; Uhr, Manfred; Bettecken, Thomas; Barnes, Michael R.; Breen, Gerome; Craig, Ian W.; Farmer, Anne E.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; McGuffin, Peter; Muglia, Pierandrea; Byrne, Enda; Gordon, Scott D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hickie, Ian B.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant M.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Wray, Naomi R.; Hamilton, Steven P.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Slager, Susan L.; Oskarsson, Hoegni; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari; Steinberg, Stacy; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Guipponi, Michel; Lewis, Glyn; O'Donovan, Michael; Tansey, Katherine E.; Uher, Rudolf; Coryell, William H.; Knowles, James A.; Lawson, William B.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Castro, Victor M.; Churchill, Susanne E.; Fava, Maurizio; Gainer, Vivian S.; Gallagher, Patience J.; Goryachev, Sergey; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Kohane, Isaac S.; Murphy, Shawn N.; Perlis, Roy H.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Weilburg, Jeffrey B.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Preisig, Martin; Grabe, Hans J.; Nauck, Matthias; Schulz, Andrea; Teumer, Alexander; Voelzke, Henry; Landen, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik; Pedersen, Nancy; Viktorin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of major depressive disorder (MDD) have met with limited success. We sought to increase statistical power to detect disease loci by conducting a GWAS mega-analysis for MDD. In the MDD discovery phase, we analyzed more than 1.2 million autosomal and X chro

  12. Benefits and harms in clinical trials of duloxetine for treatment of major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maund, Emma; Tendal, Britta; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn;

    2014-01-01

    for major depressive disorder. DATA SOURCES: Clinical study reports, including protocols as appendices (total 13,729 pages), were obtained from the EMA in May 2011. Journal articles were identified through relevant literature databases and contacting the manufacturer, Eli Lilly. Clinicaltrials...

  13. Ventral striatum response during reward and punishment reversal learning in unmedicated major depressive disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, O.J.; Cools, R.; Carlisi, C.O.; Sahakian, B.J.; Drevets, W.C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Affective biases may underlie many of the key symptoms of major depressive disorder, from anhedonia to altered cognitive performance. Understanding the cause of these biases is therefore critical in the quest for improved treatments. Depression is associated, for example, with a negative

  14. Recurrence of major depressive disorder across different treatment settings : Results from the NESDA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeveld, Florian; Spijker, Jan; De Graaf, Ron; Hendriks, Sanne M.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.

    Objective: Examine time to recurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) across different treatment settings and assess predictors of time to recurrence of MDD. Methods: Data were from 375 subjects with a MDD diagnosis from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The study sample

  15. Increased cortisol awakening response was associated with time to recurrence of major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeveld, Florian; Spijker, Jan; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; De Graaf, Ron; Hendriks, Sanne M.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although HPA-axis activity has been studied extensively in relation to depression, there is no consensus whether HPA-axis parameters predicts major depressive disorder (MDD) recurrence. We investigated whether HPA-axis parameters (cortisol awakening response (CAR), the dexamethasone

  16. A mega-analysis of genome-wide association studies for major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Daly, Mark J.; Ripke, Stephan; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Wray, Naomi R.; Neale, Benjamin; Levinson, Douglas F.; Breen, Gerome; Byrne, Enda M.; Wray, Naomi R.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Rietschel, Marcella; Hoogendijk, Witte; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Hamilton, Steven P.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Ripke, Stephan; Weissman, Myrna M.; Wray, Naomi R.; Breuer, Rene; Cichon, Sven; Degenhardt, Franziska; Frank, Josef; Gross, Magdalena; Herms, Stefan; Hoefels, Susanne; Maier, Wolfgang; Mattheisen, Manuel; Noeethen, Markus M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Schulze, Thomas G.; Steffens, Michael; Treutlein, Jens; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco J.; Hoogendijk, Witte; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jung-Ying, Tzeng; Lin, Dan-Yu; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda P.; Smit, Johannes H.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; van Grootheest, Gerard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zitman, Frans G.; Coryell, William H.; Knowles, James A.; Lawson, William B.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Holsboer, Florian; Muglia, Pierandrea; Tozzi, Federica; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco J.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; MacIntyre, Donald J.; McIntosh, Andrew; McLean, Alan; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Penninx, Brenda P.; Ripke, Stephan; Smit, Johannes H.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; van Grootheest, Gerard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zitman, Frans G.; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; Holsboer, Florian; Lucae, Susanne; Binder, Elisabeth; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Ripke, Stephan; Czamara, Darina; Kohli, Martin A.; Ising, Marcus; Uhr, Manfred; Bettecken, Thomas; Barnes, Michael R.; Breen, Gerome; Craig, Ian W.; Farmer, Anne E.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; McGuffin, Peter; Muglia, Pierandrea; Byrne, Enda; Gordon, Scott D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hickie, Ian B.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant M.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Wray, Naomi R.; Hamilton, Steven P.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Slager, Susan L.; Oskarsson, Hoegni; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari; Steinberg, Stacy; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Guipponi, Michel; Lewis, Glyn; O'Donovan, Michael; Tansey, Katherine E.; Uher, Rudolf; Coryell, William H.; Knowles, James A.; Lawson, William B.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Castro, Victor M.; Churchill, Susanne E.; Fava, Maurizio; Gainer, Vivian S.; Gallagher, Patience J.; Goryachev, Sergey; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Kohane, Isaac S.; Murphy, Shawn N.; Perlis, Roy H.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Weilburg, Jeffrey B.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Preisig, Martin; Grabe, Hans J.; Nauck, Matthias; Schulz, Andrea; Teumer, Alexander; Voelzke, Henry; Landen, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik; Pedersen, Nancy; Viktorin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of major depressive disorder (MDD) have met with limited success. We sought to increase statistical power to detect disease loci by conducting a GWAS mega-analysis for MDD. In the MDD discovery phase, we analyzed more than 1.2 million autosomal and X chro

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Pediatric Responders to Pharmacotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…

  18. The impact of somatic symptoms on the course of major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, Ella; Boschloo, Lynn; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; de Boer, Marrit K.; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Somatic symptoms have been suggested to negatively affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD). Mechanisms behind this association, however, remain elusive. This study examines the impact of somatic symptoms on MDD prognosis and aims to determine whether this effect can be explai

  19. Hair cortisol as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis activity in female patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochigaeva, Ksenia; Druzhkova, Tatiana; Yakovlev, Alexander; Onufriev, Mikhail; Grishkina, Maria; Chepelev, Aleksey; Guekht, Alla; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    Hair cortisol is regarded as a promising marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity alterations due to stress, somatic and mental health conditions. Hair cortisol was previously reported to be elevated in patients with depression, however the data related to remission and recurrent depressive episodes are different. In this study, levels of hair cortisol were assessed in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the validity of hair cortisol as a marker of HPAA activity in this condition was evaluated. Hair cortisol was measured in 1 cm hair segments of 21 female patients with MDD and 22 female age-matched controls using enzyme-immunoassay analysis. Concurrently, serum cortisol was assessed and psychological status was evaluated using 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Spielberger state trait anxiety inventory (STAI). The levels of hair cortisol were significantly lower in the MDD group, while serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in patients, as compared with controls. A significant negative correlation was found between HAMD-17 scores and hair cortisol. Decreased hair cortisol found in female patients with MDD as compared to controls suggests downregulation of HPAA activity during the preceding month. Further studies are needed to investigate the profiles of hair cortisol at different stages of depressive disorder to establish this parameter as a handy clinical tool.

  20. Sexual dysfunctions and psychological disorders associated with type IIIa chronic prostatitis: a clinical survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Mu-Qiong; Long, Ling-Li; Xie, Wen-Lin; Chen, Sai; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Luo, Can-Qiao; Deng, Li-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a frequent prostate-related complaint, impacts negatively on quality of life and is mostly of unclear etiology. Increasing attention has been paid to the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in CP patients; however, the impact of specific types of CP and the correlation of sexual dysfunctions with psychological disorders associated with CP are not well understood. Type IIIa CP is characterized by chronic pelvic pain, urination symptoms and white blood cells in expressed prostatic secretion, but free of bacterial infection. A population of 600 type IIIa CP patients were randomly selected and 40 normal man were included as the control group. Queries were conducted by urologists. The National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Symptom Checklist 90-R were used to evaluate the symptoms and severity of prostatitis, erectile dysfunctions and psychological problems, respectively. Scores of ejaculatory pain and premature ejaculation were also collected. Our study revealed that sexual dysfunctions are frequently associated with this specific type of CP. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and ejaculatory pain was 19, 30 and 30 %, respectively. A variety of psychological problems exist among type IIIa CP patients, including depression, anxiety, somatization, obsessive-compulsive and interpersonal sensitivity. In particular, the severity of erectile dysfunctions, but not premature ejaculation and ejaculatory pain, correlated significantly with depression and anxiety. Our data indicate that a moderate level of sexual dysfunctions exists among the type IIIa CP patients, and highlight the association of depression and anxiety with erectile dysfunction in CP patients, suggestting that special attention should be paid to these psychological issues in clinical treatments of the prostatitis symptoms and the associated erectile dysfunctions.

  1. Neighborhood income and major depressive disorder in a large Dutch population : results from the LifeLines Cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Kibele, Eva; Ellwardt, Lea; Zuidersma, Marij; Stolk, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Smidt, Nynke

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies are inconclusive on whether poor socioeconomic conditions in the neighborhood are associated with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, conceptual models that relate neighborhood conditions to depressive disorder have not been evaluated using empirical data. In this stu

  2. Mothers with depression, anxiety or eating disorders: outcomes on their children and the role of paternal psychological profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Paciello, Marinella

    2015-04-01

    The present paper aims to longitudinally assess the emotional functioning of children of mothers with depression, anxiety, or eating disorders and of mothers with no psychological disorders and to evaluate the possible mediating role of fathers' psychological profiles on children's internalizing/externalizing functioning using SCID I, SCL-90/R and CBCL/1½-5. The results showed maternal psychopathology to be strongly related to children's maladaptive profiles. Children of mothers with depression and anxiety showed higher internalizing scores than children of other groups. These scores increased from T1 to T2. Children of mothers with eating disorders showed higher and increasing externalizing scores than children of other groups. The data showed that fathers' interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety and psychoticism significantly predicted internalizing problems of the children. Moreover, interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism significantly predicted externalizing problems. Our results confirmed the impact of maternal psychopathology on maladaptive outcomes in their children, which suggests the importance of considering paternal psychological profiles.

  3. A review of the role of social cognition in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Weightman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social cognition – the ability to identify, perceive and interpret socially-relevant information – is an important skill that plays a significant role in successful interpersonal functioning. Social cognitive performance is recognised to be impaired in several psychiatric conditions, but the relationship with major depressive disorder is less well understood. The aim of this review is to characterise the current understanding of (i the different domains of social cognition and a possible relationship with major depressive disorder, (ii the clinical presentation of social cognition in acute and remitted depressive states, and (iii the effect of severity of depression on social cognitive performance.Methods: Electronic databases were searched to identify clinical studies investigating social cognition in a major depressive disorder population, yielding 31 studies for this review.Results: Patients with major depressive disorder appear to interpret social cognitive stimuli differently to healthy controls: depressed individuals may interpret emotion through a mood-congruent bias and have difficulty with cognitive theory of mind tasks requiring interpretation of complex mental states. Social cognitive performance appears to be inversely associated with severity of depression, whilst the bias toward negative emotions persists even in remission. Some deficits may normalise following effective pharmacotherapy.Conclusions: The difficulties with social interaction observed in major depressive disorder may, at least in part, be due to an altered ability to correctly interpret emotional stimuli and mental states. These features seem to persist even in the remitted state, although some may respond to intervention. Further research is required in this area to better understand the functional impact of these findings and the way in which targeted therapy could aid depressed individuals with social interactions.

  4. The psychological perspective on mental health and mental disorder research: introduction to the ROAMER work package 5 consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Schumann, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the theoretical framework of the Psychological Sciences' reviews and describes how improved psychological research can foster our understanding of mental health and mental disorders in a complementary way to biomedical research. Core definitions of the field and of psychological interventions and treatment in particular are provided. The work group's consensus regarding strength and weaknesses of European Union (EU) research in critical areas is summarized, highlighting the potential of a broader comprehensive "Behaviour Science programme" in forthcoming programmatic EU funding programmes.

  5. Family psychoeducation for major depressive disorder - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen F; Ussing, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder has been shown to affect many domains of family life including family functioning. Conversely, the influence of the family on the course of the depression, including the risk of relapse, is one reason for targeting the family in interventions. The few studies...... will investigate the effect of family psychoeducation compared to social support on the course of the illness in patients with major depressive disorder. METHOD/DESIGN: The study is designed as a dual center, two-armed, observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Relatives are randomized to participate in one...... conducted within this area indicate that family psychoeducation as a supplement to traditional treatment can effectively reduce the risk of relapse in patients with major depression as well as being beneficial for the relatives involved. However, the evidence is currently limited. This study...

  6. The joint structure of major depression, anxiety disorders, and trait negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson W. de Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dimensional models of psychopathology demonstrate that two correlated factors of fear and distress account for the covariation among depressive and anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, these models tend to exclude variables relevant to psychopathology, such as temperament traits. This study examined the joint structure of DSM-IV-based major depression and anxiety disorders along with trait negative affect in a representative sample of adult individuals residing in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 3,728 individuals who were administered sections D (phobic, anxiety and panic disorders and E (depressive disorders of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and a validated version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Data were analyzed using correlational and structural equation modeling. Results: Lifetime prevalence ranged from 2.4% for panic disorder to 23.2% for major depression. Most target variables were moderately correlated. A two-factor model specifying correlated fear and distress factors was retained and confirmed for models including only diagnostic variables and diagnostic variables along with trait negative affect. Conclusions: This study provides support for characterization of internalizing psychopathology and trait negative affect in terms of correlated dimensions of distress and fear. These results have potential implications for psychiatric taxonomy and for understanding the relationship between temperament and psychopathology.

  7. Increased mortality among patients admitted with major psychiatric disorders: a register-based study comparing mortality in unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    disorder has never been examined in a population-based study. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine and compare mortality rates after admission with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, unipolar depressive disorder, or bipolar affective disorder and to examine the impact of family history......: Unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were associated with the same pattern of excess mortality. Schizophrenia had a lower mortality from unnatural causes of death and a higher mortality from natural causes compared to the 3 other disorders. Family history...

  8. Reduced 5-HT(1B) receptor binding in the dorsal brain stem after cognitive behavioural therapy of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Mikael; Rück, Christian; Forsberg, Anton; Varrone, Andrea; Lindefors, Nils; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars; Lundberg, Johan

    2014-08-30

    Major depression is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease, and its pathophysiology is largely unknown. The serotonin hypothesis is, however, the model with most supporting data, although the details are only worked out to some extent. Recent clinical imaging measurements indeed imply a role in major depressive disorder (MDD) for the inhibitory serotonin autoreceptor 5-hydroxytryptamine1B (5-HT1B). The aim of the current study was to examine 5-HT1B receptor binding in the brain of MDD patients before and after psychotherapy. Ten patients with an ongoing untreated moderate depressive episode were examined with positron emission tomography (PET) and the 5-HT1B receptor selective radioligand [(11)C]AZ10419369, before and after treatment with internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy. All of the patients examined responded to treatment, and 70% were in remission by the time of the second PET measurement. A statistically significant 33% reduction of binding potential (BPND) was found in the dorsal brain stem (DBS) after treatment. No other significant changes in BPND were found. The DBS contains the raphe nuclei, which regulate the serotonin system. This study gives support for the importance of serotonin and the 5-HT1B receptor in the biological response to psychological treatment of MDD.

  9. Effects of dry period length on clinical mastitis and other major clinical health disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Sørensen, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Four, 7-, and 10-wk dry periods were randomly assigned to 366 dairy cows in eight herds. A multiple polytomous logistic regression analysis was conducted with the objective to reveal possible important effects of the dry period on the risk of contracting major clinical health disorders. Several...... calving intervals, the risk of occurrence of complications at calving decreased with the length of the dry period. This relation was reversed at longer calving intervals. Dry period lengths of approximately 7 wk appear to be associated with the lowest risk of clinical health disorders, but other factors...

  10. Discriminating among ADHD alone, ADHD with a comorbid psychological disorder, and feigned ADHD in a college sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kimberly D; Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Mason, Lisa H; Edmundson, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 2000s concern has increased that college students might feign ADHD in pursuit of academic accommodations and stimulant medication. In response, several studies have validated tests for use in differentiating feigned from genuine ADHD. Although results have generally been positive, relatively few publications have addressed the possible impact of the presence of psychological disorders comorbid with ADHD. Because ADHD is thought to have accompanying conditions at rates of 50% and higher, it is important to determine if the additional psychological disorders might compromise the accuracy of feigning detection measures. The present study extended the findings of Jasinski et al. (2011) to examine the efficacy of various measures in the context of feigned versus genuine ADHD with comorbid psychological disorders in undergraduate students. Two clinical groups (ADHD only and ADHD + comorbid psychological disorder) were contrasted with two non-clinical groups (normal controls answering honestly and normal participants feigning ADHD). Extending previous research to individuals with ADHD and either an anxiety or learning disorder, performance validity tests such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), the Letter Memory Test (LMT), and the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) were effective in differentiating both ADHD groups from normal participants feigning ADHD. However, the Digit Memory Test (DMT) underperformed in this study, as did embedded validity indices from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) and Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-III (WJ-III).

  11. Optimizing psychological interventions for trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder: an update on current empirical status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorrason I

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ivar Snorrason, Gregory S Berlin, Han-Joo Lee Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by a persistent habit of pulling out one's hair. In treatment-seeking populations, hair-pulling disorder can be severe, chronic, and difficult to treat. In the early 1970s, behavioral interventions (eg, habit reversal training were developed and proved effective in treating chronic hair-pulling for many individuals. In order to further increase treatment efficacy and improve long-term outcome, several authors have developed augmented treatment protocols that combine traditional behavioral strategies with other cognitive-behavioral interventions, including cognitive therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. In the present review, we give an overview of the clinical and diagnostic features of hair-pulling disorder, describe different cognitive-behavioral interventions, and evaluate research on their efficacy. Keywords: trichotillomania, hair-pulling, cognitive-behavioral therapy, diagnosis, review

  12. Psychological mechanisms and the ups and downs of personal recovery in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Alyson L; Mezes, Barbara; Lobban, Fiona; Jones, Steven H

    2017-09-01

    Personal recovery is recognized as an important outcome for individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and is distinct from symptomatic and functional recovery. Recovery-focused psychological therapies show promise. As with therapies aiming to delay relapse and improve symptoms, research on the psychological mechanisms underlying recovery is crucial to inform effective recovery-focused therapy. However, empirical work is limited. This study investigated whether negative beliefs about mood swings and self-referent appraisals of mood-related experiences were negatively associated with personal recovery. Cross-sectional online survey. People with a verified research diagnosis of BD (n = 87), recruited via relevant voluntary sector organizations and social media, completed online measures. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression analysed associations between appraisals, beliefs, and recovery. Normalizing appraisals of mood changes were positively associated with personal recovery. Depression, negative self-appraisals of depression-relevant experiences, extreme positive and negative appraisals of activated states, and negative beliefs about mood swings had negative relationships with recovery. After controlling for current mood symptoms, negative illness models (relating to how controllable, long-term, concerning, and treatable mood swings are; β = -.38), being employed (β = .39), and both current (β = -.53) and recent experience of depression (β = .30) predicted recovery. Due to the cross-sectional design, causality cannot be determined. Participants were a convenience sample primarily recruited online. Power was limited by the sample size. Interventions aiming to empower people to feel able to manage mood and catastrophize less about mood swings could facilitate personal recovery in people with BD, which might be achieved in recovery-focused therapy. Personal recovery is an important outcome for people living with bipolar disorder More positive

  13. Reaction to the Major Contribution: Training for Skills Competency in Counseling Psychology--Integrating Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Roberta L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors of the Major Contribution have developed a complex and elegant three-level training model on which they suggest advanced microskills may be built. Prior to the description of their model, they have built a case that current microskills training has proved foundationally important but insufficient to training needs. They then invite…

  14. Unique and related predictors of major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and their comorbidity after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillni, Yael I; Nosen, Elizabeth; Williams, Patrick A; Tracy, Melissa; Coffey, Scott F; Galea, Sandro

    2013-10-01

    The current study examined demographic and psychosocial factors that predict major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid MDD/posttraumatic stress disorder (MDD/PTSD) diagnostic status after Hurricane Katrina, one of the deadliest and costliest hurricanes in the history of the United States. This study expanded on the findings published in the article by Galea, Tracy, Norris, and Coffey (J Trauma Stress 21:357-368, 2008), which examined the same predictors for PTSD, to better understand related and unique predictors of MDD, PTSD, and MDD/PTSD comorbidity. A total of 810 individuals representative of adult residents living in the 23 southernmost counties of Mississippi before Hurricane Katrina were interviewed. Ongoing hurricane-related stressors, low social support, and hurricane-related financial loss were common predictors of MDD, PTSD, and MDD/PTSD, whereas educational and marital status emerged as unique predictors of MDD. Implications for postdisaster relief efforts that address the risk for both MDD and PTSD are discussed.

  15. Suicidal intent and the HPA-axis characteristics of suicide attempters with major depressive disorder and adjustment disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Daniel; Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Vang, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis characteristics in relation to suicidal intent among suicide attempters with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Adjustment Disorders (AD). The relationship between suicidal intent, assessed by means of the Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS), and serum cortisol after a Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) was investigated in 78 suicide attempters, divided into diagnostic subgroups. There was a significant negative correlation between suicidal intent and post DST cortisol in patients with MDD. Our findings may be attributed to pathophysiological processes, where a high suicidal intent is revealed during a potential chronic course of MDD, which in turn results in a seemingly normal stress system.

  16. Disorder-specific versus transdiagnostic and clinician-guided versus self-guided treatment for major depressive disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, N; Dear, B F; Staples, L G; Terides, M D; Karin, E; Sheehan, J; Johnston, L; Gandy, M; Fogliati, V J; Wootton, B M; McEvoy, P M

    2015-10-01

    Disorder-specific cognitive behavior therapy (DS-CBT) is effective at treating major depressive disorder (MDD) while transdiagnostic CBT (TD-CBT) addresses both principal and comorbid disorders by targeting underlying and common symptoms. The relative benefits of these two models of therapy have not been determined. Participants with MDD (n=290) were randomly allocated to receive an internet delivered TD-CBT or DS-CBT intervention delivered in either clinician-guided (CG-CBT) or self-guided (SG-CBT) formats. Large reductions in symptoms of MDD (Cohen's d≥1.44; avg. reduction≥45%) and moderate-to-large reductions in symptoms of comorbid generalised anxiety disorder (Cohen's d≥1.08; avg. reduction≥43%), social anxiety disorder (Cohen's d≥0.65; avg. reduction≥29%) and panic disorder (Cohen's d≥0.45; avg. reduction≥31%) were found. No marked or consistent differences were observed across the four conditions, highlighting the efficacy of different forms of CBT at treating MDD and comorbid disorders.

  17. Oxytocin and Major Depressive Disorder: Experimental and Clinical Evidence for Links to Aetiology and Possible Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga D. Neumann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders represent the most common psychiatric diseases, with substantial co-morbidity existing between major depressive disorders (MDD and anxiety disorders. The lack of truly novel acting compounds has led to non-monoaminergic based research and hypotheses in recent years. The large number of brain neuropeptides, characterized by discrete synthesis sites and multiple receptors, represent likely research candidates for novel therapeutic targets. The present review summarises the available preclinical and human evidence regarding the neuropeptide, oxytocin, and its implications in the aetiology and treatment of MDD. While the evidence is not conclusive at present additional studies are warranted to determine whether OXT may be of therapeutic benefit in subsets of MDD patients such as those with comorbid anxiety symptoms and low levels of social attachment.

  18. The expression of depression among Javanese patients with major depressive disorder: a concept mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brintnell, E Sharon; Sommer, Ryan W; Kuncoro, Bambang; Setiawan, G Pandu; Bailey, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we explored the presentation of clinical depression in Java, Indonesia. Interviews were conducted with 20 Javanese patients (male and female) with major depressive disorder from both lower and higher socioeconomic levels. The recruited participants came from provincial and private mental health hospitals in the cities of Solo, Yogykarta (Jogja), Jakarta, and Malang on the island of Java, Indonesia. Concept mapping methodology using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify underlying themes in the expression of depressive phenomena in this Indonesian population. The results identified themes that grouped into six clusters: interpersonal relationships, hopelessness, physical/somatic, poverty of thought, discourage, and defeat. Findings give support to the view that culture influences the expression of Indonesian depressive phenomenology, which nevertheless has some common roots with Western clinical pictures of the disorder. Cultural influences may mask symptoms of the disorder to clinicians. Diagnostic and assessment tools must be carefully selected to ensure they address culturally specific expressions of depression.

  19. The role of fragile X mental retardation protein in major mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D

    2011-06-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is highly enriched in neurons and binds to approximately 4% of mRNAs in mammalian brain. Its loss is a hallmark of fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of mental retardation. In this review we discuss the mutation in the fragile X mental retardation-1 gene (FMR1), that leads to FXS, the role FMRP plays in neuronal cells, experiments from our own laboratory that demonstrate reductions of FMRP in additional psychiatric disorders (autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder), and potential therapies to ameliorate the loss of FMRP. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial affect learning restricted in major depression relative to anxiety disorders and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Norris, Catherine J; Hoxha, Denada; Irick, John Stockton; Hawkley, Louise C; Cacioppo, John T

    2014-01-01

    Detecting and learning the location of unpleasant or pleasant scenarios, or spatial affect learning, is an essential skill that safeguards well-being (Crawford & Cacioppo, 2002). Potentially altered by psychiatric illness, this skill has yet to be measured in adults with and without major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD). This study enrolled 199 adults diagnosed with MDD and AD (n=53), MDD (n=47), AD (n=54), and no disorders (n=45). Measures included clinical interviews, self-reports, and a validated spatial affect task using affective pictures (IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005). Participants with MDD showed impaired spatial affect learning of negative stimuli and irrelevant learning of pleasant pictures compared with non-depressed adults. Adults with MDD may use a "GOOD is UP" heuristic reflected by their impaired learning of the opposite correlation (i.e., "BAD is UP") and performance in the pleasant version of the task.