WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychology inferred internal

  1. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  2. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  3. Internationality of the Multidisciplinary Psychology Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUALBERTO BUELA-CASAL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available International journals are considered more prestigious and with more quality than national ones, although the meaning of this had not been established until recently. Moreover, internationality has been used as a criterion to make important decisions, for example to assess the performance of scientists,universities, doctoral degree programs, and so on, without knowing the exact meaning of internationality. Thus, the current study uses the criteriaof internationality established by a survey on more than 16,000 scientists from all over the world to create an Internationality Index of multidisciplinary psychology journals published in Ibero-America and included in the Web of Science. Results show that the most international journal is Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, followed by The Spanish Journal of Psychology,Psicothema and Universitas Psychologica. All the journals fulfill the criteria for internationality and the study provides very important results which will allow its increase.

  4. School Psychology Research and Scholarship: USA Status, International Explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strein, William; Cramer, Katurah; Lawser, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Addresses questions regarding research in school psychology by coding all of the articles published from 1994-1998 in the main USA school psychology journals and in "School Psychology International." Assessment-related topics and research on clinical/personality issues dominated the USA literature, while clinical/personality and professional…

  5. Internationalism in Psychology: We Need It Now More Than Ever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A concern with international cooperation in psychology has been present since the beginnings of psychology as a science. In this article, the author traces the development of international cooperation from the late 19th century to the present day to document the interesting ways in which the forms of collaboration have always been related to the…

  6. School Psychology in Egypt: Results of the 2008 International School Psychology Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Alghorani, Mohammad Adnan; Darweish, Abdel-Hameed; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) was used to gather information about the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and the challenges experienced by school psychology specialists in Egypt. To the degree that the data are representative of the school psychology specialists Egypt, it appears that…

  7. Psychological Distress in Iranian International Students at an Australian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahidi, Shizar; Blignault, Ilse; Hayen, Andrew; Razee, Husna

    2017-05-03

    This study investigated psychological distress in Iranian international students at UNSW Australia, and explored the psychosocial factors associated with high levels of distress. A total of 180 Iranian international students pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate degrees during 2012/2013 completed an email questionnaire containing socio-demographic items and five standardized and validated scales. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the predictors of psychological distress. Compared to domestic and international students at two other Australian universities, a significantly smaller proportion of Iranian international students scored as distressed on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Greater levels of psychological distress were associated with being female, poorer physical health, less social support, less religious involvement and spirituality, and negative attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help. Findings from this growing group of international students can help inform culturally competent mental health promotion and service provision in their host countries.

  8. Spontaneous trait inference and construal level theory: Psychological distance increases nonconscious trait thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Soyon; Uleman, James S; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-09-01

    Can psychological distance affect how much perceivers form spontaneous trait inferences (STI) from others' behaviors? On the basis of construal level theory (CLT) which posits that distant (vs. near) entities are represented more in terms of their abstract, global, and decontextualized features, we predicted that perceived distance would increase the tendency for perceivers to draw spontaneous trait inferences from behavioral information about actors. In two experiments, participants learned about people who were perceived as being distant or proximal to the self, and STI formation was subsequently assessed. We found that perceivers were more likely to form STIs about distant vs. near actors from the same behavioral information. These findings generalized across two distance dimensions: space and time. In addition, we found that priming individuals to adopt a high-level (vs. low-level) construal mindset also resulted in increased STI (Experiment 3). In sum, psychological distance facilitates STI formation, and this occurs via high-level construal of actors and their behaviors.

  9. Ceres' internal structure as inferred from its large craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Simone; Raymond, Carol; Fu, Roger; Ermakov, Anton I.; O'Brien, David P.; De Sanctis, Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-10-01

    The Dawn spacecraft has gathered important data about the surface composition, internal structure, and geomorphology of Ceres, revealing a cratered landscape. Digital terrain models and global mosaics have been used to derive a global catalog of impact craters larger than 10 km in diameter. A surface dichotomy appears evident: a large fraction of the northern hemisphere is heavily cratered as the result of several billion of years of collisions, while portions of the equatorial region and southern hemisphere are much less cratered. The latter are associated with the presence of the two largest (~270-280 km) impact craters, Kerwan and Yalode. The global crater count shows a severe depletion for diameters larger than 100-150 km with respect to collisional models and other large asteroids, like Vesta. This is a strong indication that a significant population of large cerean craters has been obliterated over geological time-scales. This observation is supported by the overall topographic power spectrum of Ceres, which shows that long wavelengths in topography are suppressed (that is, flatter surface) compared to short wavelengths.Viscous relaxation of topography may be a natural culprit for the observed paucity of large craters. Relaxation accommodated by the creep of water ice is expected to result in much more rapid and complete decay of topography than inferred. In contrast, we favor a strong crust composed of a mixture of silicates and salt species (depression, known as Vendimia Planitia. The overall topography of Vendimia Planitia is compatible with a partially relaxed mega impact structure. The presence of such a large scale depression bears implications for the rheology of the deeper interior, potentially implying a transition to higher viscosity/higher density materials at a depth of ~200 km. This is compatible with the presence of a central mass concentration, as inferred from gravity measurements.

  10. Culturally Sensitive Mentoring for Asian International Students in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon; Wada, Kaori; Mogami, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    With growing attention to the internationalization of counseling psychology in the past decade, discussion on effective training of international students is much-needed. In order to provide effective mentorship to international students, the mentor needs to be aware of specific challenges faced by international students and cultural differences…

  11. Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper

    .1 with the title ‘Inference'.) This contribution concerns statistical inference for parametric models used in stochastic geometry and based on quick and simple simulation free procedures as well as more comprehensive methods using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. Due to space limitations the focus...

  12. International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics ... Re-Inventing The Current 'Ss' English Language Curriculum: Implications For Students' Performance In Essay Writing.

  13. International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics - Vol 10 (2008) ... Re-Inventing The Current 'Ss' English Language Curriculum: Implications For Students' Performance In ...

  14. Brazilian Social Psychology in the international context: a commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Valentim, Joaquim Pires

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is a commentary on the talks given by Torres and Álvaro and by Krüger regarding Brazilian Social Psychology in the international context. Starting with a brief contrast with the situation in Portugal, this commentary next approaches, in a synthetic way, questions that cut across social psychology in the international setting, namely, those related with the recurrent dichotomy individual/collective, the great advances in social neuroscience, the study of minorities, the scarc...

  15. Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits. International Society of Sport Psychology Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    International Society of Sport Psychology clarifies the psychological benefits of physical activity, noting the positive relationship between physical activity level and mental health. Exercise can reduce anxiety, decrease depression levels, reduce neuroticism and anxiety, reduce stress, and have beneficial emotional effects for both sexes across…

  16. Educational Psychology in Portugal: Results of the 2013 International School Psychology Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vitor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Raimundo, Raquel; Jimerson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    This study provides valuable information regarding the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and challenges reported by 803 Portuguese educational psychologists. The study includes responses to the International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) from educational psychologists across various regions of…

  17. Educational Psychology in Portugal: Results of the 2013 International School Psychology Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vitor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Raimundo, Raquel; Jimerson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    This study provides valuable information regarding the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and challenges reported by 803 Portuguese educational psychologists. The study includes responses to the International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) from educational psychologists across various regions of…

  18. Internationality of the Multidisciplinary Psychology Journals

    OpenAIRE

    GUALBERTO BUELA-CASAL; IZABELA ZYCH

    2010-01-01

    International journals are considered more prestigious and with more quality than national ones, although the meaning of this had not been established until recently. Moreover, internationality has been used as a criterion to make important decisions, for example to assess the performance of scientists,universities, doctoral degree programs, and so on, without knowing the exact meaning of internationality. Thus, the current study uses the criteriaof internationality established by a survey on...

  19. Psychological evaluation of international students in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prado Schmidt Georgia CeciIia; WANG Yi-wei; SU Liang; CAI Yi-yun; SHI Shen-xun

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate and compare medical international and non medical international students from Fudan, Tongji and Jiaotong University in Shanghai; 250 international students were evaluated. Results: The higher percentage of international students lived in China over 3 years, they perceived to have a good academic level, good relationship with teachers and classmates, medium level of the language proficiency;although most of the students did not show to have adaptation problems, or severe anxiety and depression levels, most of them did perceived a change in their physical and mental health after coming to China. They showed similar personality traits been agreeableness, openness and consciousness their main characteristics.

  20. Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 9: This contribution concerns statistical inference for parametric models used in stochastic geometry and based on quick and simple simulation free procedures as well as more comprehensive methods based on a maximum likelihood or Bayesian approach combined with markov chain Monte Carlo...

  1. The Internationality Index of the Spanish Psychology journals

    OpenAIRE

    Gualberto Buela-Casal; Izabela Zych; Juan Carlos Sierra; María Paz Bermúdez

    2007-01-01

    The concept of international publication is one of the most utilized criteria to evaluate the productivity of researchers and scientific institutions. Nevertheless, it is also one of the most polemic subjects as until the presence, no Internationality Index has been defined nor established. This descriptive study analyzes the Spanish Psychology journals included in the IN-RECS database according to the level of the internationality. Each journal was evaluated taking into accoun...

  2. Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This award is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2016 recipient of the APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology was selected by the 2015 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2015 CIRP were Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD (Chair); Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Silvia S. Canetto, PhD; Amanda Clinton, PhD; Melissa L. Morgan Consoli, PhD; Chryse G. Hatzichristou, PhD; Arpana G. Inman, PhD; Lori Foster Thompson, PhD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Abdulrehman, Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Thompson, and Dr. Wedding were members of the subcommittee for the 2016 award. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Factors Influencing the Spiritual Competency of Predoctoral Psychology Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasz, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…

  4. A Bibliometric Analysis of "School Psychology International" 1995-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, R. Lanai; Ehrhardt, Kristal; Poling, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined all articles published in "School Psychology International" from 1995 to 2007 to obtain data relevant to seven research questions: (1) which nations contributed articles to "SPI"? (2) how many "SPI" manuscripts involved multi-author (and multi-national) collaboration? (3) which institutions were the most prolific…

  5. Educational Psychology in New Zealand: Results of the 2006 International School Psychology Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Annan, Jean; Skokut, Mary; Renshaw, Tyler L.

    2009-01-01

    The International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) was used to gather information about New Zealand educational psychologists' characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and the challenges they experienced in their work. The results of this survey were considered in relation to the social and cultural context of…

  6. Hospital nurses' individual priorities, internal psychological states and work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, K; Routasalo, P; Helminen, M; Suominen, T

    2014-09-01

    This study looks to describe the relationships between hospital nurses' individual priorities, internal psychological states and their work motivation. Connections between hospital nurses' work-related needs, values and work motivation are essential for providing safe and high quality health care. However, there is insufficient empirical knowledge concerning these connections for the practice development. A cross-sectional empirical research study was undertaken. A total of 201 registered nurses from all types of Estonian hospitals filled out an electronic self-reported questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's correlation were used for data analysis. In individual priorities, higher order needs strength were negatively correlated with age and duration of service. Regarding nurses' internal psychological states, central hospital nurses had less sense of meaningfulness of work. Nurses' individual priorities (i.e. their higher order needs strength and shared values with the organization) correlated with their work motivation. Their internal psychological states (i.e. their experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for work outcomes and their knowledge of results) correlated with intrinsic work motivation. Nurses who prioritize their higher order needs are more motivated to work. The more their own values are compatible with those of the organization, the more intrinsically motivated they are likely to be. Nurses' individual achievements, autonomy and training are key factors which influence their motivation to work. The small sample size and low response rate of the study limit the direct transferability of the findings to the wider nurse population, so further research is needed. This study highlights the need and importance to support nurses' professional development and self-determination, in order to develop and retain motivated nurses. It also indicates a need to value both nurses and nursing in

  7. Psychological assessment in XLMR: a proposal for setting international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, G S

    2000-01-01

    The need for an agreed upon set of standards for assessing individuals with XLMR was made quite evident this past year at the Fragile X and XLMR Workshop in Strasbourg. Several affected individuals from different families may have been incorrectly diagnosed as MR. Many factors can have a negative affect on IQ testing. As a result, evaluating individuals with cognitive deficits can be problematic. To be effective, psychological assessments must produce uniform results that are consistent with the definition of MR. Therefore, to foster international research in XLMR. I propose a two-stage standardized protocol. To determine which tests may be suitable. I review an assortment of instruments for psychological assessment at each stage, noting their strengths and weaknesses. Afterward, I present a set of standardized protocols based on age and language ability.

  8. International psychological research that matters for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney-Purta, Judith V

    2009-11-01

    After a brief history of the Committee on International Relations of the American Psychological Association, 3 points are made about international psychological research that matters. First, it matters when the definition of the research problem area and the findings can potentially be reflected in policy change, in the practice of educators or psychologists, or in the mindsets of a new generation of researchers. Person-centered analysis of adolescents' social and political attitudes has this potential and can complement variable-centered analysis. A cluster analysis of the IEA Civic Education Study's data in 5 Western European and 5 Eastern European countries illustrates this. The following 5 clusters of adolescents were identified: those supportive of social justice but not participative, those active in conventional politics and the community, those indifferent, those disaffected, and a problematic cluster of alienated adolescents. Second, research that matters is situated in a cultural context. It is proposed that publications using data from any single country be required to include information about the cultural context in which the research was conducted. Finally, it matters that attention be given to the dynamics of the collaborative international research process, not only to research results.

  9. Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2014 recipient is Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper. Cooper is active in global cooperation in psychology for the public and the discipline's benefit so that psychology can truly serve all of humanity. The first psychologist from outside the West to lead the International Union of Psychological Science, he is the driving force behind the Pan-African Psychology Union and continues to ensure that less-developed psychology dispensations play meaningful roles in international psychology." Cooper's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  10. Assessing the reliability of thermography to infer internal body temperatures of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Frederico M; Carretero, Miguel A; Silva, Francisco; Sannolo, Marco

    2016-12-01

    For many years lizard thermal ecology studies have relied on the use of contact thermometry to obtain internal body temperature (Tb) of the animals. However, with progressing technology, an interest grew in using new, less invasive methods, such as InfraRed (IR) pyrometry and thermography, to infer Tb of reptiles. Nonetheless few studies have tested the reliability of these new tools. The present study tested the use of IR cameras as a non-invasive tool to infer Tb of lizards, using three differently body-sized lacertid species (Podarcis virescens, Lacerta schreiberi and Timon lepidus). Given the occurrence of regional heterothermy, we pairwise compared thermography readings of six body parts (snout, eye, head, dorsal, hind limb, tail base) to cloacal temperature (measured by a thermometer-associated thermocouple probe) commonly employed to measure Tb in field and lab studies. The results showed moderate to strong correlations (R(2)=0.84-0.99) between all body parts and cloacal temperature. However, despite the readings on the tail base showed the strongest correlation in all three species, it was the eye where the absolute values and pattern of temperature change most consistently followed the cloacal measurements. Hence, we concluded that the eye would be the body location whose IR camera readings more closely approximate that of the animal's internal environment. Alternatively, other body parts can be used, provided that a careful calibration is carried out. We provide guidelines for future research using thermography to infer Tb of lizards.

  11. Regime switching state-space models applied to psychological processes: handling missing data and making inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamaker, E.L.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Many psychological processes are characterized by recurrent shifts between distinct regimes or states. Examples that are considered in this paper are the switches between different states associated with premenstrual syndrome, hourly fluctuations in affect during a major depressive episode, and

  12. Psychology of human kin recognition : Heuristic cues, erroneous inferences, and their implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Justin H.; Schaller, Mark; Van Vugt, Mark

    Humans possess explicit, rule-based, and culturally determined systems for identifying kin, but kinship inferences are also influenced implicitly by cue-based mechanisms found commonly across the animal kingdom. These mechanisms are fallible. An evolutionarily informed signal-detection analysis

  13. Psychology of human kin recognition : Heuristic cues, erroneous inferences, and their implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Justin H.; Schaller, Mark; Van Vugt, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Humans possess explicit, rule-based, and culturally determined systems for identifying kin, but kinship inferences are also influenced implicitly by cue-based mechanisms found commonly across the animal kingdom. These mechanisms are fallible. An evolutionarily informed signal-detection analysis sugg

  14. Psychology of human kin recognition : Heuristic cues, erroneous inferences, and their implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Justin H.; Schaller, Mark; Van Vugt, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Humans possess explicit, rule-based, and culturally determined systems for identifying kin, but kinship inferences are also influenced implicitly by cue-based mechanisms found commonly across the animal kingdom. These mechanisms are fallible. An evolutionarily informed signal-detection analysis sugg

  15. Regime Switching State-Space Models Applied to Psychological Processes: Handling Missing Data and Making Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, E. L.; Grasman, R. P. P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Many psychological processes are characterized by recurrent shifts between distinct regimes or states. Examples that are considered in this paper are the switches between different states associated with premenstrual syndrome, hourly fluctuations in affect during a major depressive episode, and shifts between a "hot hand" and a…

  16. Regime Switching State-Space Models Applied to Psychological Processes: Handling Missing Data and Making Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, E. L.; Grasman, R. P. P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Many psychological processes are characterized by recurrent shifts between distinct regimes or states. Examples that are considered in this paper are the switches between different states associated with premenstrual syndrome, hourly fluctuations in affect during a major depressive episode, and shifts between a "hot hand" and a…

  17. Regime switching state-space models applied to psychological processes: handling missing data and making inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamaker, E.L.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Many psychological processes are characterized by recurrent shifts between distinct regimes or states. Examples that are considered in this paper are the switches between different states associated with premenstrual syndrome, hourly fluctuations in affect during a major depressive episode, and shif

  18. Apartheid and post-apartheid intern clinical psychology training in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Anthony L

    2009-12-01

    An analysis of race and sex of clinical psychology interns was undertaken at a major training hospital complex during the Apartheid and Post-apartheid periods. 7 of 87 (8.1%) interns trained in the apartheid period were Black African. Significantly more Black Africans and women were trained during the Post-apartheid period. The results were discussed within the context of South Africa's social and political transition, as well as international trends relating to sex and professional psychology.

  19. Spanish scientific journals on Psychology (II): editorial quality, visibility, internationality and editors attitude towards Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    ELEA GIMÉNEZ-TOLEDO; GLORIA RODRÍGUEZ-GARCÍA; MERCEDES DE LA MONEDA CORROCHANO

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present the situation of Spanish Psychology journals with regard to certain qual-ity parameters obtained from two Spanish journal evaluation systems (RESH and DICE), Latindex and others.First of all, the publishing profile is analyzed in relation to the publication frequency compliance and other international standards for scientific publications. In addition, the level of international dis-semination of Spanish Psychology journals in international databases is also examine...

  20. Essentialist beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Ross, Michael W; Costa, Daniel S J; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation and their implications for sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in a sample of gay men. A combination of targeted sampling and snowball strategies were used to recruit 639 gay identifying men for a cross-sectional online survey. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sexual orientation beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and psychological wellbeing outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether essentialist beliefs were associated with psychological wellbeing indirectly via their effect on sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity. A unique pattern of direct and indirect effects was observed in which facets of essentialism predicted sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing. Of note, viewing sexual orientation as immutable/biologically based and as existing in discrete categories, were associated with less sexual identity uncertainty. On the other hand, these beliefs had divergent relationships with internalized homonegativity, with immutability/biological beliefs associated with lower, and discreteness beliefs associated with greater internalized homonegativity. Of interest, although sexual identity uncertainty was associated with poorer psychological wellbeing via its contribution to internalized homophobia, there was no direct relationship between identity uncertainty and psychological wellbeing. Findings indicate that essentializing sexual orientation has mixed implications for sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity and wellbeing in gay men. Those undertaking educational and clinical interventions with gay men should be aware of the benefits and of caveats of essentialist theories of homosexuality for this population.

  1. Editorial: Ingenious designs and causal inference in child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    The embryology of behavior--This title of a book by the great developmental psychologist Arnold Gesell (Gesell, 1945) continues nicely to encapsulate for me a core endeavour in child psychology and psychiatry; in the use of scientific method to tease out causes and processes within developmental science and psychopathology. This edition of JCPP includes some tremendous examples of the increasing rigour and sophistication with which such questions are being addressed. Particularly encouraging for me, as primarily an interventionist, is the use of well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for that end.

  2. Daniel Landis: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Daniel Landis for his unparalleled contribution to the field of intercultural research in a distinguished academic career spanning almost…

  3. Voices in International School Psychology: Interviews in Honor of Calvin D. Catterall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Frances M.

    Following a brief memorial message and a dedicatory tribute to Calvin D. Catterall, a leader in the field of school psychology, this volume provides a description of the origins of the International School Psychology Association and interviews with five school psychologists: Bram Norwich, University of London, England; Tony Cline, London, England;…

  4. Psychological Adaptation, Marital Satisfaction, and Academic Self-Efficacy of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgan, Gökçe; Çiftçi, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated marital satisfaction and academic self-efficacy in relation to psychological adaptation (i.e., psychological well-being, life satisfaction) in a sample of 198 married international students. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that marital satisfaction and academic self-efficacy accounted for 45.9% of…

  5. Daniel Landis: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Daniel Landis for his unparalleled contribution to the field of intercultural research in a distinguished academic career spanning almost…

  6. Training American Businessmen To Meet the Psychological Challenges of International Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Richard E.

    The literature on psychological factors affecting the process of negotiation offers implications for conducting effective international negotiations. Recent advances in cognitive psychology provide useful insights into the "belief systems" of the negotiators, who need special skill in evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of other…

  7. Psychological Symptoms and Concerns Experienced by International Students: Outreach Implications for Counseling Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazli, Senel

    2015-01-01

    This study examines psychological symptoms and concerns experienced by international students. Participants identified with a variety of psychological symptoms and concerns. The top three were related to academics (71%), career (60%), and stress (43%). In addition, 34% of the participants indicated being concerned about depression and/or anxiety.…

  8. Voices in International School Psychology: Interviews in Honor of Calvin D. Catterall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Frances M.

    Following a brief memorial message and a dedicatory tribute to Calvin D. Catterall, a leader in the field of school psychology, this volume provides a description of the origins of the International School Psychology Association and interviews with five school psychologists: Bram Norwich, University of London, England; Tony Cline, London, England;…

  9. Diverse Effects, Complex Causes: Children Use Information About Machines' Functional Diversity to Infer Internal Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Richard E; Keil, Frank C

    2016-09-26

    Four studies explored the abilities of 80 adults and 180 children (4-9 years), from predominantly middle-class families in the Northeastern United States, to use information about machines' observable functional capacities to infer their internal, "hidden" mechanistic complexity. Children as young as 4 and 5 years old used machines' numbers of functions as indications of complexity and matched machines performing more functions with more complex "insides" (Study 1). However, only older children (6 and older) and adults used machines' functional diversity alone as an indication of complexity (Studies 2-4). The ability to use functional diversity as a complexity cue therefore emerges during the early school years, well before the use of diversity in most categorical induction tasks.

  10. Comparative internal anatomy of Staurozoa (Cnidaria), with functional and evolutionary inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Allen G.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Mills, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative efforts to understand the body plan evolution of stalked jellyfishes are scarce. Most characters, and particularly internal anatomy, have neither been explored for the class Staurozoa, nor broadly applied in its taxonomy and classification. Recently, a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis was derived for Staurozoa, allowing for the first broad histological comparative study of staurozoan taxa. This study uses comparative histology to describe the body plans of nine staurozoan species, inferring functional and evolutionary aspects of internal morphology based on the current phylogeny of Staurozoa. We document rarely-studied structures, such as ostia between radial pockets, intertentacular lobules, gametoducts, pad-like adhesive structures, and white spots of nematocysts (the last four newly proposed putative synapomorphies for Staurozoa). Two different regions of nematogenesis are documented. This work falsifies the view that the peduncle region of stauromedusae only retains polypoid characters; metamorphosis from stauropolyp to stauromedusa occurs both at the apical region (calyx) and basal region (peduncle). Intertentacular lobules, observed previously in only a small number of species, are shown to be widespread. Similarly, gametoducts were documented in all analyzed genera, both in males and females, thereby elucidating gamete release. Finally, ostia connecting adjacent gastric radial pockets appear to be universal for Staurozoa. Detailed histological studies of medusozoan polyps and medusae are necessary to further understand the relationships between staurozoan features and those of other medusozoan cnidarians.

  11. Testing the physiological plausibility of conflicting psychological models of response inhibition: A forward inference fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criaud, Marion; Longcamp, Marieke; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Sescousse, Guillaume; Strafella, Antonio P; Ballanger, Bénédicte; Boulinguez, Philippe

    2017-08-30

    The neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition and related disorders are unclear and controversial for several reasons. First, it is a major challenge to assess the psychological bases of behaviour, and ultimately brain-behaviour relationships, of a function which is precisely intended to suppress overt measurable behaviours. Second, response inhibition is difficult to disentangle from other parallel processes involved in more general aspects of cognitive control. Consequently, different psychological and anatomo-functional models coexist, which often appear in conflict with each other even though they are not necessarily mutually exclusive. The standard model of response inhibition in go/no-go tasks assumes that inhibitory processes are reactively and selectively triggered by the stimulus that participants must refrain from reacting to. Recent alternative models suggest that action restraint could instead rely on reactive but non-selective mechanisms (all automatic responses are automatically inhibited in uncertain contexts) or on proactive and non-selective mechanisms (a gating function by which reaction to any stimulus is prevented in anticipation of stimulation when the situation is unpredictable). Here, we assessed the physiological plausibility of these different models by testing their respective predictions regarding event-related BOLD modulations (forward inference using fMRI). We set up a single fMRI design which allowed for us to record simultaneously the different possible forms of inhibition while limiting confounds between response inhibition and parallel cognitive processes. We found BOLD dynamics consistent with non-selective models. These results provide new theoretical and methodological lines of inquiry for the study of basic functions involved in behavioural control and related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Internal architecture of the Tuxtla volcanic field, Veracruz, Mexico, inferred from gravity and magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, Juan Manuel; Lopez-Loera, Hector; Mena, Manuel; Zamora-Camacho, Araceli

    2016-09-01

    The Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF) is a basaltic volcanic field emerging from the plains of the western margin of the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican State of Veracruz. Separated by hundreds of kilometers from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt to the NW and the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc to the SE, it stands detached not only in location but also in the composition of its rocks, which are predominantly alkaline. These characteristics make its origin somewhat puzzling. Furthermore, one of the large volcanoes of the field, San Martin Tuxtla, underwent an eruptive period in historical times (CE 1793). Such volcanic activity conveys particular importance to the study of the TVF from the perspective of volcanology and hazard assessment. Despite the above circumstances, few investigations about its internal structure have been reported. In this work, we present analyses of gravity and aeromagnetic data obtained from different sources. We present the complete Bouguer anomaly of the area and its separation into regional and residual components. The aeromagnetic data were processed to yield the reduction to the pole, the analytic signal, and the upward continuation to complete the interpretation of the gravity analyses. Three-dimensional density models of the regional and residual anomalies were obtained by inversion of the gravity signal adding the response of rectangular prisms at the nodes of a regular grid. We obtained a body with a somewhat flattened top at 16 km below sea level from the inversion of the regional. Three separate slender bodies with tops 6 km deep were obtained from the inversion of the residual. The gravity and magnetic anomalies, as well as the inferred source bodies that produce those geophysical anomalies, lie between the Sontecomapan and Catemaco faults, which are proposed as flower structures associated with an inferred deep-seated fault termed the Veracruz Fault. These fault systems along with magma intrusion at the lower crust are necessary features to

  13. The International School Psychology Survey: Data from Georgia, Switzerland and the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Graydon, Kelly; Skokut, Mary; Alghorani, Mohammad Adnan; Kanjaradze, Anna; Forster, Jurg

    2008-01-01

    Using the International School Psychology Survey (ISPS), this study aims to advance our knowledge of the characteristics, training, roles and responsibilities, challenges and research interests of school psychologists around the world by comparing recent international data. The current study contributes valuable information regarding the…

  14. Predictors of international students’ psychological and sociocultural adjustment to the context of reception while studying at Aarhus University, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally...

  15. International Students' Psychological and Sociocultural Adaptation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Seda

    2009-01-01

    International students constitute an important cohort in the United States (U.S.) colleges and universities. In order for the U.S. colleges and universities to better accommodate the significant number of international students and to recruit them in the future, it is critical to identify factors that influence these students' acculturation and…

  16. The international school psychology survey: Data from Australia, China, Germany, Italy and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, M; Lam, SF; Jimerson, SR; Graydon, K; Thurm, JM; Klueva, N; Coyne, JH; Loprete, LJ; Phillips, J.

    2006-01-01

    Using the International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) this study aims to advance our knowledge of the characteristics, training, roles and responsibilities, challenges and research interests of school psychologists around the world. Data are presented from five countries; Australia, China (Hong Kong), Germany, Italy and Russia. The ISPS contributes valuable information regarding the profession of school psychology in each of these countries. Building upon the ISPS data previously gathered i...

  17. Attachments and the Moral Psychology of Internal Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean for an individual to be conflicted about something or to undergo an internal conflict? What is it exactly that comes into conflict? In what sense, if at all, is the self involved in these conflicts? The bulk of this paper aims to answer these questions. As we go along doing this...... the characterization of this phenomenon, to a short discussion of its ethics. Why or how do internal conflicts matter? Should they always be solved?...

  18. Proceedings of the International Conference for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (6th, Antwerp, Belgium, July 18-23, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermandel, Alfred, Ed.

    The International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (IGPME) was founded in 1976 at the Third International Congress for Mathematics Education, to promote international contacts and the exchange of scientific information in the psychology of mathematical education. The goal was to further a deeper and more correct understanding of…

  19. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 (SD= 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ(2) (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.

  20. Promises from Afar: A Model of International Student Psychological Contract in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Sarbari; Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their significant presence in western business schools, the needs and experiences of international students have not been adequately reflected in the business education literature. We draw upon psychological contract theory--used to understand employer-employee relationships--to develop a novel theoretical model on the international…

  1. Seznamte se: International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Hošpesová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Článek seznamuje čtenáře s International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME. Jsou charakterizovány cíle PME, historie jejího vzniku a její současné aktivity.

  2. Internet Use and Psychological Wellbeing: A Study of International Students in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Oindrila; Chye, Stefanie Yen Leng

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between psychological wellbeing (as indicated by participants' level of loneliness, perceived academic stress and depression) and generalized problematic internet use. Data was collected from a sample of 103 international students studying in Singapore. Statistical analyses revealed that depression was the most…

  3. East Asian International Students and Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanlin; Xiao, Feiya

    2014-01-01

    The present article reports a systematic review of the studies related to psychological well-being among East Asian international students. A total of 18 quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2011 were reviewed. Our review revealed three major results: (1) a majority of researchers (n = 13, 72.2%) tend to choose…

  4. Spanish scientific journals on Psychology (II: editorial quality, visibility, internationality and editors attitude towards Open Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEA GIMÉNEZ-TOLEDO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the situation of Spanish Psychology journals with regard to certain qual-ity parameters obtained from two Spanish journal evaluation systems (RESH and DICE, Latindex and others.First of all, the publishing profile is analyzed in relation to the publication frequency compliance and other international standards for scientific publications. In addition, the level of international dis-semination of Spanish Psychology journals in international databases is also examined, as a reflection of its quality and the interest that such a journal provokes in the scientific community. The best ten Spanish journals are identified according to the parameters considered in DICE: compliance with the publication frequency established, variety of institutions that contribute articles to the journal (contribu-tion openness, variety of institutions represented at the editorial board (editorial board openness, if it has a peer review system, the number of Latindex criteria that the journal fulfils and its level of pres-ence in international databases. Finally, editors’ attitude towards online journals and Open Access as well as the internationality of editorial boards and authorship are analysed.Some results: a most journals follow international publishing conventions and watch for the time-liness of publication; b a third of the journals are well represented in international databases; c taking into account six quality criteria, there are 25-30 high level or competitive journals; d a cautious atti-tude towards OA is observed in Spanish Psychology journals; e according to the “internationality” of Psychology as a scientific domain, journals must make an effort to include foreign members in their advisory or scientific boards in order to attract papers from other countries. Around 20 journals have good levels of foreign authors and advisors.

  5. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  6. Forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among Chinese international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger identification with heritage culture, a moderator), and under what situations (i.e., lower vs. higher acculturative stress, a moderator). A total of 188 Chinese international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated a significant 3-way interaction of forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, and acculturative stress on psychological distress. For those with a weaker identification with their heritage culture, when acculturative stress was higher, the use of forbearance coping was positively associated with psychological distress. However, this was not the case when acculturative stress was lower. In other words, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress when acculturative stress was lower. Moreover, for those with a stronger cultural heritage identification, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress regardless of whether acculturative stress was high or low. Future research and implications are discussed.

  7. Inductive inference or inductive behavior: Fisher and Neyman-Pearson approaches to statistical testing in psychological research (1940-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Peter F; Stam, Henderikus J

    2006-01-01

    The application of statistical testing in psychological research over the period of 1940-1960 is examined in order to address psychologists' reconciliation of the extant controversy between the Fisher and Neyman-Pearson approaches. Textbooks of psychological statistics and the psychological journal literature are reviewed to examine the presence of what Gigerenzer (1993) called a hybrid model of statistical testing. Such a model is present in the textbooks, although the mathematically incomplete character of this model precludes the appearance of a similarly hybridized approach to statistical testing in the research literature. The implications of this hybrid model for psychological research and the statistical testing controversy are discussed.

  8. Bayesian Inference for Source Term Estimation: Application to the International Monitoring System Radionuclide Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    probability theory, Ecological Modeling, 205, 437–452. [10] Keats, A., Yee, E., and Lien, F.-S. (2010), Information-driven receptor placement for... Aerodynamics , 96, 1805–1816. [12] Yee, E. (2008), Theory for reconstruction of an unknown number of contaminant sources using probabilistic inference

  9. What can an intern of psychology do at school? Discussing the practice and professional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiana Dapieve Patias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available School psychology is dedicated to integrate actions that can facilitate the process of learning and development of scholar community. The psychologist has the function of reviewing his or her own professional concepts and practices constantly so that he or she can deal with the complexity of this reality, broadening the concept of school complaints in order to identify other factors associated with these complaints. This paper presents a report on the interventions done during an internship of school psychology at an Elementary School in the countryside of RS. It was noticed an initial necessity of awareness about the psychologist role and about a greateracceptance of a job that could not be just clinical. The practice of the psychologist and of the psychology intern in this context were discussed and related to education and health in a broad sense.

  10. The social psychology of seismic hazard adjustment: re-evaluating the international literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, C.; Rossetto, T.; Joffe, H.

    2010-08-01

    The majority of people at risk from earthquakes do little or nothing to reduce their vulnerability. Over the past 40 years social scientists have tried to predict and explain levels of seismic hazard adjustment using models from behavioural sciences such as psychology. The present paper is the first to synthesise the major findings from the international literature on psychological correlates and causes of seismic adjustment at the level of the individual and the household. It starts by reviewing research on seismic risk perception. Next, it looks at norms and normative beliefs, focusing particularly on issues of earthquake protection responsibility and trust between risk stakeholders. It then considers research on attitudes towards seismic adjustment attributes, specifically beliefs about efficacy, control and fate. It concludes that an updated model of seismic adjustment must give the issues of norms, trust, power and identity a more prominent role. These have been only sparsely represented in the social psychological literature to date.

  11. Factors impacting on psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Robinson, Eddie; Penman, Joy; Hills, Danny

    2017-06-17

    There are increasing numbers of international students undertaking health professional courses, particularly in Western countries. These courses not only expose students to the usual stresses and strains of academic learning, but also require students to undertake clinical placements and practice-based learning. While much is known about general issues facing international students, less is known about factors that impact on those studying in the health professions. To explore what is known about factors that influence the psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions. A scoping review. A range of databases were searched, including CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Proquest and ERIC, as well as grey literature, reference lists and Google Scholar. The review included qualitative or quantitative primary peer reviewed research studies that focused on international undergraduate or postgraduate students in the health professions. The core concept underpinning the review was psychological issues, with the outcome being psychological and/or social wellbeing. Thematic analysis across studies was used to identify key themes emerging. A total of 13 studies were included in the review, from the disciplines of nursing, medicine and speech-language pathology. Four key factor groups emerged from the review: negotiating structures and systems, communication and learning, quality of life and self-care, and facing discrimination and social isolation. International health professional students face similar issues to other international students. The nature of their courses, however, also requires negotiating different health care systems, and managing a range of clinical practice issues including with communication, and isolation and discrimination from clinical staff and patients. Further research is needed to specifically explore factors impacting on student well-being and how international students can be appropriately prepared and supported for their

  12. International Perspectives on Academic and Professional Preparation of School and Educational Psychologists: Introduction to a Special Issue of the "International Journal of School & Educational Psychology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the "International Journal of School & Educational Psychology" is devoted to promoting an understanding of some current features of school psychology programs and to suggest ways to further strengthen preparation. Information summarized in these 12 articles is intended to assist us in determining the relevance…

  13. International Perspectives on Academic and Professional Preparation of School and Educational Psychologists: Introduction to a Special Issue of the "International Journal of School & Educational Psychology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the "International Journal of School & Educational Psychology" is devoted to promoting an understanding of some current features of school psychology programs and to suggest ways to further strengthen preparation. Information summarized in these 12 articles is intended to assist us in determining the relevance…

  14. Internalized Stigma and Psychological Well-Being in Gay Men and Lesbians in Italy and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Lorenzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that internalized homophobia is a risk factor for mental health illness in homosexual individuals, whereas the perception of social support is a protective factor for their psychological well-being. In line with those studies, the present research has investigated the levels of internalized homophobia, anxiety, depression and social support, among two groups of gay men and lesbian individuals living in two European countries (N = 194: 86 Italian and 108 Belgian, where legislations grant different civil rights to lesbian and gay individuals (LG. The main goal of this research has been to verify the possible differences between the two groups. Results showed some significant differences in terms of observed levels of internalized homophobia, which was higher in the Belgian gay men’s group compared to the Italian one. Furthermore, path analysis emphasized the role of social support as a potential factor of mediation between internalized homophobia and mental health.

  15. Perceived Discrimination, Internalized Stigma and Psychological Well-Being of People with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-10-13

    The present study examines the relationships between perceived discrimination, internalized stigma, and well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public network of social care. Perceived discrimination was positively and significantly correlated with internalized stigma (p discrimination). Blatant individual discrimination, subtle individual discrimination, and internalized stigma were negatively correlated with life satisfaction, affect balance, and psychological well-being (p discrimination and affect balance, for which is p discrimination is the kind of discrimination most negatively associated to the well-being measures (life satisfaction: B = -.18, p discrimination, and point at the importance of implementing programs to reduce internalized stigma.

  16. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well

  17. Psychological capital: Internal and external validity of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ-24 on a South African sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Görgens-Ekermans

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Psychological capital (PsyCap is a relatively novel construct measured with the Psychological Capital Questionnaire 24 (PCQ-24. Only one published South African study on the instrument exists, providing inconsistent psychometric results, when compared with other United States of America (USA and non-USA studies.Research purpose: The objectives of this study were to investigate the internal validity (construct and discriminant validity, reliability and external validity (relationship with theoretically relevant variables, namely stress, burnout and work engagement of the PCQ-24.Motivation for the study: Multiple studies have underscored the value of PsyCap within the workplace. In order to harness the full potential of the construct in the South African environment, sound measurement thereof, evidenced by a psychometrically sound instrument, is needed.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of employees at managerial and non-managerial levels, from a medium-sized construction company in the Western Cape, South Africa. In addition to PsyCap, perceived stress, work-related burnout and work engagement were measured.Main findings: The results provided preliminary evidence of construct and discriminant validity, reliability and significant relations with external theoretically relevant variables.Practical/managerial implications: Researchers may confidently use the PCQ-24 to measure the construct of PsyCap and investigate relations with workplace outcomes in the South African environment, informing human relations practices.Contribution/value-add: Preliminary evidence of the psychometric properties of the PCQ-24, which measures the construct of PsyCap (consisting of hope, self-efficacy, resilience and optimism on a South African sample, was provided in this study.

  18. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (InPACT) Proceedings (Ljubljana, Slovenia, May 2-4, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracana, Clara, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted to welcome you to the International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (InPACT) 2015, taking place in Ljubljana, Slovenia, from 2 to 4 of May. Psychology, nowadays, offers a large range of scientific fields where it can be applied. The goal of understanding individuals and groups (mental functions and behavioral…

  19. Does Parental Psychological Control Relate to Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood? An Examination Using the Berkeley Puppet Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Soenens, Bart; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Parental psychological control has been linked to symptoms of psychopathology in adolescence, yet less is known about its correlates in childhood. The current study is among the first to address whether psychological control is related to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood. A community sample of 298 children aged 7.04…

  20. Predictors of international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to the context of reception while studying at Aarhus University, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Simon

    2015-12-01

    The number of international students engaging in intercultural education and thereby adjusting to cross-cultural transition has risen conspicuously as a consequence of globalization and increased mobility. This process of acculturation has been associated with increased creativity as well as adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally, the level of English proficiency alone predicted sociocultural adjustment. Values of vertical individualism and horizontal collectivism predicted psychological adjustment. Finally, integration was found to be a significantly more adaptive acculturation orientation than separation in regard to sociocultural adjustment. These findings were discussed in relation to relevant international research and it was concluded that international students comprise a resourceful student sample and that the international academic environment at Aarhus University appears to be an adequately cultural and value-oriented good fit as a context of reception for the multicultural engagement of international students. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Psychological and sociocultural adjustment of first-year international students: Trajectories and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Reiko; Frazier, Patricia; Syed, Moin

    2015-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the temporal course of international students' adjustment has not been adequately tested, and only 1 study to date has examined multiple trajectories of adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of adjustment among first-year international students using a broader range of adjustment measures (i.e., psychological distress, positive psychological adjustment, sociocultural adjustment). The second goal was to identify important predictors of trajectories. A wide range of individual and interpersonal predictor variables was examined, including academic stress and perceived control over academic stress, personality, social relationships, and language-related factors. Undergraduate and graduate international students in their first semester at a large midwestern university participated in this 5-wave longitudinal study (N = 248) that spanned 1 academic year. Multiple trajectories emerged, and the trajectories varied across the 3 adjustment measures. Average trajectories masked the trajectories of small groups of students who maintained or increased in terms of adjustment difficulties across outcomes. Contrary to popular theories, the U-shape adjustment trajectory (characterized by initial euphoria, distress, and then recovery) did not emerge. The most consistent predictors of adjustment trajectories were perceived present control over academic stress and Neuroticism. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings.

  3. Active inference, communication and hermeneutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J; Frith, Christopher D

    2015-07-01

    Hermeneutics refers to interpretation and translation of text (typically ancient scriptures) but also applies to verbal and non-verbal communication. In a psychological setting it nicely frames the problem of inferring the intended content of a communication. In this paper, we offer a solution to the problem of neural hermeneutics based upon active inference. In active inference, action fulfils predictions about how we will behave (e.g., predicting we will speak). Crucially, these predictions can be used to predict both self and others--during speaking and listening respectively. Active inference mandates the suppression of prediction errors by updating an internal model that generates predictions--both at fast timescales (through perceptual inference) and slower timescales (through perceptual learning). If two agents adopt the same model, then--in principle--they can predict each other and minimise their mutual prediction errors. Heuristically, this ensures they are singing from the same hymn sheet. This paper builds upon recent work on active inference and communication to illustrate perceptual learning using simulated birdsongs. Our focus here is the neural hermeneutics implicit in learning, where communication facilitates long-term changes in generative models that are trying to predict each other. In other words, communication induces perceptual learning and enables others to (literally) change our minds and vice versa. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Globally national - locally international: Bibliometric analysis of a SEE psychology journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores bibliometric features of the Serbian psychology journal Psihologija in the 2001-2012 period. Several basic indicators of the journal’s impact were generated and compared between two periods, before and after 2007 when Psihologija was included in Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI. Journal’s output was evaluated in regard to other psychology journals included in SSCI in the same year. The results have shown that Psihologija’s impact factor has raised following the increased internationalization of the journal, quantified as the proportion of articles published in English and/or written by foreign authors. However, Psihologija and other South East European (SEE journals still lack a solid international communication network, which is reflected in the absence of related journals and large proportion of citations from local authors. The article concludes with several suggestions for authors, journal editors, and science policy institutions.

  5. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  6. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  7. Concealing Concealment: The Mediating Role of Internalized Heterosexism in Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P

    2016-01-01

    Recent population-based studies indicate that sexual minorities aged 50 and older experience significantly higher rates of psychological distress than their heterosexual age-peers. The minority stress model has been useful in explaining disparately high rates of psychological distress among younger sexual minorities. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesized structural relationship between two minority stressors--internalized heterosexism and concealment of sexual orientation--and consequent psychological distress among a sample of 2,349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 to 95 years old. Structural equation modeling indicates that concealment has a nonsignificant direct effect on psychological distress but a significant indirect effect that is mediated through internalized heterosexism; the effect of concealment is itself concealed. This may explain divergent results regarding the role of concealment in psychological distress in other studies, and the implications will be discussed.

  8. Bridging the Gap: Causality-at-a-Distance in Children's Categorization and Inferences about Internal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M.; Buchanan, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that preschoolers extend labels and internal properties of objects based on those objects' causal properties, even when the causal properties conflict with the objects' perceptual appearance [Nazzi, T., & Gopnik, A. (2000). "A shift in children's use of perceptual and causal cues to categorization." "Developmental…

  9. Scientometric analyses of the international visibility of German psychology researchers and their range of specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens B. Fell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the role of networking, accelerated by current developments within large parts of the scientific community, the assumption is examined that the range of specialization of scientists in terms of membership in professional sections of scientific societies is related to the international impact of their publications. The sample consists of 2,788 German psychologists enrolled in the German Psychological Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychologie, DGPs. A log-linear model suggests that the citation pattern of DGPs members with no citations of their papers published in 2000 or 2005 respectively in the time intervals 2000-2004 or 2005-2009 generally differs from that of their colleagues across four ranges of specialization categories. Configural Frequency Analysis led to the identification of distinct subgroups of scientific specialization and international visibility, i.e., citations by others. Specifically, for those individuals who enjoy international visibility, one key to success seems to be multiple professional specializations with reference to different subdisciplines of psychology.

  10. Psychological and psychiatric aspects of a coerced-internalized false confession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H; Lebegue, B

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides an insight into the mechanism of a coerced-internalized type of false confession. The case involved an American airman who confessed to the murder of a close friend after "failing" four polygraph tests. Psychological and psychiatric reports were prepared at the request of the defence and the findings were presented at a military hearing. The airman's confession was ruled involuntary, leading to a dismissal of the charges. The authors discuss the case with reference to the relevant literature on false confession and pseudomemories.

  11. INFORMATION-PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW SUBJECTS AS A THREAT TO RUSSIAN NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sobolnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of informationpsychological impact of a subject of international law on the population of Russia. As the basis of the study put the US and NATO in order to optimize the system of psychological protection. Based on the analysis of the Anglo-Saxon version information press highlighted the conceptual background exposure. Important is the implementation of the doctrine of "soft power" and effectiveness of the mechanisms of psychological influence. The analysis of individual research projects at a granular level allows you to unlock the potential of destructive psychological impact on the population of Russia and to identify trends. Special attention is paid to the susceptibility of Russians influence over the Internet that, according to the author, leads to a probabilistic transformation of thinking and directional behavior. The process of constructing the virtual environment impact from its components: the tab-level response, providing spatial temporal resolution in contact, etc. Programming an effective communication network is based on the fact that the thinking of modern man more quickly and adaptive, and thought processes are single-line and limited. At the same time lays the possibility of the sense of presence in a virtual environment, the initiation of metacognitive processes responsible for adaptation to cognitive context information. The directions of further research is focused.

  12. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: CROSS-BORDER RELOCATIONS AND ABDUCTION OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Rodríguez Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has produced a new world order of profound socio-economic transformations that have caused dramatic changes, unprecedented in history, and together with the women's revolution they have introduced new challenges for the model of family and society. Divorce between spouses of different nationalities has significantly increased the number of international relocations of children - with or without abduction-, affecting both the judicial decision-making regarding the care and custody, as well as the forensic psychological evaluations. The objective of this article is to reflect upon the task of the expert forensic psychologist in cases of international transfers or child abduction that will help to deepen our understanding of these cases, for which it is necessary to understand the current legislative framework, among other issues.

  13. 2016 Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology: Héctor Fernández-Álvarez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2016 award winner is Héctor Fernández-Álvarez, who "has woven a sophisticated network of international cooperation in psychotherapy research, training, and service provision throughout Latin America, Europe, and the United States." He was selected for his outstanding, innovative contributions to psychotherapy integration, clinical supervision, and the personal style of the therapist. Dr. Fernández-Álvarez's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Titan’s internal structure inferred from its gravity field, shape, and rotation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baland, Rose-Marie; Tobie, Gabriel; Lefèvre, Axel; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2014-07-01

    Several quantities measured by the Cassini-Huygens mission provide insight into the interior of Titan: the second-degree gravity field coefficients, the shape, the tidal Love number, the electric field, and the orientation of its rotation axis. The measured obliquity and tides, as well as the electric field, are evidence for the presence of an internal global ocean beneath the icy shell of Titan. Here we use these different observations together to constrain the density profile assuming a four-layer interior model (ice I shell, liquid water ocean, high pressure ice mantle, and rock core). Even though the observed second degree gravity field is consistent with the hydrostatic relation J2=10C22/3, which is a necessary but not sufficient condition for a synchronous satellite to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, the observed shape of the surface as well as the non-zero degree-three gravity signal indicate some departure from hydrostaticity. Therefore, we do not restrain our range of assumed density profiles to those corresponding to the hydrostatic value of the moment of inertia (0.34). From a range of density profiles consistent with the radius and mass of the satellite, we compute the obliquity of the Cassini state and the tidal Love number k2. The obliquity is computed from a Cassini state model for a satellite with an internal liquid layer, each layer having an ellipsoidal shape consistent with the measured surface shape and gravity field. The observed (nearly hydrostatic) gravity field is obtained by an additional deflection of the ocean-ice I shell interface, assuming that the layers have uniform densities. We show that the measured obliquity can be reproduced only for internal models with a dense ocean (between 1275 and 1350 kg m-3) above a differentiated interior with a full separation of rock and ice. We obtain normalized moments of inertia between 0.31 and 0.33, significantly lower than the expected hydrostatic value (0.34). Evolutionary mechanisms leading to a

  15. The Figure and Dynamical Parameters of Io Inferred from Internal Structure Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The recent Galileo spacecraft explored Jupiter and its satellite system and provided us with new geodetic data. In order to discuss the dynamical param-eters and secular tidal effect of Io, the theory of synchronous satellite is described in detail. Using the new geodetic data of Io, two sets of Io's internal structure models are constructed based on the asthenosphere assumption. The liberation parameters α, β, γ and dynamical flattening H are calculated for the models of Io.A comparison of Io with the Moon indicates that they are quite different in many characteristics in spite of the fact that they are approximately equal in mass and size and that they both orbit synchronously.

  16. Internal deformation of the subducted Nazca slab inferred from seismic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Caroline M.; Long, Maureen D.; Scire, Alissa; Beck, Susan L.; Wagner, Lara S.; Zandt, George; Tavera, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    Within oceanic lithosphere a fossilized fabric is often preserved originating from the time of plate formation. Such fabric is thought to form at the mid-ocean ridge when olivine crystals align with the direction of plate spreading. It is unclear, however, whether this fossil fabric is preserved within slabs during subduction or overprinted by subduction-induced deformation. The alignment of olivine crystals, such as within fossil fabrics, can generate anisotropy that is sensed by passing seismic waves. Seismic anisotropy is therefore a useful tool for investigating the dynamics of subduction zones, but it has so far proved difficult to observe the anisotropic properties of the subducted slab itself. Here we analyse seismic anisotropy in the subducted Nazca slab beneath Peru and find that the fast direction of seismic wave propagation aligns with the contours of the slab. We use numerical modelling to simulate the olivine fabric created at the mid-ocean ridge, but find it is inconsistent with our observations of seismic anisotropy in the subducted Nazca slab. Instead we find that an orientation of the olivine crystal fast axes aligned parallel to the strike of the slab provides the best fit, consistent with along-strike extension induced by flattening of the slab during subduction (A. Kumar et al., manuscript in preparation). We conclude that the fossil fabric has been overprinted during subduction and that the Nazca slab must therefore be sufficiently weak to undergo internal deformation.

  17. Psychological distress and academic self-perception among international medical students: the role of peer social support

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. Methods An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to d...

  18. The CES-D as a Measure of Psychological Distress Among International Students: Measurement and Structural Invariance Across Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hanna; van Nuenen, Marieke; Rice, Kenneth G

    2017-10-01

    Detecting psychological distress among international students can be challenging given diverse languages, cultural backgrounds, and lack of refined measurement properties of measures tailored to international students. Despite the challenges, ensuring that a psychological distress measure works effectively has considerable potential value for assessment purposes. The current study evaluates the measurement properties of a short 10-item version of Radloff's Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Grounded in long-standing evidence on gender differences in depressive symptoms, specific attention was given to examining measurement invariance of the CES-D Short-form across women and men. Based on a large, two-cohort sample of international students ( N = 468), and through multiple analyses evaluating factor structure and measurement invariance, we derived an even briefer, seven-item single-factor form of the CES-D (CES-D Short-form International) that can be used with international students.

  19. The Relationship between Individual Personality Traits (Internality-Externality) and Psychological Distress in Employees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the internality-externality (I-E) scale as an indicator of coping styles and the Kessler 6 (K6) scale as an indicator of psychological distress and analyzes the effects of sociodemographic and employment-related factors on this relationship. Employees from Akita prefecture in Japan were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires. A uniform pattern of findings emerged in the relationship between the two scales as follows: all the significant correlations were negative, that is, as the I-E score increased, the K6 score decreased. Furthermore, significant effects were observed for the I-E scale regarding sex, age, education, employee type, and employment status and the K6 scale with multiple regression analyses. Among these, the effect of the K6 scale was significant for the I-E scale in both males and females. The results of this study may help improve mental health clinicians' understanding of psychological distress in employees.

  20. The Relationship between Individual Personality Traits (Internality-Externality and Psychological Distress in Employees in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Fushimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between the internality-externality (I-E scale as an indicator of coping styles and the Kessler 6 (K6 scale as an indicator of psychological distress and analyzes the effects of sociodemographic and employment-related factors on this relationship. Employees from Akita prefecture in Japan were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires. A uniform pattern of findings emerged in the relationship between the two scales as follows: all the significant correlations were negative, that is, as the I-E score increased, the K6 score decreased. Furthermore, significant effects were observed for the I-E scale regarding sex, age, education, employee type, and employment status and the K6 scale with multiple regression analyses. Among these, the effect of the K6 scale was significant for the I-E scale in both males and females. The results of this study may help improve mental health clinicians' understanding of psychological distress in employees.

  1. International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology. European Regional Conference: Cognitive Development and Learning from Kindergarten to University. Program and Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hessels, Marco G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts and program of the 2012 European Regional Conference "Cognitive development and learning from kindergarten to university" of the International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology.

  2. International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology. European Regional Conference: Cognitive Development and Learning from Kindergarten to University. Program and Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hessels, Marco G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts and program of the 2012 European Regional Conference "Cognitive development and learning from kindergarten to university" of the International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology.

  3. Psychological distress and academic self-perception among international medical students: the role of peer social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana

    2014-11-28

    Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.

  4. Inferring internal properties of Earth's core dynamics and their evolution from surface observations and a numerical geodynamo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aubert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, direct three-dimensional numerical modelling has been successfully used to reproduce the main features of the geodynamo. Here we report on efforts to solve the associated inverse problem, aiming at inferring the underlying properties of the system from the sole knowledge of surface observations and the first principle dynamical equations describing the convective dynamo. To this end we rely on twin experiments. A reference model time sequence is first produced and used to generate synthetic data, restricted here to the large-scale component of the magnetic field and its rate of change at the outer boundary. Starting from a different initial condition, a second sequence is next run and attempts are made to recover the internal magnetic, velocity and buoyancy anomaly fields from the sparse surficial data. In order to reduce the vast underdetermination of this problem, we use stochastic inversion, a linear estimation method determining the most likely internal state compatible with the observations and some prior knowledge, and we also implement a sequential evolution algorithm in order to invert time-dependent surface observations. The prior is the multivariate statistics of the numerical model, which are directly computed from a large number of snapshots stored during a preliminary direct run. The statistics display strong correlation between different harmonic degrees of the surface observations and internal fields, provided they share the same harmonic order, a natural consequence of the linear coupling of the governing dynamical equations and of the leading influence of the Coriolis force. Synthetic experiments performed with a weakly nonlinear model yield an excellent quantitative retrieval of the internal structure. In contrast, the use of a strongly nonlinear (and more realistic model results in less accurate static estimations, which in turn fail to constrain the unobserved small scales in the time integration of the

  5. Paleobiology of the Latest Tithonian (Late Jurassic Ammonite Salinites grossicostatum Inferred from Internal and External Shell Parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Zell

    Full Text Available Based on material from the uppermost Tithonian La Caja Formation at Puerto Piñones, northeastern Mexico, the complete ontogenetic development (protoconch to adult of the ammonite Salinites grossicostatum is outlined by a detailed morphometrical shell analysis. The embryonic stage, consisting of a small ellipsoid protoconch and ammonitella, ends at about 0.6 mm. Four major morphological changes are differentiated throughout ontogeny based on internal features such as reduced septal spacing and siphuncle position. Sexual dimorphism is reflected by shell size, siphuncular diameter, differences in the morphology of the apophysis, and by two distinct general trends in septal spacing. In addition, macroconchs are characterized by septal crowding at different stages, followed by the return to normal septum distances. Our analysis indicates a change in the mode of life after the neanic stage. A change in habitat preference is inferred for adult individuals. While microconchs persisted at Puerto Piñones, large mature macroconchs temporarily migrated to other areas, possibly for egg deposition. Salinites grossicostatum is endemic to the ancient Gulf of Mexico and is there restricted to outer continental shelf environments.

  6. The role played by Gerhard Adler in the development of analytical psychology internationally and in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Ann

    2014-02-01

    The Jungian analyst Gerhard Adler left Berlin and re-settled in London in 1936. He was closely involved with the professionalization of analytical psychology internationally and in the UK, including the formation of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP) and The Society of Analytical Psychology (SAP).The tensions that arose within the latter organization led to a split that ended in the formation of the Association of Jungian Analysts (AJA). A further split at AJA resulted in the creation of another organization, the Independent Group of Analytical Psychologists (IGAP). Adler's extensive publications include his role as an editor of Jung's Collected Works and as editor of the C.G. Jung Letters.

  7. International Congress of Psychology (24) on the 1988 Travel Awards Program Conducted by the American Psychological Association on Behalf of the US National Committee for the International Union of Psychological Science Held in Sydney, Australia on 28 August-2 September 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-18

    APS Vice-President R.W. Russell. IUPsyS Liaison G.V. Stanley, APS President-Elect R. Taft C. Williams PREVIOUS MEMBERS: J. A. Boughton; D G. Cross...Satellite Activities D. Vickers. Publications C. Williams , Workshops APS Division of Professional Affairs Representatives: R. Bradbury-Little D.P. Brunt...Delegation XXIV International Congress of Psychology Sydney, Australia John A. Bargh Department of Psychology New York University Psychology Building 6

  8. Psychological Outcomes among Lesbian Sexual Assault Survivors: An Examination of the Roles of Internalized Homophobia and Experiential Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sari D.; Dickstein, Benjamin D.; Marx, Brian P.; Lexington, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relations among internalized homophobia (IH), experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity in a community sample of 72 lesbian sexual assault survivors. Results indicated that IH is associated with both experiential avoidance and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. In addition, experiential…

  9. Sexual Attraction toward Clients, Use of Supervision, and Prior Training: A Qualitative Study of Predoctoral Psychology Interns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladany, Nicholas; O'Brien, Karen M.; Hill, Clara E.; Melincoff, Deborah S.; Knox, Sarah; Petersen, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Interviewed 13 predoctoral psychology interns about experiences of sexual attraction toward a client. Results indicate that sexual attraction consisted of physical and interpersonal aspects. Therapists believed that they were more invested and attentive than usual to clients to whom they were attracted, but the attraction also introduced distance,…

  10. Psychological Outcomes among Lesbian Sexual Assault Survivors: An Examination of the Roles of Internalized Homophobia and Experiential Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sari D.; Dickstein, Benjamin D.; Marx, Brian P.; Lexington, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relations among internalized homophobia (IH), experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity in a community sample of 72 lesbian sexual assault survivors. Results indicated that IH is associated with both experiential avoidance and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. In addition, experiential…

  11. Science in a communist country: The case of the XXIInd International Congress of Psychology in Leipzig (1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönpflug, Wolfgang; Lüer, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    The XXIInd International Congress of Psychology (ICP) in Leipzig in 1980 is a case that illustrates the mutual relationship between science and politics, specifically of the role of science in a communist state. We focus first on the situation of the discipline of psychology within the (East) German Democratic Republic (GDR). Second, we provide a detailed description of the interactions between the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPS) and the communist regime of the GDR. The Psychological Association of the GDR was commissioned by the IUPS to organize the congress. The Communist Party, being an omnipresent authority in the state, both supported and tried to manipulate the Leipzig conference for its political goals. Based on archival materials and on recent reports, we reconstruct three positions: From their ideological position, the GDR expected the conference to improve their standing in international politics and to serve as a platform for promoting communist doctrines; from a pragmatic position, the IUPS sought to guarantee free access to the conference and political neutrality of the scientific program; from a humanistic position, no support should be given to a totalitarian system accused of human rights violations. We compare the formal organization as implemented by the Communist Party for ideological purposes with the informal organizational structure, which operated toward pragmatic solutions. Finally, we discuss the compromises between the IUPS and the communist authorities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Internalized mental illness stigma and subjective well-being: The mediating role of psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least pstigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warfa Nasir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  14. Evaluation of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) as a molecular marker for phylogenetic inference using sequence and secondary structure information in blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, M A T; Junqueira, A C M; Azeredo-Espin, A M L

    2011-09-01

    The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is a small non-coding region located inside the nuclear ribosomal DNA cluster. ITS2 sequence variability is thought to be appropriate to differentiate species and for phylogenetic reconstructions analyses, which can be further improved if structural information is considered. We evaluated the potential of ITS2 as a molecular marker for phylogenetic inference in Calliphoridae (Diptera: Brachycera) using a broad range of inference methods and different substitution models, accounting or not for structural information. Sequence analyses revealed a hierarchically organized pattern of sequence variation and a small level of nucleotide substitution saturation. Intragenomic variation due to small sequence repeats was found mainly in the most variable domain (IV), but it has no significant impact on the phylogenetic signal at the species level. Inferred secondary structures revealed that GC pairs are more frequently found flanking bulges and loops regions in more conserved domains, thus ensuring structure stability. In the phylogenetic analyses, the use of substitution models accounting for structural information significantly improves phylogenetic inference in both neighbour-joining and Bayesian analyses, although the former provides limited resolution for dealing with highly divergent sequences. For Bayesian analyses, a significant improvement in likelihood was observed when considering structure information, although with small changes in topology and overall support, probably reflecting better evolutionary rates estimates. Based on these findings, ITS2 is a suitable molecular marker for phylogenetic analyses in Calliphoridae, at both species and generic level. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  15. Forbearance Coping, Identification with Heritage Culture, Acculturative Stress, and Psychological Distress among Chinese International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger…

  16. Psychological characteristics of Swedish mandatory enlisted soldiers volunteering and not volunteering for international missions: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydstedt, Leif W; Osterberg, Johan

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess personality traits, psychological fitness, and hardiness among conscript soldiers volunteering for international missions (n = 146), by comparing them with conscripts from the same year class and unit who did not apply for international missions (n = 275). The sample consisted of all mandatory enlisted soldiers assigned to a supply and maintenance regiment. There were no demographic differences between the groups. The volunteers reported greater stress tolerance, concern for others, extraversion, and self-confidence than the non-volunteers. There were no differences between the groups in orderliness, temper instability, or independence. Volunteers repeatedly reported greater psychological fitness for military missions and greater hardiness over the period of military service compared to the non-volunteers.

  17. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression.

  18. Factors Impacting the Psychological Adjustment of Saudi Arabian International Students in the United States: Self-Esteem, Social Support, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundles, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    International populations face difficulties adjusting to a new culture. This is especially true for international students, who have to adjust to a new country and face academic demands concurrently. Research has explored various factors that impact psychological adjustment of international students and show the influence of self-esteem and social…

  19. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (15th, Assisi, Italy, June 29-July 4, 1991), Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furinghetti, Fulvia, Ed.

    Research reports from the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education include: "La construcion algorithmique: niveaux ou stades?" (Mesquita); "For Establishing the Generality of Conjectures" (Miyazaki); "Teachers' Attitudes Towards Mathematics and Mathematics Teaching:…

  20. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The first volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education includes plenary addresses, plenary panel discussions, research forum, project groups, discussion groups, short oral communications, and poster presentations. (ASK)

  1. Psychological treatments for mental disorders in adults: A review of the evidence of leading international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Gálvez-Lara, Mario; Corpas, Jorge

    2017-06-01

    Most mental health services throughout the world currently regard evidence-based psychological treatments as best practice for the treatment of mental disorders. The aim of this study was to analyze evidence-based treatments drawn from RCTs, reviews, meta-analyses, guides, and lists provided by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA), Cochrane and the Australian Psychological Society (APS) in relation to mental disorders in adults. A total of 135 treatments were analyzed for 23 mental disorders and compared to determine the level of agreement among the organizations. The results indicate that, in most cases, there is little agreement among organizations and that there are several discrepancies within certain disorders. These results require reflection on the meaning attributed to evidence-based practice with regard to psychological treatments. The possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Based on these findings, proposals to unify the criteria that reconcile the realities of clinical practice with a scientific perspective were analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ¿Es Despistado o Está Despistado?: Infiriendo la Estabilidad de los Rasgos Psicológicos Is He Spaced Out (Just Now or Is He (Always Spaced Out?: Inferring the Stability of Psychological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alonqueo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Un rasgo psicológico descrito con el verbo ser se considera más estable que uno descrito con estar (Heyman & Diesendruck, 2002. Para establecer si esta distinción lingüística afecta a las inferencias sobre características personales se realizaron 2 estudios complementarios con 62 escolares en diferente nivel de desarrollo (7 y 12 años y 108 estudiantes universitarios monolingües de español peninsular, de nivel socioeconómico medio, residentes en Madrid, España. En ambos los participantes se distribuyeron en dos condiciones experimentales (ser y estar y respondieron a una tarea de inferencias en que se describían características psicológicas y conductas asociadas a estas. Se realizaron análisis multivariados y de medidas repetidas considerando la edad y la condición experimental. Solo los adultos y los niños mayores infirieron que los rasgos descritos con ser eran más estables que los descritos con estar, pero los menores en ambas condiciones experimentales infirieron que los rasgos eran estables. El efecto de ser y estar en las inferencias es relevante, pero debe interpretarse considerando las diferencias evolutivas.A psychological trait described with the verb ser is considered more stable than one expressed by using estar (Heyman & Diesendruck, 2002. In order to establish whether ser/estar verbal forms affect inferences about psychological traits, 2 studies were carried out on school children in different developmental levels (N = 62, 7 and 12 years and university students (N = 108, monolingual speakers of Peninsular Spanish, from medium socioeconomic status, resident in Madrid, Spain. In both studies participants were randomly assigned to one of 2 experimental conditions (ser and estar and responded to an inference task which consisted of the description of psychological characteristics and behaviors associated with them. Factorial and repeated measures analysis of variance were performed. Only the adults and older children

  3. Process of interiorization, authentication, internalization, as component psychological-educational mechanism of study of eastern martial arts among student youngsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobenko Å.V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the theoretical questions of essence of component parts of psychological-educational mechanism of study of eastern martial arts among student youngsters. Short description of process of interiorization, authentication, internalization of personality is conducted. The questions of analysis acturelizied scientifically pedagogical and scientifically psychological literatures, which make it possible to consider and ground processes being integral part during study of the East culture. Important factor which determines stable interest of student youngsters people to the martial arts of the East is an attractiveness for them of modern man of cultural and historical traditions, in which the valued orientations are organically set up on the amalgation of physical and spiritual development of a man.

  4. Examining effects of anticipated stigma, centrality, salience, internalization, and outness on psychological distress for people with concealable stigmatized identities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Quinn

    Full Text Available Understanding how stigmatized identities contribute to increased rates of depression and anxiety is critical to stigma reduction and mental health treatment. There has been little research testing multiple aspects of stigmatized identities simultaneously. In the current study, we collected data from a diverse, urban, adult community sample of people with a concealed stigmatized identity (CSI. We targeted 5 specific CSIs--mental illness, substance abuse, experience of domestic violence, experience of sexual assault, and experience of childhood abuse--that have been shown to put people at risk for increased psychological distress. We collected measures of the anticipation of being devalued by others if the identity became known (anticipated stigma, the level of defining oneself by the stigmatized identity (centrality, the frequency of thinking about the identity (salience, the extent of agreement with negative stereotypes about the identity (internalized stigma, and extent to which other people currently know about the identity (outness. Results showed that greater anticipated stigma, greater identity salience, and lower levels of outness each uniquely and significantly predicted variance in increased psychological distress (a composite of depression and anxiety. In examining communalities and differences across the five identities, we found that mean levels of the stigma variables differed across the identities, with people with substance abuse and mental illness reporting greater anticipated and internalized stigma. However, the prediction pattern of the variables for psychological distress was similar across the substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and childhood abuse identities (but not sexual assault. Understanding which components of stigmatized identities predict distress can lead to more effective treatment for people experiencing psychological distress.

  5. Examining Effects of Anticipated Stigma, Centrality, Salience, Internalization, and Outness on Psychological Distress for People with Concealable Stigmatized Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M.; Williams, Michelle K.; Quintana, Francisco; Gaskins, Jennifer L.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Pishori, Alefiyah; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Perez, Giselle; Chaudoir, Stephenie R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how stigmatized identities contribute to increased rates of depression and anxiety is critical to stigma reduction and mental health treatment. There has been little research testing multiple aspects of stigmatized identities simultaneously. In the current study, we collected data from a diverse, urban, adult community sample of people with a concealed stigmatized identity (CSI). We targeted 5 specific CSIs – mental illness, substance abuse, experience of domestic violence, experience of sexual assault, and experience of childhood abuse – that have been shown to put people at risk for increased psychological distress. We collected measures of the anticipation of being devalued by others if the identity became known (anticipated stigma), the level of defining oneself by the stigmatized identity (centrality), the frequency of thinking about the identity (salience), the extent of agreement with negative stereotypes about the identity (internalized stigma), and extent to which other people currently know about the identity (outness). Results showed that greater anticipated stigma, greater identity salience, and lower levels of outness each uniquely and significantly predicted variance in increased psychological distress (a composite of depression and anxiety). In examining communalities and differences across the five identities, we found that mean levels of the stigma variables differed across the identities, with people with substance abuse and mental illness reporting greater anticipated and internalized stigma. However, the prediction pattern of the variables for psychological distress was similar across the substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and childhood abuse identities (but not sexual assault). Understanding which components of stigmatized identities predict distress can lead to more effective treatment for people experiencing psychological distress. PMID:24817189

  6. Understanding and reducing work-related psychological distress in interns: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, A D; Tallentire, V; Selzer, R M; Rotstein, L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to collate and evaluate studies investigating either the factors influencing work-related psychological distress in postgraduate year one (PGY1) doctors or the strategies designed to reduce it. This is a systematic review conducted in May 2014. The data sources were key databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase) and manual searches of reference lists for relevant studies published in the last 15 years. This study is an empirical research designed either to elucidate the factors influencing work-related psychological distress in PGY1 doctors, or examine the effects of an intervention designed to reduce it. Key information was extracted into an electronic data extraction form, which incorporated elements of Murphy's model of work stress factors. A total of 21 studies was included in the review; 16 studies had examined the factors influencing work-related psychological distress, four studies had investigated strategies to reduce it, and a single study addressed both. Analysis of the findings of each individual study through the conceptual framework provided by Murphy's model revealed a discrepancy between the factors influencing work-related psychological distress and the focus of strategies designed to reduce it. Factors such as career progression and a PGY1 doctor's role within the organisation were not addressed in the interventions identified. Significant sources of psychological distress in PGY1 doctors remain overlooked by current interventions. Strategies designed to prevent or reduce psychological distress should be broad-based and grounded in both the literature exploring salient factors and existing theories of work-related stress.

  7. Psychological Support for Young Adults with Down Syndrome: Dohsa-Hou Program for Maladaptive Behaviors and Internalizing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Fujino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and psychiatric dysfunction is a major problem in a substantial proportion of young adults with Down syndrome. Some patients develop psychiatric issues, such as depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or psychotic-like disorders, in their late adolescence or young adulthood. Furthermore, these individuals may experience moderate to severe emotional and psychological distress. Development of a psychosocial treatment to address these issues is needed in addition to psychotropic medication. The current study reports two cases of young adults with Down syndrome, who presented psychiatric symptoms and marked disruption in their daily lives. These individuals participated in a Dohsa-hou treatment program. Following treatment, adaptive levels, maladaptive behaviors, and internalizing problems were evaluated by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Participants showed improvement in maladaptive behaviors and internalizing problems; however, improvement in these areas may be influenced by baseline severity of the problems. This case report suggests that Dohsa-hou could be an effective therapeutic approach for maladaptive and internalizing problems in adults with Down syndrome.

  8. Psychological Support for Young Adults with Down Syndrome: Dohsa-Hou Program for Maladaptive Behaviors and Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Haruo

    2017-01-01

    Psychological and psychiatric dysfunction is a major problem in a substantial proportion of young adults with Down syndrome. Some patients develop psychiatric issues, such as depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or psychotic-like disorders, in their late adolescence or young adulthood. Furthermore, these individuals may experience moderate to severe emotional and psychological distress. Development of a psychosocial treatment to address these issues is needed in addition to psychotropic medication. The current study reports two cases of young adults with Down syndrome, who presented psychiatric symptoms and marked disruption in their daily lives. These individuals participated in a Dohsa-hou treatment program. Following treatment, adaptive levels, maladaptive behaviors, and internalizing problems were evaluated by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Participants showed improvement in maladaptive behaviors and internalizing problems; however, improvement in these areas may be influenced by baseline severity of the problems. This case report suggests that Dohsa-hou could be an effective therapeutic approach for maladaptive and internalizing problems in adults with Down syndrome.

  9. Self-report disability in an international primary care study of psychological illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VonKorff, M; Ustun, TB; Ormel, J; Kaplan, [No Value; Simon, GE

    We assessed the replicability of reliability and validity of a brief self-report disability scale, adapted from the Medical Outcomes Survey (short form), in a 15-center, cross-national, multilingual study of psychological illness among primary care patients (n = 5438). Across all 15 centers in the

  10. The Global Is Local: Adding Culture, Ideology, and Context to International Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecek, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    "The Political is Personal" (Else-Quest & Grabe, 2012) opens the door to transnational feminist research. Else-Quest and Grabe (2012) invite "Psychology of Women Quarterly" (PWQ) readers to make use of country-level indices to examine connections between sociopolitical gender disparities and women's distress and deprivation. The author shares…

  11. The Role of International Accreditation in Promoting Academic and Professional Preparation in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Peter; McFarland, Max; Gonzalez, Ruth; Hass, Michael; Stiles, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of rigorous and universally respected quality assurance procedures that monitor and recognize the delivery of effective and ethically responsible public services has become increasingly evident in many countries. However, within professional psychology, these developments generally are located in individual countries. With a few…

  12. International Students in the U.S.: Social and Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michelle; Ray, Sukanya; Bybell, Danica

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of self-esteem, hope, optimism, coping, acculturative stress, and social support on international students' depressive symptoms and sociocultural adjustment. Seventy international students completed a self-report online survey. The most notable finding was that the international students used adaptive and…

  13. Ecological Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary; Rosen, Ori; Tanner, Martin A.

    2004-09-01

    This collection of essays brings together a diverse group of scholars to survey the latest strategies for solving ecological inference problems in various fields. The last half-decade has witnessed an explosion of research in ecological inference--the process of trying to infer individual behavior from aggregate data. Although uncertainties and information lost in aggregation make ecological inference one of the most problematic types of research to rely on, these inferences are required in many academic fields, as well as by legislatures and the Courts in redistricting, by business in marketing research, and by governments in policy analysis.

  14. Brazilian Social Psychology in the international setting A Psicologia Social brasileira no cenário internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Rosas Torres

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to discuss the Social Psychology that has been developing in Brazil, placing it in the international theoretical-methodological setting. To achieve this goal, we initially present a brief historical account of the founding of the Brazilian Association of Social Psychology and the Latin American Association of Social Psychology, providing insight into the political struggle that surrounded the emergence of these two organizations and that, to a certain degree, is still present today. We then present the results of research conducted with 150 Brazilian social psychologists concerning the definition of social psychology, the academic training perspective, and the theories used in the conduct of research. The results point to the existence of several contradictions, since, among other matters, they highlight the fact that while most participants advocate research practices tied to a more sociological perspective, the definitions given indicate a more psychological view of social psychology.O objetivo deste trabalho foi discutir a psicologia social que vem sendo desenvolvida no Brasil inserindo-a no cenário teórico-metodológico internacional. Para alcançar este objetivo, inicialmente apresentamos um breve relato histórico da fundação da Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Social e da Associação Latino Americana de Psicologia Social, fornecendo subsídios para o entendimento do embate político que envolveu o surgimento dessas duas organizações e que, de certa forma, ainda está presente na atualidade. Em seguida, apresentamos os resultados da pesquisa realizada com 150 psicólogos sociais brasileiros sobre a definição de psicologia social, sobre a perspectiva de formação e sobre as teorias utilizadas na atividade de pesquisa. Os resultados indicam a existência de algumas contradições, pois, dentre outros aspectos, destaca-se o fato que, embora a maioria dos participantes advogue uma prática de

  15. Associations between attachment-related symptoms and later psychological problems among international adoptees: results from the FinAdo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Raaska, Hanna; Sinkkonen, Jari; Mäkipää, Sanna; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2015-02-01

    We examined the associations between attachment-related symptoms (symptoms of reactive attachment disorder (RAD), symptoms of disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED), and clinging) and later psychological problems among international adoptees. The study population comprised internationally adopted children (591 boys and 768 girls, 6-15 years) from the ongoing Finnish Adoption (FinAdo) study. Data were gathered with self-administered questionnaires both from adoptive parents and from adoptees aged over 9 years. Attachment-related symptoms were measured using of a short (8-item) questionnaire and later behavioral/emotional problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Five to Fifteen (FTF) scale for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. RAD and DSED symptom subscales were associated with an increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems and ADHD. Especially the mixed type of attachment-related symptoms was strongly associated with later emotional and behavioral problems.

  16. The Role of Self-Compassion and Emotional Approach Coping in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Psychological Distress among East Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Heweon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of self-compassion and emotional approach coping in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress among East Asian international students. Data were collected through an online survey completed by 255 East Asian international students in a large public…

  17. The Role of Self-Compassion and Emotional Approach Coping in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Psychological Distress among East Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Heweon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of self-compassion and emotional approach coping in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress among East Asian international students. Data were collected through an online survey completed by 255 East Asian international students in a large public…

  18. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  19. DREISS: Using State-Space Models to Infer the Dynamics of Gene Expression Driven by External and Internal Regulatory Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daifeng; He, Fei; Maslov, Sergei; Gerstein, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Gene expression is controlled by the combinatorial effects of regulatory factors from different biological subsystems such as general transcription factors (TFs), cellular growth factors and microRNAs. A subsystem's gene expression may be controlled by its internal regulatory factors, exclusively, or by external subsystems, or by both. It is thus useful to distinguish the degree to which a subsystem is regulated internally or externally-e.g., how non-conserved, species-specific TFs affect the expression of conserved, cross-species genes during evolution. We developed a computational method (DREISS, dreiss.gerteinlab.org) for analyzing the Dynamics of gene expression driven by Regulatory networks, both External and Internal based on State Space models. Given a subsystem, the "state" and "control" in the model refer to its own (internal) and another subsystem's (external) gene expression levels. The state at a given time is determined by the state and control at a previous time. Because typical time-series data do not have enough samples to fully estimate the model's parameters, DREISS uses dimensionality reduction, and identifies canonical temporal expression trajectories (e.g., degradation, growth and oscillation) representing the regulatory effects emanating from various subsystems. To demonstrate capabilities of DREISS, we study the regulatory effects of evolutionarily conserved vs. divergent TFs across distant species. In particular, we applied DREISS to the time-series gene expression datasets of C. elegans and D. melanogaster during their embryonic development. We analyzed the expression dynamics of the conserved, orthologous genes (orthologs), seeing the degree to which these can be accounted for by orthologous (internal) versus species-specific (external) TFs. We found that between two species, the orthologs have matched, internally driven expression patterns but very different externally driven ones. This is particularly true for genes with evolutionarily

  20. DREISS: Using State-Space Models to Infer the Dynamics of Gene Expression Driven by External and Internal Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled by the combinatorial effects of regulatory factors from different biological subsystems such as general transcription factors (TFs), cellular growth factors and microRNAs. A subsystem’s gene expression may be controlled by its internal regulatory factors, exclusively, or by external subsystems, or by both. It is thus useful to distinguish the degree to which a subsystem is regulated internally or externally–e.g., how non-conserved, species-specific TFs affect the expression of conserved, cross-species genes during evolution. We developed a computational method (DREISS, dreiss.gerteinlab.org) for analyzing the Dynamics of gene expression driven by Regulatory networks, both External and Internal based on State Space models. Given a subsystem, the “state” and “control” in the model refer to its own (internal) and another subsystem’s (external) gene expression levels. The state at a given time is determined by the state and control at a previous time. Because typical time-series data do not have enough samples to fully estimate the model’s parameters, DREISS uses dimensionality reduction, and identifies canonical temporal expression trajectories (e.g., degradation, growth and oscillation) representing the regulatory effects emanating from various subsystems. To demonstrate capabilities of DREISS, we study the regulatory effects of evolutionarily conserved vs. divergent TFs across distant species. In particular, we applied DREISS to the time-series gene expression datasets of C. elegans and D. melanogaster during their embryonic development. We analyzed the expression dynamics of the conserved, orthologous genes (orthologs), seeing the degree to which these can be accounted for by orthologous (internal) versus species-specific (external) TFs. We found that between two species, the orthologs have matched, internally driven expression patterns but very different externally driven ones. This is particularly true for genes with

  1. Social Psychology in Brazil and in the international scene Psicologia Social no Brasil e no cenário internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmuth Krüger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social Psychology in Brazil has been showing a progressive scientific growth since the 1970's. Such development justifies the current interest in performing an evaluation of scientific contributions of Brazilian Social Psychologists within the international context. In this respect, a literature review allowed the identification of 10 evaluative models in Social Psychology. Such models are applied to the psychological and sociological currents in Social Psychology, which are the most prominent internationaly. Even though such evaluative models are well designed, they present limitations with regard to their spectrum of application within Social Psychology. Thus a 5 - dimensional conceptual model has been developed: Philosophical assumptions; Research subject; Research methods and techniques; Conceptual matrix; Applications. Main results of the literature review were obtained from this 5 - dimensional model.A Psicologia Social no Brasil vem apresentando uma crescente maturidade científica desde a década de 1970. Esse desenvolvimento justifica o atual interesse em proceder a uma avaliação das contribuições científicas de psicólogos sociais brasileiros numa perspectiva internacional. Nesse sentido, foi conduzido um estudo bibliográfico, que possibilitou a identificação de 10 modelos de avaliação da Psicologia Social. Esses modelos são aplicados às vertentes psicológica e sociológica da Psicologia Social, que são as que mais se destacam no plano internacional. Embora esses modelos avaliativos estejam tecnicamente bem fundamentados, apresentam limitações quanto à abrangência do objeto a avaliar, que é a Psicologia Social. Assim, propõe-se um modelo baseado em cinco dimensões: pressupostos filosóficos; objeto de investigação; métodos e técnicas de pesquisa; matriz conceitual; e, aplicações. Os principais resultados deste estudo bibliográfico foram obtidos mediante a aplicação do modelo dessas cinco dimensões básicas.

  2. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological outcomes among adult international adoptees in Finland: Moderating effects of social support and sense of coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Maarit; Elovainio, Marko; Raaska, Hanna; Sinkkonen, Jari; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative literature on international adoptees and racial/ethnic discrimination is lacking despite results in qualitative studies from Europe and the United States that have consistently indicated how racism constantly complicates adoptees' everyday lives. To advance the literature, the present study examined the prevalence of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among 213 adult international adoptees in Finland (59.6% women and 40.4% men, mean age 24.1 years), and the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological well-being indicators, including psychological distress and sleeping problems. In addition, we examined social support and sense of coherence as moderators of the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological well-being. Our results showed that, on average, adult international adoptees perceived racial/ethnic discrimination occasionally. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated a significant association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological distress and sleeping problems. Additionally, a significant 2-way interaction of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and social support indicated that the availability of social support may moderate the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological distress such that adoptees with high levels of social support may be protected from the harmful effects of discrimination. These results highlight the potential significance of social support in reducing the harmful effects of racial/ethnic discrimination on international adoptees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Phylogeny of Ptychostomum (Bryaceae, Musci) inferred from sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplast rps4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Ying WANG; Jian-Cheng ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    The phylogeny of Ptychostomum was first undertaken based on analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal (nr) DNA and by combining data from nrDNA ITS and chloroplast DNA rps4 sequences. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses all support the conclu-sion that the reinstated genus Ptychostomum is not monophyletic. Ptychostomum funkii (Schwagr.) J. R. Spence (= Bryum funkii Schwagr.) is placed within a clade containing the type species of Bryum, B. argenteum Hedw. The remaining members of Ptychostomum investigated in the present study constitute another well-supported clade. The results are congruent with previous molecular analyses. On the basis of phylogenetic evidence, we agree with Bryum lonchocaulon Mull. Hal., Bryum pallescens Schleich. ex Schwagr., and Bryum pallens Sw. to Ptychostomum.

  4. The internal-brooding apparatus in the bryozoan genus Cauloramphus (Cheilostomata: Calloporidae) and its inferred homology to ovicells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Dick, Matthew H; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2007-12-01

    We studied by SEM the external morphology of the ooecium in eight bryozoans of the genus Cauloramphus (Cheilostomata, Calloporidae): C. spinifer, C. variegatus, C. magnus, C. multiavicularia, C. tortilis, C. cryptoarmatus, C. niger, and C. multispinosus, and by sectioning and light microscopy the anatomy of the brooding apparatus of C. spinifer, C. cryptoarmatus, and C. niger. These species all have a brood sac, formed by invagination of the non-calcified distal body wall of the maternal zooid, located in the distal half of the maternal (egg-producing) autozooid, and a vestigial, maternally budded kenozooidal ooecium. The brood sac comprises a main chamber and a long passage (neck) opening externally independently of the introvert. The non-calcified portion of the maternal distal wall between the neck and tip of the zooidal operculum is involved in closing and opening the brood sac, and contains both musculature and a reduced sclerite that suggest homology with the ooecial vesicle of a hyperstomial ovicell. We interpret the brooding apparatus in Cauloramphus as a highly modified form of cheilostome hyperstomial ovicell, as both types share 1) a brood chamber bounded by 2) the ooecium and 3) a component of the distal wall of the maternal zooid. We discuss Cauloramphus as a hypothetical penultimate stage in ovicell reduction in calloporid bryozoans. We suggest that the internal-brooding genus Gontarella, of uncertain taxonomic affinities, is actually a calloporid and represents the ultimate stage in which no trace of the ooecium remains. Internal brooding apparently evolved several times independently within the Calloporidae.

  5. Treatment Integrity of Interventions with Children in "School Psychology International" from 1995-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Dobey, Lisa M.; Gallucci, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the role of school psychologists internationally has shifted from a more narrow focus on assessment to a broader emphasis on problem solving and delivering intervention services via consultation. Defining interventions is important for replication and translation of practice. Further, to make valid, data-based decisions…

  6. Molecular inference of sources and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in internally displaced persons settlements in Myanmar-China border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Eugenia; Zhou, Guofa; Oo, Winny; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Baum, Elisabeth; Felgner, Philip L; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-07-01

    In Myanmar, civil unrest and establishment of internally displaced persons (IDP) settlement along the Myanmar-China border have impacted malaria transmission. The growing IDP populations raise deep concerns about health impact on local communities. Microsatellite markers were used to examine the source and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum between IDP settlement and surrounding villages in Myanmar along the China border. Genotypic structure of P. falciparum was compared over the past three years from the same area and the demographic history was inferred to determine the source of recent infections. In addition, we examined if border migration is a factor of P. falciparum infections in China by determining gene flow patterns across borders. Compared to local community, the IDP samples showed a reduced and consistently lower genetic diversity over the past three years. A strong signature of genetic bottleneck was detected in the IDP samples. P. falciparum infections from the border regions in China were genetically similar to Myanmar and parasite gene flow was not constrained by geographical distance. Reduced genetic diversity of P. falciparum suggested intense malaria control within the IDP settlement. Human movement was a key factor to the spread of malaria both locally in Myanmar and across the international border.

  7. Recent trends of the tropical hydrological cycle inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology Project and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. P.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Sud, Y. C.; Betts, A. K.

    2011-05-01

    Scores of modeling studies have shown that increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere impact the global hydrologic cycle; however, disagreements on regional scales are large, and thus the simulated trends of such impacts, even for regions as large as the tropics, remain uncertain. The present investigation attempts to examine such trends in the observations using satellite data products comprising Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud and radiation. Specifically, evolving trends of the tropical hydrological cycle over the last 20-30 years were identified and analyzed. The results show (1) intensification of tropical precipitation in the rising regions of the Walker and Hadley circulations and weakening over the sinking regions of the associated overturning circulation; (2) poleward shift of the subtropical dry zones (up to 2° decade-1 in June-July-August (JJA) in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.3-0.7° decade-1 in June-July-August and September-October-November in the Southern Hemisphere) consistent with an overall broadening of the Hadley circulation; and (3) significant poleward migration (0.9-1.7° decade-1) of cloud boundaries of Hadley cell and plausible narrowing of the high cloudiness in the Intertropical Convergence Zone region in some seasons. These results support findings of some of the previous studies that showed strengthening of the tropical hydrological cycle and expansion of the Hadley cell that are potentially related to the recent global warming trends.

  8. Inferring the Evolutionary Stages of the internal structures of NGC 7538 S and IRS1 from Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, S; Semenov, D; Henning, Th; Linz, H; Mills, E A C; Teague, R

    2016-01-01

    To unambiguously diagnose the detailed physical mechanisms and the evolutionary status of high-mass star-forming regions (HMSFRs), we have performed 0.4" ($\\sim1000$ AU) resolution observations towards NGC7538S and IRS1, using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). This paper presents a joint analysis of the 1.37 mm continuum emission and the line intensity of 15 molecular species. Assuming local thermal equilibrium, we derived molecular column densities and molecular abundances for each internal gas substructure which is spatially resolved. These derived quantities are compared with a suite of 1-D gas-grain models. NGC7538S is resolved into at least three dense gas condensations. Despite the comparable continuum intensity of these condensations, their differing molecular line emission is suggestive of an overall chemical evolutionary trend from the northeast to the southeast. Since these condensations are embedded within the same parent gas core, their differing chemical properties are the most likely du...

  9. Causal inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shoemaker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Establishing causality has been a problem throughout history of philosophy of science. This paper discusses the philosophy of causal inference along the different school of thoughts and methods: Rationalism, Empiricism, Inductive method, Hypothetical deductive method with pros and cons. The article it starting from the Problem of Hume, also close to the positions of Russell, Carnap, Popper and Kuhn to better understand the modern interpretation and implications of causal inference in epidemiological research.

  10. Inferring the evolutionary stages of the internal structures of NGC 7538 S and IRS1 from chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.; Beuther, H.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Linz, H.; Mills, E. A. C.; Teague, R.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Radiative feedback of young (proto)stars and gas dynamics including gravitational collapse and outflows are important in high-mass star-forming regions (HMSFRs), for the reason that they may leave footprints on the gas density and temperature distributions, the velocity profile, and the chemical abundances. Aims: We unambiguously diagnose the detailed physical mechanisms and the evolutionary status of HMSFRs. Methods: We performed 0.4'' (~1000 AU) resolution observations at 1.37 mm towards two HMSFRs, NGC 7538 S and IRS1, using the Plateau de Bure Interferometre (PdBI). The observations covered abundant molecular lines, including tracers of gas column density, hot molecular cores, shocks, and complex organic molecules. We present a joint analysis of the 1.37 mm continuum emission and the line intensity of 15 molecular species (including 22 isotopologues). Assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE), we derived molecular column densities and molecular abundances for each internal gas substructure that is spatially resolved. These derived quantities are compared with a suite of 1D gas-grain models. Results: NGC 7538 S is resolved into at least three dense gas condensations. Despite the comparable continuum intensity of these condensations, their differing molecular line emission is suggestive of an overall chemical evolutionary trend from the northeast to the southwest. Line emission from MM1 is consistent with a chemically evolved hot molecular core (HMC), whereas MM3 remains a prestellar candidate that only exhibits emission of lower-excitation lines. The condensation MM2, located between MM1 and MM3, shows an intermediate chemical evolutionary status. Since these three condensations are embedded within the same parent gas core, their differing chemical properties are most likely due to the different warm-up histories, rather than the different dynamic timescales. Despite remaining spatially unresolved, in IRS1 we detect abundant complex organic molecules (e

  11. Patients suffering from restless legs syndrome have low internal locus of control and poor psychological functioning compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disturbing sensorimotor disorder negatively influencing both sleep and psychological functioning. The aim of the present study was to assess RLS patients with respect to locus of control, sleep-related personality traits, quality of life, and sleep as compared to healthy controls. Thirty-eight patients (18 females and 20 males; mean age: 56.06 years) diagnosed with RLS and an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 42) were recruited. Participants completed a series of questionnaires related to locus of control, personality traits, quality of life, and sleep. Compared to healthy controls, RLS patients had a lower internal locus of control, unfavourable sleep-related personality traits such as low self-confidence and higher mental arousal, poorer quality of life, and more depressive symptoms. Sleep was also affected. Multiple regression analyses showed that a low internal and a high external locus of control were predicted by RLS. The pattern of results suggests that RLS is associated with a low locus of control, negative personality traits, and poor quality of life as compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Thin-Ideal Internalization and Comparison Process as Mediators of Social Influence and Psychological Functioning in the Development of Disturbed Eating Habits in Croatian College Females

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian; Neala Ambrosi-Randić; Miljana Kukić

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years) who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers di...

  13. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students’ Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; LIU, WILLIAM MING

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found ...

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (13th, Paris, France, July 9-13, 1989), Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, Gerard, Ed.; Rogalski, Janine, Ed.; Artique, Michele, Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "Logo et Symetrie Centrale" (E. Gallou-Dumiel); "About Continuous Operator Subconstruct in Rational Numbers" (J. Gimenez); "Constructivist Epistemology and Discovery Learning in Mathematics"…

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (13th, Paris, France, July 9-13, 1989), Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, Gerard, Ed.; Rogalski, Janine, Ed.; Artique, Michele, Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "A Model of Understanding Two-Digit Numeration and Computation" (H. Murray & A. Olivier); "The Computer Produces a Special Graphic Situation of Learning the Change of Coordinate System" (S.…

  16. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME 20) (20th, Valencia, Spain, July 8-12, 1996). Addenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Luis, Ed.; Gutierrez, Angel, Ed.

    This booklet is an addendum to the conference proceedings of the 20th annual meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME 20). It contains three reactions to the research forum: (1) "Mathematizing: The 'Real' Need for Representational Fluency" (R. Lesh); (2) "Mathematics Teacher Development: An Alternative…

  17. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The second volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education contains full research report papers. Papers include: (1) "What you see is what you get: The influence of visualization on the perception of data structures" (Dan Aharoni); (2) "Exploring the transparency of graphs and graphing"…

  18. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The fourth volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education contains full research report papers. Papers include: (1) "What are essential to apply the 'discovery' function of proof in lower secondary school mathematics?" (Mikio Miyazaki); (2) "The anatomy of an 'open' mathematics lesson"…

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (28th, Bergen, Norway, July 14-18, 2004). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoines, Marit Johnsen, Ed.; Fuglestad, Anne Berit, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the second volume of the proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Inclusion and Diversity". This volume features 65 research report papers: (1) Constructing Meanings and Utilities within Algebraic…

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (28th, Bergen, Norway, July 14-18, 2004). Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoines, Marit Johnsen, Ed.; Fuglestad, Anne Berit, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of the proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Inclusion and Diversity". A total of 65 research reports are presented here: (1) A Teacher's Model of Students Algebraic Thinking…

  1. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (15th, Assisi, Italy, June 29-July 4, 1991), Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furinghetti, Fulvia, Ed.

    This document, the first of three volumes, reports on the 15th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) held in Italy 1991. Plenary addresses and speakers are: "Social Interaction and Mathematical Knowledge" (B. M. Bartolini); "Meaning: Image Schemata and Protocols" (W.…

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (28th, Bergen, Norway, July 14-18, 2004). Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoines, Marit Johnsen, Ed.; Fuglestad, Anne Berit, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of the proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Inclusion and Diversity". This volume features 64 research report papers: (1) Situated or Abstract: The Effect of Combining Context…

  3. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The third volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education contains full research report papers. Papers include: (1) "Mathematics classrooms functioning as communities of inquiry: Possibilities and constraints for changing practice" (Susie Groves, Brian Doig, and Laurance Splitter); (2)…

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (28th, Bergen, Norway, July 14-18, 2004). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoines, Marit Johnsen, Ed.; Fuglestad, Anne Berit, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the first volume of the proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Inclusion and Diversity". In total, 147 presentations centered around the vision of mathematics for all. This volume features eight…

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (13th, Paris, France, July 9-13, 1989), Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following papers: "Transformations Accelerees de l'Education Scientifique Pendant la Revolution Francaise" (Jean Dhombres); "Building on the Knowledge of Students and Teachers" (Thomas P. Carpenter & Elizabeth…

  6. Racial Microaggressions and School Psychology Students: Who Gets Targeted and How Intern Supervisors Can Facilitate Racial Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Kyle, Jennifer; Lau, Cindy; Fefer, Keren; Fischetti, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ethnically and racially diverse school psychology students' experiences with racial microaggressions in school psychology graduate training. Through a national survey of ethnically and racially diverse school psychology students (N = 228), the study examined if level of graduate training (i.e., interns…

  7. [The role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and psychological distress among sexual-minority youths (SMY): a moderated mediation approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus

  8. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes.

  9. Mapping the state of the field of social psychology in Africa and patterns of collaboration between African and international social psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, Michael; Greer, Megan

    2014-12-01

    Patterns of collaboration in social psychology from 2000 to 2010 were mapped to analyse the position of African authors in the international co-authorship network using bibliographic records from the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge. There are very few social psychologists working in Africa, with the majority of these located in South Africa. Indeed, some small European countries boast more social psychologists than the entire continent of Africa. African authors published less than their non-African collaborators, but had comparable status on joint publications. Co-authorship relationships between African researchers from different African countries were generally mediated by partners from other continents, and direct collaboration between non-compatriot African authors was very rare. The small size, and extremely sparse connection of the African co-authorship network, is likely to be an obstacle both in the development of social psychology as a universally relevant discipline and in the penetration of social psychological knowledge in Africa.

  10. Exploring the predicted effect of social networking site use on perceived social capital and psychological well-being of Chinese international students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Li, Yiwei; Ito, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how social networking sites (SNSs) use by Chinese international students in Japan influenced their perceived social capital and psychological well-being. In addition, it examined how, as sojourners, Chinese international students' perceived acculturative stress varied. Data were collected from 142 Chinese international students. The results indicated that the intensity of SNS use was unable to predict individuals' perceived social capital and psychological well-being. The effect of SNS use varied according to the functions it serves. Specifically, SNS use for social and informational functions (SIF) increased individuals' levels of perceived bridging social capital and perceived life satisfaction, while SNS use for entertaining recreational functions (ERF) was unable to predict perceived social capital but increased individuals' levels of loneliness. It was also found that, in the intercultural environment, Chinese international students' levels of perceived acculturative stress were decreased by their perceived bonding social capital and increased by their perceived loneliness but had no relationship with their SNS use. Findings of the study suggest that individuals using SNSs to stay informed and connected will benefit with regard to their social network building and psychological well-being.

  11. A Model for Predicting the Presence of School Psychology: An International Examination of Sociocultural, Sociopolitical and Socioeconomic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Clayton R.; Jimerson, Shane R.; Begeny, John C.

    2010-01-01

    School psychology exists in many countries around the world; however, it is far from ubiquitous. The extant literature offers limited empirical information addressing why school psychology may be present in some countries but not in others. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative investigation examining four sociocultural and…

  12. Predicting muscularity-related behavior, emotions, and cognitions in men: The role of psychological need thwarting, drive for muscularity, and mesomorphic internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christian; Tod, David; Molnar, Gyozo; Markland, David

    2016-09-01

    We examine the relationships that internalization, need thwarting (NT), and drive for muscularity (DFM), along with their interactions, had with weightlifting, muscle dissatisfaction (MD), and muscle-related-worry (MRW). A sample of 552 men (MAge=20.5 years, SD=3.1) completed the Psychological Need Thwarting Scale, the Internalization subscale of the male version of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire, the Drive for Muscularity Scale-Attitudes subscale, the Male Body Attitudes Scale-Muscularity subscale, the Body Change Inventory-Worry subscale, and an inventory assessing weightlifting behavior. DFM significantly predicted weightlifting, MRW, and MD. Internalization significantly predicted weightlifting and MRW. NT significantly predicted weightlifting and MD, and its relationship with MRW approached significance. The interaction terms did not predict weightlifting or MRW. The NT/DFM and NT/Internalization interaction terms predicted MD. These results highlight the role of NT in predicting appearance variables in men.

  13. Statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Rohatgi, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth

  14. Statistical Inference and String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Heckman, Jonathan J

    2013-01-01

    In this note we expose some surprising connections between string theory and statistical inference. We consider a large collective of agents sweeping out a family of nearby statistical models for an M-dimensional manifold of statistical fitting parameters. When the agents making nearby inferences align along a d-dimensional grid, we find that the pooled probability that the collective reaches a correct inference is the partition function of a non-linear sigma model in d dimensions. Stability under perturbations to the original inference scheme requires the agents of the collective to distribute along two dimensions. Conformal invariance of the sigma model corresponds to the condition of a stable inference scheme, directly leading to the Einstein field equations for classical gravity. By summing over all possible arrangements of the agents in the collective, we reach a string theory. We also use this perspective to quantify how much an observer can hope to learn about the internal geometry of a superstring com...

  15. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National Guide

  16. The Psychology of Death:External Defense or Internal Growth?%死亡心理:外部防御还是内在成长?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦庆旺; 周雪梅; 俞国良

    2015-01-01

    The psychology of death discussed by Western psychologist is reviewed. There are several kinds of psychological researches about death, which drive from different research traditions, focus on different subjects and use different methods. The authors attempt to reconcile diverging paths in the study of death and disclose that the core of the psychology of death involve both external defense and internal growth. The abstract death cognition tends to cause death anxiety, which creates the external defensive psychological responses including fear of death, self-protection, and external value orientation. The concrete death cognition tends to cause death reflection, which creates the internal growth psychological responses including death acceptance, prosocial motivation (or behavior), and internal value orientation. Based on the core of the psychology of death, the authors review the related research evidences published in recent 5 years. Finally, the limitations and future directions in death research are analyzed.%对西方主要的死亡心理研究进行了回顾和比较分析,不同的死亡心理研究在研究传统、研究对象和研究方法方面存在差异。但是根据研究的侧重点,可以总结出死亡心理的核心内涵:外部防御和内在成长。对死亡的抽象认知产生死亡焦虑,死亡焦虑产生死亡恐惧、自我保护、外在价值导向等外部防御反应;对死亡的具体认知产生死亡反省,死亡反省产生死亡接受、亲社会动机和行为、内在价值导向等内在成长反应。作者以死亡心理的两类反应为框架,综述了近5年来新的研究证据,并对该领域当前研究的局限和未来研究方向进行了分析。

  17. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.

  18. Ein Ende, das zum Anfang wurde: die Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie, 1907-1913: zur (Vor)Geschichte der IAPR (1/4) - The end that turned into a new beginning: the journal for the psychology of religion, 1907-1913: on the (pre)history of the International Association for the Psychology of Religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2014, the International Association for the Psychology of Religion (IAPR) will have its centennial, and so will its scientific journal, the present Archive for the Psychology of Religion [Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ARp]. This first article on IAPR’s (pre)history analyses the fate of the

  19. Ein Ende, das zum Anfang wurde: die Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie, 1907-1913: zur (Vor)Geschichte der IAPR (1/4) - The end that turned into a new beginning: the journal for the psychology of religion, 1907-1913: on the (pre)history of the International Association for the Psychology of Religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2014, the International Association for the Psychology of Religion (IAPR) will have its centennial, and so will its scientific journal, the present Archive for the Psychology of Religion [Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ARp]. This first article on IAPR’s (pre)history analyses the fate of the for

  20. 父母教养行为与初中生内化问题的关系%The Relationship Between Parenting Behavior and Internalizing Problems of junior high school students; Mediating Role of Psychological Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琨; 董洋; 王默

    2016-01-01

    采用问卷调查法,考察了732名初中生的父母教养行为、心理资本与内化问题的关系。研究结果表明:(1)温暖接纳负向预测青少年内化问题作用显著,心理控制正向预测内化问题作用显著;行为控制对内化问题的预测作用不显著。(2)温暖接纳、行为控制正向预测事务型和人际型心理资本作用显著;心理控制负向预测事务型心理资本作用显著。(3)温暖接纳通过增加两种心理资本来减少内化问题。心理控制通过减少事务型心理资本来增加内化问题。行为控制表现出不一致的中介:一方面通过增加两种资本减少内化问题,另一方面在残余的直接效应中又会增加内化问题。%To explore the relationship between parenting behavior, psychological capital and internalizing problems of junior high school students. The mediating role of psychological capital will be investigated between the parenting behavior and the internalizing problems. This study selected 732 students as the research object. By using indigenous psychological capital scale, behavior at school questionnaire and parenting behavior questionnaire as research tools. Results :(a)Internalizing problems is negative predicted significantly by warm acceptance. Internalizing problems can be positive predicted significantly by psychological control. Internalizing problems can not significant predicted by behavior control. (b) Warm acceptance, behavioral control can positive predict task-oriented psychological capital and relationship-oriented psychological capital. Psychological control can negative predict the two kinds of psychological capital. (c)Warm acceptance can reduce the adolescent internalizing problem by adding two psychological capitals. Psychological control can increase the adolescent internalizing problem by reducing the two psychological capitals. Behavior control exhibited inconsistent intermediary. On one hand

  1. International Psychology: A balance between Output and Impact [La Psicología internacional: un balance entre la producción y el impacto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson López López

    2012-07-01

    citation worldwide, but it also shows the influence of the English lan- guage, and the influence of these two countries’ Psychology on global Psychology is self-evident. It would be interesting to assess the role that other countries could play with regards to the use of this production.When crossing different variables, certain groups tend to form. The first group consists of the countries with higher production, higher spe- cialisation, higher citation, and higher normalised impact. They are 14 countries, which produce 82% of the articles published worldwide, and get 88% of the total citations. This would be the “mainstream” International Psychology group, and its members include the United States, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, amongst others.Group 3 consists of countries with high spe- cialisation, distinguished Psychological production when compared to the country’s general produc- tion, and low impact. Countries such as Spain and Colombia are here – the latter showing an impor- tant growth in output, but with very low impact. Spain’s production, in contrast, is of higher impact. Groups 3 and 4 have been marked by quality edi- torial processes, which has enabled their journals to be covered by international indexes, and which has given their Psychologies international visibil- ity. Accreditation systems, incentive systems, and increases in science and technology budgets have also played an important role in the creation of these groups.Group 4, the most heterogeneous, comprises the lower output, lower specialisation, and low normalised citation countries. Brazil, France, and Japan, despite their significant production, have low global recognition expressed in normalised citation. Countries with low specialisation, but significant growth, such as Portugal, Mexico, Chile, and Argentina, are members of this group. Its 16 constituent countries account for 10.37% of the total global output, and received only 5.83% of the citations. The role of

  2. Russia - Indian Relations in the Context of International Relations - Psychology%国际关系心理学语境下的俄印关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋竹丽

    2012-01-01

    The objects of studies the psychology of intemational relations is the state's behaviors,core elements is that micropsychology is integrated into macrointemational relations, three levels are individual psychology, national psychology and intemational psychology. Russia - Indian Relations in the context of International Relations - Psychology include: Rus- sia - India' s relying heavily on each other and counterbalancing the Westem pressure; rootedness of psychology of a great power, multipularization of world's patterns; National security is regarded as the related theme with the nation and the State. Russia- Indian Relations in the international background at the beginning of 21st century show that the frequent ex- change of high - level political and diplomatic visits, large - scale cooperations for economic and nuclear energy, deeply sharing their military technology. This influences profoundly East Asia, South Asia and even the whole world's politics and the security pattern.%国际关系心理学的研究对象是国家行为,核心要素是把微观心理融入宏观国际关系中,三个层面是个体心理、国家心理和国际心理。国际关系心理学语境下的俄印关系,表现为:俄印相互借重、制衡来自西方压力;大国心理根深蒂固,主张世界格局多极化;把国家安全作为与民族、国家紧密相关的主题。21世纪初国际背景下的俄印关系则体现为:政治与外交高层互访频繁;经济与核能大型合作;军事技术分享深入对东亚、南亚地区乃至国际政治与安全格局产生深刻影响。

  3. Internationality of the Multidisciplinary Psychology Journals Published in Ibero-America and Included in the Web Of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zych, Izabela; Universidad de Granada; Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Universidad de Granada, España

    2010-01-01

    International journals are considered more prestigious and with more quality than national ones, although the meaning of this had not been established until recently. Moreover, internationality has been used as a criterion to make important decisions, for example to assess the performance of scien- tists, universities, doctoral degree programs, and so on, without knowing the exact meaning of internationality. Thus, the current study uses the criteria of internationality esta...

  4. STRATEGIES FOR COPING WITH PAIN AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS ASSOCIATED WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT OSTEOARTHROSIS AND INTERNAL DERANGEMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JASPERS, JPC; HEUVEL, F; STEGENGA, B; DEBONT, LGM

    1993-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the relationship among a variety of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral coping strategies and pain/suffering and psychological distress in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain. Design: Cross-sectional, correlational study. Setting: Department of Oral and Maxillofac

  5. Generic patch inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to keep them up to date with respect to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spdiff, that identifies common changes...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  6. 医学本科实习生心理适应性状况分析%Survey on psychological adaptability of medical undergraduate interns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新; 孙万军

    2012-01-01

    随机选择100名本院实习的医学本科生进行问卷调查,收回有效问卷95份.结果显示,95名(100.0%)实习生均有不同方面的心理不适应,其中55人(57.9%)生活不适应,65人(67.7%)学习不适应,60人(63.2%)感觉人际不适应,62人(65.3%)感觉到个性心理不适应.45人(47.4%)感到压力很大,35人(36.8%)感到较大压力,只有15人(15.8%)感到压力一般.压力的来源主要包括就业困难、实习与考研矛盾、人际关系不协调、临床技术生疏、经济问题、情感困惑、生活环境的改变.提示参加临床实习的医学本科生的心理适应性有待提高.%One hundred medical undergraduate interns were randomly selected to undergo a survey using self-designed questionnaire,95 students completed the questionnaire with a response rate of 95.0%.The results revealed that all interns receiving survey had psychological adaptability problems,57.9% of the interns were not adaptive to life well,67.7% had maladjustment of learning,63.2% had social maladjustment,65.3% had poor metal adaptability.The 47.4% of the interns felt very heavy stress and 36.8 % felt stress,only 15.8 percent felt less stress.The stress sources included seeking employment and pursuing career for clinical practice or academic training.The results showed that psychological adaptability is a common problem for medical undergraduate interns and the social stress sources would intervene the clinical training and study for them.The medical educators should pay attention to this problem and psychological counseling and other measures should be taken for medical interns.

  7. The Relationship between Psychological Health, Self-Confidence and Locus of Control (Internal-External In Female Education Employees in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Modarres Gharavi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is study of self-confidence level relation and control source (internalexternal and the psychological health of employed women. The principal hypothesis is that there is a relation between self-confidence and control source and psychological health of employed women. The statistics population of this study includes all women employed in Education region 4 in Mashhad city. The sample number selected for performing the test of this survey includes 100 employed women that their sampling method is available and purposeful. After gathering and analyzing scores and interpreting the performed tests, results signify that the main hypothesis has been confirmed. Thus, it could be said that according the results of this study psychological health has significant relation with self-confidence. It means that if an individual's mental health is high, his/her self-confidence is also high and vice versa. Also mental health has a relation with control source. Of course, concerning the control source it was demonstrated that people with an internal control source have a higher mental health.

  8. Analogical Inference and Analogical Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-04

    Arbor, M[ 48109 Dr. Sherrie Got% AFHRLIMODJ Dr. Wayne Harvey Ms. Julia S. HoughBrooks AFB, TX 78235 SRI International Lawrence Erlbaum Associates -13...Department of Psychology Catholic University of Evanston, U. 60201 AmericaDr. Wayne Cray Washington. DC 20064 Army Research Institute 5001 Eisenhower Avenue...ScienceDr. Lynne Roer Dr. David Rumelhart Towson State UniversityDepartment of Psychology Center for Human Towson , NoD 21204Carnegie-Mellon University

  9. Descriptive characterization of psycho-trauma, psychological distress and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among children and adolescent internally displaced persons (IDPs in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Lateef Sheikh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA post election violent conflict in northern Nigeria in April 2011 resulted in 800 deaths and 65,000 displaced people leading to setting up of camp for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs. We set out to determine the prevalence and pattern of psycho-traumatic stressful life events, psychological distress and PTSD among children and adolescents IDPs.MethodsA descriptive cross sectional study of 73 child and adolescent IDPs selected by total sampling. We used the Stressful Life Event checklist to measure conflict-related trauma and Reaction of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress to measure post trauma reaction of children and adolescents. Hopkins Symptoms Checklist 37 for Adolescents measured psychological distress associated with trauma in the participants. Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC used to make a diagnosis of definitive Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. We described the most frequently occurring psycho-traumatic events and psychological distress. We also calculated the prevalence of probable and definitive PTSDResultsOut of 73 respondents, three (4.1% participants had probable PTSD, and two (2.7% had definitive PTSD. The mean score of the children/adolescent IDPs on HSCL-37A and RATS were 44.7 (SD = 6.3 and 31.9 (SD = 5.7 respectively. The most frequently occurring psychological distress among female participants was suddenly scared for no reason 7 (19.5% and, becoming angry easily and feeling fearful 5 (13.9%. The average score and standard deviation of female participants 34.3 (5.2 and 15.1 (3.1 were higher than that for males 29.6 (3.3 and 14.4 (2.2 for depressive and anxiety sub-scale of HSCL-37A respectivelyConclusionWe concluded that children/adolescent IDPs were exposed to psycho-trauma following post election violent conflict and developed psychological distress. However the low prevalence of psychological distress and PTSD suggested that living with parents and psychosocial intervention provided could

  10. 心理学作为国际化学科所面临的国际化挑战%(University of Minnesota, USA)International Challenges for Psychology as an International Discipline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Bruce Overmier

    2009-01-01

    心理学是什么样的学科?是一个独立的学科还足众多本士化学科的联合体?对这些问题的回答将会使心理学面临许多学科国际化的挑战.从国际心理科学联合会的角度来看,围绕这些问题涌现出了各种各样的看法.一类看法涉及心理学家的培养是否具有共同的基础,需要何种水平的训练方可成为一名"心理学家"以及心理学家的跨国流动性如何;另一类看法涉及政府和公众对心理学的认识,即心理学是否足一门真正对社会福祉有所作为的学科.%What kind of discipline is psychology? Is it a unitary discipline or a collection of indigenous disciplines? The answers one gives to these questions set the stage for many of the challenges to the discipline internationally. From the point of view of the International Union of Psychological Science, one set of issues now looming revolve around whether there are common foundations for education of psychologists, levels of training needed to be called a 'psychologist', and the international mobility of psychologists. A second set of issues revolves around governmental and public recognition of psychology as a genuine science that can contribute to human welfare.

  11. Brazilian Social Psychology in the international context: a commentary A Psicologia Social brasileira no cenário internacional: um comentário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Pires Valentim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a commentary on the talks given by Torres and Álvaro and by Krüger regarding Brazilian Social Psychology in the international context. Starting with a brief contrast with the situation in Portugal, this commentary next approaches, in a synthetic way, questions that cut across social psychology in the international setting, namely, those related with the recurrent dichotomy individual/collective, the great advances in social neuroscience, the study of minorities, the scarcity of psychosocial research about colonialism, and lastly, contemporary issues of science and educational policy.Faz-se aqui um comentário às intervenções de Torres e Álvaro e de Krüger sobre a Psicologia Social brasileira no cenário internacional. Começando por estabelecer um breve contraste com a situação em Portugal, de seguida este comentário aborda, de forma sintética, questões transversais à psicologia social no cenário internacional, designadamente as que se relacionam com a recorrente dicotomia individual/coletivo, os enormes avanços na neurociência social, o estudo das minorias, a escassez de estudos psicossociais sobre o colonialismo e, por último, questões contemporâneas de política científica e de ensino.

  12. African Journals Online: Psychology & Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... ... behaviour, relationship in the family, workplace, schools and organisations. ... education, health, religion, business, tourism, counselling and psychology. ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics.

  13. Thin-Ideal Internalization and Comparison Process as Mediators of Social Influence and Psychological Functioning in the Development of Disturbed Eating Habits in Croatian College Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.

  14. International academic history of sport social psychological researches%国际体育社会心理学发展百年回眸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游茂林

    2016-01-01

    The international sport social psychological researches have a history of more than 110 years, but there is no systematic report on the history until now all over the world. This study analyzed the documents conserved in Sportdiscus to make clear the academic history of sport social psychology. Study found that the scientific research of sport social psychology appeared at the end of 1800s, subsequently it went to low ebb during 1900 to 1929, and until 1930 to 1959 there was a growth momentum. Benefit of the primary researches, the notion of"social psychology of sport" was reported at the end of 1960s, consequently the North American researchers led to construct the new discipline during 1970 to 1989, which is the most active discipline construction up to now;however, its development momentum stopped during 1990s, although there were more related publications, there was little research from the disciplineˊs perspective. Sport social psychological researches are the major part of sport psychology in the 21st century, but there is still little publication that discusses sport social psychology from the discipline perspective, and whatˊs more, the North American researchers have been ignoring the discipline issues of sport social psychology, instead, the recent publications are mainly from European and Chinese researchers.%国际体育社会心理学研究已有110多年的历史,这个过程至今没有被系统介绍。依托国际体育科技文献数据库Sportdiscus储存的相关信息,梳理了国际体育社会心理学研究的学术史,发现科学的体育社会心理学研究出现在19世纪末期,随后在20世纪的前30年(1900-1929)里陷入低潮,从20世纪30年代开始回暖,并在60年代末期凝结出了体育社会心理学的理念,继而北美学者在70~80年代主导了迄今为止最积极的体育社会心理学学科创建工作,但是体育社会心理学在90年代并没有延续前期的学科发展势头,此

  15. Nonpharmacological Interventions Targeted at Delirium Risk Factors, Delivered by Trained Volunteers (Medical and Psychology Students), Reduced Need for Antipsychotic Medications and the Length of Hospital Stay in Aged Patients Admitted to an Acute Internal Medicine Ward: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Stanislaw; Piotrowicz, Karolina; Rewiuk, Krzysztof; Halicka, Monika; Kalwak, Weronika; Rybak, Paulina; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological multicomponent prevention delivered by trained volunteers (medical and psychology students), targeted at delirium risk factors in geriatric inpatients, was assessed at an internal medicine ward in Poland. Patients and Methods. Participants were recruited to intervention and control groups at the internal medicine ward (inclusion criteria: age ≥ 75, acute medical condition, basic orientation, and logical contact on admission; exclusion criteria: life expectancy internal medicine ward.

  16. Bayesian Information Criterion as an Alternative way of Statistical Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Yu. Gubanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article treats Bayesian information criterion as an alternative to traditional methods of statistical inference, based on NHST. The comparison of ANOVA and BIC results for psychological experiment is discussed.

  17. Bayesian Information Criterion as an Alternative way of Statistical Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Nadejda Yu. Gubanova; Simon Zh. Simavoryan

    2012-01-01

    The article treats Bayesian information criterion as an alternative to traditional methods of statistical inference, based on NHST. The comparison of ANOVA and BIC results for psychological experiment is discussed.

  18. Linguistic Markers of Inference Generation While Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia; Carlson, Sarah E.; Seipel, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Words can be informative linguistic markers of psychological constructs. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between word use and the process of making meaningful connections to a text while reading (i.e., inference generation). To achieve this purpose, think-aloud data from third-fifth grade students (N = 218) reading narrative…

  19. Campbell's and Rubin's Perspectives on Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephen G.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Donald Campbell's approach to causal inference (D. T. Campbell, 1957; W. R. Shadish, T. D. Cook, & D. T. Campbell, 2002) is widely used in psychology and education, whereas Donald Rubin's causal model (P. W. Holland, 1986; D. B. Rubin, 1974, 2005) is widely used in economics, statistics, medicine, and public health. Campbell's approach focuses on…

  20. Campbell's and Rubin's Perspectives on Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephen G.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Donald Campbell's approach to causal inference (D. T. Campbell, 1957; W. R. Shadish, T. D. Cook, & D. T. Campbell, 2002) is widely used in psychology and education, whereas Donald Rubin's causal model (P. W. Holland, 1986; D. B. Rubin, 1974, 2005) is widely used in economics, statistics, medicine, and public health. Campbell's approach focuses on…

  1. Cultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Steven J; Ruby, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Humans are a cultural species, constantly navigating a complex web of culturally bound practices, norms, and worldviews. This article provides a brief overview of the relatively young field of cultural psychology, which investigates the many ways psychology and culture interweave with one another. Highlighting the cultural nature of the human species, it draws upon research on cultural evolution, enculturation, and developmental processes. This review further summarizes a number of cultural differences in how people perceive the self, and the behavioral consequences that follow from these differences, in the domains of internal and external attribution styles, motivations for self-enhancement, approach/avoidance, primary and secondary control, as well as motivations for distinctiveness and conformity. Additionally, the review discusses research on the intersection of culture and emotion, as well as cultural differences in cognition, perception, and reasoning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Psychology of negotiating activity of employees of internal affairs agencies in situations related to the fact of committing a crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhnina V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the problem of negotiating with the perpetrators of the criminal act in situations related to the fact of the crime. It identified six types of negotiation, including: negotiating with terrorists, hostage-taking on mercenary motives for ransom or other benefits; negotiate with criminals, hostage-taking, being caught in flagrante delicto; negotiate with criminals operating on psychological grounds; talks with political extremists; Negotiations with religious fanatics, acting in accordance with their religious beliefs; Negotiations with the crowd in order to prevent riots. The negotiations with the criminals studied as a managed balanced system, which includes the process of negotiation, management negotiating process under the influence of external conditions, factors and subjects of composition.

  3. [Psychological characteristics of obese patients hospitalized at the obesity unit of the 4th Internal Medicine Clinic of the Medical School Hospital in Prague].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabá, S; Cepická, B

    1998-01-01

    This study presents the results of a psychological survey carried out in 1995 and 1996 in the Obesity Unit of IVth Department of Internal Medicine, General Faculty Hospital in Prague. There were 86 patients examined. The patients underwent a series of tests and questionnaires--Raven's Progressive Matrices, STAI, Miniscripts, Body Image. No significant differences were found between men and women. On the basis of this screening the general characteristics of obese patients hospitalized in this Unit can be described as follows: average to above average level of mental capacity for the general population, a need to "be strong and have everything under control", a need for recognition from other people, slightly increased level of anxiety. In their perception of their bodies they see themselves as overweight, unattractive and in a poor state of health.

  4. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  5. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  6. Memory-Based Simple Heuristics as Attribute Substitution: Competitive Tests of Binary Choice Inference Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hidehito; Matsuka, Toshihiko; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2016-07-20

    Some researchers on binary choice inference have argued that people make inferences based on simple heuristics, such as recognition, fluency, or familiarity. Others have argued that people make inferences based on available knowledge. To examine the boundary between heuristic and knowledge usage, we examine binary choice inference processes in terms of attribute substitution in heuristic use (Kahneman & Frederick, 2005). In this framework, it is predicted that people will rely on heuristic or knowledge-based inference depending on the subjective difficulty of the inference task. We conducted competitive tests of binary choice inference models representing simple heuristics (fluency and familiarity heuristics) and knowledge-based inference models. We found that a simple heuristic model (especially a familiarity heuristic model) explained inference patterns for subjectively difficult inference tasks, and that a knowledge-based inference model explained subjectively easy inference tasks. These results were consistent with the predictions of the attribute substitution framework. Issues on usage of simple heuristics and psychological processes are discussed.

  7. Molecular detection, identification and phylogenetic inference of Leishmania spp. in some desert lizards from Northwest China by using internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Rong; Guo, Xian-Guang; Liu, Jin-Long; Zhou, Tian-He; Gong, Xiong; Chen, Da-Li; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania is still endemic in Northwest China. It has been thought that reptiles could be a reservoir for mammalian leishmaniasis. However, data are still scarce on natural infection of lizards with Leishmania spp. in China. The present study deals with detection, identification and phylogenetic inference of Leishmania parasites at species and intraspecies levels isolated from six desert lizard species from 10 geographical locations in Northwest China using amplification and sequencing of ITS-rDNA. In total, 83 haplotypes were found among 137 ITS1 sequences obtained from up to 64.6% of all captured lizards. Representative sequences of Leishmania available in GenBank were compiled for comparison with the obtained haplotypes. Tree-based species delimitation was achieved by using Bayesian phylogenitc analyses and maximum parsimony approach. Phylogenetic trees congruently supported that the haplotypes were found to belong to three Leishmania species including L. (sauroleishmania) sp., Leishmania tropica and Leishmania donovani complex. A network approach revealed paraphyletic populations of L. (sauroleishmania) sp. and L. tropica at intraspecies level regarding geographical origin and low host specificity. Chinese L. tropica from lizards showed significant heterogeneity as the obtained haplotypes were distributed in different clusters from other countries. Common ancestry was observed between some sequences of L. tropica from lizards and other sequence types from clinical samples from other countries. This may lend support to the potential reservoir role of lizards for human leishmaniasis. Our results appear to be the first molecular evidence for natural infection of lizards in Northwest China with reptilian Leishmania and mammalian Leishmania species. Desert lizards may be considered as putative reservoir hosts for Leishmania in China. Further studies on persistence of the Leishmania parasites in lizards and sandflies are recommended for the

  8. Caring for health-care workers. Experience with a psychological support program for nurses working in Internal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Albertazzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionNurses working in an Internal Medicine ward must have very specific training and aptitude. Dealing with different types of patients with widely varying ages and different medical issues requires flexibility in managing emergencies and in choosing between various professional interventions, as well as strong communication skills. Because of this variety, the workload is perceived as being particularly heavy.Materials and methodsThe article describes the intervention of a psychologist in support of the nursing staff of an Internal Medicine ward. The intervention was prompted by findings of high staff turnover. The work began with an analysis of the group dynamics in the nursing team, and the psychologist's action was based on a group approach. In this way, specific problems of the group were solved through the instrument of the group itself, which became the true promoter of change.ResultsNurses worked to recognize their professional identity and to strengthen their self-esteem, and this changed their perception of their workload. The team also became more aware of its individual and group resources. These changes decreased staff turnover and reduced arguments between the nurses themselves and between the nurses and patients’ relatives.DiscussionThe nursing team become more solid and better organized. It dealt with emotional problems and has become more receptive to changes in the way the work is organized.

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education with the North American Chapter 12th PME-NA Conference (14th, Mexico, July 15-20, 1990), Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, George, Ed.; Cobb, Paul, Ed.; de Mendicuti, Teresa N., Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "Children's Connections among Representations of Mathematical Ideas" (A. Alston & C.A. Maher); "Algebraic Syntax Errors: A Study with Secondary School Children" (A. Avila, F. Garcia, & T.…

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education with the North American Chapter 12th PME-NA Conference (14th, Mexico, July 15-20, 1990), Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, George, Ed.; Cobb, Paul, Ed.; de Mendicuti, Teresa N.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) contains the following research papers: "The Construct Theory of Rational Numbers: Toward a Semantic Analysis" (M. Behr & G. Harel); "Reflections on Dealing: An Analysis of One Child's Interpretations" (G. Davis); "About…

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education with the North American Chapter 12th PME-NA Conference (14th, Mexico, July 15-20, 1990), Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, George, Ed.; Cobb, Paul, Ed.; de Mendicuti, Teresa N., Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following papers: "The Knowledge of Cats: Epistemological Foundations of Mathematics Education" (R.B. Davis) and "PME Algebra Research: A Working Perspective" (E. Filloy); "Some Misconceptions in Calculus: Anecdotes…

  12. Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (3rd, Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 10-12, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Thomas R., Ed.; Roberts, Mary Pat, Ed.

    This document primarily consists of papers scheduled for presentation at the third annual meeting of the North American chapter of the International Group for Psychology in Mathematics Education (NA-PME), held in September 1981, at the University of Minnesota. A total of 27 papers are arranged alphabetically by author. An additional three late…

  13. Proceedings of the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference Held Jointly with the 25th PME-NA Conference (Honolulu, Hawaii, July 13-18, 2003). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Neil A., Ed; Dougherty, Barbara J., Ed.; Zilliox, Joseph T., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This volume of the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference presents papers from: plenary panels; research forums; working sessions; discussion groups; short oral communications; and poster sessions from the meeting. Plenary lectures included: (1) Studying and Capturing the Complexity of Practice: The Case of…

  14. Proceedings of the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference Held Jointly with the 25th PME-NA Conference (Honolulu, Hawaii, July 13-18, 2003). Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Neil A., Ed; Dougherty, Barbara J., Ed.; Zilliox, Joseph T., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This volume of the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference includes the following research reports: (1) Improving Decimal Number Conception by Transfer from Fractions to Decimals (Irita Peled and Juhaina Awawdy Shahbari); (2) The Development of Student Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs in Mathematics during…

  15. Proceedings of the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference Held Jointly with the 25th PME-NA Conference (Honolulu, Hawaii, July 13-18, 2003). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Neil A., Ed.; Dougherty, Barbara J., Ed.; Zilliox, Joseph T., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This volume of the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference presents the following research reports: (1) Text Talk, Body Talk, Table Talk: A Design of Ratio and Proportion as Classroom Parallel Events (Dor Abrahamson); (2) Generalizing the Context and Generalising the Calculation (Janet Ainley); (3) Interview…

  16. Proceedings of the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference Held Jointly with the 25th PME-NA Conference (Honolulu, Hawaii, July 13-18, 2003). Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Neil A., Ed; Dougherty, Barbara J., Ed.; Zilliox, Joseph T., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This volume of the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference includes the following research reports: (1) The Affective Views of Primary School Children (Peter Grootenboer); (2) Theoretical Model of Analysis of Rate Problems in Algebra (Jose Guzman, Nadine Bednarz and Fernando Hitt); (3) Locating Fractions on…

  17. Linguistic Markers of Inference Generation While Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia; Carlson, Sarah E; Seipel, Ben

    2016-06-01

    Words can be informative linguistic markers of psychological constructs. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between word use and the process of making meaningful connections to a text while reading (i.e., inference generation). To achieve this purpose, think-aloud data from third-fifth grade students ([Formula: see text]) reading narrative texts were hand-coded for inferences. These data were also processed with a computer text analysis tool, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, for percentages of word use in the following categories: cognitive mechanism words, nonfluencies, and nine types of function words. Findings indicate that cognitive mechanisms were an independent, positive predictor of connections to background knowledge (i.e., elaborative inference generation) and nonfluencies were an independent, negative predictor of connections within the text (i.e., bridging inference generation). Function words did not provide unique variance towards predicting inference generation. These findings are discussed in the context of a cognitive reflection model and the differences between bridging and elaborative inference generation. In addition, potential practical implications for intelligent tutoring systems and computer-based methods of inference identification are presented.

  18. Quantum-Like Representation of Non-Bayesian Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, M.; Basieva, I.; Khrennikov, A.; Ohya, M.; Tanaka, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This research is related to the problem of "irrational decision making or inference" that have been discussed in cognitive psychology. There are some experimental studies, and these statistical data cannot be described by classical probability theory. The process of decision making generating these data cannot be reduced to the classical Bayesian inference. For this problem, a number of quantum-like coginitive models of decision making was proposed. Our previous work represented in a natural way the classical Bayesian inference in the frame work of quantum mechanics. By using this representation, in this paper, we try to discuss the non-Bayesian (irrational) inference that is biased by effects like the quantum interference. Further, we describe "psychological factor" disturbing "rationality" as an "environment" correlating with the "main system" of usual Bayesian inference.

  19. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  20. SEMANTIC PATCH INFERENCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Collateral evolution the problem of updating several library-using programs in response to API changes in the used library. In this dissertation we address the issue of understanding collateral evolutions by automatically inferring a high-level specification of the changes evident in a given set ...... specifications inferred by spdiff in Linux are shown. We find that the inferred specifications concisely capture the actual collateral evolution performed in the examples....

  1. Polynomial Regressions and Nonsense Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ventosa-Santaulària

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Polynomial specifications are widely used, not only in applied economics, but also in epidemiology, physics, political analysis and psychology, just to mention a few examples. In many cases, the data employed to estimate such specifications are time series that may exhibit stochastic nonstationary behavior. We extend Phillips’ results (Phillips, P. Understanding spurious regressions in econometrics. J. Econom. 1986, 33, 311–340. by proving that an inference drawn from polynomial specifications, under stochastic nonstationarity, is misleading unless the variables cointegrate. We use a generalized polynomial specification as a vehicle to study its asymptotic and finite-sample properties. Our results, therefore, lead to a call to be cautious whenever practitioners estimate polynomial regressions.

  2. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  3. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  4. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive psycholog

  5. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  6. Knowledge and inference

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge and Inference discusses an important problem for software systems: How do we treat knowledge and ideas on a computer and how do we use inference to solve problems on a computer? The book talks about the problems of knowledge and inference for the purpose of merging artificial intelligence and library science. The book begins by clarifying the concept of """"knowledge"""" from many points of view, followed by a chapter on the current state of library science and the place of artificial intelligence in library science. Subsequent chapters cover central topics in the artificial intellig

  7. Journal Article Citation Classics in School Psychology: Analysis of the Most Cited Articles in Five School Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katherine W.; Floyd, Randy G.; Fagan, Thomas K.; Smithson, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the top 100 most highly cited articles of all time as well as the 25 most highly cited articles of the last decade from within 5 school psychology journals: "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," "School Psychology International," "School Psychology Quarterly," and "School…

  8. The Nature and Role of Comparative Psychology in the Teaching of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger K. R.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced undergraduate comparative psychology course is described. Reviews the methodological goals and traditional roles of comparative psychology courses. Focuses on research strategies for relating group differences to specific processes and for inferring the evolutionary and developmental histories of behavior. The conclusion stresses the…

  9. Probability and Statistical Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Prosper, Harrison B.

    2006-01-01

    These lectures introduce key concepts in probability and statistical inference at a level suitable for graduate students in particle physics. Our goal is to paint as vivid a picture as possible of the concepts covered.

  10. Introductory statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Nitis

    2014-01-01

    This gracefully organized text reveals the rigorous theory of probability and statistical inference in the style of a tutorial, using worked examples, exercises, figures, tables, and computer simulations to develop and illustrate concepts. Drills and boxed summaries emphasize and reinforce important ideas and special techniques.Beginning with a review of the basic concepts and methods in probability theory, moments, and moment generating functions, the author moves to more intricate topics. Introductory Statistical Inference studies multivariate random variables, exponential families of dist

  11. Brain imaging, forward inference, and theories of reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the issue of how neuroimaging studies address theoretical accounts of reasoning, through the lens of the method of forward inference (Henson, 2005, 2006). After theories of deductive and inductive reasoning are briefly presented, the method of forward inference for distinguishing between psychological theories based on brain imaging evidence is critically reviewed. Brain imaging studies of reasoning, comparing deductive and inductive arguments, comparing meaningful versus non-meaningful material, investigating hemispheric localization, and comparing conditional and relational arguments, are assessed in light of the method of forward inference. Finally, conclusions are drawn with regard to future research opportunities.

  12. Brain Imaging, Forward Inference, and Theories of Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan eHeit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the issue of how neuroimaging studies address theoretical accounts of reasoning, through the lens of the method of forward inference (Henson, 2005, 2006. After theories of deductive and inductive reasoning are briefly presented, the method of forward inference for distinguishing between psychological theories based on brain imaging evidence is critically reviewed. Brain imaging studies of reasoning, comparing deductive and inductive arguments, comparing meaningful versus non-meaningful material, investigating hemispheric localization, and comparing conditional and relational arguments, are assessed in light of the method of forward inference. Finally, conclusions are drawn with regard to future research opportunities.

  13. Counseling Psychology's Wide New Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold

    2003-01-01

    Is it truly important to "internationalize" counseling psychology? If so, how can we best do this? This reaction to Leong and Ponterotto (2003) documents four general points about international psychology today--its origins, growth, ethnocentrism, and diversity--and relates these to their bold and comprehensive proposal to…

  14. Nonpharmacological Interventions Targeted at Delirium Risk Factors, Delivered by Trained Volunteers (Medical and Psychology Students), Reduced Need for Antipsychotic Medications and the Length of Hospital Stay in Aged Patients Admitted to an Acute Internal Medicine Ward: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, Karolina; Rewiuk, Krzysztof; Halicka, Monika; Kalwak, Weronika; Rybak, Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological multicomponent prevention delivered by trained volunteers (medical and psychology students), targeted at delirium risk factors in geriatric inpatients, was assessed at an internal medicine ward in Poland. Patients and Methods. Participants were recruited to intervention and control groups at the internal medicine ward (inclusion criteria: age ≥ 75, acute medical condition, basic orientation, and logical contact on admission; exclusion criteria: life expectancy delirium episodes, and antipsychotic prescriptions were assessed retrospectively from medical documentation. Results. 130 patients (38.4% males) participated in the study, with 65 in the intervention group. Antipsychotic medications were initiated less frequently in the intervention group compared to the control group. There was a trend towards a shorter hospitalization time and a not statistically significant decrease in deaths in the intervention group. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological multicomponent intervention targeted at delirium risk factors effectively reduced length of hospitalization and need for initiating antipsychotic treatment in elderly patients at the internal medicine ward. PMID:28164113

  15. Study on the psychological health status of clinical interns and its influencing factors%临床医学实习生心理健康状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鹏; 朋文佳

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过问卷调查和数据分析探讨临床专业实习生的总体心理状况.方法:采用问卷调查法(包括基本情况调查表和SCL-90量表),对蚌埠医学院临床专业2010年级进入医院实习的学生共457人进行人口学资料的调查和心理健康状况的测试.结果:临床实习生SCL-90各项指标中躯体化、焦虑、恐怖因子的评分均高于全国大学生常模和青年组常模(P0.05).结论:蚌埠医学院临床医学实习生心理健康水平略低于全国青年常模和全国大学生常模;临床实习生的心理健康水平在性别、生源地、家庭结构方面均存在不同.%Objective:To analyze the overall psychological health status of clinical interns by the questionnaire survey and data analysis. Methods:The demographic data and psychological health status of 457 clinical interns from Bengbu Medical College were surveyed using the questionnaire methods ( including the Basic-Data-Company and SCL-90 scale ) . Results:The scores of the somatization,anxiety and phobic factors of SCL-90 in clinical interns were higher than those in national college norm and youth norm (P0. 05). Conclusions:The levels of psychological health status of clinical interns from the second department of clinical medicine of Bengbu Medical College are slightly lower than those in national college norm and national youth norm,and the levels of psychological health status of clinical interns in different gender,origin and family structure are different.

  16. International Psychology: A balance between Output and Impact [La Psicología internacional: un balance entre la producción y el impacto

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson López López

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, this Editorial is devoted to com- ment on a paper presented in this issue. This is because it merits and suggests a reflection on knowl- edge visibility management from the perspective of output in Psychology all over the world.The paper is entitled “World Scientific Pro- duction in Psychology”, by García, Guerrero & de Moya. It describes and analyses, in scientometric terms, Psychology in a global scope. In the analysis performed by the authors, distinctions are made betw...

  17. Psychological Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Flohrer, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Instilling psychological empowerment in employees is one of the most important tasks of modern leadership. Building on quantitative research and the development of a new psychometric scale related to project management this thesis shows: First, individuals' characteristics and their work team environment influence perceptions of access to information and resources – two important antecedents of psychological empowerment. Second, while a project briefing strengthens the link of the psychologic...

  18. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  19. Inference Instruction for Struggling Readers: A Synthesis of Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Colby S.

    2016-01-01

    Skill in generating inferences predicts reading comprehension for students in the elementary and intermediate grades even after taking into account word reading, vocabulary knowledge, and cognitive ability (Cain et al., "Journal of Educational Psychology, 96," 671-81, 2004; Kendeou et al., "Journal of Research in Reading," 31,…

  20. The Bayes Inference Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  1. Foundations of Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Kevin H

    2010-01-01

    We present a foundation for inference that unites and significantly extends the approaches of Kolmogorov and Cox. Our approach is based on quantifying finite lattices of logical statements in a way that satisfies general lattice symmetries. With other applications in mind, our derivations assume minimal symmetries, relying on neither complementarity nor continuity or differentiability. Each relevant symmetry corresponds to an axiom of quantification, and these axioms are used to derive a unique set of rules governing quantification of the lattice. These rules form the familiar probability calculus. We also derive a unique quantification of divergence and information. Taken together these results form a simple and clear foundation for the quantification of inference.

  2. Making Type Inference Practical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Oxhøj, Nicholas; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    We present the implementation of a type inference algorithm for untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. The algorithm significantly improves our previous one, presented at OOPSLA'91, since it can handle collection classes, such as List, in a useful way. Abo....... Experiments indicate that the implementation type checks as much as 100 lines pr. second. This results in a mature product, on which a number of tools can be based, for example a safety tool, an image compression tool, a code optimization tool, and an annotation tool. This may make type inference for object...

  3. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  4. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  5. Dopamine, Affordance and Active Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J.; Shiner, Tamara; FitzGerald, Thomas; Galea, Joseph M.; Adams, Rick; Brown, Harriet; Dolan, Raymond J.; Moran, Rosalyn; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Bestmann, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level. PMID:22241972

  6. Dopamine, affordance and active inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Friston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level.

  7. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not interest

  8. Inference as Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Inference, or decision making, is seen in curriculum documents as the final step in a statistical investigation. For a formal statistical enquiry this may be associated with sophisticated tests involving probability distributions. For young students without the mathematical background to perform such tests, it is still possible to draw informal…

  9. An Ontologic Evaluation On Educational Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan, İrfan

    2016-01-01

    Thisarticle investigates emergence, development and existence of the science branchknown as Educational Psychology. The topic has been studied on the basis of ahistorical perspective from both national and international aspects. EducationalPsychology is a field born via interaction between psychology and education. Onemergence of the field, William James, Stanley Hall, John Dewey, Edward L.Thorndike played a significant role. Educational Psychology has been classifiedas a sub-branch of psycho...

  10. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  11. Self-Efficacy, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment in International Undergraduate Students in a Public Higher Education Institution in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Yusliza Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of the economy and society has had its impact on Malaysian higher education institutions, particularly universities. The Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education aims at intensifying globalization through increasing the number of international students. However, many international students struggle with adjusting to a new culture.…

  12. Causal inference in econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Sriboonchitta, Songsak

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the analysis of causal inference which is one of the most difficult tasks in data analysis: when two phenomena are observed to be related, it is often difficult to decide whether one of them causally influences the other one, or whether these two phenomena have a common cause. This analysis is the main focus of this volume. To get a good understanding of the causal inference, it is important to have models of economic phenomena which are as accurate as possible. Because of this need, this volume also contains papers that use non-traditional economic models, such as fuzzy models and models obtained by using neural networks and data mining techniques. It also contains papers that apply different econometric models to analyze real-life economic dependencies.

  13. Russell and Humean Inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Monteiro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Russell's The Problems of Philosophy tries to establish a new theory of induction, at the same time that Hume is there accused of an irrational/ scepticism about induction". But a careful analysis of the theory of knowledge explicitly acknowledged by Hume reveals that, contrary to the standard interpretation in the XXth century, possibly influenced by Russell, Hume deals exclusively with causal inference (which he never classifies as "causal induction", although now we are entitled to do so, never with inductive inference in general, mainly generalizations about sensible qualities of objects ( whether, e.g., "all crows are black" or not is not among Hume's concerns. Russell's theories are thus only false alternatives to Hume's, in (1912 or in his (1948.

  14. Stochastic processes inference theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Malempati M

    2014-01-01

    This is the revised and enlarged 2nd edition of the authors’ original text, which was intended to be a modest complement to Grenander's fundamental memoir on stochastic processes and related inference theory. The present volume gives a substantial account of regression analysis, both for stochastic processes and measures, and includes recent material on Ridge regression with some unexpected applications, for example in econometrics. The first three chapters can be used for a quarter or semester graduate course on inference on stochastic processes. The remaining chapters provide more advanced material on stochastic analysis suitable for graduate seminars and discussions, leading to dissertation or research work. In general, the book will be of interest to researchers in probability theory, mathematical statistics and electrical and information theory.

  15. INFERENCES FROM ROSSI TRACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KENNETH M. HANSON; JANE M. BOOKER

    2000-09-08

    The authors an uncertainty analysis of data taken using the Rossi technique, in which the horizontal oscilloscope sweep is driven sinusoidally in time ,while the vertical axis follows the signal amplitude. The analysis is done within a Bayesian framework. Complete inferences are obtained by tilting the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, which produces random samples from the posterior probability distribution expressed in terms of the parameters.

  16. Inferring Microbial Fitness Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    experiments on evolving microbial populations. Although these experiments have produced examples of remarkable phenomena – e.g. the emergence of mutator...what specific mutations, avian influenza viruses will adapt to novel human hosts; or how readily infectious bacteria will escape antibiotics or the...infer from data the determinants of microbial evolution with sufficient resolution that we can quantify 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND

  17. Continuous Integrated Invariant Inference Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will develop a new technique for invariant inference and embed this and other current invariant inference and checking techniques in an...

  18. Probabilistic Inferences in Bayesian Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Jianguo

    2010-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the popular inferences methods in Bayesian networks. The results demonstrates that the evidence can propagated across the Bayesian networks by any links, whatever it is forward or backward or intercausal style. The belief updating of Bayesian networks can be obtained by various available inference techniques. Theoretically, exact inferences in Bayesian networks is feasible and manageable. However, the computing and inference is NP-hard. That means, in applications, in ...

  19. Towards a Faster Randomized Parcellation Based Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyos-Idrobo, Andrés; Varoquaux, Gaël; Thirion, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In neuroimaging, multi-subject statistical analysis is an essential step, as it makes it possible to draw conclusions for the population under study. However, the lack of power in neuroimaging studies combined with the lack of stability and sensitivity of voxel-based methods may lead to non-reproducible results. A method designed to tackle this problem is Randomized Parcellation-Based Inference (RPBI), which has shown good empirical performance. Nevertheless, the use o...

  20. Multimodel inference and adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehme, S.E.; Powell, L.A.; Allen, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Ecology is an inherently complex science coping with correlated variables, nonlinear interactions and multiple scales of pattern and process, making it difficult for experiments to result in clear, strong inference. Natural resource managers, policy makers, and stakeholders rely on science to provide timely and accurate management recommendations. However, the time necessary to untangle the complexities of interactions within ecosystems is often far greater than the time available to make management decisions. One method of coping with this problem is multimodel inference. Multimodel inference assesses uncertainty by calculating likelihoods among multiple competing hypotheses, but multimodel inference results are often equivocal. Despite this, there may be pressure for ecologists to provide management recommendations regardless of the strength of their study’s inference. We reviewed papers in the Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) and the journal Conservation Biology (CB) to quantify the prevalence of multimodel inference approaches, the resulting inference (weak versus strong), and how authors dealt with the uncertainty. Thirty-eight percent and 14%, respectively, of articles in the JWM and CB used multimodel inference approaches. Strong inference was rarely observed, with only 7% of JWM and 20% of CB articles resulting in strong inference. We found the majority of weak inference papers in both journals (59%) gave specific management recommendations. Model selection uncertainty was ignored in most recommendations for management. We suggest that adaptive management is an ideal method to resolve uncertainty when research results in weak inference.

  1. Modeling Psychological Attributes in Psychology - An Epistemological Discussion: Network Analysis vs. Latent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Hervé; Falissard, Bruno; Kop, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Network Analysis is considered as a new method that challenges Latent Variable models in inferring psychological attributes. With Network Analysis, psychological attributes are derived from a complex system of components without the need to call on any latent variables. But the ontological status of psychological attributes is not adequately defined with Network Analysis, because a psychological attribute is both a complex system and a property emerging from this complex system. The aim of this article is to reappraise the legitimacy of latent variable models by engaging in an ontological and epistemological discussion on psychological attributes. Psychological attributes relate to the mental equilibrium of individuals embedded in their social interactions, as robust attractors within complex dynamic processes with emergent properties, distinct from physical entities located in precise areas of the brain. Latent variables thus possess legitimacy, because the emergent properties can be conceptualized and analyzed on the sole basis of their manifestations, without exploring the upstream complex system. However, in opposition with the usual Latent Variable models, this article is in favor of the integration of a dynamic system of manifestations. Latent Variables models and Network Analysis thus appear as complementary approaches. New approaches combining Latent Network Models and Network Residuals are certainly a promising new way to infer psychological attributes, placing psychological attributes in an inter-subjective dynamic approach. Pragmatism-realism appears as the epistemological framework required if we are to use latent variables as representations of psychological attributes.

  2. [Quality control in the therapy of chronic pain. Results obtained by a task force of the German Section of the International Association for the Study of Pain on psychological assessment of chronic pain. XI. Assessment and multiaxial classification of pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, R; Denecke, H; Glier, B; Kröner-Herwig, B; Nilges, P; Redegeld, M; Weiss, L

    1997-12-12

    This paper reviews instruments in German language for the psychological assessment and classification of pain. Usually chronic pain syndromes are classified within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Instead of the psychiatric chapter of the ICD, it is possible to use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The proposed classification system of the International Association of the Study of Pain (IASP) is based on a multiaxial solution. The numerous ways to classify chronic pain include many problems and limits, especially in the case of an interdisciplinary assessment. They provide no specific system for classifying pain syndromes. They are impractical to handle and restrict classifying pain as either somatogenic or psychogenic. It is not possible to describe both sides in one diagnosis without loss of information. As a result of this situation, a task force of the German Chapter of the International Association for the Study of Pain developed a Multiaxial Classification of Pain (Multiaxiale Schmerzklassifikation; MASK) as an advanced system of pain assessment and an alternative to the common classification systems. MASK embraces a somatic (MASK-S) and a psychological (MASK-P) part. Both parts constitute an 'interdisciplinary diagnosis'. MASK-S enables classifying a pain syndrome using hierarchical levels, with progredient specific degrees of differentiation. In addition there are 6 axes to describe pain syndromes qualitatively and quantitatively (e.g. localization, quality). The psychosocial part (MASK-P) embraces 5 main levels (1. behavioral, 2. emotional, 3. cognitive, 4. stress-related, 5. habitual personal factors) and 2 additional levels (6. functional coherence, 7. ICD/DSM-diagnosis additional). The MASK-P part of the diagnosis is composed of graduation on these levels. Differential axis of the pain syndromes are described phenomenologically and specifically. MASK provides the possibility of establishing an

  3. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena.

  4. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological outcomes among adult international adoptees in Finland : Moderating effects of social support and sense of coherence

    OpenAIRE

    Koskinen, Maarit; Elovainio, Marko; Raaska, Hanna; Sinkkonen, Jari; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative literature on international adoptees and racial/ethnic discrimination is lacking despite results in qualitative studies from Europe and the United States that have consistently indicated how racism constantly complicates adoptees’ everyday lives. To advance the literature, the present study examined the prevalence of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among 213 adult international adoptees in Finland (59.6% women and 40.4% men, mean age 24.1 years), and the association betwee...

  5. Response to Comment on "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher J; Bahník, Štěpán; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Bosco, Frank A; Chandler, Jesse; Chartier, Christopher R; Cheung, Felix; Christopherson, Cody D; Cordes, Andreas; Cremata, Edward J; Della Penna, Nicolas; Estel, Vivien; Fedor, Anna; Fitneva, Stanka A; Frank, Michael C; Grange, James A; Hartshorne, Joshua K; Hasselman, Fred; Henninger, Felix; van der Hulst, Marije; Jonas, Kai J; Lai, Calvin K; Levitan, Carmel A; Miller, Jeremy K; Moore, Katherine S; Meixner, Johannes M; Munafò, Marcus R; Neijenhuijs, Koen I; Nilsonne, Gustav; Nosek, Brian A; Plessow, Franziska; Prenoveau, Jason M; Ricker, Ashley A; Schmidt, Kathleen; Spies, Jeffrey R; Stieger, Stefan; Strohminger, Nina; Sullivan, Gavin B; van Aert, Robbie C M; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Vanpaemel, Wolf; Vianello, Michelangelo; Voracek, Martin; Zuni, Kellylynn

    2016-03-01

    Gilbert et al. conclude that evidence from the Open Science Collaboration's Reproducibility Project: Psychology indicates high reproducibility, given the study methodology. Their very optimistic assessment is limited by statistical misconceptions and by causal inferences from selectively interpreted, correlational data. Using the Reproducibility Project: Psychology data, both optimistic and pessimistic conclusions about reproducibility are possible, and neither are yet warranted.

  6. Science rationality and inference: An insight from cognitive psychology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo O. López Alonso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta exposición es analizar los procesos inferenciales conductores de la ciencia que llevan a ésta a constituirse en un sistema racional asertivo más allá de sus contrapartes irracionales. La racionalidad es un aspecto central y crítico para la ciencia, sin embargo, puede reflejar una necesidad psicológica y cognitiva de la organización del pensamiento destinada a establecer un balance entre categorías estables del entendimiento y el flujo inestable y dinámico de inferencias dirigidas a representar los diversos problemas científicos. Se supone la existencia de procesos dinámicos entre inferencias implícitas y explícitas, en la resolución racional e irracional de desequilibrios entre las representaciones científicas y las diferentes heurísticas de los científicos. Se analizan algunas categorías de razonamiento modal que se consideran como substratos inferenciales utilizados para justificar y moldear el conocimiento y también se ven las inferencias implícitas y explícitas como procesos sistémicos y de complejidad destinados a atender las necesidades racionales de orden, coherencia, cierre lógico, reversibilidad, etc.

  7. The Limitations of Concepts in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    Many concepts in developmental psychology are inferred or confirmed from very particular experimental or naturalistic observations but investigators often generalize their validity to a broad domain of situations. This permissiveness is affecting progress. This paper provides examples of this error and criticizes the tendency to award essences to…

  8. Validity Semantics in Educational and Psychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcoat, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The semantics, or meaning, of validity is a fluid concept in educational and psychological testing. Contemporary controversies surrounding this concept appear to stem from the proper location of validity. Under one view, validity is a property of score-based inferences and entailed uses of test scores. This view is challenged by the…

  9. The Limitations of Concepts in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    Many concepts in developmental psychology are inferred or confirmed from very particular experimental or naturalistic observations but investigators often generalize their validity to a broad domain of situations. This permissiveness is affecting progress. This paper provides examples of this error and criticizes the tendency to award essences to…

  10. Nanotechnology and statistical inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, Sara; Vesely, Leonardo; Vesely, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    We discuss some problems that arise when applying statistical inference to data with the aim of disclosing new func-tionalities. A predictive model analyzes the data taken from experiments on a specific material to assess the likelihood that another product, with similar structure and properties, will exhibit the same functionality. It doesn't have much predictive power if vari-ability occurs as a consequence of a specific, non-linear behavior. We exemplify our discussion on some experiments with biased dice.

  11. Foundations of Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin H. Knuth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple and clear foundation for finite inference that unites and significantly extends the approaches of Kolmogorov and Cox. Our approach is based on quantifying lattices of logical statements in a way that satisfies general lattice symmetries. With other applications such as measure theory in mind, our derivations assume minimal symmetries, relying on neither negation nor continuity nor differentiability. Each relevant symmetry corresponds to an axiom of quantification, and these axioms are used to derive a unique set of quantifying rules that form the familiar probability calculus. We also derive a unique quantification of divergence, entropy and information.

  12. Nonparametric statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, Jean Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    Overall, this remains a very fine book suitable for a graduate-level course in nonparametric statistics. I recommend it for all people interested in learning the basic ideas of nonparametric statistical inference.-Eugenia Stoimenova, Journal of Applied Statistics, June 2012… one of the best books available for a graduate (or advanced undergraduate) text for a theory course on nonparametric statistics. … a very well-written and organized book on nonparametric statistics, especially useful and recommended for teachers and graduate students.-Biometrics, 67, September 2011This excellently presente

  13. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  14. Self research in educational psychology: a cautionary tale of positive psychology in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    2006-07-01

    Recent calls for a positive psychology that would deemphasize human pathology and dysfunction in favor of building an understanding of positive features of human life and human flourishing make two assumptions that the author questions in this article. First, he challenges the assumption that disciplinary psychology has been fixated on pathology and dysfunction by considering work in educational psychology that, both historically and currently, espouses the characteristics of positive psychology as articulated by its major advocates. Second, through a brief, critical consideration of research on the self in educational psychology, he contests the assumption that psychology has sufficient resources to develop into the positive psychology envisioned by its promoters. He argues that psychology's emphasis on the individual, whose core self resides in a deep, internal psyche, radically strips psychology of the historical and sociocultural resources that enable self-development, constrain self-understanding, and constitute the self.

  15. Nonpharmacological Interventions Targeted at Delirium Risk Factors, Delivered by Trained Volunteers (Medical and Psychology Students, Reduced Need for Antipsychotic Medications and the Length of Hospital Stay in Aged Patients Admitted to an Acute Internal Medicine Ward: Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Gorski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological multicomponent prevention delivered by trained volunteers (medical and psychology students, targeted at delirium risk factors in geriatric inpatients, was assessed at an internal medicine ward in Poland. Patients and Methods. Participants were recruited to intervention and control groups at the internal medicine ward (inclusion criteria: age ≥ 75, acute medical condition, basic orientation, and logical contact on admission; exclusion criteria: life expectancy < 24 hours, surgical hospitalization, isolation due to infectious disease, and discharge to other medical wards. Every day trained volunteers delivered a multicomponent standardized intervention targeted at risk factors of in-hospital complications to the intervention group. The control group, selected using a retrospective individual matching strategy (1 : 1 ratio, regarding age, gender, and time of hospitalization, received standard care. Outcome Measures. Hospitalization time, deaths, falls, delirium episodes, and antipsychotic prescriptions were assessed retrospectively from medical documentation. Results. 130 patients (38.4% males participated in the study, with 65 in the intervention group. Antipsychotic medications were initiated less frequently in the intervention group compared to the control group. There was a trend towards a shorter hospitalization time and a not statistically significant decrease in deaths in the intervention group. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological multicomponent intervention targeted at delirium risk factors effectively reduced length of hospitalization and need for initiating antipsychotic treatment in elderly patients at the internal medicine ward.

  16. Statistical inferences in phylogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Beaumont, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    In conventional phylogeographic studies, historical demographic processes are elucidated from the geographical distribution of individuals represented on an inferred gene tree. However, the interpretation of gene trees in this context can be difficult as the same demographic/geographical process ...... may also be challenged by computational problems or poor model choice. In this review, we will describe the development of statistical methods in phylogeographic analysis, and discuss some of the challenges facing these methods....... can randomly lead to multiple different genealogies. Likewise, the same gene trees can arise under different demographic models. This problem has led to the emergence of many statistical methods for making phylogeographic inferences. A popular phylogeographic approach based on nested clade analysis...... is challenged by the fact that a certain amount of the interpretation of the data is left to the subjective choices of the user, and it has been argued that the method performs poorly in simulation studies. More rigorous statistical methods based on coalescence theory have been developed. However, these methods...

  17. Moment inference from tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Chen, Y.; Singha, K.

    2007-01-01

    Time-lapse geophysical tomography can provide valuable qualitative insights into hydrologic transport phenomena associated with aquifer dynamics, tracer experiments, and engineered remediation. Increasingly, tomograms are used to infer the spatial and/or temporal moments of solute plumes; these moments provide quantitative information about transport processes (e.g., advection, dispersion, and rate-limited mass transfer) and controlling parameters (e.g., permeability, dispersivity, and rate coefficients). The reliability of moments calculated from tomograms is, however, poorly understood because classic approaches to image appraisal (e.g., the model resolution matrix) are not directly applicable to moment inference. Here, we present a semi-analytical approach to construct a moment resolution matrix based on (1) the classic model resolution matrix and (2) image reconstruction from orthogonal moments. Numerical results for radar and electrical-resistivity imaging of solute plumes demonstrate that moment values calculated from tomograms depend strongly on plume location within the tomogram, survey geometry, regularization criteria, and measurement error. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Active interoceptive inference and the emotional brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    We review a recent shift in conceptions of interoception and its relationship to hierarchical inference in the brain. The notion of interoceptive inference means that bodily states are regulated by autonomic reflexes that are enslaved by descending predictions from deep generative models of our internal and external milieu. This re-conceptualization illuminates several issues in cognitive and clinical neuroscience with implications for experiences of selfhood and emotion. We first contextualize interoception in terms of active (Bayesian) inference in the brain, highlighting its enactivist (embodied) aspects. We then consider the key role of uncertainty or precision and how this might translate into neuromodulation. We next examine the implications for understanding the functional anatomy of the emotional brain, surveying recent observations on agranular cortex. Finally, we turn to theoretical issues, namely, the role of interoception in shaping a sense of embodied self and feelings. We will draw links between physiological homoeostasis and allostasis, early cybernetic ideas of predictive control and hierarchical generative models in predictive processing. The explanatory scope of interoceptive inference ranges from explanations for autism and depression, through to consciousness. We offer a brief survey of these exciting developments. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health’. PMID:28080966

  19. Bayesian structural inference for hidden processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelioff, Christopher C; Crutchfield, James P

    2014-04-01

    We introduce a Bayesian approach to discovering patterns in structurally complex processes. The proposed method of Bayesian structural inference (BSI) relies on a set of candidate unifilar hidden Markov model (uHMM) topologies for inference of process structure from a data series. We employ a recently developed exact enumeration of topological ε-machines. (A sequel then removes the topological restriction.) This subset of the uHMM topologies has the added benefit that inferred models are guaranteed to be ε-machines, irrespective of estimated transition probabilities. Properties of ε-machines and uHMMs allow for the derivation of analytic expressions for estimating transition probabilities, inferring start states, and comparing the posterior probability of candidate model topologies, despite process internal structure being only indirectly present in data. We demonstrate BSI's effectiveness in estimating a process's randomness, as reflected by the Shannon entropy rate, and its structure, as quantified by the statistical complexity. We also compare using the posterior distribution over candidate models and the single, maximum a posteriori model for point estimation and show that the former more accurately reflects uncertainty in estimated values. We apply BSI to in-class examples of finite- and infinite-order Markov processes, as well to an out-of-class, infinite-state hidden process.

  20. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Patil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Education Psychology is one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines which is concerned with the description, explanation and control of the educational processes arising from the interaction between the teacher and learner in the context of a specified or unspecified subject. The concept of educational psycology is changing as a result of the general impact of the disciplines such as sociology, anthropology,economics, political science and so on. The subject matter of educational psychology is also reflecting a diversity of structures and emphases in its connection.

  1. A Brief Introduction on International "Psychological Manipulation, Cultic Groups, and Other Alternative Movements" Conference%" 精神控制、膜拜(邪教)团体及其他替代运动"国际会议简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿耿

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2005年7月14日至16日国际膜拜(邪教)团体研究协会(International Cultic Studies Association,简称ICSA)在西班牙首都马德里召开年会,主题为"精神控制、膜拜(邪教)团体及其他替代运动(Psychological Manipulation,Cultic Groups,and Other Alternative Movements)".出席者200余人,其主流为对邪教有切肤之痛的前成员,研究宗教的学者,心理学、社会学、政治学领域专家,救助前邪教成员的咨询康复机构等.

  2. Suggestions from Representatives of the International Language Testing Association for Revision of the "AERA/APA/NCME Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Charles W.; Spolsky, Bernard

    The International Language Testing Association has some 250 members in 15 countries. Most are specialists in the testing of second language skills, with a special interest in performance assessment because of the testing of speaking and writing performance that is critical to second language skills assessment. The association believes that certain…

  3. Roles of University Support for International Students in the United States: Analysis of a Systematic Model of University Identification, University Support, and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehee; Yu, Hongsik

    2015-01-01

    Unlike previous research on international students' social support, this current study applied the concept of organizational support to university contexts, examining the effects of university support. Mainly based on the social identity/self-categorization stress model, this study developed and tested a path model composed of four key…

  4. Beyond Cultural Learning and Preserving Psychological Well-Being: Chinese International Students' Constructions of Intercultural Adjustment from an Emotion Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weijia

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an ethnographic study of a group of Chinese international students' emotion-management experiences in intercultural adjustment in a UK university context. Drawing on a social constructionist paradigm, it investigates students' constructions of their emotion-management strategies, and the effects of social interactions on the…

  5. Beyond Cultural Learning and Preserving Psychological Well-Being: Chinese International Students' Constructions of Intercultural Adjustment from an Emotion Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weijia

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an ethnographic study of a group of Chinese international students' emotion-management experiences in intercultural adjustment in a UK university context. Drawing on a social constructionist paradigm, it investigates students' constructions of their emotion-management strategies, and the effects of social interactions on the…

  6. Roles of University Support for International Students in the United States: Analysis of a Systematic Model of University Identification, University Support, and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehee; Yu, Hongsik

    2015-01-01

    Unlike previous research on international students' social support, this current study applied the concept of organizational support to university contexts, examining the effects of university support. Mainly based on the social identity/self-categorization stress model, this study developed and tested a path model composed of four key…

  7. Inference and Reconciliation in a Crowdsourced Lexical-Semantic Network

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Lexical-semantic network construction and validation is a major issue in the NLP. No matter the construction strategies used, automatically inferring new relations from already existing ones is a way to improve the global quality of the resource by densifying the network. In this context, an inference engine has for purpose to formulate new conclusions (i.e. relations between terms) from already existing premises (also relations) on the network. In this paper we devise...

  8. Surrogate based approaches to parameter inference in ocean models

    KAUST Repository

    Knio, Omar

    2016-01-06

    This talk discusses the inference of physical parameters using model surrogates. Attention is focused on the use of sampling schemes to build suitable representations of the dependence of the model response on uncertain input data. Non-intrusive spectral projections and regularized regressions are used for this purpose. A Bayesian inference formalism is then applied to update the uncertain inputs based on available measurements or observations. To perform the update, we consider two alternative approaches, based on the application of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods or of adjoint-based optimization techniques. We outline the implementation of these techniques to infer dependence of wind drag, bottom drag, and internal mixing coefficients.

  9. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  10. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  11. Psychology Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderssen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…

  12. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  13. Aspects of likelihood inference

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.3150/12-BEJSP03 the Bernoulli (http://isi.cbs.nl/bernoulli/) by the International Statistical Institute/Bernoulli Society (http://isi.cbs.nl/BS/bshome.htm)

  14. The Impact of Psychological Empowerment on Hotel Interns'Intention to Stay%心理授权对饭店实习生留职意向的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪

    2014-01-01

    In recent years , the high employee turnover rate is a puzzle for hotel industry . This paper , by surveying 286 hotel interns , analyzes the relationship between psychological empowerment , job satisfaction and the intention to stay on the job . The results are as follows :unlike common workers , Self-determination does not have a significant affection on Interns'Intention to stay ;Among the four dimensions of Psychological empowerment , Impact , Meaning and Competence not only have direct influence on the intention to stay , but also Meaning and Competence indirectly affect the intention to stay through the job satisfaction ;Compared with the job satisfaction , psychological empowerment is more important for improving the intention to stay on the Job .%“用工荒”和“留人难”近年来已成为我国饭店业发展的瓶颈和难题。研究以286名饭店高职实习生为研究对象,分析了饭店实习生心理授权、工作满意度和留职意向之间的内在联系。得出以下结论:心理授权对实习生留职意向的影响与对在职人员的不同,表现为自主性对留职意向的影响不显著;心理授权四个维度中的工作影响力、工作意义和胜任力不仅直接对留职意向产生影响,而且工作意义和胜任力还通过工作满意度间接影响留职意向;相比工作满意度,实习生的心理授权感知水平对提高饭店实习生留职意向发挥更重要的作用。

  15. Research on effect of emotional and psychological state in treatment of patients with internal diseases%情绪及心理状态对内科患者疾病治疗状态的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯自明

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究情绪及心理状态对内科患者疾病治疗状态的影响.方法 选取2011年1月~2012年1月于某院内科门诊收治的内科疾病患者1 000例,作为研究对象.随机分为内科治疗组和心理治疗组,每组500例.内科治疗组针对患者病情采取相应的内科治疗方案;心理治疗组是在内科用药治疗的基础上,根据患者的情绪状态积极配合心理疏导.对比两组患者治疗后的有效率及心理状态的变化.结果 两组患者治疗3周后,内科治疗组有效率占60%,抑郁率占30%,焦虑率占36.67%;心理治疗组有效率占90%,抑郁率占8.33%,焦虑率占6.67%.两组患者治疗3周后心理治疗组有效率明显高于内科治疗组,内科治疗组抑郁率、焦虑率均明显高于心理治疗组,经统计学分析(P<0.05),差异均具有统计学意义.结论 经过心理干预后能够有效降低患者的心理抑郁和焦虑程度,提高内科疾病治疗的有效率,对于治疗内科患者疾病临床效果显著.%OBJECTIVE To study the effect of emotional and psychological state in treatment of the patients with internal diseases. METHODS 1 000 patients admitted to outpatient clinic in my hospital from January 2011 to January 2012 were chosen as the research objects. They were randomly divided into the medical treatment group and the psychotherapy group (re = 500 cases) . The appropriate medical treatment was taken according to the patient's condition. The psychotherapy group was taken with psychological counseling according to the patient's emotional state on the basis of medical drug treatment. The efficiency and changes of psychological state of the two groups were taken for comparison. RESULTS After treatment for three weeks in the two groups, the efficacy rate of the medical treatment group accounted for 60%, the depression rate was 30%, the anxiety rate accounted for 36.67%. The efficiency rate of the psychotherapy group accounted for 90%, the

  16. Inferring attitudes from mindwandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Gilovich, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Self-perception theory posits that people understand their own attitudes and preferences much as they understand others', by interpreting the meaning of their behavior in light of the context in which it occurs. Four studies tested whether people also rely on unobservable "behavior," their mindwandering, when making such inferences. It is proposed here that people rely on the content of their mindwandering to decide whether it reflects boredom with an ongoing task or a reverie's irresistible pull. Having the mind wander to positive events, to concurrent as opposed to past activities, and to many events rather than just one tends to be attributed to boredom and therefore leads to perceived dissatisfaction with an ongoing task. Participants appeared to rely spontaneously on the content of their wandering minds as a cue to their attitudes, but not when an alternative cause for their mindwandering was made salient.

  17. Bayesian inference in geomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, George E.

    1988-01-01

    The inverse problem in empirical geomagnetic modeling is investigated, with critical examination of recently published studies. Particular attention is given to the use of Bayesian inference (BI) to select the damping parameter lambda in the uniqueness portion of the inverse problem. The mathematical bases of BI and stochastic inversion are explored, with consideration of bound-softening problems and resolution in linear Gaussian BI. The problem of estimating the radial magnetic field B(r) at the earth core-mantle boundary from surface and satellite measurements is then analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the selection of lambda in the studies of Gubbins (1983) and Gubbins and Bloxham (1985). It is argued that the selection method is inappropriate and leads to lambda values much larger than those that would result if a reasonable bound on the heat flow at the CMB were assumed.

  18. Inferring the eccentricity distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, David W; Bovy, Jo

    2010-01-01

    Standard maximum-likelihood estimators for binary-star and exoplanet eccentricities are biased high, in the sense that the estimated eccentricity tends to be larger than the true eccentricity. As with most non-trivial observables, a simple histogram of estimated eccentricities is not a good estimate of the true eccentricity distribution. Here we develop and test a hierarchical probabilistic method for performing the relevant meta-analysis, that is, inferring the true eccentricity distribution, taking as input the likelihood functions for the individual-star eccentricities, or samplings of the posterior probability distributions for the eccentricities (under a given, uninformative prior). The method is a simple implementation of a hierarchical Bayesian model; it can also be seen as a kind of heteroscedastic deconvolution. It can be applied to any quantity measured with finite precision--other orbital parameters, or indeed any astronomical measurements of any kind, including magnitudes, parallaxes, or photometr...

  19. Inferring deterministic causal relations

    CERN Document Server

    Daniusis, Povilas; Mooij, Joris; Zscheischler, Jakob; Steudel, Bastian; Zhang, Kun; Schoelkopf, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We consider two variables that are related to each other by an invertible function. While it has previously been shown that the dependence structure of the noise can provide hints to determine which of the two variables is the cause, we presently show that even in the deterministic (noise-free) case, there are asymmetries that can be exploited for causal inference. Our method is based on the idea that if the function and the probability density of the cause are chosen independently, then the distribution of the effect will, in a certain sense, depend on the function. We provide a theoretical analysis of this method, showing that it also works in the low noise regime, and link it to information geometry. We report strong empirical results on various real-world data sets from different domains.

  20. Impact of Psychological Empowerment on Nonfinancial Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enis HEMEDOĞLU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of psychological empowerment on nonfinancial performance of organizations. The sample of the research consists of 70 employees of an enterprise serving in health sector. “Impact”, “competence” and “meaning” dimensions for psychological empowerment and “customer perspective”, “internal processes perspective” and “learning and growth perspective” dimensions for nonfinancial performance are derived from factor analysis. There is a significant negative relationship between internal processes perspective, one of nonfinancial performance dimensions, and impact dimension, one of psychological empowerment dimensions. Moreover, there are significant positive relationships between learning and growth perspective, one of nonfinancial performance dimensions, and psychological empowerment, impact dimension and meaning dimension of psychological empowerment. According to regression analysis, psychological empowerment does not have impact on nonfinancial performance.

  1. Admissibility of logical inference rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rybakov, VV

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and

  2. Development of learning science after learning psychology

    OpenAIRE

    森, 敏昭

    2015-01-01

    Learning psychology began as a branch of psychology in the last couple of decades of the nineteenth century, and its history is therefore as long as that of psychology itself. However, learning science is a relatively young discipline: its development may be traced to 1991, when the first international conference was held and Journal of the Learning Sciences was first published. In the short subsequent period, learning science has grown rapidly as an interdisciplinary approach to learning and...

  3. Collective Psychological Ownership and Intergroup Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2017-09-01

    Whereas much social psychological research has studied the in-group and out-group implications of social categorization and collective identity ("we"), little research has examined the nature and relevance of collective psychological ownership ("ours") for intergroup relations. We make a case for considering collective psychological ownership as an important source of intergroup tensions. We do so by integrating theory and research from various social sciences, and we draw out implications for future social psychological research on intergroup relations. We discuss collective psychological ownership in relation to the psychology of possessions, marking behavior, intergroup threats, outgroup exclusion, and in-group responsibility. We suggest that the social psychological processes discussed apply to a range of ownership objects (territory, buildings, cultural artifacts) and various intergroup settings, including international, national, and local contexts, and in organizations and communities. We conclude by providing directions for future research in different intergroup contexts.

  4. The use of the effect size in JCR Spanish journals of psychology: from theory to fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Juan; Ortega Campos, Elena; De la Fuente Sánchez, Leticia

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, Wilkinson and the Task Force on Statistical Inference published "Statistical Methods and Psychology: Guidelines and Explanation." The authors made several recommendations about how to improve the quality of Psychology research papers. One of these was to report some effect-size index in the results of the research. In 2001, the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association included this recommendation. In Spain, in 2003, scientific journals like Psicothema or the International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology (IJCHP) published editorials and papers expressing the need to calculate the effect size in the research papers. The aim of this study is to determine whether the papers published from 2003 to 2008 in the four Spanish journals indexed in the Journal Citation Reports have reported some effect-size index of their results. The findings indicate that, in general, the followup of the norm has been scanty, though the evolution over the analyzed period is different depending on the journal.

  5. The History of Children's Psychological Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stuart N.

    1982-01-01

    An historical perspective on the development of interest in children's psychological rights is presented. Changing concepts of childhood, children's rights movements, and declarations of children's rights, as proposed by the United Nations, the 1970 White House Conference on Children, and the International School Psychology Committee, are…

  6. Multiple Instance Fuzzy Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    positive bag we assign a positive label to the instances with the highest energy (energy can be computed by taking the sum of the absolute values of GPR...for music infor- mation retrieval,” in ISMIR 2008: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Music Information Retrieval. Drexel University

  7. An Inference Language for Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedemonte, Stefano; Catana, Ciprian; Van Leemput, Koen

    2014-01-01

    We introduce iLang, a language and software framework for probabilistic inference. The iLang framework enables the definition of directed and undirected probabilistic graphical models and the automated synthesis of high performance inference algorithms for imaging applications. The iLang framework...

  8. Interactive Instruction in Bayesian Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam; Breslav, Simon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction...... that an instructional approach to improving human performance in Bayesian inference is a promising direction....

  9. Variational Program Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Harik, Georges

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a framework for representing a variety of interesting problems as inference over the execution of probabilistic model programs. We represent a "solution" to such a problem as a guide program which runs alongside the model program and influences the model program's random choices, leading the model program to sample from a different distribution than from its priors. Ideally the guide program influences the model program to sample from the posteriors given the evidence. We show how the KL- divergence between the true posterior distribution and the distribution induced by the guided model program can be efficiently estimated (up to an additive constant) by sampling multiple executions of the guided model program. In addition, we show how to use the guide program as a proposal distribution in importance sampling to statistically prove lower bounds on the probability of the evidence and on the probability of a hypothesis and the evidence. We can use the quotient of these two bounds as an estimate of ...

  10. Gauging Variational Inference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ahn, Sungsoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jinwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-25

    Computing partition function is the most important statistical inference task arising in applications of Graphical Models (GM). Since it is computationally intractable, approximate methods have been used to resolve the issue in practice, where meanfield (MF) and belief propagation (BP) are arguably the most popular and successful approaches of a variational type. In this paper, we propose two new variational schemes, coined Gauged-MF (G-MF) and Gauged-BP (G-BP), improving MF and BP, respectively. Both provide lower bounds for the partition function by utilizing the so-called gauge transformation which modifies factors of GM while keeping the partition function invariant. Moreover, we prove that both G-MF and G-BP are exact for GMs with a single loop of a special structure, even though the bare MF and BP perform badly in this case. Our extensive experiments, on complete GMs of relatively small size and on large GM (up-to 300 variables) confirm that the newly proposed algorithms outperform and generalize MF and BP.

  11. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  12. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  13. Transpersonal: The New Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford

    1974-01-01

    Transpersonal psychology deals with altered states of consciousness, man's impluse to higher states of being, psychic phenomena, biofeedback, and voluntary control of internal states. Argues that it will lead to new educational understandings and practices. Discusses some of those practices and understandings. (Author/JF)

  14. Generic Patch Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to update drivers in response to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spfind, that identifies common changes made...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  15. Active inference and robot control: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizard, Ange; Friston, Karl; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Active inference is a general framework for perception and action that is gaining prominence in computational and systems neuroscience but is less known outside these fields. Here, we discuss a proof-of-principle implementation of the active inference scheme for the control or the 7-DoF arm of a (simulated) PR2 robot. By manipulating visual and proprioceptive noise levels, we show under which conditions robot control under the active inference scheme is accurate. Besides accurate control, our analysis of the internal system dynamics (e.g. the dynamics of the hidden states that are inferred during the inference) sheds light on key aspects of the framework such as the quintessentially multimodal nature of control and the differential roles of proprioception and vision. In the discussion, we consider the potential importance of being able to implement active inference in robots. In particular, we briefly review the opportunities for modelling psychophysiological phenomena such as sensory attenuation and related failures of gain control, of the sort seen in Parkinson's disease. We also consider the fundamental difference between active inference and optimal control formulations, showing that in the former the heavy lifting shifts from solving a dynamical inverse problem to creating deep forward or generative models with dynamics, whose attracting sets prescribe desired behaviours. PMID:27683002

  16. Active inference and robot control: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio-Lopez, Léo; Nizard, Ange; Friston, Karl; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Active inference is a general framework for perception and action that is gaining prominence in computational and systems neuroscience but is less known outside these fields. Here, we discuss a proof-of-principle implementation of the active inference scheme for the control or the 7-DoF arm of a (simulated) PR2 robot. By manipulating visual and proprioceptive noise levels, we show under which conditions robot control under the active inference scheme is accurate. Besides accurate control, our analysis of the internal system dynamics (e.g. the dynamics of the hidden states that are inferred during the inference) sheds light on key aspects of the framework such as the quintessentially multimodal nature of control and the differential roles of proprioception and vision. In the discussion, we consider the potential importance of being able to implement active inference in robots. In particular, we briefly review the opportunities for modelling psychophysiological phenomena such as sensory attenuation and related failures of gain control, of the sort seen in Parkinson's disease. We also consider the fundamental difference between active inference and optimal control formulations, showing that in the former the heavy lifting shifts from solving a dynamical inverse problem to creating deep forward or generative models with dynamics, whose attracting sets prescribe desired behaviours.

  17. Inferring Action Structure and Causal Relationships in Continuous Sequences of Human Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    3), 1382-1407. Baldwin, D. A., Baird, J., Saylor, M., & Clark, A. (2001). Infants parse dynamic human action. Child Development , 72 (3), 708-717. Bes...scared cause tummy aches? naive theories, ambiguous evidence, and preschoolers ’ causal inferences. Developmental Psychology, 43 (5), 1124-1139. Schulz, L...E., & Sommerville, J. (2006). God does not play dice: Causal determinism and children’s inferences about unobserved causes. Child Development , 77

  18. Optimization methods for logical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Chandru, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though ""solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs."" Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logic in

  19. Psychological Adjustment of Siblings to a Child with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollidge, Colin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the psychological adjustment of well child siblings living with siblings with diabetes. Psychological adjustment was assessed by measuring self-concept; behavioral difficulties; competence; anxiety; and depression on standardized tests. The well siblings demonstrated significant internal psychological stressors and maintained high levels…

  20. Teaching of Psychology in Countries with Advanced versus Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2014-01-01

    We compare structures and contents of psychology programmes from countries with developing and advanced economies. Respondents from 49 countries completed a survey of the International Union of Psychological Science on psychology education and training. In general, there are more similarities than differences between countries with developing and…

  1. Statistical inference via fiducial methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomé, Diemer

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis the attention is restricted to inductive reasoning using a mathematical probability model. A statistical procedure prescribes, for every theoretically possible set of data, the inference about the unknown of interest. ... Zie: Summary

  2. On principles of inductive inference

    OpenAIRE

    Kostecki, Ryszard Paweł

    2011-01-01

    We propose an intersubjective epistemic approach to foundations of probability theory and statistical inference, based on relative entropy and category theory, and aimed to bypass the mathematical and conceptual problems of existing foundational approaches.

  3. The development of counselling psychology in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Allison; O'Callaghan, Dermot; O'Brien, Owen; Broderick, John; Long, Catherine; O'Grady, Ian

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the distinctive nature of the specialism of counselling psychology and outlines the development of the discipline in Ireland in the context of international developments and its recognition as a professional branch of applied psychology. Today, counselling psychologists are employed in varied clinical and non-clinical settings including health and mental health services (statutory, private and voluntary sector) along with education, forensic, justice, industry and private practices. Counselling psychologist is the primary professional identity of many practising psychologists in Ireland and the Psychological Society of Ireland's Division of Counselling Psychology is the main affiliation of at least 179 members. With its focus on facilitating personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span and its emphasis on the therapeutic process, the specialism continues to bridge the disciplines of psychology, counselling and psychotherapy. In this article, some of the challenges still faced by counselling psychology are explored as it navigates its way through the changing landscape of further development and evolution.

  4. Type Inference for Guarded Recursive Data Types

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckey, Peter J.; Sulzmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We consider type inference for guarded recursive data types (GRDTs) -- a recent generalization of algebraic data types. We reduce type inference for GRDTs to unification under a mixed prefix. Thus, we obtain efficient type inference. Inference is incomplete because the set of type constraints allowed to appear in the type system is only a subset of those type constraints generated by type inference. Hence, inference only succeeds if the program is sufficiently type annotated. We present refin...

  5. Statistical Inference in Graphical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-17

    Probabilistic Network Library ( PNL ). While not fully mature, PNL does provide the most commonly-used algorithms for inference and learning with the efficiency...of C++, and also offers interfaces for calling the library from MATLAB and R 1361. Notably, both BNT and PNL provide learning and inference algorithms...mature and has been used for research purposes for several years, it is written in MATLAB and thus is not suitable to be used in real-time settings. PNL

  6. Implementing Deep Inference in Tom

    OpenAIRE

    Kahramanogullari, Ozan; Moreau, Pierre-Etienne; Reilles, Antoine

    2005-01-01

    ISSN 1430-211X; The calculus of structures is a proof theoretical formalism which generalizes sequent calculus with the feature of deep inference: in contrast to sequent calculus, the calculus of structures does not rely on the notion of main connective and, like in term rewriting, it permits the application of the inference rules at any depth inside a formula. Tom is a pattern matching processor that integrates term rewriting facilities into imperative languages. In this paper, relying on th...

  7. An Inference Language for Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedemonte, Stefano; Catana, Ciprian; Van Leemput, Koen

    2014-01-01

    We introduce iLang, a language and software framework for probabilistic inference. The iLang framework enables the definition of directed and undirected probabilistic graphical models and the automated synthesis of high performance inference algorithms for imaging applications. The iLang framewor......-accelerated primitives specializes iLang to the spatial data-structures that arise in imaging applications. We illustrate the framework through a challenging application: spatio-temporal tomographic reconstruction with compressive sensing....

  8. Bayesian Inference: with ecological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William A.; Barker, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This text provides a mathematically rigorous yet accessible and engaging introduction to Bayesian inference with relevant examples that will be of interest to biologists working in the fields of ecology, wildlife management and environmental studies as well as students in advanced undergraduate statistics.. This text opens the door to Bayesian inference, taking advantage of modern computational efficiencies and easily accessible software to evaluate complex hierarchical models.

  9. Statistical Inference: The Big Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Robert E

    2011-02-01

    Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative "big picture" depiction.

  10. Abductive inference and delusional belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, Max; Menzies, Peter; Sutton, John

    2010-01-01

    Delusional beliefs have sometimes been considered as rational inferences from abnormal experiences. We explore this idea in more detail, making the following points. First, the abnormalities of cognition that initially prompt the entertaining of a delusional belief are not always conscious and since we prefer to restrict the term "experience" to consciousness we refer to "abnormal data" rather than "abnormal experience". Second, we argue that in relation to many delusions (we consider seven) one can clearly identify what the abnormal cognitive data are which prompted the delusion and what the neuropsychological impairment is which is responsible for the occurrence of these data; but one can equally clearly point to cases where this impairment is present but delusion is not. So the impairment is not sufficient for delusion to occur: a second cognitive impairment, one that affects the ability to evaluate beliefs, must also be present. Third (and this is the main thrust of our paper), we consider in detail what the nature of the inference is that leads from the abnormal data to the belief. This is not deductive inference and it is not inference by enumerative induction; it is abductive inference. We offer a Bayesian account of abductive inference and apply it to the explanation of delusional belief.

  11. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  12. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  13. Ranald Macdonald and statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip T

    2009-05-01

    Ranald Roderick Macdonald (1945-2007) was an important contributor to mathematical psychology in the UK, as a referee and action editor for British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology and as a participant and organizer at the British Psychological Society's Mathematics, statistics and computing section meetings. This appreciation argues that his most important contribution was to the foundations of significance testing, where his concern about what information was relevant in interpreting the results of significance tests led him to be a persuasive advocate for the 'Weak Fisherian' form of hypothesis testing.

  14. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  15. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  16. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  17. Ensuring the Availability and Quality of School Psychology Doctoral Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Abigail M.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, only a small percentage of internships accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) are filled by school psychology interns and only a few of the available APA internship positions are in schools. Program data submitted online to APA indicate that many interns are in sites that meet the guidelines adopted by the Council of…

  18. Ensuring the Availability and Quality of School Psychology Doctoral Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Abigail M.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, only a small percentage of internships accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) are filled by school psychology interns and only a few of the available APA internship positions are in schools. Program data submitted online to APA indicate that many interns are in sites that meet the guidelines adopted by the Council of…

  19. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sz Makó, Hajnalka; Veszprémi, Béla

    2011-01-01

    The present paper, based on the results of international studies, is focused on the reconsideration of the psychological aspects of induced abortion. By presenting a narrow cross-section of the Hungarian demographic data, we would like to emphasise the necessity and the significance of a deeper understanding of the subject. Factors behind the decision-making, short- and long term outcomes of the intervention influencing primarily the mental health of women and partner-relationship aspects are discussed in details. While acknowledging the complexity of the subject deriving from the legal, ethical, moral, religious, medical, social and sociological concerns, our aim is to call attention to the psychological aspects of induced abortion and the importance of psychological care of women undergoing surgical operation.

  20. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  1. Deontic introduction: A theory of inference from is to ought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elqayam, Shira; Thompson, Valerie A; Wilkinson, Meredith R; Evans, Jonathan St B T; Over, David E

    2015-09-01

    Humans have a unique ability to generate novel norms. Faced with the knowledge that there are hungry children in Somalia, we easily and naturally infer that we ought to donate to famine relief charities. Although a contentious and lively issue in metaethics, such inference from "is" to "ought" has not been systematically studied in the psychology of reasoning. We propose that deontic introduction is the result of a rich chain of pragmatic inference, most of it implicit; specifically, when an action is causally linked to a valenced goal, valence transfers to the action and bridges into a deontic conclusion. Participants in 5 experiments were presented with utility conditionals in which an action results in a benefit, a cost, or neutral outcome (e.g., "If Lisa buys the booklet, she will pass the exam") and asked to evaluate how strongly deontic conclusions (e.g., "Lisa should buy the booklet") follow from the premises. Findings show that the direction of the conclusions was determined by outcome valence (Experiments 1a and 1b), whereas their strength was determined by the strength of the causal link between action and outcome (Experiments 1, 2a, and 2b). We also found that deontic introduction is defeasible and can be suppressed by additional premises that interfere with any of the links in the implicit chain of inference (Experiments 2a, 2b, and 3). We propose that deontic introduction is a species-specific generative capacity whose function is to regulate future behavior.

  2. The Bayesian Inference Research on the Internal Fraud of Chinese Commercial Banks Based on Varying Location Parameter%基于变位置参数贝叶斯预测银行内部欺诈研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽君; 丰吉闯

    2012-01-01

    Internal fraud is the most important loss type of Chinese commercial banks and has caused a lot of losses. Since the nature of operational risk, loss data is deficiency, in order to do more accurate and ro- bust calculation with little data, this paper uses the Bayesian posterior forecasting distribution to calculate the parameters. Since the chosen of location parameter is important to the evaluation, we set the location varying with linear trend to get more robust parameters estimation. The loss frequency is Poisson distribu- tion, and we set the prior Gamma distribution, while the loss severity is Generalized Pareto distribution, and we set the prior distribution mixture Gamma distribution, then we get the posterior predictive distri- butions of loss frequency and loss severity, with Monte Carlo simulation we get the combined distribu- tions. Compared to the classical method of Poisson-GPD, The results are better and we get much stable parameters and much lower capital charge for internal fraud. And Bayesian analysis is helpful to calculate accurately the parameters with small sample.%内部欺诈事件类型是中国商业银行最严重的操作风险类型。但由于操作风险本质特征和中国商业银行内部欺诈损失数据收集年度较短,数据匮乏,为了在小样本数据下进行更准确的度量,本文采用贝叶斯后验预测分布方法,其中,假设损失频率服从泊松一伽马分布,而损失强度服从广义帕累托一混合伽马分布,分析后验分布的形式。由于在广义帕累托分布的参数估计中,位置参数的确定对估计结果的影响很大,因此,本文采用变位置参数线性趋势的贝叶斯分析以增强参数预测稳定性,降低位置参数选择对结果产生的影响,获得中国商业银行内部欺诈损失频率和损失强度的后验预测分布和边际分布,进而采用蒙特卡罗模拟,联合损失频率分布和损失强度的预测分布获得

  3. An Inference Language for Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedemonte, Stefano; Catana, Ciprian; Van Leemput, Koen

    2014-01-01

    We introduce iLang, a language and software framework for probabilistic inference. The iLang framework enables the definition of directed and undirected probabilistic graphical models and the automated synthesis of high performance inference algorithms for imaging applications. The iLang framework...... is composed of a set of language primitives and of an inference engine based on a message-passing system that integrates cutting-edge computational tools, including proximal algorithms and high performance Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. A set of domain-specific highly optimized GPU......-accelerated primitives specializes iLang to the spatial data-structures that arise in imaging applications. We illustrate the framework through a challenging application: spatio-temporal tomographic reconstruction with compressive sensing....

  4. Locative inferences in medical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, P S; Bailey, G H; Mayer, R J; Hillis, A; Dvoracek, J E

    1987-06-01

    Medical research relies on epidemiological studies conducted on a large set of clinical records that have been collected from physicians recording individual patient observations. These clinical records are recorded for the purpose of individual care of the patient with little consideration for their use by a biostatistician interested in studying a disease over a large population. Natural language processing of clinical records for epidemiological studies must deal with temporal, locative, and conceptual issues. This makes text understanding and data extraction of clinical records an excellent area for applied research. While much has been done in making temporal or conceptual inferences in medical texts, parallel work in locative inferences has not been done. This paper examines the locative inferences as well as the integration of temporal, locative, and conceptual issues in the clinical record understanding domain by presenting an application that utilizes two key concepts in its parsing strategy--a knowledge-based parsing strategy and a minimal lexicon.

  5. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  6. [Criminal psychology in Franco's police].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael; Zubieta, Eva

    2013-02-01

    Francisco J. de Echalecu (1897-1957) was a Spanish psychiatrist who held important positions, such as Psychology Professor at the Academia General de Policía and Neuropsychiatrist at the Dirección General de Seguridad. This work provides a brief biography of Echalecu and analyzes the transcriptions of his classes on Criminal Psychology of 1942, his Criminal Psychology from 1947 as well as his involvement in the case of the torture of Communist leader Heriberto Quiñones. We describe his project of a totalitarian Psychology and his proposal of social intervention, including eugenic methodologies as well as forced reclusion for those labeled as asocial. The adaptation in Spain of the totalitarian psychological project to the new international reality after the Second World War is also described. In Spain a "final solution" for criminals and political dissidents has been prepared, which was inspired by the Nazi criminal policies and promoted by Dr. Echalecu from Spain's higher police body, the DGS. This project was frustrated by the German defeat in the world war and the only thing left from the original project was the arbitrary application of the Ley de Vagos y Maleantes [an antivagrancy law] to those individuals labeled as "asocial".

  7. An overview of South African psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa.

  8. Eight challenges in phylodynamic inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D.W. Frost

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of phylodynamics, which attempts to enhance our understanding of infectious disease dynamics using pathogen phylogenies, has made great strides in the past decade. Basic epidemiological and evolutionary models are now well characterized with inferential frameworks in place. However, significant challenges remain in extending phylodynamic inference to more complex systems. These challenges include accounting for evolutionary complexities such as changing mutation rates, selection, reassortment, and recombination, as well as epidemiological complexities such as stochastic population dynamics, host population structure, and different patterns at the within-host and between-host scales. An additional challenge exists in making efficient inferences from an ever increasing corpus of sequence data.

  9. Automatic Inference of DATR Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barg, P

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for the automatic acquisition of linguistic knowledge from unstructured data. The acquired knowledge is represented in the lexical knowledge representation language DATR. A set of transformation rules that establish inheritance relationships and a default-inference algorithm make up the basis components of the system. Since the overall approach is not restricted to a special domain, the heuristic inference strategy uses criteria to evaluate the quality of a DATR theory, where different domains may require different criteria. The system is applied to the linguistic learning task of German noun inflection.

  10. Perception, illusions and Bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Descriptive psychopathology makes a distinction between veridical perception and illusory perception. In both cases a perception is tied to a sensory stimulus, but in illusions the perception is of a false object. This article re-examines this distinction in light of new work in theoretical and computational neurobiology, which views all perception as a form of Bayesian statistical inference that combines sensory signals with prior expectations. Bayesian perceptual inference can solve the 'inverse optics' problem of veridical perception and provides a biologically plausible account of a number of illusory phenomena, suggesting that veridical and illusory perceptions are generated by precisely the same inferential mechanisms.

  11. Object-Oriented Type Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op-timizing......We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op...

  12. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  13. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  14. The psychology behind the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia PANDELICA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extensive analysis of bought international business press andacademic literature in the field about crisis management and related fields. The paperis grounded on the premise that the psychology of the crisis is an important componentof the present international context and psychological factors play an important part inthe alteration of consumer’s behavior. The question that generated our researchapproach in such conditions was at what extent peoples’ behavior is determined byindividual rational choices. The central message of this paper is that in the presenteconomic crisis conditions the factors that are playing an important role in shapingpeople’s behaviour are: risk perception and risk attitude. We consider that at presentmanagers should understand how their clients react in crisis conditions and how theirbehavior changes in order to handle successfully the present situation.

  15. Identity of psychology, psychological paradigms and constructivism: Toward a perspective social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janek Musek

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical self-reflexion is a healthy practice of any science including psychology. Nevertheless, psychology has long ago outgrew the age of the search for its own identity. It is however a science sui generis, determined by a radical split into Lockean and Kantian (objective and phenomenological paradigm, each completely legitimate but also completely different in defining the objectives as well as the methods of research. That internal splitting is presented in all psychological disciplines. In social psychology, social constructivism emerged decades ago as a typical disciplinary "paradigm" (although subordinated to both previously mentioned paradigms. The present contribution is aimed to show that social constructivism could be effectively merged with the theoretical frame of cognitivism, dominant theoretical orientation in contemporaneous psychology. On the other hand, social constructivism failed to understand the proper relationship between human nature and human cultural context. Human beings are evolutionary evolved as beings genetically programmed for the construction of the culture and social milieu. Human beings are not products of the culture in the proper sense of meaning. The truth is quite opposite: the culture is a product of human biological equipment. But this is an equipment that predisposes human individual to be a social, cultural being uniquely capable of learning, uniquely capable of receiving the influence of his own products – social environment and culture.

  16. Inference in hybrid Bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular for building statistical models of complex systems. This is particularly true for boolean systems, where BNs often prove to be a more efficient modelling framework than traditional reliability-techniques (like fault trees...... decade's research on inference in hybrid Bayesian networks. The discussions are linked to an example model for estimating human reliability....

  17. Bayesian inference for Hawkes processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    The Hawkes process is a practically and theoretically important class of point processes, but parameter-estimation for such a process can pose various problems. In this paper we explore and compare two approaches to Bayesian inference. The first approach is based on the so-called conditional...

  18. Bayesian inference for Hawkes processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2013-01-01

    The Hawkes process is a practically and theoretically important class of point processes, but parameter-estimation for such a process can pose various problems. In this paper we explore and compare two approaches to Bayesian inference. The first approach is based on the so-called conditional...

  19. Bayesian inference for Hawkes processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    The Hawkes process is a practically and theoretically important class of point processes, but parameter-estimation for such a process can pose various problems. In this paper we explore and compare two approaches to Bayesian inference. The first approach is based on the so-called conditional...

  20. On principles of inductive inference

    CERN Document Server

    Kostecki, Ryszard Paweł

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the mathematical and conceptual problems of main approaches to foundations of probability theory and statistical inference and propose new foundational approach, aimed to improve the mathematical structure of the theory and to bypass the old conceptual problems. In particular, we introduce the intersubjective interpretation of probability, which is designed to deal with the troubles of `subjective' and `objective' bayesian interpretations.

  1. Regular inference as vertex coloring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa Florêncio, C.; Verwer, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of supervised learning of deterministic finite state automata, in the technical sense of identification in the limit from complete data, by finding a minimal DFA consistent with the data (regular inference). We solve this problem by translating it in its enti

  2. Type inference for COBOL systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Moonen, L.M.F.

    1998-01-01

    Types are a good starting point for various software reengineering tasks. Unfortunately, programs requiring reengineering most desperately are written in languages without an adequate type system (such as COBOL). To solve this problem, we propose a method of automated type inference for these lang

  3. Regular inference as vertex coloring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa Florêncio, C.; Verwer, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of supervised learning of deterministic finite state automata, in the technical sense of identification in the limit from complete data, by finding a minimal DFA consistent with the data (regular inference). We solve this problem by translating it in its

  4. Statistical inference on variance components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdooren, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    In several sciences but especially in animal and plant breeding, the general mixed model with fixed and random effects plays a great role. Statistical inference on variance components means tests of hypotheses about variance components, constructing confidence intervals for them, estimating them,

  5. Covering, Packing and Logical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    of Operations Research 43 (1993). [34] *Hooker, J. N., Generalized resolution for 0-1 linear inequalities, Annals of Mathematics and A 16 271-286. [35...Hooker, J. N. and C. Fedjki, Branch-and-cut solution of inference prob- lems in propositional logic, Annals of Mathematics and AI 1 (1990) 123-140. [40

  6. Mathematical Programming and Logical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    solution of inference problems in propositional logic, to appear in Annals of Mathematics and Al. (271 Howard, R. A., and J. E. Matheson, Influence...1981). (281 Jeroslow, R., and J. Wang, Solving propositional satisfiability problems, to appear in Annals of Mathematics and Al. [29] Nilsson, N. J

  7. An Introduction to Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-02

    legitimize causal inference, has removed causation from its natural habitat, and distorted its face beyond recognition. This exclusivist attitude is...In contrast, when the mediation problem is approached from an exclusivist potential-outcome viewpoint, void of the structural guidance of Eq. (28

  8. Inferring human intentions from the brain data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Konrad

    The human brain is a massively complex organ composed of approximately a hundred billion densely interconnected, interacting neural cells. The neurons are not wired randomly - instead, they are organized in local functional assemblies. It is believed that the complex patterns of dynamic electric...... discharges across the neural tissue are responsible for emergence of high cognitive function, conscious perception and voluntary action. The brain’s capacity to exercise free will, or internally generated free choice, has long been investigated by philosophers, psychologists and neuroscientists. Rather than...... assuming a causal power of conscious will, the neuroscience of volition is based on the premise that "mental states rest on brain processes”, and hence by measuring spatial and temporal correlates of volition in carefully controlled experiments we can infer about their underlying mind processes, including...

  9. Analysis of a Clinical Case Formulation Protocol from Psychological Well-Being Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Consuelo Caycedo Espinel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the validation process of a case formulation protocol, based on the theoretical perspective of Behavior Analysis, in order to contribute to the development of a case formulation model aimed to organize the information coming from evaluation, to reduce clinical judgment bias, and to orient the clinical intervention towards a coherent and consistent way with the analysis categories belonging to the field of Psychological Wellbeing. Validity was defined as a function of the use of a single case designwith a time series methodology and the internal validity of the formulations, based on criteria of consistency among the categories and the descriptive and explicative hypotheses, and among these and the intervention plan.The clinical formulation process was finished with six cases, taking the intervention efficacy as the validity criterion. Results point to the high level of inference and hypotheses based on clinical judgment rather than on empirical evidences.

  10. Bully Victims: Psychological and Somatic Aftermaths

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Bullying is a well-known adversity among school-age children. According to data, approximately 10 percent of US children and adolescents are the victims of frequent bullying by peers. In the aftermath of being bullied, victims may develop a variety of psychological as well as somatic symptoms, some of which may persist into adulthood. Psychological symptoms may include social difficulties, internalizing symptoms, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and eating disorders (i.e., anorexia or ...

  11. The development of counselling psychology in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Allison; O'Callaghan, Dermot,; O'Brien, Owen; Broderick, John; Long, Catherine; O'Grady, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the distinctive nature of the specialism of counselling psychology and outlines the development of the discipline in Ireland in the context of international developments and its recognition as a professional branch of applied psychology. Today, counselling psychologists are employed in varied clinical and non-clinical settings including health and mental health services (statutory, private and voluntary sector) along with education, forensic, justice, industry and private...

  12. Impact of Psychological Empowerment on Nonfinancial Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hemedoğlu, Enis; KOÇAK, Mahmut; ÖZKAN, Aslıhan; Başak Melek BERBEROĞLUGİL

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of psychological empowerment on nonfinancial performance of organizations. The sample of the research consists of 70 employees of an enterprise serving in health sector. “Impact”, “competence” and “meaning” dimensions for psychological empowerment and “customer perspective”, “internal processes perspective” and “learning and growth perspective” dimensions for nonfinancial performance are derived from factor analysis. There is a significant negative relationship...

  13. Social psychology as a natural kind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason P

    2009-06-01

    Although typically defined as the study of how people and groups interact, the field of social psychology comprises several disparate domains that make only indirect contributions to understanding interpersonal interaction, such as emotion, attitudes and the self. Although these various phenomena seem to have little in common, recent evidence indicates that the topics at the core of social psychology form a natural group of domains with a common functional neuroanatomy, centered on the medial prefrontal cortex. That self-referential, attitudinal, affective and other social phenomena converge on this region might reflect their shared reliance on inexact and internally generated estimates that differ from the more precise representations underlying other psychological phenomena.

  14. Spontaneous evaluative inferences and their relationship to spontaneous trait inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneid, Erica D; Carlston, Donal E; Skowronski, John J

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments are reported that explore affectively based spontaneous evaluative impressions (SEIs) of stimulus persons. Experiments 1 and 2 used modified versions of the savings in relearning paradigm (Carlston & Skowronski, 1994) to confirm the occurrence of SEIs, indicating that they are equivalent whether participants are instructed to form trait impressions, evaluative impressions, or neither. These experiments also show that SEIs occur independently of explicit recall for the trait implications of the stimuli. Experiment 3 provides a single dissociation test to distinguish SEIs from spontaneous trait inferences (STIs), showing that disrupting cognitive processing interferes with a trait-based prediction task that presumably reflects STIs, but not with an affectively based social approach task that presumably reflects SEIs. Implications of these findings for the potential independence of spontaneous trait and evaluative inferences, as well as limitations and important steps for future study are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  16. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  17. Global Organizational Psychology: Internationalizing the Training Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavis Kung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid of globalization in the Information Age, students must become adept at navigating the complex and ambiguous nature of the global business environment. One major roadblock for training students to become global professionals is the lack of international curriculum within Industrial/Organizational (I/O Psychology programs at leading post-graduate training institutions. This article examines the methodologies and best practices used in establishing an International I/O Psychology curriculum at the graduate level developed to train students to better understand and work within the complexities of the global business environment. In this article we discuss the process we used to identify the major curriculum components needed for training in international I/O Psychology, and we provide specific advice for programs considering internationalization as well as lessons learned.

  18. Polynomial Regressions and Nonsense Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel; Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    Polynomial specifications are widely used, not only in applied economics, but also in epidemiology, physics, political analysis, and psychology, just to mention a few examples. In many cases, the data employed to estimate such estimations are time series that may exhibit stochastic nonstationary ...

  19. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  20. Probability biases as Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre; C. R. Martins

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will show how several observed biases in human probabilistic reasoning can be partially explained as good heuristics for making inferences in an environment where probabilities have uncertainties associated to them. Previous results show that the weight functions and the observed violations of coalescing and stochastic dominance can be understood from a Bayesian point of view. We will review those results and see that Bayesian methods should also be used as part of the explanation behind other known biases. That means that, although the observed errors are still errors under the be understood as adaptations to the solution of real life problems. Heuristics that allow fast evaluations and mimic a Bayesian inference would be an evolutionary advantage, since they would give us an efficient way of making decisions. %XX In that sense, it should be no surprise that humans reason with % probability as it has been observed.

  1. Bayesian Inference for Radio Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lochner, Michelle; Zwart, Jonathan T L; Smirnov, Oleg; Bassett, Bruce A; Oozeer, Nadeem; Kunz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) New telescopes like the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will push into a new sensitivity regime and expose systematics, such as direction-dependent effects, that could previously be ignored. Current methods for handling such systematics rely on alternating best estimates of instrumental calibration and models of the underlying sky, which can lead to inaccurate uncertainty estimates and biased results because such methods ignore any correlations between parameters. These deconvolution algorithms produce a single image that is assumed to be a true representation of the sky, when in fact it is just one realisation of an infinite ensemble of images compatible with the noise in the data. In contrast, here we report a Bayesian formalism that simultaneously infers both systematics and science. Our technique, Bayesian Inference for Radio Observations (BIRO), determines all parameters directly from the raw data, bypassing image-making entirely, by sampling from the joint posterior probability distribution. Thi...

  2. Nonparametric Bayesian inference in biostatistics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As chapters in this book demonstrate, BNP has important uses in clinical sciences and inference for issues like unknown partitions in genomics. Nonparametric Bayesian approaches (BNP) play an ever expanding role in biostatistical inference from use in proteomics to clinical trials. Many research problems involve an abundance of data and require flexible and complex probability models beyond the traditional parametric approaches. As this book's expert contributors show, BNP approaches can be the answer. Survival Analysis, in particular survival regression, has traditionally used BNP, but BNP's potential is now very broad. This applies to important tasks like arrangement of patients into clinically meaningful subpopulations and segmenting the genome into functionally distinct regions. This book is designed to both review and introduce application areas for BNP. While existing books provide theoretical foundations, this book connects theory to practice through engaging examples and research questions. Chapters c...

  3. Network Inference from Grouped Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    In medical research, economics, and the social sciences data frequently appear as subsets of a set of objects. Over the past century a number of descriptive statistics have been developed to construct network structure from such data. However, these measures lack a generating mechanism that links the inferred network structure to the observed groups. To address this issue, we propose a model-based approach called the Hub Model which assumes that every observed group has a leader and that the leader has brought together the other members of the group. The performance of Hub Models is demonstrated by simulation studies. We apply this model to infer the relationships among Senators serving in the 110th United States Congress, the characters in a famous 18th century Chinese novel, and the distribution of flora in North America.

  4. Bayesian inference with ecological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Link, William A

    2009-01-01

    This text is written to provide a mathematically sound but accessible and engaging introduction to Bayesian inference specifically for environmental scientists, ecologists and wildlife biologists. It emphasizes the power and usefulness of Bayesian methods in an ecological context. The advent of fast personal computers and easily available software has simplified the use of Bayesian and hierarchical models . One obstacle remains for ecologists and wildlife biologists, namely the near absence of Bayesian texts written specifically for them. The book includes many relevant examples, is supported by software and examples on a companion website and will become an essential grounding in this approach for students and research ecologists. Engagingly written text specifically designed to demystify a complex subject Examples drawn from ecology and wildlife research An essential grounding for graduate and research ecologists in the increasingly prevalent Bayesian approach to inference Companion website with analyt...

  5. Inferring Centrality from Network Snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haibin; Mesbahi, Mehran; Li, Dewei; Xi, Yugeng

    2017-01-01

    The topology and dynamics of a complex network shape its functionality. However, the topologies of many large-scale networks are either unavailable or incomplete. Without the explicit knowledge of network topology, we show how the data generated from the network dynamics can be utilised to infer the tempo centrality, which is proposed to quantify the influence of nodes in a consensus network. We show that the tempo centrality can be used to construct an accurate estimate of both the propagation rate of influence exerted on consensus networks and the Kirchhoff index of the underlying graph. Moreover, the tempo centrality also encodes the disturbance rejection of nodes in a consensus network. Our findings provide an approach to infer the performance of a consensus network from its temporal data. PMID:28098166

  6. Statistical learning and selective inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan; Tibshirani, Robert J

    2015-06-23

    We describe the problem of "selective inference." This addresses the following challenge: Having mined a set of data to find potential associations, how do we properly assess the strength of these associations? The fact that we have "cherry-picked"--searched for the strongest associations--means that we must set a higher bar for declaring significant the associations that we see. This challenge becomes more important in the era of big data and complex statistical modeling. The cherry tree (dataset) can be very large and the tools for cherry picking (statistical learning methods) are now very sophisticated. We describe some recent new developments in selective inference and illustrate their use in forward stepwise regression, the lasso, and principal components analysis.

  7. Bayesian inference on proportional elections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe Brunello

    Full Text Available Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software.

  8. Causal inference based on counterfactuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höfler M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The counterfactual or potential outcome model has become increasingly standard for causal inference in epidemiological and medical studies. Discussion This paper provides an overview on the counterfactual and related approaches. A variety of conceptual as well as practical issues when estimating causal effects are reviewed. These include causal interactions, imperfect experiments, adjustment for confounding, time-varying exposures, competing risks and the probability of causation. It is argued that the counterfactual model of causal effects captures the main aspects of causality in health sciences and relates to many statistical procedures. Summary Counterfactuals are the basis of causal inference in medicine and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the estimation of counterfactual differences pose several difficulties, primarily in observational studies. These problems, however, reflect fundamental barriers only when learning from observations, and this does not invalidate the counterfactual concept.

  9. The image of psychology programs: the value of the instrumental-symbolic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip; De Soete, Britt; Libbrecht, Nele; Schollaert, Eveline; Baligant, Dimphna

    2014-01-01

    As competition for funding and students intensifies, it becomes increasingly important for psychology programs to have an image that is attractive and makes them stand out from other programs. The current study uses the instrumental-symbolic framework from the marketing domain to determine the image of different master's programs in psychology and examines how these image dimensions relate to student attraction and competitor differentiation. The samples consist of both potential students (N = 114) and current students (N = 68) of three psychology programs at a Belgian university: industrial and organizational psychology, clinical psychology, and experimental psychology. The results demonstrate that both instrumental attributes (e.g., interpersonal activities) and symbolic trait inferences (e.g., sincerity) are key components of the image of psychology programs and predict attractiveness as well as differentiation. In addition, symbolic image dimensions seem more important for current students of psychology programs than for potential students.

  10. Applied statistical inference with MINITAB

    CERN Document Server

    Lesik, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Through clear, step-by-step mathematical calculations, Applied Statistical Inference with MINITAB enables students to gain a solid understanding of how to apply statistical techniques using a statistical software program. It focuses on the concepts of confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, validating model assumptions, and power analysis.Illustrates the techniques and methods using MINITABAfter introducing some common terminology, the author explains how to create simple graphs using MINITAB and how to calculate descriptive statistics using both traditional hand computations and MINITAB. Sh

  11. Security Inference from Noisy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-08

    Junk Mail Samples (JMS)” later) is collected from Hotmail using a different method. JMS is collected from email in inboxes that is reported as spam (or...The data consist of side channel traces from attackers: spam email messages received by Hotmail, one of the largest Web mail services. The basic...similar content and determining the senders of these email messages, one can infer the composition of the botnet. This approach can analyze botnets re

  12. Optimal Inference in Cointegrated Systems

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    This paper studies the properties of maximum likelihood estimates of co-integrated systems. Alternative formulations of such models are considered including a new triangular system error correction mechanism. It is shown that full system maximum likelihood brings the problem of inference within the family that is covered by the locally asymptotically mixed normal asymptotic theory provided that all unit roots in the system have been eliminated by specification and data transformation. This re...

  13. Inferring Centrality from Network Snapshots

    OpenAIRE

    Haibin Shao; Mehran Mesbahi; Dewei Li; Yugeng Xi

    2017-01-01

    The topology and dynamics of a complex network shape its functionality. However, the topologies of many large-scale networks are either unavailable or incomplete. Without the explicit knowledge of network topology, we show how the data generated from the network dynamics can be utilised to infer the tempo centrality, which is proposed to quantify the influence of nodes in a consensus network. We show that the tempo centrality can be used to construct an accurate estimate of both the propagati...

  14. On Quantum Statistical Inference, II

    OpenAIRE

    Barndorff-Nielsen, O. E.; Gill, R. D.; Jupp, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Interest in problems of statistical inference connected to measurements of quantum systems has recently increased substantially, in step with dramatic new developments in experimental techniques for studying small quantum systems. Furthermore, theoretical developments in the theory of quantum measurements have brought the basic mathematical framework for the probability calculations much closer to that of classical probability theory. The present paper reviews this field and proposes and inte...

  15. Breakdown of statistical inference from some random experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments can be interpreted in terms of random processes operating according to some internal protocols. When experiments are costly or cannot be repeated as in some clinical trials one has data gathered in only one or in a few long runs of the experiment. In this paper we study data generated by computer experiments operating according to particular internal protocols. We show that the standard statistical analysis of a sample, containing 100 000 data points or more, may sometimes be highly misleading and statistical errors largely underestimated. Our results confirm in a dramatic way the dangers of standard asymptotic statistical inference based on data gathered in one, possibly long run of the experiment. We demonstrate that analyzing various subdivisions of samples by multiple chi-square tests and chi-square frequency graphs is very effective in detecting the anomalies. Therefore to assure correctness of the statistical inference the above mentioned chi-square tests and other non-parametric sample...

  16. An introduction to causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Judea

    2010-02-26

    This paper summarizes recent advances in causal inference and underscores the paradigmatic shifts that must be undertaken in moving from traditional statistical analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Special emphasis is placed on the assumptions that underlie all causal inferences, the languages used in formulating those assumptions, the conditional nature of all causal and counterfactual claims, and the methods that have been developed for the assessment of such claims. These advances are illustrated using a general theory of causation based on the Structural Causal Model (SCM) described in Pearl (2000a), which subsumes and unifies other approaches to causation, and provides a coherent mathematical foundation for the analysis of causes and counterfactuals. In particular, the paper surveys the development of mathematical tools for inferring (from a combination of data and assumptions) answers to three types of causal queries: those about (1) the effects of potential interventions, (2) probabilities of counterfactuals, and (3) direct and indirect effects (also known as "mediation"). Finally, the paper defines the formal and conceptual relationships between the structural and potential-outcome frameworks and presents tools for a symbiotic analysis that uses the strong features of both. The tools are demonstrated in the analyses of mediation, causes of effects, and probabilities of causation.

  17. El: A Program for Ecological Inference

    OpenAIRE

    King, Gary

    2004-01-01

    The program EI provides a method of inferring individual behavior from aggregate data. It implements the statistical procedures, diagnostics, and graphics from the book A Solution to the Ecological Inference Problem: Reconstructing Individual Behavior from Aggregate Data (King 1997). Ecological inference, as traditionally defined, is the process of using aggregate (i.e., “ecological”) data to infer discrete individual-level relationships of interest when individual- level data are not avai...

  18. EI: A Program for Ecological Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Gary King

    2004-01-01

    The program EI provides a method of inferring individual behavior from aggregate data. It implements the statistical procedures, diagnostics, and graphics from the book A Solution to the Ecological Inference Problem: Reconstructing Individual Behavior from Aggregate Data (King 1997). Ecological inference, as traditionally defined, is the process of using aggregate (i.e., "ecological") data to infer discrete individual-level relationships of interest when individual-level data are not ava...

  19. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of ... Aviation Psychological Practice in the Nigerian Air Force: Challenges and ... Psychosocial Predictors of Quality of Life among Caregivers of Chronically Ill ...

  20. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  1. Evidence and Inference in Educational Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Educational assessment concerns inference about students’ knowledge, skills, and accomplishments. Because data are never so comprehensive and...techniques can be viewed as applications of more general principles for inference in the presence of uncertainty. Issues of evidence and inference in educational assessment are discussed from this perspective. (AN)

  2. Psychology of Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Ulu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter of book that entitled Science, Religion and Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Controversy has been given important informations about psychology of religion’s historical development as well as pioneer figures’ contributions. In this text some evaluations has been made by categorizing studies in field of psychology of religion. Finally some informations are provided about current status of the psychology of religion and position of the psychology of religion ...

  3. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-01-01

    Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in ...

  4. Bell's theorem, inference, and quantum transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, A. J. M.

    1990-04-01

    Bell's theorem is expounded as an analysis in Bayesian inference. Assuming the result of a spin measurement on a particle is governed by a causal variable internal (hidden, “local”) to the particle, one learns about it by making a spin measurement; thence about the internal variable of a second particle correlated with the first; and from there predicts the probabilistic result of spin measurements on the second particle. Such predictions are violated by experiment: locality/causality fails. The statistical nature of the observations rules out signalling; acausal, superluminal, or otherwise. Quantum mechanics is irrelevant to this reasoning, although its correct predictions of experiment imply that it has a nonlocal/acausal interpretation. Cramer's new transactional interpretation, which incorporates this feature by adapting the Wheeler-Feynman idea of advanced and retarded processes to the quantum laws, is advocated. It leads to an invaluable way of envisaging quantum processes. The usual paradoxes melt before this, and one, the “delayed choice” experiment, is chosen for detailed inspection. Nonlocality implies practical difficulties in influencing hidden variables, which provides a very plausible explanation for why they have not yet been found; from this standpoint, Bell's theorem reinforces arguments in favor of hidden variables.

  5. Internationalizing undergraduate psychology education: Trends, techniques, and technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold; Gielen, Uwe P; Plous, Scott; Rich, Grant J; Velayo, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    How can we best internationalize undergraduate psychology education in the United States and elsewhere? This question is more timely than ever, for at least 2 reasons: Within the United States, educators and students seek greater contact with psychology programs abroad, and outside the United States, psychology is growing apace, with educators and students in other nations often looking to U.S. curricula and practices as models. In this article, we outline international developments in undergraduate psychology education both in the United States and abroad, and analyze the dramatic rise of online courses and Internet-based technologies from an instructional and international point of view. Building on the recommendations of the 2005 APA Working Group on Internationalizing the Undergraduate Psychology Curriculum, we then advance 14 recommendations on internationalizing undergraduate psychology education--for students, faculty, and institutions.

  6. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and

  7. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  8. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  9. Psychology and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  10. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…

  11. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  12. Enhancing science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2014-03-01

    This editorial provides a brief update related to the present and future of School Psychology Quarterly as an international resource to enhance and advance science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the world. Information is presented regarding; (a) the breadth of important topics relevant to school psychology, (b) the international contributions, (c) the value of high quality and timely reviews, (d) the structure of and opportunity to contribute to special topic sections of School Psychology Quarterly, and (e) the importance of an international emphasis on children's rights and the relevance for school psychology.

  13. Perfect the Academic Cognition of the International Sport Psychology Society to Norman Triplett%完善国际运动心理学界对Norman Triplett 的认知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游茂林

    2014-01-01

    深入考察19世纪末期国际运动心理学研究情况,重审 Triplett (1898)与运动心理学的关系,发现 Triplett (1898)被看作运动心理学研究,不仅因为它关注“competition effect”,更在于其理论基础、研究对象、研究结论都密切联系体育比赛,它包含理论推导、实验检验、结果分析等环节,特别是采用实验和数理统计法,明显区别于同时代以哲学观为基础的现象学分析或模仿自然科学的实验报告,可谓科学运动心理学诞生的代表作。根据现代运动心理学理论,Triplett (1898)具有较高的研究水平,但它没有明显支持运动心理学的学科创建。%Although this research includes some sport factors ,the historical information indicates that Triplett (1898) is not the first research or experiment of sport psychology because of the research target ,theory basis and experiment program ,and it is better to treat it as a popular psychology research related with sport .Thinking of the situation of sport psychology research during the end of 1900s ,the research model of Triplett(1898) significantly built a bridge be-tween philosophy analysis and scientific measure ,which solved some sport psychology research problems such as the pure theory analysis is lack of proof and the pure quantitative investiga-tion is lack of theoretical depth ,and shown the discipline trait of sport psychology which is be-tween society and science .In summary ,Triplett (1898 ) is like the “ape” in the process of sport psychology goes to science from philosophy ,and the research model showed (present the theoretical hypotheses ,empirical study ,conclusions ) which is the best symbol .According to the modern sport psychology theories ,Triplett (1898) which includes higher academic values , but there is no significant support for the development of sport psychology .

  14. The texture of causal construals: Domain-specific biases shape causal inferences from discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Brent; Silver, Ike; Keil, Frank C

    2017-04-01

    We conducted five sets of experiments asking whether psychological and physical events are construed in broadly different manners concerning the underlying textures of their causes. In Experiments 1a-1d, we found a robust tendency to estimate fewer causes (but not effects) for psychological than for physical events; Experiment 2 showed a similar pattern of results when participants were asked to generate hypothetical causes and effects; Experiment 3 revealed a greater tendency to ascribe linear chains of causes (but not effects) to physical events; Experiment 4 showed that the expectation of linear chains was related to intuitions about deterministic processes; and Experiment 5 showed that simply framing a given ambiguous event in psychological versus physical terms is sufficient to induce changes in the patterns of causal inferences. Adults therefore consistently show a tendency to think about psychological and physical events as being embedded in different kinds of causal structures.

  15. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the field of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology, and one should carefully weigh their advantages against their drawbacks.......Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental...

  16. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the fi eld of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology...

  17. Perceptual inference and autistic traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Joshua; Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Gebauer, Line

    2015-01-01

    Autistic people are better at perceiving details. Major theories explain this in terms of bottom-up sensory mechanisms, or in terms of top-down cognitive biases. Recently, it has become possible to link these theories within a common framework. This framework assumes that perception is implicit...... neural inference, combining sensory evidence with prior perceptual knowledge. Within this framework, perceptual differences may occur because of enhanced precision in how sensory evidence is represented, or because sensory evidence is weighted much higher than prior perceptual knowledge...

  18. Logical inferences in discourse analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰廷

    2014-01-01

    Cohesion and coherence are two important characteristics of discourses. Halliday and Hasan have pointed out that cohesion is the basis of coherence and coherence is the premise of forming discourse. The commonly used cohesive devices are: preference, ellipsis, substitution, etc. Discourse coherence is mainly manifested in sentences and paragraphs. However, in real discourse analysis environment, traditional methods on cohesion and coherence are not enough. This article talks about the conception of discourse analysis at the beginning. Then, we list some of the traditional cohesive devices and its uses. Following that, we make corpus analysis. Finally, we explore and find a new device in textual analysis:discourse logical inferences.

  19. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambdridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  20. Universum Inference and Corpus Homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Carl; Lynch, Gerard; Janssen, Jerom

    Universum Inference is re-interpreted for assessment of corpus homogeneity in computational stylometry. Recent stylometric research quantifies strength of characterization within dramatic works by assessing the homogeneity of corpora associated with dramatic personas. A methodological advance is suggested to mitigate the potential for the assessment of homogeneity to be achieved by chance. Baseline comparison analysis is constructed for contributions to debates by nonfictional participants: the corpus analyzed consists of transcripts of US Presidential and Vice-Presidential debates from the 2000 election cycle. The corpus is also analyzed in translation to Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. Adding randomized categories makes assessments of homogeneity more conservative.

  1. Inferring Network Structure from Cascades

    CERN Document Server

    Ghonge, Sushrut

    2016-01-01

    Many physical, biological and social phenomena can be described by cascades taking place on a network. Often, the activity can be empirically observed, but not the underlying network of interactions. In this paper we solve the dynamics of general cascade processes. We then offer three topological inversion methods to infer the structure of any directed network given a set of cascade arrival times. Our forward and inverse formulas hold for a very general class of models where the activation probability of a node is a generic function of its degree and the number of its active neighbors. We report high success rates for synthetic and real networks, for 5 different cascade models.

  2. Giambattista Vico and the psychological imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This special issue originates from an international workshop on “Vico and imagination,” that took place at Aalborg University in 2014, within a research project on Giambattista Vico and the epistemology of psychology. Imagination has inexplicably been relegated to the background in contemporary...... psychology, despite the fact that imaginative processes are involved in even the most mundane activities. In this editorial, I first present the rationale and the content of the articles and commentaries. Then I outline a brief history of the concept of imagination before Vico, drawing some consequences...... for contemporary psychology. Finally, I provide the proposal for a new research program on imagination as a higher psychological function that enables us to manipulate complex meanings of both linguistic and iconic forms in the process of experiencing....

  3. Developmental Psychology and the Third World--Some Preliminary Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Matthias

    When viewing the current status of psychology in terms of membership in international psychological associations, it appears that large parts of the world are grossly underrepresented, with only 4 psychologists per million in Asia and Africa compared to 424 per million in North America. Having originated in Western Europe and North America in the…

  4. Community Psychology in South Africa: Origins, Developments, and Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, Mohamed; Lazarus, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    This article represents a South African contribution to the growing international body of knowledge on histories of community psychology. We trace the early antecedents of social-community psychology interventions and describe the social forces and academic influences that provided the impetus for the emergence and development of community…

  5. Examining Internationalization in U.S. Counseling Psychology Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Erica J.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Aegisdottir, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather more information about the process of internationalization in U.S. counseling psychology programs. Participants included 26 training directors and 83 doctoral students, representing 32 of the 63 APA-accredited counseling psychology programs. Results suggested that the presence of international training…

  6. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  7. The 2012 School Psychology Futures Conference: Accomplishments and next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamruz-Smith, Susan; Harrison, Patti L.; Cummings, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    The major national and international school psychology organizations hosted the 2012 School Psychology Futures Conference during the fall of 2012. The conference was designed to provide an opportunity for school psychologists to plan their future roles in better supporting children, families, and schools. The 2012 conference, titled "School…

  8. The Historical Change of the Internal Conceptual Relationship Subordinating to Uighur Psychological Category%古今维吾尔语心理范畴词汇内部概念关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭凤

    2013-01-01

    The author investigates and contrasts modern Uighur and ancient Uighur lexical structure of words of the Uighur psychological category, and finds out that words of both modern and ancient Uighur are divided automatically into two second-rate categories according to the formal characteristics of those words. One refers to all kinds of personal psychological experiences, and the other refers to people's cognition of various human psychological structures. The conceptual relationship between the two categories has wholly changed. Focusing on the linguistic phenomenon, the author gives forth his points from a cognitive perspective about the conceptual relationship, which words of the psychological category reflect in forms as a record of the ancient Uyghur's naturally cognitive course of understanding the psychological concepts.%  古今维吾尔语言心理范畴的词汇在形式特点上自主地区分为两个次范畴:其一,动词性词汇形式表达的是个体心理活动的经验范畴概念;其二,名词表达的是人们对心理现象的认知范畴概念。这两个次范畴的概念关系发生了古今的变化。古代回鹘文献语言心理范畴词汇形式表现出的概念关系恰恰记录了该民族对抽象心理活动经验内容自然认知的过程。

  9. Bayesian inference for OPC modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbine, Andrew; Sturtevant, John; Fryer, David; Smith, Bruce W.

    2016-03-01

    The use of optical proximity correction (OPC) demands increasingly accurate models of the photolithographic process. Model building and inference techniques in the data science community have seen great strides in the past two decades which make better use of available information. This paper aims to demonstrate the predictive power of Bayesian inference as a method for parameter selection in lithographic models by quantifying the uncertainty associated with model inputs and wafer data. Specifically, the method combines the model builder's prior information about each modelling assumption with the maximization of each observation's likelihood as a Student's t-distributed random variable. Through the use of a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm, a model's parameter space is explored to find the most credible parameter values. During parameter exploration, the parameters' posterior distributions are generated by applying Bayes' rule, using a likelihood function and the a priori knowledge supplied. The MCMC algorithm used, an affine invariant ensemble sampler (AIES), is implemented by initializing many walkers which semiindependently explore the space. The convergence of these walkers to global maxima of the likelihood volume determine the parameter values' highest density intervals (HDI) to reveal champion models. We show that this method of parameter selection provides insights into the data that traditional methods do not and outline continued experiments to vet the method.

  10. Explaining imaginal inference by operations in a propositional format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, R N

    1978-01-01

    Solving problems by imaginal inference often seems inefficient for an organism that is manipulating propositions. One explanation for the apparent inefficiency is that the problems are being solved not in propositional format by operations in an analogue format. Imaginal inference might then be the most efficient method compatible with the limitations inherent in the analogue format. In the present paper an alternative rationale is given for the use of imaginal inference by explaining how the processes involved in mental problem solving are related to those in perception: it is suggested that the mechanisms used in problem solving have evolved from a perceptual system in which hypotheses about events in the sensory field are generated from an internal representation of the world. This thesis denies that perception is passive and suggests that originally for perception. Acceptance of the thesis implies that the capabilities of a propositional format in problem solving would be limited. This limitation could account for the apparently inefficient use of that format in imaginal inference.

  11. Psychological adj ustment of epistemological guide in rational emotive therapy for clinical intern of undergraduate nursing students%理性情绪疗法中的认识论引导对护理本科生临床见习的心理调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋阳; 陈佩仪; 李平东

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the effect of epistemological guide in rational emotive therapy for clinical practice of undergraduate nursing students,in order to provide the references for clinical intern teaching man-agement of undergraduate nursing students.Methods:A total of 148 undergraduate nursing students who will participate in clinical practice were divided into control group and experimental group.The students in control group received routine intern education,while the students in experimental group received the epistemological guide on the basis of the routine intern education.Then the students'psychological state was evaluated before and after the clinical intern by using symptom check list (SCL 90)and nursing trainee cognitive psychological scales.Results:The students’psychological state in experimental group after the clinical intern had significantly improved in aspects of depression,anxiety,terror,paranoid,psychotic factors and absolute requirements,over-generalization and horrible thing (P<0.05),however that in control group only had significantly improved in aspects of terror and paranoid (P<0.05).There was statistically significant difference in depression,anxiety, terror,paranoid,psychotic factors,absolute requirements,overgeneralization,horrible thing between both groups after the clinical intern (P<0.05).Conclusion:The epistemological guide in rational emotive therapy has posi-tive effect for the psychological adj ustment of undergraduate nursing students in clinical intern,and it can make them get through the clinical intern smoothly and improve the efficiency of clinical intern.%[目的]探讨运用理性情绪疗法(RET)中的认识论引导对护理本科生临床见习的心理调节作用,为护理本科生的临床见习教学管理工作提供参考依据。[方法]将即将进行临床见习的148名护理本科生分为对照组和实验组,对照组采用常规见习教育,实验组在对照组的基础上给予认识论引导

  12. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  13. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  14. Order statistics & inference estimation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N

    1991-01-01

    The literature on order statistics and inferenc eis quite extensive and covers a large number of fields ,but most of it is dispersed throughout numerous publications. This volume is the consolidtion of the most important results and places an emphasis on estimation. Both theoretical and computational procedures are presented to meet the needs of researchers, professionals, and students. The methods of estimation discussed are well-illustrated with numerous practical examples from both the physical and life sciences, including sociology,psychology,a nd electrical and chemical engineering. A co

  15. [Brief discourse on development of psychology of modern traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinxia; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhen'e

    2014-05-01

    In 1980, Wang Miqu proposed the concept of "The Psychology of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM Psychology)". In 1985, "The First National Symposium on Psychology of Traditional Chinese Medicine" was held, and the concept of TCM Psychology was put forward in the symposium, thus declaring the establishment of TCM Psychology, a new disciplinary branch. Since then, 12 national or international academic symposia of TCM Psychology were convened nationwide. Based on inheriting the original TCM, by means of exploring, sorting out and improving, and by combining and integrating with psychology and medical psychology, the theory of TCM Psychology was thus gradually innovated, and a systematic knowledge of TCM Psychology was set up and utilized in the clinical practice extensively.

  16. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  17. Lower complexity bounds for lifted inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    instances of the model. Numerous approaches for such “lifted inference” techniques have been proposed. While it has been demonstrated that these techniques will lead to significantly more efficient inference on some specific models, there are only very recent and still quite restricted results that show...... the feasibility of lifted inference on certain syntactically defined classes of models. Lower complexity bounds that imply some limitations for the feasibility of lifted inference on more expressive model classes were established earlier in Jaeger (2000; Jaeger, M. 2000. On the complexity of inference about...... that under the assumption that NETIME≠ETIME, there is no polynomial lifted inference algorithm for knowledge bases of weighted, quantifier-, and function-free formulas. Further strengthening earlier results, this is also shown to hold for approximate inference and for knowledge bases not containing...

  18. Spontaneous Trait Inferences on Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences. PMID:28123646

  19. Decent Work: A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Olle, Chad; Connors-Kellgren, Alice; Diamonti, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution, which serves as the lead article for the Research Topic entitled “From Meaning of Working to Meaningful Lives: The Challenges of Expanding Decent Work,” explores current challenges in the development and operationalization of decent work. Based on an initiative from the International Labor Organization [ILO] (1999) decent work represents an aspirational statement about the quality of work that should be available to all people who seek to work around the globe. Within recent years, several critiques have been raised about decent work from various disciplines, highlighting concerns about a retreat from the social justice ethos that had initially defined the concept. In addition, other scholars have observed that decent work has not included a focus on the role of meaning and purpose at work. To address these concerns, we propose that a psychological perspective can help to revitalize the decent work agenda by infusing a more specific focus on individual experiences and by reconnecting decent work to its social justice origins. As an illustration of the advantages of a psychological perspective, we explore the rise of precarious work and also connect the decent work agenda to the Psychology-of-Working Framework and Theory (Blustein, 2006; Duffy et al., 2016). PMID:27047430

  20. Decent Work: A Psychological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eBlustein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution, which serves as the lead article for the Research Section entitled From Meaning of Working to Meaningful Lives: The Challenges of Expanding Decent Work, explores current challenges in the development and operationalization of decent work. Based on an initiative from the International Labor Organization (ILO; 1999, decent work represents an aspirational statement about the quality of work that should be available to all people who seek to work around the globe. Within recent years, several critiques have been raised about decent work from various disciplines, highlighting concerns about a retreat from the social justice ethos that had initially defined the concept. In addition, other scholars have observed that decent work has not included a focus on the role of meaning and purpose at work. To address these concerns, we propose that a psychological perspective can help to revitalize the decent work agenda by infusing a more specific focus on individual experiences and by reconnecting decent work to its social justice origins. As an illustration of the advantages of a psychological perspective, we explore the rise of precarious work and also connect the decent work agenda to the Psychology-of-Working Framework and Theory (Blustein, 2006; Duffy, Blustein, Diemer, and Autin, in press.

  1. Causal inference in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Thomas A; Goodman, Steven N; Hernán, Miguel A; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action's consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor's causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world.

  2. Statistical inference for financial engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Masanobu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Taniai, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    This monograph provides the fundamentals of statistical inference for financial engineering and covers some selected methods suitable for analyzing financial time series data. In order to describe the actual financial data, various stochastic processes, e.g. non-Gaussian linear processes, non-linear processes, long-memory processes, locally stationary processes etc. are introduced and their optimal estimation is considered as well. This book also includes several statistical approaches, e.g., discriminant analysis, the empirical likelihood method, control variate method, quantile regression, realized volatility etc., which have been recently developed and are considered to be powerful tools for analyzing the financial data, establishing a new bridge between time series and financial engineering. This book is well suited as a professional reference book on finance, statistics and statistical financial engineering. Readers are expected to have an undergraduate-level knowledge of statistics.

  3. Mod/Resc Parsimony Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Nor, Igor; Charlat, Sylvain; Engelstadter, Jan; Reuter, Max; Duron, Olivier; Sagot, Marie-France

    2010-01-01

    We address in this paper a new computational biology problem that aims at understanding a mechanism that could potentially be used to genetically manipulate natural insect populations infected by inherited, intra-cellular parasitic bacteria. In this problem, that we denote by \\textsc{Mod/Resc Parsimony Inference}, we are given a boolean matrix and the goal is to find two other boolean matrices with a minimum number of columns such that an appropriately defined operation on these matrices gives back the input. We show that this is formally equivalent to the \\textsc{Bipartite Biclique Edge Cover} problem and derive some complexity results for our problem using this equivalence. We provide a new, fixed-parameter tractability approach for solving both that slightly improves upon a previously published algorithm for the \\textsc{Bipartite Biclique Edge Cover}. Finally, we present experimental results where we applied some of our techniques to a real-life data set.

  4. Bayesian Inference with Optimal Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Moselhy, Tarek A El

    2011-01-01

    We present a new approach to Bayesian inference that entirely avoids Markov chain simulation, by constructing a map that pushes forward the prior measure to the posterior measure. Existence and uniqueness of a suitable measure-preserving map is established by formulating the problem in the context of optimal transport theory. We discuss various means of explicitly parameterizing the map and computing it efficiently through solution of an optimization problem, exploiting gradient information from the forward model when possible. The resulting algorithm overcomes many of the computational bottlenecks associated with Markov chain Monte Carlo. Advantages of a map-based representation of the posterior include analytical expressions for posterior moments and the ability to generate arbitrary numbers of independent posterior samples without additional likelihood evaluations or forward solves. The optimization approach also provides clear convergence criteria for posterior approximation and facilitates model selectio...

  5. Relevance-driven Pragmatic Inferences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞彪

    2013-01-01

    Relevance theory, an inferential approach to pragmatics, claims that the hearer is expected to pick out the input of op-timal relevance from a mass of alternative inputs produced by the speaker in order to interpret the speaker ’s intentions. The de-gree of the relevance of an input can be assessed in terms of cognitive effects and the processing effort. The input of optimal rele-vance is the one yielding the greatest positive cognitive effect and requiring the least processing effort. This paper attempts to as-sess the degrees of the relevance of a mass of alternative inputs produced by an imaginary speaker from the perspective of her cor-responding hearer in terms of cognitive effects and the processing effort with a view to justifying the feasibility of the principle of relevance in pragmatic inferences.

  6. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  7. Psychological Test Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psychological test.

  8. Psychological violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  9. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  10. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  11. Compiling Relational Bayesian Networks for Exact Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred; Chavira, Mark; Darwiche, Adnan

    2004-01-01

    We describe a system for exact inference with relational Bayesian networks as defined in the publicly available \\primula\\ tool. The system is based on compiling propositional instances of relational Bayesian networks into arithmetic circuits and then performing online inference by evaluating...... and differentiating these circuits in time linear in their size. We report on experimental results showing the successful compilation, and efficient inference, on relational Bayesian networks whose {\\primula}--generated propositional instances have thousands of variables, and whose jointrees have clusters...

  12. Definitive Consensus for Distributed Data Inference

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Inference from data is of key importance in many applications of informatics. The current trend in performing such a task of inference from data is to utilise machine learning algorithms. Moreover, in many applications that it is either required or is preferable to infer from the data in a distributed manner. Many practical difficulties arise from the fact that in many distributed applications we avert from transferring data or parts of it due to cost...

  13. 护理实习生在肿瘤科的心理压力分析及对策%In oncology nursing interns psychological pruessure analysis and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平; 朱艳; 韩兴平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore oncology practice nursing students (the students) psychological pressure source and take effective countermeasures.Methods 122 in the oncology practice nursing students by college students adaptability scale investigation, analysis of oncology nursing students psychological pressure source of reasons.The results of oncology nursing students positive coping style scale rise, the difference was statistically significant (p>o.05).Conclusion clinical nursing educators to take proper measures can effectively reduce the oncology nursing students' psychological pressure.%目的:探讨肿瘤专科实习护理学生(简称护生)的心理压力来源及采取有效的对策。方法对122名在本肿瘤科实习的护生采用大学生适应量表进行调查,分析肿瘤专科实习护生的心理压力来源原因。结果肿瘤专科实习护生积极应对方式比例上升,差异有统计学意义(p>o.05)。结论临床护理教育者采取正确应对措施能有效减少肿瘤科实习护生的心理压力。

  14. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  15. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  16. Psychological Component of Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  17. Constraint Processing in Lifted Probabilistic Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Kisynski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    First-order probabilistic models combine representational power of first-order logic with graphical models. There is an ongoing effort to design lifted inference algorithms for first-order probabilistic models. We analyze lifted inference from the perspective of constraint processing and, through this viewpoint, we analyze and compare existing approaches and expose their advantages and limitations. Our theoretical results show that the wrong choice of constraint processing method can lead to exponential increase in computational complexity. Our empirical tests confirm the importance of constraint processing in lifted inference. This is the first theoretical and empirical study of constraint processing in lifted inference.

  18. Inference Attacks and Control on Database Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamed Turkanovic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today’s databases store information with sensitivity levels that range from public to highly sensitive, hence ensuring confidentiality can be highly important, but also requires costly control. This paper focuses on the inference problem on different database structures. It presents possible treats on privacy with relation to the inference, and control methods for mitigating these treats. The paper shows that using only access control, without any inference control is inadequate, since these models are unable to protect against indirect data access. Furthermore, it covers new inference problems which rise from the dimensions of new technologies like XML, semantics, etc.

  19. State Sampling Dependence of Hopfield Network Inference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海平

    2012-01-01

    The fully connected Hopfield network is inferred based on observed magnetizations and pairwise correlations. We present the system in the glassy phase with low temperature and high memory load. We find that the inference error is very sensitive to the form of state sampling. When a single state is sampled to compute magnetizations and correlations, the inference error is almost indistinguishable irrespective of the sampled state. However, the error can be greatly reduced if the data is collected with state transitions. Our result holds for different disorder samples and accounts for the previously observed large fluctuations of inference error at low temperatures.

  20. On 50 Years of Giving Psychology Away: An Interview with Philip Zimbardo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Philip Zimbardo, emeritus professor of psychology at Stanford University, who is internationally recognized as the voice and face of contemporary American psychology. He earned his PhD in social psychology from Yale University in 1959 and has since received seven honorary doctorates for his contributions to…

  1. 国际旅游者中国访问心理动机范式解析——以黑龙江省旅游文化类型为视角%Psychological Motivation Paradigm of International Tourists to China from the Types of Heilongjiang Tourism Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何花; 张大生

    2011-01-01

    The research on international tourists shows that their travel psychological motivations depend upon the internal driving force of travel leaving their homes.The psychological motivations derive from income levels,leisure time,living environment,and trave%通过分析国际旅游者的旅游心理动机发现,国际旅游者的旅游心理动机主要来自于离开居住地外出旅游的内在驱动力;收入水平、休闲时间、生活环境和旅游欲望是产生旅游心理动机的条件;不同地区的人具有不同的旅游心理动机。激发国际旅游者的旅游心理动机,必须有针对性的扎实做好旅游资源开发、产品设计、设施建设、优质服务、促销宣传、旅游文化软力量创新等工作。

  2. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental st...... studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the field of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology, and one should carefully weigh their advantages against their drawbacks.......Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental...

  3. Inference and Plausible Reasoning in a Natural Language Understanding System Based on Object-Oriented Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Ostapov, Yuriy

    2012-01-01

    Algorithms of inference in a computer system oriented to input and semantic processing of text information are presented. Such inference is necessary for logical questions when the direct comparison of objects from a question and database can not give a result. The following classes of problems are considered: a check of hypotheses for persons and non-typical actions, the determination of persons and circumstances for non-typical actions, planning actions, the determination of event cause and state of persons. To form an answer both deduction and plausible reasoning are used. As a knowledge domain under consideration is social behavior of persons, plausible reasoning is based on laws of social psychology. Proposed algorithms of inference and plausible reasoning can be realized in computer systems closely connected with text processing (criminology, operation of business, medicine, document systems).

  4. Young children use statistical sampling to infer the preferences of other people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Tamar; Xu, Fei; Wellman, Henry M

    2010-08-01

    Psychological scientists use statistical information to determine the workings of human behavior. We argue that young children do so as well. Over the course of a few years, children progress from viewing human actions as intentional and goal directed to reasoning about the psychological causes underlying such actions. Here, we show that preschoolers and 20-month-old infants can use statistical information-namely, a violation of random sampling-to infer that an agent is expressing a preference for one type of toy instead of another type of toy. Children saw a person remove five toys of one type from a container of toys. Preschoolers and infants inferred that the person had a preference for that type of toy when there was a mismatch between the sampled toys and the population of toys in the box. Mere outcome consistency, time spent with the toys, and positive attention toward the toys did not lead children to infer a preference. These findings provide an important demonstration of how statistical learning could underpin the rapid acquisition of early psychological knowledge.

  5. The development of counselling psychology in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Allison; O'Callaghan, Dermot; O'Brien, Owen; Broderick, John; Long, Catherine; O'Grady, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the distinctive nature of the specialism of counselling psychology and outlines the development of the discipline in Ireland in the context of international developments and its recognition as a professional branch of applied psychology. Today, counselling psychologists are employed in varied clinical and non-clinical settings including health and mental health services (statutory, private and voluntary sector) along with education, forensic, justice, industry and private practices. Counselling psychologist is the primary professional identity of many practising psychologists in Ireland and the Psychological Society of Ireland's Division of Counselling Psychology is the main affiliation of at least 179 members. With its focus on facilitating personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span and its emphasis on the therapeutic process, the specialism continues to bridge the disciplines of psychology, counselling and psychotherapy. In this article, some of the challenges still faced by counselling psychology are explored as it navigates its way through the changing landscape of further development and evolution. PMID:26494940

  6. Towards Confirming Neural Circuit Inference from Population Calcium Imaging. NIPS Workshop on Connectivity Inference in Neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    NeuroData; Mishchenko, Y.; AM, Packer; TA, Machado; Yuste, R.; Paninski, L

    2015-01-01

    Vogelstein JT, Mishchenko Y, Packer AM, Machado TA, Yuste R, Paninski L. Towards Confirming Neural Circuit Inference from Population Calcium Imaging. NIPS Workshop on Connectivity Inference in Neuroimaging, 2009

  7. Has 60 years of research in psychology really gone astray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurevich, Andrey

    2007-03-01

    The author presents several arguments against Toomela's (Culture of science: Strange history of the methodological thinking in psychology. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 2007a, doi:10.1007/sl2124-007-9004-0, History of methodology in psychology: Starting point, not the goal. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 2007b, doi:10.1007/sl2124-007-9005-z) pessimistic thesis: "The last 60 years of research in psychology seems to have gone astray." Nevertheless he admits that Toomela's article despite the excessively categorical assessments contained in it and the undue pessimism crowing its conclusion, represents a substantial contribution to the highlighting of socio-cultural impact on various models of psychological cognition, which lurks behind the international unification of globalizing science.

  8. Protein inference: A protein quantification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zengyou; Huang, Ting; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Peijun; Teng, Ben; Deng, Shengchun

    2016-08-01

    In mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics, protein quantification and protein identification are two major computational problems. To quantify the protein abundance, a list of proteins must be firstly inferred from the raw data. Then the relative or absolute protein abundance is estimated with quantification methods, such as spectral counting. Until now, most researchers have been dealing with these two processes separately. In fact, the protein inference problem can be regarded as a special protein quantification problem in the sense that truly present proteins are those proteins whose abundance values are not zero. Some recent published papers have conceptually discussed this possibility. However, there is still a lack of rigorous experimental studies to test this hypothesis. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using protein quantification methods to solve the protein inference problem. Protein inference methods aim to determine whether each candidate protein is present in the sample or not. Protein quantification methods estimate the abundance value of each inferred protein. Naturally, the abundance value of an absent protein should be zero. Thus, we argue that the protein inference problem can be viewed as a special protein quantification problem in which one protein is considered to be present if its abundance is not zero. Based on this idea, our paper tries to use three simple protein quantification methods to solve the protein inference problem effectively. The experimental results on six data sets show that these three methods are competitive with previous protein inference algorithms. This demonstrates that it is plausible to model the protein inference problem as a special protein quantification task, which opens the door of devising more effective protein inference algorithms from a quantification perspective. The source codes of our methods are available at: http://code.google.com/p/protein-inference/.

  9. Media, racism and public health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Raymond; Pega, Frank; McCreanor, Tim; Rankine, Jenny; Barnes, Angela

    2006-03-01

    International literature has established that racism contributes to ill-health of migrants, ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples. Racism generally negates wellbeing, adversely affecting physical and psychological health. Numerous studies have shown that media contribute marginalizing particular ethnic and cultural groups depicting them primarily as problems for and threats to the dominant. This articles frames media representations of, and their effect on, the indigenous Maori of Aotearoa, New Zealand within the ongoing processes of colonization. We argue that reflects the media contribution to maintenance and naturalisation of colonial relationships and seek to include critical media scholarship in a critical public health psychology.

  10. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  11. The Psychology of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, A.; Balasubramanian, P.; Nirmala, R. Sweety

    2007-01-01

    Psychology plays a significant role in the life of each and every human being. Starting from childhood, if psychology of learning is utilized positively it would play a vital role in the building up of a bright career of a child. The explosion of information technology has been exercising far reaching influence on the area of educational…

  12. The psychology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swencionis, Charles; Rendell, Sarah Litman

    2012-10-01

    G. Stanley Hall, the first person to earn a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States, did research on eating behaviors in the nineteenth century (Lepore in The New Yorker, 2011). Research on psychological aspects of obesity accelerated in the 1950s and there has been a great deal done at this point. We review areas of considerable activity and relevance.

  13. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  14. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  15. Psychology and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsterburg, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    This essay considers the discipline of psychology as distinct from history, defining it as a science within philosophy dedicated to the study of the causal structure of the human mind. Although Hugo Munsterburg was considered an important figure in applied psychology, this essay represents an earlier epistemology. (SLD)

  16. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  17. Psychology for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Nash

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical psychology…

  18. Child Psychology Experiences Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla Walla Coll., WA.

    Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

  19. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  20. Anthropomorphism in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, David

    This article presents an address on anthropomorphism in psychology. Anthropomorphism assures that human beings are given human characteristics when participating in psychological research. This is significant because the research community does not often report results of studies in the language of feelings, thoughts, or desires, which has led to…

  1. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  2. Smart and easy: Co-occurring activation of spontaneous trait inferences and spontaneous situational inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.R.C.; Vonk, R.

    2003-01-01

    Social perceivers have been shown to draw spontaneous trait inferences (STI's) about the behavior of an actor as well as spontaneous situational inferences (SSI's) about the situation the actor is in. In two studies, we examined inferences about behaviors that allow for both an STI and an SSI. In

  3. The Interplay between Subjectivity, Statistical Practice, and Psychological Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey N Rouder

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference has been advocated as an alternative to conventional analysis in psychological science. Bayesians stress that subjectivity is needed for principled inference, and subjectivity by-and-large has not been seen as desirable. This paper provides the broader rationale and context for subjectivity, and in it we show that subjectivity is the key to principled measures of evidence for theory from data. By making our subjective elements focal, we provide an avenue for common sense and expertise to enter the analysis. We cover the role of models in linking theory to data, the notion that models are abstractions which are neither true nor false, the need for relative model comparison, the role of predictions in stating relative evidence for models, and the role of subjectivity in specifying models that yield predictions. In the end, we conclude that transparent subjectivity leads to a more honest and fruitful analyses in psychological science.

  4. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  5. Historiography of Czech psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskovcová, Simona; Hoskovec, Jirí; Plháková, Alena; Sebek, Michael; Svancara, Josef; Voboril, Dalibor

    2010-08-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the development of the Czech historiography of psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychotherapy is mentioned as a special thematic development. Contemporary problems and perspectives in the field of the history of psychology in the Czech Republic are discussed, sources of information are given.

  6. Validating Inductive Hypotheses by Mode Inference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志坚

    1993-01-01

    Sme criteria based on mode inference for validating inductive hypotheses are presented in this paper.Mode inference is caried out mechanically,thus such kind of validation can result in low overhead in consistency check and high efficiency in performance.

  7. Causal inference in economics and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian, Hal R

    2016-07-05

    This is an elementary introduction to causal inference in economics written for readers familiar with machine learning methods. The critical step in any causal analysis is estimating the counterfactual-a prediction of what would have happened in the absence of the treatment. The powerful techniques used in machine learning may be useful for developing better estimates of the counterfactual, potentially improving causal inference.

  8. Local and Global Thinking in Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Dave; Johnston-Wilder, Peter; Ainley, Janet; Mason, John

    2008-01-01

    In this reflective paper, we explore students' local and global thinking about informal statistical inference through our observations of 10- to 11-year-olds, challenged to infer the unknown configuration of a virtual die, but able to use the die to generate as much data as they felt necessary. We report how they tended to focus on local changes…

  9. The Reasoning behind Informal Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Katie; Bakker, Arthur; Ben-Zvi, Dani

    2011-01-01

    Informal statistical inference (ISI) has been a frequent focus of recent research in statistics education. Considering the role that context plays in developing ISI calls into question the need to be more explicit about the reasoning that underpins ISI. This paper uses educational literature on informal statistical inference and philosophical…

  10. Forward and backward inference in spatial cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will D Penny

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the various computations underlying spatial cognition can be implemented using statistical inference in a single probabilistic model. Inference is implemented using a common set of 'lower-level' computations involving forward and backward inference over time. For example, to estimate where you are in a known environment, forward inference is used to optimally combine location estimates from path integration with those from sensory input. To decide which way to turn to reach a goal, forward inference is used to compute the likelihood of reaching that goal under each option. To work out which environment you are in, forward inference is used to compute the likelihood of sensory observations under the different hypotheses. For reaching sensory goals that require a chaining together of decisions, forward inference can be used to compute a state trajectory that will lead to that goal, and backward inference to refine the route and estimate control signals that produce the required trajectory. We propose that these computations are reflected in recent findings of pattern replay in the mammalian brain. Specifically, that theta sequences reflect decision making, theta flickering reflects model selection, and remote replay reflects route and motor planning. We also propose a mapping of the above computational processes onto lateral and medial entorhinal cortex and hippocampus.

  11. Fiducial inference - A Neyman-Pearson interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, D; VonderLinden, W; Dose,; Fischer, R; Preuss, R

    1999-01-01

    Fisher's fiducial argument is a tool for deriving inferences in the form of a probability distribution on the parameter space, not based on Bayes's Theorem. Lindley established that in exceptional situations fiducial inferences coincide with posterior distributions; in the other situations fiducial

  12. Psychological jurisprudence as an interdisciplinary science and the area of psychological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozdnyakov V. M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article convincingly demonstrates that Russia is increasingly began to publish monographs lawyers on key legal and psychological phenomena, and in dissertations in the formulation of the provisions on the protection of delatsya criticism of "Westernization" of the state legislation and upheld psychologicaland position. At the same time, critically, it is noted that in the field of legal ideology and policies, and in making innovations in the law still, as in Soviet period, dominated by legal dogma, and psychological realities are taken into account in fragments. The reason for this state of Affairs is that still within the framework of University training and further education of local lawyers, in contrast to international practice, insufficient attention is paid to the development of psychological culture, but in the end no full-fledged dialogue between lawyers and psychologists. Taking into account possibilities of integrative methodology justified the subject of psychological law as an interdisciplinary science and the field of psychological practice focused on the identification of regularities and mechanisms of development of legal awareness and legal existence of various actors in the legal activity aimed at the development of psychologically informed interventions for the improvement of legal ideology and politics, systems of law-making, law enforcement and crime prevention, psycho-technical methods and techniques in activities of law enforcement officials. For constructive development of psychological jurisprudence identified the key areas of research and nodal practicerelevant problems.

  13. G. F. Parrot and the theory of unconscious inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Jüri; Konstabel, Kenn

    2005-01-01

    In 1839, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) published a short note about a peculiar visual phenomenon--the diminishing of the size of external objects situated at a relatively small distance from the window of a fast-moving train. For the explanation of this illusion, Parrot proposed a concept of unconscious inferences, a very rapid syllogistic conclusion from two premises, which anticipated the revival of Alhazen's theory of unconscious inferences by Hermann von Helmholtz, Wilhelm Wundt, and John Stuart Mill. He also advanced the notion that the speed of mental processes is not infinitely high and that it can be measured by means of systematic experimentation. Although Parrot was only partly correct in the description of the movement-induced changes of the perceived size, his general intention to understand basic mechanisms of the human mind was in harmony with the founding ideas of experimental psychology: it is possible to study the phenomena of the mind in the same general way that the physical world is studied, either in terms of mechanical or mathematical laws. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C.M. Vorst

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of hu

  15. Active Inference: A Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a process theory based on active inference and belief propagation. Starting from the premise that all neuronal processing (and action selection) can be explained by maximizing Bayesian model evidence-or minimizing variational free energy-we ask whether neuronal responses can be described as a gradient descent on variational free energy. Using a standard (Markov decision process) generative model, we derive the neuronal dynamics implicit in this description and reproduce a remarkable range of well-characterized neuronal phenomena. These include repetition suppression, mismatch negativity, violation responses, place-cell activity, phase precession, theta sequences, theta-gamma coupling, evidence accumulation, race-to-bound dynamics, and transfer of dopamine responses. Furthermore, the (approximately Bayes' optimal) behavior prescribed by these dynamics has a degree of face validity, providing a formal explanation for reward seeking, context learning, and epistemic foraging. Technically, the fact that a gradient descent appears to be a valid description of neuronal activity means that variational free energy is a Lyapunov function for neuronal dynamics, which therefore conform to Hamilton's principle of least action.

  16. Redshift data and statistical inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William I.; Haynes, Martha P.; Terzian, Yervant

    1994-01-01

    Frequency histograms and the 'power spectrum analysis' (PSA) method, the latter developed by Yu & Peebles (1969), have been widely employed as techniques for establishing the existence of periodicities. We provide a formal analysis of these two classes of methods, including controlled numerical experiments, to better understand their proper use and application. In particular, we note that typical published applications of frequency histograms commonly employ far greater numbers of class intervals or bins than is advisable by statistical theory sometimes giving rise to the appearance of spurious patterns. The PSA method generates a sequence of random numbers from observational data which, it is claimed, is exponentially distributed with unit mean and variance, essentially independent of the distribution of the original data. We show that the derived random processes is nonstationary and produces a small but systematic bias in the usual estimate of the mean and variance. Although the derived variable may be reasonably described by an exponential distribution, the tail of the distribution is far removed from that of an exponential, thereby rendering statistical inference and confidence testing based on the tail of the distribution completely unreliable. Finally, we examine a number of astronomical examples wherein these methods have been used giving rise to widespread acceptance of statistically unconfirmed conclusions.

  17. Enriching science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2016-03-01

    This editorial provides a brief synthesis of the past, present, and future of School Psychology Quarterly, highlighting important contributions as an international resource to enrich, invigorate, enhance, and advance science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe. Information herein highlights (a) the value of high quality and timely reviews, (b) publishing manuscripts that address a breadth of important topics relevant to school psychology, and (c) the structure and contributions of the special topic sections featured in School Psychology Quarterly.

  18. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  19. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  20. Bayesian Inference Methods for Sparse Channel Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Lovmand

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) with application to radio channel estimation. As opposed to the classical approach for sparse signal representation, we focus on the problem of inferring complex signals. Our investigations within SBL constitute the basis for the development...... of Bayesian inference algorithms for sparse channel estimation. Sparse inference methods aim at finding the sparse representation of a signal given in some overcomplete dictionary of basis vectors. Within this context, one of our main contributions to the field of SBL is a hierarchical representation...... analysis of the complex prior representation, where we show that the ability to induce sparse estimates of a given prior heavily depends on the inference method used and, interestingly, whether real or complex variables are inferred. We also show that the Bayesian estimators derived from the proposed...