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Sample records for psychology learning memory

  1. The effect of surgical and psychological stress on learning and memory function in aged C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Li, C; Xu, Z; Zhao, S; Li, P; Cao, J; Mi, W

    2016-04-21

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an important complication following major surgery and general anesthesia in older patients. However, the etiology of POCD remains largely to be determined. It is unknown how surgical stress and psychological stress affect the postoperative learning and memory function in geriatric patients. We therefore established a pre-clinical model in aged C57BL/6 mice and aimed to investigate the effects of surgical stress and psychological stress on learning and memory function and the possible roles of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway. The surgical stress was induced by abdominal surgery under local anesthesia, and the psychological stress was induced by a communication box. Cognitive functions and markers of the AKT/mTOR pathway were assessed at 1, 3 and 7 days following the stress. The impairments of learning and memory function existed for up to 7 days following surgical stress and surgical stress plus psychological stress, whereas the psychological stress did not affect the cognitive function alone or combined with surgical stress. Analysis of brain tissue revealed a significant involvement of the AKT/mTOR pathway in the impairment of cognition. These data suggested that surgical stress could induce cognitive impairment in aged mice and perioperative psychological stress is not a constitutive factor of POCD. The AKT/mTOR pathway is likely involved as one of the underlying mechanisms of the development of POCD.

  2. The Psychology of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, A.; Balasubramanian, P.; Nirmala, R. Sweety

    2007-01-01

    Psychology plays a significant role in the life of each and every human being. Starting from childhood, if psychology of learning is utilized positively it would play a vital role in the building up of a bright career of a child. The explosion of information technology has been exercising far reaching influence on the area of educational…

  3. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  4. Learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Under various circumstances and in different species the outward expression of learning varies considerably, and this has led to the classification of different categories of learning. Just as there is no generally agreed on definition of learning, there is no one system of classification. Types of learning commonly recognized are: Habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, trial and error, taste aversion, latent learning, cultural learning, imprinting, insight learning, learning-set learning and instinct. The term memory must include at least two separate processes. It must involve, on the one hand, that of learning something and on the other, at some later date, recalling that thing. What lies between the learning and (he remembering must be some permanent record — a memory trace — within the brain. Memory exists in at least two forms: memory for very recent events (short-term which is relatively labile and easily disruptable; and long-term memory, which is much more stable. Not everything that gets into short-term memory becomes fixed in the long-term store; a filtering mechanism selects things that might be important and discards the rest.

  5. Towards a psychology of collective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, William; Manier, David

    2008-04-01

    This article discusses the place of psychology within the now voluminous social scientific literature on collective memory. Many social scientists locate collective memories in the social resources that shape them. For scholars adopting this perspective, collective memories are viewed as transcending individuals; that is, as being "in the world". Others recognise that, in the final analysis, individuals must remember collective as well as individual memories. These scholars treat collective memories as shared individual memories. We attempt to bridge these two approaches by distinguishing between the design of social resources and memory practices, on one hand, and on the other, the effectiveness of each in forming and transforming the memories held by individuals and the psychological mechanisms that guide this effectiveness.

  6. Human learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M K; Hasher, L

    1987-01-01

    There have been several notable recent trends in the area of learning and memory. Problems with the episodic/semantic distinction have become more apparent, and new efforts have been made (exemplar models, distributed-memory models) to represent general knowledge without assuming a separate semantic system. Less emphasis is being placed on stable, prestored prototypes and more emphasis on a flexible memory system that provides the basis for a multitude of categories or frames of reference, derived on the spot as tasks demand. There is increasing acceptance of the idea that mental models are constructed and stored in memory in addition to, rather than instead of, memorial representations that are more closely tied to perceptions. This gives rise to questions concerning the conditions that permit inferences to be drawn and mental models to be constructed, and to questions concerning the similarities and differences in the nature of the representations in memory of perceived and generated information and in their functions. There has also been a swing from interest in deliberate strategies to interest in automatic, unconscious (even mechanistic!) processes, reflecting an appreciation that certain situations (e.g. recognition, frequency judgements, savings in indirect tasks, aspects of skill acquisition, etc) seem not to depend much on the products of strategic, effortful or reflective processes. There is a lively interest in relations among memory measures and attempts to characterize memory representations and/or processes that could give rise to dissociations among measures. Whether the pattern of results reflects the operation of functional subsystems of memory and, if so, what the "modules" are is far from clear. This issue has been fueled by work with amnesics and has contributed to a revival of interaction between researchers studying learning and memory in humans and those studying learning and memory in animals. Thus, neuroscience rivals computer science as a

  7. Development of learning science after learning psychology

    OpenAIRE

    森, 敏昭

    2015-01-01

    Learning psychology began as a branch of psychology in the last couple of decades of the nineteenth century, and its history is therefore as long as that of psychology itself. However, learning science is a relatively young discipline: its development may be traced to 1991, when the first international conference was held and Journal of the Learning Sciences was first published. In the short subsequent period, learning science has grown rapidly as an interdisciplinary approach to learning and...

  8. [Learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombroso, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Memory is broadly divided into declarative and nondeclarative forms of memory. The hippocampus is required for the formation of declarative memories, while a number of other brain regions including the striatum, amygdala and nucleus accumbens are involved in the formation of nondeclarative memories. The formation of all memories require morphological changes of synapses: new ones must be formed or old ones strengthened. These changes are thought to reflect the underlying cellular basis for persistent memories. Considerable advances have occurred over the last decade in our understanding of the molecular bases of how these memories are formed. A key regulator of synaptic plasticity is a signaling pathway that includes the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. As this pathway is required for normal memory and learning, it is not surprising that mutations in members of this pathway lead to disruptions in learning. Neurofibromatosis, Coffin-Lowry syndrome and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome are three examples of developmental disorders that have mutations in key components of the MAP kinase signaling pathway.

  9. The Psychology of Learning Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemp, Richard R.

    This book deals with the teaching of mathematical concepts through the use of the psychology of human learning. In the first part of the book, the thought processes which people adopt when they do mathematics are analyzed psychologically. Interpersonal and emotional factors affecting the learning of mathematics are discussed. The second part of…

  10. Learning, memory, and synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here, we report on data from 11 color-grapheme synesthetes who had startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These are the first and only data to show learned synesthesia of this kind in more than a single individual. Whereas some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, our results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, in which perceptual contents are brought to mind in a manner akin to mental imagery or the perceptual-reinstatement effects found in memory studies.

  11. The Psychology of Delivering a Psychological Service: Self-Organised Learning as a Model for Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve; Jenner, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The article describes how one Educational Psychology Service in the UK developed a service delivery based on self-organised learning (SOL). This model is linked to the paradigms and discourses within which educational psychology and special educational needs work. The work described here is dedicated to the memory of Brian Roberts, academic, close…

  12. Learning and Memory in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses important recent strides in the documentation and understanding of the infant's learning and memory capacity. Focuses on the psychobiology of learning, hedonic mediation of approach-avoidance and learned behavior, infant memory, and critical conditions of infancy and behavioral misadventures. (RJC)

  13. Sleep stages, memory and learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Dotto, L

    1996-01-01

    Learning and memory can be impaired by sleep loss during specific vulnerable "windows" for several days after new tasks have been learned. Different types of tasks are differentially vulnerable to the loss of different stages of sleep. Memory required to perform cognitive procedural tasks is affected by the loss of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep on the first night after learning occurs and again on the third night after learning. REM-sleep deprivation on the second night after learning does n...

  14. Sleep stages, memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, L

    1996-04-15

    Learning and memory can be impaired by sleep loss during specific vulnerable "windows" for several days after new tasks have been learned. Different types of tasks are differentially vulnerable to the loss of different stages of sleep. Memory required to perform cognitive procedural tasks is affected by the loss of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep on the first night after learning occurs and again on the third night after learning. REM-sleep deprivation on the second night after learning does not produce memory deficits. Declarative memory, which is used for the recall of specific facts, is not similarly affected by REM-sleep loss. The learning of procedural motor tasks, including those required in many sports, is impaired by the loss of stage 2 sleep, which occurs primarily in the early hours of the morning. These findings have implications for the academic and athletic performance of students and for anyone whose work involves ongoing learning and demands high standards of performance.

  15. What College Teachers Should Know about Memory: A Perspective from Cognitive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle D.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive psychology has much to contribute to our understanding of the best ways to promote learning and memory in the college classroom. However, cognitive theory has evolved considerably in recent decades, and it is important for instructors to have an up-to-date understanding of these theories, particularly those--such as memory theories--that…

  16. What College Teachers Should Know about Memory: A Perspective from Cognitive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle D.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive psychology has much to contribute to our understanding of the best ways to promote learning and memory in the college classroom. However, cognitive theory has evolved considerably in recent decades, and it is important for instructors to have an up-to-date understanding of these theories, particularly those--such as memory theories--that…

  17. Molecular Basis of Memory and its Relation with Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego Cardozo, Mary; Tamayo Alzate, Oscar Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Learning and memory are cognitive functions that have been historically studied from different fields of knowledge, namely, philosophy, psychology and neurosciences. Recent contributions come from developments on cognitive sciences and, particularly, anthropology, linguistics, semiotics and artificial intelligence as well. As a whole, contributions from these different fields of knowledge have an important impact on education. Learning refers to a continuous change regarding behavior, ideas, ...

  18. Collective memory: a perspective from (experimental) clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Ineke; Moulds, Michelle L

    2008-04-01

    This paper considers the concept of collective memory from an experimental clinical psychology perspective. Exploration of the term collective reveals a broad distinction between literatures that view collective memories as a property of groups (collectivistic memory) and those that regard these memories as a property of individuals who are, to a greater or lesser extent, an integral part of their social environment (social memory). First, we argue that the understanding of collectivistic memory phenomena may benefit from drawing parallels with current psychological models such as the self-memory system theory of individualistic autobiographical memory. Second, we suggest that the social memory literature may inform the study of trauma-related disorders. We argue that a factual focus induced by collaborative remembering may be beneficial to natural recovery in the immediate aftermath of trauma, and propose that shared remembering techniques may provide a useful addition to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  19. Collective memory : A perspective from (experimental) clinical psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of collective memory from an experimental clinical psychology perspective. Exploration of the term collective reveals a broad distinction between literatures that view collective memories as a property of groups (collectivistic memory) and those that regard these mem

  20. Collective memory : A perspective from (experimental) clinical psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of collective memory from an experimental clinical psychology perspective. Exploration of the term collective reveals a broad distinction between literatures that view collective memories as a property of groups (collectivistic memory) and those that regard these mem

  1. Collective memory : A perspective from (experimental) clinical psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of collective memory from an experimental clinical psychology perspective. Exploration of the term collective reveals a broad distinction between literatures that view collective memories as a property of groups (collectivistic memory) and those that regard these

  2. Using Forensic Psychology to Teach Basic Psychological Processes: Eyewitness Memory and Lie Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers can incorporate topics in forensic psychology into lower level courses to increase student interest and to show how psychological processes influence outcomes in high-stakes applied contexts. One such topic is eyewitness identification, which teachers can use to show how stress affects memory and how memories can become distorted during…

  3. P300 correlates with learning & memory abilities and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hafeez Ullah; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Kamel, Nidal; Chooi, Weng-Tink; Hussain, Muhammad

    2015-09-23

    Educational psychology research has linked fluid intelligence with learning and memory abilities and neuroimaging studies have specifically associated fluid intelligence with event related potentials (ERPs). The objective of this study is to find the relationship of ERPs with learning and memory recall and predict the memory recall score using P300 (P3) component. A sample of thirty-four healthy subjects between twenty and thirty years of age was selected to perform three tasks: (1) Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) test to assess fluid intelligence; (2) learning and memory task to assess learning ability and memory recall; and (3) the visual oddball task to assess brain-evoked potentials. These subjects were divided into High Ability (HA) and Low Ability (LA) groups based on their RAPM scores. A multiple regression analysis was used to predict the learning & memory recall and fluid intelligence using P3 amplitude and latency. Behavioral results demonstrated that the HA group learned and recalled 10.89 % more information than did the LA group. ERP results clearly showed that the P3 amplitude of the HA group was relatively larger than that observed in the LA group for both the central and parietal regions of the cerebrum; particularly during the 300-400 ms time window. In addition, a shorter latency for the P3 component was observed at Pz site for the HA group compared to the LA group. These findings agree with previous educational psychology and neuroimaging studies which reported an association between ERPs and fluid intelligence as well as learning performance. These results also suggest that the P3 component is associated with individual differences in learning and memory recall and further indicate that P3 amplitude might be used as a supporting factor in standard psychometric tests to assess an individual's learning & memory recall ability; particularly in educational institutions to aid in the predictability of academic skills.

  4. Relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and psychological wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Theodore E A

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that autobiographical memory serves three basic functions in everyday life: self-definition, social connection, and directing behaviour (e.g., Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005). However, no research has examined relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and healthy functioning (i.e., psychological wellbeing). The present research examined the relations between the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory and three factors of psychological wellbeing in single and recurring autobiographical memories. A total of 103 undergraduate students were recruited and provided ratings of each function for four autobiographical memories (two single, two recurring events). Results found that individuals who use their autobiographical memories to serve self, social, and directive functions reported higher levels of Purpose and Communion and Positive Relationships, and that these relations differ slightly by event type.

  5. Task complexity as a driver for collaborative learning efficiency: The collective working-memory effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, F., Paas, F., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Task complexity as a driver for collaborative learning efficiency: The collective working-memory effect. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 615–624. doi: 10.1002/acp.1730.

  6. The neurobiology of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R F

    1986-08-29

    Study of the neurobiology of learning and memory is in a most exciting phase. Behavioral studies in animals are characterizing the categories and properties of learning and memory; essential memory trace circuits in the brain are being defined and localized in mammalian models; work on human memory and the brain is identifying neuronal systems involved in memory; the neuronal, neurochemical, molecular, and biophysical substrates of memory are beginning to be understood in both invertebrate and vertebrate systems; and theoretical and mathematical analysis of basic associative learning and of neuronal networks in proceeding apace. Likely applications of this new understanding of the neural bases of learning and memory range from education to the treatment of learning disabilities to the design of new artificial intelligence systems.

  7. The Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rihard F.

    1986-01-01

    Describes recent research findings in the area of neurobiology and its relationship to learning and memory. The article provides definitions of associative and nonassociative learning, identifies essential memory trace circuits of the mammalian brain, and discusses some neural mechanisms of learning. (TW)

  8. Properties of a memory network in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemann, Roseli S.; Donangelo, Raul; de Carvalho, Luís A. V.

    2007-12-01

    We have previously described neurotic psychopathology and psychoanalytic working-through by an associative memory mechanism, based on a neural network model, where memory was modelled by a Boltzmann machine (BM). Since brain neural topology is selectively structured, we simulated known microscopic mechanisms that control synaptic properties, showing that the network self-organizes to a hierarchical, clustered structure. Here, we show some statistical mechanical properties of the complex networks which result from this self-organization. They indicate that a generalization of the BM may be necessary to model memory.

  9. The multi-component model of working memory: explorations in experimental cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovs, G; Baddeley, A

    2006-04-28

    There are a number of ways one can hope to describe and explain cognitive abilities, each of them contributing a unique and valuable perspective. Cognitive psychology tries to develop and test functional accounts of cognitive systems that explain the capacities and properties of cognitive abilities as revealed by empirical data gathered by a range of behavioral experimental paradigms. Much of the research in the cognitive psychology of working memory has been strongly influenced by the multi-component model of working memory [Baddeley AD, Hitch GJ (1974) Working memory. In: Recent advances in learning and motivation, Vol. 8 (Bower GA, ed), pp 47-90. New York: Academic Press; Baddeley AD (1986) Working memory. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press; Baddeley A. Working memory: Thought and action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, in press]. By expanding the notion of a passive short-term memory to an active system that provides the basis for complex cognitive abilities, the model has opened up numerous questions and new lines of research. In this paper we present the current revision of the multi-component model that encompasses a central executive, two unimodal storage systems: a phonological loop and a visuospatial sketchpad, and a further component, a multimodal store capable of integrating information into unitary episodic representations, termed episodic buffer. We review recent empirical data within experimental cognitive psychology that has shaped the development of the multicomponent model and the understanding of the capacities and properties of working memory. Research based largely on dual-task experimental designs and on neuropsychological evidence has yielded valuable information about the fractionation of working memory into independent stores and processes, the nature of representations in individual stores, the mechanisms of their maintenance and manipulation, the way the components of working memory relate to each other, and the role they play in other

  10. Psychological myths in e-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Donald

    2002-11-01

    Traditional education and training has paid scant attention to the psychology of learning. Despite detailed research into motivation, distribution and reinforcement, most current methods of delivery still rely on a supply-led, lecture and classroom-based model that flies in the face of the theory. With e-learning we have a chance to reflect on this gap between theory and practice. E-learning, in the sense of web-based learning, is a new discipline but the psychology of learning has a much longer pedigree. This paper relates some common myths about e-learning back to some major themes in the psychology of learning. Is e-learning faster and more effective? Many people get the wrong learning at the wrong time. Can e-learning help with prerequisite knowledge? Should the learning be massed or distributed, i.e. all at once or little and often? There are also the issues of motivation and cognitive engagement. How can e-learning motivate learners or how can we motivate learners into using this new medium? What type of cognitive engagement is necessary for learning? Traditional 'sheep-dip' methods of learning are poor on reinforcement. Can e-learning help reinforce learning?

  11. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  12. Measuring Memory Reactivation With Functional MRI: Implications for Psychological Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Benjamin J; Wagner, Anthony D

    2013-01-01

    Environmental cues often remind us of earlier experiences by triggering the reactivation of memories of events past. Recent evidence suggests that memory reactivation can be observed using functional MRI and that distributed pattern analyses can even provide evidence of reactivation on individual trials. The ability to measure memory reactivation offers unique and powerful leverage on theoretical issues of long-standing interest in cognitive psychology, providing a means to address questions that have proven difficult to answer with behavioral data alone. In this article, we consider three instances. First, reactivation measures can indicate whether memory-based inferences (i.e., generalization) arise through the encoding of integrated cross-event representations or through the flexible expression of separable event memories. Second, online measures of memory reactivation may inform theories of forgetting by providing information about when competing memories are reactivated during competitive retrieval situations. Finally, neural reactivation may provide a window onto the role of replay in memory consolidation. The ability to track memory reactivation, including at the individual trial level, provides unique leverage that is not afforded by behavioral measures and thus promises to shed light on such varied topics as generalization, integration, forgetting, and consolidation.

  13. The Role of Odor-Evoked Memory in Psychological and Physiological Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel S. Herz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the special features of odor-evoked memory and the current state-of-the-art in odor-evoked memory research to show how these unique experiences may be able to influence and benefit psychological and physiological health. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that odors that evoke positive autobiographical memories have the potential to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation. Olfactory perception factors and individual difference characteristics that would need to be considered in therapeutic applications of odor-evoked-memory are also discussed. This article illustrates how through the experimentally validated mechanisms of odor-associative learning and the privileged neuroanatomical relationship that exists between olfaction and the neural substrates of emotion, odors can be harnessed to induce emotional and physiological responses that can improve human health and wellbeing.

  14. The Role of Odor-Evoked Memory in Psychological and Physiological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the special features of odor-evoked memory and the current state-of-the-art in odor-evoked memory research to show how these unique experiences may be able to influence and benefit psychological and physiological health. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that odors that evoke positive autobiographical memories have the potential to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation. Olfactory perception factors and individual difference characteristics that would need to be considered in therapeutic applications of odor-evoked-memory are also discussed. This article illustrates how through the experimentally validated mechanisms of odor-associative learning and the privileged neuroanatomical relationship that exists between olfaction and the neural substrates of emotion, odors can be harnessed to induce emotional and physiological responses that can improve human health and wellbeing. PMID:27447673

  15. Learning and memory under stress: implications for the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Schwabe, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Exams, tight deadlines and interpersonal conflicts are just a few examples of the many events that may result in high levels of stress in both students and teachers. Research over the past two decades identified stress and the hormones and neurotransmitters released during and after a stressful event as major modulators of human learning and memory processes, with critical implications for educational contexts. While stress around the time of learning is thought to enhance memory formation, thus leading to robust memories, stress markedly impairs memory retrieval, bearing, for instance, the risk of underachieving at exams. Recent evidence further indicates that stress may hamper the updating of memories in the light of new information and induce a shift from a flexible, 'cognitive' form of learning towards rather rigid, 'habit'-like behaviour. Together, these stress-induced changes may explain some of the difficulties of learning and remembering under stress in the classroom. Taking these insights from psychology and neuroscience into account could bear the potential to facilitate processes of education for both students and teachers.

  16. Learning and Memory in Zebrafish Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Christopher Roberts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory.

  17. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam C; Bill, Brent R; Glanzman, David L

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory.

  18. Neuropeptides in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbély, Eva; Scheich, Bálint; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2013-12-01

    Dementia conditions and memory deficits of different origins (vascular, metabolic and primary neurodegenerative such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) are getting more common and greater clinical problems recently in the aging population. Since the presently available cognitive enhancers have very limited therapeutical applications, there is an emerging need to elucidate the complex pathophysiological mechanisms, identify key mediators and novel targets for future drug development. Neuropeptides are widely distributed in brain regions responsible for learning and memory processes with special emphasis on the hippocampus, amygdala and the basal forebrain. They form networks with each other, and also have complex interactions with the cholinergic, glutamatergic, dopaminergic and GABA-ergic pathways. This review summarizes the extensive experimental data in the well-established rat and mouse models, as well as the few clinical results regarding the expression and the roles of the tachykinin system, somatostatin and the closely related cortistatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), opioid peptides and galanin. Furthermore, the main receptorial targets, mechanisms and interactions are described in order to highlight the possible therapeutical potentials. Agents not only symptomatically improving the functional impairments, but also inhibiting the progression of the neurodegenerative processes would be breakthroughs in this area. The most promising mechanisms determined at the level of exploratory investigations in animal models of cognitive disfunctions are somatostatin sst4, NPY Y2, PACAP-VIP VPAC1, tachykinin NK3 and galanin GALR2 receptor agonisms, as well as delta opioid receptor antagonism. Potent and selective non-peptide ligands with good CNS penetration are needed for further characterization of these molecular pathways to

  19. Psychology of Learning for Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Marcy P.

    This cognitively-oriented book focuses on learning and instruction. Specific applications and implications of learning theories are discussed and examples are drawn from educational situations and educational problems. Theoretical concepts are illustrated in concrete terms and a wide variety of examples are provided. The text embodies a theme of…

  20. Aspects of Fetal Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirix, Chantal E. H.; Nijhuis, Jan G.; Jongsma, Henk W.; Hornstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-three pregnant women were recruited to assess fetal learning and memory, based on habituation to repeated vibroacoustic stimulation of fetuses of 30-38 weeks gestational age (GA). Each habituation test was repeated 10 min later to estimate the fetal short-term memory. For Groups 30-36, both measurements were replicated in a second session…

  1. Learned Interval Time Facilitates Associate Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue-time-target associations between cue-target pairs and specific cue-target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying…

  2. The Project for a Scientific Psychology (1895): a Freudian anticipation of LTP-memory connection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Siracusano, Alberto; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2004-11-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is considered a reliable cellular model of several forms of learning and memory. Described for the first time in 1973, this synaptic phenomenon consists in the enduring facilitation of the communication between two neurons in response to the sustained activation of the synapses by which they are interconnected. In a book of 1895 entitled Project for a Scientific Psychology, Sigmund Freud theorized about the possibility of representing memory at the synaptic level as "a permanent alteration following an event", and anticipated several crucial physiological properties of LTP. In the present article we aim at presenting Freudian theory on the functional organization of the nervous system developed in the Project, with particular respect to his ideas of the cellular bases of memory.

  3. Learning and Memory in Zebrafish Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Christopher Roberts; Bill, Brent R; Glanzman, David L

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promisi...

  4. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R; Glanzman, David L

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promisin...

  5. Learning under stress impairs memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T

    2010-02-01

    Converging lines of evidence indicate that stress either before or after learning influences memory. Surprisingly little is known about how memory is affected when people learn while they are stressed. Here, we examined the impact of learning under stress in 48 healthy young men and women. Participants were exposed to stress (socially evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition while they learned emotional words and neutral words that were either conceptually associated with or unrelated to the stressor. Memory was assessed in free recall and recognition tests 24h after learning. Learning under stress reduced both free recall and recognition performance, irrespective of the emotionality and the stress context relatedness of the words. While the effect of stress was comparable in men and women, women outperformed men in the free recall test. These findings show a memory impairing effect of learning under stress in humans and challenge some assumptions of current theories about the impact of stress around the time of learning on memory formation.

  6. What's statistical about learning? Insights from modelling statistical learning as a set of memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Erik D

    2017-01-05

    Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms. Prior theoretical approaches to statistical learning have often tried to explain or model learning in a single task. However, in many cases these approaches appear inadequate to explain performance in multiple tasks. For example, explaining word segmentation via the computation of sequential statistics (such as transitional probability) provides little insight into the nature of sensitivity to regularities among simultaneously presented features. In this article, we will present a formal computational approach that we believe is a good candidate to provide a unifying framework to explore and explain learning in a wide variety of statistical learning tasks. This framework suggests that statistical learning arises from a set of processes that are inherent in memory systems, including activation, interference, integration of information and forgetting (e.g. Perruchet & Vinter 1998 Journal of Memory and Language 39: , 246-263; Thiessen et al. 2013 Psychological Bulletin 139: , 792-814). From this perspective, statistical learning does not involve explicit computation of statistics, but rather the extraction of elements of the input into memory traces, and subsequent integration across those memory traces that emphasize consistent information (Thiessen and Pavlik

  7. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  8. Can Learning and Memory be Understood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, John H.

    1986-01-01

    Projects that soon a complete mechanistic understanding of simple forms of learning will be available. Describes some of the recent advances in neuroscience and psychology in understanding the changes in neural circuits that occur during certain behavioral situations. Suggests that learning involves the activation of second messenger systems. (TW)

  9. Imaging learning and memory: classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, B G; Alkon, D L

    2001-12-15

    The search for the biological basis of learning and memory has, until recently, been constrained by the limits of technology to classic anatomic and electrophysiologic studies. With the advent of functional imaging, we have begun to delve into what, for many, was a "black box." We review several different types of imaging experiments, including steady state animal experiments that image the functional labeling of fixed tissues, and dynamic human studies based on functional imaging of the intact brain during learning. The data suggest that learning and memory involve a surprising conservation of mechanisms and the integrated networking of a number of structures and processes.

  10. Memories in Drosophila Heat-box Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Gabriele; Heisenberg, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Learning and memory processes of operant conditioning in the heat-box are analyzed. In a search for conditioning parameters leading to high retention scores, intermittent training is shown to give better results than those of continuous training. Immediate retention tests contain two memory components, a spatial preference for one side of the chamber and a “stay-where-you-are-effect.” Intermittent training strengthens the latter. In the second part, memory dynamics is investigated. Flies are trained in one chamber and tested in a second one after a brief reminder training. With this direct transfer, memory scores reflect an associative learning process in the first chamber. To investigate memory retention after extended time periods, indirect transfer experiments are performed. The fly is transferred to a different environment between training and test phases. With this procedure, an aftereffect of the training can still be observed 2 h later. Surprisingly, exposure to the chamber without conditioning also leads to a memory effect in the indirect transfer experiment. This exposure effect reveals a dispositional change that facilitates operant learning during the reminder training. The various memory effects are independent of the mushroom bodies. PMID:12359842

  11. Nicotine facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Anton L; Vartak, Devavrat; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a special type of non-declarative learning that involves experience-dependent plasticity in sensory cortices. The cholinergic system is known to modulate declarative learning. In particular, reduced levels or efficacy of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine were found to facilitate declarative memory consolidation. However, little is known about the role of the cholinergic system in memory consolidation of non-declarative learning. Here we compared two groups of non-smoking men who learned a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). One group received chewing tobacco containing nicotine for 1 h directly following the TDT training. The other group received a similar tasting control substance without nicotine. Electroencephalographic recordings during substance consumption showed reduced alpha activity and P300 latencies in the nicotine group compared to the control group. When re-tested on the TDT the following day, both groups responded more accurately and more rapidly than during training. These improvements were specific to the retinal location and orientation of the texture elements of the TDT suggesting that learning involved early visual cortex. A group comparison showed that learning effects were more pronounced in the nicotine group than in the control group. These findings suggest that oral consumption of nicotine enhances the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings further suggest that enhanced efficacy of the cholinergic system facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning (and possibly other types of non-declarative learning). In that regard acetylcholine seems to affect consolidation processes in perceptual learning in a different manner than in declarative learning. Alternatively, our findings might reflect dose-dependent cholinergic modulation of memory consolidation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  12. Physical exercise, neuroplasticity, spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassilhas, Ricardo C; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-03-01

    There has long been discussion regarding the positive effects of physical exercise on brain activity. However, physical exercise has only recently begun to receive the attention of the scientific community, with major interest in its effects on the cognitive functions, spatial learning and memory, as a non-drug method of maintaining brain health and treating neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric conditions. In humans, several studies have shown the beneficial effects of aerobic and resistance exercises in adult and geriatric populations. More recently, studies employing animal models have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity related to physical exercise-induced spatial learning and memory improvement, even under neurodegenerative conditions. In an attempt to clarify these issues, the present review aims to discuss the role of physical exercise in the improvement of spatial learning and memory and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neuroplasticity.

  13. Autobiographical memory and psychological distress in a sample of upper-limb amputees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Luchetti

    Full Text Available Amputation is a traumatic and life-changing event that can take years to adjust to. The present study (a examines psychological adjustment in a specific trauma-exposed sample, (b compares the phenomenology (e.g., vividness of amputation-related memories to more recent memories, and (c tests whether memory phenomenology is associated with psychological distress. A total of 24 upper-limb amputees recalled two autobiographical memories--an amputation-related memory and a recent memory--and rated the phenomenological qualities of each memory, including Vividness, Coherence, Emotional Intensity, Visual Perspective, and Distancing. Participants also completed self-rated measures of psychological distress and personality. The sample was generally well adjusted; participants showed no relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression, and personality scores were similar to the general population. There were no significant differences in phenomenology between the two types of memories recalled. Even though amputation-related memories were, on average, almost 20 years older than the recent memories, they retained their intense phenomenology. Despite the intensity of the memory, none of the phenomenological dimensions were associated with psychological distress. It is worth to further define which dimensions of phenomenology characterize memories of traumatic events, and their association with individuals' psychological reactions.

  14. Autobiographical memory and psychological distress in a sample of upper-limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Martina; Montebarocci, Ornella; Rossi, Nicolino; Cutti, Andrea G; Sutin, Angelina R

    2014-01-01

    Amputation is a traumatic and life-changing event that can take years to adjust to. The present study (a) examines psychological adjustment in a specific trauma-exposed sample, (b) compares the phenomenology (e.g., vividness) of amputation-related memories to more recent memories, and (c) tests whether memory phenomenology is associated with psychological distress. A total of 24 upper-limb amputees recalled two autobiographical memories--an amputation-related memory and a recent memory--and rated the phenomenological qualities of each memory, including Vividness, Coherence, Emotional Intensity, Visual Perspective, and Distancing. Participants also completed self-rated measures of psychological distress and personality. The sample was generally well adjusted; participants showed no relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression, and personality scores were similar to the general population. There were no significant differences in phenomenology between the two types of memories recalled. Even though amputation-related memories were, on average, almost 20 years older than the recent memories, they retained their intense phenomenology. Despite the intensity of the memory, none of the phenomenological dimensions were associated with psychological distress. It is worth to further define which dimensions of phenomenology characterize memories of traumatic events, and their association with individuals' psychological reactions.

  15. System Consolidation During Sleep - A Common Principle Underlying Psychological and Immunological Memory Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, Jürgen; Lange, Tanja; Textor, Johannes; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly conv

  16. System consolidation during sleep - a common principle underlying psychological and immunological memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, J.; Lange, T.; Textor, J.C.; Born, J. van den

    2015-01-01

    Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly conv

  17. Serotonin and emotion, learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo; Liy-Salmeron, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamien, 5-HT) has been linked to emotional and motivational aspects of human behavior, including anxiety, depression, impulsivity, etc. Several clinically effective drugs exert effects via 5-HT systems. Growing evidence suggests that those effects play an important role in learning and memory. Whether the role of serotonin is related to memory and/or behavioral or emotional aspects remains an important question. A key question that remains is whether 5-HT markers (e.g., receptors) directly or indirectly participate and/or contribute to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis. The major aim of this paper is to re-examine some recent advances regarding mammalian 5-HT receptors and transporter in light of their physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for memory. We particularly address evidence involving 5-HT systems in behavioral, pharmacological, molecular, genetic and imaging results and memory. Finally, this paper aims to summarize a portion of the evidence about serotonin, memory and emotion from animal and human studies and provide an overview of potential tools, markers and cellular and molecular candidate mechanisms. It should be noted that there are several subjects that this paper only briefly touches upon, presenting only what may be the most salient findings in the context of memory, emotion and serotonin.

  18. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  19. Computerized tools in psychology: cross cultural and genetically informative studies of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismatullina V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we presented the computerized tools for psychological studies of memory. The importance of implementing computerized automated tools for psychological studies is discussed. It has been shown that this tools can be used both for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies. The validity of these tools for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies of memory can be seen as the first step to use automated computerized tools for big data collection in psychology.

  20. Do not forget Full memory in memory-based learning of word pronunciation

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Bosch, A; Bosch, Antal van den; Daelemans, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Memory-based learning, keeping full memory of learning material, appears a viable approach to learning NLP tasks, and is often superior in generalisation accuracy to eager learning approaches that abstract from learning material. Here we investigate three partial memory-based learning approaches which remove from memory specific task instance types estimated to be exceptional. The three approaches each implement one heuristic function for estimating exceptionality of instance types: (i) typicality, (ii) class prediction strength, and (iii) friendly-neighbourhood size. Experiments are performed with the memory-based learning algorithm IB1-IG trained on English word pronunciation. We find that removing instance types with low prediction strength (ii) is the only tested method which does not seriously harm generalisation accuracy. We conclude that keeping full memory of types rather than tokens, and excluding minority ambiguities appear to be the only performance-preserving optimisations of memory-based learning...

  1. Memory Reconsolidation and Computational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Siegelmann-Danieli and H.T. Siegelmann, "Robust Artificial Life Via Artificial Programmed Death," Artificial Inteligence 172(6-7), April 2008: 884-898. F...STATEMENT Unrestricted 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 20100402019 14. ABSTRACT Memory models are central to Artificial Intelligence and Machine...beyond [1]. The advances cited are a significant step toward creating Artificial Intelligence via neural networks at the human level. Our network

  2. Trauma, memory, testimony: phenomenological, psychological, and ethical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Welz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How can severely traumatized persons re-present the past and its impact on the present if (due to blackout, repression, or dissociation they could not witness what they went through, or can hardly recall it? Drawing on Holocaust testimonies, this article explores the crisis of witnessing constituted by the Shoah and, more generally, problems of integrating and communicating traumatic experiences. Phenomenological, psychological, and ethical perspectives contribute to a systematic investigation of the relation between trauma, memory and testimony. I will argue that preserving personal continuity across the gap between past and present presupposes not only an ‘inner witness’ – which can, according to a long philosophical tradition, be identified with a person’s conscience – but also a social context in which one is addressed and can respond. An attentive listener can bear witness to the witness by accepting the assignation of responsibility implied in testimonial interaction, and thereby support the dialogic restitution of memory and identity.

  3. Assessing spatial learning and memory in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Maneuvering safely through the environment is central to survival of almost all species. The ability to do this depends on learning and remembering locations. This capacity is encoded in the brain by two systems: one using cues outside the organism (distal cues), allocentric navigation, and one using self-movement, internal cues and nearby proximal cues, egocentric navigation. Allocentric navigation involves the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and surrounding structures; in humans this system encodes allocentric, semantic, and episodic memory. This form of memory is assessed in laboratory animals in many ways, but the dominant form of assessment is the Morris water maze (MWM). Egocentric navigation involves the dorsal striatum and connected structures; in humans this system encodes routes and integrated paths and, when overlearned, becomes procedural memory. In this article, several allocentric assessment methods for rodents are reviewed and compared with the MWM. MWM advantages (little training required, no food deprivation, ease of testing, rapid and reliable learning, insensitivity to differences in body weight and appetite, absence of nonperformers, control methods for proximal cue learning, and performance effects) and disadvantages (concern about stress, perhaps not as sensitive for working memory) are discussed. Evidence-based design improvements and testing methods are reviewed for both rats and mice. Experimental factors that apply generally to spatial navigation and to MWM specifically are considered. It is concluded that, on balance, the MWM has more advantages than disadvantages and compares favorably with other allocentric navigation tasks.

  4. THE TRANSACTIVE MEMORY SYSTEM AND GROUP LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article lies in the understanding of the learning process that occurs in cross-functional groups in automotive companies in light of the Transactive Memory System (TMS. The specific objectives describe the working methodology applied for the operation of multifunctional groups and its relation to learning; the main factors that facilitate group learning and the moments which there was evidence of group learning. The research methodology used is qualitative and exploratory approaches due to the fact those approaches has been less explored in the academic environment. Two different organizations were investigated: the first one is a multinational which works with a strategy of offering complete innovation product, and the other with strategy of offering incremental innovative products for the automotive industry. The results indicated that the fact TMS acts as an important facilitator of group learning.

  5. Situated Learning: What Ever Happened to Educational Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the diminishing contributions of psychology in teacher preparation programs. Using situated learning as a basis for discussion, I have argued that a student may take a course in educational psychology and then subsequently discover that subsequent preparation may ignore those psychological "caveats" regarding the…

  6. Genetic neuroscience of mammalian learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegawa, Susumu; Nakazawa, Kazu; Wilson, Matthew A

    2003-04-29

    Our primary research interest is to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms on neuronal circuitry underlying the acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory in rodents. We study these problems by producing genetically engineered (i.e. spatially targeted and/or temporally restricted) mice and analysing these mice by multifaceted methods including molecular and cellular biology, in vitro and in vivo physiology and behavioural studies. We attempt to identify deficits at each of the multiple levels of complexity in specific brain areas or cell types and deduce those deficits that underlie specific learning or memory. We will review our recent studies on the acquisition, consolidation and recall of memories that have been conducted with mouse strains in which genetic manipulations were targeted to specific types of cells in the hippocampus or forebrain of young adult mice.

  7. Some neglected contributions of Wilhelm Wundt to the psychology of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K

    2005-08-01

    Wilhelm Wundt, whose name is rarely associated with the scientific study of memory, conducted a number of memory experiments that appear to have escaped the awareness of modern cognitive psychologists. Aspects of Wundt's system are reviewed, particularly with respect to his experimental work on memory. Wundt investigated phenomena that would fall under the modern headings of iconic memory, short-term memory, and the enactment and generation effects, but this research has been neglected. Revisiting the Wundtian perspective may provide insight into some of the reasons behind the historical course of memory research and in general into the progress of science in psychology.

  8. An Analysis and Corresponding Strategies of Memory Difficulties Caused by Psychological Factors in Consecutive Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轲

    2014-01-01

    This paper is composed of three parts. The first part presents Gile’s effort model and memory mechanism in consecu⁃tive interpreting. In the second part and the third part, the author analyzes the psychological factors that cause memory difficulties and proposes corresponding strategies on the basis of the analysis. At last,the author draws a conclusion based on the discussion of the whole paper that sufficient preparation, appropriate pressure and perceived memory can avoid memory difficulties caused by psychological factors.

  9. Out of the Ghetto: Psychological Bases of Dialogic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Carrión, Rocío

    2012-01-01

    The conception of learning in the information society has been affected by the dialogic turn of educational psychology. The effective teaching-learning processes respond more and more to the communicative conception of learning in which dialogue and interaction are key elements. In this framework, the dialogic learning emerges as an…

  10. Psychological Climates in Action Learning Sets: A Manager's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon-Lee, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Action learning (AL) is often viewed as a process that facilitates professional learning through the creation of a positive psychological climate [Marquardt, M. J. 2000. "Action Learning and Leadership." "The Learning Organisation" 7 (5): 233-240; Schein, E. H. 1979. "Personal Change Through Interpersonal…

  11. Memory Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Long-Term Retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Memory Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Long-Term Retention. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The results were reflected in the students' short-term and long-term memory retention.

  12. Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, S.; Hermans, E.J.; Marle, H.J.F. van; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute psychological stress impairs higher-order cognitive function such as working memory (WM). Similar impairments are seen in various psychiatric disorders that are associated with higher susceptibility to stress and with prefrontal cortical dysfunctions, suggesting that acute stress

  13. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF FEAR LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Joshua P.; Cain, Christopher K.; Ostroff, Linnaea E.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is a useful behavioral paradigm for exploring the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory because a well-defined response to a specific environmental stimulus is produced through associative learning processes. Synaptic plasticity in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) underlies this form of associative learning. Here we summarize the molecular mechanisms that contribute to this synaptic plasticity in the context of auditory fear conditioning, the form of fear conditioning best understood at the molecular level. We discuss the neurotransmitter systems and signaling cascades that contribute to three phases of auditory fear conditioning: acquisition, consolidation, and reconsolidation. These studies suggest that multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including those triggered by activation of Hebbian processes and neuromodulatory receptors, interact to produce neural plasticity in the LA and behavioral fear conditioning. Together, this research illustrates the power of fear conditioning as a model system for characterizing the mechanisms of learning and memory in mammals, and potentially for understanding fear related disorders, such as PTSD and phobias. PMID:22036561

  14. Robust short-term memory without synaptic learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Johnson

    Full Text Available Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can--as a gradual modification of synaptic weights--since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds. The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings.

  15. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can – as a gradual modification of synaptic weights – since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  16. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory: Modulation and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Granger, R. (1988). Analysis and simulation of a simple cor- tical network. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 22, in press. Standing, L. (1973...R.H. and Schlimmer, J.C. The Computation of Contingency in Clas- sical Conditioning. The Psychology of ’ Learning and Motivation 20: 137-192, 1986...simulation of a simple cortical network. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, in press. Lynch, G., Granger, R.H., and Larson, J. Some possible functions

  17. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  18. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  19. Integrated learning: Ways of fostering the applicability of teachers’ pedagogical and psychological knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora eHarr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In teacher education, general pedagogical and psychological knowledge is often taught separately from the teaching subject itself, potentially leading to inert knowledge. In an experimental study with 69 mathematics student teachers, we tested the benefits of fostering the integration of pedagogical content knowledge and general pedagogical and psychological knowledge with respect to knowledge application. Integration was fostered either by integrating the contents or by prompting the learners to integrate separately-taught knowledge. Fostering integration, as compared to a separate presentation without integration help, led to more applicable pedagogical and psychological knowledge and greater simultaneous application of pedagogical and psychological knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. The advantages of fostering knowledge integration were not moderated by the student teachers’ prior knowledge or working memory capacity. A disadvantage of integrating different knowledge types referred to increased learning times.

  20. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  1. Contributions of Language and Memory Demands to Verbal Memory Performance in Language-Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaki, Emi; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of adults with language-based learning disorders (L/LD) and normal language controls on verbal short-term and verbal working memory tasks. Eighteen adults with L/LD and 18 normal language controls were compared on verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory tasks under low,…

  2. A Pilot Memory Café for People with Learning Disabilities and Memory Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddle, Hannah; Drew, Neil; Crabbe, Paul; Wigmore, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Memory cafés have been found to normalise experiences of dementia and provide access to an accepting social network. People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of developing dementia, but the possible benefits of attending a memory café are not known. This study evaluates a 12-week pilot memory café for people with learning…

  3. Working Memory and Learning: A Practical Guide for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathercole, Susan E.; Alloway, Tracy Packiam

    2008-01-01

    A good working memory is crucial to becoming a successful leaner, yet there is very little material available in an easy-to-use format that explains the concept and offers practitioners ways to support children with poor working memory in the classroom. This book provides a coherent overview of the role played by working memory in learning during…

  4. Psychological Type and Asynchronous Written Dialogue in Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Cranton, Patricia; Bridglall, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how adults learn from asynchronous written dialogue through the lens of psychological type preferences. We asked participants to discover their dominant and auxiliary psychological preferences using the Personal Empowerment through Type inventory. Participants then completed an open-ended survey in which they described their…

  5. A Jigsaw Puzzle Approach To Learning History in Introductory Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Believes that it may be daunting for some students to learn about the history of psychology. Describes a teaching strategy that uses jigsaw puzzles to teach about the historical terms of structuralism, functionalism, and gestalt psychology. Finds that students performed better on test questions related to these three concepts after using this…

  6. The Psychology of Mathematics Learning: Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education and Urban Society, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Reviews trends in applying psychology to mathematics learning. Discusses the influence of behaviorism and other functionalist theories, Gestalt theory, Piagetian theory, and the "new functionalism" evident in computer-oriented theories of information processing. (GC)

  7. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  8. The role of NPY in learning and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, C. R.; Woldbye, D. P. D.

    2016-01-01

    with Y1 receptor-mediated neurogenesis could constitute necessary steps in consolidation and long-term retention of spatial memory. Altogether, NPY-induced effects on learning and memory seem to be biphasic, anatomically and temporally differential, and in support of a modulatory role of NPY at keeping......High levels of NPY expression in brain regions important for learning and memory together with its neuromodulatory and neurotrophic effects suggest a regulatory role for NPY in memory processes. Therefore it is not surprising that an increasing number of studies have provided evidence for NPY...... acting as a modulator of neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and memory. Here these results are presented in relation to the types of memory affected by NPY and its receptors. NPY can exert both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on memory, depending on memory type and phase, dose applied, brain region...

  9. Working Memory Capacity: An Individual Differences Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-27

    visible lanmage. 355-370, NY: Plenum. Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In G. A. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation...control architecture for working memory. The Psychology of learning and memory 21. G.H. Bower (Ed.). NY: Academic Press. Shepard, R. N., & Metzler, J

  10. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  11. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  12. Auditory Discrimination Learning: Role of Working Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Perceptual training is generally assumed to improve perception by modifying the encoding or decoding of sensory information. However, this assumption is incompatible with recent demonstrations that transfer of learning can be enhanced by across-trial variation of training stimuli or task. Here we present three lines of evidence from healthy adults in support of the idea that the enhanced transfer of auditory discrimination learning is mediated by working memory (WM. First, the ability to discriminate small differences in tone frequency or duration was correlated with WM measured with a tone n-back task. Second, training frequency discrimination around a variable frequency transferred to and from WM learning, but training around a fixed frequency did not. The transfer of learning in both directions was correlated with a reduction of the influence of stimulus variation in the discrimination task, linking WM and its improvement to across-trial stimulus interaction in auditory discrimination. Third, while WM training transferred broadly to other WM and auditory discrimination tasks, variable-frequency training on duration discrimination did not improve WM, indicating that stimulus variation challenges and trains WM only if the task demands stimulus updating in the varied dimension. The results provide empirical evidence as well as a theoretic framework for interactions between cognitive and sensory plasticity during perceptual experience.

  13. Test-enhanced learning versus errorless learning in aphasia rehabilitation: testing competing psychological principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Erica L; Schwartz, Myrna F; Rawson, Katherine A; Garvey, Kelly

    2015-07-01

    Because individuals with acquired language disorders are frequently unable to reliably access the names of common everyday objects (i.e., naming impairment), rehabilitation efforts often focus on improving naming. The present study compared 2 rehabilitation strategies for naming impairment, reflecting contradictory prescriptions derived from different theoretical principles. The prescription derived from psychological research on test-enhanced learning advocates providing patients opportunities to retrieve target names from long-term memory (i.e., retrieval practice) in the course of treatment. In contrast, the errorless learning approach derived from cognitive rehabilitation research eschews retrieval practice in favor of methods that minimize naming errors, and thus the potential for error learning, in the course of treatment. The present study directly compared these approaches and showed that, despite superior (and errorless) performance during errorless treatment, treatment that prioritized retrieval practice produced greater retention 1-day and 1-week following treatment. These findings have implications for clinical practice, as well as theoretical accounts of lexical access and test-enhanced learning.

  14. Working memory and reward association learning impairments in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Nolan-Poupart, Sarah; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn; Small, Dana M

    2014-12-01

    Obesity has been associated with impaired executive functions including working memory. Less explored is the influence of obesity on learning and memory. In the current study we assessed stimulus reward association learning, explicit learning and memory and working memory in healthy weight, overweight and obese individuals. Explicit learning and memory did not differ as a function of group. In contrast, working memory was significantly and similarly impaired in both overweight and obese individuals compared to the healthy weight group. In the first reward association learning task the obese, but not healthy weight or overweight participants consistently formed paradoxical preferences for a pattern associated with a negative outcome (fewer food rewards). To determine if the deficit was specific to food reward a second experiment was conducted using money. Consistent with Experiment 1, obese individuals selected the pattern associated with a negative outcome (fewer monetary rewards) more frequently than healthy weight individuals and thus failed to develop a significant preference for the most rewarded patterns as was observed in the healthy weight group. Finally, on a probabilistic learning task, obese compared to healthy weight individuals showed deficits in negative, but not positive outcome learning. Taken together, our results demonstrate deficits in working memory and stimulus reward learning in obesity and suggest that obese individuals are impaired in learning to avoid negative outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Elegant Mind: Learning and Memory in "Caenorhabditis elegans"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiel, Evan L.; Rankin, Catharine H.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on learning and memory in the soil-dwelling nematode "Caenorhabditis elegans." Paradigms include nonassociative learning, associative learning, and imprinting, as worms have been shown to habituate to mechanical and chemical stimuli, as well as learn the smells, tastes, temperatures, and oxygen levels that…

  16. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  17. Are We Ready for a Psychology of Learning and Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosniadou, Stella

    1991-01-01

    It is argued that recent findings in the study of learning and cognitive science have established a basis for a psychology of learning taking culture into account. Two aspects beyond those discussed are the construction of culture itself and how conceptual models influence the physical reality of culture. (SLD)

  18. Immune modulation of learning, memory, neural plasticity and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirmiya, Raz; Goshen, Inbal

    2011-02-01

    Over the past two decades it became evident that the immune system plays a central role in modulating learning, memory and neural plasticity. Under normal quiescent conditions, immune mechanisms are activated by environmental/psychological stimuli and positively regulate the remodeling of neural circuits, promoting memory consolidation, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and neurogenesis. These beneficial effects of the immune system are mediated by complex interactions among brain cells with immune functions (particularly microglia and astrocytes), peripheral immune cells (particularly T cells and macrophages), neurons, and neural precursor cells. These interactions involve the responsiveness of non-neuronal cells to classical neurotransmitters (e.g., glutamate and monoamines) and hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids), as well as the secretion and responsiveness of neurons and glia to low levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and TNFα, as well as other mediators, such as prostaglandins and neurotrophins. In conditions under which the immune system is strongly activated by infection or injury, as well as by severe or chronic stressful conditions, glia and other brain immune cells change their morphology and functioning and secrete high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins. The production of these inflammatory mediators disrupts the delicate balance needed for the neurophysiological actions of immune processes and produces direct detrimental effects on memory, neural plasticity and neurogenesis. These effects are mediated by inflammation-induced neuronal hyper-excitability and adrenocortical stimulation, followed by reduced production of neurotrophins and other plasticity-related molecules, facilitating many forms of neuropathology associated with normal aging as well as neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Solcoseryl improves learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnicka, M M; Braszko, J J; Wisniewski, K

    1996-01-01

    Our previous experiments have shown that Solcoseryl (S), a protein-free extract of calves' blood stimulates locomotor activity and decreases haloperidol catalepsy in rats. In this study the influence of S on acquisition, consolidation, and recall of both, conditioned avoidance responses (CARs) and passive avoidance behaviour was tested. S at the intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of 1.25 ml/kg significantly improved acquisition and at the dose of 1.0 ml/kg recall of CARs. In the passive avoidance situation the significant effect on acquisition and recall of information was observed after i.p. injection of 1.0 ml/kg of S, and on consolidation after 0.75 ml/kg. These data indicate that S may positively affect the CNS processes responsible for learning and memory.

  20. CyberPsychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Genghui; Huang, Shuang; Sun, Xuemin; Hu, Feng; Hu, Hongzhi; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners' initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners' interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners' psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners' situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners' psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners' psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners' habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns.

  1. Properties and mechanisms of olfactory learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michelle T; Peace, Shane T; Cleland, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Memories are dynamic physical phenomena with psychometric forms as well as characteristic timescales. Most of our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the neurophysiology of memory, however, derives from one-trial learning paradigms that, while powerful, do not fully embody the gradual, representational, and statistical aspects of cumulative learning. The early olfactory system-particularly olfactory bulb-comprises a reasonably well-understood and experimentally accessible neuronal network with intrinsic plasticity that underlies both one-trial (adult aversive, neonatal) and cumulative (adult appetitive) odor learning. These olfactory circuits employ many of the same molecular and structural mechanisms of memory as, for example, hippocampal circuits following inhibitory avoidance conditioning, but the temporal sequences of post-conditioning molecular events are likely to differ owing to the need to incorporate new information from ongoing learning events into the evolving memory trace. Moreover, the shapes of acquired odor representations, and their gradual transformation over the course of cumulative learning, also can be directly measured, adding an additional representational dimension to the traditional metrics of memory strength and persistence. In this review, we describe some established molecular and structural mechanisms of memory with a focus on the timecourses of post-conditioning molecular processes. We describe the properties of odor learning intrinsic to the olfactory bulb and review the utility of the olfactory system of adult rodents as a memory system in which to study the cellular mechanisms of cumulative learning.

  2. Properties and mechanisms of olfactory learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T Tong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Memories are dynamic physical phenomena with psychometric forms as well as characteristic timescales. Most of our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the neurophysiology of memory, however, derives from one-trial learning paradigms that, while powerful, do not fully embody the gradual, representational, and statistical aspects of cumulative learning. The early olfactory system -- particularly olfactory bulb -- comprises a reasonably well-understood and experimentally accessible neuronal network with intrinsic plasticity that underlies both one-trial (adult aversive, neonatal and cumulative (adult appetitive odor learning. These olfactory circuits employ many of the same molecular and structural mechanisms of memory as, for example, hippocampal circuits following inhibitory avoidance conditioning, but the temporal sequences of post-conditioning molecular events are likely to differ owing to the need to incorporate new information from ongoing learning events into the evolving memory trace. Moreover, the shapes of acquired odor representations, and their gradual transformation over the course of cumulative learning, also can be directly measured, adding an additional representational dimension to the traditional metrics of memory strength and persistence. In this review, we describe some established molecular and structural mechanisms of memory with a focus on the timecourses of post-conditioning molecular processes. We describe the properties of odor learning intrinsic to the olfactory bulb and review the utility of the olfactory system of adult rodents as a memory system in which to study the cellular mechanisms of cumulative learning.

  3. Diversity of learning psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakova, Tatiana

    2002-04-01

    As the subject of this Conference is 'Diversity and its Limits: New Directions in Analytical Psychology and Psychoanalysis', I would like to investigate some aspects of education at our Institute--the East European Institute of Psychoanalysis--from the point of view of the meeting of West and East. I will look at the influence of this diversity on the formation and development of psychoanalysis and analytical psychology in Russia.

  4. Animal learning and memory: an integration of cognition and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Susan D; Jones, Catherine M

    2002-01-01

    A wonderfully lucid framework for the ways to understand animal behaviour is that represented by the four 'whys' proposed by Tinbergen (1963). For much of the past three decades, however, these four avenues have been pursued more or less in parallel. Functional questions, for example, have been addressed by behavioural ecologists, mechanistic questions by psychologists and ethologists, ontogenetic questions by developmental biologists and neuroscientists and phylogenetic questions by evolutionary biologists. More recently, the value of integration between these differing views has become apparent. In this brief review, we concentrate especially on current attempts to integrate mechanistic and functional approaches. Most of our understanding of learning and memory in animals comes from the psychological literature, which tends to use only rats or pigeons, and more occasionally primates, as subjects. The underlying psychological assumption is of general processes that are similar across species and contexts rather than a range of specific abilities. However, this does not seem to be entirely true as several learned behaviours have been described that are specific to particular species or contexts. The first conspicuous exception to the generalist assumption was the demonstration of long delay taste aversion learning in rats (Garcia et al., 1955), in which it was shown that a stimulus need not be temporally contiguous with a response for the animal to make an association between food and illness. Subsequently, a number of other examples, such as imprinting and song learning in birds (e.g., Bolhuis and Honey, 1998; Catchpole and Slater, 1995; Horn, 1998), have been thoroughly researched. Even in these cases, however, it has been typical for only a few species to be studied (domestic chicks provide the 'model' imprinting species and canaries and zebra finches the song learning 'models'). As a result, a great deal is understood about the neural underpinnings and

  5. FKBP5 polymorphisms influence pre-learning stress-induced alterations of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Dailey, Alison M; Nagle, Hannah E; Fiely, Miranda K; Mosley, Brianne E; Brown, Callie M; Duffy, Tessa J; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2017-03-01

    FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) is a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 90 and significantly influences glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene are associated with altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, changes in the structure and function of several cognitive brain areas, and increased susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, bipolar disorder and suicidal events. The mechanisms underlying these associations are largely unknown, but it has been speculated that the influence of these SNPs on emotional memory systems may play a role. In the present study, 112 participants were exposed to the socially evaluated cold pressor test (stress) or control (no stress) conditions immediately prior to learning a list of 42 words. Participant memory was assessed immediately after learning (free recall) and 24 h later (free recall and recognition). Participants provided a saliva sample that enabled the genotyping of three FKBP5 polymorphisms: rs1360780, rs3800373 and rs9296158. Results showed that stress impaired immediate recall in risk allele carriers. More importantly, stress enhanced long-term recall and recognition memory in non-carriers of the risk alleles, effects that were completely absent in risk allele carriers. Follow-up analyses revealed that memory performance was correlated with salivary cortisol levels in non-carriers, but not in carriers. These findings suggest that FKBP5 risk allele carriers may possess a sensitized stress response system, perhaps specifically for stress-induced changes in corticosteroid levels, which might aid our understanding of how SNPs in the FKBP5 gene confer increased risk for stress-related psychological disorders and their related phenotypes.

  6. The first students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”

    OpenAIRE

    Kochetkov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a survey on the First students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kon- dratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”. The conference demonstrated a number of best works by students at bachelor and master level, which were done in accordance with classical national tradition in social psychology studies. Thematically the conference spreads to such topics as: psychology of small groups, social psychol- ogy of an individual, ethnic psychology, social psychology of education, psyc...

  7. The first students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”

    OpenAIRE

    Kochetkov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a survey on the First students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kon- dratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”. The conference demonstrated a number of best works by students at bachelor and master level, which were done in accordance with classical national tradition in social psychology studies. Thematically the conference spreads to such topics as: psychology of small groups, social psychol- ogy of an individual, ethnic psychology, social psychology of education, psyc...

  8. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. Methods: In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, SID, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by keywords such as memory, Alzheimer, amnesia, learning and scientific plant names from 1969 to 2014. Results: The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of certain ITM medicinal plants on enhancing memory and learning or in the treatment/prevention of amnesia and AD. Some ITM plants like Melissa officinalis, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa showed improving effects on memory and the treatment of AD in clinical trials. In some cases, active principles responsible for the efficacy of these plants on memory were also determined. Discussion: Most of the studies on ITM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Furthermore, there are insufficient or no investigations on certain herbal medicines used in ITM to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these plants on memory and AD as well as determining their active components. PMID:27516676

  9. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. Methods: In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, SID, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by keywords such as memory, Alzheimer, amnesia, learning and scientific plant names from 1969 to 2014. Results: The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of certain ITM medicinal plants on enhancing memory and learning or in the treatment/prevention of amnesia and AD. Some ITM plants like Melissa officinalis, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa showed improving effects on memory and the treatment of AD in clinical trials. In some cases, active principles responsible for the efficacy of these plants on memory were also determined. Discussion: Most of the studies on ITM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Furthermore, there are insufficient or no investigations on certain herbal medicines used in ITM to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these plants on memory and AD as well as determining their active components. PMID:27840509

  10. Learning with New Information Technologies in Schools: Perspectives from the Psychology of Learning and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corte, Erik

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of new information technology in schools and reviews research on the psychology of learning and instruction. Highlights include a theory of expertise; individual differences in learning; the role of prior knowledge; social interaction and learning; transfer of cognitive skills; and designing computer-based learning environments.…

  11. Mental Time Travel, Memory and the Social Learning Strategies Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, L.; Rendell, L.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    The social learning strategies tournament was an open computer-based tournament investigating the best way to learn in a changing environment. Here we present an analysis of the impact of memory on the ability of strategies entered into the social learning strategies tournament (Rendell, Boyd, et al., 2010) to modify their own behavior to suit a…

  12. Judgments of Learning Are Influenced by Memory for Past Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Bridgid; Metcalfe, Janet

    2008-01-01

    The Underconfidence with Practice (UPW) effect [Koriat, A., Sheffer, L., & Ma'ayan, H. (2002). Comparing objective and subjective learning curves: Judgment of learning exhibit increased underconfidence with practice. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131", 147-162.], found in multi-trial learning, is marked by a pattern of…

  13. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vasant More

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson’s disease dementia and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  14. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Cho, Duk-Yeon; Yun, Yo-Sep; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-09-01

    Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  15. New episodic learning interferes with the reconsolidation of autobiographical memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Schwabe

    Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that, with time, an initially labile memory is transformed into a permanent one via a process of consolidation. Yet, recent evidence indicates that memories can return to a fragile state again when reactivated, requiring a period of reconsolidation. In the study described here, we found that participants who memorized a story immediately after they had recalled neutral and emotional experiences from their past were impaired in their memory for the neutral (but not for the emotional experiences one week later. The effect of learning the story depended critically on the preceding reactivation of the autobiographical memories since learning without reactivation had no effect. These results suggest that new learning impedes the reconsolidation of neutral autobiographical memories.

  16. The role of NPY in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gøtzsche, C R; Woldbye, D P D

    2016-02-01

    High levels of NPY expression in brain regions important for learning and memory together with its neuromodulatory and neurotrophic effects suggest a regulatory role for NPY in memory processes. Therefore it is not surprising that an increasing number of studies have provided evidence for NPY acting as a modulator of neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and memory. Here these results are presented in relation to the types of memory affected by NPY and its receptors. NPY can exert both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on memory, depending on memory type and phase, dose applied, brain region, and NPY receptor subtypes. Thus NPY act as a resilience factor by impairing associative implicit memory after stressful and aversive events, as evident in models of fear conditioning, presumably via Y1 receptors in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In addition, NPY impairs acquisition but enhances consolidation and retention in models depending on spatial and discriminative types of associative explicit memory, presumably involving Y2 receptor-mediated regulations of hippocampal excitatory transmission. Moreover, spatial memory training leads to increased hippocampal NPY gene expression that together with Y1 receptor-mediated neurogenesis could constitute necessary steps in consolidation and long-term retention of spatial memory. Altogether, NPY-induced effects on learning and memory seem to be biphasic, anatomically and temporally differential, and in support of a modulatory role of NPY at keeping the system in balance. Obtaining further insight into memory-related effects of NPY could inspire the engineering of new therapeutics targeting diseases where impaired learning and memory are central elements.

  17. Aging Memory Is "Not" a Limiting Factor for Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalovic, Dejan; Gvozdenovic, Vasilije

    2015-01-01

    Efficient memory is one of the necessary cognitive potentials required for virtually every form of lifelong learning. In this contribution we first briefly review and summarize state of the art of knowledge on memory and related cognitive functions in normal aging. Then we critically discuss a relatively short inventory of clinical, psychometric,…

  18. Working Memory Underpins Cognitive Development, Learning, and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson

    2014-06-01

    Working memory is the retention of a small amount of information in a readily accessible form. It facilitates planning, comprehension, reasoning, and problem-solving. I examine the historical roots and conceptual development of the concept and the theoretical and practical implications of current debates about working memory mechanisms. Then I explore the nature of cognitive developmental improvements in working memory, the role of working memory in learning, and some potential implications of working memory and its development for the education of children and adults. The use of working memory is quite ubiquitous in human thought, but the best way to improve education using what we know about working memory is still controversial. I hope to provide some directions for research and educational practice.

  19. Brief, pre-learning stress reduces false memory production and enhances true memory selectively in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Kalchik, Andrea E; Hoffman, Mackenzie M; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Woelke, Sarah A; Wolters, Nicholas E; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2014-04-10

    Some of the previous research on stress-memory interactions has suggested that stress increases the production of false memories. However, as accumulating work has shown that the effects of stress on learning and memory depend critically on the timing of the stressor, we hypothesized that brief stress administered immediately before learning would reduce, rather than increase, false memory production. In the present study, participants submerged their dominant hand in a bath of ice cold water (stress) or sat quietly (no stress) for 3 min. Then, participants completed a short-term memory task, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, in which they were presented with 10 different lists of semantically related words (e.g., candy, sour, sugar) and, after each list, were tested for their memory of presented words (e.g., candy), non-presented unrelated "distractor" words (e.g., hat), and non-presented semantically related "critical lure" words (e.g., sweet). Stress, overall, significantly reduced the number of critical lures recalled (i.e., false memory) by participants. In addition, stress enhanced memory for the presented words (i.e., true memory) in female, but not male, participants. These findings reveal that stress does not unequivocally enhance false memory production and that the timing of the stressor is an important variable that could mediate such effects. Such results could have important implications for understanding the dependability of eyewitness accounts of events that are observed following stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Memory Transformation Enhances Reinforcement Learning in Dynamic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Adam; Frankland, Paul W; Richards, Blake A

    2016-11-30

    Over the course of systems consolidation, there is a switch from a reliance on detailed episodic memories to generalized schematic memories. This switch is sometimes referred to as "memory transformation." Here we demonstrate a previously unappreciated benefit of memory transformation, namely, its ability to enhance reinforcement learning in a dynamic environment. We developed a neural network that is trained to find rewards in a foraging task where reward locations are continuously changing. The network can use memories for specific locations (episodic memories) and statistical patterns of locations (schematic memories) to guide its search. We find that switching from an episodic to a schematic strategy over time leads to enhanced performance due to the tendency for the reward location to be highly correlated with itself in the short-term, but regress to a stable distribution in the long-term. We also show that the statistics of the environment determine the optimal utilization of both types of memory. Our work recasts the theoretical question of why memory transformation occurs, shifting the focus from the avoidance of memory interference toward the enhancement of reinforcement learning across multiple timescales.

  1. Reinforcement Learning and Episodic Memory in Humans and Animals: An Integrative Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2017-01-03

    We review the psychology and neuroscience of reinforcement learning (RL), which has experienced significant progress in the past two decades, enabled by the comprehensive experimental study of simple learning and decision-making tasks. However, one challenge in the study of RL is computational: The simplicity of these tasks ignores important aspects of reinforcement learning in the real world: (a) State spaces are high-dimensional, continuous, and partially observable; this implies that (b) data are relatively sparse and, indeed, precisely the same situation may never be encountered twice; furthermore, (c) rewards depend on the long-term consequences of actions in ways that violate the classical assumptions that make RL tractable. A seemingly distinct challenge is that, cognitively, theories of RL have largely involved procedural and semantic memory, the way in which knowledge about action values or world models extracted gradually from many experiences can drive choice. This focus on semantic memory leaves out many aspects of memory, such as episodic memory, related to the traces of individual events. We suggest that these two challenges are related. The computational challenge can be dealt with, in part, by endowing RL systems with episodic memory, allowing them to (a) efficiently approximate value functions over complex state spaces, (b) learn with very little data, and (c) bridge long-term dependencies between actions and rewards. We review the computational theory underlying this proposal and the empirical evidence to support it. Our proposal suggests that the ubiquitous and diverse roles of memory in RL may function as part of an integrated learning system.

  2. Cholesterol and Copper Affect Learning and Memory in the Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Schreurs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease including beta amyloid accumulation and learning and memory changes. Although we have shown that feeding 2% cholesterol and adding copper to the drinking water can retard learning, other studies have shown that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition and feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explore the development of this model, the issues surrounding the role of copper, and the particular contributions of the late D. Larry Sparks.

  3. THE ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES IN LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gurzu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient evidence has accumulated since the 1970s to support the hypothesis that gonadal steroids can influence processes that allow an organism to learn and remember new information. Although this conclusion quickly leads to exciting implications for our understanding of cognitive function and for the treatment of cognitive disability, it also raises questions regarding the nature, mechanism, and significance of the steroid modulation of learning and memory. In order to support the case that a steroid plays a meaningful role in cognition, several central issues must be addressed : adaptative value (the proposed effect of the steroid on learning and memory should have adaptive value to the organism; strenght of effect (empirical data supporting the role of the steroid in learning and memory should be sufficiently robust in magnitude and replicability; neural substrate (anatomical and physilogical substrates should exist to support the actions of the steroid on learning and memory ; and nonmnemonic processes (processes other than those directly mediating steroid effects on learning and memory systems should be identified (23. Sufficient evidence has accumulated since the 1970s to support the hypothesis that gonadal steroids can influence processes that allow an organism to learn and remember new information. Although this conclusion quickly leads to exciting implications for our understanding of cognitive function and for the treatment of cognitive disability, it also raises questions regarding the nature, mechanism, and significance of the steroid modulation of learning and memory. In order to support the case that a steroid plays a meaningful role in cognition, several central issues must be addressed : adaptative value (the proposed effect of the steroid on learning and memory should have adaptive value to the organism; strenght of effect (empirical data supporting the role of the steroid in learning and memory should be sufficiently robust

  4. Skill and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-30

    Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and-Motivation, Vol. 16, Academic Press, in press. 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on revees side It necoessar md...Spence & J.T. Spence (Eds.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory. New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1968...Cognition, 1981, 10, 17-23. Baddeley, A.D. & Hitch, G. Working Memory. In G.. Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation. : ,1974. Biederman

  5. Dementia worry and its relationship to dementia exposure, psychological factors, and subjective memory concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzer, Adrianna; Suhr, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    With increased societal awareness of dementia, older adults show increased concern about developing dementia, leading to misidentification of aging-related cognitive glitches as signs of dementia. While some researchers have suggested self-reported cognitive concerns accurately identify older adults with early signs of dementia, there is evidence that subjective cognitive decline is not associated with objective cognitive performance and instead reflects psychological factors consistent with models of health anxiety, including dementia worry. We examined the construct of dementia worry and its relationship to subjective memory concerns in 100 older adults (Mage = 69 years) without signs of dementia, using a recently developed measure of dementia worry. Consistent with hypotheses, dementia worry was related to exposure to dementia, having a high number of depressive or general worry symptoms, and having more memory concerns. Exposure to dementia moderated the relationship of dementia worry to depression and general worry. Furthermore, dementia worry moderated the relationship of objective memory impairment to subjective memory ratings. The results provide further evidence of the role of psychological factors such as dementia worry in subjective memory report and emphasize the need for objective cognitive testing before making determinations about dementia in older adults expressing memory concerns.

  6. An efficient learning algorithm for associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Batalama, S N

    2000-01-01

    Associative memories (AMs) can be implemented using networks with or without feedback. In this paper we utilize a two-layer feedforward neural network and propose a new learning algorithm that efficiently implements the association rule of a bipolar AM. The hidden layer of the network employs p neurons where p is the number of prototype patterns. In the first layer, the input pattern activates at most one hidden layer neuron or "winner." In the second layer, the "winner" associates the input pattern to the corresponding prototype pattern. The underlying association principle is minimum Hamming distance and the proposed scheme can be viewed also as an approximately minimum Hamming distance decoder. Theoretical analysis supported by simulations indicates that, in comparison with other suboptimum minimum Hamming distance association schemes, the proposed structure exhibits the following favorable characteristics: 1) It operates in one-shot which implies no convergence-time requirements; 2) it does not require any feedback; and 3) our case studies show that it exhibits superior performance than the popular linear system in a saturated mode (LSSM). The network also exhibits 4) exponential capacity and 5) easy performance assessment (no asymptotic analysis is necessary). Finally, since it does not require any hidden layer interconnections or tree-search operations, it exhibits low structural as well as operational complexity.

  7. Language learning - physiological and psychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Tarnoveanu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several stages in the linguistic development of a child; he will not merely reproduce the sentences he hears, but a personal production is often noticed. Children do not acquire the grammar of their native language through theoretical teaching; exposure to the speaking community will lead to the acquisition of the grammatical structures of their language. Little is known about how little children acquire the rules of their native language; yet, we may distinguish between physiological and psychological aspects.

  8. Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon.

  9. Memory processes in learning disability subtypes of children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L; Richman, Lynn C; Nopoulos, Peg C; Bell, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory or visual memory performances between language and perceptual-motor learning disability groups. Within-group comparisons revealed that both learning disability groups performed significantly lower on a task of immediate memory when the mode of stimulus presentation and mode of response were visual.

  10. IMM: a multisystem memory model for conceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mai Sabry

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of learning and memory are closely related, and the terms often describe the same processes. Conceptual learning is known to be the process of developing abstract rules or mental constructs based on sensory experience. The Integrated Model of Mind (IMM), introduced in the present work, is a theoretical multisystem memory model that describes how concepts are formed. The IMM in its design arranges memory systems after their function in an integrated and harmonized sequence. It provides answers to some limitations of Tulving's serial-parallel-independent (SPI) model and suggests a new assumption with respect to mental representation and image schema construction through the process of encoding.

  11. The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel selectively impairs learning while sparing source memory and spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexandra E; Slivicki, Richard A; Hohmann, Andrea G; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents are widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of these therapies is undermined by their adverse side-effect profiles such as cognitive deficits that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Cognitive side effects occur across a variety of domains, including memory, executive function, and processing speed. Such impairments are exacerbated under cognitive challenges and a subgroup of patients experience long-term impairments. Episodic memory in rats can be examined using a source memory task. In the current study, rats received paclitaxel, a taxane-derived chemotherapeutic agent, and learning and memory functioning was examined using the source memory task. Treatment with paclitaxel did not impair spatial and episodic memory, and paclitaxel treated rats were not more susceptible to cognitive challenges. Under conditions in which memory was not impaired, paclitaxel treatment impaired learning of new rules, documenting a decreased sensitivity to changes in experimental contingencies. These findings provide new information on the nature of cancer chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairments, particularly regarding the incongruent vulnerability of episodic memory and new learning following treatment with paclitaxel.

  12. Olfactory learning and memory in the bumblebee Bombus occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Andre J.; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2009-07-01

    In many respects, the behavior of bumblebees is similar to that of the closely related honeybees, a long-standing model system for learning and memory research. Living in smaller and less regulated colonies, bumblebees are physiologically more robust and thus have advantages in particular for indoor experiments. Here, we report results on Pavlovian odor conditioning of bumblebees using the proboscis extension reflex (PER) that has been successfully used in honeybee learning research. We examine the effect of age, body size, and experience on learning and memory performance. We find that age does not affect learning and memory ability, while body size positively correlates with memory performance. Foraging experience seems not to be necessary for learning to occur, but it may contribute to learning performance as bumblebees with more foraging experience on average were better learners. The PER represents a reliable tool for learning and memory research in bumblebees and allows examining interspecific similarities and differences of honeybee and bumblebee behavior, which we discuss in the context of social organization.

  13. The endocannabinoid system and associative learning and memory in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Tim; Moesbauer, Kirstin; Oellers, Nadine; von der Emde, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    In zebrafish the medial pallium of the dorsal telencephalon represents an amygdala homolog structure, which is crucially involved in emotional associative learning and memory. Similar to the mammalian amygdala, the medial pallium contains a high density of endocannabinoid receptor CB1. To elucidate the role of the zebrafish endocannabinoid system in associative learning, we tested the influence of acute and chronic administration of receptor agonists (THC, WIN55,212-2) and antagonists (Rimonabant, AM-281) on two different learning paradigms. In an appetitively motivated two-alternative choice paradigm, animals learned to associate a certain color with a food reward. In a second set-up, a fish shuttle-box, animals associated the onset of a light stimulus with the occurrence of a subsequent electric shock (avoidance conditioning). Once fish successfully had learned to solve these behavioral tasks, acute receptor activation or inactivation had no effect on memory retrieval, suggesting that established associative memories were stable and not alterable by the endocannabinoid system. In both learning tasks, chronic treatment with receptor antagonists improved acquisition learning, and additionally facilitated reversal learning during color discrimination. In contrast, chronic CB1 activation prevented aversively motivated acquisition learning, while different effects were found on appetitively motivated acquisition learning. While THC significantly improved behavioral performance, WIN55,212-2 significantly impaired color association. Our findings suggest that the zebrafish endocannabinoid system can modulate associative learning and memory. Stimulation of the CB1 receptor might play a more specific role in acquisition and storage of aversive learning and memory, while CB1 blocking induces general enhancement of cognitive functions.

  14. Team-Based Learning Improves Course Outcomes in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Lisa L.; Hudson, Nathan W.; Henricks-Lepp, Genevieve M.; Street, Whitney S.; Weidenbenner, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of team-based learning (TBL) methods on exam performance and student satisfaction in an introductory psychology class. Fifteen instructors teaching 29 sections (with a combined enrollment of approximately 1,130 students) were randomly assigned to use TBL for 7 of 12 major topics or to use lecture. All students…

  15. Bingo!: An Engaging Activity for Learning Physiological Terms in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanags, Thea; George, Amanda M.; Grace, Diana M.; Brown, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain Bingo is a tutorial activity for helping undergraduate psychology students learn complex physiological terms. In two experiments, the authors tested pretest and posttest knowledge, and in Experiment 2, the authors tested retention after 5 weeks. In Experiment 1 (n = 41), the experimental group (Brain Bingo) recalled more terms than the…

  16. Encoding of fear learning and memory in distributed neuronal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herry, Cyril; Johansen, Joshua P

    2014-12-01

    How sensory information is transformed by learning into adaptive behaviors is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Studies of auditory fear conditioning have revealed much about the formation and expression of emotional memories and have provided important insights into this question. Classical work focused on the amygdala as a central structure for fear conditioning. Recent advances, however, have identified new circuits and neural coding strategies mediating fear learning and the expression of fear behaviors. One area of research has identified key brain regions and neuronal coding mechanisms that regulate the formation, specificity and strength of fear memories. Other work has discovered critical circuits and neuronal dynamics by which fear memories are expressed through a medial prefrontal cortex pathway and coordinated activity across interconnected brain regions. Here we review these recent advances alongside prior work to provide a working model of the extended circuits and neuronal coding mechanisms mediating fear learning and memory.

  17. Impaired learning and memory in CD38 null mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Somi; Kim, TaeHyun; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Jang, Eun-Hye; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Kang, Minkyung; Rah, So-Young; Yoo, Juyoun; Lee, Bolam; Kim, Jae-Ick; Lim, Chae Seok; Kim, Sang Jeong; Kim, Uh-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-02-09

    CD38 is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic ADP ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate, both of which are involved in the mobilization of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. Recently, CD38 has been shown to regulate oxytocin release from hypothalamic neurons. Importantly, CD38 mutations are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and CD38 knockout (CD38(-/-)) mice display ASD-like behavioral phenotypes including deficient parental behavior and poor social recognition memory. Although ASD and learning deficits commonly co-occur, the role of CD38 in learning and memory has not been investigated. We report that CD38(-/-) mice show deficits in various learning and memory tasks such as the Morris water maze, contextual fear conditioning, and the object recognition test. However, either long-term potentiation or long-term depression is not impaired in the hippocampus of CD38(-/-) mice. Our results provide convincing evidence that CD38(-/-) mice show deficits in various learning and memory tasks including spatial and non-spatial memory tasks. Our data demonstrate that CD38 is critical for regulating hippocampus-dependent learning and memory without modulating synaptic plasticity.

  18. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 in Learning and Memory Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonyi, Agnes; Schachtman, Todd; Christoffersen, Gert Rene Juul

    2005-01-01

    signaling mechanisms have also been revealed. MGluR5s are mainly localized postsynaptically on the periphery of synap-ses. MGluR5s have been implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. The development of the highly potent and selective mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl...... and radial arm maze performance as well as in contextual fear conditioning, but not in cue conditioning. This review summarizes recent advances reported on mGluR5 function in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. The current development of positive and negative allosteric modulators of mGluR5...... will provide new pharmacological tools to enhance our knowledge of these receptors in physiological and pathophysiological processes and will further facilitate new investigations on mGluR5 as a therapeutic target for a range of neurological and psychological disorders....

  19. The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

  20. Daily running promotes spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei, Hojjatallah; Moloudi, Rohallah; Sarkaki, Ali Reza; Azizi-Malekabadi, Hamid; Hanninen, Osmo

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that physical activity improves learning and memory. Present study was performed to determine the effects of acute, chronic and continuous exercise with different periods on spatial learning and memory recorded as the latency and length of swim path in the Morris water maze testing in subsequent 8 days. Four rat groups were included as follows: 1- Group C (controls which did not exercise). 2- Group A (30 days treadmill running before and 8 days during the Morris water maze testing period). 3- Group B (30 days exercise before the Morris water maze testing period only) and 4- Group D (8 days exercise only during the Morris water maze testing period). The results showed that chronic (30 days) and continuous (during 8 days of Morris water maze testing days) treadmill training produced a significant enhancement in spatial learning and memory which was indicated by decreases in path length and latency to reach the platform in the Morris water maze test (p learning and memory in Morris water maze, but the benefits were lost in few days without daily running sessions in adult rats. Key pointsDaily running influence on spatial memory.The velocity of learning can be influenced by running activity.Path length is important parameter for measuring the speed of learning.

  1. ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 12 April). ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognition, He

  2. What is happening in psychology of learning courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattal, K A; McFarland, J M; Joyce, J H

    1990-01-01

    Current practices in the undergraduate Psychology of Learning course were assessed through a survey in which a questionnaire probing the teaching of the course was sent to 238 4-year colleges and universities in the United States. Fifty-four percent of the questionnaires were returned. Learning courses were taught at all but 10 of the schools that responded. The course typically is one of several that can be selected to fulfill requirements for the major in psychology. The course orientation and content varied widely from cognitive to eclectic to behavioral, and laboratory requirements existed in less than half of the courses. The effects of these practices on behavior analysis are considered and several suggestions are made for teaching behavior analysis in the Learning course and elsewhere to undergraduates.

  3. Language, learning, and memory in children with and without single-suture craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp-Simon, Kathleen A; Wallace, Erin; Collett, Brent R; Cradock, Mary Michaeleen; Crerand, Canice E; Speltz, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The language and memory functions of children with and without single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC) were compared at school age (mean 7.45 years, standard deviation [SD] 0.54 years). The children in this cohort were originally recruited in infancy and prior to cranial surgery for those with SSC. METHODS Individual evaluations of 179 school-aged children with SSC and 183 controls were conducted (70% of the original cohort) using standardized measures of language, learning, and memory. Parents participated in an interview about specialized education interventions and school progress. Parents and teachers completed questionnaires about language development. RESULTS Children with SSC (cases) obtained lower scores than controls on all measures. The adjusted differences in language, learning, and memory scores were modest, with SD ranging from 0.0 to -0.4 (p values ranged from 0.001 to 0.99). Censored normal regression was used to account for intervention services received prior to the school-age evaluation; this increased case-control differences (SD range 0.1 to -0.5, p value range 0.001 to 0.50). Mean scores for cases in each SSC diagnostic group were lower than those for controls, with the greatest differences observed among children with unilateral coronal craniosynostosis. CONCLUSIONS Children with SSC continue to show poorer performance than controls on language, learning, and memory tasks at early elementary school age, even when controlling for known confounders, although mean differences are small. Multidisciplinary care, including direct psychological assessment, for children with SSC should extend through school age with a specific focus on language and conceptual learning, as these are areas of potential risk. Future research is needed to investigate language, memory, and learning for this population during the middle to high school years.

  4. Emotion Regulation of Memories Central to Our Identity: The Relationship with Concurrent and Prospective Psychological Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Berntsen, Dorthe

    and posttraumatic stress symptoms beyond event valence and dispositional emotion regulation. Memory suppresion and reflection upon central events were not related to psychological symptoms. None of the emotion regulation strategies employed for low-centrality events were related to psychological symptoms...... examined. Non-clinical participants (N = 216) identified low and high-centrality events and reported the extent to which they employed a selection of emotion regulation strategies when remembering each event. Dispositional emotion regulation, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were also...

  5. Epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodeling in learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Somi; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms of memory formation and maintenance has been a major goal in the field of neuroscience. Memory formation and maintenance are tightly controlled complex processes. Among the various processes occurring at different levels, gene expression regulation is especially crucial for proper memory processing, as some genes need to be activated while some genes must be suppressed. Epigenetic regulation of the genome involves processes such as DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications. These processes edit genomic properties or the interactions between the genome and histone cores. They then induce structural changes in the chromatin and lead to transcriptional changes of different genes. Recent studies have focused on the concept of chromatin remodeling, which consists of 3D structural changes in chromatin in relation to gene regulation, and is an important process in learning and memory. In this review, we will introduce three major epigenetic processes involved in memory regulation: DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation. We will also discuss general mechanisms of long-term memory storage and relate the epigenetic control of learning and memory to chromatin remodeling. Finally, we will discuss how epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to the pathologies of neurological disorders and cause memory-related symptoms. PMID:28082740

  6. Attention, Working Memory, and Long-Term Memory in Multimedia Learning: An Integrated Perspective Based on Process Models of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of multimedia learning such as the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer 2009) or the Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller 1999) are based on different cognitive models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley 1986) and long-term memory. The current paper describes a working memory model that has recently gained popularity in basic…

  7. Attention, Working Memory, and Long-Term Memory in Multimedia Learning: An Integrated Perspective Based on Process Models of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of multimedia learning such as the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer 2009) or the Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller 1999) are based on different cognitive models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley 1986) and long-term memory. The current paper describes a working memory model that has recently gained popularity in basic…

  8. Evolving neural networks with iterative learning scheme for associative memory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Sh

    1995-01-01

    A locally iterative learning (LIL) rule is adapted to a model of the associative memory based on the evolving recurrent-type neural networks composed of growing neurons. There exist extremely different scale parameters of time, the individual learning time and the generation in evolution. This model allows us definite investigation on the interaction between learning and evolution. And the reinforcement of the robustness against the noise is also achieved in the evolutional scheme.

  9. Psychological intervention with working memory training increases basal ganglia volume: A VBM study of inpatient treatment for methamphetamine use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Brooks, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: While psychological intervention is associated with larger volume in mesolimbic reward regions, the utilisation of additional working memory training as an adjunct to treatment may further normalize frontostriatal structure and function.

  10. From Augustine of Hippo's Memory Systems to Our Modern Taxonomy in Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience of Memory: A 16-Century Nap of Intuition before Light of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Cassel, Daniel; Manning, Lilianne

    2013-03-01

    Over the last half century, neuropsychologists, cognitive psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists interested in human memory have accumulated evidence showing that there is not one general memory function but a variety of memory systems deserving distinct (but for an organism, complementary) functional entities. The first attempts to organize memory systems within a taxonomic construct are often traced back to the French philosopher Maine de Biran (1766-1824), who, in his book first published in 1803, distinguished mechanical memory, sensitive memory and representative memory, without, however, providing any experimental evidence in support of his view. It turns out, however, that what might be regarded as the first elaborated taxonomic proposal is 14 centuries older and is due to Augustine of Hippo (354-430), also named St Augustine, who, in Book 10 of his Confessions, by means of an introspective process that did not aim at organizing memory systems, nevertheless distinguished and commented on sensible memory, intellectual memory, memory of memories, memory of feelings and passion, and memory of forgetting. These memories were envisaged as different and complementary instances. In the current study, after a short biographical synopsis of St Augustine, we provide an outline of the philosopher's contribution, both in terms of questions and answers, and focus on how this contribution almost perfectly fits with several viewpoints of modern psychology and neuroscience of memory about human memory functions, including the notion that episodic autobiographical memory stores events of our personal history in their what, where and when dimensions, and from there enables our mental time travel. It is not at all meant that St Augustine's elaboration was the basis for the modern taxonomy, but just that the similarity is striking, and that the architecture of our current viewpoints about memory systems might have preexisted as an outstanding intuition in the philosopher

  11. Memory for Lectures: How Lecture Format Impacts the Learning Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trish L Varao-Sousa

    Full Text Available The present study investigated what impact the presentation style of a classroom lecture has on memory, mind wandering, and the subjective factors of interest and motivation. We examined if having a professor lecturing live versus on video alters the learning experience of the students in the classroom. During the lectures, students were asked to report mind wandering and later complete a memory test. The lecture format was manipulated such that all the students received two lectures, one live and one a pre-recorded video. Results indicate that lecture format affected memory performance but not mind wandering, with enhanced memory in the live lectures. Additionally, students reported greater interest and motivation in the live lectures. Given that a single change to the classroom environment, professor presence, impacted memory performance, as well as motivation and interest, the present results have several key implications for technology-based integrations into higher education classrooms.

  12. Memory for Lectures: How Lecture Format Impacts the Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varao-Sousa, Trish L; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated what impact the presentation style of a classroom lecture has on memory, mind wandering, and the subjective factors of interest and motivation. We examined if having a professor lecturing live versus on video alters the learning experience of the students in the classroom. During the lectures, students were asked to report mind wandering and later complete a memory test. The lecture format was manipulated such that all the students received two lectures, one live and one a pre-recorded video. Results indicate that lecture format affected memory performance but not mind wandering, with enhanced memory in the live lectures. Additionally, students reported greater interest and motivation in the live lectures. Given that a single change to the classroom environment, professor presence, impacted memory performance, as well as motivation and interest, the present results have several key implications for technology-based integrations into higher education classrooms.

  13. Errorless learning of prospective memory tasks: An experimental investigation in people with memory disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica E.; Manly, Tom; Kopelman, Michael D.; Morris, Robin G.

    2015-01-01

    The term prospective memory (PM) refers to memory for future intentions. PM problems are frequent in people with cognitive impairment and, because they are central to the realisation of many everyday goals, are important in rehabilitation. Event-based PM tasks (EBPM) are environmentally-cued and have primarily mnemonic demands, whereas time-based PM tasks (TBPM) require self-initiated retrieval, and have greater executive demands. Errorless learning (EL) is an encoding method that results in superior retrospective memory compared with “errorful” learning (EF). As this EL advantage (ELA) likely stems from its reduced explicit memory demands, and there is no such advantage for executive tasks, a greater ELA for EBPM than TBPM was predicted. Fourteen adults with neurological memory impairment completed PM tasks under four counterbalanced conditions: EL of EBPM, EL of TBPM, EF of EBPM, and EF of TBPM. A significant ELA was observed for EBPM (d = .63), but not TBPM (d = –.01). These results extend the evidence for EL within cognitive rehabilitation, by showing for the first time that the method can benefit future action in addition to retrospective memory. The clinical implications are also clear: errorless learning techniques may be usefully employed to support completion of day-to-day EBPM tasks. PMID:24894460

  14. Errorless learning of prospective memory tasks: An experimental investigation in people with memory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica E; Manly, Tom; Kopelman, Michael D; Morris, Robin G

    2015-01-01

    The term prospective memory (PM) refers to memory for future intentions. PM problems are frequent in people with cognitive impairment and, because they are central to the realisation of many everyday goals, are important in rehabilitation. Event-based PM tasks (EBPM) are environmentally-cued and have primarily mnemonic demands, whereas time-based PM tasks (TBPM) require self-initiated retrieval, and have greater executive demands. Errorless learning (EL) is an encoding method that results in superior retrospective memory compared with "errorful" learning (EF). As this EL advantage (ELA) likely stems from its reduced explicit memory demands, and there is no such advantage for executive tasks, a greater ELA for EBPM than TBPM was predicted. Fourteen adults with neurological memory impairment completed PM tasks under four counterbalanced conditions: EL of EBPM, EL of TBPM, EF of EBPM, and EF of TBPM. A significant ELA was observed for EBPM (d = .63), but not TBPM (d = -.01). These results extend the evidence for EL within cognitive rehabilitation, by showing for the first time that the method can benefit future action in addition to retrospective memory. The clinical implications are also clear: errorless learning techniques may be usefully employed to support completion of day-to-day EBPM tasks.

  15. New perspectives on the auditory cortex: learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Norman M

    2015-01-01

    Primary ("early") sensory cortices have been viewed as stimulus analyzers devoid of function in learning, memory, and cognition. However, studies combining sensory neurophysiology and learning protocols have revealed that associative learning systematically modifies the encoding of stimulus dimensions in the primary auditory cortex (A1) to accentuate behaviorally important sounds. This "representational plasticity" (RP) is manifest at different levels. The sensitivity and selectivity of signal tones increase near threshold, tuning above threshold shifts toward the frequency of acoustic signals, and their area of representation can increase within the tonotopic map of A1. The magnitude of area gain encodes the level of behavioral stimulus importance and serves as a substrate of memory strength. RP has the same characteristics as behavioral memory: it is associative, specific, develops rapidly, consolidates, and can last indefinitely. Pairing tone with stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis induces RP and implants specific behavioral memory, while directly increasing the representational area of a tone in A1 produces matching behavioral memory. Thus, RP satisfies key criteria for serving as a substrate of auditory memory. The findings suggest a basis for posttraumatic stress disorder in abnormally augmented cortical representations and emphasize the need for a new model of the cerebral cortex.

  16. Cortisol response and psychological distress predict susceptibility to false memories for a trauma film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monds, Lauren A; Paterson, Helen M; Ali, Sinan; Kemp, Richard I; Bryant, Richard A; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-10-01

    For eyewitness testimony to be considered reliable, it is important to ensure memory remains accurate following the event. As many testimonies involve traumatic, as opposed to neutral, events, it is important to consider the role of distress in susceptibility to false memories. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cortisol response following a stressor would be associated with susceptibility to false memories. Psychological distress responses were also investigated, specifically, dissociation, intrusions, and avoidance. Participants were allocated to one of three conditions: those who viewed a neutral film (N = 35), those who viewed a real trauma film (N = 35), and a trauma "reappraisal" group where participants were told the film was not real (N = 35). All received misinformation about the film in the form of a narrative. Participants provided saliva samples (to assess cortisol) and completed distress and memory questionnaires. Cortisol response was a significant predictor of the misinformation effect. Dissociation and avoidance were related to confabulations. In conclusion, following a stressor an individual may differ with regard to their psychological response to the event, and also whether they experience a cortisol increase. This may affect whether they are more distressed later on, and also whether they remember the event accurately.

  17. [Historical connection between memory and testimony psychology by an experimental study of Seiichi Terada in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kosuke; Sato, Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    In Japan, Seiichi Terada (1884-1922) was the first psychologist who applied psychological knowledge to the field of law, working in collaboration with the law professor Eiich Makino (1878-1970). Terada's work was mainly in the tradition of clinical psychology, although in his 1915 paper titled "How useful are testimonies?" he described a set of seven experiments concerned with the empirical relationship between eyewitness testimony and memory. This is probably the first experimental study of law and psychology carried out in Japan. This article introduces Terada's history as a psychologist, and his collaboration with Makino, followed by explanation of their experiments. Finally, we discuss perspectives on testimony research in consideration of Terada's approach.

  18. Multiple memory traces for olfactory reward learning in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Andreas S; Jenett, Arnim; Ito, Kei; Heisenberg, Martin; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2007-10-10

    Physical traces underlying simple memories can be confined to a single group of cells in the brain. In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, the Kenyon cells of the mushroom bodies house traces for both appetitive and aversive odor memories. The adenylate cyclase protein, Rutabaga, has been shown to mediate both traces. Here, we show that, for appetitive learning, another group of cells can additionally accommodate a Rutabaga-dependent memory trace. Localized expression of rutabaga in either projection neurons, the first-order olfactory interneurons, or in Kenyon cells, the second-order interneurons, is sufficient for rescuing the mutant defect in appetitive short-term memory. Thus, appetitive learning may induce multiple memory traces in the first- and second-order olfactory interneurons using the same plasticity mechanism. In contrast, aversive odor memory of rutabaga is rescued selectively in the Kenyon cells, but not in the projection neurons. This difference in the organization of memory traces is consistent with the internal representation of reward and punishment.

  19. ADRA2B deletion variant influences time-dependent effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Dailey, Alison M; Nagle, Hannah E; Fiely, Miranda K; Mosley, Brianne E; Brown, Callie M; Duffy, Tessa J; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2017-02-22

    Extensive work over the past few decades has shown that certain genetic variations interact with life events to confer increased susceptibility for the development of psychological disorders. The deletion variant of the ADRA2B gene, which has been associated with enhanced emotional memory and heightened amygdala responses to emotional stimuli, might confer increased susceptibility for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or related phenotypes by increasing the likelihood of traumatic memory formation. Thus, we examined whether this genetic variant would predict stress effects on learning and memory in a non-clinical sample. Two hundred and thirty-five individuals were exposed to the socially evaluated cold pressor test or a control condition immediately or 30min prior to learning a list of words that varied in emotional valence and arousal level. Participants' memory for the words was tested immediately (recall) and 24h after learning (recall and recognition), and saliva samples were collected to genotype participants for the ADRA2B deletion variant. Results showed that stress administered immediately before learning selectively enhanced long-term recall in deletion carriers. Stress administered 30min before learning impaired recognition memory in male deletion carriers, while enhancing recognition memory in female deletion carriers. These findings provide additional evidence to support the idea that ADRA2B deletion variant carriers retain a sensitized stress response system, which results in amplified effects of stress on learning and memory. The accumulating evidence regarding this genetic variant implicates it as a susceptibility factor for traumatic memory formation and PTSD-related phenotypes.

  20. Working memory contributions to reinforcement learning impairments in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne G E; Brown, Jaime K; Gold, James M; Waltz, James A; Frank, Michael J

    2014-10-08

    Previous research has shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in reinforcement learning tasks. However, behavioral learning curves in such tasks originate from the interaction of multiple neural processes, including the basal ganglia- and dopamine-dependent reinforcement learning (RL) system, but also prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive strategies involving working memory (WM). Thus, it is unclear which specific system induces impairments in schizophrenia. We recently developed a task and computational model allowing us to separately assess the roles of RL (slow, cumulative learning) mechanisms versus WM (fast but capacity-limited) mechanisms in healthy adult human subjects. Here, we used this task to assess patients' specific sources of impairments in learning. In 15 separate blocks, subjects learned to pick one of three actions for stimuli. The number of stimuli to learn in each block varied from two to six, allowing us to separate influences of capacity-limited WM from the incremental RL system. As expected, both patients (n = 49) and healthy controls (n = 36) showed effects of set size and delay between stimulus repetitions, confirming the presence of working memory effects. Patients performed significantly worse than controls overall, but computational model fits and behavioral analyses indicate that these deficits could be entirely accounted for by changes in WM parameters (capacity and reliability), whereas RL processes were spared. These results suggest that the working memory system contributes strongly to learning impairments in schizophrenia.

  1. The Impact of a Psychology Learning Community on Academic Success, Retention, and Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Kim; Spaulding, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Learning communities have become an integral part of the educational reform movement of the past two decades and have been heralded as a promising strategy for restructuring undergraduate education. This study used a matched control group design to examine the impact of participation in a psychology learning community (PLC) on a range of student…

  2. Disinhibition, an emerging pharmacology of learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhler, Hanns; Rudolph, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Learning and memory are dependent on interactive excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. In this review, we discuss a mechanism called disinhibition, which is the release of an inhibitory constraint that effectively results in an increased activity in the target neurons (for example, principal or projection neurons). We focus on discussing the role of disinhibition in learning and memory at a basic level and in disease models with cognitive deficits and highlight a strategy to reverse cognitive deficits caused by excess inhibition, through disinhibition of α5-containing GABA A receptors mediating tonic inhibition in the hippocampus, based on subtype-selective negative allosteric modulators as a novel class of drugs.

  3. PSICO-A: A Computational System for Learning Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier González Marqués

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available PSICO-A is a new educational system, based on the web, for learning psychology. Its computational architecture consists of a front-end and a back-end. The first one contains a design mode, a reflective mode, a game mode and a simulation mode. These modes are connected to the back-end, which is composed of a rule engine, an evaluation module, a communication module, an expert module, a student module and a metacognitive module. The back-end is the heart of the system analysing the performance of pupils. PSICO-A assembles Boolean equations introducing algorithms such as those of Levenshtein, Hamming, Porter and Oliver. The system design used the programming language PHP5 for a clear and fast interface. PSICO-A is an innovative system because it is the first system in psychology designed for assessing the value of computer-based learning games compared with simulations for teaching the subject. Other systems use virtual environments for teaching subjects like mathematics, physics or ecology to children but the role of digital games and simulations in learning psychology is to date an unexplored field. A preliminary analysis of the motivational value of the system has been performed with sample of undergraduate students, verifying its advantages in terms of to encouraging scientific exploration. An internal evaluation of the system, using the game mode, has been conducted.

  4. Neuronal Plasticity in the Mammalian Brain: Relevance to Behavioral Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyler, Timothy J.; Fountain, Stephen B.

    1987-01-01

    Data suggesting that different brain circuits may underlie different forms of learning and memory are reviewed. Several current theories of learning and memory with respect to hippocampal and other brain circuit involvement are considered. (PCB)

  5. Novel associative-memory-based self-learning neurocontrol model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke

    1992-09-01

    Intelligent control is an important field of AI application, which is closely related to machine learning, and the neurocontrol is a kind of intelligent control that controls actions of a physical system or a plant. Linear associative memory model is a good analytic tool for artificial neural networks. In this paper, we present a novel self-learning neurocontrol on the basis of the linear associative memory model to support intelligent control. Using our self-learning neurocontrol model, the learning process is viewed as an extension of one of J. Piaget's developmental stages. After a particular linear associative model developed by us is presented, a brief introduction to J. Piaget's cognitive theory is described as the basis of our self-learning style control. It follows that the neurocontrol model is presented, which usually includes two learning stages, viz. primary learning and high-level learning. As a demonstration of our neurocontrol model, an example is also presented with simulation techniques, called that `bird' catches an aim. The tentative experimental results show that the learning and controlling performance of this approach is surprisingly good. In conclusion, future research is pointed out to improve our self-learning neurocontrol model and explore other areas of application.

  6. Executive functioning, memory, and learning in phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, Shelley; German, Elaine; Cassina, Cristina; Lee, Philip

    2004-10-01

    The executive deficit hypothesis of treated phenylketonuria (PKU) suggests that dopaminergic depletion in the lateral prefrontal cortex leads to selective executive impairment. This was examined by comparing adults with PKU on a lifelong diet with a matched healthy control group. Those with PKU were impaired on selective and sustained attention, working memory (Self-Ordered Pointing), and letter fluency. However, they failed to show differential sensitivity to increased cognitive load on the attentional and working memory tasks, and they did not differ significantly on the remaining executive tasks (rule finding, inhibition, and multitasking). Nor did they differ significantly on recall or recognition memory. Overall, the findings provided little support for the executive deficit hypothesis. A possible explanation in terms of slowed information processing speed is explored.

  7. Learning associative memories by error backpropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pengsheng; Zhang, Jianxiong; Tang, Wansheng

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, a method for the design of Hopfield networks, bidirectional and multidirectional associative memories with asymmetric connections, is proposed. The given patterns can be assigned as locally asymptotically stable equilibria of the network by training a single-layer feedforward network. It is shown that the robustness in respect to acceptable noise in the input of the constructed networks is enhanced as the memory dimension increases and weakened as the number of the stored patterns grows. More important is that the remembered patterns are not necessarily of binary forms. Neural associative memories for storing gray-level images are constructed based on the proposed method. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method is efficient for the design of Hopfield-type recurrent neural networks.

  8. An elegant mind: learning and memory in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiel, Evan L; Rankin, Catharine H

    2010-04-01

    This article reviews the literature on learning and memory in the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Paradigms include nonassociative learning, associative learning, and imprinting, as worms have been shown to habituate to mechanical and chemical stimuli, as well as learn the smells, tastes, temperatures, and oxygen levels that predict aversive chemicals or the presence or absence of food. In each case, the neural circuit underlying the behavior has been at least partially described, and forward and reverse genetics are being used to elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Several genes have been identified with no known role other than mediating behavior plasticity.

  9. The Teaching Procedure to Improve Students’ Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Kefei

    2015-01-01

    Memory is the normal function of brain, and important psychological process for recognizing new information. Memory plays a very important role in teaching and learning. But according to the writer’s teaching experience for many years, writer realizes that students always forget what they learned in a short time. In order to improve students’ memory, writer researches effective teaching procedure in this paper.

  10. Interdisciplinary Connections and Academic Performance in Psychology-English Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose-Fifer, Jillian; Helmer, Kimberly A.; Zottoli, Tina M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether students in psychology-based learning communities (LCs; i.e., cohorts who took introductory psychology and English together) performed better on psychology tests than those in standard classes. There were two types of LC; in one (connected LC), we created links between English and psychology by using English class readings…

  11. Interdisciplinary Connections and Academic Performance in Psychology-English Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose-Fifer, Jillian; Helmer, Kimberly A.; Zottoli, Tina M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether students in psychology-based learning communities (LCs; i.e., cohorts who took introductory psychology and English together) performed better on psychology tests than those in standard classes. There were two types of LC; in one (connected LC), we created links between English and psychology by using English class readings…

  12. Comparing Performance on Implicit Memory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-31

    or dissertation in the psychology of learning and memory" for 1994. McDermott received the award at the summer meetings of the American Psychological...1993). Remembering, knowing and reconstructing the past. In D. L. Medin (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and

  13. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  14. Psychology of Learning, 1960-1980: One Participant’s Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-25

    Atkinson & Shiffrin , 1968; Norman & Rumelhart, 1970) we are now aware of at least three memory systems: short-term sensory storage, short-term memory ...Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1964, 1, 285-315. Atkinson , R. C., & Shiffrin , R. M. Human memory : A proposed system and its control processes. In...a transient state corresponding to an item’s being held in short-term memory ( Atkinson & Crothers, 1964; Greeno, 1967). However, the major

  15. Is learning and memory different in a virtual environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheis, Robert J; Schultheis, Maria T; Tiersky, Lana A; DeLuca, John; Millis, Scott R; Rizzo, Albert

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that virtual reality may provide a medium for producing neuropsychological measures with greater ecological validity. The present study examined the usefulness of virtual reality (VR) to assess learning and memory in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A total of 20 TBI participants were compared with 20 healthy controls on their ability to learn and recall 16 target items presented within a VR-based generic office environment. The results indicated that VR memory testing accurately distinguished the TBI group from controls. Additionally, non-memory-impaired TBI participants acquired targets at the same rate as HC participants. Finally, there was a significant relationship between the VR Office and a standard neuropsychological measure of memory, suggesting the construct validity of the task. These findings suggest that the VR Office provides a viable medium for measuring learning and memory. The present results provide preliminary support for the ecological validity of the VR Office, which ultimately can improve assessment of real-world functioning following TBI.

  16. Emotional false memories in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Losito, Nunzia; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less prone to evince associative illusions of memory as a result of impairments in their ability to engage in semantic processing. However, it is unclear whether this observation is true for scripted life events, especially if they include emotional content, or across a broad spectrum of learning disabilities. The present study addressed these issues by assessing recognition memory for script-like information in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), children with dyslexia, and typically developing children (N=51). Participants viewed photographs about 8 common events (e.g., family dinner), and embedded in each episode was either a negative or a neutral consequence of an unseen action. Children's memory was then tested on a yes/no recognition task that included old and new photographs. Results showed that the three groups performed similarly in recognizing target photographs, but exhibited differences in memory errors. Compared to other groups, children with NLD were more likely to falsely recognize photographs that depicted an unseen cause of an emotional seen event and associated more "Remember" responses to these errors. Children with dyslexia were equally likely to falsely recognize both unseen causes of seen photographs and photographs generally consistent with the script, whereas the other participant groups were more likely to falsely recognize unseen causes rather than script-consistent distractors. Results are interpreted in terms of mechanisms underlying false memories' formation in different clinical populations of children with LD.

  17. Modulatory mechanisms of cortisol effects on emotional learning and memory: Novel perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ast, V.A. van; Cornelisse, S.; Marin, M.F.; Ackermann, S.; Garfinkel, S.N.; Abercrombie, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that cortisol affects learning and memory processes. Despite a wealth of research dedicated to cortisol effects on learning and memory, the strength or even directionality of the effects often vary. A number of the factors that alter cortisol's effects on learning and memory a

  18. Medication adherence as a learning process: insights from cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Marcum, Zachary A; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Gellad, Walid F

    2017-03-01

    Non-adherence to medications is one of the largest contributors to sub-optimal health outcomes. Many theories of adherence include a 'value-expectancy' component in which a patient decides to take a medication partly based on expectations about whether it is effective, necessary, and tolerable. We propose reconceptualising this common theme as a kind of 'causal learning' - the patient learns whether a medication is effective, necessary, and tolerable, from experience with the medication. We apply cognitive psychology theories of how people learn cause-effect relations to elaborate this causal-learning challenge. First, expectations and impressions about a medication and beliefs about how a medication works, such as delay of onset, can shape a patient's perceived experience with the medication. Second, beliefs about medications propagate both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up', from experiences with specific medications to general beliefs about medications and vice versa. Third, non-adherence can interfere with learning about a medication, because beliefs, adherence, and experience with a medication are connected in a cyclic learning problem. We propose that by conceptualising non-adherence as a causal-learning process, clinicians can more effectively address a patient's misconceptions and biases, helping the patient develop more accurate impressions of the medication.

  19. Spatio-temporal memories for machine learning: a long-term memory organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Janusz A; He, Haibo

    2009-05-01

    Design of artificial neural structures capable of reliable and flexible long-term spatio-temporal memory is of paramount importance in machine intelligence. To this end, we propose a novel, biologically inspired, long-term memory (LTM) architecture. We intend to use it as a building block of a neuron-level architecture that is able to mimic natural intelligence through learning, anticipation, and goal-driven behavior. A mutual input enhancement and blocking structure is proposed, and its operation is discussed in detail. The paper focuses on a hierarchical memory organization, storage, recognition, and recall mechanisms. Simulation results of the proposed memory show its effectiveness, adaptability, and robustness. Accuracy of the proposed method is compared to other methods including Levenshtein distance method and a Markov chain.

  20. The influence of childhood aerobic fitness on learning and memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B Raine

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health, but also poorer cognitive health. Previous research has shown that lower fitness has been related to decreased cognitive function for tasks requiring perception, memory, and cognitive control as well as lower academic achievement. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness, learning, and memory on a task that involved remembering names and locations on a fictitious map. Different learning strategies and recall procedures were employed to better understand fitness effects on learning novel material. METHODS: Forty-eight 9-10 year old children (n = 24 high fit; HF and n = 24 low fit; LF performed a task requiring them to learn the names of specific regions on a map, under two learning conditions in which they only studied (SO versus a condition in which they were tested during study (TS. The retention day occurred one day after initial learning and involved two different recall conditions: free recall and cued recall. RESULTS: There were no differences in performance at initial learning between higher fit and lower fit participants. However, during the retention session higher fit children outperformed lower fit children, particularly when the initial learning strategy involved relatively poor recall performance (i.e., study only versus test-study strategy. CONCLUSIONS: We interpret these novel data to suggest that fitness can boost learning and memory of children and that these fitness-associated performance benefits are largest in conditions in which initial learning is the most challenging. Such data have important implications for both educational practice and policy.

  1. The influence of childhood aerobic fitness on learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Lauren B; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Saliba, Brian J; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health, but also poorer cognitive health. Previous research has shown that lower fitness has been related to decreased cognitive function for tasks requiring perception, memory, and cognitive control as well as lower academic achievement. To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness, learning, and memory on a task that involved remembering names and locations on a fictitious map. Different learning strategies and recall procedures were employed to better understand fitness effects on learning novel material. Forty-eight 9-10 year old children (n = 24 high fit; HF and n = 24 low fit; LF) performed a task requiring them to learn the names of specific regions on a map, under two learning conditions in which they only studied (SO) versus a condition in which they were tested during study (TS). The retention day occurred one day after initial learning and involved two different recall conditions: free recall and cued recall. There were no differences in performance at initial learning between higher fit and lower fit participants. However, during the retention session higher fit children outperformed lower fit children, particularly when the initial learning strategy involved relatively poor recall performance (i.e., study only versus test-study strategy). We interpret these novel data to suggest that fitness can boost learning and memory of children and that these fitness-associated performance benefits are largest in conditions in which initial learning is the most challenging. Such data have important implications for both educational practice and policy.

  2. The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma: intrusive memories and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ella L; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Clark, Ian A; Visser, Renée M; Hagenaars, Muriel A; Holmes, Emily A

    2016-07-01

    A better understanding of psychological trauma is fundamental to clinical psychology. Following traumatic event(s), a clinically significant number of people develop symptoms, including those of Acute Stress Disorder and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The trauma film paradigm offers an experimental psychopathology model to study both exposure and reactions to psychological trauma, including the hallmark symptom of intrusive memories. We reviewed 74 articles that have used this paradigm since the earliest review (Holmes & Bourne, 2008) until July 2014. Highlighting the different stages of trauma processing, i.e. pre-, peri- and post-trauma, the studies are divided according to manipulations before, during and after film viewing, for experimental as well as correlational designs. While the majority of studies focussed on the frequency of intrusive memories, other reactions to trauma were also modelled. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of trauma, consider ethical issues, and suggest future directions. By understanding the basic mechanisms underlying trauma symptom development, we can begin to translate findings from the laboratory to the clinic, test innovative science-driven interventions, and in the future reduce the debilitating effects of psychopathology following stressful and/or traumatic events.

  3. Organisational Learning and Organisational Memory for SMS and FRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Akselsson, R.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 1: Organisational Learning and Organisational Memory for SMS and FRMS The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into theLifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowled

  4. Sex Influences on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreano, Joseph M.; Cahill, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In essentially every domain of neuroscience, the generally implicit assumption that few, if any, meaningful differences exist between male and female brain function is being challenged. Here we address how this development is influencing studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory. While it has been commonly held that males show an…

  5. Organisational Learning and Organisational Memory for SMS and FRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Akselsson, R.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 1: Organisational Learning and Organisational Memory for SMS and FRMS The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into theLifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowled

  6. Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Sugato

    2013-12-01

    Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.

  7. Hilar GABAergic interneuron activity controls spatial learning and memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaisa Andrews-Zwilling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although extensive research has demonstrated the importance of excitatory granule neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in normal learning and memory and in the pathogenesis of amnesia in Alzheimer's disease (AD, the role of hilar GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, which control the granule neuron activity, remains unclear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the function of hilar GABAergic interneurons in spatial learning and memory by inhibiting their activity through Cre-dependent viral expression of enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0--a light-driven chloride pump. Hilar GABAergic interneuron-specific expression of eNpHR3.0 was achieved by bilaterally injecting adeno-associated virus containing a double-floxed inverted open-reading frame encoding eNpHR3.0 into the hilus of the dentate gyrus of mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of an enhancer specific for GABAergic interneurons. In vitro and in vivo illumination with a yellow laser elicited inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneurons and consequent activation of dentate granule neurons, without affecting pyramidal neurons in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. We found that optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity impaired spatial learning and memory retrieval, without affecting memory retention, as determined in the Morris water maze test. Importantly, optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity did not alter short-term working memory, motor coordination, or exploratory activity. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings establish a critical role for hilar GABAergic interneuron activity in controlling spatial learning and memory retrieval and provide evidence for the potential contribution of GABAergic interneuron impairment to the pathogenesis of amnesia in AD.

  8. Implementing Problem-Based Learning in an Undergraduate Psychology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Russell Searight, PhD

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL is a small-group pedagogical technique widely used in fields such as business, medicine, engineering, and architecture. In PBL, pre-written cases are used to teach core course content. PBL advocates state that course material is more likely to be retained and applied when presented as cases reflecting "real life" applications of class material. However, rather than traditional lecture-discussion, PBL encourages student autonomy in analyzing cases, with the instructor serving initially as a structuring facilitator before gradually becoming less active as students take more responsibility for their learning. As students proceed through each case, they address four dimensions: What they know, what they want to know, possible causal hypotheses, and questions that can be answered through library research. The PBL cases referred to herein were developed and employed for an undergraduate psychology course, "Psychology of the Exceptional Child." Students completing this course included psychology, special education, and human service majors and have positively evaluated this technique as a teaching tool.

  9. Social psychology: new directions in computer-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J. Allinson

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps surprisingly, psychology has been a discipline eager to capitalize on the application of computers for teaching. Traditionally, this has been for statistical calculations, and the presentation of experimental stimuli and the automatic collection of timed events (e.g., reaction times, choice-decision times. Here, the traditional capabilities of computers are being exploited - namely, their accurate temporal sequencing, graphical performance, and, above all, their number crunching. As such, they have been powerful and essential tools for those involved in the more psychophysical or cognitive areas of psychology. Computer-based learning (CBL remains very much a preserve of these more formal domains. The arrival of hypermedia has opened the way for CBL to be exploited within the less formal domains of psychology; but the level of interactivity is usually very restricted, and the constrained presentational styles means that even this technological progression fails to meet the contextual richness needed in the teaching of much of the behavioural sciences. The advent of multimedia has for the first time provided the potential to explore, within the normal undergraduate learning environment, real behaviour using the observational techniques that form the basic methodology of the practising social psychologist.

  10. Implementing Problem-Based Learning in an Undergraduate Psychology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Russell Searight, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL is a small-group pedagogical technique widely used in fields such as business, medicine, engineering, and architecture. In PBL, pre-written cases are used to teach core course content. PBL advocates state that course material is more likely to be retained and applied when presented as cases reflecting "real life" applications of class material. However, rather than traditional lecture-discussion, PBL encourages student autonomy in analyzing cases, with the instructor serving initially as a structuring facilitator before gradually becoming less active as students take more responsibility for their learning. As students proceed through each case, they address four dimensions: What they know, what they want to know, possible causal hypotheses, and questions that can be answered through library research. The PBL cases referred to herein were developed and employed for an undergraduate psychology course, "Psychology of the Exceptional Child." Students completing this course included psychology, special education, and human service majors and have positively evaluated this technique as a teaching tool.

  11. Genetic neuroscience of mammalian learning and memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Tonegawa, Susumu; Nakazawa, Kazu; Wilson, Matthew A.

    2003-01-01

    Our primary research interest is to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms on neuronal circuitry underlying the acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory in rodents. We study these problems by producing genetically engineered (i.e. spatially targeted and/or temporally restricted) mice and analysing these mice by multifaceted methods including molecular and cellular biology, in vitro and in vivo physiology and behavioural studies. We attempt to identify...

  12. Learning, memory and hippocampal LTP in genetically obese rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We have found that leptin, at physiological concentrations of 10-12 mol/L, facilitates learning and memory and LTP maintenance in Wistar rats. To explore the role of leptin recepors in learning, memory and synaptic plasticity, experiments were carried out using Zucker rats (Z), db/db mice (db), and ob/ob mice(ob). The former two have defects in leptin receptors and the latter cannot produce normal leptin. Unlike the effects observed in normal rats, high or low frequency stimulation of Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices prepared from Z, db and ob animals failed to induce the learning and memory relevant long-term potentiation or depression in CA1 neurons. However, LTP in ob CA1 synapses was facilitated by leptin at 10-12 mol/L concentration. Moreover, the paired-pulse facilitation of CA1 synaptic potentials and intracellularly recorded postsynaptic responses to the neurotransmitters AMPA, NMDA and GABA, applied electrophoretically to the apical dendrites of CA1 neurons, were approximately the same compared to the control lean animals. In addition, unlike the second messenger responses observed in Wistar rats, calmodulin kinase Ⅱ activity in the CA1 area of Z and db animals was not activated after tetanic stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals. It has been shown that all three strains, Z, db and ob display impaired spatial learning and memory when tested in the Morris water maze. The results of these experiments indicate a close relationship between spatial learning and memory, facilitation of LTP, and calmodulin kinase Ⅱ activity.

  13. A Psychological Perspective on the Temporal Dimensions of E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terras, Melody M.; Ramsay, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Psychological perspectives have long been reflected in educational theory and practice. Therefore, we expect psychology to contribute to our understanding of the impact of technology on the temporal aspects of teaching and learning in this digital age. Understanding how we learn, and how learning and teaching can be facilitated, are key to…

  14. Developing Autonomous Learning in First Year University Students Using Perspectives from Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskill, Ann; Denovan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous learning is a commonly occurring learning outcome from university study, and it is argued that students require confidence in their own abilities to achieve this. Using approaches from positive psychology, this study aimed to develop confidence in first-year university students to facilitate autonomous learning. Psychological character…

  15. A Psychological Perspective on the Temporal Dimensions of E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terras, Melody M.; Ramsay, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Psychological perspectives have long been reflected in educational theory and practice. Therefore, we expect psychology to contribute to our understanding of the impact of technology on the temporal aspects of teaching and learning in this digital age. Understanding how we learn, and how learning and teaching can be facilitated, are key to…

  16. Psychological distance can improve decision making under information overload via gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukukura, Jun; Ferguson, Melissa J; Fujita, Kentaro

    2013-08-01

    Making a decision can be especially difficult when it is based upon a large amount of information. A number of demonstrations in the literature suggest that decision making under information overload leads to suboptimal outcomes. In this article, we draw on construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003) and fuzzy-trace theory (Brainerd & Reyna, 1993) to suggest that psychologically distancing oneself from the information can be beneficial to decision making under information overload. Specifically, we propose that distancing prompts organization of information in terms of its gist. Across 4 studies, we demonstrated that increasing spatial distance, temporal distance, and abstraction lead to better decision outcomes when decision makers were overloaded with many pieces of information per decision. Furthermore, we showed that the relationship between psychological distance and decision outcome is mediated by gist memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Memories that last in old age: motor skill learning and memory preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C D; Walton, A; Loveland, A D; Umberger, G H; Kryscio, R J; Gash, D M

    2005-06-01

    Using an automated test panel, age-associated declines in learning, remembering and performing a novel visuomotor task were assessed in 497 normal adults ranging from 18 to 95 years old. As predicted, task performance times slowed with increasing age in the cross-sectional portion of the study. However in the subsequent longitudinal study, while motor learning was significantly slower in adults over 62 years old, motor memory was pristinely preserved in normal adults from 18 to 95 years old. When tested 2 years after the first training session and without intervening rehearsal, mean performance times were retained and continued to improve by 10% in young adults and 13% in aged adults, reflecting long lasting preservation of motor memories. While the maximum lifetime of an unpracticed, novel motor memory in humans is not known, the present study suggests that new motor memories can be retained for at least 2 years without rehearsal in normal aged adults. This age-resistant component of motor memory stands in contrast to the well-known decrements in other motor and cognitive processes with human aging.

  18. Brahmi rasayana Improves Learning and Memory in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthachar Joshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer's disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam and choline esterase inhibitors like Donepezil® are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Brahmi rasayana (BR as a memory enhancer. BR (100 and 200 mg kg−1 p.o. was administered for eight successive days to both young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive-avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p. was used to induce amnesia in mice. The effect of BR on whole brain AChE activity was also assessed. Piracetam (200 mg kg−1 i.p. was used as a standard nootropic agent. BR significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and reversed the amnesia induced by both scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p. and natural aging. BR significantly decreased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity. BR might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly.

  19. Planning Mars Memory: Learning from the Mer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge management for space exploration is part of a multi-generational effort at recognizing, preserving and transmitting learning. Each mission should be built on the learning, of both successes and failures, derived from previous missions. Knowledge management begins with learning, and the recognition that this learning has produced knowledge. The Mars Exploration Rover mission provides us with an opportunity to track how learning occurs, how it is recorded, and whether the representations of this learning will be optimally useful for subsequent missions. This paper focuses on the MER science and engineering teams during Rover operations. A NASA team conducted an observational study of the ongoing work and learning of the these teams. Learning occurred in a wide variety of areas: how to run two teams on Mars time for three months; how to use the instruments within the constraints of the martian environment, the deep space network and the mission requirements; how to plan science strategy; how best to use the available software tools. This learning is preserved in many ways. Primarily it resides in peoples memories, to be carried on to the next mission. It is also encoded in stones, in programming sequences, in published reports, and in lessons learned activities, Studying learning and knowledge development as it happens allows us to suggest proactive ways of capturing and using it across multiple missions and generations.

  20. Potential Role of Honey in Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahiruddin Othman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The composition and physicochemical properties of honey are variable depending on its floral source and often named according to the geographical location. The potential medicinal benefits of Tualang honey, a multifloral jungle honey found in Malaysia, have recently been attracting attention because of its reported beneficial effects in various diseases. This paper reviews the effects of honey, particularly Tualang honey, on learning and memory. Information regarding the effects of Tualang honey on learning and memory in human as well as animal models is gleaned to hypothesize its underlying mechanisms. These studies show that Tualang honey improves morphology of memory-related brain areas, reduces brain oxidative stress, increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and acetylcholine (ACh concentrations, and reduces acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the brain homogenates. Its anti-inflammatory roles in reducing inflammatory trigger and microglial activation have yet to be investigated. It is hypothesized that the improvement in learning and memory following Tualang honey supplementation is due to the significant improvement in brain morphology and enhancement of brain cholinergic system secondary to reduction in brain oxidative damage and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration. Further studies are imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions.

  1. Modulatory mechanisms of cortisol effects on emotional learning and memory: Novel perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa A. van Ast; Cornelisse, Sandra; Marin, Marie-France; Ackermann, Sandra; Garfinkel, Sara; Abercrombie, Heather C.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that cortisol affects learning and memory processes. Despite a wealth of research dedicated to cortisol effects on learning and memory, the strength or even directionality of the effects often vary. A number of the factors that alter cortisol’s effects on learning and memory are well-known. For instance, effects of cortisol can be modulated by emotional arousal and the memory phase under study. Despite great advances in understanding factors that explain variability in ...

  2. A Role of Protein Degradation in Memory Consolidation after Initial Learning and Extinction Learning in the Honeybee ("Apis mellifera")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsenberg, Johannes; Dombrowski, Vincent; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Protein degradation is known to affect memory formation after extinction learning. We demonstrate here that an inhibitor of protein degradation, MG132, interferes with memory formation after extinction learning in a classical appetitive conditioning paradigm. In addition, we find an enhancement of memory formation when the same inhibitor is…

  3. A Role of Protein Degradation in Memory Consolidation after Initial Learning and Extinction Learning in the Honeybee ("Apis mellifera")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsenberg, Johannes; Dombrowski, Vincent; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Protein degradation is known to affect memory formation after extinction learning. We demonstrate here that an inhibitor of protein degradation, MG132, interferes with memory formation after extinction learning in a classical appetitive conditioning paradigm. In addition, we find an enhancement of memory formation when the same inhibitor is…

  4. Emotional Modulation of Learning and Memory: Pharmacological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLumiere, Ryan T; McGaugh, James L; McIntyre, Christa K

    2017-07-01

    Memory consolidation involves the process by which newly acquired information becomes stored in a long-lasting fashion. Evidence acquired over the past several decades, especially from studies using post-training drug administration, indicates that emotional arousal during the consolidation period influences and enhances the strength of the memory and that multiple different chemical signaling systems participate in this process. The mechanisms underlying the emotional influences on memory involve the release of stress hormones and activation of the basolateral amygdala, which work together to modulate memory consolidation. Moreover, work suggests that this amygdala-based memory modulation occurs with numerous types of learning and involves interactions with many different brain regions to alter consolidation. Additionally, studies suggest that emotional arousal and amygdala activity in particular influence synaptic plasticity and associated proteins in downstream brain regions. This review considers the historical understanding for memory modulation and cellular consolidation processes and examines several research areas currently using this foundational knowledge to develop therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Learning and memory in monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, T E; Torrey, E F; Gold, J M; Ragland, J D; Bigelow, L B; Weinberger, D R

    1993-02-01

    Learning and memory were assessed in 24 monozygotic (MZ) pairs of individuals discordant for schizophrenia or delusional disorder and seven normal pairs of MZ twins. On declarative memory tasks, the affected group displayed a pattern that might best be characterized as dysmnesic in that they performed significantly worse than the discordant unaffected group on story recall, paired associated learning, and visual recall of designs, but they learned over time, had relatively preserved recognition memory, and did not show profoundly accelerated rates of forgetting. Effortful, volitional retrieval from the lexicon, measured by verbal fluency, was also compromised in the affected group. On the other hand, procedural learning of the motor skill in a pursuit rotor task was relatively intact in the affected group. Comparisons of the normal group and unaffected group indicated that the latter group had very mild impairments in some aspects of episodic memory, namely, immediate and delayed recall of stories and delayed recall of designs. It is highly unlikely that the impairments observed in the affected group can be attributed to differences in genome, family environment, socioeconomic circumstance, or educational opportunity, as all of these were controlled by the twin paradigm. Rather, the impairments appear to be related to the intercession of disease. The neuropsychological profile is consistent with frontal lobe and medial temporal lobe dysfunction, as noted in this sample as well as other samples of schizophrenic singletons. Significant correlations between many measures of memory and global level of social and vocational functioning within the discordant group were also found. Thus difficulties in rapidly acquiring new information and propitiously retrieving old information may burden patients with schizophrenia in many of the transactions of everyday life.

  6. Comparison of learning and memory of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiu-Hong; He, Xu-Jiang; Tian, Liu-Qing; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2012-10-01

    The honeybee is an excellent model organism for research on learning and memory among invertebrates. Learning and memory in honeybees has intrigued neuroscientists and entomologists in the last few decades, but attention has focused almost solely on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera. In contrast, there have been few studies on learning and memory in the Eastern honeybee, Apis cerana. Here we report comparative behavioral data of color and grating learning and memory for A. cerana and A. mellifera in China, gathered using a Y-maze apparatus. We show for the first time that the learning and memory performance of A. cerana is significantly better on both color and grating patterns than that of A. mellifera. This study provides the first evidence of a learning and memory difference between A. cerana and A. mellifera under controlled conditions, and it is an important basis for the further study of the mechanism of learning and memory in honeybees.

  7. Weighted learning of bidirectional associative memories by global minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Zhuang, X; Xing, X

    1992-01-01

    A weighted learning algorithm for bidirectional associative memories (BAMs) by means of global minimization, where each desired pattern is weighted, is described. According to the cost function that measures the goodness of the BAM, the learning algorithm is formulated as a global minimization problem and solved by a gradient descent rule. The learning approach guarantees not only that each desired pattern is stored as a stable state, but also that the basin of attraction is constructed as large as possible around each desired pattern. The existence of the weights, the asymptotic stability of each desired pattern and its basin of attraction, and the convergence of the proposed learning algorithm are investigated in an analytic way. A large number of computer experiments are reported to demonstrate the efficiency of the learning rule.

  8. "Memory foam" approach to unsupervised learning

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, Natalia B

    2011-01-01

    We propose an alternative approach to construct an artificial learning system, which naturally learns in an unsupervised manner. Its mathematical prototype is a dynamical system, which automatically shapes its vector field in response to the input signal. The vector field converges to a gradient of a multi-dimensional probability density distribution of the input process, taken with negative sign. The most probable patterns are represented by the stable fixed points, whose basins of attraction are formed automatically. The performance of this system is illustrated with musical signals.

  9. [Learning and memory in Drosophila: physiologic and genetic bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, A V; Nikitina, E A; Savvateeva-Popova, E V

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of cognitive functions is one of the major achievements in neurobiology. At most, this is due to the studies on the simple nervous systems, such as the CNS in Drosophila melanogaster. Many of its functional characteristics are pretty similar to higher vertebrates. Among these are: 1) evolutionary conservation of genes and molecular systems involved in the regulation of learning acquisition and memory formation; 2) presence of highly specialized and differentiated sensory, associative and motor centers; 3) utilization of similar modes of informational coding and analysis; 4) availability of major learning forms including non-associative, as well as associative learning; 5) diversity of different memories, including short-term- and protein synthesis- dependent long-term memory; 6) presence of aminergic reinforcement systems in the brain; 7) feed-back loops of circadian clocks, current organism experience and individual organism characters affecting cognitive process per se. In this review the main attention is paid to the two mostly studied Drosophila learning forms, namely to olfactory Iearning and courtship suppression conditioning (CCS). A separate consideration is given to the impacts of kynurenins and metabolite of actin remodeling signal cascade.

  10. Place avoidance learning and memory in a jumping spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmezian, Tina; Taylor, Phillip W

    2017-03-01

    Using a conditioned passive place avoidance paradigm, we investigated the relative importance of three experimental parameters on learning and memory in a salticid, Servaea incana. Spiders encountered an aversive electric shock stimulus paired with one side of a two-sided arena. Our three parameters were the ecological relevance of the visual stimulus, the time interval between trials and the time interval before test. We paired electric shock with either a black or white visual stimulus, as prior studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that S. incana prefer dark 'safe' regions to light ones. We additionally evaluated the influence of two temporal features (time interval between trials and time interval before test) on learning and memory. Spiders exposed to the shock stimulus learned to associate shock with the visual background cue, but the extent to which they did so was dependent on which visual stimulus was present and the time interval between trials. Spiders trained with a long interval between trials (24 h) maintained performance throughout training, whereas spiders trained with a short interval (10 min) maintained performance only when the safe side was black. When the safe side was white, performance worsened steadily over time. There was no difference between spiders tested after a short (10 min) or long (24 h) interval before test. These results suggest that the ecological relevance of the stimuli used and the duration of the interval between trials can influence learning and memory in jumping spiders.

  11. The Role of Statistical Learning and Working Memory in L2 Speakers' Pattern Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether second language (L2) speakers' morphosyntactic pattern learning was predicted by their statistical learning and working memory abilities. Across three experiments, Thai English as a Foreign Language (EFL) university students (N = 140) were exposed to either the transitive construction in Esperanto (e.g., "tauro…

  12. Perceptual learning of acoustic noise generates memory-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrillon, Thomas; Kouider, Sid; Agus, Trevor; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Experience continuously imprints on the brain at all stages of life. The traces it leaves behind can produce perceptual learning [1], which drives adaptive behavior to previously encountered stimuli. Recently, it has been shown that even random noise, a type of sound devoid of acoustic structure, can trigger fast and robust perceptual learning after repeated exposure [2]. Here, by combining psychophysics, electroencephalography (EEG), and modeling, we show that the perceptual learning of noise is associated with evoked potentials, without any salient physical discontinuity or obvious acoustic landmark in the sound. Rather, the potentials appeared whenever a memory trace was observed behaviorally. Such memory-evoked potentials were characterized by early latencies and auditory topographies, consistent with a sensory origin. Furthermore, they were generated even on conditions of diverted attention. The EEG waveforms could be modeled as standard evoked responses to auditory events (N1-P2) [3], triggered by idiosyncratic perceptual features acquired through learning. Thus, we argue that the learning of noise is accompanied by the rapid formation of sharp neural selectivity to arbitrary and complex acoustic patterns, within sensory regions. Such a mechanism bridges the gap between the short-term and longer-term plasticity observed in the learning of noise [2, 4-6]. It could also be key to the processing of natural sounds within auditory cortices [7], suggesting that the neural code for sound source identification will be shaped by experience as well as by acoustics.

  13. Memory and Processing Limits in Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    A.D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In G. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 8). New...York: Academic Press. Chase, W.G., & Ericcson, K.A. (1982). Skill and working memory. In G. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol

  14. A simple role for BDNF in learning and memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Carla; Brambilla, Riccardo; Thomas, Kerrie L

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery almost three decades ago, the secreted neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been firmly implicated in the differentiation and survival of neurons of the CNS. More recently, BDNF has also emerged as an important regulator of synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity mechanisms underlying learning and memory in the adult CNS. In this review we will discuss our knowledge about the multiple intracellular signalling pathways activated by BDNF, and the role of this neurotrophin in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation as well as in synaptogenesis. We will show that maturation of BDNF, its cellular localization and its ability to regulate both excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the CNS may result in conflicting alterations in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Lack of a precise knowledge about the mechanisms by which BDNF influences higher cognitive functions and complex behaviours may constitute a severe limitation in the possibility to devise BDNF-based therapeutics for human disorders of the CNS.

  15. Differential Impact of Visuospatial Working Memory on Rule-based and Information-integration Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qiang; Sun, Hailong

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the category learning system is a mechanism with multiple processing systems, and that working memory has different effects on category learning. But how does visuospatial working memory affect perceptual category learning? As there is no definite answer to this question, we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1, the dual-task paradigm with sequential presentation was adopted to investigate the influence of visuospatial working memory on rule-based and information-integration category learning. The results showed that visuospatial working memory interferes with rule-based but not information-integration category learning. In Experiment 2, the dual-task paradigm with simultaneous presentation was used, in which the categorization task was integrated into the visuospatial working memory task. The results indicated that visuospatial working memory affects information-integration category learning but not rule-based category learning. In Experiment 3, the dual-task paradigm with simultaneous presentation was employed, in which visuospatial working memory was integrated into the category learning task. The results revealed that visuospatial working memory interferes with both rule-based and information-integration category learning. Through these three experiments, we found that, regarding the rule-based category learning, working memory load is the main mechanism by which visuospatial working memory influences the discovery of the category rules. In addition, regarding the information-integration category learning, visual resources mainly operates on the category representation.

  16. Regional hippocampal volumes and development predict learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Engvig, Andreas; Grydeland, Håkon; Krogsrud, Stine K; Østby, Ylva; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Fjell, Anders M

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is an anatomically and functionally heterogeneous structure, but longitudinal studies of its regional development are scarce and it is not known whether protracted maturation of the hippocampus in adolescence is related to memory development. First, we investigated hippocampal subfield development using 170 longitudinally acquired brain magnetic resonance imaging scans from 85 participants aged 8-21 years. Hippocampal subfield volumes were estimated by the use of automated segmentation of 7 subfields, including the cornu ammonis (CA) sectors and the dentate gyrus (DG), while longitudinal subfield volumetric change was quantified using a nonlinear registration procedure. Second, associations between subfield volumes and change and verbal learning/memory across multiple retention intervals (5 min, 30 min and 1 week) were tested. It was hypothesized that short and intermediate memory would be more closely related to CA2-3/CA4-DG and extended, remote memory to CA1. Change rates were significantly different across hippocampal subfields, but nearly all subfields showed significant volume decreases over time throughout adolescence. Several subfield volumes were larger in the right hemisphere and in males, while for change rates there were no hemisphere or sex differences. Partly in support of the hypotheses, greater volume of CA1 and CA2-3 was related to recall and retention after an extended delay, while longitudinal reduction of CA2-3 and CA4-DG was related to learning. This suggests continued regional development of the hippocampus across adolescence and that volume and volume change in specific subfields differentially predict verbal learning and memory over different retention intervals, but future high-resolution studies are called for.

  17. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has

  18. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, Bert; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has

  19. Working Memory Performance of Italian Students with Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Paola; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ability to learn a foreign language is related to working memory. However, there is no clear evidence about which component of working memory may be involved. Two experiments investigated working memory problems in groups of seventh and eighth grade Italian children with difficulties in learning English as a second…

  20. Working Memory Functioning in Children with Learning Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Bockmann, Ann-Katrin; Bornemann, Galina; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of Baddeley's working memory model (1986), we examined working memory functioning in children with learning disorders with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We pursued the question whether children with learning disorders exhibit similar working memory deficits as children with additional SLI. Method: In…

  1. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, Bert; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has n

  2. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has n

  3. The context counts: congruent learning and testing environments prevent memory retrieval impairment following stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T

    2009-09-01

    Stress before retention testing impairs memory, whereas memory performance is enhanced when the learning context is reinstated at retrieval. In the present study, we examined whether the negative impact of stress before memory retrieval can be attenuated when memory is tested in the same environmental context as that in which learning took place. Subjects learned a 2-D object location task in a room scented with vanilla. Twenty-four hours later, they were exposed to stress or a control condition before memory for the object location task was assessed in a cued-recall test, either in the learning context or in a different context (unfamiliar room without the odor). Stress impaired memory when assessed in the unfamiliar context, but not when assessed in the learning context. These results suggest that the detrimental effects of stress on memory retrieval can be abolished when a distinct learning context is reinstated at test.

  4. A Simple Study of the Teacher’s Influence on Students’ Psychology in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素雅; 李静; 赵洁

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the teacher’s influence on students’psychologyin English learning from two aspects and emphasizes the importance of English teachers’role in helping students establish healthy psychology in English learning.

  5. [Neurodynamic Bases of Imitation Learning and Episodic Memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerman, V D

    2016-01-01

    In this review, three essentially important processes in development of cognitive behavior are considered: knowledge of a spatial environment by means of physical activity, coding and a call of an existential context of episodic memory and imitation learning based on the mirror neural mechanism. The data show that the parietal and frontal system of learning by imitation, allows the developing organism to seize skills of management and motive synergies in perisomatic space, to understand intentions and the purposes of observed actions of other individuals. At the same time a widely distributed parietal and frontal and entorhinal-hippocampal system mediates spatial knowledge and the solution of the navigation tasks important for creation of an existential context of episodic memory.

  6. Introduction to The neurosciences and music IV: learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, E; Demorest, S M; Fujioka, T; Halpern, A R; Hannon, E E; Loui, P; Majno, M; Oechslin, M S; Osborne, N; Overy, K; Palmer, C; Peretz, I; Pfordresher, P Q; Särkämö, T; Wan, C Y; Zatorre, R J

    2012-04-01

    The conference entitled "The Neurosciences and Music-IV: Learning and Memory'' was held at the University of Edinburgh from June 9-12, 2011, jointly hosted by the Mariani Foundation and the Institute for Music in Human and Social Development, and involving nearly 500 international delegates. Two opening workshops, three large and vibrant poster sessions, and nine invited symposia introduced a diverse range of recent research findings and discussed current research directions. Here, the proceedings are introduced by the workshop and symposia leaders on topics including working with children, rhythm perception, language processing, cultural learning, memory, musical imagery, neural plasticity, stroke rehabilitation, autism, and amusia. The rich diversity of the interdisciplinary research presented suggests that the future of music neuroscience looks both exciting and promising, and that important implications for music rehabilitation and therapy are being discovered. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Teaching Memory Circuit Elements via Experiment-Based Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Pershin, Y V

    2011-01-01

    The class of memory circuit elements which comprises memristive, memcapacitive, and meminductive systems, is gaining considerable attention in a broad range of disciplines. This is due to the enormous flexibility these elements provide in solving diverse problems in analog/neuromorphic and digital/quantum computation; the possibility to use them in an integrated computing-memory paradigm, massively-parallel solution of different optimization problems, learning, neural networks, etc. The time is therefore ripe to introduce these elements to the next generation of physicists and engineers with appropriate teaching tools that can be easily implemented in undergraduate teaching laboratories. In this paper, we suggest the use of easy-to-build emulators to provide a hands-on experience for the students to learn the fundamental properties and realize several applications of these memelements. We provide explicit examples of problems that could be tackled with these emulators that range in difficulty from the demonst...

  8. Neuromorphic cognitive systems a learning and memory centered approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Qiang; Hu, Jun; Tan Chen, Kay

    2017-01-01

    This book presents neuromorphic cognitive systems from a learning and memory-centered perspective. It illustrates how to build a system network of neurons to perform spike-based information processing, computing, and high-level cognitive tasks. It is beneficial to a wide spectrum of readers, including undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers who are interested in neuromorphic computing and neuromorphic engineering, as well as engineers and professionals in industry who are involved in the design and applications of neuromorphic cognitive systems, neuromorphic sensors and processors, and cognitive robotics. The book formulates a systematic framework, from the basic mathematical and computational methods in spike-based neural encoding, learning in both single and multi-layered networks, to a near cognitive level composed of memory and cognition. Since the mechanisms for integrating spiking neurons integrate to formulate cognitive functions as in the brain are little understood, studies of neuromo...

  9. Empowering Students through Service-Learning in a Community Psychology Course: A Case in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin; Ng, Eddie; Chan, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    This article chronicles a service-learning (SL) subject on community psychology in Hong Kong (n = 26) and elaborates on how students experience concepts, frameworks, and values in community psychology and put them into practice at servicelearning settings. Upon acquiring basic concepts in community psychology, including sense of community,…

  10. An Analysis of Learning Objectives and Content Coverage in Introductory Psychology Syllabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Natalie; Hackathorn, Jana; Brown, Carrie M.; Garczynski, Amy; Solomon, Erin D.; Tennial, Rachel; Sanborn, Ursula A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introductory psychology is one of the most popular undergraduate courses and often serves as the gateway to choosing psychology as an academic major. However, little research has examined the typical structure of introductory psychology courses. The current study examined student learning objectives (SLOs) and course content in introductory…

  11. An Analysis of Learning Objectives and Content Coverage in Introductory Psychology Syllabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Natalie; Hackathorn, Jana; Brown, Carrie M.; Garczynski, Amy; Solomon, Erin D.; Tennial, Rachel; Sanborn, Ursula A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introductory psychology is one of the most popular undergraduate courses and often serves as the gateway to choosing psychology as an academic major. However, little research has examined the typical structure of introductory psychology courses. The current study examined student learning objectives (SLOs) and course content in introductory…

  12. Learning about categories in the absence of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R; Knowlton, B J

    1995-01-01

    A fundamental question about memory and cognition concerns how information is acquired about categories and concepts as the result of encounters with specific instances. We describe a profoundly amnesic patient (E.P.) who cannot learn and remember specific instances--i.e., he has no detectable declarative memory. Yet after inspecting a series of 40 training stimuli, he was normal at classifying novel stimuli according to whether they did or did not belong to the same category as the training stimuli. In contrast, he was unable to recognize a single stimulus after it was presented 40 times in succession. These findings demonstrate that the ability to classify novel items, after experience with other items in the same category, is a separate and parallel memory function of the brain, independent of the limbic and diencephalic structures essential for remembering individual stimulus items (declarative memory). Category-level knowledge can be acquired implicitly by cumulating information from multiple training examples in the absence of detectable conscious memory for the examples themselves. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8618923

  13. Learning, memory and exploratory similarities in genetically identical cloned dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Chi Won; Kim, Geon A; Park, Won Jun; Park, Kwan Yong; Jeon, Jeong Min; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows generation of genetically identical animals using donor cells derived from animals with particular traits. To date, few studies have investigated whether or not these cloned dogs will show identical behavior patterns. To address this question, learning, memory and exploratory patterns were examined using six cloned dogs with identical nuclear genomes. The variance of total incorrect choice number in the Y-maze test among cloned dogs was significantly lower...

  14. Sleep Spindles as Facilitators of Memory Formation and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades important progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of sleep spindle generation. At the same time a physiological role of sleep spindles is starting to be revealed. Behavioural studies in humans and animals have found significant correlations between the recall performance in different learning tasks and the amount of sleep spindles in the intervening sleep. Concomitant neurophysiological experiments showed a close relationship between sleep spindles and other sleep related EEG rhythms as well as a relationship between sleep spindles and synaptic plasticity. Together, there is growing evidence from several disciplines in neuroscience for a participation of sleep spindles in memory formation and learning.

  15. Phonology, working memory, and foreign-language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, E

    1992-07-01

    Three tasks were used to predict English learning by Finnish children over a three-year period. In the pseudoword repetition task the pupils had to repeat aloud tape-recorded pseudowords sounding like Finnish or English. In the pseudoword copying task the pupils saw strings of letters resembling Finnish or English words and copied them when they had disappeared from view. When comparing syntactic-semantic structures, the pupils had to find the syntactically matching pairs from two sets of Finnish sentences. Repetition and copying accuracy and the ability to compare syntactic-semantic structures predicted English learning. Intercorrelations between test scores and English and mathematics grades suggest that repetition and copying accuracy were specifically related to language learning. It is concluded that the ability to represent unfamiliar phonological material in working memory underlies the acquisition of new vocabulary items in foreign-language learning.

  16. Incremental learning by message passing in hierarchical temporal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Erik M; Maltoni, Davide

    2014-08-01

    Hierarchical temporal memory (HTM) is a biologically inspired framework that can be used to learn invariant representations of patterns in a wide range of applications. Classical HTM learning is mainly unsupervised, and once training is completed, the network structure is frozen, thus making further training (i.e., incremental learning) quite critical. In this letter, we develop a novel technique for HTM (incremental) supervised learning based on gradient descent error minimization. We prove that error backpropagation can be naturally and elegantly implemented through native HTM message passing based on belief propagation. Our experimental results demonstrate that a two-stage training approach composed of unsupervised pretraining and supervised refinement is very effective (both accurate and efficient). This is in line with recent findings on other deep architectures.

  17. Working memory capacity predicts effects of methylphenidate on reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaaf, Marieke E; Fallon, Sean J; Ter Huurne, Niels; Buitelaar, Jan; Cools, Roshan

    2013-09-01

    Increased use of stimulant medication, such as methylphenidate, by healthy college students has raised questions about its cognitive-enhancing effects. Methylphenidate acts by increasing extracellular catecholamine levels and is generally accepted to remediate cognitive and reward deficits in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the cognitive-enhancing effects of such 'smart drugs' in the healthy population are still unclear. Here, we investigated effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin, 20  mg) on reward and punishment learning in healthy students (N=19) in a within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. Results revealed that methylphenidate effects varied both as a function of task demands and as a function of baseline working memory capacity. Specifically, methylphenidate improved reward vs punishment learning in high-working memory subjects, whereas it impaired reward vs punishment learning in low-working memory subjects. These results contribute to our understanding of individual differences in the cognitive-enhancing effects of methylphenidate in the healthy population. Moreover, they highlight the importance of taking into account both inter- and intra-individual differences in dopaminergic drug research.

  18. Influence of Samarium on Learning and Memory Function of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-four Spraque-Dawley(SD)big rats with weaning weight of (195±15) g were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 males and 8 females each group. One group drunk with de-ionized water served as control and was also used for analysis of the background. The other three groups rats were raised by de-ionized water containing low, middle and high concentrations of Sm for four months, then learning and memory tests were carried out in Y-electric maze. Compared with the control rats, the learning and memory of rats in low and middle groups shows a deterioration trend, exhibiting the function degradation of rats' brain. It may results from the rare earth elements through blood-brain barrier affecting the normal physiological functions of rats' brain. In addition, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rats' brain decreases, while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increases. The decreased SOD activity and the increased MDA mean the degeneration the ability of anti-oxidation in rats' brain, which are accordance with the degradation of learning and memory function of rats in low and middle Sm groups.

  19. Providing Leadership in the Language Arts and the Psychology of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper contends that, if pupils are to achieve as optimally as possible, the principal needs to provide quality leadership in having teachers stress vital principles of learning from educational psychology. The paper states that there are selected principles of learning that all schools of psychology emphasize. It first enumerates and…

  20. Exploration on the students’ enthusiasm in English learning from the pespective of psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    经馨

    2015-01-01

    Middle school students are in the stageof rapid development of body and intelligence,special psychological characteristics have a certain influence on the learning enthusiasm.This paper,from the perspective of psychology,analyzes the main factors that affect students’English learning motivation.

  1. Exploration on the students' enthusiasm in English learning from the pespective of psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    经馨

    2015-01-01

    Middle school students are in the stage of rapid development of body and intelligence,special psychological characteristics have a certain influence on the learning enthusiasm.This paper,from the perspective of psychology,analyzes the main factors that affect students' English learning motivation.

  2. Role of insulin and insulin receptor in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W Q; Alkon, D L

    2001-05-25

    As one of the most extensively studied protein hormones, insulin and its receptor have been known to play key roles in a variety of important biological functions. Until recent years, the functions of insulin and insulin receptor (IR) in the central nervous system (CNS) have largely remained unclear. IR is abundantly expressed in several specific brain regions that govern fundamental behaviors such as food intake, reproduction and high cognition. The IR from the periphery and CNS exhibit differences in both structure and function. In addition to that from the peripheral system, locally synthesized insulin in the brain has also been identified. Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that insulin/IR plays important roles in associative learning, as suggested by results from both interventive and correlative studies. Interruption of insulin production and IR activity causes deficits in learning and memory formation. Abnormal insulin/IR levels and activities are seen in Alzheimer's dementia, whereas administration of insulin significantly improves the cognitive performance of these patients. The synaptic bases for the action of insulin/IR include modifying neurotransmitter release processes at various types of presynaptic terminals and modulating the activities of both excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic receptors such as NMDA and GABA receptors, respectively. At the molecular level, insulin/IR participates in regulation of learning and memory via activation of specific signaling pathways, one of which is shown to be associated with the formation of long-term memory and is composed of intracellular molecules including the shc, Grb-r/SOS, Ras/Raf, and MEK/MAP kinases. Cross-talk with another IR pathway involving IRS1, PI3 kinase, and protein kinase C, as well as with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase pp60c-src, may also be associated with memory processing.

  3. Strategy guidance and memory aiding in learning a problem-solving skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R A; Lundy, D H; Schneider, W

    1992-04-01

    Guidance can help learners overcome the difficulties of getting started in a novel domain, but it is often ineffective in promoting learning and transfer. This article examines two aspects of guidance--communicating solution strategies for a problem domain and providing working memory support--in learning a novel problem-solving skill. Subjects in two experiments learned to troubleshoot simulated information networks. The learning environment varied in type of guidance provided--none, variable template, fixed template, and procedural instruction--and in availability of memory aiding. Variable-template guidance was effective when memory aiding was provided, and procedural instructions produced effective learning with or without memory aiding. However, fixed-template guidance was not effective, and there was no consistent effect of memory aiding in unguided, discovery learning conditions. The results have theoretical implications for the locus of guided-learning effects and suggest practical guidelines for the design of guided-learning environments.

  4. Evolutionary Pseudo-Relaxation Learning Algorithm for Bidirectional Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Zhi Du; Zeng-Qiang Chen; Zhu-Zhi Yuan

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity to noise in BAM (Bidirectional Associative Memory), and then proves the noise immunity of BAM relates not only to the minimum absolute value of net inputs (MAV) but also to the variance of weights associated with synapse connections. In fact, it is a positive monotonically increasing function of the quotient of MAV divided by the variance of weights. Besides, the performance of pseudo-relaxation method depends on learning parameters (λ and ζ), but the relation of them is not linear. So it is hard to find a best combination of λ and ζ which leads to the best BAM performance. And it is obvious that pseudo-relaxation is a kind of local optimization method, so it cannot guarantee to get the global optimal solution. In this paper, a novel learning algorithm EPRBAM (evolutionary psendo-relaxation learning algorithm for bidirectional association memory) employing genetic algorithm and pseudo-relaxation method is proposed to get feasible solution of BAM weight matrix. This algorithm uses the quotient as the fitness of each individual and employs pseudo-relaxation method to adjust individual solution when it does not satisfy constraining condition any more after genetic operation. Experimental results show this algorithm improves noise immunity of BAM greatly. At the same time, EPRBAM does not depend on learning parameters and can get global optimal solution.

  5. Optimizing Learning in College: Tips From Cognitive Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Adam L; Sungkhasettee, Victor W; Roediger, Henry L

    2016-09-01

    Every fall, thousands of college students begin their first college courses, often in large lecture settings. Many students, even those who work hard, flounder. What should students be doing differently? Drawing on research in cognitive psychology and our experience as educators, we provide suggestions about how students should approach taking a course in college. We discuss time management techniques, identify the ineffective study strategies students often use, and suggest more effective strategies based on research in the lab and the classroom. In particular, we advise students to space their study sessions on a topic and to quiz themselves, as well as using other active learning strategies while reading. Our goal was to provide a framework for students to succeed in college classes.

  6. Post-learning molecular reactivation underlies taste memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kioko eGuzman-Ramos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that memory consolidation is a progressive process that requires post-trial stabilization of the information. In this regard, it has been speculated that waves of receptors activation, expression of immediate early genes and replenishment of receptor subunit pools occur to induce functional or morphological changes to maintain the information for longer periods. In this paper, we will review data related to neuronal changes in the post-acquisition stage of taste aversion learning that could be involved in further stabilization of the memory trace. In order to achieve such stabilization, evidence suggests that the functional integrity of the insular cortex (IC and the amygdala (AMY is required. Particularly the increase of extracellular levels of glutamate and activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors within the IC shows a main role in the consolidation process. Additionally the modulatory actions of the dopaminergic system in the IC appear to be involved in the mechanisms that lead to taste aversion memory consolidation through the activation of pathways related to enhancement of protein synthesis such as the Protein Kinase A pathway. In summary, we suggest that post-acquisition molecular and neuronal changes underlying memory consolidation are dependent on the interactions between the AMY and the IC.

  7. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Evelyn Chaby; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; James eLim; Kendall Mackensie Warg; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory. Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats. Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance. Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they ag...

  8. Complexity, Training Paradigm Design, and the Contribution of Memory Subsystems to Grammar Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Mark; Ettlinger, Marc; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-01-01

    Although there is variability in nonnative grammar learning outcomes, the contributions of training paradigm design and memory subsystems are not well understood. To examine this, we presented learners with an artificial grammar that formed words via simple and complex morphophonological rules. Across three experiments, we manipulated training paradigm design and measured subjects' declarative, procedural, and working memory subsystems. Experiment 1 demonstrated that passive, exposure-based training boosted learning of both simple and complex grammatical rules, relative to no training. Additionally, procedural memory correlated with simple rule learning, whereas declarative memory correlated with complex rule learning. Experiment 2 showed that presenting corrective feedback during the test phase did not improve learning. Experiment 3 revealed that structuring the order of training so that subjects are first exposed to the simple rule and then the complex improved learning. The cumulative findings shed light on the contributions of grammatical complexity, training paradigm design, and domain-general memory subsystems in determining grammar learning success.

  9. A Blended Learning Experience in Statistics for Psychology Students Using the Evaluation as a Learning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto VALENTÍN CENTENO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching statistics course Applied Psychology, was based on different teaching models that incorporate active teaching methodologies. In this experience have combined approaches that prioritize the use of ICT with other where evaluation becomes an element of learning. This has involved the use of virtual platforms to support teaching that facilitate learning and activities where no face-to-face are combined. The design of the components of the course is inspired by the dimensions proposed by Carless (2003 model. This model uses evaluation as a learning element. The development of this experience has shown how the didactic proposal has been positively interpreted by students. Students recognized that they had to learn and deeply understand the basic concepts of the subject, so that they can teach and assess their peers.

  10. Memory as a hologram: an analysis of learning and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Donald R J; Mewhort, D J K

    2015-03-01

    We present a holographic theory of human memory. According to the theory, a subject's vocabulary resides in a dynamic distributed representation-a hologram. Studying or recalling a word alters both the existing representation of that word in the hologram and all words associated with it. Recall is always prompted by a recall cue (either a start instruction or the word just recalled). Order of report is a joint function of the item and associative information residing in the hologram at the time the report is made. We apply the model to archival data involving simple free recall, learning in multitrial free recall, simple serial recall, and learning in multitrial serial recall. The model captures accuracy and order of report in both free and serial recall. It also captures learning and subjective organisation in multitrial free recall. We offer the model as an alternative to the short- and long-term account of memory postulated in the modal model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Metabolic learning and memory formation by the brain influence systemic metabolic homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Jingqi; Zhang, Yalin; Li, Bo; Cai, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis is regulated by the brain, whether this regulation involves learning and memory of metabolic information remains unexplored. Here we use a calorie-based, taste-independent learning/memory paradigm to show that Drosophila form metabolic memories that help balancing food choice with caloric intake; however, this metabolic learning or memory is lost under chronic high-calorie feeding. We show that loss of individual learning/memory-regulating genes causes a metabolic learning defect, leading to elevated trehalose and lipids levels. Importantly, this function of metabolic learning requires not only the mushroom body but the hypothalamus-like pars intercerebralis, while NF-κB activation in the pars intercerebralis mimics chronic overnutrition in that it causes metabolic learning impairment and disorders. Finally, we evaluate this concept of metabolic learning/memory in mice, suggesting the hypothalamus is involved in a form of nutritional learning and memory, which is critical for determining resistance or susceptibility to obesity. In conclusion, our data indicate the brain, and potentially the hypothalamus, direct metabolic learning and the formation of memories, which contribute to the control of systemic metabolic homeostasis. PMID:25848677

  12. Psychological co-morbidity in children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children under 19 years of age constitute over 40% of India′s population and information about their mental health needs is a national imperative. Children with specific learning disorders (SLDs exhibit academic difficulties disproportionate to their intellectual capacities. Prevalence of SLD ranges from 2% to 10%. Dyslexia (developmental reading disorder is the most common type, affecting 80% of all SLD. About 30% of learning disabled children have behavioral and emotional problems, which range from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (most common to depression, anxiety, suicide etc., to substance abuse (least common. Co-occurrence of such problems with SLD further adds to the academic difficulty. In such instances, diagnosis is difficult and tricky; improvement in academics demands comprehensive holistic treatment approach. SLD remains a large public health problem because of under-recognition, inadequate treatment and therefore merits greater effort to understand the co-morbidities, especially in the Indian population. As the literature is scarce regarding co-morbid conditions in learning disability in Indian scenario, the present study has tried to focus on Indian population. The educational concessions (recent most given to such children by Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi are referred to. The issues to be addressed by the family physicians are: Low level of awareness among families and teachers, improper dissemination of accurate information about psychological problems, available help seeking avenues, need to develop service delivery models in rural and urban areas and focus on the integration of mental health and primary care keeping such co-morbidity in mind.

  13. Improving Leung's bidirectional learning rule for associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenze, B

    2001-01-01

    Leung (1994) introduced a perceptron-like learning rule to enhance the recall performance of bidirectional associative memories (BAMs). He proved that his so-called bidirectional learning scheme always yields a solution within a finite number of learning iterations in case that a solution exists. Unfortunately, in the setting of Leung a solution only exists in case that the training set is strongly linear separable by hyperplanes through the origin. We extend Leung's approach by considering conditionally strong linear separable sets allowing separating hyperplanes not containing the origin. Moreover, we deal with BAMs, which are generalized by defining so-called dilation and translation parameters enlarging their capacity, while leaving their complexity almost unaffected. The whole approach leads to a generalized bidirectional learning rule which generates BAMs with dilation and translation that perform perfectly on the training set in a case that the latter satisfies the conditionally strong linear separability assumption. Therefore, in the sense of Leung, we conclude with an optimal learning strategy which contains Leung's initial idea as a special case.

  14. Pictures and a Thousand Words : Learning Psychology through Visual Illustrations and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie

    2015-01-01

    For teachers and students to be able to make informed decisions about how to best improve learning, it is important to compare learning strategies that are known to be effective. Both multimedia learning, based on the notion that individuals learn better from words and pictures presented together than from words alone, and retrieval practice, based on the idea that retrieving knowledge from the memory is an active process that has a beneficial impact on learning, have been found robust learni...

  15. Assessment of nondeclarative learning in severe Alzheimer dementia: the Implicit Memory Test (IMT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Remmerswaal, M.; Wilson, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD) have impaired explicit memory, more automatic, implicit aspects of learning and memory may be relatively preserved. However, neuropsychological tests for the assessment of implicit memory are lacking. This study examines a newly developed test, the Impl

  16. Assessment of Nondeclarative Learning in Severe Alzheimer Dementia The Implicit Memory Test (IMT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Remmerswaal, M.; Wilson, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD) have impaired explicit memory, more automatic, implicit aspects of learning and memory may be relatively preserved. However, neuropsychological tests for the assessment of implicit memory are lacking. This study examines a newly developed test, the Impl

  17. Septohippocampal Acetylcholine: Involved in but Not Necessary for Learning and Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marise B.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) has been accorded an important role in supporting learning and memory processes in the hippocampus. Cholinergic activity in the hippocampus is correlated with memory, and restoration of ACh in the hippocampus after disruption of the septohippocampal pathway is sufficient to rescue memory. However, selective…

  18. The Contribution of Memory and Anxiety to the Math Performance of College Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances; Welles, Theresa L.; Li, Huijun; Proctor, Briley

    2010-01-01

    The impact of memory and anxiety on math performance was analyzed in a sample of 115 college undergraduates, all of whom had a diagnosed learning disability. The direct effects of memory and anxiety on math performance were first examined, followed by an examination of whether anxiety moderates the relationship between memory and math. Both memory…

  19. Working Memory Capacity and Reading Skill Moderate the Effectiveness of Strategy Training in Learning from Hypertext

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Johannes; Richter, Tobias; Christmann, Ursula; Groeben, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and metacognitive strategies are particularly important for learning with hypertext. The effectiveness of strategy training, however, depends on available working memory resources. Thus, especially learners high on working memory capacity can profit from strategy training, while learners low on working memory capacity might easily be…

  20. A simple role for BDNF in learning and memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cunha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery almost three decades ago, the secreted neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been firmly implicated in the differentiation and survival of neurons of the CNS. More recently, BDNF has also emerged as an important regulator of synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity mechanisms underlying learning and memory in the adult CNS. In this review we will discuss our knowledge about the multiple intracellular signalling pathways activated by BDNF, and the role of this neurotrophin in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation as well as in synaptogenesis. We will show that maturation of BDNF, its cellular localisation and its ability to regulate both excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the CNS may result in conflicting alterations in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Lack of a precise knowledge about the mechanisms by which BDNF influences higher cognitive functions and complex behaviours may constitute a severe limitation in the possibility to devise BDNF-based therapeutics for human disorders of the CNS.

  1. Learning Difficulties and Working Memory Deficits among Primary School Students in Jakarta, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wiguna, Tjhin; Setyawati WR, Noorhana; Kaligis, Fransiska; Belfer, Myron Lowell

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There are multiple possible etiologies for learning difficulties in children. There is growing evidence that many students identified as having learning difficulties have significant working memory deficits. To determine, in a sample of primary school students in Jakarta, Indonesia, the prevalence of learning difficulties and learning difficulties co-morbid with working memory deficits. Methods: Subjects (N=423) were recruited via proportional random sampling from 27 primary school...

  2. Depletion of Serotonin Selectively Impairs Short-Term Memory without Affecting Long-Term Memory in Odor Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Tomofumi; Kirino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shirahata, Takaaki; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" is able to acquire short-term and long-term memories during aversive odor-taste associative learning. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on memory. Behavioral studies indicated that 5,7-DHT impaired short-term memory but not long-term memory. HPLC…

  3. Depletion of Serotonin Selectively Impairs Short-Term Memory without Affecting Long-Term Memory in Odor Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Tomofumi; Kirino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shirahata, Takaaki; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" is able to acquire short-term and long-term memories during aversive odor-taste associative learning. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on memory. Behavioral studies indicated that 5,7-DHT impaired short-term memory but not long-term memory. HPLC…

  4. Aprendizado e memória Learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lombroso

    2004-09-01

    activated protein (MAP kinase. As this pathway is required for normal memory and learning, it is not surprising that mutations in members of this pathway lead to disruptions in learning. Neurofibromatosis, Coffin-Lowry syndrome and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome are three examples of developmental disorders that have mutations in key components of the MAP kinase signaling pathway.

  5. From SOPs to Reports to Evaluations: Learning and Memory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an era of global trade and regulatory cooperation, consistent and scientifically based interpretation of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies is essential. Because there is flexibility in the selection of test method(s), consistency can be especially challenging for learning and memory tests required by EPA and OECD DNT guidelines (chemicals and pesticides) and recommended for ICH prenatal/postnatal guidelines (pharmaceuticals). A well­ reasoned uniform approach is particularly important for variable endpoints and if non-standard tests are used. An understanding of the purpose behind the tests and expected outcomes is critical, and attention to elements of experimental design, conduct, and reporting can improve study design by the investigator as well as accuracy and consistency of interpretation by evaluators. This understanding also directs which information must be clearly described in study reports. While missing information may be available in standardized operating procedures (SOPs), if not clearly reflected in report submissions there may be questions and misunderstandings by evaluators which could impact risk assessments. A practical example will be presented to provide insights into important variables and reporting approaches. Cognitive functions most often tested in guidelines studies include associative, positional, sequential, and spatial learning and memory in weanling and adult animals. These complex behaviors tap different bra

  6. An application of Huber model on the effect of psychological empowerment of employees on organizational learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdie Mirzaiefar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive–survey study is to determine the effect of psychological empowerment of employees on organizational learning based on Huber model. The study selects a sample of 54 people randomly from 499 regular employees of a Gas distribution firm located in province of Lorestan, Iran. For collecting data, two questionnaires of Huber organizational learning and psychological empowerment based on Spreitzer (1995 model [Spreitzer, G. M. (1995. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of management Journal, 38(5, 1442-1465.] are used. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of organizational and psychological empowerment questionnaires are 0.706 and 0.92, respectively. SPSS software and linear regression test, binomial test, Pearson correlation test, and Friedman tests are used to analyze data and examine the hypotheses. The results of the data analysis show that psychological empowerment of employees could influence on organizational learning aspects in organization, significantly.

  7. Procedural Learning and Memory Rehabilitation in Korsakoff's Syndrome - a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudman, Erik; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Postma, Albert; Wijnia, Jan W; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder caused by alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency. Patients with KS show restricted autonomy due to their severe declarative amnesia and executive disorders. Recently, it has been suggested that procedural learning and memory are relatively preserved in KS and can effectively support autonomy in KS. In the present review we describe the available evidence on procedural learning and memory in KS and highlight advances in memory rehabilitation that have been demonstrated to support procedural memory. The specific purpose of this review was to increase insights in the available tools for successful memory rehabilitation and give suggestions how to apply these tools in clinical practice to increase procedural learning in KS. Current evidence suggests that when memory rehabilitation is adjusted to the specific needs of KS patients, this will increase their ability to learn procedures and their typically compromised autonomy gets enhanced.

  8. Learning to use working memory: a reinforcement learning gating model of rule acquisition in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eLloyd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning to form appropriate, task-relevant working memory representations is a complex process central to cognition. Gating models frame working memory as a collection of past observations and use reinforcement learning to solve the problem of when to update these observations. Investigation of how gating models relate to brain and behavior remains, however, at an early stage. The current study sought to explore the ability of simple reinforcement learning gating models to replicate rule learning behavior in rats. Rats were trained in a maze-based spatial learning task that required animals to make trial-by-trial choices contingent upon their previous experience. Using an abstract version of this task, we tested the ability of two gating algorithms, one based on the Actor-Critic and the other on the State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA algorithm, to generate behavior consistent with the rats’. Both models produced rule-acquisition behavior consistent with the experimental data, though only the SARSA gating model mirrored faster learning following rule reversal. We also found that both gating models learned multiple strategies in solving the initial task, a property which highlights the multi-agent nature of such models and which is of importance in considering the neural basis of individual differences in behavior.

  9. In Living Memory: The Dying Art of Learning Poetry and a Case for Revival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullinger, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the practice of learning poems and the value of poetry in the memory, and emerges from the Cambridge Poetry Teaching Project, a small-scale research study co-ordinated through the Faculty of Education at the University of Cambridge. Drawing on the subset of findings in relation to learning and memory, the essay locates the…

  10. Effects of Learning Experience on Forgetting Rates of Item and Associative Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Zhan, Lexia; Wang, Yingying; Du, Xiaoya; Zhou, Wenxi; Ning, Xueling; Sun, Qing; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Are associative memories forgotten more quickly than item memories, and does the level of original learning differentially influence forgetting rates? In this study, we addressed these questions by having participants learn single words and word pairs once (Experiment 1), three times (Experiment 2), and six times (Experiment 3) in a massed…

  11. Implicit Memory Influences on Metamemory during Verbal Learning after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Pradeep; Kennedy, Mary R. T.; Marsolek, Chad J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Prior research has shown that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be overconfident in their judgments of learning (JOLs; online measures of self-monitoring of learning and memory). JOLs had been presumed to be driven by explicit processes, but recent research has also revealed implicit memory involvement. Given that implicit…

  12. Comparative Effect of Memory and Cognitive Strategies Training on EFL Intermediate Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banisaeid, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the effect of memory and cognitive strategies training on vocabulary learning of intermediate proficiency group of Iranian learners of English as a foreign language. It is to check how memory and cognitive strategies training affect word learning of EFL intermediate learners (N = 60) who were homogenized…

  13. Neuronal mechanisms of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, K. M. M.; Veldman, M. P.; Solnik, S.; Koch, G.; Zijdewind, I.; Hortobagyi, T.

    2015-01-01

    It is controversial whether or not old adults are capable of learning new motor skills and consolidate the performance gains into motor memory in the offline period. The underlying neuronal mechanisms are equally unclear. We determined the magnitude of motor learning and motor memory consolidation i

  14. Cortisol, contingency learning, and memory in preterm and full-term infants

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, David W.; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2005-01-01

    Cortisol plays an important role in learning and memory. An inverted-U shaped function has been proposed to account for the positive and negative effects of cortisol on cognitive performance and memory in adults, such that too little or too much impair but moderate amounts facilitate performance. Whether such relationships between cortisol and mental function apply to early infancy, when cortisol secretion, learning, and memory undergo rapid developmental changes, is unknown. We compared rela...

  15. Use it or Lose it: Selective Memory and Forgetting in a Perpetual Learning Machine

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article we described a new type of deep neural network - a Perpetual Learning Machine (PLM) - which is capable of learning 'on the fly' like a brain by existing in a state of Perpetual Stochastic Gradient Descent (PSGD). Here, by simulating the process of practice, we demonstrate both selective memory and selective forgetting when we introduce statistical recall biases during PSGD. Frequently recalled memories are remembered, whilst memories recalled rarely are forgotten. This res...

  16. Simple Quantum Model of Learning Explains the Yerkes-Dodson Law in Psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2012-01-01

    We propose the simple model of learning based on which we derive and explain the Yerkes-Dodson law - one of the oldest laws of experimental psychology. The approach uses some ideas of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS) and develops the method of statistical description of psychological systems that was proposed by author earlier.

  17. Community College Students with Psychological Disorders and Their Perceptions of Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Gretchen Winifred Langford

    2014-01-01

    Research focusing on students with learning disabilities is abundant for secondary and higher education. Studies utilizing data on students with psychological disorders cover secondary and 4-year university education. However, community college students with psychological disorders and their perception of online classes is an area of educational…

  18. Community College Students with Psychological Disorders and Their Perceptions of Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Gretchen Winifred Langford

    2014-01-01

    Research focusing on students with learning disabilities is abundant for secondary and higher education. Studies utilizing data on students with psychological disorders cover secondary and 4-year university education. However, community college students with psychological disorders and their perception of online classes is an area of educational…

  19. Undergraduate Internship Supervision in Psychology Departments: Use of Experiential Learning Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah F.; Barber, Larissa K.; Nelson, Videl L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined trends in how psychology internships are supervised compared to current experiential learning best practices in the literature. We sent a brief online survey to relevant contact persons for colleges/universities with psychology departments throughout the United States (n = 149 responded). Overall, the majority of institutions…

  20. The Role of Psychological Needs in Ceasing Music and Music Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Paul; McPherson, Gary E.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses individuals' decisions to continue or cease playing a musical instrument from a basic psychological needs perspective. Participants began learning music 10 years prior to the study and were the subject of previous longitudinal research. They completed a survey investigating the three psychological needs of competence,…

  1. Applying Cognitive Psychology Based Instructional Design Principles in Mathematics Teaching and Learning: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, W.; Star, J.

    2017-01-01

    This special issue comprises contributions that address the breadth of current lines of recent research from cognitive psychology that appear promising for positively impacting students' learning of mathematics. More specifically, we included contributions (a) that refer to cognitive psychology based principles and techniques, such as explanatory…

  2. The Role of Psychological Needs in Ceasing Music and Music Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Paul; McPherson, Gary E.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses individuals' decisions to continue or cease playing a musical instrument from a basic psychological needs perspective. Participants began learning music 10 years prior to the study and were the subject of previous longitudinal research. They completed a survey investigating the three psychological needs of competence,…

  3. Promoting Higher Level Thinking in Psychology: Is Active Learning the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…

  4. Using Action Verbs as Learning Outcomes: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy in Measuring Instructional Objectives in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; McClelland, Nate

    2013-01-01

    We used a set of action verbs based on Bloom's taxonomy to assess learning outcomes in two college-level introductory psychology courses. The action verbs represented an acronym, IDEA, comprising skills relating to identifying, defining or describing, evaluating or explaining, and applying psychological knowledge. Exam performance demonstrated…

  5. Adult Learning Open University Determinants study: psychological determinants of study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 30 August). Adult Learning Open University Determinants study: psychological determinants of study success. Poster presentation at the 15th Biennial EARLI conference 2013, Munich, Germany.

  6. Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  7. Ask Not Only "What Can Problem-Based Learning Do for Psychology?" but "What Can Psychology Do for Problem-Based Learning?" A Review of the Relevance of Problem-Based Learning for Psychology Teaching and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Sally; Chiriac, Eva Hammar; Abbad, Gunvor Larsson; Pauli, Regina; Worrell, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an internationally recognised pedagogical approach that is implemented within a number of disciplines. The relevance and uptake of PBL in psychology has to date, however, received very limited attention. The aim of this paper is therefore to review published accounts of how PBL is being used to deliver psychology…

  8. The Relationship between Learning Style Preferences and Memory Strategy use in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirette, Diane Powers; Anderson, Michele A

    2016-07-01

    Deficits in working memory are pervasive, resistant to remediation and significantly impact a persons ability to perform activities of daily living. Internal strategies are effective for improving working memory. Learning style preferences may influence the use of various internal working memory strategies. This study compares the use of internal working memory strategies among four different learning style preferences; converger, diverger, assimilator and accommodator. A non-experimental group design was used to compare the use of internal working memory strategies and learning style preferences among 110 adults. There were some significant differences in the types of strategies used according to learning style preferences. Knowing the learning style preference of clients may help occupational therapists better tailor cognitive rehabilitation treatments to meet the client's needs.

  9. An English Vocabulary Learning System Based on Fuzzy Theory and Memory Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzone I.; Chiu, Ti Kai; Huang, Liang Jun; Fu, Ru Xuan; Hsieh, Tung-Cheng

    This paper proposes an English Vocabulary Learning System based on the Fuzzy Theory and the Memory Cycle Theory to help a learner to memorize vocabularies easily. By using fuzzy inferences and personal memory cycles, it is possible to find an article that best suits a learner. After reading an article, a quiz is provided for the learner to improve his/her memory of the vocabulary in the article. Early researches use just explicit response (ex. quiz exam) to update memory cycles of newly learned vocabulary; apart from that approach, this paper proposes a methodology that also modify implicitly the memory cycles of learned word. By intensive reading of articles recommended by our approach, a learner learns new words quickly and reviews learned words implicitly as well, and by which the vocabulary ability of the learner improves efficiently.

  10. Randomized controlled trial evaluating the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term memory, and prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-09-18

    The broader purpose of this study was to examine the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term retrospective memory and prospective memory. Among a sample of 88 young adult participants, 22 were randomized into one of four different groups: exercise before learning, control group, exercise during learning, and exercise after learning. The retrospective assessments (learning, short-term and long-term memory) were assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Long-term memory including a 20-min and 24-hr follow-up assessment. Prospective memory was assessed using a time-based procedure by having participants contact (via phone) the researchers at a follow-up time period. The exercise stimulus included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. High-intensity exercise prior to memory encoding (vs. exercise during memory encoding or consolidation) was effective in enhancing long-term memory (for both 20-min and 24-h follow-up assessments). We did not observe a differential temporal effect of high-intensity exercise on short-term memory (immediate post-memory encoding), learning or prospective memory. The timing of high-intensity exercise may play an important role in facilitating long-term memory. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Learning Quantum Chemical Model with Learning Media Concept Map and Power Point Viewed from Memory and Creativity Skills Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wahidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is experimental, using first class learning a quantum model of learning with concept maps media and the second media using real environments by power point presentation. The population is all class XI Science, number 2 grade. The sampling technique is done by purposive random sampling. Data collection techniques to test for cognitive performance and memory capabilities, with a questionnaire for creativity. Hypothesis testing using three-way ANOVA different cells with the help of software Minitab 15.Based on the results of data processing, concluded: (1 there is no influence of the quantum model of learning with media learning concept maps and real environments for learning achievement chemistry, (2 there is a high impact memory ability and low on student achievement, (3 there is no the effect of high and low creativity in student performance, (4 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with memory ability on student achievement, (5 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with creativity of student achievement, (6 there is no interaction memory skills and creativity of student achievement, (7 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments, memory skills, and creativity on student achievement.

  12. Processing of communication sounds: contributions of learning, memory, and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poremba, Amy; Bigelow, James; Rossi, Breein

    2013-11-01

    Abundant evidence from both field and lab studies has established that conspecific vocalizations (CVs) are of critical ecological significance for a wide variety of species, including humans, non-human primates, rodents, and other mammals and birds. Correspondingly, a number of experiments have demonstrated behavioral processing advantages for CVs, such as in discrimination and memory tasks. Further, a wide range of experiments have described brain regions in many species that appear to be specialized for processing CVs. For example, several neural regions have been described in both mammals and birds wherein greater neural responses are elicited by CVs than by comparison stimuli such as heterospecific vocalizations, nonvocal complex sounds, and artificial stimuli. These observations raise the question of whether these regions reflect domain-specific neural mechanisms dedicated to processing CVs, or alternatively, if these regions reflect domain-general neural mechanisms for representing complex sounds of learned significance. Inasmuch as CVs can be viewed as complex combinations of basic spectrotemporal features, the plausibility of the latter position is supported by a large body of literature describing modulated cortical and subcortical representation of a variety of acoustic features that have been experimentally associated with stimuli of natural behavioral significance (such as food rewards). Herein, we review a relatively small body of existing literature describing the roles of experience, learning, and memory in the emergence of species-typical neural representations of CVs and auditory system plasticity. In both songbirds and mammals, manipulations of auditory experience as well as specific learning paradigms are shown to modulate neural responses evoked by CVs, either in terms of overall firing rate or temporal firing patterns. In some cases, CV-sensitive neural regions gradually acquire representation of non-CV stimuli with which subjects have training

  13. Learning, memory, and the role of neural network architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Brown, Kevin S; Bassett, Danielle S; Carlson, Jean M

    2011-06-01

    The performance of information processing systems, from artificial neural networks to natural neuronal ensembles, depends heavily on the underlying system architecture. In this study, we compare the performance of parallel and layered network architectures during sequential tasks that require both acquisition and retention of information, thereby identifying tradeoffs between learning and memory processes. During the task of supervised, sequential function approximation, networks produce and adapt representations of external information. Performance is evaluated by statistically analyzing the error in these representations while varying the initial network state, the structure of the external information, and the time given to learn the information. We link performance to complexity in network architecture by characterizing local error landscape curvature. We find that variations in error landscape structure give rise to tradeoffs in performance; these include the ability of the network to maximize accuracy versus minimize inaccuracy and produce specific versus generalizable representations of information. Parallel networks generate smooth error landscapes with deep, narrow minima, enabling them to find highly specific representations given sufficient time. While accurate, however, these representations are difficult to generalize. In contrast, layered networks generate rough error landscapes with a variety of local minima, allowing them to quickly find coarse representations. Although less accurate, these representations are easily adaptable. The presence of measurable performance tradeoffs in both layered and parallel networks has implications for understanding the behavior of a wide variety of natural and artificial learning systems.

  14. Learning, memory, and the role of neural network architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Hermundstad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of information processing systems, from artificial neural networks to natural neuronal ensembles, depends heavily on the underlying system architecture. In this study, we compare the performance of parallel and layered network architectures during sequential tasks that require both acquisition and retention of information, thereby identifying tradeoffs between learning and memory processes. During the task of supervised, sequential function approximation, networks produce and adapt representations of external information. Performance is evaluated by statistically analyzing the error in these representations while varying the initial network state, the structure of the external information, and the time given to learn the information. We link performance to complexity in network architecture by characterizing local error landscape curvature. We find that variations in error landscape structure give rise to tradeoffs in performance; these include the ability of the network to maximize accuracy versus minimize inaccuracy and produce specific versus generalizable representations of information. Parallel networks generate smooth error landscapes with deep, narrow minima, enabling them to find highly specific representations given sufficient time. While accurate, however, these representations are difficult to generalize. In contrast, layered networks generate rough error landscapes with a variety of local minima, allowing them to quickly find coarse representations. Although less accurate, these representations are easily adaptable. The presence of measurable performance tradeoffs in both layered and parallel networks has implications for understanding the behavior of a wide variety of natural and artificial learning systems.

  15. Learning from the Mars Rover Mission: Scientific Discovery, Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge management for space exploration is part of a multi-generational effort. Each mission builds on knowledge from prior missions, and learning is the first step in knowledge production. This paper uses the Mars Exploration Rover mission as a site to explore this process. Approach: Observational study and analysis of the work of the MER science and engineering team during rover operations, to investigate how learning occurs, how it is recorded, and how these representations might be made available for subsequent missions. Findings: Learning occurred in many areas: planning science strategy, using instrumen?s within the constraints of the martian environment, the Deep Space Network, and the mission requirements; using software tools effectively; and running two teams on Mars time for three months. This learning is preserved in many ways. Primarily it resides in individual s memories. It is also encoded in stories, procedures, programming sequences, published reports, and lessons learned databases. Research implications: Shows the earliest stages of knowledge creation in a scientific mission, and demonstrates that knowledge management must begin with an understanding of knowledge creation. Practical implications: Shows that studying learning and knowledge creation suggests proactive ways to capture and use knowledge across multiple missions and generations. Value: This paper provides a unique analysis of the learning process of a scientific space mission, relevant for knowledge management researchers and designers, as well as demonstrating in detail how new learning occurs in a learning organization.

  16. Insulin signaling and dietary restriction differentially influence the decline of learning and memory with age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Kauffman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Of all the age-related declines, memory loss is one of the most devastating. While conditions that increase longevity have been identified, the effects of these longevity-promoting factors on learning and memory are unknown. Here we show that the C. elegans Insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutant daf-2 improves memory performance early in adulthood and maintains learning ability better with age but, surprisingly, demonstrates no extension in long-term memory with age. By contrast, eat-2 mutants, a model of Dietary Restriction (DR, exhibit impaired long-term memory in young adulthood but maintain this level of memory longer with age. We find that crh-1, the C. elegans homolog of the CREB transcription factor, is required for long-term associative memory, but not for learning or short-term memory. The expression of crh-1 declines with age and differs in the longevity mutants, and CREB expression and activity correlate with memory performance. Our results suggest that specific longevity treatments have acute and long-term effects on cognitive functions that decline with age through their regulation of rate-limiting genes required for learning and memory.

  17. Effect of Royal Jelly on Improving Passive Avoidance Learning and Spatial Learning and Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Alaei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have proposed that royal jelly(RJ has various biological activities in different cells and tissues. Since it has been demonstrated that RJ contains compounds having desirable effects on central neurons system and neural functions, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of royal jelly on learning and memory in rats. Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into two groups, the royal jelly and the control. In the RJ group, the rats received a food that contained 3% RJ instead of regular food for 10 days. Then learning and memory were investigated in these animals through both passive avoidance learning test(1 day and 1 week after receiving electrical shock and Morris water maze test(1 day and 1 week after a 4-day learning period. Results: The study results indicated that the food containing RJ in the RJ group significantly increased the time of the first entrance to the dark room one week after the electrical shock in passive avoidance learning test. In other words, the findings suggest an improvement of learning and memory in RJ group. In the acquisition phase of Morris water maze test, rats receiving RJ found the underwater escape plate during less time and distance comparing with the control group. Furthermore, one week after the acquisition phase, in the retention phase, rats spent more time in the quadrant in which the escape plate was previously located. Conclusion: The present study findings propose that Royal Jelly can improve cognitive processes through positive effects on neural functions and probably has a significant influence on prevention and therapy of some neuronal disorders.

  18. Perception and Memory of Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-20

    altogether. His explanation for the efftct is similar to that proposed by Raijmakers and Shiffrin (1981) in the SAM model of memory : Items from... Atkinson , R. C., & Juola, J. E (1974). Search and decision processes in recognition memory . In D. H. Krantz et al. (Eds.), Contemporary Developments in...Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory , and Cognition, 12, 426-431. Raaijmakers, J. G. W, & Shiffrin , R. M. (1981). Search of

  19. Subjective memory complaints, vascular risk factors and psychological distress in the middle-aged: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davenport Tracey A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective memory complaints (SMC are common but their significance is still unclear. It has been suggested they are a precursor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia and an early indicator of cognitive decline. Vascular risk factors have an important role in the development of dementia and possibly MCI. We therefore aimed to test the hypothesis that vascular risk factors were associated with SMC, independent of psychological distress, in a middle-aged community-dwelling population. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the 45 and Up Study was performed. This is a cohort study of people living in New South Wales (Australia, and we explored the sample of 45, 532 participants aged between 45 and 64 years. SMC were defined as 'fair' or 'poor' on a self-reported five-point Likert scale of memory function. Vascular risk factors of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking were identified by self-report. Psychological distress was measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. We tested the model generated from a randomly selected exploratory sample (n = 22, 766 with a confirmatory sample of equal size. Results 5, 479/45, 532 (12% of respondents reported SMC. Using multivariate logistic regression, only two vascular risk factors: smoking (OR 1.18; 95% CI = 1.03 - 1.35 and hypercholesterolaemia (OR 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.36 showed a small independent association with SMC. In contrast psychological distress was strongly associated with SMC. Those with the highest levels of psychological distress were 7.00 (95% CI = 5.41 - 9.07 times more likely to have SMC than the non-distressed. The confirmatory sample also demonstrated the strong association of SMC with psychological distress rather than vascular risk factors. Conclusions In a large sample of middle-aged people without any history of major affective illness or stroke, psychological distress was strongly, and vascular risk

  20. Internet-Based Learning Tools:Development and Learning Psychology (DLP Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tavares

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The project aims to establish a deeper involvement of students and teachers in the learning process by using the ICT in higher education. We will try to address the following two questions: "how can the use of ICT help educators to accomplishing their academic goals and how do the students use the ICT to develop their academic skills?" The work team constituted by four teaching staff and two researchers at the University of Aveiro has developed a project on the 'Development and Learning Psychology' course. The course follows the traditional style of lecturing but with a Web site as a supporting tool aiming at increasing the involvement and responsibility of the students in the class.

  1. Selective transfer of visual working memory training on Chinese character learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Bertram; Schneiders, Julia A; Krick, Christoph M; Mecklinger, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown a systematic relationship between phonological working memory capacity and second language proficiency for alphabetic languages. However, little is known about the impact of working memory processes on second language learning in a non-alphabetic language such as Mandarin Chinese. Due to the greater complexity of the Chinese writing system we expect that visual working memory rather than phonological working memory exerts a unique influence on learning Chinese characters. This issue was explored in the present experiment by comparing visual working memory training with an active (auditory working memory training) control condition and a passive, no training control condition. Training induced modulations in language-related brain networks were additionally examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a pretest-training-posttest design. As revealed by pre- to posttest comparisons and analyses of individual differences in working memory training gains, visual working memory training led to positive transfer effects on visual Chinese vocabulary learning compared to both control conditions. In addition, we found sustained activation after visual working memory training in the (predominantly visual) left infero-temporal cortex that was associated with behavioral transfer. In the control conditions, activation either increased (active control condition) or decreased (passive control condition) without reliable behavioral transfer effects. This suggests that visual working memory training leads to more efficient processing and more refined responses in brain regions involved in visual processing. Furthermore, visual working memory training boosted additional activation in the precuneus, presumably reflecting mental image generation of the learned characters. We, therefore, suggest that the conjoint activity of the mid-fusiform gyrus and the precuneus after visual working memory training reflects an interaction of working memory and

  2. Optimising synaptic learning rules in linear associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, P; Willshaw, D J

    1991-01-01

    Associative matrix memories with real-valued synapses have been studied in many incarnations. We consider how the signal/noise ratio for associations depends on the form of the learning rule, and we show that a covariance rule is optimal. Two other rules, which have been suggested in the neurobiology literature, are asymptotically optimal in the limit of sparse coding. The results appear to contradict a line of reasoning particularly prevalent in the physics community. It turns out that the apparent conflict is due to the adoption of different underlying models. Ironically, they perform identically at their co-incident optima. We give details of the mathematical results, and discuss some other possible derivations and definitions of the signal/noise ratio.

  3. A correlation significance learning scheme for auto-associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D L; Wang, W J

    1995-12-01

    A new concept called correlation significance for expanding the attraction regions around all the stored vectors (attractors) of an asynchronous auto-associative memory is introduced. Since the well known outer product rule adopts equally-weighted correlation matrix for the neuron connections, the attraction region around each attractor is not maximized. In order to maximize these attraction regions, we devise a rule that all the correlations between two different components of two different stored patterns should be unequally weighted. By this formalism, the connection matrix T of the asynchronous neural network is designed by using the gradient descent approach. Additionally, an exponential type error function is constructed such that the number of successfully stored vectors can be directly examined during the entire learning process. Finally, computer simulations demonstrate the efficiency and capability of this scheme.

  4. Learning, memory and exploratory similarities in genetically identical cloned dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chi Won; Kim, Geon A; Park, Won Jun; Park, Kwan Yong; Jeon, Jeong Min; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-12-30

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows generation of genetically identical animals using donor cells derived from animals with particular traits. To date, few studies have investigated whether or not these cloned dogs will show identical behavior patterns. To address this question, learning, memory and exploratory patterns were examined using six cloned dogs with identical nuclear genomes. The variance of total incorrect choice number in the Y-maze test among cloned dogs was significantly lower than that of the control dogs. There was also a significant decrease in variance in the level of exploratory activity in the open fields test compared to age-matched control dogs. These results indicate that cloned dogs show similar cognitive and exploratory patterns, suggesting that these behavioral phenotypes are related to the genotypes of the individuals.

  5. Psychology of the scientist: LXXXII. Coverage of classical conditioning in textbooks in the psychology of learning, 1952-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S R; Fanelli, A; Gedeon, S

    2000-06-01

    Objective information was obtained from 89 textbooks in the psychology of learning published from 1952 through 1995 to answer questions about their coverage of classical conditioning. We found (a) that classical conditioning consistently received less coverage than instrumental and operant conditioning, (b) that the distinction of classical and instrumental conditioning has become established as a textbook-construction device, (c) that use of the classical-instrumental distinction by textbook authors has "hardened" after a period of "fluidity" in the 1970s, (d) that the currency of references in the basic classical (as well as instrumental) conditioning chapters diminished from 1952 to 1995. Findings are discussed in regard to the possibility that, as a class, and in comparison to other textbooks, the textbooks of the psychology of learning fall short of fulfilling some of their recognized roles.

  6. Learning to Read Empirical Articles in General Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sego, Sandra A.; Stuart, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Many students, particularly underprepared students, struggle to identify the essential information in empirical articles. We describe a set of assignments for instructing general psychology students to dissect the structure of such articles. Students in General Psychology I read empirical articles and answered a set of general, factual questions…

  7. Learning to Read Empirical Articles in General Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sego, Sandra A.; Stuart, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Many students, particularly underprepared students, struggle to identify the essential information in empirical articles. We describe a set of assignments for instructing general psychology students to dissect the structure of such articles. Students in General Psychology I read empirical articles and answered a set of general, factual questions…

  8. Psychological Theory and Pedagogical Effectiveness: The Learning Promotion Potential Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background: After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. Aims: To propose an analytical or…

  9. Study Abroad in Psychology: Increasing Cultural Competencies through Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, David R.; Rosenbusch, Katherine; Wallace-Williams, Devin; Keim, Alaina C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prominence of study abroad programs, few are offered in the field of psychology. The current study sought to investigate the impact of study abroad programs in psychology through a comparison of study abroad and domestic student cultural competencies. Participants included 104 undergraduate students enrolled in either a psychology…

  10. Study Abroad in Psychology: Increasing Cultural Competencies through Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, David R.; Rosenbusch, Katherine; Wallace-Williams, Devin; Keim, Alaina C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prominence of study abroad programs, few are offered in the field of psychology. The current study sought to investigate the impact of study abroad programs in psychology through a comparison of study abroad and domestic student cultural competencies. Participants included 104 undergraduate students enrolled in either a psychology…

  11. Developing a Personal-Learning-Portfolio (PLP) for 1st year students at Department of Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anna Thit; Beck Hansen, Nina; Andersen, Mette Elmose

    Abstract title: Developing a Personal-Learning-Portfolio (PLP) for 1st year students at Department of Psychology Learning outcome of activity: B01 is the first module of the education in Psychology at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The aim of B01 is to give the students a ‘map’ or a ‘schem......Abstract title: Developing a Personal-Learning-Portfolio (PLP) for 1st year students at Department of Psychology Learning outcome of activity: B01 is the first module of the education in Psychology at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The aim of B01 is to give the students a ‘map......’ or a ‘schemata’ of psychology that they will later expand and modify throughout their education. This is done by introducing the students to the history of psychology, its theory of science and its different fields. However, feedback from our students told us that the risk of this objective is that the class...... be an inspiration to others who wish to develop and implements PLPs. Second, we will show the format of our particular Personal-Learning-Portfolio together with reflections on why it was developed in such a way. This includes the students’ opinions about the PLP and the results of the cognitive interviews....

  12. Expertise in cognitive psychology: testing the hypothesis of long-term working memory in a study of soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postal, Virginie

    2004-10-01

    This experiment compared several theories of expertise and exceptional performances in cognitive psychology. One current conception assumes that experts in a specific domain have developed a long-term working memory, which accounts for the difference in memory performance between experts and novices. The principal characteristics of this memory are the speed with which processes of storage and retrieval function and the existence of retrieval structures that allow a temporary activation of the knowledge store in long-term memory. Other authors such as Vicente and Wang argue this notion does not account for memory performance that is not intrinsic to the domain of expertise. We attempt to clarify the two viewpoints and to focus on this debate by testing the hypothesis of long-term working memory using soccer as the domain of expertise and by comparing the cognitive performance of participants who have different expertise (novices, supporters, players, and coaches). 35 male participants were administered a new version of the Reading Span test to assess their long-term working memory according to two conditions. In the first condition (structured condition), the last word of each sentence was related to the soccer domain, and these words were related to each other in such a manner that they represented a part of the game. In the second condition (unstructured condition), the last word of each sentence was related to soccer but these words did not represent part of the game. Analysis showed that the sentence span increased as a function of expertise for the structured condition but not for the unstructured condition. The results were interpreted in the framework of the constraint attunement hypothesis proposed by Vicente in 1992 and the long-term working memory hypothesis proposed by Ericsson and Kintsch in 1995.

  13. A Longitudinal Assessment of an Initial Cohort in a Psychology Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Kim; Spaulding, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Discipline-based learning communities have become a popular strategy for improving student performance and satisfaction. This article describes the goals and features of a university-based, first-year psychology learning community (PLC) implemented in Fall 2003. We also report the results of a longitudinal assessment of the impact of the PLC on…

  14. In-Course Instructor-Guided Service Learning in a Community College General Psychology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.; Weston, Melissa B.

    2012-01-01

    Students enrolled in two general psychology classes at El Centro College (ECC) of the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) were offered the opportunity to earn extra credit by performing up to 20 hours of service learning. Benefits of service learning were observed in student development, including exploration of career possibilities,…

  15. Integrating Global Learning into a Psychology Course Using an Online Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forden, Carie L.; Carrillo, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a demand for the integration of global learning/diversity across the curriculum. A series of cross-cultural assignments was created to facilitate global learning in two social psychology classes, one in Egypt, and one in the USA. In these assignments, students collected data and applied course concepts to real-life problems, then…

  16. Psychological and Organizational Variables Associated with Workplace Learning in Small and Medium Manufacturing Businesses in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Se-Yeon; Na, Seung-Il

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between workplace learning and psychological variables, such as learning competency, motivation, curiosity, self-esteem and locus of control, and organizational variables, such as centralization of power, formality, merit system and communication. The studied population consisted entirely…

  17. Introduction to Psychology Students' Parental Status Predicts Learning Preferences and Life Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Elyse D'nn; Munn, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    This study explores Introduction to Psychology students' learning preferences and their personal search for meaning while considering their parental status. The findings suggest that parents show preferences for project-based learning and have lower levels of searching for meaning than non-parents. When parental status, age, and finances were…

  18. Psychological and Organizational Variables Associated with Workplace Learning in Small and Medium Manufacturing Businesses in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Se-Yeon; Na, Seung-Il

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between workplace learning and psychological variables, such as learning competency, motivation, curiosity, self-esteem and locus of control, and organizational variables, such as centralization of power, formality, merit system and communication. The studied population consisted entirely…

  19. Learning Online: Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), Connectivism, and Cultural Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Marc; Barbera, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this reflection, we discuss the connectivist conception of learning in Web 2.0 environments, which underpins the pedagogy of what are known as cMOOCs (connectivist massive open online courses). We argue that this conception of learning is inadequate and problematic, and we propose that cultural psychology is best suited to address the…

  20. Temporal Memory Reinforcement Learning for the Autonomous Micro-mobile Robot Based-behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yujun(杨玉君); Cheng Junshi; Chen Jiapin; Li Xiaohai

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents temporal memory reinforcement learning for the autonomous micro-mobile robot based-behavior. Human being has a memory oblivion process, i.e. the earlier to memorize, the earlier to forget, only the repeated thing can be remembered firmly. Enlightening forms this, and the robot need not memorize all the past states, at the same time economizes the EMS memory space, which is not enough in the MPU of our AMRobot. The proposed algorithm is an extension of the Q-learning, which is an incremental reinforcement learning method. The results of simulation have shown that the algorithm is valid.

  1. The effect of subacute supplementation of taurine on spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichi; Arko, Matevz; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2009-04-01

    Although the effect of taurine on the heart and liver is well studied, there has been no direct observation concerning the effect of taurine on spatial learning and memory at the behavior level. In this study, we tested the effect of subacute taurine supplementation with evaluation by the Morris water maze method. Although swim distance to find the platform of taurine-supplemented rats was significantly longer than that of control rats due to increase of swimming velocity, escape latency and the efficacy of learning and memory was comparable in both groups. These results suggest that taurine supplemented orally does not affect the learning and memory function.

  2. [The effect of working memory on learning from texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshinobu; Kawasaki, Eriko

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of working memory on learning from texts. In Experiment 1, participants preformed a word clustering task involving key words from an explanatory text (pretest), and then read the text, which was presented sentence-by-sentence. Next, they performed a second clustering task (post-test), a problem solving task, and a reading span test (RST). The results suggested that the individual differences of the RST scores correlated with the scores for problem solving. In Experiment 2, the results suggested that the individual differences of the RST scores influenced the clustering performance at the level of the situation model when the text was presented all together. Moreover, the result of multiple dimension scaling suggested that the situation models of high-span readers reflected the structure of the text more than those of low-span readers. These results indicate that readers with high reading span scores construct coherent situation models of texts and make use of them for learning from texts.

  3. Memory decay and susceptibility to amnesia dissociate punishment--from relief-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelmann, Sören; Preuschoff, Stephan; Appel, Mirjam; Niewalda, Thomas; Gerber, Bertram; Yarali, Ayse

    2013-08-23

    Painful events shape future behaviour in two ways: stimuli associated with pain onset subsequently support learned avoidance (i.e. punishment-learning) because they signal future, upcoming pain. Stimuli associated with pain offset in turn signal relief and later on support learned approach (i.e. relief-learning). The relative strengths of such punishment- and relief-learning can be crucial for the adaptive organization of behaviour in the aftermath of painful events. Using Drosophila, we compare punishment- and relief-memories in terms of their temporal decay and sensitivity to retrograde amnesia. During the first 75 min following training, relief-memory is stable, whereas punishment-memory decays to half of the initial score. By 24 h after training, however, relief-memory is lost, whereas a third of punishment-memory scores still remain. In accordance with such rapid temporal decay from 75 min on, retrograde amnesia erases relief-memory but leaves a half of punishment-memory scores intact. These findings suggest differential mechanistic bases for punishment- and relief-memory, thus offering possibilities for separately interfering with either of them.

  4. Memory decay and susceptibility to amnesia dissociate punishment- from relief-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelmann, Sören; Preuschoff, Stephan; Appel, Mirjam; Niewalda, Thomas; Gerber, Bertram; Yarali, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    Painful events shape future behaviour in two ways: stimuli associated with pain onset subsequently support learned avoidance (i.e. punishment-learning) because they signal future, upcoming pain. Stimuli associated with pain offset in turn signal relief and later on support learned approach (i.e. relief-learning). The relative strengths of such punishment- and relief-learning can be crucial for the adaptive organization of behaviour in the aftermath of painful events. Using Drosophila, we compare punishment- and relief-memories in terms of their temporal decay and sensitivity to retrograde amnesia. During the first 75 min following training, relief-memory is stable, whereas punishment-memory decays to half of the initial score. By 24 h after training, however, relief-memory is lost, whereas a third of punishment-memory scores still remain. In accordance with such rapid temporal decay from 75 min on, retrograde amnesia erases relief-memory but leaves a half of punishment-memory scores intact. These findings suggest differential mechanistic bases for punishment- and relief-memory, thus offering possibilities for separately interfering with either of them. PMID:23658002

  5. How did we learn best? A retrospective survey of clinical psychology training in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Pieter W; Pezzolesi, Cinzia; Stott, Dave J

    2012-09-01

    This U.K.-based study aimed to investigate qualified clinical psychologists' perceptions of the value and usefulness of the learning activities experienced during their training in clinical psychology. Members (N = 357) of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the British Psychological Society (BPS) completed a self-report questionnaire about their training as clinical psychologists. The results indicate that most clinical psychologists believe that they learnt mainly through doing and by observing others' clinical practice. They also highlight the importance of the learning relationship and the value of personal therapy for learning. The findings point to the need for more training of trainers, especially clinical supervisors. They also draw attention to the need for more research to establish which learning activities contribute most / least to trainees' developing competence. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Learning Psychological Research and Statistical Concepts using Retrieval-based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wee Hun eLim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research methods and statistics are an indispensable subject in the undergraduate psychology curriculum, but there are challenges associated with teaching it, such as making learning durable. Here we hypothesized that retrieval-based learning promotes long-term retention of statistical knowledge in psychology. Participants either studied the educational material in four consecutive periods, or studied it just once and practised retrieving the information in the subsequent three periods, and then took a final test through which their learning was assessed. Whereas repeated studying yielded better test performance when the final test was immediately administered, repeated practice yielded better performance when the test was administered a week after. The data suggest that retrieval practice enhanced the learning – produced better long-term retention – of statistical knowledge in psychology than did repeated studying.

  7. Post-learning arousal enhances veridical memory and reduces false memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Kristy A; Correro, Anthony N

    2017-10-01

    The Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm examines false memory by introducing words associated with a non-presented 'critical lure' as memoranda, which typically causes the lures to be remembered as frequently as studied words. Our prior work has shown enhanced veridical memory and reduced misinformation effects when arousal is induced after learning (i.e., during memory consolidation). These effects have not been examined in the DRM task, or with signal detection analysis, which can elucidate the mechanisms underlying memory alterations. Thus, 130 subjects studied and then immediately recalled six DRM lists, one after another, and then watched a 3-min arousing (n=61) or neutral (n=69) video. Recognition tested 70min later showed that arousal induced after learning led to better delayed discrimination of studied words from (a) critical lures, and (b) other non-presented 'weak associates.' Furthermore, arousal reduced liberal response bias (i.e., the tendency toward accepting dubious information) for studied words relative to all foils, including critical lures and 'weak associates.' Thus, arousal induced after learning effectively increased the distinction between signal and noise by enhancing access to verbatim information and reducing endorsement of dubious information. These findings provide important insights into the cognitive mechanisms by which arousal modulates early memory consolidation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Learning and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…

  9. The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jackie; Baddeley, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal control task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding, showing that repeating the grammatical strings at study improved grammar learning compared with suppressing rehearsal or remaining silent during learning. Experiment 3 found no effects of rehearsal on grammar learning once participants had learned the component syllables. The findings suggest that phonological STM aids artificial grammar learning via effects on vocabulary learning.

  10. Involvement of Working Memory in College Students' Sequential Pattern Learning and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundey, Shannon M. A.; De Los Reyes, Andres; Rowan, James D.; Lee, Bern; Delise, Justin; Molina, Sabrina; Cogdill, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    When learning highly organized sequential patterns of information, humans and nonhuman animals learn rules regarding the hierarchical structures of these sequences. In three experiments, we explored the role of working memory in college students' sequential pattern learning and performance in a computerized task involving a sequential…

  11. Involvement of Working Memory in College Students' Sequential Pattern Learning and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundey, Shannon M. A.; De Los Reyes, Andres; Rowan, James D.; Lee, Bern; Delise, Justin; Molina, Sabrina; Cogdill, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    When learning highly organized sequential patterns of information, humans and nonhuman animals learn rules regarding the hierarchical structures of these sequences. In three experiments, we explored the role of working memory in college students' sequential pattern learning and performance in a computerized task involving a sequential…

  12. Learning and Forgetting in Generalized Brain-state-in-a-box (BSB) Neural Associative Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Stefen; Lillo, Walter E.; Zak, Stanislaw H.

    1996-07-01

    We propose learning and forgetting techniques for the generalized brain-state-in-a-box (BSB) based associative memories. A generalization of the BSB model allows each neuron to have its own bias and the synaptic weight matrix does not have to be symmetric. A pattern is learned by a memory if its noisy or an incomplete version presented to the memory is mapped back to this pattern. A pattern, previously stored, is forgotten or deleted from the memory if a stimulus that is a perturbed version of the pattern, when presented to the memory, is not mapped back to this pattern. In this paper we propose "on-line" memory storage and deletion methods using an iterative method of computing the pseudo-inverse of a given matrix. The proposed methods allow one to "add" or "delete" a memory pattern by updating, rather than recomputing from scratch, the current synaptic weight matrix in a single step. We first analyze the desired characteristics of neural network associative memories. After that, we review the existing methods for design of neural associative memories. Then we discuss the generalized BSB neural model and its possible function as an associative memory and proffer arguments in support of using such models for neural associative memories. In particular, the generalized BSB type models are easier to analyze, synthesize, and implement than other neural networks. The results obtained are illustrated by numerical examples. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

  13. Comparison of explicit and incidental learning strategies in memory-impaired patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine N; Urgolites, Zhisen J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2014-01-07

    Declarative memory for rapidly learned, novel associations is thought to depend on structures in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), whereas associations learned more gradually can sometimes be supported by nondeclarative memory and by structures outside the MTL. A recent study suggested that even rapidly learned associations can be supported by structures outside the MTL when an incidental encoding procedure termed "fast mapping" (FM) is used. We tested six memory-impaired patients with bilateral damage to hippocampus and one patient with large bilateral lesions of the MTL. Participants saw photographs and names of animals, plants, and foods that were previously unfamiliar (e.g., mangosteen). Instead of asking participants to study name-object pairings for a later memory test (as with traditional memory instructions), participants answered questions that allowed them to infer which object corresponded to a particular name. In a second condition, participants learned name-object associations of unfamiliar items by using standard, explicit encoding instructions (e.g., remember the mangosteen). In FM and explicit encoding conditions, patients were impaired (and performed no better than a group that was given the same tests but had not previously studied the material). The same results were obtained in a second experiment that used the same procedures with modifications to allow for more robust learning and more reliable measures of performance. Thus, our results with the FM procedure and memory-impaired patients yielded the same deficits in learning and memory that have been obtained by using other more traditional paradigms.

  14. From Augustine of Hippo’s Memory Systems to Our Modern Taxonomy in Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience of Memory: A 16-Century Nap of Intuition before Light of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Cassel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last half century, neuropsychologists, cognitive psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists interested in human memory have accumulated evidence showing that there is not one general memory function but a variety of memory systems deserving distinct (but for an organism, complementary functional entities. The first attempts to organize memory systems within a taxonomic construct are often traced back to the French philosopher Maine de Biran (1766–1824, who, in his book first published in 1803, distinguished mechanical memory, sensitive memory and representative memory, without, however, providing any experimental evidence in support of his view. It turns out, however, that what might be regarded as the first elaborated taxonomic proposal is 14 centuries older and is due to Augustine of Hippo (354–430, also named St Augustine, who, in Book 10 of his Confessions, by means of an introspective process that did not aim at organizing memory systems, nevertheless distinguished and commented on sensible memory, intellectual memory, memory of memories, memory of feelings and passion, and memory of forgetting. These memories were envisaged as different and complementary instances. In the current study, after a short biographical synopsis of St Augustine, we provide an outline of the philosopher’s contribution, both in terms of questions and answers, and focus on how this contribution almost perfectly fits with several viewpoints of modern psychology and neuroscience of memory about human memory functions, including the notion that episodic autobiographical memory stores events of our personal history in their what, where and when dimensions, and from there enables our mental time travel. It is not at all meant that St Augustine’s elaboration was the basis for the modern taxonomy, but just that the similarity is striking, and that the architecture of our current viewpoints about memory systems might have preexisted as an outstanding

  15. How to Facilitate Students’ English Learning in Chinese Secondary Schools from a Psychology Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曦

    2013-01-01

    In Chinese secondary schools, there are many issues that may affect students ’English learning. Firstly, the input, intake and acquisition of students’English learning from a psychology perspective are analyzed. And then, review the relevant literature to find out the recommendations which can facilitate students’language learning. Finally, make some suggestions for the possible problems and objections when the recommendations are implemented in teaching process.

  16. Stigma, social comparison and psychological distress in adults with a learning disability

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: People with a learning disability are members of a stigmatised group and research has shown that stigmatisation can have a negative impact on psychological wellbeing. The process of social comparison has been shown to be important in the experience of stigmatisation and has been shown to have been used by people with a learning disability. This thesis aims to examine the perception of stigma in people with a learning disability and the relationship it has with their ...

  17. Heart rate response to post-learning stress predicts memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larra, Mauro F; Schulz, André; Schilling, Thomas M; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Best, Daniel; Kozik, Bartlomiej; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Stressful experiences are often well remembered, an effect that has been explained by beta-adrenergic influences on memory consolidation. Here, we studied the impact of stress induced heart rate (HR) responses on memory consolidation in a post-learning stress paradigm. 206 male and female participants saw 52 happy and angry faces immediately before being exposed to the Cold Pressor Test or a non-stressful control procedure. Memory for the faces and their respective expression was tested twice, after 30 min and on the next day. High HR responders (in comparison to low HR responders as well as to the non-stressful control group) showed enhanced recognition memory one day after learning. Our results show that beta-adrenergic activation elicited shortly after learning enhances memory consolidation and that the stress induced HR response is a predictor for this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  19. Does learning to read contribute to the development of working memory ?

    OpenAIRE

    Demoulin, Catherine; Kolinsky, Régine; Morais, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Does learning to read boost the development of working memory? Many studies have demonstrated a strong association between working memory (WM) capacities and early reading abilities, most of them emphasizing the role of the former on the latter 1. However, studies comparing illiterate and literate adults on WM tasks suggest that literacy acquisition has a beneficial impact on memory processes and representations 2-3. In a majority of western countries, reading instruction starts in first-grad...

  20. Appetitive Olfactory Learning and Long-Term Associative Memory in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro N. Maruyama

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the relative simplicity of its nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model organism to study learning and memory at cellular and molecular levels. For appetitive conditioning in C. elegans, food has exclusively been used as an unconditioned stimulus (US. It may be difficult to analyze neuronal circuits for associative memory since food is a multimodal combination of olfactory, gustatory, and mechanical stimuli. Here, we report classical appetitive conditioning and associative memory in C. elegans, using 1-nonanol as a conditioned stimulus (CS, and potassium chloride (KCl as a US. Before conditioning, C. elegans innately avoided 1-nonanol, an aversive olfactory stimulus, and was attracted by KCl, an appetitive gustatory stimulus, on assay agar plates. Both massed training without an intertrial interval (ITI and spaced training with a 10-min ITI induced significant levels of memory of association regarding the two chemicals. Memory induced by massed training decayed within 6 h, while that induced by spaced training was retained for more than 6 h. Animals treated with inhibitors of transcription or translation formed the memory induced by spaced training less efficiently than untreated animals, whereas the memory induced by massed training was not significantly affected by such treatments. By definition, therefore, memories induced by massed training and spaced training are classified as short-term memory (STM and long-term memory (LTM, respectively. When animals conditioned by spaced training were exposed to 1-nonanol alone, their learning index was lower than that of untreated animals, suggesting that extinction learning occurs in C. elegans. In support of these results, C. elegans mutants defective in nmr-1, encoding an NMDA receptor subunit, formed both STM and LTM less efficiently than wild-type animals, while mutations in crh-1, encoding a ubiquitous transcription factor CREB required for memory consolidation, affected

  1. Behaviorism, latent learning, and cognitive maps: needed revisions in introductory psychology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the scholarship in introductory psychology textbooks in relation to the topic of latent learning. A review of the treatment of latent learning in 48 introductory psychology textbooks published between 1948 and 2004, with 21 of these texts published since 1999, reveals that the scholarship on the topic of latent learning demonstrated in introductory textbooks warrants improvement. Errors that persist in textbooks include the assertion that the latent learning experiments demonstrate unequivocally that reinforcement was not necessary for learning to occur, that behavioral theories could not account for the results of the latent learning experiments, that B. F. Skinner was an S-R association behaviorist who argued that reinforcement is necessary for learning to occur, and that because behavioral theories (including that of B. F. Skinner) were unable explain the results of the latent learning experiments the cognitive map invoked by Edward Tolman is the only explanation for latent learning. Finally, the validity of the cognitive map is typically accepted without question. Implications of the presence of these errors for students and the discipline are considered. Lastly, remedies are offered to improve the scholarship found in introductory psychology textbooks.

  2. Post-learning REM sleep deprivation impairs long-term memory: reversal by acute nicotine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleisa, A M; Alzoubi, K H; Alkadhi, K A

    2011-07-15

    Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) is associated with spatial learning and memory impairment. During REM-SD, an increase in nicotine consumption among habitual smokers and initiation of tobacco use by non-smokers have been reported. We have shown recently that nicotine treatment prevented learning and memory impairments associated with REM-SD. We now report the interactive effects of post-learning REM-SD and/or nicotine. The animals were first trained on the radial arm water maze (RAWM) task, then they were REM-sleep deprived using the modified multiple platform paradigm for 24h. During REM-SD period, the rats were injected with saline or nicotine (1mg/kg s.c. every 12h: a total of 3 injections). The animals were tested for long-term memory in the RAWM at the end of the REM-SD period. The 24h post-learning REM-SD significantly impaired long-term memory. However, nicotine treatment reversed the post-learning REM-SD-induced impairment of long-term memory. On the other hand, post-learning treatment of normal rats with nicotine for 24h enhanced long-term memory. These results indicate that post-learning acute nicotine treatment prevented the deleterious effect of REM-SD on cognitive abilities.

  3. Multimedia Learning and Individual Differences: Mediating the Effects of Working Memory Capacity with Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Danielle L.; Evans, Amber D.; Jeffrey, Thomas R.; Palmer, Keith R.; Wikstrom, Chris S.; Doolittle, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Research in multimedia learning lacks an emphasis on individual difference variables, such as working memory capacity (WMC). The effects of WMC and the segmentation of multimedia instruction were examined by assessing the recall and application of low (n = 66) and high (n = 67) working memory capacity students randomly assigned to either a…

  4. Working Memory and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Archibald, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The authors compared 6- to 11-year-olds with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with specific language impairment (SLI) on measures of memory (verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory) and learning (reading and mathematics). Children with DCD with typical language skills were impaired in all four areas of memory…

  5. Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a) as a sequence of…

  6. Modulatory mechanisms of cortisol effects on emotional learning and memory: novel perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ast, Vanessa A; Cornelisse, Sandra; Marin, Marie-France; Ackermann, Sandra; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2013-09-01

    It has long been known that cortisol affects learning and memory processes. Despite a wealth of research dedicated to cortisol effects on learning and memory, the strength or even directionality of the effects often vary. A number of the factors that alter cortisol's effects on learning and memory are well-known. For instance, effects of cortisol can be modulated by emotional arousal and the memory phase under study. Despite great advances in understanding factors that explain variability in cortisol's effects, additional modulators of cortisol effects on memory exist that are less widely acknowledged in current basic experimental research. The goal of the current review is to disseminate knowledge regarding less well-known modulators of cortisol effects on learning and memory. Since several models for the etiology of anxiety, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), incorporate stress and the concomitant release of cortisol as important vulnerability factors, enhanced understanding of mechanisms by which cortisol exerts beneficial as opposed to detrimental effects on memory is very important. Further elucidation of the factors that modulate (or alter) cortisol's effects on memory will allow reconciliation of seemingly inconsistent findings in the basic and clinical literatures. The present review is based on a symposium as part of the 42nd International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology Conference, New York, USA, that highlighted some of those modulators and their underlying mechanisms.

  7. The complexity of learning, memory and neural processes in an evolutionary ecological context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Hans M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to learn and form memories is widespread among insects, but there exists considerable natural variation between species and populations in these traits. Variation manifests itself in the way information is stored in different memory forms. This review focuses on ecological factors such

  8. Learning and Memory Impairments in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per N.; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2013-01-01

    There are relatively few studies on learning and delayed memory with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the present study was to examine acquisition, free delayed memory, and recognition skills in medication naive children and adolescents aged 8-16 years with ADHD combined subtype (36 participants) and inattentive…

  9. Assessment of Curcuma longa linn. on learning and memory in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lohit

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: C. longa linn. may be useful in enhancing learning. Further dose ranging preclinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin on memory. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1086-1090

  10. Effect of behavior training on learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuelan; Gou Wenli; Huang Pu; Li Chunfang; Sun Yunping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of behavior training on the learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Methods: The model of FGR was established by passive smoking method to pregnant rats.The new-born rats were divided into FGR group and normal group, and then randomly subdivided into trained and untrained group respectively. Morris water maze behavior training was performed on postnatal months 2 and 4, then learning and memory abilities of young rats were measured by dark-avoidance testing and step-down testing. Results: In the dark-avoidance and step-down testing, the young rats' performance of FGR group was worse than that of control group, and the trained group was better than the untrained group significantly. Conclusion: FGR young rats have descended learning and memory abilities. Behavior training could improve the young rats' learning and memory abilities, especially for the FGR young rats.

  11. Effect of Prunus domestica L. (mirabelle on learning and memory in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Shahidi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Hydro-alcoholic extract of plum has a beneficial effect on learning and memory in passive avoidance task. It can be concluded that its antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activities may be involved in the obtained effects.

  12. (-)Epigallocatechin-3-gallate decreases the stress-induced impairment of learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung, Hung-Sheng; Wang, Mao-Hsien; Tseng, Hsiang-Chien; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Chang, Kuo-Chi

    2015-08-18

    Stress induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes alterations in brain cytoarchitecture and cognition. Green tea has potent antioxidative properties especially the tea catechin (-) epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). These powerful antioxidative properties are able to protect against various oxidative damages. In this study we investigated the impact of stress on rats' locomotor activity, learning and memory. Many tea catechins, including EGCG, were examined for their possible therapeutic effects in treating stress-induced impairment. Our results indicated that locomotor activity was decreased, and the learning and memory were impaired in stressed rats (SRs). EGCG treatment was able to prevent the decreased locomotor activity as well as improve the learning and memory in SRs. EGCG treatment was also able to reduce the increased oxidative status in SRs' hippocampi. The above results suggest a therapeutic effect of EGCG in treating stress-induced impairment of learning and memory, most likely by means of its powerful antioxidative properties.

  13. Role of the hippocampus on learning and memory functioning and pain modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haimei Wang

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus, an important part of the limbic system, is considered to be an important region of the brain for learning and memory functioning. Recent studies have demonstrated that synaptic plasticity is thought to be the basis of learning and memory functioning. A series of studies report that similar synaptic plasticity also exists in the spinal cord in the conduction pathway of pain sensation, which may contribute to hyperalgesia, abnormal pain, and analgesia. The synaptic plasticity of learning and memory functioning and that of the pain conduction pathway have similar mechanisms, which are related to the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor. The hippocampus also has a role in pain modulation. As pain signals can reach the hippocampus, the precise correlation between synaptic plasticity of the pain pathway and that of learning and memory functioning deserves further investigation. The role of the hippocampus in processing pain information requires to be identified.

  14. Test Reviews: Reynolds, C., & Voress, J. K. (2007). "Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition." Austin, TX: PRO-ED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Decker, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition (TOMAL-2), published by PRO-ED, which constitutes a recent revision of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL; Reynolds & Bigler, 1994). Advertised as the "single most comprehensive memory battery available for the entire age range of 5 years through 59 years of age", the TOMAL-2…

  15. Psychology Teaching Resources in the MERLOT Digital Learning Objects Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Pilati, Michelle L.; King, Beverly R.

    2008-01-01

    MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching) is a free multidisciplinary catalog of digital learning materials, peer reviews, learning assignments, and member comments designed to facilitate faculty instruction. The catalog's goal is to expand the quantity and quality of peer-reviewed online teaching materials. We…

  16. Psychology Teaching Resources in the MERLOT Digital Learning Objects Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Pilati, Michelle L.; King, Beverly R.

    2008-01-01

    MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching) is a free multidisciplinary catalog of digital learning materials, peer reviews, learning assignments, and member comments designed to facilitate faculty instruction. The catalog's goal is to expand the quantity and quality of peer-reviewed online teaching materials. We…

  17. [The Visual Association Test to study episodic memory in clinical geriatric psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, Han; Prins, Marleen; Lauret, Gijs

    2017-09-27

    The Visual Association Test (VAT) is a brief learning task that consists of six line drawings of pairs of interacting objects (association cards). Subjects are asked to name or identify each object and later are presented with one object from the pair (the cue) and asked to name the other (the target). The VAT was administered in a consecutive sample of 174 psychogeriatric day care participants with mild to major neurocognitive disorder. Comparison of test performance with normative data from non-demented subjects revealed that 69% scored within the range of a major deficit (0-8 over two recall trials), 14% a minor, and 17% no deficit (9-10, and ≥10 respectively).VAT-scores correlated with another test of memory function, the Cognitive Screening Test (CST), based on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (r = 0.53). Tests of executive functioning (Expanded Mental Control Test, Category Fluency, Clock Drawing) did not add significantly to the explanation of variance in VAT-scores.Fifty-five participants (31.6%) were faced with initial problems in naming or identifying one or more objects on the cue cards or association cards. If necessary, naming was aided by the investigator. Initial difficulties in identifying cue objects were associated with lower VAT-scores, but this did not hold for difficulties in identifying target objects.A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether linear or quadratic trends best fitted VAT performance across the range of CST scores. The regression model revealed a linear but not a quadratic trend. The best fitting linear model implied that VAT scores differentiated between CST scores in the lower, as well as in the upper range, indicating the absence of floor and ceiling effects, respectively. Moreover, the VAT compares favourably to word list-learning tasks being more attractive in its presentation of interacting visual objects and cued recall based on incidental learning of the association

  18. Positive psychology in cross-cultural narratives: Mexican students discover themselves while learning Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Oxford, Rebecca L.; Lourdes Cuéllar

    2014-01-01

    Using the principles of positive psychology and the tools of narrative research, this article focuses on the psychology of five language learners who crossed cultural and linguistic borders. All five were university students learning Chinese in Mexico, and two of them also studied Chinese in China. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze and interpret the students’ narratives. Seligman’s (2011) PERMA model, the centerpiece of the modern view of well-being, provided the theoretical fr...

  19. Positive psychology in cross-cultural narratives: Mexican students discover themselves while learning Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Oxford, Rebecca L.; Cuéllar, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Using the principles of positive psychology and the tools of narrative research, this article focuses on the psychology of five language learners who crossed cultural and linguistic borders. All five were university students learning Chinese in Mexico, and two of them also studied Chinese in China. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze and interpret the students’ narratives. Seligman’s (2011) PERMA model, the centerpiece of the modern view of well-being, pro- vided the theoretical ...

  20. Learning and memory in the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttridge, Tristan L; Brown, Culum

    2014-03-01

    Basic understanding of the fundamental principles and mechanisms involved in learning is lacking for elasmobranch fishes. Our aim in this study was to experimentally investigate the learning and memory capacity of juvenile Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni. Sharks (N = 30) were conditioned over a 19-day period to associate an underwater LED light or stream of air-bubbles [conditioned stimulus (CS)] with a food reward [unconditioned stimulus (US)], using three procedures (delay, trace and control). During experiments, the CS signalled at a random time between 180 and 300 s for 30 s (six times per day). For the delay the US overlapped in time with the CS, for the trace the US delivered 10 s after the CS and for our control the US was delivered at random time between 180 and 300 s after the CS. H. portusjacksoni sharks trained in all procedures improved consistently in their time to obtain food, indicative of Pavlovian learning. Importantly, the number of sharks in the feeding area 5 s prior to CS onset did not change over time for any procedures. However, significantly more sharks were present 5 s after CS onset for delay for both air-bubble and light CS. Sharks trained in the delay and trace procedures using air-bubbles as the CS also displayed significantly more anticipatory behaviours, such as turning towards the CS and biting. Sharks trained with the light CS did not exhibit such behaviours; however, trace procedural sharks did show a significant improvement in moving towards the CS at its onset. At 20 and 40 days after the end of the conditioning experiments, some sharks were presented the CS without reward. Two sharks trained in the delay procedure using air-bubbles as the CS exhibited biting behaviours: one at 20 and the other at 40 days. This study demonstrates that H. portusjacksoni have the capacity to learn a classical conditioning procedure relatively quickly (30 trials during 5 days) and associate two time-separated events and

  1. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaby, Lauren E; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Hirrlinger, Amy M; Lim, James; Warg, Kendall M; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory.Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats.Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance.Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they age is not as well understood. We determined how chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence affects multiple learning and memory processes in adulthood. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we measured learning (both associative and reversal) and memory (both reference and working) starting 110 days after completion of an adolescent-stress treatment. We found that adolescent-stress affected adult cognitive abilities in a context-dependent way. Compared to rats reared without stress, adolescent-stressed rats exhibited enhanced reversal learning, an indicator of behavioral flexibility, but showed no change in associative learning and reference memory abilities. Working memory, which in humans is thought to underpin reasoning, mathematical skills, and reading comprehension, may be enhanced by exposure to adolescent-stress. However, when adolescent-stressed animals were tested after a novel disturbance, they exhibited a 5-fold decrease in working memory performance while unstressed rats continued to exhibit a linear learning curve. These results emphasize the capacity for stress during adolescence to transform the cognitive abilities of adult animals, even after stress exposure has ceased and animals have resided in safe environments for the majority of their lifespans.

  2. Post-learning stress enhances long-term memory and differentially influences memory in females depending on menstrual stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Cadle, Chelsea E; Kalchik, Andrea E; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Dailey, Alison M; Brown, Callie M; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Knippen, Courtney L; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2015-09-01

    Most work has shown that post-learning stress enhances long-term memory; however, there have been recent inconsistencies in this literature. The purpose of the present study was to examine further the effects of post-learning stress on long-term memory and to explore any sex differences that may exist. Male and female participants learned a list of 42 words that varied in emotional valence and arousal level. Following encoding, participants completed a free recall assessment and then submerged their hand into a bath of ice cold (stress) or lukewarm (no stress) water for 3 min. The next day, participants were given free recall and recognition tests. Stressed participants recalled more words than non-stressed participants 24h after learning. Stress also enhanced female participants' recall of arousing words when they were in the follicular, but not luteal, phase. These findings replicate previous work examining post-learning stress effects on memory and implicate the involvement of sex-related hormones in such effects.

  3. The nature of the memory buffer in implicit learning: learning Chinese tonal symmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feifei; Jiang, Shan; Guo, Xiuyan; Yang, Zhiliang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has established that people can implicitly learn chunks, which (in terms of formal language theory) do not require a memory buffer to process. The present study explores the implicit learning of nonlocal dependencies generated by higher than finite-state grammars, specifically, Chinese tonal retrogrades (i.e. centre embeddings generated from a context-free grammar) and inversions (i.e. cross-serial dependencies generated from a mildly context-sensitive grammar), which do require buffers (for example, last in-first out and first in-first out, respectively). People were asked to listen to and memorize artificial poetry instantiating one of the two grammars; after this training phase, people were informed of the existence of rules and asked to classify new poems, while providing attributions of the basis of their judgments. People acquired unconscious structural knowledge of both tonal retrogrades and inversions. Moreover, inversions were implicitly learnt more easily than retrogrades constraining the nature of the memory buffer in computational models of implicit learning.

  4. Self-regulation from Educational Psychology to L2 Pedagogy: an Alternative to Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Banisaeid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Language learning strategy was the focus of many studies during the last two decades. Because of definitional fuzziness and unreliable instrument, the concept of language learning strategy was replaced by self-regulation in educational psychology. Subsequently, this shift affected L2 research. The notion of self-regulation is used in some L2 studies today (Tseng, Dörnyei & Schmitt, 2006; Rose, 2011b, Banisaeid, 2013a, 2013b. Self-regulation is more process-oriented while language learning strategy is more product-oriented. Although it only encompasses the metacognitive strategy, the general domain of it is meaningfully wider than the strategic framework. It covers some aspects in the learning process as motivation, goals and self-efficacy. Keywords: self-regulation, language learning strategy, L2 studies, educational psychology

  5. Social-Psychological Aspects of Professional Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov D.O.,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a theoretical review of both Russian (T.O. Gordeeva A.G. Bugrimenko, O.A. Tchadenkova etc. and foreign (R. Rayan, and E. Dasy, A. Elliot and H. Makgregor, etc approaches, classifications and researches of motivation of educational-professional activity, and special attention is paid to the socially-psychological features of this motivation: external conditionality of structural components, including achievement motivation, the mechanism of its formation in changing conditions of social environment, as well as nature of correlation of socially-psychological features of personality, in particular, processes of its socially-psychological adaptation, with characteristics of its motivational sphere. The article considers researches of external educational environment, (M. Bokarts, etc. and inner personality settings (К. Dvak, А. Bandura on becoming and development of motivation training are considered. Also there are researches of dynamics of motivation of educational-professional activity on various phases of educational process are described.

  6. Creating a memory of causal relationships an integration of empirical and explanation-based learning methods

    CERN Document Server

    Pazzani, Michael J

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a theory of learning new causal relationships by making use of perceived regularities in the environment, general knowledge of causality, and existing causal knowledge. Integrating ideas from the psychology of causation and machine learning, the author introduces a new learning procedure called theory-driven learning that uses abstract knowledge of causality to guide the induction process. Known as OCCAM, the system uses theory-driven learning when new experiences conform to common patterns of causal relationships, empirical learning to learn from novel experiences,

  7. Creating a memory of causal relationships an integration of empirical and explanation-based learning methods

    CERN Document Server

    Pazzani, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a theory of learning new causal relationships by making use of perceived regularities in the environment, general knowledge of causality, and existing causal knowledge. Integrating ideas from the psychology of causation and machine learning, the author introduces a new learning procedure called theory-driven learning that uses abstract knowledge of causality to guide the induction process. Known as OCCAM, the system uses theory-driven learning when new experiences conform to common patterns of causal relationships, empirical learning to learn from novel experiences, and expl

  8. Crocin Improved Learning and Memory Impairments in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Crocin influences many biological functions including memory and learning. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of crocin on learning and memory impairments in streptozotocine-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (IP injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg. Transfer latency (TL paradigm in elevated plus-maze (EPM was used as an index of learning and memory. Plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA, blood levels of glucose, and serum concentrations of insulin were measured. The number of hippocampal neurons was also counted. Results: STZ increased acquisition transfer latency (TL1 and retention transfer latency (TL2, and MDA, decreased transfer latency shortening (TLs and TCA, produced hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, and reduced the number of neurons in the hippocampus. Learning and memory impairments and blood TCA, MDA, glucose, and insulin changes induced by streptozotocin were improved with long-term IP injection of crocin at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg. Crocin prevented hippocampal neurons number loss in diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results indicate that oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and reduction of hippocampal neurons may be involved in learning and memory impairments in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antihypoinsulinemic, and neuroprotective activities of crocin might be involved in improving learning and memory impairments.

  9. Anesthetic ketamine counteracts repetitive mechanical stress-induced learning and memory impairment in developing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sheng; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hua; Ren, Bingxu; Zhang, Jiannan

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, had an influence on learning and memory in developing mice. Fifty Kunming mice aged 21 days were randomly divided into 5 subgroups (n = 10 for each) to receive intraperitoneal injection of equal volume of saline (S group) or ketamine (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 7 consecutive days, or to be left untreated (C group). A step-down passive avoidance test was performed to evaluate learning and memory in these mice on days 8 and 9. Additionally, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus was determined. Rats receiving saline or sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine (25 mg/kg) showed significantly decreased abilities of learning and memory and reduced expression of BDNF, compared to the normal controls (P learning and memory and expression of BDNF were found for anesthetic doses of ketamine (50 or 100 mg/kg)-treated rats and controls (P > 0.05). Repetitive mechanical stress impairs learning and memory performance in developing mice, which may be associated with decreased BDNF expression. The stress-induced learning and memory impairment can be prevented by anesthetic doses of ketamine.

  10. Using the Morris water maze to assess spatial learning and memory in weanling mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Christopher D; Yang, Dongren; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models have been indispensable for elucidating normal and pathological processes that influence learning and memory. A widely used method for assessing these cognitive processes in mice is the Morris water maze, a classic test for examining spatial learning and memory. However, Morris water maze studies with mice have principally been performed using adult animals, which preclude studies of critical neurodevelopmental periods when the cellular and molecular substrates of learning and memory are formed. While weanling rats have been successfully trained in the Morris water maze, there have been few attempts to test weanling mice in this behavioral paradigm even though mice offer significant experimental advantages because of the availability of many genetically modified strains. Here, we present experimental evidence that weanling mice can be trained in the Morris water maze beginning on postnatal day 24. Maze-trained weanling mice exhibit significant improvements in spatial learning over the training period and results of the probe trial indicate the development of spatial memory. There were no sex differences in the animals' performance in these tasks. In addition, molecular biomarkers of synaptic plasticity are upregulated in maze-trained mice at the transcript level. These findings demonstrate that the Morris water maze can be used to assess spatial learning and memory in weanling mice, providing a potentially powerful experimental approach for examining the influence of genes, environmental factors and their interactions on the development of learning and memory.

  11. Using the Morris water maze to assess spatial learning and memory in weanling mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Barnhart

    Full Text Available Mouse models have been indispensable for elucidating normal and pathological processes that influence learning and memory. A widely used method for assessing these cognitive processes in mice is the Morris water maze, a classic test for examining spatial learning and memory. However, Morris water maze studies with mice have principally been performed using adult animals, which preclude studies of critical neurodevelopmental periods when the cellular and molecular substrates of learning and memory are formed. While weanling rats have been successfully trained in the Morris water maze, there have been few attempts to test weanling mice in this behavioral paradigm even though mice offer significant experimental advantages because of the availability of many genetically modified strains. Here, we present experimental evidence that weanling mice can be trained in the Morris water maze beginning on postnatal day 24. Maze-trained weanling mice exhibit significant improvements in spatial learning over the training period and results of the probe trial indicate the development of spatial memory. There were no sex differences in the animals' performance in these tasks. In addition, molecular biomarkers of synaptic plasticity are upregulated in maze-trained mice at the transcript level. These findings demonstrate that the Morris water maze can be used to assess spatial learning and memory in weanling mice, providing a potentially powerful experimental approach for examining the influence of genes, environmental factors and their interactions on the development of learning and memory.

  12. Learning robot actions based on self-organising language memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermter, Stefan; Elshaw, Mark

    2003-01-01

    In the MirrorBot project we examine perceptual processes using models of cortical assemblies and mirror neurons to explore the emergence of semantic representations of actions, percepts and concepts in a neural robot. The hypothesis under investigation is whether a neural model will produce a life-like perception system for actions. In this context we focus in this paper on how instructions for actions can be modeled in a self-organising memory. Current approaches for robot control often do not use language and ignore neural learning. However, our approach uses language instruction and draws from the concepts of regional distributed modularity, self-organisation and neural assemblies. We describe a self-organising model that clusters actions into different locations depending on the body part they are associated with. In particular, we use actual sensor readings from the MIRA robot to represent semantic features of the action verbs. Furthermore, we outline a hierarchical computational model for a self-organising robot action control system using language for instruction.

  13. Mannotriose regulates learning and memory signal transduction in the hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Zhang; Weiwei Dai; Xueli Zhang; Zhangbin Gong; Guoqin Jin

    2013-01-01

    Rehmannia is a commonly used Chinese herb, which improves learning and memory. However, the crucial components of the signal transduction pathway associated with this effect remain elusive. Pri-mary hippocampal neurons were cultured in vitro, insulted with high-concentration (1 × 10-4 mol/L) cor-ticosterone, and treated with 1 × 10-4 mol/L mannotriose. Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay and western blot analysis showed that hippocampal neuron survival rates and protein levels of glucocorti-coid receptor, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were al dramatical y decreased after high-concentration corticosterone-induced injury. This effect was reversed by mannotriose, to a similar level as RU38486 and donepezil. Our findings indicate that mannotriose could protect hippocampal neurons from high-concentration corticosterone-induced injury. The mechanism by which this occurred was associated with levels of glucocorticoid receptor protein, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

  14. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  15. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  16. Science Supports Education: The Behavioral Research Base for Psychology's Top 20 Principles for Enhancing Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Anderman, Eric M.; Dwyer, Carol; Ormiston, Heather; Skiba, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Psychological science has much to contribute to preK-12 education because substantial psychological research exists on the processes of learning, teaching, motivation, classroom management, social interaction, communication, and assessment. This article details the psychological science that led to the identification, by the American Psychological…

  17. Science Supports Education: The Behavioral Research Base for Psychology's Top 20 Principles for Enhancing Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Anderman, Eric M.; Dwyer, Carol; Ormiston, Heather; Skiba, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Psychological science has much to contribute to preK-12 education because substantial psychological research exists on the processes of learning, teaching, motivation, classroom management, social interaction, communication, and assessment. This article details the psychological science that led to the identification, by the American Psychological…

  18. Synapsin determines memory strength after punishment- and relief-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-05-13

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: "negative" memories for stimuli preceding them and "positive" memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of "relief." Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training ("forward conditioning" of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training ("backward conditioning" of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences.

  19. Correlating learning and memory improvements to long-term potentiation in patients with brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingfu Peng; Qian Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Brain injury patients often exhibit learning and memory functional deficits.Long-term potentiation(LTP)is a representative index for studying learning and memory cellular models; the LTP index correlates to neural plasticity. OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to investigate correlations of learning and memory functions to LTP in brain injury patients,and to summarize the research advancements in mechanisms underlying brain functional improvements after rehabilitation intervention. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY:Using the terms "brain injuries,rehabilitation,learning and memory,long-term potentiation",manuscripts that were published from 2000-2007 were retrieved from the PubMed database.At the same time,manuscripts published from 2000-2007 were also retrieved from the Database of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals with the same terms in the Chinese language.A total of 64 manuscripts were obtained and primarily screened.Inclusion criteria:studies on learning and memory,as well as LTP in brain injury patients,and studies focused on the effects of rehabilitation intervention on the two indices; studies that were recently published or in high-impact journals.Exclusion criteria:repetitive studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION:The included manuscripts primarily focused on correlations between learning and memory and LTP,the effects of brain injury on learning and memory,as well as LTP,and the effects of rehabilitation intervention on learning and memory after brain injury.The included 39 manuscripts were clinical,basic experimental,or review studies. DATA SYNTHESIS:Learning and memory closely correlates to LTP.The neurobiological basis of learning and memory is central nervous system plasticity,which involves neural networks,neural circuits,and synaptic connections,in particular,synaptic plasticity.LTP is considered to be an ideal model for studying synaptic plasticity,and it is also a classic model for studying neural plasticity of learning and memory.Brain injury

  20. Positive psychology in cross-cultural narratives: Mexican students discover themselves while learning Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Oxford

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the principles of positive psychology and the tools of narrative research, this article focuses on the psychology of five language learners who crossed cultural and linguistic borders. All five were university students learning Chinese in Mexico, and two of them also studied Chinese in China. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze and interpret the students’ narratives. Seligman’s (2011 PERMA model, the centerpiece of the modern view of well-being, provided the theoretical framework. The results led to the conclusion that language learning can be a major journey in self-discovery, rich in positive emotions tied to experiences of engagement, relationship, meaning, and accomplishment.

  1. Jung's Psychology and Deleuze's Philosophy: The Unconscious in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semetsky, Inna; Delpech-Ramey, Joshua A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the unconscious dimension as articulated in Carl Jung's depth psychology and in Gilles Deleuze's philosophy. Jung's theory of the archetypes and Deleuze's pedagogy of the concept are two complementary resources that posit individuation as the goal of human development and self-education in practice. The paper asserts that…

  2. The Psychological Dimension of Transformation in Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, Effie

    2012-01-01

    Against a background which recognises pedagogical content knowledge as the distinctive element of teacher competence/expertise, this theoretical essay argues for its central construct--that of transformation--to be understood by teachers and teacher educators in psychological terms (as was originally proposed by Dewey). Transformation requires…

  3. Teaching Psychology and Law: An Empirical Evaluation of Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelechoski, Amanda D.; Riggs Romaine, Christina L.; Wolbransky, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    Given the recent proliferation of undergraduate psychology and law courses, there is an increased need to empirically evaluate effective methods of teaching psycholegal material. The current study used a between- and within-subject design across four higher education institutions (N = 291 students) to evaluate the effectiveness of incorporating…

  4. The beneficial role of memory reactivation for language learning during sleep: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Thomas; Rasch, Björn

    2017-04-01

    Sleep is essential for diverse aspects of language learning. According to a prominent concept these beneficial effects of sleep rely on spontaneous reactivation processes. A series of recent studies demonstrated that inducing such reactivation processes by re-exposure to memory cues during sleep enhances foreign vocabulary learning. Building upon these findings, the present article reviews recent models and empirical findings concerning the beneficial effects of sleep on language learning. Consequently, the memory function of sleep, its neural underpinnings and the role of the sleeping brain in language learning will be summarized. Finally, we will propose a working model concerning the oscillatory requirements for successful reactivation processes and future research questions to advance our understanding of the role of sleep on language learning and memory processes in general.

  5. Motivation, Psychology and Language Effect on Mobile Learning in Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issham Ismail

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the motivation, psychology and language effect on Mobile learning in the School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. Mobile learning or m-learning is a new learning phenomenon in the open and distance learning environments. Moving from stationary to mobile learning allows informal collaboration and interaction between learners. Therefore, there is a necessity to revise people’s psychological factors, process and mechanisms that underlie M-learning so that the practice can move from technology-centred implementation to human-centred effective learning processes. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS Version 12.0 and Rasch Model Analysis was used to measure these items. The 5-point Likert scale questionnaires (12 items being sent to 105 distance education students from four courses including Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Social Science and Bachelor of Management which was distributed in tutorial sessions during the annual residential intensive course in the main campus of the Universiti Sains Malaysia by their respective course managers. The finding shows that a positive response from the learners as they feel happy to use this additional learning tools (mobile learning. Learner’s feel supported and motivated to use the mobile application with the usability of simple language.

  6. Methods for reducing interference in the Complementary Learning Systems model: oscillating inhibition and autonomous memory rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kenneth A; Newman, Ehren L; Perotte, Adler J

    2005-11-01

    The stability-plasticity problem (i.e. how the brain incorporates new information into its model of the world, while at the same time preserving existing knowledge) has been at the forefront of computational memory research for several decades. In this paper, we critically evaluate how well the Complementary Learning Systems theory of hippocampo-cortical interactions addresses the stability-plasticity problem. We identify two major challenges for the model: Finding a learning algorithm for cortex and hippocampus that enacts selective strengthening of weak memories, and selective punishment of competing memories; and preventing catastrophic forgetting in the case of non-stationary environments (i.e. when items are temporarily removed from the training set). We then discuss potential solutions to these problems: First, we describe a recently developed learning algorithm that leverages neural oscillations to find weak parts of memories (so they can be strengthened) and strong competitors (so they can be punished), and we show how this algorithm outperforms other learning algorithms (CPCA Hebbian learning and Leabra at memorizing overlapping patterns. Second, we describe how autonomous re-activation of memories (separately in cortex and hippocampus) during REM sleep, coupled with the oscillating learning algorithm, can reduce the rate of forgetting of input patterns that are no longer present in the environment. We then present a simple demonstration of how this process can prevent catastrophic interference in an AB-AC learning paradigm.

  7. Cortisol, contingency learning, and memory in preterm and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, David W; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Cortisol plays an important role in learning and memory. An inverted-U shaped function has been proposed to account for the positive and negative effects of cortisol on cognitive performance and memory in adults, such that too little or too much impair but moderate amounts facilitate performance. Whether such relationships between cortisol and mental function apply to early infancy, when cortisol secretion, learning, and memory undergo rapid developmental changes, is unknown. We compared relationships between learning/memory and cortisol in preterm and full-term infants and examined whether a greater risk for adrenal insufficiency associated with prematurity produces differential cortisol-memory relationships. Learning in three-month old (corrected for gestational age) preterm and full-term infants was evaluated using a conjugate reinforcement mobile task. Memory was tested by repeating the same task 24h later. Salivary cortisol samples were collected before and 20 min after the presentation of the mobile. We found that preterm infants had lower cortisol levels and smaller cortisol responses than full-term infants. This is consistent with relative adrenal insufficiency reported in the neonatal period. Infants who showed increased cortisol levels from 0 to 20 min on Day 1 had significantly better memory, regardless of prematurity, than infants who showed decreased cortisol levels.

  8. The Legacy of Gestalt Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Irvin; Palmer, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the principles of Gestalt psychology and the history and future of the movement. A comparison of Gestalt, Behaviorist, and Structuralist ideas is included. The study of perception, learning, memory, and thinking from the Gestaltist point of view is described. (KR)

  9. Autobiographical Memory Phenomenology and Content Mediate Attachment Style and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Gillath, Omri

    2009-01-01

    In 2 studies, the present research tested the phenomenology and content of autobiographical memory as distinct mediators between attachment avoidance and anxiety and depressive symptoms. In Study 1, participants (N = 454) completed measures of attachment and depressive symptoms in 1 session and retrieved and rated 2 self-defining memories of…

  10. The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma : intrusive memories and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Ella L; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Clark, Ian A; Visser, Renée M; Hagenaars, Muriel A; Holmes, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of psychological trauma is fundamental to clinical psychology. Following traumatic event(s), a clinically significant number of people develop symptoms, including those of Acute Stress Disorder and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The trauma film paradigm offers an experimen

  11. The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma : intrusive memories and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Ella L; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Clark, Ian A; Visser, Renée M; Hagenaars, Muriel A; Holmes, Emily A

    A better understanding of psychological trauma is fundamental to clinical psychology. Following traumatic event(s), a clinically significant number of people develop symptoms, including those of Acute Stress Disorder and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The trauma film paradigm offers an

  12. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity is associated with impaired discrimination learning in anxiety disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaert, Bert; Boddez, Yannick; Vervliet, Bram; Schruers, Koen; Hermans, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Associative learning plays an important role in the development of anxiety disorders, but a thorough understanding of the variables that impact such learning is still lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in autobiographical memory specificity are related to discrimination learning and generalization. In an associative learning task, participants learned the association between two pictures of female faces and a non-aversive outcome. Subsequently, six morphed pictures functioning as generalization stimuli (GSs) were introduced. In a sample of healthy participants (Study 1), we did not find evidence for differences in discrimination learning as a function of memory specificity. In a sample of anxiety disorder patients (Study 2), individuals who were characterized by low memory specificity showed deficient discrimination learning relative to high specific individuals. In contrast to previous findings, results revealed no effect of memory specificity on generalization. These results indicate that impaired discrimination learning, previously shown in patients suffering from an anxiety disorder, may be—in part—due to limited memory specificity. Together, these studies emphasize the importance of incorporating cognitive variables in associative learning theories and their implications for the development of anxiety disorders. In addition, re-analyses of the data (Study 3) showed that patients suffering from panic disorder showed higher outcome expectancies in the presence of the stimulus that was never followed by an outcome during discrimination training, relative to patients suffering from other anxiety disorders and healthy participants. Because we used a neutral, non-aversive outcome (i.e., drawing of a lightning bolt), these data suggest that learning abnormalities in panic disorder may not be restricted to fear learning, but rather reflect a more general associative learning deficit that also manifests in fear irrelevant contexts. PMID

  13. Making new memories: the role of the hippocampus in new associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wendy A

    2007-02-01

    Both aging and Alzheimer's disease target the hippocampal formation and can result in mild to devastating memory impairment depending on the severity of the condition. Understanding the normal mnemonic functions of the hippocampus and related structures of the medial temporal lobe is the first step toward the development of diagnostics and treatments designed to ameliorate these potentially devastating age-related memory deficits. Here I describe findings from behavioral neurophysiological studies in which we have investigated the patterns of dynamic neural activity seen in the macaque monkey hippocampus during the acquisition of new associative memories. We report that hippocampal neurons signal the formation of new associations with dramatic changes in their firing rate. Because these learning-related signals can occur just before behavioral learning is expressed, this suggests that these signals play a role in driving the learning process. Implications of these findings for understanding the memory deficits associated with aging and Alzheimer's disease are discussed.

  14. Bayesian Learning and the Psychology of Rule Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Bayesian learning models have been applied to an increasing variety of domains. While such models have been criticized on theoretical grounds, the underlying assumptions and predictions are rarely made concrete and tested experimentally. Here, I use Frank and Tenenbaum's (2011) Bayesian model of rule-learning as a case study to…

  15. Dynamic learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales eStuchlik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian memory is the result of the interaction of millions of neurons in the brain and their coordinated activity. Candidate mechanisms for memory are synaptic plasticity changes, such as long-term potentiation (LTP. LTP is essentially an electrophysiological phenomenon manifested in hours-lasting increase on postsynaptic potentials after synapse tetanization. It is thought to ensure long-term changes in synaptic efficacy in distributed networks, leading to persistent changes in the behavioral patterns, actions and choices, which are often interpreted as the retention of information, i.e., memory. Interestingly, new neurons are born in the mammalian brain and adult hippocampal neurogenesis is proposed to provide a substrate for dynamic and flexible aspects of behavior such as pattern separation, prevention of interference, flexibility of behavior and memory resolution. This work provides a brief review on the memory and involvement of LTP and adult neurogenesis in memory phenomena.

  16. Loganin enhances long-term potentiation and recovers scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Bum; Lee, Seok; Kim, Min-Ji; Lee, Sung-Ok; Han, Seung-Moo; Maeng, Sungho; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-03-15

    Although the incidence rate of dementia is rapidly growing in the aged population, therapeutic and preventive reagents are still suboptimal. Various model systems are used for the development of such reagents in which scopolamine is one of the favorable pharmacological tools widely applied. Loganin is a major iridoid glycoside obtained from Corni fructus (Cornusofficinalis et Zucc) and demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and osteoporosis prevention effects. It has also been found to attenuate Aβ-induced inflammatory reactions and ameliorate memory deficits induced by scopolamine. However, there has been limited information available on how loganin affects learning and memory both electrophysiologically and behaviorally. To assess its effect on learning and memory, we investigated the influence of acute loganin administration on long-term potentiation (LTP) using organotypic cultured hippocampal tissues. In addition, we measured the effects of loganin on the behavior performance related to avoidance memory, short-term spatial navigation memory and long-term spatial learning and memory in the passive avoidance, Y-maze, and Morris water maze learning paradigms, respectively. Loganin dose-dependently increased the total activity of fEPSP after high frequency stimulation and attenuated scopolamine-induced blockade of fEPSP in the hippocampal CA1 area. In accordance with these findings, loganin behaviorally attenuated scopolamine-induced shortening of step-through latency in the passive avoidance test, reduced the percent alternation in the Y-maze, and increased memory retention in the Morris water maze test. These results indicate that loganin can effectively block cholinergic muscarinic receptor blockade -induced deterioration of LTP and memory related behavioral performance. Based on these findings, loganin may aid in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and learning and memory-deficit disorders in the future.

  17. Age-related differences in memory after attending to distinctiveness or similarity during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Valerie A; Castel, Alan D; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory is vulnerable to age-related change, with older adults demonstrating both impairments in retrieving contextual details and susceptibility to interference among similar events. Such impairments may be due in part to an age-related decline in the ability to encode distinct memory representations. Recent research has examined how manipulating stimulus properties to emphasize distinctiveness can reduce age-related deficits in memory. However, few studies have addressed whether learning strategies that differentially encourage distinctiveness processing attenuate age-related differences in episodic memory. In the present study, participants engaged in two incidental encoding tasks emphasizing either distinctiveness or similarity processing. Results demonstrated higher rates of recollection for stimuli studied under the distinctiveness task than the similarity task in younger but not older adults. These findings suggest a declining capacity for distinctiveness processing to benefit memory in older adults, and raise the possibility that strategies that enhance gist-based encoding may attenuate age-related memory deficits.

  18. New learning following reactivation in the human brain: targeting emotional memories through rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkner, Janine; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    Once reactivated, previously consolidated memories destabilize and have to be reconsolidated to persist, a process that might be altered non-invasively by interfering learning immediately after reactivation. Here, we investigated the influence of interference on brain correlates of reactivated episodic memories for emotional and neutral scenes using event-related potentials (ERPs). To selectively target emotional memories we applied a new reactivation method: rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). RSVP leads to enhanced implicit processing (pop out) of the most salient memories making them vulnerable to disruption. In line, interference after reactivation of previously encoded pictures disrupted recollection particularly for emotional events. Furthermore, memory impairments were reflected in a reduced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference during retrieval of emotional pictures. These results provide neural evidence that emotional episodic memories in humans can be selectively altered through behavioral interference after reactivation, a finding with further clinical implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Strategies to associate memories by unsupervised learning in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnes, E. J.; Mizusaki, B. E. P.; Erichsen, R., Jr.; Brunnet, L. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the effects of three different strategies to associate memories in a neural network composed by both excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons, which are randomly connected through recurrent excitatory and inhibitory synapses. The system is intended to store a number of memories, associated to spatial external inputs. The strategies consist in the presentation of the input patterns through trials in: i) ordered sequence; ii) random sequence; iii) clustered sequences. In addition, an order parameter indicating the correlation between the trials' activities is introduced to compute associative memory capacities and the quality of memory retrieval.

  20. On Middle School Students’ Psychological Barrier of English Learning and the Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsamlag

    2014-01-01

    In the middle school of English teaching, teacher always focus on the process of English learning without caring about students idea. Students have serious problems on their psychology so they can’t have a good result on the English learning. We should refer to the problems that students have on their psychology to solve these problems and give some suggestion for the student. Based on the problems revealed during our investigation, the thesis here is trying to overcome the physiological barriers on English Leaning and putting forward some suggestions to solve the problems. This paper points out the how psychological barriers influence students’ English learning. The causes for the psychological barriers are analyzed and, countermeasures to solve the problem put forward. This paper gives some suggests that English teachers should understand Tibetan students’ psychological problems on leaning English and that measures to help students break down the barriers should be taken. It as wel as gives detailed measures on creating a fun and relaxing classroom atmosphere to improve English teaching.

  1. Differential-Psychological and Psychophysiological Approaches to Learning in Modern School

    OpenAIRE

    Kabardov M. K.,; Aminov N.A.,; Zhambeeva Z.Z.,

    2017-01-01

    The article shows the background and specifics of application of differential psychological and psychophysiological approach to learning in modern school. The revealed problems of the use of the process of individualization and differentiation of teaching, the necessity of taking into account the individual learning opportunities, individual style of pedagogical activity, as well as features the method used by the teacher during training at the modern stage of education development. Presents ...

  2. Classroom Activities Contributing to Increased Motivation for Learning : Three Psychological Needs to Be Taken Into Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    岩中, 貴裕; Takahiro, IWANAKA; 香川大学

    2011-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory posits 3 basic psychological needs which should be fulfilled for integrated and vital human functioning: the need for competence, relatedness and autonomy. It is assumed that classroom environment which allows satisfaction of the 3 basic needs increases learners' motivation for learning. Nineteen students took part in the course which consisted of activities intended to satisfy the 3 basic needs. After taking the course, they increased their motivation for learning E...

  3. The construction of semantic memory: grammar based representations learned from relational episodic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco P Battaglia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation, collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside-outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of ``sleep replay'' of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata.

  4. Thymus Polypeptide Preparation Tactivin Restores Learning and Memory in Thymectomied Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoseletskaya, A V; Kiseleva, N M; Zimina, I V; Bystrova, O V; Belova, O V; Inozemtsev, A N; Arion, V Ya; Sergienko, V I

    2015-09-01

    We studied the effects of tactivin and splenic polypeptides on learning and memory of thymectomized animals. In 3-week rats, thymectomy blocked active avoidance conditioning. Injections of tactivin (0.5 mg/kg) during 1 month after surgery restored learning capacity; splenic polypeptides were ineffective.

  5. Stress modulates the engagement of multiple memory systems in classification learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-08-08

    Learning and memory are supported by anatomically and functionally distinct systems. Recent research suggests that stress may alter the contributions of multiple memory systems to learning, yet the underlying mechanism in the human brain remains completely unknown. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we asked in the present experiment whether stress may modulate the engagement of hippocampus-based "declarative" and striatum-based "procedural" memory systems during classification learning in humans and what brain mechanisms are involved in this effect. We found that stress reduced declarative knowledge about the learning task and changed the used learning strategy from a single-cue-based declarative strategy to a multicue-based procedural strategy, whereas learning performance per se remained unaffected by stress. Neuroimaging revealed that hippocampal activity correlated positively with task performance in the control condition, whereas striatal activity correlated with performance in the stress condition. After stress, hippocampal activity was reduced and even negatively correlated with learning performance. These findings show for the first time that stress alters the engagement of multiple memory systems in the human brain. Stress impaired the hippocampus-dependent system and allowed the striatum to control behavior. The shift toward "procedural" learning after stress appears to rescue task performance, whereas attempts to engage the "declarative" system disrupt performance.

  6. Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

  7. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test…

  8. Acute nicotine treatment prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced learning and memory impairment in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleisa, A M; Helal, G; Alhaider, I A; Alzoubi, K H; Srivareerat, M; Tran, T T; Al-Rejaie, S S; Alkadhi, K A

    2011-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (SD) is implicated in impairment of spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). An increase in nicotine consumption among habitual smokers and initiation of tobacco use by nonsmokers was observed during SD. Although nicotine treatment was reported to attenuate the impairment of learning and memory and LTP associated with several mental disorders, the effect of nicotine on SD-induced learning and memory impairment has not been studied. Modified multiple platform paradigm was used to induce SD for 24 or 48 h during which rats were injected with saline or nicotine (1 mg kg(-1) s.c.) twice a day. In the radial arm water maze (RAWM) task, 24- or 48-h SD significantly impaired learning and short-term memory. In addition, extracellular recordings from CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus in urethane anesthetized rats showed a significant impairment of LTP after 24- and 48-h SD. Treatment of normal rats with nicotine for 24 or 48 h did not enhance spatial learning and memory or affect magnitude of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. However, concurrent, acute treatment of rats with nicotine significantly attenuated SD-induced impairment of learning and STM and prevented SD-induced impairment of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. These results show that acute nicotine treatment prevented the deleterious effect of sleep loss on cognitive abilities and synaptic plasticity.

  9. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors act in synergy to facilitate learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaderbrand, Katherine; Chen, Helen J; Corcoran, Kevin A; Guedea, Anita L; Jovasevic, Vladimir; Wess, Jurgen; Radulovic, Jelena

    2016-11-01

    Understanding how episodic memories are formed and retrieved is necessary if we are to treat disorders in which they malfunction. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the hippocampus and cortex underlie memory formation, but there is conflicting evidence regarding their role in memory retrieval. Additionally, there is no consensus on which mAChR subtypes are critical for memory processing. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we found that (1) encoding and retrieval of contextual memory requires mAChR in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), (2) memory formation requires hippocampal M3 and cooperative activity of RSC M1 and M3, and (3) memory retrieval is more impaired by inactivation of multiple M1-M4 mAChR in DH or RSC than inactivation of individual receptor subtypes. Contrary to the view that acetylcholine supports learning but is detrimental to memory retrieval, we found that coactivation of multiple mAChR is required for retrieval of both recently and remotely acquired context memories. Manipulations with higher receptor specificity were generally less potent than manipulations targeting multiple receptor subtypes, suggesting that mAChR act in synergy to regulate memory processes. These findings provide unique insight into the development of therapies for amnestic symptoms, suggesting that broadly acting, rather than receptor-specific, mAchR agonists and positive allosteric modulators may be the most effective therapeutic approach. © 2016 Leaderbrand et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Perceptual memory drives learning of retinotopic biases for bistable stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Peter Murphy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The visual system exploits past experience at multiple timescales to resolve perceptual ambiguity in the retinal image. For example, perception of a bistable stimulus can be biased towards one interpretation over another when preceded by a brief presentation of a disambiguated version of the stimulus (positive priming or through intermittent presentations of the ambiguous stimulus (stabilization. Similarly, prior presentations of unambiguous stimuli can be used to explicitly train a long-lasting association between a percept and a retinal location (perceptual association. These phenonema have typically been regarded as independent processes, with short-term biases attributed to perceptual memory and longer-term biases described as associative learning. Here we tested for interactions between these two forms of experience-dependent perceptual bias and demonstrate that short-term processes strongly influence long-term outcomes. We first demonstrate that the establishment of long-term perceptual contingencies does not require explicit training by unambiguous stimuli, but can arise spontaneously during the periodic presentation of brief, ambiguous stimuli. Using rotating Necker cube stimuli, we observed enduring, retinotopically specific perceptual biases that were expressed from the outset and remained stable for up to forty minutes, consistent with the known phenomenon of perceptual stabilization. Further, bias was undiminished after a break period of five minutes, but was readily reset by interposed periods of continuous, as opposed to periodic, ambiguous presentation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that perceptual biases can arise naturally and may principally reflect the brain’s tendency to favor recent perceptual interpretation at a given retinal location. Further, they suggest that an association between retinal location and perceptual state, rather than a physical stimulus, is sufficient to generate long-term biases in perceptual

  11. 5-HT6 receptor memory and amnesia: behavioral pharmacology--learning and memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo; Pérez-García, Georgina; Ponce-Lopez, Teresa; Castillo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor6 (5-HT6) improve memory and reverse amnesia, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, in this paper an attempt was made to summarize recent findings. Available evidence indicates that diverse 5-HT6 receptor antagonists produce promnesic and/or antiamnesic effects in diverse conditions, including memory formation, age-related cognitive impairments, memory deficits in diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Notably, some 5-HT6 receptor agonists seem to have promnesic and/or antiamnesic effects. At the present, it is unclear why 5-HT6 receptor agonists and antagonists may facilitate memory or may reverse amnesia in some memory tasks. Certainly, 5-HT6 drugs modulate memory, which are accompanied with neural changes. Likewise, memory, aging, and AD modify 5-HT6 receptors and signaling cascades. Further investigation in different memory tasks, times, and amnesia models together with more complex control groups might provide further clues. Notably, human studies suggest a potential utility of 5-HT6 receptor antagonists in mild-to-moderate AD patients. Even individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) offer a great opportunity to test them.

  12. Improving Students' Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlosky, John; Rawson, Katherine A; Marsh, Elizabeth J; Nathan, Mitchell J; Willingham, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    Many students are being left behind by an educational system that some people believe is in crisis. Improving educational outcomes will require efforts on many fronts, but a central premise of this monograph is that one part of a solution involves helping students to better regulate their learning through the use of effective learning techniques. Fortunately, cognitive and educational psychologists have been developing and evaluating easy-to-use learning techniques that could help students achieve their learning goals. In this monograph, we discuss 10 learning techniques in detail and offer recommendations about their relative utility. We selected techniques that were expected to be relatively easy to use and hence could be adopted by many students. Also, some techniques (e.g., highlighting and rereading) were selected because students report relying heavily on them, which makes it especially important to examine how well they work. The techniques include elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting (or underlining), the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice. To offer recommendations about the relative utility of these techniques, we evaluated whether their benefits generalize across four categories of variables: learning conditions, student characteristics, materials, and criterion tasks. Learning conditions include aspects of the learning environment in which the technique is implemented, such as whether a student studies alone or with a group. Student characteristics include variables such as age, ability, and level of prior knowledge. Materials vary from simple concepts to mathematical problems to complicated science texts. Criterion tasks include different outcome measures that are relevant to student achievement, such as those tapping memory, problem solving, and comprehension. We attempted to provide thorough reviews for each technique, so this

  13. The Use of Mobile Apps to Enhance Student Learning in Introduction to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto-Macaluso, Kristen; Hughes, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of mobile applications or apps on student learning in an introduction to psychology course. Students were assigned to complete a learner-centered worksheet activity on the brain and central nervous system using either an interactive 3-D Brain app or their online course textbook. We measured student learning…

  14. Motivational Orientations and Psychological Needs in EFL Learning among Elementary School Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Junko Matsuzaki

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese elementary school students' motivational orientations for learning English as a foreign language (EFL) and fundamental psychological needs from a self-determination theory perspective, exploring the relations between motivational orientations (e.g., intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation,…

  15. Constructing a Family Health History to Facilitate Learning in a Health Psychology Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Kenneth E.; Lampmann, Jodi L.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a project to reinforce learning in an undergraduate health psychology seminar. The project required students to (a) profile the physical and mental health status of at least 15 family members, (b) identify trends or patterns related to health and illness in their families, and (c) develop an action plan for maintaining good…

  16. A Citation Analysis of Psychology Students' Use of Sources in Online Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Nancy Evans; Barnard, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Reference lists from two assignments of psychology students in university-level online distance learning (ODL) were analyzed for number and type of sources and mark achieved. Most referenced were resources relevant to the assignment and provided by instructors. Use changed across assignments: Instructor sources were used more on the first…

  17. Effects of Corporal Punishment and Psychological Treatment on Students' Learning and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad Shahbaz; Rafi, Muhammad Shaban

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to test the effects of corporal punishment and psychological treatment on students' learning and on their behavior. A pilot study, followed with experimental test, was framed in a demographically controlled environment on homogeneous variables at Punjab University Laboratory School, Pakistan over the period of six months.…

  18. Learning the Brain in Introductory Psychology: Examining the Generation Effect for Mnemonics and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine whether there is a generation effect for learner-created keyword mnemonics and real-life examples, compared to instructor-provided materials, when learning neurophysiological terms and definitions in introductory psychology. Students participated in an individual (Study 1) or small-group (Study 2)…

  19. Cultural Responsivity in Clinical Psychology Graduate Students: A Developmental Approach to the Prediction of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrin, Sebastian Everett

    2010-01-01

    This study used a mixed-method approach to examine students' experiences in multicultural training and their opinions about various aspects of their course(s). A developmental model of learning was employed to analyze results. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between clinical psychology doctoral students' self-reported…

  20. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Tutor Training for Problem Based Learning in Undergraduate Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlfelder, Manfred; Konermann, Tobias; Borchard, Linda-Marie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a "Train the Tutor" programme (TtT) for developing the metacognitive skills, facilitator skills, and tutor skills of students in a problem based learning (PBL) context. The purpose of the programme was to train 2nd and 3rd year undergraduate students in psychology to become effective PBL tutors for…

  1. Cultural Responsivity in Clinical Psychology Graduate Students: A Developmental Approach to the Prediction of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrin, Sebastian Everett

    2010-01-01

    This study used a mixed-method approach to examine students' experiences in multicultural training and their opinions about various aspects of their course(s). A developmental model of learning was employed to analyze results. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between clinical psychology doctoral students' self-reported…

  2. Notes on Current Knowledge Concerning the Psychology of Learning Modern Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, D.E.

    1967-01-01

    This paper begins with some main conclusions put forth by the author--(1) Very little has been published directly in the area of the psychology of language learning, (2) The very large amount of expertise and opinion-based activity among language teachers (which is based on assumptions about human behavior and which seems to work) would not come…

  3. Design of Digital Learning Material on Social-Psychological Theories for Nutrition Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busstra, Maria C.; De Graaf, Cees; Hartog, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the design, implementation and evaluation of digital learning material on the social--psychological Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and its use in nutrition behavior research. The design is based on guidelines derived from theories on instructional design. The major component of the design challenge is to implement three…

  4. A Citation Analysis of Psychology Students' Use of Sources in Online Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Nancy Evans; Barnard, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Reference lists from two assignments of psychology students in university-level online distance learning (ODL) were analyzed for number and type of sources and mark achieved. Most referenced were resources relevant to the assignment and provided by instructors. Use changed across assignments: Instructor sources were used more on the first…

  5. Diagnosing and Solving School Learning Disabilities in Epilepsy: Part 5, School and Psychological Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In the last article, the author covered the social and psychological causes to learning difficulty that can be created by epilepsy. Over the last two articles, the author gained a fairly complete picture of problems that may be due to the physical disorder of epilepsy and problems due to its unique impact on the social aspects of the classroom. In…

  6. The Use of Mobile Apps to Enhance Student Learning in Introduction to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto-Macaluso, Kristen; Hughes, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of mobile applications or apps on student learning in an introduction to psychology course. Students were assigned to complete a learner-centered worksheet activity on the brain and central nervous system using either an interactive 3-D Brain app or their online course textbook. We measured student learning…

  7. Generative Learning Theory, Paradigm Shifts, and Constructivism in Educational Psychology: A Tribute to Merl Wittrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Sigmund

    2010-01-01

    This appreciation of Wittrock's contributions to educational psychology suggests that his 1974 article describing generative learning theory was remarkably prescient. In that article Wittrock set the stage for the subsequent paradigm shift from cognitive to constructivist approaches to instruction. Furthermore, his suggestion that schools were the…

  8. Psychological Correlates of School Bullying Victimization: Academic Self-Concept, Learning Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims at detecting the association between students' bullying victimization at school and some psychological dimensions, referred to academic self-concept (for both Mathematics and Reading), learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, commitment to study) and test anxiety. A questionnaire including these measures was…

  9. Chomskyan Cognitivism and Linguistic: Irreproachable Ideals for Educational Psychology and Designing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleeri, Sankaranarayanan

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes an attempt to highlight the significance of Chomskyan concepts of linguistic and cognitivism in restructuring educational ideals and directions regarding learning in Educational Psychology. His specific views on educational aspects are the need of the hour in education scenario especially in the context of globalization. This…

  10. Co-learning facilitates memory in mice: a new avenue in social neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipina, Tatiana V; Roder, John C

    2013-01-01

    Social context affects brain function but our understanding of its neurobiology is at an early stage. The mere presence of one individual can alter the cognitive capacities of another and social learning has been demonstrated in many species, including the mouse. We asked several questions: 1. How can active engagement of two familiar mice in the same learning activity (co-learning) alter their memory? 2. Under which environmental conditions (aversive vs non-aversive) can we expect the memory to be enhanced, impaired, or not affected? 3. Can a genetic factor modify the co-learning effect on memory? More specifically, can co-learning correct memory deficits in autistic-like BTBR inbred mice with deficient sociability? We demonstrated that pairs of familiar inbred mice of the same or different genotypes (C57BL/6J and BTBR) that were habituated to new objects and their spatial location, had enhanced episodic memory in the spatial object recognition test, whereas individually-trained animals failed to solve this task. Notably, the co-learning effect was genotype-dependent. BTBR mice paired with BTBR cage-mates in the habituation session modestly ameliorated their performance in the object recognition test but co-learning with a familiar C57BL/6J mouse completely normalized episodic memory deficit. Next, we explored the co-learning effect on fear memory in these inbred strains. Interestingly, mice of both genotypes displayed significantly enhanced contextual fear memory once they had been conditioned together with BTBR animals. The same influence of BTBR presence was observed on cued fear memory in C57BL/6J mice, whereas a modest co-learning effect was found on cued fear conditioning in the BTBR strain. Taken together, we demonstrated for the first time the co-learning effect on cognitive capacities in mice, which can be modified by genetic background and environmental conditions. The possible implications of this methodological approach in social neuroscience are

  11. Genetic approaches to the molecular/neuronal mechanisms underlying learning and memory in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Akira; Tang, Ya-Ping

    2005-09-01

    Learning and memory is an essential component of human intelligence. To understand its underlying molecular and neuronal mechanisms is currently an extensive focus in the field of cognitive neuroscience. We have employed advanced mouse genetic approaches to analyze the molecular and neuronal bases for learning and memory, and our results showed that brain region-specific genetic manipulations (including transgenic and knockout), inducible/reversible knockout, genetic/chemical kinase inactivation, and neuronal-based genetic approach are very powerful tools for studying the involvements of various molecules or neuronal substrates in the processes of learning and memory. Studies using these techniques may eventually lead to the understanding of how new information is acquired and how learned information is memorized in the brain.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) overexpression in the forebrain results in learning and memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Carla; Angelucci, Andrea; D'Antoni, Angela; Dobrossy, Mate D; Dunnett, Stephen B; Berardi, Nicoletta; Brambilla, Riccardo

    2009-03-01

    In this study we analyzed the effect on behavior of a chronic exposure to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), by analysing a mouse line overexpressing BDNF under the alphaCaMKII promoter, which drives the transgene expression exclusively to principal neurons of the forebrain. BDNF transgenic mice and their WT littermates were examined with a battery of behavioral tests, in order to evaluate motor coordination, learning, short and long-term memory formation. Our results demonstrate that chronic BDNF overexpression in the central nervous system (CNS) causes learning deficits and short-term memory impairments, both in spatial and instrumental learning tasks. This observation suggests that a widespread increase in BDNF in forebrain networks may result in adverse effects on learning and memory formation.

  13. Sleep directly following learning benefits consolidation of spatial associative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, L.M.; Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.; Jensen, O.

    2008-01-01

    The last decade has brought forth convincing evidence for a role of sleep in non-declarative memory. A similar function of sleep in episodic memory is supported by various correlational studies, but direct evidence is limited. Here we show that cued recall of face-location associations is significan

  14. Sleep directly following learning benefits consolidation of spatial associative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, L.M.; Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.

    2008-01-01

    The last decade has brought forth convincing evidence for a role of sleep in non-declarative memory. A similar function of sleep in episodic memory is supported by various correlational studies, but direct evidence is limited. Here we show that cued recall of face–location associations is significan

  15. Working Memory Underpins Cognitive Development, Learning, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is the retention of a small amount of information in a readily accessible form. It facilitates planning, comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving. I examine the historical roots and conceptual development of the concept and the theoretical and practical implications of current debates about working memory mechanisms. Then, I…

  16. The Impact of Persistent Pain on Working Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander; Ayres, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The study reviewed the evidence that persistent pain has the capacity to interrupt and consume working memory resources. It was argued that individuals with persistent pain essentially operate within a compromised neurocognitive paradigm of limited working memory resources that impairs task performance. Using cognitive load theory as a theoretical…

  17. Working Memory Underpins Cognitive Development, Learning, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is the retention of a small amount of information in a readily accessible form. It facilitates planning, comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving. I examine the historical roots and conceptual development of the concept and the theoretical and practical implications of current debates about working memory mechanisms. Then, I…

  18. Early handling effect on female rat spatial and non-spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Fulvio; Marino, Rosa A M; Navarra, Michele; Gambino, Giuditta; Brancato, Anna; Sardo, Pierangelo; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-03-01

    This study aims at providing an insight into early handling procedures on learning and memory performance in adult female rats. Early handling procedures were started on post-natal day 2 until 21, and consisted in 15 min, daily separations of the dams from their litters. Assessment of declarative memory was carried out in the novel-object recognition task; spatial learning, reference- and working memory were evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM). Our results indicate that early handling induced an enhancement in: (1) declarative memory, in the object recognition task, both at 1h and 24h intervals; (2) reference memory in the probe test and working memory and behavioral flexibility in the "single-trial and four-trial place learning paradigm" of the MWM. Short-term separation by increasing maternal care causes a dampening in HPA axis response in the pups. A modulated activation of the stress response may help to protect brain structures, involved in cognitive function. In conclusion, this study shows the long-term effects of a brief maternal separation in enhancing object recognition-, spatial reference- and working memory in female rats, remarking the impact of early environmental experiences and the consequent maternal care on the behavioral adaptive mechanisms in adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CMOS current-mode neural associative memory design with on-chip learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C Y; Lan, J F

    1996-01-01

    Based on the Grossberg mathematical model called the outstar, a modular neural net with on-chip learning and memory is designed and analyzed. The outstar is the minimal anatomy that can interpret the classical conditioning or associative memory. It can also be served as a general-purpose pattern learning device. To realize the outstar, CMOS (complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor) current-mode analog dividers are developed to implement the special memory called the ratio-type memory. Furthermore, a CMOS current-mode analog multiplier is used to implement the correlation. The implemented CMOS outstar can on-chip store the relative ratio values of the trained weights for a long time. It can also be modularized to construct general neural nets. HSPICE (a circuit simulator of Meta Software, Inc.) simulation results of the CMOS outstar circuits as associative memory and pattern learner have successfully verified their functions. The measured results of the fabricated CMOS outstar circuits have also successfully confirmed the ratio memory and on-chip learning capability of the circuits. Furthermore, it has been shown that the storage time of the ratio memory can be as long as five minutes without refreshment. Also the outstar can enhance the contrast of the stored pattern within a long period. This makes the outstar circuits quite feasible in many applications.

  20. Postretrieval new learning does not reliably induce human memory updating via reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Tom E; Taqi, Mahdi; Shanks, David R

    2016-05-10

    Reconsolidation theory proposes that retrieval can destabilize an existing memory trace, opening a time-dependent window during which that trace is amenable to modification. Support for the theory is largely drawn from nonhuman animal studies that use invasive pharmacological or electroconvulsive interventions to disrupt a putative postretrieval restabilization ("reconsolidation") process. In human reconsolidation studies, however, it is often claimed that postretrieval new learning can be used as a means of "updating" or "rewriting" existing memory traces. This proposal warrants close scrutiny because the ability to modify information stored in the memory system has profound theoretical, clinical, and ethical implications. The present study aimed to replicate and extend a prominent 3-day motor-sequence learning study [Walker MP, Brakefield T, Hobson JA, Stickgold R (2003) Nature 425(6958):616-620] that is widely cited as a convincing demonstration of human reconsolidation. However, in four direct replication attempts (n = 64), we did not observe the critical impairment effect that has previously been taken to indicate disruption of an existing motor memory trace. In three additional conceptual replications (n = 48), we explored the broader validity of reconsolidation-updating theory by using a declarative recall task and sequences similar to phone numbers or computer passwords. Rather than inducing vulnerability to interference, memory retrieval appeared to aid the preservation of existing sequence knowledge relative to a no-retrieval control group. These findings suggest that memory retrieval followed by new learning does not reliably induce human memory updating via reconsolidation.

  1. Historical connection between memory and testimony psychology by an experimental study of Seiichi Terada in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wakabayashi, Kosuke; Sato, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    .... This is probably the first experimental study of law and psychology carried out in Japan. This article introduces Terada's history as a psychologist, and his collaboration with Makino, followed by explanation of their experiments...

  2. Working memory: what relevance does it have in learning process and in language processing ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiomar José Mascarello

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work consists of a systematic review of the literature on working memory.  Researches, including the ones developed by George Miller (1956 and Paul Carrillo-Mora (2010 have shown that working memory is involved in remembering visual and spatial information, as well as in cognitive activities and in planning strategies.  In the present article, we first examine some important facts in the history of research about working memory. After that, we analyze works published from 2001 to 2011 and available at the “Scientific Electronic Library Online”. During this process, we found studies about different aspects of working memory, but those related to language are usually focused on phonological aspects. There are some works about the relation between working memory and general aspects of intelligence, while others are about difficulties in learning and problems related to memory. We still do not have conclusive answers, in other words, the relation between problems in learning and working memory capacity is not widely accepted; however, there is a consensus that the amount of linguistic information we can keep in our working memory is influenced by spelling time and semantic similarity of the terms used. The studies analyzed here point to the same conclusions.

  3. Learning-related feedforward inhibitory connectivity growth required for memory precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruediger, Sarah; Vittori, Claudia; Bednarek, Ewa; Genoud, Christel; Strata, Piergiorgio; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Caroni, Pico

    2011-05-26

    In the adult brain, new synapses are formed and pre-existing ones are lost, but the function of this structural plasticity has remained unclear. Learning of new skills is correlated with formation of new synapses. These may directly encode new memories, but they may also have more general roles in memory encoding and retrieval processes. Here we investigated how mossy fibre terminal complexes at the entry of hippocampal and cerebellar circuits rearrange upon learning in mice, and what is the functional role of the rearrangements. We show that one-trial and incremental learning lead to robust, circuit-specific, long-lasting and reversible increases in the numbers of filopodial synapses onto fast-spiking interneurons that trigger feedforward inhibition. The increase in feedforward inhibition connectivity involved a majority of the presynaptic terminals, restricted the numbers of c-Fos-expressing postsynaptic neurons at memory retrieval, and correlated temporally with the quality of the memory. We then show that for contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze learning, increased feedforward inhibition connectivity by hippocampal mossy fibres has a critical role for the precision of the memory and the learned behaviour. In the absence of mossy fibre long-term potentiation in Rab3a(-/-) mice, c-Fos ensemble reorganization and feedforward inhibition growth were both absent in CA3 upon learning, and the memory was imprecise. By contrast, in the absence of adducin 2 (Add2; also known as β-adducin) c-Fos reorganization was normal, but feedforward inhibition growth was abolished. In parallel, c-Fos ensembles in CA3 were greatly enlarged, and the memory was imprecise. Feedforward inhibition growth and memory precision were both rescued by re-expression of Add2 specifically in hippocampal mossy fibres. These results establish a causal relationship between learning-related increases in the numbers of defined synapses and the precision of learning and memory in the adult

  4. Neurotoxicity induced by alkyl nitrites: Impairment in learning/memory and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hye Jin; Kim, Yun Ji; Jeon, Seo Young; Kim, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jisoon; Yun, Jaesuk; Han, Kyoungmoon; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2016-04-21

    Although alkyl nitrites are used as recreational drugs, there is only little research data regarding their effects on the central nervous system including their neurotoxicity. This study investigated the neurotoxicity of three representative alkyl nitrites (isobutyl nitrite, isoamyl nitrite, and butyl nitrite), and whether it affected learning/memory function and motor coordination in rodents. Morris water maze test was performed in mice after administrating the mice with varying doses of the substances in two different injection schedules of memory acquisition and memory retention. A rota-rod test was then performed in rats. All tested alkyl nitrites lowered the rodents' capacity for learning and memory, as assessed by both the acquisition and retention tests. The results of the rota-rod test showed that isobutyl nitrite in particular impaired motor coordination in chronically treated rats. The mice chronically injected with isoamyl nitrite also showed impaired function, while butyl nitrite had no significant effect. The results of the water maze test suggest that alkyl nitrites may impair learning and memory. Additionally, isoamyl nitrite affected the rodents' motor coordination ability. Collectively, our findings suggest that alkyl nitrites may induce neurotoxicity, especially on the aspect of learning and memory function.

  5. The influence of cannabinoids on learning and memory processes of the dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2015-11-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the mammalian endocannabinoid system plays an integral role in learning and memory. Our understanding of how cannabinoids influence memory comes predominantly from studies examining cognitive and emotional memory systems mediated by the hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. However, recent evidence suggests that cannabinoids also affect habit or stimulus-response (S-R) memory mediated by the dorsal striatum. Studies implementing a variety of maze tasks in rats indicate that systemic or intra-dorsolateral striatum infusions of cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists impair habit memory. In mice, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor knockdown can enhance or impair habit formation, whereas Δ(9)THC tolerance enhances habit formation. Studies in human cannabis users also suggest an enhancement of S-R/habit memory. A tentative conclusion based on the available data is that acute disruption of the endocannabinoid system with either agonists or antagonists impairs, whereas chronic cannabinoid exposure enhances, dorsal striatum-dependent S-R/habit memory. CB1 receptors are required for multiple forms of striatal synaptic plasticity implicated in memory, including short-term and long-term depression. Interactions with the hippocampus-dependent memory system may also have a role in some of the observed effects of cannabinoids on habit memory. The impairing effect often observed with acute cannabinoid administration argues for cannabinoid-based treatments for human psychopathologies associated with a dysfunctional habit memory system (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder and drug addiction/relapse). In addition, the enhancing effect of repeated cannabinoid exposure on habit memory suggests a novel neurobehavioral mechanism for marijuana addiction involving the dorsal striatum-dependent memory system.

  6. Discovery of genes involved with learning and memory: an experimental synthesis of Hirschian and Benzerian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, T

    1996-11-26

    The biological bases of learning and memory are being revealed today with a wide array of molecular approaches, most of which entail the analysis of dysfunction produced by gene disruptions. This perspective derives both from early "genetic dissections" of learning in mutant Drosophila by Seymour Benzer and colleagues and from earlier behavior-genetic analyses of learning and in Diptera by Jerry Hirsh and coworkers. Three quantitative-genetic insights derived from these latter studies serve as guiding principles for the former. First, interacting polygenes underlie complex traits. Consequently, learning/memory defects associated with single-gene mutants can be quantified accurately only in equilibrated, heterogeneous genetic backgrounds. Second, complex behavioral responses will be composed of genetically distinct functional components. Thus, genetic dissection of complex traits into specific biobehavioral properties is likely. Finally, disruptions of genes involved with learning/memory are likely to have pleiotropic effects. As a result, task-relevant sensorimotor responses required for normal learning must be assessed carefully to interpret performance in learning/memory experiments. In addition, more specific conclusions will be obtained from reverse-genetic experiments, in which gene disruptions are restricted in time and/or space.

  7. Implicit motor sequence learning and working memory performance changes across the adult life span

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Nadine Meissner; Ariane eKeitel; Martin eSüdmeyer; Bettina ePollok

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of...

  8. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span

    OpenAIRE

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding o...

  9. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination: two methods evaluating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika M J; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe; Skytte, Christina; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2013-06-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test, all minipigs performed 9/12 correct choices or better. Juvenile Göttingen minipigs are able to learn to perform in a spatial hole-board discrimination test as well as in a visual discrimination test, showing an increase in performance over time. Both tests have considerable scope to assess learning and memory of pigs, and we seem to have succeeded in establishing two test systems suitable for performing preclinical toxicity testing in juvenile minipigs.

  10. Interleukin-1beta induces anorexia but not spatial learning and memory deficits in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Lisa M; Sutherland, Robert J

    2006-06-30

    Sickness behaviors are a set of adaptive responses to infection that include lethargy, anorexia, and, of direct relevance to this work, learning and memory impairments. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) has been proposed as the primary peripheral mediator of these sickness behaviors, though few studies have investigated the effects of peripheral IL-1beta on learning and memory. We used three different versions of the Morris water task (Morris water task), a spatial learning and memory task, to separately assess the effects of peripheral IL-1beta on acquisition, consolidation, and retention of spatial location information. Using a dose that induced anorexia, assessed as a significant reduction in body weight, we observed no performance impairments in the IL-1beta-treated rats across the different versions of the task, suggesting that peripheral IL-1beta alone is insufficient to induce spatial learning and memory impairments in the rat. The observed dissociation of anorexia and cognitive dysfunction suggests that, either spatial learning and memory are not principal components of the sickness response, or cognitive dysfunction requires different or additional peripheral mediator(s).

  11. Effect of Xiaoyaosan Decoction on Learning and Memory Deficit in Rats Induced by Chronic Immobilization Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhi Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoyaosan (XYS decoction is a famous prescription which can protect nervous system from stress and treat liver stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome (LSSDS. In this experiment, we observed the effect of XYS decoction on chronic immobilization stress (CIS induced learning and memory deficit in rats from behaviors and changes of proteins in hippocampus. We used XYS decoction to treat CIS induced learning and memory deficit in rats with rolipram as positive control, used change of body weight and behavioral tests to determine whether the rats have LSSDS and have learning and memory deficit or not. We used Western blotting to determine the content of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95 and synaptophysin (SYP in hippocampus. Results showed that XYS could improve the situation of slow weight gain induced by CIS, improve the ability of learning and memory, reverse the symptom of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome (LSSDS in rats, and increase the levels of PSD-95 and SYP on the hippocampal nerve synapses. These findings suggested that XYS decoction may be helpful in reversing CIS induced learning and memory deficit by increasing the levels of PSD-95 and SYP on the hippocampal nerve synapses and improving synaptic plasticity.

  12. Chronic stress during adolescence impairs and improves learning and memory in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Evelyn Chaby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they age is not well understood. We determined how chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence affects multiple learning and memory processes in adulthood. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we measured learning (both associative and reversal and memory (both reference and working starting 110 days after completion of the adolescent-stress treatment. We found that adolescent stress affected adult cognitive abilities in a context-dependent way. Compared to rats reared without stress, adolescent-stressed rats exhibited enhanced reversal learning, an indicator of behavioral flexibility, but showed no change in associative learning and reference memory abilities. Working memory, which in humans is thought to underpin reasoning, mathematical skills, and reading comprehension, may be enhanced by exposure to adolescent stress. However, when adolescent-stressed animals were tested after a novel disturbance, they exhibited a 5-fold decrease in working memory performance while unstressed rats continued to exhibit a linear learning curve. These results emphasize the capacity for stress during adolescence to transform the cognitive abilities of adult animals, even after stress exposure has ceased and animals have resided in safe environments for the majority of their lifespans.

  13. Learning Non-Local Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gustav; Dienes, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of the temporary storage buffer used in implicit or statistical learning. Kuhn and Dienes [Kuhn, G., & Dienes, Z. (2005). Implicit learning of nonlocal musical rules: implicitly learning more than chunks. "Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition," 31(6) 1417-1432] showed that people could…

  14. Learning Non-Local Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gustav; Dienes, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of the temporary storage buffer used in implicit or statistical learning. Kuhn and Dienes [Kuhn, G., & Dienes, Z. (2005). Implicit learning of nonlocal musical rules: implicitly learning more than chunks. "Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition," 31(6) 1417-1432] showed that people could…

  15. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Memory Matters KidsHealth > For Kids > Memory Matters A A ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  16. Learning disabilities theory and Soviet psychology: a comparison of basic assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, G S

    1982-09-01

    Critics both within and outside the Learning Disabilities (LD) field have pointed to the weaknesses of LD theory. Beginning with the premise that a significant problem of LD theory has been its failure to explore fully its fundamental assumptions, this paper examines a number of these assumptions about individual and social development, cognition, and learning. These assumptions are compared with a contrasting body of premises found in Soviet psychology, particularly in the works of Vygotsky, Leontiev, and Luria. An examination of the basic assumptions of LD theory and Soviet psychology shows that a major difference lies in their respective nondialectical and dialectical interpretation of the relationship of social factors and cognition, learning, and neurological development.

  17. New learning while consolidating memory during sleep is actively blocked by a protein synthesis dependent process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J

    2016-01-01

    Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17769.001 PMID:27919318

  18. A Wideband Digital Predistorter for a Doherty Power Amplifier Using a Direct Learning Memory Effect Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kenichi; Matsunaga, Naoko; Yamauchi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Ryoji; Miyazaki, Moriyasu; Nojima, Toshio

    This paper presents a digital predistorter with a wideband memory effect compensator for a Doherty power amplifier (PA). A simple memory-predistortion model, which consists of a look-up-table (LUT) and an adaptive filter equalizing memory effects, and a new memory effect estimation algorithm using a direct-learning architecture are proposed. The proposed estimation algorithm has an advantage that a transfer function of a feedback circuit does not affect the learning process. The predistorter is implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital signal processor (DSP). The transmitter has achieved distortion level of -50.8dBr at signal bandwidth away from the carrier, and PA module efficiency of 24% with output power of 43dBm at 2595MHz under a 20MHz-bandwidth orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal using laterally diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) FETs.

  19. Emotion regulation strategies that promote learning: reappraisal enhances children's memory for educational information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds (N = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group received no regulation instructions. Children viewed an educational film, and memory for this was later assessed. As predicted, reappraisal strategies more effectively attenuated children's self-reported emotional processing. Reappraisal enhanced memory for educational details relative to no instructions. Rumination did not lead to differences in memory from the other instructions. Memory benefits of effective instructions were pronounced for children with poorer emotion regulation skill, suggesting the utility of reappraisal in learning contexts.

  20. Implementing Problem-Based Learning in an Undergraduate Psychology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searight, H. Russell; Searight, Barbara K.

    2009-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a small-group pedagogical technique widely used in fields such as business, medicine, engineering, and architecture. In PBL, pre-written cases are used to teach core course content. PBL advocates state that course material is more likely to be retained and applied when presented as cases reflecting "real life"…

  1. Rational Expectations, psychology and inductive learning via moving thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Lamba, H

    2007-01-01

    This work suggests modifications to a previously introduced class of heterogeneous agent models that allow for the inclusion of different types of agent motivations and behaviours in a unified way. The agents operate within a highly simplified environment where they are only able to be long or short one unit of the asset. The price of the asset is influenced by both an external information stream and the demand of the agents. The current strategy of each agent is defined by a pair of moving thresholds straddling the current price. When the price crosses either of the thresholds for a particular agent, that agent switches position and a new pair of thresholds is generated. Different kinds of threshold motion correspond to different sources of motivation, running the gamut from purely rational information-processing, through rational (but often undesirable) behaviour induced by perverse incentives and moral hazards, to purely psychological effects. As with the previous class of models, the fact that the simples...

  2. Stress enhances the consolidation of extinction memory in a predictive learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja eHamacher-Dang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Extinction is not always permanent, as indicated by several types of recovery effects, such as the renewal effect, which may occur after a context change and points towards the importance of contextual cues. Strengthening the retrieval of extinction memory is a crucial aim of extinction-based psychotherapeutic treatments of anxiety disorders to prevent relapse. Stress is known to modulate learning and memory, with mostly enhancing effects on memory consolidation. However, whether such a consolidation-enhancing effect of acute stress can also be found for extinction memory has not yet been examined in humans. In this study, we investigated the effect of stress after extinction learning on the retrieval of extinction memory in a predictive learning renewal paradigm. Participants took the part of being the doctor of a fictitious patient and learned to predict whether certain food stimuli were associated with ‘stomach trouble’ in two different restaurants (contexts. On the first day, critical stimuli were associated with stomach trouble in context A (acquisition phase. On the second day, these associations were extinguished in context B. Directly after extinction, participants were either exposed to a stressor (socially evaluated cold pressor test; n = 22 or a control condition (n = 24. On the third day, we tested retrieval of critical associations in contexts A and B. Participants exposed to stress after extinction exhibited a reduced recovery of responding at test in context B, suggesting that stress may context-dependently enhance the consolidation of extinction memory. Furthermore, the increase in cortisol in response to the stressor was negatively correlated with the recovery of responding in context A. Our findings suggest that in parallel to the known effects of stress on the consolidation of episodic memory, stress also enhances the consolidation of extinction memory, which might be relevant for potential applications in extinction

  3. Effects of observing and producing deictic gestures on memory and learning in different age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ouwehand, Kim

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe studies presented in this dissertation aimed to investigate whether observing or producing deictic gestures (i.e., pointing and tracing gestures to index a referent in space or a movement pathway), could facilitate memory and learning in children, young adults, and older adults. More specifically, regarding memory it was investigated whether the use of deictic gestures would improve performance on tasks targeting cognitive functions that are found to change with age (worki...

  4. The hippocampus reevaluated in unconscious learning and memory: at a tipping point?

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah E Hannula; Anthony eGreene

    2012-01-01

    Classic findings from the neuropsychological literature invariably indicated that performances on tests of memory that can be accomplished without conscious awareness were largely spared in amnesia, while those that required conscious retrieval (e.g., via recognition or recall) of information learned in the very same sessions was devastatingly impaired. Based on reports of such dissociations, it was proposed that one of the fundamental distinctions between memory systems is whether or not th...

  5. Pilot Study of Flow and Meaningfulness as Psychological Learning Concepts in Patient Education: A Short Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicic, Sara; Nørby, Karina; Bruun Johansen, Clea

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this pilot study was to explore patient experiences of meaningfulness and flow related to group based patient education in type 2 diabetes. Meaningfulness and flow are underexposed as psychological learning concepts in patient education, and the ambition...... of this study was to investigate the applicability of these concepts of positive psychological theory in a patient education setting. Methods: This pilot study combines participating observation of group based patient education and 8 qualitative interviews with 4 patients with type 2 diabetes. Meaning...

  6. Pilot Study of Flow and Meaningfulness as Psychological Learning Concepts in Patient Education: A Short Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicic, Sara; Nørby, Karina; Bruun Johansen, Clea;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this pilot study was to explore patient experiences of meaningfulness and flow related to group based patient education in type 2 diabetes. Meaningfulness and flow are underexposed as psychological learning concepts in patient education, and the ambition...... of this study was to investigate the applicability of these concepts of positive psychological theory in a patient education setting. Methods: This pilot study combines participating observation of group based patient education and 8 qualitative interviews with 4 patients with type 2 diabetes. Meaning...

  7. The relationships between trait anxiety, place recognition memory, and learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Dohanich, Gary P

    2011-01-20

    Rodents learn to navigate mazes using various strategies that are governed by specific regions of the brain. The type of strategy used when learning to navigate a spatial environment is moderated by a number of factors including emotional states. Heightened anxiety states, induced by exposure to stressors or administration of anxiogenic agents, have been found to bias male rats toward the use of a striatum-based stimulus-response strategy rather than a hippocampus-based place strategy. However, no study has yet examined the relationship between natural anxiety levels, or trait anxiety, and the type of learning strategy used by rats on a dual-solution task. In the current experiment, levels of inherent anxiety were measured in an open field and compared to performance on two separate cognitive tasks, a Y-maze task that assessed place recognition memory, and a visible platform water maze task that assessed learning strategy. Results indicated that place recognition memory on the Y-maze correlated with the use of place learning strategy on the water maze. Furthermore, lower levels of trait anxiety correlated positively with better place recognition memory and with the preferred use of place learning strategy. Therefore, competency in place memory and bias in place strategy are linked to the levels of inherent anxiety in male rats.

  8. Blood pressure variations real-time reflect the conditioned fear learning and memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chang Hsu

    Full Text Available The conditioned fear learning and memory occurs when a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US. This process is critically dependent on the amygdala and inevitably involves blood pressure (BP alterations. We hypothesized that BP variations could instantaneously reveal individual steps during conditioned fear learning and memory. An implanted telemetric probe was used to monitor the BP real-time in rats during training and testing sessions of the fear-potentiated startle. Our results showed that (i the conditioned fear learning during the training sessions was reflected by light (CS-induced rapid BP elevations and by electric shock (US-evoked sympathetic tone elevations; (ii these two BP-related parameters were not only negatively correlated with each other but also coupled to each other in the training session trials; (iii both parameters closely predicted the performance of fear-potentiated startle on the next day; and (iv although local blocking of one of the two fear-conditioned pathways in the training session partially inhibited fear learning, the fear memory retrieval still used both pathways. Altogether, real-time blood pressure variations faithfully revealed the critical steps involved in conditioned fear learning and memory, and our results supported a coupling between the cued learning and the post-shock calmness.

  9. Enhanced Human Memory Consolidation With Post-Learning Stress: Interaction With the Degree of Arousal at Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Larry; Gorski, Lukasz; Le, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that endogenous stress hormones such as epinephrine and corticosterone modulate memory consolidation in animals. We recently provided the first demonstration that an endogenous stress hormone (epinephrine) can enhance human memory consolidation. However, these findings also suggested that post-learning stress hormone activation does not uniformly enhance memory for all recently acquired information; rather, that it interacts with the degree ...

  10. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 in Learning and Memory Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonyi, Agnes; Schachtman, Todd; Christoffersen, Gert Rene Juul

    2005-01-01

    signaling mechanisms have also been revealed. MGluR5s are mainly localized postsynaptically on the periphery of synap-ses. MGluR5s have been implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. The development of the highly potent and selective mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl...... of the effects of MPEP in various behavioral paradigms have concluded that mGluR5s play a critical role in aversive learning tasks and in hippocampal-dependent spatial learning. However, MPEP has proved ineffective in certain other learning tasks. MGluR5 knockout mice have shown impairments in water maze...... and radial arm maze performance as well as in contextual fear conditioning, but not in cue conditioning. This review summarizes recent advances reported on mGluR5 function in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. The current development of positive and negative allosteric modulators of mGluR5...

  11. Spatial short-term memory in children with nonverbal learning disabilities: impairment in encoding spatial configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.

  12. Phonological sensitivity and memory in children with a foreign language learning difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    The phonological processing and memory skills of 12- and 13-year-old Italian children with difficulty in learning English as a foreign language (foreign language learning difficulty, FLLD) were examined and compared with those of a control group matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Three experiments were conducted. A dissociation between verbal and visuo-spatial working memory was observed when compared to the control group; children with FLLD showed a poorer performance in a phonological working memory task but performed to a comparable level in a visuo-spatial working memory task (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2 the word length and the response modality of an auditory word span task were manipulated in order to examine the efficiency of the phonological loop and the relevance of the spoken output. The FLLD group did not show sensitivity to the word length effect and showed no advantage in the picture pointing recall condition. In Experiment 3 children with FLLD were shown to be sensitive to phonological similarity but again they showed neither a word length effect nor a slower articulation speed. Furthermore, in all three experiments children with FLLD were shown to be less efficient in phonological sensitivity tasks and this deficit appeared to be independent of the phonological memory problem. All three experiments consistently showed that children with FLLD have an impairment in phonological memory and phonological processing, which appear to be independent from one other but both contribute to the children's difficulty in learning a second language.

  13. Learning and Overnight Retention in Declarative Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc; Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    We examined learning and retention in nonverbal and verbal declarative memory in Hungarian children with (n = 21) and without (n = 21) SLI. Recognition memory was tested both 10 minutes and one day after encoding. On nonverbal items, only the children with SLI improved overnight, with no resulting group differences in performance. In the verbal domain, the children with SLI consistently showed worse performance than the typically-developing children, but the two groups showed similar overnight changes. The findings suggest the possibility of spared or even enhanced declarative memory consolidation in SLI. PMID:28046095

  14. A Physiological Role for Amyloid Beta Protein: Enhancement of Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    John Morley; Susan Farr; William Banks; Johnson, Steven N.; Yamada, Kelvin A.; Lin Xu

    2008-01-01

    Amyloid beta protein (A[beta]) is well recognized as having a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The reason for the presence of A[beta] and its physiological role in non-disease states is not clear. In these studies, low doses of A[beta] enhanced memory retention in two memory tasks and enhanced acetylcholine production in the hippocampus _in vivo_. We then tested whether endogenous A[beta] has a role in learning and memory in young, cognitively intact mice...

  15. [The effects of SO2 on electric activity learning and memory of rat hippocampal neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Yang, Dongsheng; Meng, Ziqiang

    2008-11-01

    To study the toxicological mechanism of SO2 on central neural system by electrophysiological method. Male SD rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated at the concentration of 28 mg/m3 SO2 for 7 days (6h/d), while control rats were treated with filtered air in the same condition. Using glass micro-electrodes recording in vivo, the frequencies and numbers of spontaneous discharge in hippocampal CAI neurons were measured. Influences of the learning and memory functions were measured by setting up passive avoidance behavior reflex. SO2 decreased significantly the neurons spontaneous discharge frequency and prolonged the neurons spontaneous period in hippocampal CAl. SO2 significantly decreased the learning and memory function of rats. The results indicated that SO2 could be a neurotoxin. It could inhibit the hippocampal neurons excitability and affect the learning and memory function of rats.

  16. Statistical learning leads to persistent memory: Evidence for one-year consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kóbor, Andrea; Janacsek, Karolina; Takács, Ádám; Nemeth, Dezso

    2017-04-10

    Statistical learning is a robust mechanism of the brain that enables the extraction of environmental patterns, which is crucial in perceptual and cognitive domains. However, the dynamical change of processes underlying long-term statistical memory formation has not been tested in an appropriately controlled design. Here we show that a memory trace acquired by statistical learning is resistant to inference as well as to forgetting after one year. Participants performed a statistical learning task and were retested one year later without further practice. The acquired statistical knowledge was resistant to interference, since after one year, participants showed similar memory performance on the previously practiced statistical structure after being tested with a new statistical structure. These results could be key to understand the stability of long-term statistical knowledge.

  17. Memory and learning seems to be related to cholinergic dysfunction in the JE rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Chandravanshi, Lalit Pratap; Khanna, Vinay Kumar

    2016-03-15

    Cognitive changes have been known in encephalitis but in Japanese encephalitis (JE) such studies are limited. This study aims at evaluating the spatial memory and learning and correlate with markers of cholinergic activity in the brain.12day old Wistar rats were inoculated with dose of 3×10(6)pfu/ml of JE virus. On 10, 33 and 48days post-inoculation (dpi), spatial memory and learning was assessed by Y maze. Brain biopsies from frontal cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were taken. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor was assayed by Quinuclidinyl benzylate (H3-QNB) binding, CHRM2 gene expression by real time PCR and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) by Western blot. Spatial learning and memory showed significant decline in rats inoculated with JEV on 10 and 33dpi (47.5%, pJE Virus.

  18. The Role of Nigella sativa and Its Active Constituents in Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of the ability for learning and memory is a prominent feature of dementia, which affects millions of individuals all over the world, due to either neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury. Although a lot of information is known about the pathology involved, treatment remains elusive at best. The Black Seed of Nigella sativa has been historically and religiously used for thousands of years for preventing and treating many different kinds of diseases. This review article looks at Nigella sativa and its potential role in facilitating learning and memory. The possible use of this seed’s extract or compounds isolated from it, such as thymoquinone, for treating damaged brain neural tissue is discussed. The evidence presented in this paper appears to be supporting the hypothesis that this plant and/or its bioactive constituents can enhance learning and memory in health and disease in animals and humans.

  19. DHA Depletion in Rat Brain Is Associated With Impairment on Spatial Learning and Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING XIAO; LING WANG; RUO-JUN XU; ZHEN-YU CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency in brain on spatial learning and memory in rats. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were fed with an n-3 fatty acid deficient diet for two generations to induce DHA depletion in brain. DHA in seven brain regions was analyzed using the gas-liquid chromatography. Morris water maze (MWM) was employed as an assessing index of spatial learning and memory in the n-3 fatty acid deficient adult rats of second generation. Results Feeding an n-3 deficient diet for two generations depleted DHA differently by 39%-63% in the seven brain regions including cerebellum, medulla, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, cortex and midbrain. The MWM test showed that the n-3 deficient rats took a longer time and swam a longer distance to find the escape platform than the n-3 Adq group. Conclusion The spatial learning and memory in adult rats are partially impaired by brain DHA depletion.

  20. Schemas and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Dorothy; Langston, Rosamund F; Kakeyama, Masaki; Bethus, Ingrid; Spooner, Patrick A; Wood, Emma R; Witter, Menno P; Morris, Richard G M

    2007-04-01

    Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative "schema" into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task for rats, the memory of flavor-place associations became persistent over time as a putative neocortical schema gradually developed. New traces, trained for only one trial, then became assimilated and rapidly hippocampal-independent. Schemas also played a causal role in the creation of lasting associative memory representations during one-trial learning. The concept of neocortical schemas may unite psychological accounts of knowledge structures with neurobiological theories of systems memory consolidation.

  1. Learning and Memory Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pinto, Marcos [Department of Pediatric Psychology, Children' s Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Methods and Materials: Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. Conclusions: This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in overall aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients.

  2. Implementing Problem-Based Learning in an Undergraduate Psychology Course

    OpenAIRE

    H. Russell Searight, PhD; Barbara K. Searight, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a small-group pedagogical technique widely used in fields such as business, medicine, engineering, and architecture. In PBL, pre-written cases are used to teach core course content. PBL advocates state that course material is more likely to be retained and applied when presented as cases reflecting "real life" applications of class material. However, rather than traditional lecture-discussion, PBL encourages student autonomy in analyzing cases, with the instruc...

  3. Implementing Problem-Based Learning in an Undergraduate Psychology Course

    OpenAIRE

    H. Russell Searight, PhD; Barbara K. Searight, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a small-group pedagogical technique widely used in fields such as business, medicine, engineering, and architecture. In PBL, pre-written cases are used to teach core course content. PBL advocates state that course material is more likely to be retained and applied when presented as cases reflecting "real life" applications of class material. However, rather than traditional lecture-discussion, PBL encourages student autonomy in analyzing cases, with the i...

  4. Variable impact of chronic stress on spatial learning and memory in BXD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Chloe J A; Carhuatanta, Kimberly A K; Wagner, Jessica; Bechmann, Naomi; Moore, Raquel; Herman, James P; Jankord, Ryan

    2015-10-15

    The effects of chronic stress on learning are highly variable across individuals. This variability stems from gene-environment interactions. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects genetic predictors of learning are unclear. Thus, we aim to determine whether the genetic pathways that predict spatial memory performance are altered by previous exposure to chronic stress. Sixty-two BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice, as well as parent strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, were randomly assigned as behavioral control or to a chronic variable stress paradigm and then underwent behavioral testing to assess spatial memory and learning performance using the Morris water maze. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was completed for average escape latency times for both control and stress animals. Loci on chromosomes 5 and 10 were found in both control and stress environmental populations; eight additional loci were found to be unique to either the control or stress environment. In sum, results indicate that certain genetic loci predict spatial memory performance regardless of prior stress exposure, while exposure to stress also reveals unique genetic predictors of training during the memory task. Thus, we find that genetic predictors contributing to spatial learning and memory are susceptible to the presence of chronic stress.

  5. Effects of Exercise on Memory Consolidation and Retrieval of Passive Avoidance Learning In Young Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Previous studies have shown that physical activity improves learning and memory. Present study was performed to determine the effects of short term and long term treadmill exercise on learning, memory consolidation and retrieval of passive avoidance learning in an animal model. Methods In this study fifty male Wistar rats with 3-4 months of age were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group. Control group was trained in passive avoidance box and was tested 10 min, 24 hr, 10 days and 3 months later. Two groups exercised on treadmill one hour at 17 m. min for 10 days and 3 months respectively and then were trained in passive avoidance box and were tested 10 min and 24 hr later. The other two groups were trained and were tested 10 days and 24 hr later and then exercised on treadmill as same as other exercised groups. Results Obtained results showed that short-term (10 days and long-term (3 months treadmill running before training by passive avoidance test had significant (P=0.006 and P=0.001 respectively effects on memory consolidation. However, no significant difference was observed between latency time of rats before and after exercise in exercised groups retrieval (P>0.05. Conclusion Our results showed that physical activity promoted learning and memory consolidation but it did not affect retrieval memory performance.

  6. Influence of superior cervical ganglionectomy on hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Ding; Baoping Shao; Shiyuan Yu; Shanting Zhao; Jianlin Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus plays an important role in learning and memory. However, studies have not determined whether the superior cervical ganglion or the sympathetic nerve system influences hippocampal neurogenesis or learning and memory in adult rats. OBJECTIVE: To observe differences in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, as well as learning and memory, in adult rats following superior cervical ganglionectomy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory of the School of Life Sciences in Lanzhou University from July 2006 to July 2007.MATERIALS: Doublecortin polyclonal antibody was provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA;avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex was purchased from Zhongshan Goldenbride Biotechnology, China;Morris water maze was bought from Taimeng Technology, China. METHODS: A total of 20 adult, male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into surgery and control groups, with 10 rats in each group. In the surgery group, the bilateral superior cervical ganglions were transected. In the control group, the superior cervical ganglions were only exposed, but no ganglionectomy was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine distribution, morphology, and number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus using doublecortin immunohistochemistry at 36 days following surgical procedures. To examine ability of learning and memory in adult rats using the Morris water maze at 30 days following surgical procedures. RESULTS: Doublecortin immunohistochemical results showed that a reduction in the number of doublecortin-positive neurons in the surgery group compared to the control group (P<0.05), while the distribution of doublecortin-positive neurons was identical in the two groups. The surgery group exhibited significantly worse performance in learning and spatial memory tasks compared to the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Superior cervical ganglionectomy

  7. Exploring Bhavana samskara using Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica combination for learning and memory in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malve, Harshad Onkarrao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current medications for dementia and enhancement of learning and memory are limited hence we need to explore traditional medicinal systems like Ayurveda to investigate agents that can improve learning and enhance memory. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate effects and mechanisms of Ayurveda drug formulations, Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) and Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) with and without Bhavana samskara on learning and memory of mice. Materials and Methods: After approval of Animal Ethics Committee, Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups, administered orally: Distilled water, Rivastigmine (2.4 mg/kg), Tc (100 mg/kg), Pe (300 mg/kg), 1 formulation (Tc + Pe: 400 mg/kg) and formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Ocimum sanctum: 400 mg/kg) daily for 15 days. Piracetam (200 mg/kg) was injected daily intraperitoneally for 8 days. The mice underwent a learning session using elevated plus maze. Memory was tested 24 hours later. Results: Mice pretreated with all the drugs showed a trend toward reducing transfer latencies but values were comparable to vehicle control. In all drug-treated groups, a significant reduction in transfer latency was observed after 24 h. Improvement in learning and memory by both formulations were comparable to individual plant drugs, Tc and Pe. Conclusion: The plant drugs showed improvements in learning and memory. The fixed-dose formulations with Bhavana samskara, showed encouraging results as compared to individual agents but the difference was not statistically significant. Hence, the concept of Bhavana samskara could not be explored in the present study. However, these drugs showed comparable or better effects than the modern medicinal agents thus, their therapeutic potential as nootropics needs to be explored further. PMID:26834422

  8. Learning and memory in workers reared by nutritionally stressed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Heather R; Smith, Brian H

    2008-12-15

    Chronic nutritional stress can have a negative impact on an individual's learning ability and memory. However, in social animals that share food among group members, such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), it is unknown whether group-level nutritional stress is manifested in the learning performance of individuals. Accordingly, we examined learning and memory in honey bee workers reared by colonies exposed to varying degrees of long-term pollen stress. Pollen provides honey bee workers with almost all of the proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals that they require as larvae and adults. Colonies were created that were either chronically pollen poor or pollen rich, or were intermediate in pollen supply; treatments altered colonies' pollen stores and brood-rearing capacity. Workers from these colonies were put through a series of olfactory-conditioning assays using proboscis-extension response (PER). PER thresholds were determined, then workers learned in olfactory-conditioning trials to associate two floral odors (one novel and the other presented previously without reward) with stimulation with sucrose and a sucrose reward. The strength of the memory that was formed for the odor/sucrose association was tested after olfactory-conditioning assays ended. Colony-level nutritional status had no effect on worker learning or memory (response threshold of workers to sucrose, acquisition of the odor/sucrose association, occurrence of latent inhibition, or memory retention over 72 h). We conclude that potential effects of chronic, colony-wide nutrient deprivation on learning and memory are not found in workers, probably because colonies use brood-rearing capacity to buffer nutrient stress at the level of the individual.

  9. Exploring Bhavana samskara using Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica combination for learning and memory in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Onkarrao Malve

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current medications for dementia and enhancement of learning and memory are limited hence we need to explore traditional medicinal systems like Ayurveda to investigate agents that can improve learning and enhance memory. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate effects and mechanisms of Ayurveda drug formulations, Tinospora cordifolia (Tc and Phyllanthus emblica (Pe with and without Bhavana samskara on learning and memory of mice. Materials and Methods: After approval of Animal Ethics Committee, Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups, administered orally: Distilled water, Rivastigmine (2.4 mg/kg, Tc (100 mg/kg, Pe (300 mg/kg, formulation 1 (Tc + Pe: 400 mg/kg and formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Ocimum sanctum: 400 mg/kg daily for 15 days. Piracetam (200 mg/kg was injected daily intraperitoneally for 8 days. The mice underwent a learning session using elevated plus maze. Memory was tested 24 hours later. Results: Mice pretreated with all the drugs showed a trend toward reducing transfer latencies but values were comparable to vehicle control. In all drug-treated groups, a significant reduction in transfer latency was observed after 24 h. Improvement in learning and memory by both formulations were comparable to individual plant drugs, Tc and Pe. Conclusion: The plant drugs showed improvements in learning and memory. The fixed-dose formulations with Bhavana samskara, showed encouraging results as compared to individual agents but the difference was not statistically significant. Hence, the concept of Bhavana samskara could not be explored in the present study. However, these drugs showed comparable or better effects than the modern medicinal agents thus, their therapeutic potential as nootropics needs to be explored further.

  10. Constructing Patriotism: Teaching History and Memories in Global Worlds. Advances in Cultural Psychology: Constructing Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Memory construction and national identity are key issues in our societies, as well as it is patriotism. How can we nowadays believe and give sense to traditional narrations that explain the origins of nations and communities? How do these narrations function in a process of globalization? How should we remember the recent past? In the construction…

  11. Enhanced human memory consolidation with post-learning stress: interaction with the degree of arousal at encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Larry; Gorski, Lukasz; Le, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that endogenous stress hormones such as epinephrine and corticosterone modulate memory consolidation in animals. We recently provided the first demonstration that an endogenous stress hormone (epinephrine) can enhance human memory consolidation. However, these findings also suggested that post-learning stress hormone activation does not uniformly enhance memory for all recently acquired information; rather, that it interacts with the degree of arousal at initial encoding of material in modulating memory for the material. Here we tested this hypothesis by administering cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure to subjects after they viewed slides of varying emotional content, and assessing memory for the slides 1 wk later. CPS, which significantly elevated salivary cortisol levels, enhanced memory for emotionally arousing slides compared with the controls, but did not affect memory for relatively neutral slides. These findings further support the view that post-learning stress hormone-related activity interacts with arousal at initial encoding to modulate memory consolidation.

  12. PsychMate: providing psychology majors the tools to do real experiments and learn empirical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschman, Amy; St James, James; Schneider, Walter; Zuccolotto, Anthony

    2005-05-01

    PsychMate is a set of software tools for undergraduate psychology students to run, develop, and analyze computerized experiments. It includes 30 psychological experiments in the areas of perception, cognition, social psychology, human factors, and cognitive neuroscience. Students run experiments themselves and see basic results immediately. The automatic spreadsheet analysis forms allow them to aggregate data and create analyses, presentations, and Web pages with a single click. Students can use the Psychology Experiment Authoring Kit experiment editor to create their own experiments in minutes and run experiments with other students using Web-based experiment-management tools. The BrainTutor and BrainViewer applications teach brain anatomy and permit students to analyze fMRI brain imaging data from subjects who have performed the same memory experiments in which they participated. PsychMate has been used in 83 classes in which 1,533 students submitted 5,464 completed experiments with few (less than 1%) requests for help and a very positive rating of the research experience.

  13. Making the most of human memory : Studies on personalized fact-learning and visual working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sense, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Rote learning of facts is boring. Here, we present a way to make it more efficient so facts are learned faster. Learners usually need to repeat facts multiple times to learn them well. The optimal timing of these repetitions depends on the facts that are studied and the characteristics of the

  14. Rational expectations, psychology and inductive learning via moving thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, H.; Seaman, T.

    2008-06-01

    This paper modifies a previously introduced class of heterogeneous agent models in a way that allows for the inclusion of different types of agent motivations and behaviours in a consistent manner. The agents operate within a highly simplified environment where they are only able to be long or short one unit of the asset. The price of the asset is influenced by both an external information stream and the demand of the agents. The current strategy of each agent is defined by a pair of moving thresholds straddling the current price. When the price crosses either of the thresholds for a particular agent, that agent switches position and a new pair of thresholds is generated. The threshold dynamics can mimic different sources of investor motivation, running the gamut from purely rational information-processing, through rational (but often undesirable) behaviour induced by perverse incentives and moral hazards, to purely psychological effects. The simplest model of this kind precisely conforms to the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) and this allows causal relationships to be established between actions at the agent level and violations of EMH price statistics at the global level. In particular, the effects of herding behaviour and perverse incentives are examined.

  15. The Development of Automaticity in Short-Term Memory Search: Item-Response Learning and Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Nosofsky, Robert M.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    In short-term-memory (STM)-search tasks, observers judge whether a test probe was present in a short list of study items. Here we investigated the long-term learning mechanisms that lead to the highly efficient STM-search performance observed under conditions of consistent-mapping (CM) training, in which targets and foils never switch roles across…

  16. Effects of aging and dopamine genotypes on the emergence of explicit memory during sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Nicolas W; Frensch, Peter A; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M; Schröder, Julia; Bertram, Lars; Li, Shu-Chen

    2013-11-01

    The striatum and medial temporal lobe play important roles in implicit and explicit memory, respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have linked striatal dopamine modulation to both implicit as well as explicit sequence learning and suggested a potential role of the striatum in the emergence of explicit memory during sequence learning. With respect to aging, previous findings indicated that implicit memory is less impaired than explicit memory in older adults and that genetic effects on cognition are magnified by aging. To understand the links between these findings, we investigated effects of aging and genotypes relevant for striatal dopamine on the implicit and explicit components of sequence learning. Reaction time (RT) and error data from 80 younger (20-30 years) and 70 older adults (60-71 years) during a serial reaction time task showed that age differences in learning-related reduction of RTs emerged gradually over the course of learning. Verbal recall and measures derived from the process-dissociation procedure revealed that younger adults acquired more explicit memory about the sequence than older adults, potentially causing age differences in RT gains in later stages of learning. Of specific interest, polymorphisms of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein (DARPP-32, rs907094) and dopamine transporter (DAT, VNTR) genes showed interactive effects on overall RTs and verbal recall of the sequence in older but not in younger adults. Together our findings show that variations in genotypes relevant for dopamine functions are associated more with aging-related impairments in the explicit than the implicit component of sequence learning, providing support for theories emphasizing the role of dopaminergic modulation in cognitive aging and the magnification of genetic effects in human aging. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of sodium salicylate injection on spatial learning and memory of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azimi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyclooxygenase (COX enzyme known as a regulatory factor in synaptic plasticity. It has been reported that synaptic plasticity is one of the mechanisms involved in learning and memory processes. In the current study peripheral injection's effects of sodium salicylate (as a non selective COX inhibitor on spatial learning and memory have been investigated.Methods: Four groups of male rats received different doses of sodium salicylate (0, 200, 300, 400 mg/kg; i.p.. Studies were performed using Morris Water Maze (MWM. Spatial learning and memory parameters were subjected to the one- and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs followed by Tukey’s post hoc test.Results: Data showed that intraperitoneal injection of sodium salicylate had not significant effect on spatial learning parameters (including escape latency and traveled distance to hidden platform in training days; but administration of high dose of the drug (400 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of time that animals spent in the target quadrant in probe trial testing. Conclusion: Peripheral injection of the COX inhibitor has no significant effect on spatial learning; but potentiates spatial memory consolidation using MWM.

  18. Hemispheric asymmetry in new neurons in adulthood is associated with vocal learning and auditory memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuk C Tsoi

    Full Text Available Many brain regions exhibit lateral differences in structure and function, and also incorporate new neurons in adulthood, thought to function in learning and in the formation of new memories. However, the contribution of new neurons to hemispheric differences in processing is unknown. The present study combines cellular, behavioral, and physiological methods to address whether 1 new neuron incorporation differs between the brain hemispheres, and 2 the degree to which hemispheric lateralization of new neurons correlates with behavioral and physiological measures of learning and memory. The songbird provides a model system for assessing the contribution of new neurons to hemispheric specialization because songbird brain areas for vocal processing are functionally lateralized and receive a continuous influx of new neurons in adulthood. In adult male zebra finches, we quantified new neurons in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM, a forebrain area involved in discrimination and memory for the complex vocalizations of individual conspecifics. We assessed song learning and recorded neural responses to song in NCM. We found significantly more new neurons labeled in left than in right NCM; moreover, the degree of asymmetry in new neuron numbers was correlated with the quality of song learning and strength of neuronal memory for recently heard songs. In birds with experimentally impaired song quality, the hemispheric difference in new neurons was diminished. These results suggest that new neurons may contribute to an allocation of function between the hemispheres that underlies the learning and processing of complex signals.

  19. Effect of repeated morphine withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol level in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Matinfar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the serious problems that opioid addicted people are facing is repeated withdrawal syndrome that is accompanying with a significant stress load for addicts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol levels in morphine-dependent mice. Materials and Methods: Male NMRI mice received morphine as daily increasing doses for 3 days. After that, the mice underwent one time or repeated spontaneous or pharmacologic (naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Then spatial learning and memory were investigated by morris water maze test, and at the end trunk blood samples were collected for measurement of serum cortisol levels. Results: The results showed that only repeated spontaneous withdrawal significantly increases escape latency ( P < 0.05, and in other models of withdrawal, spatial learning and memory were intact. The results of probe trial were intact in all groups. Radioimmunoassay showed that serum cortisol levels were increased significantly in all models of withdrawal ( P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 except the repeated spontaneous withdrawal. Conclusion: The results showed that short periods of withdrawal syndrome can increase serum cortisol levels; however they do not affect spatial learning and memory. Nevertheless, repeated spontaneous withdrawal can make learning slow.

  20. The PCA learning effect: An emerging correlate of face memory during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoqing; Maurer, Daphne; Wilson, Hugh R

    2015-10-01

    Human adults implicitly learn the prototype and the principal components of the variability distinguishing faces (Gao & Wilson, 2014). Here we measured the implicit learning effect in adults and 9-year-olds, and with a modified child-friendly procedure, in 7-year-olds. All age groups showed the implicit learning effect by falsely recognizing the average (the prototype effect) and the principal component faces as having been seen (the PCA learning effect). The PCA learning effect, but not the prototype effect increased between 9years of age and adulthood and at both ages was the better predictor of memory for the actually studied faces. In contrast, for the 7-year-olds, the better predictor of face memory was the prototype effect. The pattern suggests that there may be a developmental change between ages 7 and 9 in the mechanism underlying memory for faces. We provide the first evidence that children as young as age 7 can extract the most important dimensions of variation represented by principal components among individual faces, a key ability that grows stronger with age and comes to underlie memory for faces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.