WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychology human factors

  1. Where's the emotion? How sport psychology can inform research on emotion in human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.

  2. Exploring resilience and mindfulness as preventative factors for psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress among human service professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Rachel; Pidgeon, Aileen M; Klaassen, Frances; King, Steven

    2016-06-08

    Human service professionals are concerned with the intervention and empowerment of vulnerable social populations. The human service industry is laden with employment-related stressors and emotionally demanding interactions, which can lead to deleterious effects, such as burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Little attention has been given to developing knowledge of what might enable human service workers to persist and thrive. Cultivating and sustaining resilience can buffer the impact of occupational stressors on human service professionals. One of the psychological factors associated with cultivating resilience is mindfulness. The aim of this current research is to improve our understanding of the relationship between resilience, mindfulness, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and psychological distress among human service professionals. The current study surveyed 133 human service professionals working in the fields of psychology, social work, counseling, youth and foster care work to explore the predictive relationship between resilience, mindfulness, and psychological distress. The results showed that higher levels of resilience were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress, burnout and secondary traumatic stress. In addition, higher levels of mindfulness were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress and burnout. The findings suggest that cultivating resilience and mindfulness in human service professionals may assist in preventing psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Limitations of this study are discussed together with implications for future research.

  3. The psychology of humanness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Steve; Holland, Elise

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the ways in which the concept of "humanness" illuminates a wide and fascinating variety of psychological phenomena. After introducing the concept--everyday understandings of what it is to be human--we present a model of the diverse ways in which humanness can be denied to people. According to this model people may be perceived as lacking uniquely human characteristics, and thus likened to animals, or as lacking human nature, and thus likened to inanimate objects. Both of these forms of dehumanization occur with varying degrees of subtlety, from the explicit uses of derogatory animal metaphors, to stereotypes that ascribe lesser humanness or simpler minds to particular groups, to nonconscious associations between certain humans and nonhumans. After reviewing research on dehumanization through the lens of our model we examine additional topics that the psychology of humanness clarifies, notably the perception of nonhuman animals and the objectification of women. Humanness emerges as a concept that runs an integrating thread through a variety of research literatures.

  4. Undergraduates Learn about Industrial-Organizational Psychology and Human Factors from an Informational Brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottke, Janet L.; Shoenfelt, Elizabeth L.; Stone, Nancy J.

    2017-01-01

    An informational brochure was created to assist students and faculty unfamiliar with the industrial-organizational (IO) and human factors (HF) disciplines. The brochure highlights the content of these two professions, presents advice for undergraduates to prepare for admission to IO and HF graduate programs, provides sources of IO and HF…

  5. Undergraduates Learn about Industrial-Organizational Psychology and Human Factors from an Informational Brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottke, Janet L.; Shoenfelt, Elizabeth L.; Stone, Nancy J.

    2017-01-01

    An informational brochure was created to assist students and faculty unfamiliar with the industrial-organizational (IO) and human factors (HF) disciplines. The brochure highlights the content of these two professions, presents advice for undergraduates to prepare for admission to IO and HF graduate programs, provides sources of IO and HF…

  6. Psychological Factors in English Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴西

    2015-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction The psychological factor that influences English study is dynamic,complex,and flexible.Its influence is not immediately known,but it rather accumulates over a period of time.It is inevitable that students have some psychological factors in learning English.Therefore,in the process of teaching,teachers

  7. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  8. The Role of a Human Factor and Psychological Contract in Managing the Knowledge in Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rębisz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern business world is characterized by dynamic, changing markets and continuous technological advance. This article focuses on an issue related to a definition of the meaning of a man and his location in an organization that works in conditions of globalization. Certainly, the meaning of human as the source of knowledge in the development of organization is not a new subject. Knowledge is intrinsically linked to people and enables them to act. Modern organizations base their theory on the knowledge they can exploit to improve the competence of the employee, his loyalty and commitment to the company which aims at the competitive predominance. The identification of knowledge is necessary for the effective implementation of knowledge management system. Above all, presented theoretical analysis pinpoints mainly on discussing a mans role and psychological contract in managing the knowledge.

  9. Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Unal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486

  10. Psychological Factors in Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaros Özdemir

    2010-04-01

    systemic vessel resistance; and in turn increase in the secretion of vasoconstrictor compounds from endothelial cells of over-resistant vessels. Hypertension develops as a result of vasoconstriction. In the previous studies, emotional factors and particular personality traits are consistently confirmed for being predisposing factors in hypertensive individuals. In this article, we focused on the association between essential hypertension and psychological factors, and discussed the common pathophysiological mechanisms.

  11. Psychological factors as correlates of underachievement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological factors as correlates of underachievement among high achievers ... Data were collected using emotional intelligence scale (r=0.79), Academic self ... Data were analysed using pearson product moment correlation and multiple ...

  12. Toward a psychology of human-animal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Catherine E; Bastian, Brock

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman animals are ubiquitous to human life, and permeate a diversity of social contexts by providing humans with food and clothing, serving as participants in research, improving healing, and offering entertainment, leisure, and companionship. Despite the impact that animals have on human lives and vice versa, the field of psychology has barely touched upon the topic of human-animal relations as an important domain of human activity. We review the current state of research on human-animal relations, showing how this body of work has implications for a diverse range of psychological themes including evolutionary processes, development, normative factors, gender and individual differences, health and therapy, and intergroup relations. Our aim is to highlight human-animal relations as a domain of human life that merits theoretical and empirical attention from psychology as a discipline. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Psychological factors in childhood headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kathleen; Dunn, David; Scott, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Recurrent headaches in children are most often migraines and are based in a genetic predisposition with a low headache threshold. As with any pain experience, there is a large emotional component associated with an attack of migraines that grows in amplitude as the headaches become more frequent and resistant to medicine, sleep, or other agents that used to work. Childhood headaches are especially complicated for 3 reasons: (1) the parents' fear (communicated to the child that serious medical pathology underlies the head pain), (2) the lack of evidence-based pharmacologic treatment, and (3) the belief that these headaches are largely psychological. This article addresses the mystery surrounding childhood headaches by delving into the influence of school, friends, and family; the impact of divorce; the coping skills required for a child to manage a migrainous nervous system; the potential secondary gain from headaches; psychiatric comorbidities and how to treat them; and the role of psychological intervention.

  14. Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidara, Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…

  15. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  16. Childhood obesity : medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was a

  17. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was

  18. Psychological factors determine depressive symptomatology after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mierlo, Maria L.; Van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W.; De Kort, Paul L.; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify psychological factors related to poststroke depressive symptoms. Design Cross-sectional study, with patients assessed at 2 months poststroke. Setting Patients with stroke from 6 general hospitals. Participants Stroke patients (N=344; mean age ± SD, 66.9±12.3y). Interventions No

  19. Psychological factors that predict reaction to abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, D T; Follingstad, D R; Harley, H; Heckel, R V

    1981-04-01

    Investigated demographic and psychological factors related to positive or negative reactions to legal abortions performed during the first trimester of pregnancy in 62 females in an urban southern community. Results suggest that the social context and the degree of support from a series of significant persons rather than demographic variables were most predictive of a positive reaction.

  20. Psychological factors and coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadži-Pešić Marina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CAD results from an interaction of different somatic, environmental and behavioral risk factors. Commonly, development of CAD is associated with arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, sedentary life style and the like. Psychological factors in their own sake or in combination with other risk factors are also important for genesis of CAD. In this study, 170 people that were diagnosed with CAD and 170 healthy controls of corresponding sex and age were compared for anxiety, aggressiveness and Eysenck's two personality dimension. The data indicate that patients with CAD have very low level of anxiety and aggressiveness and very high level of neuroticism relative to the controls. .

  1. STUDENTS’ PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN SLA: A DILLEMA FOR TEACHERS OF ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Langgeng Budianto

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at describing psychological factors in language acquisition and learning for human being who learn second language acquisition. Stephens found that external factors such as the characteristic of teacher, class and school condition had consistently no relation with the success of learning foreign language. On the other hand, student’s psychological conditions, as one of the internal factors, are potential to influence the foreign or second language acquisition. Psychological fa...

  2. Role of Psychological Factors on Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mohadese Ghayoomi Javinani; Shahab Alddin Shokri

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate effecting psychological factors on advertising effectiveness in case of Samsung Television. In this line, advertising attitude and advertising involvement were measured as indicators of effectiveness. This research is quantitative in its nature and applied in kind. The research population was consisted of 305 respondents who were selected by hazardous sampling. A questionnaire was developed as the research instrument and validity of it was ...

  3. Psychological Risk Factors in Acute Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouva M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Several theoretical models have been occasionally proposed to account for the involvement of psychological factors in cancer genesis. Family environment and relations as well as certain personality traits were correlated to cancer onset. However, little is known in the case of acute leukemia. The present study examined family environment, state-trait anxiety, hostility and the direction of hostility as well as alexithymia in 41 acute leukemia patients and their first degree relatives (70. In accordance with previous findings, the present results showed that family cohesion, conflict and organization as well as guilt, state anxiety and alexithymia were significant risk factors for the development of the disease.

  4. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format, which replaces each response option in the Likert scale with a full sentence. We hypothesized that this format would result in a cleaner factor structure as compared with the Likert format. We tested this hypothesis on three popular psychological scales: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, the Conscientiousness subscale of the Big Five Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Scales in both formats showed comparable reliabilities. However, scales in the Expanded format had better (i.e., lower and more theoretically defensible) dimensionalities than scales in the Likert format, as assessed by both exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses. We encourage further study and wider use of the Expanded format, particularly when a scale’s dimensionality is of theoretical interest. PMID:27182074

  5. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  6. Psychological factors and outcomes of coronary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokeria,Leo A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although heart surgery is one of the most effective methods in treating cardiovascular diseases, more than 50% of patients have problems in personal, social, professional adaptation after surgery (Pogosova, 1996. According to recent studies, psychological factors contribute significantly to negative outcomes of coronary surgery. The main factors are: depression, anxiety, personal factors and character traits, social isolation, and chronic life stress (Blumental, 2003; Connerney, 2010; Contrada, 2008; Cserep, 2010, Gallagher, 2007; Hoyer, 2008; Pigney-Demaria, 2003; Rozancki, 1999; Rymaszewska, 2003; Viars, 2009, Zaitsev, 1997. The aim of the article is to describe the association between psychological factors and the outcomes of coronary surgery. We have studied how the patient’s attitude towards forthcoming open heart surgery is associated with the outcomes. We have picked out four types of attitude towards forthcoming heart surgery: 1 pessimistic (no belief in recovery, surgery is threatening, damaging, 2 indifferent (no belief in recovery, surgery will not change anything, 3 optimistic but not realistic (exaggerated expectations, belief in full recovery, 4 optimistic and realistic (adequate expectations, belief in improvement. The study has shown that patients with optimistic-realistic attitudes towards forthcoming heart surgery have better outcomes, better emotional status, and shorter stays in hospital.

  7. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  8. Human Psychology (fitrah from Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muhammad Bhat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Education is crucial for all mankind. It is achieved to perfect all aspects of human’s life and to attain perfection in one’s life. To achieve true education, one must keep knowledge on the philosophy and objectives of education put forth by different religions and civilization but more importantly as stipulated in the Al-Quran and Sunnah. These sources help in the operative formulation of generating the complete growth of individual with integrated, balanced, and collective personality. The principal task of education is, to nurture the personal growth of a human being. It is through this development of the individual and the preservation and transmission of culture that both the individual and society attains a quality of life. A good man is not necessarily a complete man. No one can be stared as a complete human because there is no end to the growth of human personality. A wide knowledge of many subjects helps in the growth of personality (psychology provided a man knows how to modify behavior and knows how knowledge and actions are integrated into a broad, total framework of life. This issue has been taken into hand to provide an insight from Islamic perspective for a broad continuum of personality development or what in contemporary era is called human psychology. An analytical approach is adopted to search the sources which contain information related to human nature in order to justify that religion has a strong voice to help humans to cognize the role of Islamic Psychology in human development.

  9. Psychological and Social Psychological Factors Influencing Second-Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. P.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews major findings on the relationship of attitudes and motives to second language learning, proposes a framework within which other psychological variables may be considered, and urges the consideration of nonverbal variables involved in cross-cultural communication. (Author/AM)

  10. Psychological factors of development and chronicity of technological addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Emelin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the formation of technological addictions, criteria for their identification and diagnosis, as well as analysis of the psychological factors that contribute to their development. According to the results of comparative analysis of existing models and studies, we present ways of further development of this problem in psychology. Model of technological addictions should be based on a model of “normative” use of technology and cannot be reduced only to the “addictive potential” of technology or person. In addition, one must consider unique humans function of technology (ease, avoiding, and overcoming, which makes a virtual situation more attractive than the real life situation, and provides a transition from “normal” to pathological processes. A special topic is identification of compensatory mechanisms system that support developed forms of addictive behavior (cognitive dissonance reduction strategies, cognitive distortion of perception and evaluation.

  11. Psychological Disorders among Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Ofovwe et al. Psychological Disorders in PLWHA ... Keywords: Psychological disorders, HIV/AIDS, Southern Nigeria. Résumé ... and psychological treatment or for research purposes. ... Phobic Anxiety (Irrational fears and avoidance of objects ...

  12. Psychoneuroimmunology and health psychology: inflammation and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, M; Conti, C M; Fulcheri, M

    2013-01-01

    A common clinical observation is the adverse relationship between stress and human diseases. The attention of scientific research on health has been disproportionately focused on risk factors that predict the onset of certain health outcomes, in particular there has been an increasing interest in the role of inflammation as a common mechanism of disease in a number of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Despite the importance of such research being undisputed, it is necessary to emphasize what the protective factors are that promote psychosocial recovery processes and increased survival rates in a biopsychosocial perspective. This article aims to understand the relationship between psychosocial factors and immune system in the interests of health psychology, highlighting the protective factors that promote recovery, resiliency and resistance to disease.

  13. Cultural and psychological dimensions of human organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P A; Daar, A S

    1998-01-01

    Human organ transplantation is practiced in local cultural worlds that shape beliefs about appropriate conduct for its development and application. The psychological response of individuals to the transplant experience mediate and condition its life-changing force in the context of family and community. In this paper, three cases are examined to illustrate the impact of cultural and psychological influences on human organ replacement therapies. First, we explore brain death and its implications for the definition of death and the procurement of organs. A case example from Japan provides the framework for addressing the cultural foundations that contribute to perceptions of personhood and the treatment of the body. Second, we examine marketing incentives for organ donation using a case from India where, until recently, explicit forms of financial incentives have played a role in the development of renal transplantation involving non-related living donors. Third, we focus on the psychological remifications of organ transplantation using a case that demonstrates the profound experience of being the recipient of the "gift of life". Resolution of scientific and ethical challenges in the field of organ transplantation must consider the complex and significant impact of cultural and psychological factors on organ replacement therapies.

  14. Slash fiction and human mating psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Catherine; Symons, Don

    2004-02-01

    The stark contrasts between romance novels and pornography, both multibillion dollar global industries, underscore how different male and female erotic fantasies actually are. These differences reflect the different selection pressures males and females faced over human evolutionary history and highlight the utility of using unobtrusive measures to study aspects of human nature. Salmon & Symons (2001) examined slash (the depiction of a romantic or sexual relationship between typically heterosexual male television protagonists, such as Kirk and Spock from Star Trek) as an erotic genre, placing it in the context of romance and female sexual psychology. The topic is revisited here with attention also being paid to slash between two female television characters and the appeal to people of fiction in general.

  15. Influence of Psychological Factors on the Improvement of Spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宁

    2013-01-01

      From learner's innermost feelings,the author attempts to elaborate the influences of psychological factors on improving the spoken language. The study of spoken English is a very complex process, which is affected easily by learner's linguistic environment and character. We can draw a conclusion that psychological factors are an important problem and cannot be neglected.

  16. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  17. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics.Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  18. Psychological factors in developing high performance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2017-01-01

    Top-level athletes are often said to have extraordinary personalities and special psychological characteristics (Gould, Dieffenbach & Moffett, 2002). This is not surprising when considering the many years of training needed to achieve athletic success. This long-term engagement in intense training...... clear with regard to the psychological skills that are needed. Therefore, the main questions to be addressed in this chapter are: (1) which psychological skills are needed to reach top performance? And (2) (how) can these skills be developed in young talents?...

  19. Psychological factors, beliefs about medication, and adherence of youth with human immunodeficiency virus in a multisite directly observed therapy pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvie, Patricia A; Flynn, Patricia M; Belzer, Marvin; Britto, Paula; Hu, Chengcheng; Graham, Bobbie; Neely, Michael; McSherry, George D; Spector, Stephen A; Gaur, Aditya H

    2011-06-01

    This study examined psychological functioning and beliefs about medicine in adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy in a community-based directly observed therapy (DOT) pilot feasibility study. Participants were youth with behaviorally acquired HIV (n = 20; 65% female; median age, 21 years) with adherence problems, who received once-daily DOT. Youth were assessed at baseline, week 12 (post-DOT), and week 24 (follow-up). At baseline, 55% of youth reported having clinical depressive symptoms compared to 27% at week 12 with sustained improvements at week 24. At baseline, substance use was reported within the borderline clinical range (T(score) = 68), with clinical but statistically nonsignificant improvement (T(score) = 61) at week 12. Hopelessness scores reflected optimism for the future. Coping strategies showed significantly decreased cognitive avoidance (p = .02), emotional discharge (p = .004), and acceptance/resignation ("nothing I can do," p = .004), whereas positive reappraisal and seeking support emerged. With the exception of depressive symptoms, week 12 improvements were not sustained at week 24. DOT adherence was predicted by higher baseline depression (p = .05), beliefs about medicine (p = .006) and perceived threat of illness scores (p = .03). Youth with behaviorally acquired HIV and adherence problems who participated in a community-based DOT intervention reported clinically improved depressive symptoms, and temporarily reduced substance use and negative coping strategies. Depressive symptoms, beliefs about medicine, and viewing HIV as a potential threat predicted better DOT adherence. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  1. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  2. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and psychological stress - a modifiable risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is common in many physical illnesses and is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for disease onset and progression. An emerging body of literature suggests that stress has a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) both as a predictor of new onset T2DM and as a prognostic factor in people with existing T2DM. Here, we review the evidence linking T2DM and psychological stress. We highlight the physiological responses to stress that are probably related to T2DM, drawing on evidence from animal work, large epidemiological studies and human laboratory trials. We discuss population and clinical studies linking psychological and social stress factors with T2DM, and give an overview of intervention studies that have attempted to modify psychological or social factors to improve outcomes in people with T2DM.

  3. The Role of Psychological Factors in the Process of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibian, Maryam; Roslan, Samsilah; Idris, Khairuddin; Othman, Jamilah

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, psychological factors have become vital factors in literacy education. Existing research has indicated that these factors haves received special attention in the comprehension process. Moreover, in reading process and teaching curriculum understanding, the role of these factors could be beneficial for the students. This paper…

  4. Human nature and culture: an evolutionary psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, D M

    2001-12-01

    Personality psychology is the broadest of all psychological subdisciplines in that it seeks a conceptually integrated understanding of both human nature and important individual differences. Cultural differences pose a unique set of problems for any comprehensive theory of personality-how can they be reconciled with universals of human nature on the one hand and within-cultural variation on the other? Evolutionary psychology provides one set of conceptual tools by which this conceptual integration can be made. It requires jettisoning the false but still-pervasive dichotomy of culture versus biology, acknowledging a universal human nature, and recognizing that the human mind contains many complex psychological mechanisms that are selectively activated, depending on cultural contexts. Culture rests on a foundation of evolved psychological mechanisms and cannot be understood without those mechanisms.

  5. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  6. Humans in space the psychological hurdles

    CERN Document Server

    Kanas, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Using anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, and the results from studies conducted in space analog environments on Earth and in the actual space environment, this book broadly reviews the various psychosocial issues that affect space travelers.  Unlike other books that are more technical in format, this text is targeted for the general public.  With the advent of space tourism and the increasing involvement of private enterprise in space, there is now a need to explore the impact of space missions on the human psyche and on the interpersonal relationships of the crewmembers. Separate chapters of the book deal with psychosocial stressors in space and in space analog environments; psychological, psychiatric, interpersonal, and cultural issues pertaining to space missions; positive growth-enhancing aspects of space travel; the crew-ground interaction; space tourism; countermeasures for dealing with space; and unique aspects of a trip to Mars, the outer solar system, and interstellar travel. .

  7. Introduction to human factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  8. The human dark side: evolutionary psychology and original sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph; Theol, M

    2014-04-01

    Human nature has a dark side, something important to religions. Evolutionary psychology has been used to illuminate the human shadow side, although as a discipline it has attracted criticism. This article seeks to examine the evolutionary psychology's understanding of human nature and to propose an unexpected dialog with an enduring account of human evil known as original sin. Two cases are briefly considered: murder and rape. To further the exchange, numerous theoretical and methodological criticisms and replies of evolutionary psychology are explored jointly with original sin. Evolutionary psychology can partner with original sin since they share some theoretical likenesses and together they offer insights into the nature of what it means to be human.

  9. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    A broad range of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychological riskfactors for psychosis have been reported. However most research studies have tended to focus on one explanatory factor. The aim of this study wasto use data from a large Danish birth cohort to examine the associationsbetween...... psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis....

  10. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  11. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  12. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 2: A Cognitive Framework to Support HRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two papers that discuss the literature review conducted as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) effort to develop a hybrid human reliability analysis (HRA) method in response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020. This review was conducted with the goal of strengthening the technical basis within psychology, cognitive science and human factors for the hybrid HRA method being proposed. An overview of the literature review approach and high-level structure is provided in the first paper, whereas this paper presents the results of the review. The psychological literature review encompassed research spanning the entirety of human cognition and performance, and consequently produced an extensive list of psychological processes, mechanisms, and factors that contribute to human performance. To make sense of this large amount of information, the results of the literature review were organized into a cognitive framework that identifies causes of failure of macrocognition in humans, and connects those proximate causes to psychological mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that can lead to the failure. This cognitive framework can serve as a tool to inform HRA. Beyond this, however, the cognitive framework has the potential to also support addressing human performance issues identified in Human Factors applications.

  13. Study of Relation of Psychological Factors of Empowerment and Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad G. Chegini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Today, organizations are able to survive that have dynamic requirements and potentials and can make a proper response to changes and equip their human sources to the knowledge and skill of generative entrepreneurship through establishing necessary aspects. The increasing rate of changes in scientific, economic and social areas is one of the most common features of the century. The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between the psychological factors of empowerment and entrepreneurship of trainers of Northern provinces, technico-vocational skill organizations (Mazandaran, Golestan, Guilan of Iran. Approach: The research with respect to the methodology and nature is descriptive, it is of kind of adhesion in regret to the relation of psychological factors of empowerment with entrepreneurship and it is applicable with respect to the aim because it can be implemented. The 566-people statistic community included the total of trainers employed in three Iranian Northern provinces that based on the Cochran formula, 270 people selected as samples. The may of collecting field information and data collection tool has been questionnaire. The admissibility of the questionnaire was studied in regard to the content and professional consultants gave some ideas about it and it’s durability calculated by using Cronbach Alfa test, that competed 92 and 87% for entrepreneurship and empowerment respectively. Statistical techniques used include: Descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Pearson adhesion coefficient and analyzing data done by using software SPSS. Results: That there is a meaningful and positive relationship between all psychological dimensions of empowerment (self-efficiency, self-determination, personal consequence, meaning, trust in others and entrepreneurship as feeling to be meaningful is first, feeling of self-efficiency is second, feeling to be efficient is third, feeling of self-determination is fourth and

  14. [Human nature--understanding psychology in Nietzsche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckhöfer, K

    1980-01-01

    It was tried to show some decisive and essential points of the psychological analyses contained in the complex work of the philosopher Nietzsche. The extent of his knowledge of man and his changeability constitutes here the field of an understanding, "unmasking" psychology with a sociological-historical touch. The thorough, slow ("lento") study of the original sources on the part of the master of a "connaisseurship of the word" seems to be indispensable for any reader trying to occupy himself with Nietzsche in a work of his own and the questions arising therefrom.

  15. Helicopter human factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  16. Psychological factors involved in prurigo nodularis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazzi, Carla; Erma, Daniela; Piccinno, Roberta; Veraldi, Stefano; Caccialanza, Massimo

    2011-08-01

    Emotional stresses and psychological disorders seem to be concurrent factors in some cases of prurigo nodularis (PN), a chronic skin condition with a difficult therapeutic approach. In order to improve the therapeutic strategies, we performed a psychometric study on 20 patients affected by generalized and histological proven PN. Specific questionnaires were employed to examine the hypotheses (General Health Questionnaire, State Trait Anxiety Inventory - form Y, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire). The results show that symptoms of anxiety and depression associated with PN are more severe than in the control group and that some specific traits of personality are more frequently represented in such subjects. The results of our study represent a first attempt to analyze the psychological problems and the personality dimensions which seem to characterize PN patients. Such evidence supports the importance of a psychological approach in the clinical management of PN, which should always include psychological assessment and treatment together with the other therapeutic options.

  17. Human Factors Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  18. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  19. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF FINANCIAL RISKS MANAGEMENT OF BUDGETARY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Rustamovna Mubarakshina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In article such concepts are considered as the risk, budgetary risk, necessity of formation of system thinking at civil servants working in budgetary process. In article the concept of professional motivation for civil servants is considered. As in article necessity of the account of various psychological factors for managerial process by budgetary risks is proved and these factors are considered. In article risks in the field of public finances and a role of civil servants in the course of control over performance of the federal budget parameters and effective and target use of budgetary funds are considered. In article the urgency of the account of psychological factors at each stage of management by risks of budgetary process, in the answer constantly changing environmental conditions is proved.Aim: to reveal and characterize budgetary process risks. Object of research: psychological factors of financial risks. Result: Substantiation of necessity of the account of psychological factors such as style of thinking, the person, professional motivation of the employee at revealing and the analysis of risks of budgetary process and decrease in influence degree of risks on budgetary process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-37

  20. [Evolutionary development of human psyche in Wilber's integral psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koberda, Przemysław

    2008-01-01

    Darwin's evolution theory is fundamental for modern biology. But the logic of evolutionary development seems to have a wider context. Several observations and psychological investigations show convincingly that the extent of the development of human psyche is a continuation of the biological evolution. Developmental levels of consciousness, seen both from the individual and collective perspective, are discussed in the writings by the American investigator and philosopher Ken Wilber. His integral model, which has evoIved into integral psychology, forms a logical and inspiring basis for further scientific deliberations in the fields of psychology and medical sciences.

  1. Social and Psychological Aspects of Applied Human Genetics: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, James R., Comp.

    This bibliography is a selective compilation of books and articles which focus on the psychological and social issues of applied human genetics. It is centered in particular around problems, issues, and discussions of genetic counseling, the primary mechanism by which human genetics has been applied to date. It includes those entries which, on the…

  2. Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

  3. Weight Perception, Academic Performance, and Psychological Factors in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate weight perception and related psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire on weight perception, academic performance, stress, hostility, and depression was completed by 6863 middle and high school students. Weight and height were measured. Results: Overweight perception was related to…

  4. Familial psychological factors are associated with encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Devrim; Çengel Kültür, S Ebru; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Zeki, Ayşe; Şenses Dinç, Gülser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess maternal psychiatric symptoms, family functioning and parenting styles in children with encopresis. Forty-one children with encopresis were compared to 29 children without any psychiatric disorder. Higher maternal psychiatric symptoms were found in children with encopresis. The general family functioning and strictness/supervision in parenting were significant predictors of encopresis. Family functioning may be screened in children with encopresis, especially when standard interventions have had limited success. Identification and treatment of familial factors may enhance the treatment efficacy in encopresis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Helicopter Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  6. Helicopter Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  7. Personality: bridging the literatures from human psychology and behavioural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Penke, Lars

    2010-12-27

    The concept of personality has recently begun to attract a great deal of interest in behavioural ecology. However, there is also a large and mature literature on personality within human psychology. These two bodies of work have developed independently and at present make rather little reference to one another. The current paper has two main objectives. First, we seek to acquaint behavioural ecologists with the principal ideas and issues found in the human personality psychology literature. Second, we explore how ideas from the behavioural ecology literature might help advance research in human personality psychology. We suggest strong potential for convergence between the two literatures in the near future. Common themes of this future unified science of personality include the conception of personality traits as reaction norms, a commitment to the importance of direct measurement of behaviour, investigation of both proximate and ultimate explanations for personality variation, and a concern with the impact of personality variation on survival and reproductive success.

  8. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. (Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  9. Evaluation of some psychological factors in psoriatic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Noormohammadpour

    2015-03-01

    vulnerability score.PASI score as a representing factor of skin involvement has a limited role in predicting the effect of psoriasis on mental status and illness perception of psoriatic patients. Psychological vulnerability of the patients is the main predicting factor of illness perception and coping strategies (representing patients approach to their disease or their treatment beliefs.

  10. [Psychological well-being and adolescence: associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pontes, Lívia Malta; Faria, Augusto Duarte; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with psychological well-being among adolescents in a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample (n = 960) of adolescents (15-18 years). Eighty-six households were visited in each of the 90 randomized census tracts. Parents signed a written consent form before the adolescent answered a self-reported questionnaire. Psychological well-being was evaluated with a scale containing seven figures representing expressions varying from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Adolescents were asked to mark the figure that best resembled the way they felt about their lives, and 72.33% reported a high level of psychological well-being. Prevalence of psychological well-being was higher in families with better economic status and higher maternal schooling. Adolescents who practiced a religion, did not smoke or consume alcohol, and wished to lose weight showed a higher level of psychological well-being, suggesting an interrelationship between health behaviors.

  11. STUDENTS’ PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN SLA: A DILLEMA FOR TEACHERS OF ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Budianto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing psychological factors in language acquisition and learning for human being who learn second language acquisition. Stephens found that external factors such as the characteristic of teacher, class and school condition had consistently no relation with the success of learning foreign language. On the other hand, student’s psychological conditions, as one of the internal factors, are potential to influence the foreign or second language acquisition. Psychological factor is a factor that is mentally or spiritually concerned with the aspects in students’ acquisition. At least, four of many factors, such as anxiety, attitude, aptitude, and motivation influence the students’ process of language acquisition. However, to cope the psychological problems of learning second language, Kando, D. suggests the five strategies for coping with language anxiety, among of them are preparation strategy, relaxation, positive thinking, peer, and labeled resignation. Therefore, in maximizing the result of second language acquisition, the five strategies illustrated by Kando are important as an alternative solution.

  12. Self-cutting versus intentional overdose: psychological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, C; Di Blasi, Z; Arensman, E

    2013-08-01

    Individuals who present to emergency departments with self-harm are at elevated risk of further self-harm and suicide, and these risks are yet higher among patients who self-cut. Repetitive self-injury has previously been explained using a behaviourist approach focussing on operant conditioning, but we propose that the increased risk of self-harm repetition among those who present with self-cutting is at least partly mediated by pre-existing psychological risk factors. Several studies show that those who present with self-cutting differ from intentional overdose patients on demographic, psychiatric and social factors, but, based on findings from community-based studies, we hypothesise that there may be additional psychological differences that may also be associated with increased repetition risk. We conducted a small-scale cohort study of 29 self-harm patients presenting to A&E and compared theoretically-derived psychological variables between 8 self-cutting and 21 overdose patients. Those presenting with self-cutting scored significantly higher on hopelessness and lower on non-reactivity to inner experience and generally had a more vulnerable profile than those presenting with overdose. These findings support our hypothesis that the association between self-cutting and prospective repetition is at least partly due to pre-existing psychological vulnerabilities that increase both the likelihood of engaging in self-cutting as a method of self-harm and the likelihood of subsequent repetition of self-harm. Existing evidence suggests that self-cutting is a risk factor for repetition of self-harm, and it is possible that reducing and preventing repetition among these patients can be achieved by implementing psychological interventions to reduce hopelessness and increase tolerance of emotional distress.

  13. Toward a Psychology of Human Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    2006-06-01

    This article presents an agentic theory of human development, adaptation, and change. The evolutionary emergence of advanced symbolizing capacity enabled humans to transcend the dictates of their immediate environment and made them unique in their power to shape their life circumstances and the courses their lives take. In this conception, people are contributors to their life circumstances, not just products of them. Social cognitive theory rejects a duality between human agency and social structure. People create social systems, and these systems, in turn, organize and influence people's lives. This article discusses the core properties of human agency, the different forms it takes, its ontological and epistemological status, its development and role in causal structures, its growing primacy in the coevolution process, and its influential exercise at individual and collective levels across diverse spheres of life and cultural systems.

  14. Analysis of psychological factors which interfere in soccer athletes’ behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Pujals

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the psychological factors which interfere in soccer athletes’s behaviour, juvenile and infant categories. 40 athletes from a soccer school in Maringá – PR were studied and the instruments used were: inventories, interviews, questionnaires and research diary. Data were collected individually and in group. Intervention occurred for 12 months through observation, evaluation and showed the following factors: motivation, anxiety, aggression and self confidence. Results pointed out that the positive emotions expressed by the athletes were good mood, happiness, relaxation, interest in improving and hope while negative emotions were anxiety, rage, aggressiveness, low self-confidence, lack of motivation, insecurity, feeling of failure, pessimism and group instability. Relatives and coach were also generating factors of stress and anxiety. Thus, this sporting context shows that the sports psychology seems to be highly efficient to reduce anxiety and agression indexes as well as to increase motivation and self-confidence, demonstrating the importance of psychological preparation for sporting training.

  15. Psychological mechanisms in hyperactivity: II. The role of genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsi, J; Stevenson, J

    2001-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to combine two research approaches to hyperactivity: the behaviour genetic approach and the testing of psychological theories of hyperactivity. For a sample of 268 twin pairs aged 7-11 years we obtained ratings on the Conners' scales from both teachers (CTRS-28) and parents (CPRS-48). Forty-six hyperactive twin pairs (pairs in which at least one twin was pervasively hyperactive) and 47 control twin pairs were assessed on a psychological test battery. Confirming findings from previous twin studies, a substantial proportion of the variance in hyperactivity considered as a dimension was due to genetic effects. There was significant evidence of genetic effects also on extreme hyperactivity, although the present group heritability estimates were somewhat lower than those reported in most previous studies. We investigated the possibility that the psychological mechanisms we reported to be associated with hyperactivity (Kuntsi, Oosterlaan, & Stevenson, 2001) share common genetic factors with hyperactive behaviour. The data produced significant evidence of such shared genetic effects only on hyperactivity and the variability of reaction times. Given that the high variability in speed of responding would indicate a state-regulation problem, this is the psychological mechanism that could possibly be the "link" between genetic effects and hyperactive behaviour.

  16. Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kontoangelos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c < 7% from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ≥ 7. Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R. Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P<0.013 was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P<0.030, as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P<0.047 in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM.

  17. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  18. Comparative Developmental Psychology: How is Human Cognitive Development Unique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G. Rosati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  19. Exploratory factor analysis in Rehabilitation Psychology: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Richard B; Elliott, Timothy R; Chang, Jessica E; Hill, Jessica N

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to examine the use and quality of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in articles published in Rehabilitation Psychology. Trained raters examined 66 separate exploratory factor analyses in 47 articles published between 1999 and April 2014. The raters recorded the aim of the EFAs, the distributional statistics, sample size, factor retention method(s), extraction and rotation method(s), and whether the pattern coefficients, structure coefficients, and the matrix of association were reported. The primary use of the EFAs was scale development, but the most widely used extraction and rotation method was principle component analysis, with varimax rotation. When determining how many factors to retain, multiple methods (e.g., scree plot, parallel analysis) were used most often. Many articles did not report enough information to allow for the duplication of their results. EFA relies on authors' choices (e.g., factor retention rules extraction, rotation methods), and few articles adhered to all of the best practices. The current findings are compared to other empirical investigations into the use of EFA in published research. Recommendations for improving EFA reporting practices in rehabilitation psychology research are provided.

  20. An Investigation of Psychological Factors Inluencing Investment Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Hue Chang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This  study  applies  a  second-order  conirmatory  factor  analysis  (CFA  approach  to investigate  psychological  factors  inluencing  individuals'  investment  decision-making.  A second-order  CFA  approach  consists  of  ive  irst-order  psychological  factors  in  terms  of mental  accounting,  regret  avoidance,  self-control,  heuristic  and  overconidence,  and  one second-order factor in terms of investment decision-making. Quantitative data was yielded by the questionnaire, and an effective sample of 752 responses was used to execute the estimation procedure.  The  results  reveal  that  there  exist  statistically  signiicant  relationships  between ive psychological factors and investment decision-making. Investors are likely to consider a product with different functions as one with different mental accounts (gains. Thus, inancial institutions  are  advised  to  provide  their  potential  customers  with  multi-function  products. Since self-control is  a  signiicant self-imposed mechanism  for  investment decision-making, inancial institutions can merchandise products that can help their customers to execute the self-imposed rules of thumb. ";} // -->activate javascript

  1. Factors promoting psychological adjustment to childhood atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Hannah; Rostill, Helen; Reed, Julie; Gill, Steve

    2006-06-01

    Research has found that children with atopic eczema are more likely to experience psychosocial difficulties than would be expected within the general population. This article aims to explore the relationship between child, parent and family factors in promoting positive adjustment to atopic eczema. Children aged five to 11 years with atopic eczema and their parents were identified from a specialist children's dermatology clinic. Seventy-four respondents completed questionnaires assessing child behaviour, parental well-being and family functioning. Parental psychological health, a supportive family environment and low impact of atopic eczema on family functioning were found to predict lower levels of internalizing behaviour (anxiety, depression and social withdrawal). These findings emphasize the importance of family and parental psychological processes rather than biomedical variables in promoting positive adjustment to atopic eczema.

  2. Human Factors in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  3. Human Factors in Marine Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenko Švetak

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Human factors play an important role in the origin of accidents,and it is commonly claimed that between seventy andninety-five percent of industrial and transport accidents involvehuman factors, see Figure 1.Some authorities, however, claim that ultimately, all accidentsinvolve human factors.

  4. Physical and psychological factors predict outcome following whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Michele; Jull, Gwendolen; Vicenzino, Bill; Kenardy, Justin; Darnell, Ross

    2005-03-01

    Predictors of outcome following whiplash injury are limited to socio-demographic and symptomatic factors, which are not readily amenable to secondary and tertiary intervention. This prospective study investigated the predictive capacity of early measures of physical and psychological impairment on pain and disability 6 months following whiplash injury. Motor function (ROM; kinaesthetic sense; activity of the superficial neck flexors (EMG) during cranio-cervical flexion), quantitative sensory testing (pressure, thermal pain thresholds, brachial plexus provocation test), sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses and psychological distress (GHQ-28, TSK, IES) were measured in 76 acute whiplash participants. The outcome measure was Neck Disability Index scores at 6 months. Stepwise regression analysis was used to predict the final NDI score. Logistic regression analyses predicted membership to one of the three groups based on final NDI scores (pain and disability, >30 moderate/severe pain and disability). Higher initial NDI score (1.007-1.12), older age (1.03-1.23), cold hyperalgesia (1.05-1.58), and acute post-traumatic stress (1.03-1.2) predicted membership to the moderate/severe group. Additional variables associated with higher NDI scores at 6 months on stepwise regression analysis were: ROM loss and diminished sympathetic reactivity. Higher initial NDI score (1.03-1.28), greater psychological distress (GHQ-28) (1.04-1.28) and decreased ROM (1.03-1.25) predicted subjects with persistent milder symptoms from those who fully recovered. These results demonstrate that both physical and psychological factors play a role in recovery or non-recovery from whiplash injury. This may assist in the development of more relevant treatment methods for acute whiplash.

  5. ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 12 April). ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognition, He

  6. Social Psychology Of Persuasion Applied To Human-agent Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and evaluates the application of a social psychologically enriched, user-centered approach to agent architecture design. The major aim is to facilitate human-agent interaction (HAI by making agents not only algorithmically more intelligent but also socially more skillful in communicating with the user. A decision-making model and communicative argumentation strategies have been incorporated into the agent architecture. In the presented content resource management experiments, enhancement of human task performance is demonstrated for users that are supported by a persuasive agent. This superior performance seems to be rooted in a more trusting collaborative relationship between the user and the agent, rather than in the appropriateness of the agent's decision-making suggestions alone. In particular, the second experiment demonstrated that interface interaction design should follow the principles of task-orientation and implicitness. Making the influence of the agent too salient can trigger counterintentional effects, such as users' discomfort and psychological reactance.

  7. Comparative Developmental Psychology: How is Human Cognitive Development Unique?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosati, Alexandra G.; Victoria Wobber; Kelly Hughes; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In th...

  8. The Role of Communications, Socio-Psychological, and Personality Factors in the Maintenance of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many air transport incidents and accidents are the result of the improper or inadequate utilization of the resources accessible to flight dock crew members. These resources obviously include the hardware and technical information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the flight, but they also Include the human resources which must be coordinated effectively. The focus of this paper is upon the human resources, and how communication styles, socio-psychological factors, and personality characteristics can affect crew coordination.

  9. 393 The Challenges of Socio-Psychological Factors as Correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... of Adolescent Students' Cigarette Smoking In Cross River. State, Nigeria ... Key words: socio-psychological factors self-concept, psychological support, peer group influence. .... to be culturally accepted in the society.

  10. Human performance in aerospace environments: The search for psychological determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A program of research into the psychological determinants of individual and crew performance in aerospace environments is described. Constellations of personality factors influencing behavior in demanding environments are discussed. Relationships between attitudes and performance and attitudes and personality are also reported. The efficacy of training in interpersonal relations as a means of changing attitudes and behavior is explored along with the influence of personality on attitude change processes. Finally, approaches to measuring group behavior in aerospace settings are described.

  11. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  12. Human-computer interaction: psychology as a science of design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J M

    1997-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) study is the region of intersection between psychology and the social sciences, on the one hand, and computer science and technology, on the other. HCI researchers analyze and design specific user interface technologies (e.g. pointing devices). They study and improve the processes of technology development (e.g. task analysis, design rationale). They develop and evaluate new applications of technology (e.g. word processors, digital libraries). Throughout the past two decades, HCI has progressively integrated its scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the usability of computer systems and applications, which has resulted in a body of technical knowledge and methodology. HCI continues to provide a challenging test domain for applying and developing psychological and social theory in the context of technology development and use.

  13. Whatever happened to the human experience in undergraduate psychology? Comment on the special issue on undergraduate education in psychology (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana; Hook, Derek

    2017-01-01

    This comment addresses the omission of a series of critical reflections in recent discussions of undergraduate education in psychology. The lack of a stronger focus on human meaning and experience, on social context, on methodological diversity, and on social critique limits the critical horizons of undergraduate psychology education. Many perspectives are routinely excluded from undergraduate psychology curricula and associated guidelines, particularly psychoanalytic theories, human science approaches, and related critical standpoints. These perspectives can offer an educational focus vital for development of students capable of critical reflection and social action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 1: The Psychological Literature Review for the IDHEAS Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Katya L. Le Blanc; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    In response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is sponsoring work to update the technical basis underlying human reliability analysis (HRA) in an effort to improve the robustness of HRA. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a hybrid of existing methods addressing limitations of current HRA models and in particular issues related to intra- and inter-method variabilities and results. This hybrid method is now known as the Integrated Decision-tree Human Event Analysis System (IDHEAS). Existing HRA methods have looked at elements of the psychological literature, but there has not previously been a systematic attempt to translate the complete span of cognition from perception to action into mechanisms that can inform HRA. Therefore, a first step of this effort was to perform a literature search of psychology, cognition, behavioral science, teamwork, and operating performance to incorporate current understanding of human performance in operating environments, thus affording an improved technical foundation for HRA. However, this literature review went one step further by mining the literature findings to establish causal relationships and explicit links between the different types of human failures, performance drivers and associated performance measures ultimately used for quantification. This is the first of two papers that detail the literature review (paper 1) and its product (paper 2). This paper describes the literature review and the high-level architecture used to organize the literature review, and the second paper (Whaley, Hendrickson, Boring, & Xing, these proceedings) describes the resultant cognitive framework.

  15. The impact of human resource practices on psychological empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Moradi; Naser Sanai Dashti

    2016-01-01

    Today, human capital is considered a key factor of achieving the competitive advantage in different industries. The present study, as an applied and descriptive research, aims at providing formulation and evaluation of human resource development of an Iranian Petrochemical Company (APC). The human resource experts and managers of APC together with university professors of human capital and familiar with local conditions of Khuzestan province, Iran, made up the statistical population of this r...

  16. Psychological Help-Seeking Attitudes of Helping Professional Candidates and Factors Influencing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcagiz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed as descriptive to identify psychological help-seeking attitudes of helping professional candidates and factors influencing them. The research population consisted of 447 first and fourth grade students studying in the Departments of Psychological Counselling and Guidance, Psychology or Nursing at Ondokuz Mayis University.…

  17. Prolactin, psychological stress and environment in humans: adaptation and maladaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Luis Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Non-puerperal lactation and/or hyperprolactinemia in humans have been related to psychological variables in a variety of ways: (1) Non-puerperal nursing; (2) Pseudopregnancy; (3) Rapid weight gain; (4) Psychogenic galactorrhea; (5) Acute prolactin responses to psychological stress; (6) High prolactin levels in persons who cope passively in real life stress situations; (7) Paternal deprivation in women with pathological hyperprolactinemia; (8) Clinical onset of prolactinomas following life-events. Publications on the above subjects are scattered in the literature as curiosities, anecdotal case-reports or unexplained associations, as there is no theoretical frame of reference to accommodate them. We propose that prolactin is a component of a biological, "maternal", subroutine, adaptive to the care of the young, which promotes accumulation of fat for the extraordinary expenses of pregnancy and lactation, the production of milk and maternal behavior. In an attempt to characterize the stimuli responsible for the activation of the maternal subroutine in the absence of pregnancy we studied the hormonal profiles of female volunteers during three types of sessions under hypnosis: (1) Relaxation-only, control sessions; (2) Sessions in which a fantasy of "nursing" was induced; (3) Sessions of evocations of memories. Prolactin surges were related to the evocation, with rage, of humiliating experiences, but not with the fantasy of nursing. Cortisol surges were related to surprise and shock and were negatively associated with prolactin. In conclusion--Prolactin and cortisol are measurable markers of two different, and alternative, coping strategies to "psychological stress".

  18. Human Factors Evaluation Mentor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To obtain valid and reliable data, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluations are currently conducted by people with specialized training and experience in HF. HFE...

  19. Association of Personality Traits with Psychological Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Psychological Distress: A Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to find the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress

  20. Psychological factors that promote behavior modification by obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Akinori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight-loss effect of team medical care in which counseling is provided by clinical psychologists was investigated in an university hospital obesity (OB clinic. Nutritional and exercise therapy were also studied. In our previous study, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial with obese patients and confirmed that subjects who received counseling lost significantly more weight than those in a non-counseling group. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological characteristics assessed by ego states that promote behavior modification by obese patients. Methods 147 obese patients (116 females, 31 males; mean age: 45.9 ± 15.4 years participated in a 6-month weight-loss program in our OB clinic. Their psychosocial characteristics were assessed using the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG before and after intervention. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare weight and psychological factors before and after intervention. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting weight loss. Results Overall, 101 subjects (68.7% completed the program, and their data was analyzed. The subjects mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 7.3 kg (Z = 7.72, p 2 (Z = 7.65, p Z = 1.95, p Z = 2.46, p p p = 0.06 was observed. Conclusion This study of a 6-month weight-loss program that included counseling by clinical psychologists confirmed that the A ego state of obese patients, which is related to their self-monitoring skill, and the FC ego state of them, which is related to their autonomy, were increased. Furthermore, the negative aspects of the FC ego state related to optimistic and instinctive characteristics inhibited the behavior modification, while the A ego state represented objective self-monitoring skills that may have contributed to weight loss.

  1. Human factors in resuscitation teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Elizabeth M; Lockey, Andrew S

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in human factors within the healthcare environment reflecting the understanding of their impact on safety. The aim of this paper is to explore how human factors might be taught on resuscitation courses, and improve course outcomes in terms of improved mortality and morbidity for patients. The delivery of human factors training is important and this review explores the work that has been delivered already and areas for future research and teaching. Medline was searched using MESH terms Resuscitation as a Major concept and Patient or Leadership as core terms. The abstracts were read and 25 full length articles reviewed. Critical incident reporting has shown four recurring problems: lack of organisation at an arrest, lack of equipment, non functioning equipment, and obstructions preventing good care. Of these, the first relates directly to the concept of human factors. Team dynamics for both team membership and leadership, management of stress, conflict and the role of debriefing are highlighted. Possible strategies for teaching them are discussed. Four strategies for improving human factors training are discussed: team dynamics (including team membership and leadership behaviour), the influence of stress, debriefing, and conflict within teams. This review illustrates how human factor training might be integrated further into life support training without jeopardising the core content and lengthening the courses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees; Maria Hafeez; Jung-Yong Kim

    2017-01-01

    .... Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety...

  3. Psychological and physiological human responses to simulated and real environments: A comparison between Photographs, 360° Panoramas, and Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera-Trujillo, Juan Luis; López-Tarruella Maldonado, Juan; Llinares Millán, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    Psychological research into human factors frequently uses simulations to study the relationship between human behaviour and the environment. Their validity depends on their similarity with the physical environments. This paper aims to validate three environmental-simulation display formats: photographs, 360° panoramas, and virtual reality. To do this we compared the psychological and physiological responses evoked by simulated environments set-ups to those from a physical environment setup; we also assessed the users' sense of presence. Analysis show that 360° panoramas offer the closest to reality results according to the participants' psychological responses, and virtual reality according to the physiological responses. Correlations between the feeling of presence and physiological and other psychological responses were also observed. These results may be of interest to researchers using environmental-simulation technologies currently available in order to replicate the experience of physical environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Concept of Human Functional State in Russian Applied Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Leonova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of human functional states (HFS is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers’ states are discussed. Three different strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplified with the help of two empirical studies concerned with reliability of fire-fighters’ work in the Chernobyl Zone and effects of interruptions in computerized office environment. A general framework for applied HFS research is proposed in order to develop new ecologically valid psychodiagnostic procedures that can help to create efficient stress-management programs for enhancing human reliability and performance in complex job environment.

  5. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Psychological Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Latina/o students' experiences. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, and family importance influenced 128 Latina/o college students' psychological grit. We used the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Subjective Happiness Scale,…

  6. Psychological factors in exceptional, extreme and torturous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, John

    2016-01-01

    Our cognitive system has adapted to support goal-directed behaviour within a normal environment. An abnormal environment is one to which we are not optimally adapted but can accommodate through the development of coping strategies. These abnormal environments can be 'exceptional', e.g., polar base, space station, submarine, prison, intensive care unit, isolation ward etc.; 'extreme', marked by more intense environmental stimuli and a real or perceived lack of control over the situation, e.g., surviving at sea in a life-raft, harsh prison camp etc.; or 'tortuous', when specific environmental stimuli are used deliberately against a person in an attempt to undermine his will or resistance. The main factors in an abnormal environment are: psychological (isolation, sensory deprivation, sensory overload, sleep deprivation, temporal disorientation); psychophysiological (thermal, stress positions), and psychosocial (cultural humiliation, sexual degradation). Each single factor may not be considered tortuous, however, if deliberately structured into a systemic cluster may constitute torture under legal definition. The individual experience of extremis can be pathogenic or salutogenic and attempts are being made to capitalise on these positive experiences whilst ameliorating the more negative aspects of living in an abnormal environment.

  7. The impact of human resource practices on psychological empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moradi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, human capital is considered a key factor of achieving the competitive advantage in different industries. The present study, as an applied and descriptive research, aims at providing formulation and evaluation of human resource development of an Iranian Petrochemical Company (APC. The human resource experts and managers of APC together with university professors of human capital and familiar with local conditions of Khuzestan province, Iran, made up the statistical population of this research. In this connection, first the internal factors (including advantages and disadvantages were identified using human resource excellence indicators. Then, the opportunities and threats of human resource system were found via PESTEL approach. In the next step, the primary strategies were formulated using the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT Matrix. The next phases of the study were included evaluation and ranking of human resource development strategies based on analytical network process (ANP multi-criteria decision making method and grey systems theory. According to results of the research, defensive strategies (WT are suggested as the best and most appropriate strategies in human resource area. In other words, the internal and external factors of APC are problematic. Accordingly, APC is expected to adopt WT strategy, minimize the weaknesses, and avoid threats. Subsequent to the above policy, the strategies of WO, ST, and SO are advised to employ.

  8. Games people play the psychology of human relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The bestselling Games People Play is the book that has helped millions of people understand the dynamics of relationships, by psychiatrist Eric Berne.We all play games. In every encounter with other people we are doing so. The nature of these games depends both on the situation and on who we meet.Eric Berne's classic Games People Play is the most accessible and insightful book ever written about the games we play: those patterns of behaviour that reveal hidden feelings and emotions. Wise and witty, it shows the underlying motivations behind our relationships and explores the roles that we try to play - and are forced to play.Games People Play gives you the keys to unlock the psychology of others - and yourself. You'll become more honest, more effective, and a true team player.'A brilliant, amusing, and clear catalogue of the psychological theatricals that human beings play over and over again' Kurt VonnegutEric Berne was a prominent psychiatrist and bestselling author.After inventing his groundbreaking Transa...

  9. A Case for Psychology as a Human Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Morehouse

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The disciples of Psychology and Sociology and the social sciences more generally, are and have been for some time, in a state of flux, especially with regard to research methods. The tension, in the view if many, is between the approaches to research in terms of positivist verses naturalist [1,2]. This tension has to a considerable degree remains unsolved and has been exacerbated by the postmodernist’s discourse as exemplified in the works of Foucault [3] and Lyotard [4] (see Rosenberg, 2003 for an overview of this discourse. This short commentary cannot address all of these issues. Instead, it will [5] provide an introduction to the history of 19th century and early 20th century social sciences focusing on key differences and similarities in research methods and their philosophic underpinning [6]. This will be followed by a short statement regarding the nature of mid 20th century evolution of the social sciences, touching on both the philosophical and practical aspects of research [7]. This essay will end with an overview of some psychology research conducted within the parameters of the Human sciences.

  10. On Orbit and Beyond Psychological Perspectives on Human Spaceflight

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As we stand poised on the verge of a new era of spaceflight, we must rethink every element, including the human dimension. This book explores some of the contributions of psychology to yesterday’s great space race, today’s orbiter and International Space Station missions, and tomorrow’s journeys beyond Earth’s orbit. Early missions into space were typically brief, and crews were small, often drawn from a single nation. As international cooperation in space exploration has increased over the decades, the challenges of communicating across cultural boundaries and dealing with interpersonal conflicts have become all the more important, requiring different coping skills and sensibilities than “the right stuff” expected of early astronauts. As astronauts travel to asteroids or establish a permanent colony on the Moon, with the eventual goal of reaching Mars, the duration of expeditions will increase markedly, as will the psychosocial stresses. Away from their home planet for extended times, future spac...

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF LABOR ACTIVITY OF ELDERLY MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyusova O.V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In modern Russian society occurred deformation traditions of respect and maintain the credibility of the elderly, and the socio-economic situation has deteriorated. An important condition to characterize the elderly is related to labor activity. expressed doubts surrounding their professionalism and high-quality and modern education. In society there are negative stereotypes about the elderly: Edil accusations of conservatism, the inability to take risks, tolerance for young. Old age pensioners perceived themselves as age losses, shrinking circle of social contacts, there is social exclusion, significant interpersonal contacts become strained. The psychological diagnosis of labor socialization of older employees 40 people participated. Conducted an empirical study it possible to identify the factors of labor activity in old age: the age and state of health; desire to raise the level of material well-being, the need to work, enthusiasm labor process, achievement motivation, the need for communication with the team; desire for samooaktualizatsii, positive self-esteem, internal locus of control. Working pensioners have high situational anxiety, adequate to the achievement of the objectives, an adequate assessment of its internal and external quality, high life satisfaction, motivation tends to focus on the process and result, reflexivity, subjectivity, have no fear of being rejected, is well adapted to society. Workers older people have average values of introversion, neuroticism, psychoticism.

  12. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaygan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of

  13. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  14. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  15. Evolutionary psychology and evolutionary developmental psychology: understanding the evolution of human behavior and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Causey, Kayla

    2010-02-01

    This is an introduction to this special issue on evolutionary psychology (EP) and evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP). We suggest here that, contrary to some common assumptions, mainstream psychology continues to be essentially non Darwinian and that EP and EDP are new approaches that can potentially help us to change this situation. We then present the organization of the special issue (composed of six papers). We conclude that evolution is certainly not the final consideration in psychology, but emphasize its importance as the basis upon which all modern behaviors and development are built.

  16. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  17. A model of real estate and psychological factors in decision-making to buy real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Grum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the psychological characteristics of potential real estate buyers connected with their decision to buy. Through a review of research, it reveals that most studies of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate have a partial and dispersed orientation, and examine individual factors independently. It appears that the research area is lacking clearly defined models of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate that would integrally and relationally explain the role of psychological characteristics of real estate buyers and their expectations in relation to a decision to buy. The article identifies two sets of psychological factors, motivational and emotional, determines their interaction with potential buyers’ expectations when deciding to purchase real estate and offers starting points for forming a model.

  18. Generating pedestrian trajectories consistent with the fundamental diagram based on physiological and psychological factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Narang

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crowds often have been modeled as many-particle system including microscopic multi-agent simulators. One of the key challenges is to unearth governing principles that can model pedestrian movement, and use them to reproduce paths and behaviors that are frequently observed in human crowds. To that effect, we present a novel crowd simulation algorithm that generates pedestrian trajectories that exhibit the speed-density relationships expressed by the Fundamental Diagram. Our approach is based on biomechanical principles and psychological factors. The overall formulation results in better utilization of free space by the pedestrians and can be easily combined with well-known multi-agent simulation techniques with little computational overhead. We are able to generate human-like dense crowd behaviors in large indoor and outdoor environments and validate the results with captured real-world crowd trajectories.

  19. The Economics and Psychology of Inequality and Human Development. NBER Working Paper No. 14695

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on the economics of human development deepens understanding of the origins of inequality and excellence. It draws on and contributes to personality psychology and the psychology of human development. Inequalities in family environments and investments in children are substantial. They causally affect the development of…

  20. Psychological distress and personality factors in takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J

    2016-01-01

    Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This

  1. SENSORY, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE CHEMICAL SENSES IN HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The examination of the effects of odors on humans is not a simple task. It involves consideration of sensory, psychological, and psychophysiological aspects of the stimulus and the humans studied. Aspects of importance are: 1. Information the subject has ...

  2. Psychological factors are associated with subjective cognitive complaints 2 months post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsse, Britta; van Heugten, Caroline M; van Mierlo, Marloes L; Post, Marcel W M; de Kort, Paul L M; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which psychological factors are related to post-stroke subjective cognitive complaints, taking into account the influence of demographic and stroke-related characteristics, cognitive deficits and emotional problems. In this cross-sectional study, 350 patients were assessed at 2 months post-stroke, using the Checklist for Cognitive and Emotional consequences following stroke (CLCE-24) to identify cognitive complaints. Psychological factors were: proactive coping, passive coping, self-efficacy, optimism, pessimism, extraversion, and neuroticism. Associations between CLCE-24 cognition score and psychological factors, emotional problems (depressive symptoms and anxiety), cognitive deficits, and demographic and stroke characteristics were examined using Spearman correlations and multiple regression analyses. Results showed that 2 months post-stroke, 270 patients (68.4%) reported at least one cognitive complaint. Age, sex, presence of recurrent stroke(s), comorbidity, cognitive deficits, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and all psychological factors were significantly associated with the CLCE-24 cognition score in bivariate analyses. Multiple regression analysis showed that psychological factors explained 34.7% of the variance of cognitive complaints independently, and 8.5% (p psychological factors, proactive coping was independently associated with cognitive complaints (p cognitive complaints. Because cognitive complaints are common after stroke and are associated with psychological factors, it is important to focus on these factors in rehabilitation programmes.

  3. The Relationship between Human Resource Management Practices, Leader member exchange, Psychological contract Fulfillment, Trade Union and Employee Retention Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed; Che Supian Mohamad Nor; Norziani Dahalan

    2014-01-01

    Employee retention is an issue facing most of corporate leaders due to high turnover rate. Many researchers have found that retaining employees is a significant challenge for organization as different employees are motivated by different retention strategies. A good human resource management practices would be one of the retention strategies. Human resource practices are also proposed as one of the most potent factors determining the nature and state of the psychological contract and leader m...

  4. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaygan, Maryam; Böger, Andreas; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. Methods Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms). Results ANOVA (analysis of variance) results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors. Conclusion Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. The findings are discussed in term of differential response bias in patients with versus without verified neuropathic sensory symptoms by clinical examination, medical tests, or underlying pathology of

  5. State of the art: psychotherapeutic interventions targeting the psychological factors involved in IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Daniela; Menichetti, Julia; Fiorino, Gionata; Vegni, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The present article aims to review the literature on the relationship between psychology and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In particular, the first section is dedicated to explore the role of psychological factors in the etiopathology of the disease, its development and the efficacy of treatments, while the second analyzes existing literature on the role of psychological interventions in the care of IBD patients. Although the role of psychological factors in IBD appears controversial, literature seems to distinguish between antecedents of the disease (stress and lifestyle behavior), potential mediators of disease course (family functioning, attachment style, coping strategies, and illness perception), outcomes of IBD and concurrent factors (anxiety, depression and quality of life). Four types of psychological interventions are described: Stress management, Psychodynamic, Cognitive behavioral and Hypnosis based. Data on the role and efficacy of psychological interventions in IBD patients show little evidence both on reduction of the disease activity and benefits on psychological variables. Psychological interventions seem to be beneficial in the short term especially for adolescents. The importance of considering the connections between psychology and IBD from a broader perspective reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon at multiple levels is discussed.

  6. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  7. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  8. Psychological and psychophysiological factors in prevention and treatment of cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, B; Mills, W; O'Malley, J

    1993-01-01

    Cold injured patients in Alaska come from many sources. Although sport and work continues to provide large numbers of cold injured, most severe repeat injuries tend to reflect other biopsychosocial consequences. Certain behaviors can increase the probability of injury, however all persons living in cold climates are potential candidates. One can decrease risk by education, knowledge and intelligent behavior. Proper respect for adequate protection and hydration seem to be critical factors. Understanding the psychological, physiological and psychophysiological aspects of the cold environment performer helps refine the prevention and treatment strategies for cold injury. Skill training with bio-behavioral methods, such as thermal biofeedback, and the value of medical psychotherapy appear to offer continued promise by facilitating physiologic recovery from injury, as well as assisting in long term rehabilitation. Both approaches increase the likelihood of a favorable healing response by soliciting active patient participation. Medical Psychotherapy for traumatic injuries can also help identify and manage cognitive emotional issues for families and patients faced with the permanent consequences of severe thermal injuries. Thermal biofeedback therapy has the potential benefit of encouraging greater self-reliance and responsibility for self-regulating overall health by integrating self-management skills regarding physiology, diet and lifestyle. Inpatient and outpatient biofeedback training offers specific influence over vascular responses for healing, as well as providing an effective tool for pain management. Interest in cold region habitation has continued to expand our study of human tolerance to harsh, extreme environments. Biological, psychological, sociological, and anthropological views on adaptation, habituation, acclimatization, and injury in cold environments acknowledges the role of development, learning and educated responses to cold environments. The study of

  9. Psychological factors as risk factors for poor hip function after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benditz A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Achim Benditz,1 Petra Jansen,2 Jan Schaible,1 Christina Roll,1 Joachim Grifka,1 Jürgen Götz1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 2Department of Sport Science, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: Recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA is influenced by several psychological aspects, such as depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits. We hypothesized that preoperative depression impedes early functional outcome after THA (primary outcome measure. Additional objectives were perioperative changes in the psychological status and their influence on perioperative outcome. This observational study analyzed depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits in 50 patients after primary unilateral THA. Hip functionality was measured by means of the Harris Hip Score. Depression, state anxiety, and resilience were evaluated preoperatively as well as 1 and 5 weeks postoperatively. Trait anxiety and personality traits were measured once preoperatively. Patients with low depression and anxiety levels had significantly better outcomes with respect to early hip functionality. Resilience and personality traits did not relate to hip functionality. Depression and state anxiety levels significantly decreased within the 5-week stay in the acute and rehabilitation clinic, whereas resilience remained at the same level. Our study suggests that low depression and anxiety levels are positively related to early functionality after THA. Therefore, perioperative measurements of these factors seem to be useful to provide the best support for patients with risk factors. Keywords: total hip arthroplasty, psychological factors, depression, state anxiety, trait anxiety, resilience, personality traits

  10. Influencing Factors of Rural Human Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun LI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper combines the social capital theory, the ordered choice model, and the case study in order to analyze the influence factors of the rural human consumption. The results show the presence of inverted U shape curve relation between human consumption amount and age. Human communication range, income, the highest single human consumption amount and the minimum amount, occupation, family population, the existing of human consumption capacity and the scope of the existing relationships between interpersonal relationship satisfaction and other factors on human consumption level has positive influence on human consumption level. Domestic researches on human behaviour are wide, but most of the studies are focused on the social, human, and psychological disciplines. For the origin of human consumption, scholars focus on four aspects like novelty, human or mutual needs. This research is based on field investigation conducted in Niuxintai village, Liaoning Province, in order to understand the current situation of the rural human consumption in China, and to explain the function and influencing factors of human consumption.

  11. Human Factors Analysis in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ren-zuo; Ma Ruo-feng; Liu Li-na; Xiong Zhong-wei

    2004-01-01

    The general human factors analysis analyzes human functions, effects and influence in a system. But in a narrow sense, it analyzes human influence upon the reliability of a system, it includes traditional human reliability analysis, human error analysis, man-machine interface analysis, human character analysis, and others. A software development project in software engineering is successful or not to be completely determined by human factors. In this paper, we discuss the human factors intensions, declare the importance of human factors analysis for software engineering by listed some instances. At last, we probe preliminarily into the mentality that a practitioner in software engineering should possess.

  12. The concept of mindfulness: nonspecific factor of psychological wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugovkina O.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the growing interest in the study of the concept of mindfulness as a psychological construct and a form of psychotherapeutic intervention for the prevention and treatment of various mental disorders has become prominent in the foreign literature. On the basis of empirical evidence the article describes the positive effects of psychological awareness, including an increase of the subjective well-being, satisfaction with interpersonal relationships, improvement of some cognitive performance (working memory, executive functions, decline in cognitive and emotional reactivity. The article gives a description of the presumed neurobiological correlates of awareness and formulate the general perspective for further research.

  13. Genomic imprinting and human psychology: cognition, behavior and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Lisa M; Ragsdale, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Imprinted genes expressed in the brain are numerous and it has become clear that they play an important role in nervous system development and function. The significant influence of genomic imprinting during development sets the stage for structural and physiological variations affecting psychological function and behaviour, as well as other physiological systems mediating health and well-being. However, our understanding of the role of imprinted genes in behaviour lags far behind our understanding of their roles in perinatal growth and development. Knowledge of genomic imprinting remains limited among behavioral scientists and clinicians and research regarding the influence of imprinted genes on normal cognitive processes and the most common forms of neuropathology has been limited to date. In this chapter, we will explore how knowledge of genomic imprinting can be used to inform our study of normal human cognitive and behavioral processes as well as their disruption. Behavioural analyses of rare imprinted disorders, such as Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, provide insight regarding the phenotypic impact of imprinted genes in the brain, and can be used to guide the study of normal behaviour as well as more common but etiologically complex disorders such as ADHD and autism. Furthermore, hypotheses regarding the evolutionary development of imprinted genes can be used to derive predictions about their role in normal behavioural variation, such as that observed in food-related and social interactions.

  14. A four-fold humanity: Margaret Mead and psychological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in 1933, while working in New Guinea, Margaret Mead developed her so-called squares hypothesis. Mead never published its terms, though she made a brief comment on it in her autobiography, Blackberry Winter (1972), and the arguments found in Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935) and the research leading to Balinese Character (Bateson & Mead, 1942) bore its imprint. Beginning with William McDougall's distinction between temperament (innate predispositions) and character (learned organization of habit), Mead articulated a morphological approach to the interplay between biology and culture that yielded four primary and four intermediary personality types. Under specified but not inevitable circumstances, the conscious choices of a given people could render one or another of these types characteristic or predominantly stable within their population, giving each of the other types a definite relation to the dominant type and thereby the cultural ethos of its society. Persons of each type followed a developmental path specific to their type different both from that of other types and in its manifestations given the various relations of the individual's type to the dominant type. Mead's hypothesis was, therefore, a vision of the unity and diversity of a single human species as well as an approach to the differing psychological positioning of individuals in cultures. In examining Mead's hypothesis, this essay also takes up Mead's debts to several leading psychologists (McDougall, C. G. Jung, and Erik Erikson), and (provisionally) how her vision differed from that of Ruth Benedict.

  15. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS IN DENTURE SATISFACTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERVOORN, JM; DUINKERKE, ASH; LUTEIJN, F; VANDEPOEL, ACM

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the relative importance of psychologic variables in explaining the degree of denture satisfaction in full denture patients. A group of 125 patients who were on a waiting list to have new dentures constructed participated in this study. The patients

  16. Factors Influencing the Spiritual Competency of Predoctoral Psychology Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasz, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…

  17. Environmental psychology: Human responses and relationships to natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...

  18. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  19. Do psychological factors play a crucial role in sport performance? – Research on personality and psychological variables of athletes in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Gyomber, Noemi; Kovacs, Krisztina; Lenart, Agota

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Contemporary research aims to investigate background factors that contribute to successful sport performance. Of these factors the psychological well-being and mental health status should be underlined that have gained a significant role, particularly in the frames of sport psychological counseling. The aim of the present study is to seek for interrelations of psychological variables and sport performance of young athletes, and to reveal what advantages might be ut...

  20. Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  1. Medical and Psychological Risk Factors for Incident Hypertension in Type 1 Diabetic African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique S. Roy

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The development of hypertension in African-Americans living with type 1 diabetes appears to be multifactorial and includes both medical (overt proteinuria as well as psychological (high hostility risk factors.

  2. Psychological factors as risk factors for poor hip function after total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benditz, Achim; Jansen, Petra; Schaible, Jan; Roll, Christina; Grifka, Joachim; Götz, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is influenced by several psychological aspects, such as depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits. We hypothesized that preoperative depression impedes early functional outcome after THA (primary outcome measure). Additional objectives were perioperative changes in the psychological status and their influence on perioperative outcome. This observational study analyzed depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits in 50 patients after primary unilateral THA. Hip functionality was measured by means of the Harris Hip Score. Depression, state anxiety, and resilience were evaluated preoperatively as well as 1 and 5 weeks postoperatively. Trait anxiety and personality traits were measured once preoperatively. Patients with low depression and anxiety levels had significantly better outcomes with respect to early hip functionality. Resilience and personality traits did not relate to hip functionality. Depression and state anxiety levels significantly decreased within the 5-week stay in the acute and rehabilitation clinic, whereas resilience remained at the same level. Our study suggests that low depression and anxiety levels are positively related to early functionality after THA. Therefore, perioperative measurements of these factors seem to be useful to provide the best support for patients with risk factors.

  3. Evaluation of salivary cortisol and psychological factors in patients with oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Bina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Lichen planus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa and skin. Cortisol, also called as "stress hormone", has been used as an indicator in various stress evaluation studies. Salivary cortisol measurement is an indicator of free cortisol or biologically active cortisol in human serum and provides noninvasive and easy technique. Recent studies have been conflicting, and hence, in the present study, evaluation of salivary cortisol levels and psychosocial factors in oral lichen planus (OLP patients was done. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients with clinically and histopathologically proven cases of OLP, along with the age and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Samples of stimulated saliva were collected, centrifuged and analyzed for the level of cortisol with cortisol enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Psychosocial factors of study and control groups were measured by depression anxiety and stress scale. Student′s t-test was used to compare the psychological factors and salivary cortisol levels between patients with the OLP and the control group. Results: Irrespective of sex, significantly higher depression (83.4 ± 15.4%, anxiety (80.5 ± 11.3%, and stress (94.2 ± 6.2% scores were observed in OLP patients compared to controls. Increased cortisol levels were observed among 17 (56.6% OLP patients in the study group. A positive correlation was found between psychological factors and salivary cortisol levels in the OLP patients. The values of Pearson′s correlation coefficient "r", between depression, anxiety, and stress with salivary cortisol was: +0.42,S; +0.27,NS; and +0.65,HS, respectively among the study group.

  4. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  5. Association and Correlation between Temporomandibular Disorders and Psychological Factors in a Group of Dental Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Sood; Arun V Subramaniam; Tulsi Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and presence of psychological factors (i.e.,anxiety and depression levels) in dental undergraduate students. Second purpose was to assess the association and correlation between TMD degree and psychological factors viz. anxiety and depression. Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 400 Dental undergraduatestudents aged 18- 25 years, including both the genders. TMD degree was evaluated usi...

  6. Giving Psychology Away: Implementation of Wikipedia Editing in an Introductory Human Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane-Simpson, Christina; Che, Elizabeth; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    To test the feasibility of Wikipedia editing in large undergraduate psychology classrooms, we engaged groups of students in a large introductory-level Human Development course (N = 110) in editing Wikipedia articles to improve psychology-related content. Students attended in-class workshops and received online support to develop skills. They…

  7. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  8. [Pain. Evaluation of the developing pain theories. The psychological factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrakos, A; Niamonitos, K; Vrotsos, I A

    1990-06-01

    In this paper we presented the different theories and opinions regarding the development of pain. After a very brief historical review including the ideas of Homer, Hippocrates, Aristoteles, St. Thomas Aquinas, we reviewed the 19th century's theories including Whytt, Brodie, Inman and Austie. From the modern period we emphasized the "gate theory" introduced originally by Melzack and Well. The psychological aspects has been also examined and the patient as "a dental patient" also described.

  9. New strategies in the assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, Laura; Fabbri, Stefania; Fava, Giovanni A; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we examine research that may lead to a better assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions. We performed a review of the psychosomatic literature using both Medline and manual searches. We selected papers that were judged to be relevant to new strategies of assessment, with particular reference to the use of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. We assessed 8 areas concerned with the assessment of psychological factors in the setting of medical disease: hypochondriasis, disease phobia, persistent somatization, conversion symptoms, illness denial, demoralization, irritable mood, and Type A behavior. A new subclassification of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-V]; not yet published) category of psychological factors affecting physical conditions appears to be feasible and may provide the clinician with better tools for identifying psychological distress.

  10. [Investigation of psychological state and its influencing factors in children with epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Hui; Xu, Ming; Lu, Sheng-Li; Hong, Fei

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the psychological state of children with epilepsy and analyze its influencing factors. The Mental Health Scale for Child and Adolescent was used to survey 113 children with epilepsy and 114 normal children to evaluate and compare their psychological state. Questionnaires were used to investigate the general status of all subjects and the disease condition and treatment of children with epilepsy. The possible influencing factors for the psychological state of children with epilepsy were analyzed. The mental health status of children with epilepsy was poorer than that of normal children in cognition, thinking, emotion, will-behavior, and personality traits (Ptypes of antiepileptic drugs were correlated with the psychological state of children with epilepsy. There is a wider range of psychological health problems in children with epilepsy than in normal children. Poor family living environment, poor seizure control, and use of many antiepileptic drugs are the risk factors affecting the psychological state of children with epilepsy. Improving family living environment, controlling seizures, and monotherapy help to improve the psychological state of children with epilepsy.

  11. A systematic review of the psychological factors associated with returning to sport following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E

    2013-11-01

    Psychological factors have been shown to be associated with the recovery and rehabilitation period following sports injury, but less is known about the psychological response associated with returning to sport after injury. The aim of this review was to identify psychological factors associated with returning to sport following sports injury evaluated with the self-determination theory framework. Systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from the earliest possible entry to March 2012. Quantitative studies were reviewed that included athletes who had sustained an athletic injury, reported the return to sport rate and measured at least one psychological variable. The risk of bias in each study was appraised with a quality checklist. Eleven studies that evaluated 983 athletes and 15 psychological factors were included for review. The three central elements of self-determination theory-autonomy, competence and relatedness were found to be related to returning to sport following injury. Positive psychological responses including motivation, confidence and low fear were associated with a greater likelihood of returning to the preinjury level of participation and returning to sport more quickly. Fear was a prominent emotional response at the time of returning to sport despite the fact that overall emotions became more positive as recovery and rehabilitation progressed. There is preliminary evidence that positive psychological responses are associated with a higher rate of returning to sport following athletic injury, and should be taken into account by clinicians during rehabilitation.

  12. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The safety of construction workers is always a major concern at construction sites as the construction industry is inherently dangerous with many factors influencing worker safety. Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety. However, research on psychological factors that are characteristic of different age groups have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychological factors on the perception of worker safety for two different age groups. After an extensive literature review, different psychological factors were identified, and a hypothetical research model was developed based on psychological factors that could affect workers’ perception of safety. A survey instrument was developed, and data were collected from seven different construction sites in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test the hypothetical model for both age groups. The results revealed that workload and job satisfaction are significantly dominant factors on workers’ perception of safety in older workers, whereas organizational relationships, mental stress, and job security are dominant factors for younger workers at construction sites.

  13. Examining the role of psychological factors in the relationship between sleep problems and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, D; Kyle, S D; Pratt, D; Peters, S; Gooding, P

    2017-06-01

    We sought to conduct the first systematic review of empirical evidence investigating the role of psychological factors in the relationship between sleep problems and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Twelve studies were identified which examined psychological factors grouped into four categories of cognitive appraisals, psychosocial factors, emotion regulation strategies, and risk behaviours. Although there was substantial heterogeneity across studies with respect to measurement, sampling, and analysis, preliminary evidence indicated that negative cognitive appraisals, perceived social isolation, and unhelpful emotion regulation strategies may contribute to the association between sleep problems and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Given that findings in this area are currently restricted to studies with cross-sectional designs, the directionality of the interrelationships between these psychological factors, sleep problems and suicidality, remains unclear. We integrate the findings of our review with contemporary psychological models of suicidal behaviour to develop a clear research agenda. Identified pathways should now be tested with longitudinal and experimental designs. In addition, a more thorough investigation of the complexities of sleep, psychological factors, and suicidal thoughts and behaviours is crucial for the development of targeted psychological interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Sport Psychology. Theories and Applications for Performance, Health and Humanity.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This congress proceedings volume includes all abstracts submitted to the 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology of the European Federation of Sport Psychology FEPSAC that have been accepted by the scientific evaluation committee. Content: six keynote lectures, Panteleimon ("Paddy") Ekkekakis: Escape from Cognitivism: Exercise as Hedonic Experience; Sergio Lara-Bercial and Cliff Mallett: Serial Winning Coaches – Vision, People and Environment; Kari Fasting: Sexual Harassment and Abuse in S...

  15. Salivary Alpha Amylase Activity in Human Beings of Different Age Groups Subjected to Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-01-01

    ... in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip...

  16. Socio-demographic factors, behaviour and personality: associations with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Suzanne Helen; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Passey, Megan; Lyle, David; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Harris, Mark Ford

    2012-04-01

    Anxiety, psychological distress and personality may not be independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however they may contribute via their relationship with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. This study aimed to examine the association between psychological distress, risk behaviours and patient demographic characteristics in a sample of general practice patients aged 40-65 years with at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cross-sectional analytic study. Patients, randomly selected from general practice records, completed a questionnaire about their behavioural risk factors and psychological health as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial of a general practice based intervention to prevent chronic vascular disease. The Kessler Psychological Distress Score (K10) was the main outcome measure for the multilevel, multivariate analysis. Single-level bi-variate analysis demonstrated a significant association between higher K10 and middle age (p = 0.001), high neuroticism (p = 0), current smoking (p = 0), physical inactivity (p = 0.003) and low fruit and vegetable consumption (p = 0.008). Socioeconomic (SES) indicators of deprivation (employment and accommodation status) were also significantly associated with higher K10 (p = 0). No individual behavioural risk factor was associated with K10 on multilevel multivariate analysis; however indicators of low SES remained significant (p factors were considered, psychological distress was not associated with behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Other underlying factors, such as personality type and socioeconomic status, may be associated with both the behaviours and the distress.

  17. Psychological Factors and Reference Potential of Market Mavens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofi Puspa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of a market maven in the information transfer processes is apparently related to one’s psychological states such as inherent knowledge and involvement level. Understanding reference potential of mavens seems to be relevant to comprehend the implicit value of a maven in the communication process. This study shows that (1 apparently, maven groups can be clearly distinguished from a non-maven group on the basis on inherent personal knowledge level and involvement level; (2 market mavens have a high reference potential which confirmed their function in WOM-information.

  18. The impact of psychological and clinical factors on quality of life in individuals with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkowski, Anja; Richards, Helen L; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Main, Chris J

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of general and dermatitis-specific psychological and clinical factors on quality of life in adults with atopic dermatitis (AD). A total of 125 adults recruited through the National Eczema Society of U.K. (NES) completed a number of psychological and dermatological questionnaires, including the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the Stigmatisation and Eczema Questionnaire (SEQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Pearson's correlational analyses suggested that perceptions of stigma were significantly associated with psychological factors as well as quality of life (Ps<.01). An association was also found between perceived stigma and disease severity (-.28, P<.01). Almost 46% of participants were identified as having probable mood disorder. Regression analysis indicated that perceptions of stigma and depression accounted for 44.5% of the variance in quality of life in this sample [F(3,121)=34.18, P<.001], when disease severity was controlled for. Psychological factors and disease severity were strong predictors of quality of life in adults with AD. AD-related perceptions of stigma were of particular importance in predicting AD-related quality of life over and above more general psychological factors, such as depression. These findings have important implications for the psychological and clinical management of AD.

  19. Work factors and psychological distress in nurses' aides: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambs Kristian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses' aides (assistant nurses, the main providers of practical patient care in many countries, are doing both emotional and heavy physical work, and are exposed to frequent social encounters in their job. There is scarce knowledge, though, of how working conditions are related to psychological distress in this occupational group. The aim of this study was to identify work factors that predict the level of psychological distress in nurses' aides. Methods The sample of this prospective study comprised 5076 Norwegian nurses' aides, not on leave when they completed a mailed questionnaire in 1999. Of these, 4076 (80.3 % completed a second questionnaire 15 months later. A wide spectrum of physical, psychological, social, and organisational work factors were measured at baseline. Psychological distress (anxiety and depression was assessed at baseline and follow-up by the SCL-5, a short version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Results In a linear regression model of the level of psychological distress at follow-up, with baseline level of psychological distress, work factors, and background factors as independent variables, work factors explained 2 % and baseline psychological distress explained 34 % of the variance. Exposures to role conflicts, exposures to threats and violence, working in apartment units for the aged, and changes in the work situation between baseline and follow-up that were reported to result in less support and encouragement were positively associated with the level of psychological distress. Working in psychiatric departments, and changes in the work situation between baseline and follow-up that gave lower work pace were negatively associated with psychological distress. Conclusion The study suggests that work factors explain only a modest part of the psychological distress in nurses' aides. Exposures to role conflicts and threats and violence at work may contribute to psychological distress in nurses' aides

  20. Comparative study on ghrelin level change and its related factors in hypertensive elders with psychological distress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of plasma ghrelin level and explore the related factors of ghrelin alteration in elderly hypertensive patients with psychological distress.Methods A total of 300 elders,who were screened with Hamilton Anxiety Scale(HAMA),Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression(HAMD),and the Symptom Checklist-90(SCL-90)for psychological stress and somato-psychological manifestations respectively,were divided into hypertension group(n=148)and non-hypertension group(n=152).Their blood samples w...

  1. Peptic Ulcer at the End of the 20th Century: Biological and Psychological Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The prevailing concept of peptic ulcer etiology has swung over entirely in just a few years from the psychological to the infectious, yet the rich literature documenting an association between psychosocial factors and ulcer is not invalidated by the discovery of Helicobacter pylori. Physical and psychological stressors interact to induce ulcers in animal models, concrete life difficulties and subjective distress predict the development of ulcers in prospective cohorts, shared catastrophes suc...

  2. Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Sebastião Sousa Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED) in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), theBody Shape Questionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD) and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE), respectively. Partici...

  3. Self-efficacy and childhood asthma : an investigation of psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Joanne Tracy

    2001-01-01

    Childhood asthma is a chronic condition affecting up to one in every seven children. Self-management programs have been developed to help improve children's abilities to both manage and cope with their asthma. If these programs are to be fully effective, an understanding of the psychological factors that influence children's sense of competence to manage their condition is required. This study aimed to identify psychological variables that may influence children's asthma sel...

  4. Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Marc L.

    2003-01-01

    An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

  5. Predicting involvement in prison gang activity: street gang membership, social and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jane L; Alleyne, Emma; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether street gang membership, psychological factors, and social factors such as preprison experiences could predict young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Data were collected via individual interviews with 188 young offenders held in a Young Offenders Institution in the United Kingdom. Results showed that psychological factors such as the value individuals attached to social status, a social dominance orientation, and antiauthority attitudes were important in predicting young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Further important predictors included preimprisonment events such as levels of threat, levels of individual delinquency, and levels of involvement in group crime. Longer current sentences also predicted involvement in prison gang activity. However, street gang membership was not an important predictor of involvement in prison gang activity. These findings have implications for identifying prisoners involved in prison gang activity and for considering the role of psychological factors and group processes in gang research.

  6. Psychological resilience in sport performers: a review of stressors and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Psychological resilience is important in sport because athletes must utilise and optimise a range of mental qualities to withstand the pressures that they experience. In this article, we discuss psychological resilience in sport performers via a review of the stressors athletes encounter and the protective factors that help them withstand these demands. It is hoped that synthesising what is known in these areas will help researchers gain a deeper profundity of resilience in sport, and also provide a rigorous and robust foundation for the development of a sport-specific measure of resilience. With these points in mind, we divided the narrative into two main sections. In the first section, we review the different types of stressors encountered by sport performers under three main categories: competitive, organisational and personal. Based on our recent research examining psychological resilience in Olympics champions, in the second section we discuss the five main families of psychological factors (viz. positive personality, motivation, confidence, focus, perceived social support) that protect the best athletes from the potential negative effect of stressors. It is anticipated that this review will help sport psychology researchers examine the interplay between stressors and protective factors, which will, in turn, focus the analytical lens on the processes underlying psychological resilience in athletes.

  7. Playing the game: psychological factors in surviving cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Stephen A; Miller, Laurence; Peluso, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is a threat that can rob a person of their physical and mental wellbeing. While cancer awareness has ventured to the forefront of social consciousness, led by surges from Lance Armstrong and other celebrities affected by cancer, the medical world continually remains foiled in terms of regulating the many confounding variables that spawn cancer: toxins, pollutants, poor diet, etc. Yet there is a hope: one variable thought to affect cancer prognosis may be distinctly tractable: positive mental attitude (PMA). Principles of PMA that are readily utilized in the science of sports psychology to spur athletes to victory may be productively applied to the hospital arena. The parallels between sports and medicine are abundant, and can be utilized by the cancer patient to help secure victory. This paper describes the steps to victory, along with stratagems and concepts on how to keep the "opponent"--cancer--from gaining any further advantage.

  8. Psychological aspects of human cloning and genetic manipulation: the identity and uniqueness of human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, N M

    2009-01-01

    Human cloning has become one of the most controversial debates about reproduction in Western civilization. Human cloning represents asexual reproduction, but the critics of human cloning argue that the result of cloning is not a new individual who is genetically unique. There is also awareness in the scientific community, including the medical community, that human cloning and the creation of clones are inevitable. Psychology and other social sciences, together with the natural sciences, will need to find ways to help the healthcare system, to be prepared to face the new challenges introduced by the techniques of human cloning. One of those challenges is to help the healthcare system to find specific standards of behaviour that could be used to help potential parents to interact properly with cloned babies or children created through genetic manipulation. In this paper, the concepts of personality, identity and uniqueness are discussed in relationship to the contribution of twin studies in these areas. The author argues that an individual created by human cloning techniques or any other type of genetic manipulation will not show the donor's characteristics to the extent of compromising uniqueness. Therefore, claims to such an effect are needlessly alarmist.

  9. After Chernobyl. Psychological factors affecting health after a nuclear disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, J.M.

    1996-04-23

    During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and

  10. Psychological factors influencing the effectiveness of virtual reality-based analgesia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triberti, Stefano; Repetto, Claudia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    The experience of pain is affected by remarkable psychological factors. The concept of neuromatrix suggests that pain is an amalgam of affect, cognition, and sensation mediated through diverse brain regions. Moreover, the experience of pain appears to be reduced by environmental stimuli that drive attention away from the noxious events. Accordingly, immersion in a computer-generated, three-dimensional virtual environment has been used as an efficient distraction tool in a number of studies on pain management. However, no systematic approaches have explored the psychological factors that influence the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) as a distraction technology. This review aims to outline the fundamental psychological factors involved in the use of VR to provide pain management. An analysis of the literature revealed some important elements associated with the patients' subjective experience. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The results suggest the importance of different psychological factors in the effectiveness of the analgesic distraction. While sense of presence influence the effectiveness of VR as a distraction tool, anxiety as well as positive emotions directly affect the experience of pain. Future challenges for pain management via VR include adopting properly validated measures to assess psychological factors and using different experimental conditions to better understand their complex effects.

  11. Psychological Factors and Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis : A Web Based Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erfani, Tahereh; Keefe, Francis; Bennell, Kim; Chen, J; Makovey, J; Metcalf, B; Williams, A.D.; Zhang, Y; Hunter, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients is neither constant nor unchanging and patients experience episodes of pain exacerbations. Using an innovative web based case-crossover design, we evaluated whether psychological factors are risk factors for pain exacerbations in patie

  12. The psychological aftermath of bereavement : Risk factors, mediating processes, and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Houwen, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on on

  13. Psychological Factors and Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis : A Web Based Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erfani, Tahereh; Keefe, Francis; Bennell, Kim; Chen, J; Makovey, J; Metcalf, B; Williams, A.D.; Zhang, Y; Hunter, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients is neither constant nor unchanging and patients experience episodes of pain exacerbations. Using an innovative web based case-crossover design, we evaluated whether psychological factors are risk factors for pain exacerbations in

  14. Automan : A psychologically based model of a human driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quispel, L; Warris, S; Heemskerk, A; Mulder, LJM; van Wolffelaar, PC; Maarse, FJ; Akkerman, AE; Brand, AN; Mulder, LJM

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autonomous agent for controlling vehicles in a traffic simulator. This agent is based on recent developments in artificial intelligence, autonomous robotics and cognitive psychology. The goal of the agent is to simulate realistic driving behavior. The agent is c

  15. Automan : A psychologically based model of a human driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quispel, L; Warris, S; Heemskerk, A; Mulder, LJM; van Wolffelaar, PC; Maarse, FJ; Akkerman, AE; Brand, AN; Mulder, LJM

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autonomous agent for controlling vehicles in a traffic simulator. This agent is based on recent developments in artificial intelligence, autonomous robotics and cognitive psychology. The goal of the agent is to simulate realistic driving behavior. The agent is c

  16. Human Factors Engineering. Student Supplement,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Psychologists as Division 21 of the APA . It seems fitting, now that engineering psychology has been recognized as a viable entity, that we examine this new...34INFIC 161ST SCALE ___________ P CIUUIOIC POP40 3 SMTCPWONSI OARIA C0" NORMA . IN. AIDS AMU Ls". PLA0D 11aw Lu". FILM PACK CLR so. RAW MOTIVE LIS mm’ 7

  17. Psychologic factors in the development of complex regional pain syndrome: history, myth, and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Miriam H; Edwards, Christopher L

    2010-01-01

    The present paper examines the literature that addresses psychologic aspects involved in complex regional pain syndrome from a historic perspective to provide a rationale for the emergence of psychologic theories to explain its pathogenesis. The support of such perspective is then analyzed through the review of evidence-based studies. A review of the literature from a historic perspective was presented since its first description to the present time, including the clinical presentation and associated symptoms. An evidence-based approach was used to review the literature on complex regional pain syndrome and psychologic factors associated with the etiology or as predictors in the development of the disorder. After reviewing the literature on the history and the myths associated with complex regional pain syndrome, a hypothesis is provided based on an analysis of the Zeitgeist in the development of the psychologic theory associated with the disorder. We also concluded there is no evidence to support a linear relationship that establishes a psychologic predisposition to develop the disorder. An analysis of the Zeitgeist when complex regional pain syndrome was first described helps to understand the long-standing theories associated with a psychological theory of its etiology. This understanding should help to undermine the perpetuation of such claims which may contribute to undertreatment and misdiagnosis. To be consistent with todays Zeitgeist we must incorporate psychologic aspects, which while not causal in nature or exclusive of complex regional pain syndrome, are strongly associated with a wide spectrum of chronic pain disorders.

  18. The role of psychological factors in oncology nurses' burnout and compassion fatigue symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2017-06-01

    This study explored the role of several psychological factors in professional quality of life in nurses. Specifically, we tried to clarify the relationships between several dimensions of empathy, self-compassion, and psychological inflexibility, and positive (compassion satisfaction) and negative (burnout and compassion fatigue) domains of professional quality of life. Using a cross-sectional design, a convenience sample of 221 oncology nurses recruited from several public hospitals filling out a battery of self-report measures. Results suggested that nurses that benefit more from their work of helping and assisting others (compassion satisfaction) seem to have more empathic feelings and sensibility towards others in distress and make an effort to see things from others' perspective. Also, they are less disturbed by negative feelings associated with seeing others' suffering and are more self-compassionate. Nurses more prone to experience the negative consequences associated with care-providing (burnout and compassion fatigue) are more self-judgmental and have more psychological inflexibility. In addition, they experience more personal feelings of distress when seeing others in suffering and less feelings of empathy and sensibility to others' suffering. Psychological factors explained 26% of compassion satisfaction, 29% of burnout and 18% of compassion fatigue. We discuss the results in terms of the importance of taking into account the role of these psychological factors in oncology nurses' professional quality of life, and of designing nursing education training and interventions aimed at targeting such factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic review: psychological morbidity in young people with inflammatory bowel disease - risk factors and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A J; Rowse, G; Ryder, A; Peach, E J; Corfe, B M; Lobo, A J

    2016-07-01

    Psychological morbidity in young people aged 10-24 years, with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increased, but risk factors for and impacts of this are unclear. To undertake a systematic literature review of the risk factors for and impact of psychological morbidity in young people with IBD. Electronic searches for English-language articles were performed with keywords relating to psychological morbidity according to DSM-IV and subsequent criteria; young people; and IBD in the MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Web of Science and CINAHL databases for studies published from 1994 to September 2014. One thousand four hundred and forty-four studies were identified, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. The majority measured depression and anxiety symptoms, with a small proportion examining externalising behaviours. Identifiable risk factors for psychological morbidity included: increased disease severity (r(2) = 0.152, P young people with IBD were wide-ranging and included abdominal pain (r = 0.33; P young people with IBD in a range of ways, highlighting the need for psychological interventions to improve outcomes. Identified risk factors provide an opportunity to develop targeted therapies for a vulnerable group. Further research is required to examine groups under-represented in this review, such as those with severe IBD and those from ethnic minorities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Overlap and distinctiveness of psychological risk factors in patients with ischemic heart disease and chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Denollet, Johan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the importance of psychological factors in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, this research has been criticized due to overlap between psychological constructs. We examined whether psychological questionnaires frequently used...... in cardiovascular research assess distinct constructs in a mixed group of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chronic heart failure (CHF) patients....

  1. Factors of collective psychological empowerment of active users in the online health community med.over.net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovčič Andraž

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the collective psychological empowerment of users of online health communities, which has been often overlooked in literature. Drawing on the theories of empowerment in the context of community psychology, it explores the factors - that are also an important characteristic of online health communities - that are associated with the collective psychological empowerment of online health community users.

  2. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  3. Psychological factors in pregnancy and mixed-handedness in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2003-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that psychological factors may interfere with the development of brain asymmetry during gestation. We evaluated whether psychological exposure in pregnancy was associated with mixed-handedness in the offspring. In a follow-up design study, 824 Danish-speaking women...... with singleton pregnancies provided information on psychological distress and the occurrence of life events in the early second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Handedness of the children was based on maternal reports when the children were 3 years of age. Among the 419 males and 405 females, 7% and 5......% respectively were mixed-handed whereas mixed-handedness was found in 3% of the parents. Psychological distress in the third trimester as well as higher levels of stressful life events were related to a higher prevalence of mixed-handedness in the offspring. About 16% of the women reported more than one life...

  4. The productivity from a human perspective: Dimensions and factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Marvel Cequea

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature, for both theoretical foundations and empirical research, in order to establish relationships between the variables related to human factors and their impact on productivity.Design/methodology/approach: The strategy employed corresponds to a descriptive non-experimental design, which is the establishment of three criteria for the literature review, in order to narrow down the topic to research works relating productivity with the human factor. This was investigated in databases and journals dealing with related topics, in addition to consulting doctoral theses and published books concerning the influence of human factors on productivity. About 250 papers which were considered the most relevant for the research were selected.Findings:  As a result of this exploration the classification of the factors in two dimensions that are manifested in people when they act in organizations was highlighted: the psychological and the psychosocial dimension. Human factors included in these dimensions are: individual factors (motivation, skills, job satisfaction, identification, commitment and involvement with the organization, group factors (participation, cohesion and management conflict and organizational factors (organizational culture, organizational climate and leadership. All these factors have an impact on the productivity of the organization and are addressed in this research.Originality/value: The selected variables were used to formulate a model that incorporates the human factors identified and considers the phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. It will be addressed through multivariate analysis, with the possible application of structural equations in order to assess the causal relationships that may exist between factors and productivity.

  5. REGULATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CLIMATE IN INSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Volodko

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers an essence of psychological climate and its role in the professional activity and efficiency of institution performance. The state of psychological climate depends on concrete factors: director personality, human relations, system of incentives including motivations and labour conditions. Acting on these factors ensures regulation of the psychological climate. 

  6. REGULATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CLIMATE IN INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Volodko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an essence of psychological climate and its role in the professional activity and efficiency of institution performance. The state of psychological climate depends on concrete factors: director personality, human relations, system of incentives including motivations and labour conditions. Acting on these factors ensures regulation of the psychological climate. 

  7. Human Performance: Psychological and Physiological Sex Differences (A Selected Bibliography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    133-151. I 10. Garal, J. E., & Scheinfeld, A. Sex differences in mental and behavioral traits. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 1968, _77> 169-299...Androgens, and the XYY Syndrome, Heino F. L. Meyer-Bauhlburg. 433. Reproductive Hormones, Moods, and the Menstrual Cycle, Harold Persky. 455. 14...Hutts G. Males and females. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1972. Contents: The Genetic Determination of Sex« 19o Hormones in Male and Female

  8. Is there a relationship between logic and psychology? The question for human reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Castro Martínez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a debate between the relations of logic and psychology. It starts with the presentation of Keysser’s logicism. It describes some background to the debate on Mill’s psychologism and Husserl´s criticism of the laws of logic, in contrast to the laws of the nature of human thought. It continues with the contributions to the discussion by Gestalt theory. Then, the Piagetian bet for a mental logic is presented. The essay concludes with the need to consider psychological logic as distinct from formal logic: a dynamic logic of facts or logic of experience

  9. Factor Analysis of Subjective Psychological Experiences and States of Football Referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš ZEMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between values of components of subjective psychological experiences and states in 26 male football referees before the match and after the match were explored using factor analysis. For evaluation of subjective psychological experiences and states the standardized questionnaire SUPSO was used. The questionnaire was filled in twice by refer ees: before the match and immediately after the match. Four most important factors were described and named. The first factor was called "tendency to discomfort". It relates to referee ́s current mental state being probably a reflection of long - term negativ e circumstances in referee ́s life. It is neither related to the completed match, nor referee ́s temperament . The second factor was called "depression from failure" and it is connected directly to the completed match. It is probably determined by current ref eree ́s physical and mental conditions . The third and fourth factors proved to be consequences of temperament of referees. In conclusion, the two most important factors of current mental state of football referee during the game can probably be influenced b y a systematic psychological preparation . Psychological preparation should therefore become an effective part of the pre - match preparation of football referees.

  10. An Analysis and Corresponding Strategies of Memory Difficulties Caused by Psychological Factors in Consecutive Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轲

    2014-01-01

    This paper is composed of three parts. The first part presents Gile’s effort model and memory mechanism in consecu⁃tive interpreting. In the second part and the third part, the author analyzes the psychological factors that cause memory difficulties and proposes corresponding strategies on the basis of the analysis. At last,the author draws a conclusion based on the discussion of the whole paper that sufficient preparation, appropriate pressure and perceived memory can avoid memory difficulties caused by psychological factors.

  11. GPS Technology and Human Psychological Research: A Methodological Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. A. Wolf

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal behaviorists have made extensive use of GPS technology since 1991. In contrast, psychological research has made little use of the technology, even though the technology is relatively inexpensive, familiar, and widespread. Hence, its potential for pure and applied psychological research remains untapped. We describe three methods psychologists could apply to individual differences research, clinical research, or spatial use research. In the context of individual differences research, GPS technology permits us to test hypotheses predicting specific relations among patterns of spatial use and individual differences variables. In a clinical context, GPS technology provides outcome measures that may relate to the outcome of interventions designed to treat psychological disorders that, for example, may leave a person homebound (e.g. Agoraphobia, PTSD, TBI. Finally, GPS technology provides natural measures of spatial use. We, for example, used GPS technology to quantify traffic flow and exhibit use at the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum. Interested parties could easily extend this methodology some aspects of urban planning or business usage.DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.74

  12. Psihologie, morală, politică: avatarurile umanismului (Psychology, ethic, politics: the avatars of humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru MAMINA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the impact of psychological researches upon the humanistic ethic came out from Lumières, and subsequently on the liberal thought influenced by that. Hence it first presents the crisis which psychoanalysis induced to the traditional image of human being as rational an capable of free will. It also shows the way that humanistic view was transformed and so recovered in a more democratic sense by the analytical psychology and mainly the cultural psychoanalysis.

  13. Guide to Human Factors Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Journal) Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Revista de Psicologia General Y A’-"licada (Review of General Applied.- Psychology) Studlxa...science, engineering anthropmetrv, engincerlng psychology, industrial psychology, organizational psychology, occzpactonal psychology, experimental ...computer processing is the conFusion caused by incompatibilities in numerical tables whose inputs are lifted out of context from the experimental

  14. Human Factors Plan for Maritime Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT .............. 13 2. 1 DEFINITION OF HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES ........................ 13 2.2 CONTENT...The dotted line around the human factors technical basis in Figure 1 signifies that it needs to be developed. Safety data Accidents ) Definition of...and activity surveys, but met with some resistance from the ship personnel, and so little quntitative data was available from this study. Subjective

  15. Preliminary report on social psychological factors in long duration space flights: Review and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Group dynamics, sociological and psychological factors are examined. Crew composition and compatibility are studied. Group dynamics analysis includes: leadership; cohesiveness; conformity; and conflict.

  16. Identification of Socio-demographic and Psychological Factors Affecting Women's Propensity to Breastfeed: An Italian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother's breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.

  17. Evaluation of psychological factors in orthodontic patients with TMD as applied to the "TMJ Scale".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Motegi, Etsuko; Nomura, Mayumi; Narimiya, Yukie; Katsumura, Sakura; Miyazaki, Haruyo; Kaji, Hatsuhiko; Watanabe, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Hideharu

    2002-05-01

    Physical and psychological evaluation have been required for TMD patients whose problems are multi dimensional. The questionnaire named the "TMJ Scale" was created to differentiate subjective TMD symptoms of patients. The purpose of this study was to clarify the reliability of the TMJ Scale for Japanese orthodontic patients with TMD and to differentiate the symptoms. Fifty orthodontic patients (average age 21y4m) with a chief complaint of TMD symptoms were compared with thirty patients (average age 21y1m) without TMD symptoms. The results were as follows: female patients in the symptom group in particular showed a higher degree of stress due to the chronic pain and abnormalities than those in the non-symptom group. Significant differences were observed in Pain Report, Joint Dysfunction and Global Scale at the 0.1% significant level, in Non-TM Disorder, Psychological Factor and Chronicity at the 1% level, and in Palpation Pain and Perceived Malocclusion at the 5% level in females. Few psychological problems were observed in male patients in the symptom group. Significant differences were observed in Range of Motion limitation at the 5% level in males. The differences in the psychological factors between male and female patients were clarified by using the TMJ Scale. These findings suggested that it was useful to differentiate the multiple symptoms, especially the psychological factors, by using the TMJ Scale for orthodontic patients with TMD.

  18. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  19. Risk management with regard to the effect of human factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kiseleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components in today's market is a party decision-making under risk and uncertainty. The first step in making such decisions - to adequately process the information for estimating the future value of assets and the interests of investors probabilities of each particular scenario. The next step is to choose the alternative that has the greatest utility for the investor. Each of these steps is associated with numerous difficulties, the roots of which stem from the specificity of human psychology. The article notes that an integral part of professional risk management is to identify the nature of the object of management in the sphere of economy. Since the domestic theory of risk management is being formed-tion, the problem of a clear comprehensive definition of “risk” becomes now particularly relevant-ness. The article deals with along with economic forecasts of the risks and the human factor in decision-tions solutions. Along with economic forecasts, the report focuses on psychological problems and attempts to take into account the human factor in decision-making at the forecast of risks arising in the company. The important parameters are the status and position of the person in the society, as well as its social well-being. Analysis Meto-ing risk assessment concluded that the need to develop new models and methods of risk management, taking into account the four-lovecheskogo factor. Economic psychology and its applications have developed into a special branch of economic knowledge - the so-called behavioral economics, which surely develops a wide range of economic issues - from the actual theory of individual behavior to the problems of public choice and the financial economy. The most interesting item is the fact that the concept of “risk” is considered from different points of view - as the economist-mathematician with the position, and a psychologist.

  20. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-guo Jiang; Shi-li Jin; Gong-ying Li; Qing-qing Li; Zhi-ruo Li; Hong-xia Ma; Chuan-jun Zhuo; Rong-huan Jiang; Min-jie Ye

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry andin situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no signiifcant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our ifndings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  1. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-guo Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no significant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our findings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  2. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, De-Guo; Jin, Shi-Li; Li, Gong-Ying; Li, Qing-Qing; Li, Zhi-Ruo; Ma, Hong-Xia; Zhuo, Chuan-Jun; Jiang, Rong-Huan; Ye, Min-Jie

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no significant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our findings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  3. Differences in caregivers' psychological distress and associated factors by care recipients' gender and kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Noboru; Horiguchi, Kazuko

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we examined the level of psychological distress of Japanese caregivers according to various combinations of the gender of care recipients and the kinship of caregivers (spouse, son, daughter, or daughter-in-law). Furthermore, we explored the associated factors that could exacerbate or alleviate psychological distress. We utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design and implemented a self-administered questionnaire survey with a two-stage stratified sample of community-dwelling caregivers of frail elderly persons throughout Japan. We surveyed 1279 caregiving families, and 1020 questionnaires were completed by primary caregivers (response rate: 79.8%), with 945 respondents providing data on the Japanese version of the Kessler 6 psychological distress scale (K6). Caregivers' K6 scores varied significantly by care recipients' gender and their relationship with the caregiver. K6 scores were significantly higher among daughters-in-law caring for fathers-in-law than among daughters-in-law caring for mothers-in-law, wives caring for husbands, or daughters or sons caring for mothers. 'Negative influence of caregiving' and 'anxious about continuing caregiving' were factors that commonly exacerbated caregivers' psychological distress. Further analyses involving interactions indicated that the effects of 'anxious about continuing caregiving' and 'personal growth through caregiving' on the psychological distress of daughters-in-law varied by care recipients' gender as did the effects of an alleviating factor, 'keeping their own pace', on daughters. Psychological distress levels among family caregivers, as well as exacerbating and alleviating factors, varied depending on the gender and kinship of care recipients.

  4. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  5. Psychological Factors in Experience of Pain During Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrović, Ana Havelka; Bilić, Morana; Loncar, Larisa Buhin; Micković, Vlatko; Loncar, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    Pain during delivery is unique because it is accompanied by powerful emotions. Emotions that occur in women during labor and delivery are closely tied to upbringing and culture in which they were raised and consequently with the sensation of experienced pain. According to the Melzack-Wall Theory of Pain, general mood is directly related to the intensity and quality of pain and it is therefore justifiable to presuppose that certain psychosocial factors will be linked with the intensity and quality of pain experienced during childbirth. (Melzack et al., 1981). We endeavored to show the effect of psychosocial factors that influence the intensity and quality of labor pain. Data was collected in a sample of 176 parturient women who delivered without Cesarean sections or epidural anesthesia. The intensity and quality of pain were obtained through the administration of the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form. Psychosocial factors included: number of births, presence of partner, self-evaluation of knowledge of physio-anatomical aspects of birth and the completion of a pregnancy course. Labor and delivery pain is of high intensity anl the quality of pain is most frequently characterized as smarting, cramping, exhausting, and sharp. The presence of a partner and the completion of a pregnancy course is exercised by a small number of parturients. Self-evaluation of preexisting knowledge of physio-anatomical aspects of delivery is predictive of the affective component of intensity of childbirth pain. Psychosocial factors have been shown as significant for the intensity and quality of experienced childbirth pain.

  6. Challenging factors for enuresis treatment: Psychological problems and non-adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; De Bruyne, Pauline; De Bruyne, Elke; Walle, Johan Vande

    2015-12-01

    The evidence for organic pathogenetic factors in enuresis and the discovery of effective therapies targeting the bladder and/or nocturnal diuresis have overwhelmed every potential role of psychological factors in pathogenesis and treatment. However, psychopathology is still important in enuresis because according to the document of the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) 20-30% of the children with enuresis have at least one psychological/psychiatric disorder at rates two times higher than non-wetting children. The most common comorbid disorder with enuresis is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this review is to translate the existing evidence on the importance of a psychological screening into daily clinical practice of the medical practitioner. The use of the minimal psychological screening tool should be considered mandatory in each primary setting. If psychological problems are indicated, referral of the patient to a multidisciplinary setting should be considered, not only to allow psychological assessment to screen for a possible psychopathology, but also since therapy resistance might be expected. This review concentrates on two items from psychopathology/psychotherapy that might predict insufficient treatment response: the psychological comorbidities as described according to the DSM-5 criteria and the underestimated importance of therapy adherence. Adherence is a cornerstone of effective therapy in enuresis. It is a problem involving the doctor, the patient, and the parents. Increasing adherence takes effort and is time-consuming. But it is worthwhile knowing that several studies have demonstrated that high adherence is associated with high therapy success of enuresis. Eventually, this is the ultimate goal of treatment.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for psychological distress and functional disability in urban Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Nasim; Jafri, Farhat; Tomenson, Barbara; Surhand, Ishaq; Mirza, Ilyas; Chaudhry, Imran B

    2014-01-01

    There is a close association between poor mental health status and both poor physical health and decreased productivity. An evidence base on the risk factors for psychological distress in low-income countries is lacking and is much needed to help develop appropriate interventions. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress in urban Pakistan and identify associated risk factors and functional disability. This was a population-based study of 18-75-year-olds in urban Pakistan. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) was offered to 1000 adults to measure psychological distress. The Life Events Checklist, Oslo-3 for Social Support and Brief Disability Questionnaires were used to establish social stressors, support and functional disability. Questionnaires were completed by 880 (94%) eligible participants, of whom 41% of women and 19% of men scored 9 or more on the SRQ (possible range 0-20). Low educational status was associated with high rates of psychological distress. Women had significantly higher levels of distress than men and were less likely to receive practical support. The prevalence of psychological distress was lower in urban Karachi than that reported previously for rural Punjab province, Pakistan. However, in urban Karachi, as in rural Punjab, socioeconomic status seemed to have more of an impact on the mental health of women than that of men.

  8. A prospective study of the relationship between psychological factors and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tso-Ying Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional prospective study aimed to explore the relationship between psychological factors and breast cancer incidence. Methods: The subjects who scheduled to receive mammography screening were recruited from a medical center′s outpatient department in Taiwan. Psychological factors used for measurement were stress, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 1160 questionnaires were completed, which underwent statistical analysis using independent t-test, Chi-square test, Pearson′s correlation, and multiple logistic regression. There were statistically significant differences in the average scores of the two groups with and without breast cancer for psychological factors of anxiety (t = −2.071; P = 0.039, depression (t = −3.035; P = 0.002, and stress (t = −4.087; P < 0.001. The crude odds ratio of the two groups showed that subjects with borderline anxiety were 2.576 times ( P = 0.001 more likely to have breast cancer as compared to subjects with no anxiety. Subjects with depression were 4.078 times (P = 0.03 more likely to have breast cancer as compared to subjects with no depression. Every point added to the average total stress score increased the additional risk of breast cancer by 1.124 times (P < 0.001. Conclusions: After making adjustments on educational factors, the results conclude that psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, and depression can be considered predictors of breast cancer risk. To prevent and control breast cancer in women, the findings suggest that nurses should consider adding emphasis on psychological factors in women′s health education.

  9. Socio-demographic Moderators of Associations Between Psychological Factors and Latinas' Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L G; Elder, J P; Haughton, J; Martinez, M E; Arredondo, E M

    2017-07-27

    This study tested whether socio-demographic factors moderated associations between psychological factors and Latinas' breast cancer screening behaviors. 222 churchgoing Latinas (40-65 years) in San Diego, CA completed surveys assessing socio-demographics (e.g., income and acculturation), psychological factors (e.g., perceived barriers to screening), and cancer screening behaviors. Multilevel models examined associations of socio-demographic and psychological factors (and their interactions) with adherence to annual mammography or clinical breast exam (CBE) screening. Although no main effects were found, there were moderation effects. Acculturation moderated associations between perceived barriers to screening and both screening outcomes, with inverse associations only among the high-acculturation group. Education moderated the relationship between perceived barriers to screening and CBE screening, with an inverse association only among the low-education group. Marital status moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and CBE screening, with an inverse association only among single/non-partnered participants. Interventions are needed targeting psychological barriers to breast cancer screening among Latinas.

  10. Risk factors for psychological and physical health problems after a man-made disaster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Grievink, L.; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. AIMS: To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related

  11. Risk factors for psychological and physical health problems after a man-made disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Grievink, Linda; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris

    2006-01-01

    Background There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. Aims To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related

  12. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  13. Entrepreneurship Education: How Psychological, Demographic and Behavioural Factors Predict the Entrepreneurial Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carla S.; Ferreira, Joao J.; Gomes, Daniela N.; Rodrigues, Ricardo Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the purpose of this paper is to approach entrepreneurial intention (EI) and the factors preceding the founding of EI among secondary students, both studying general academic and specific professional programs, and thereby establish causal relationships between psychological, demographic and…

  14. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  15. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  16. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  17. Randomized controlled trial of modified Banxia Houpo decoction in treating functional dyspepsia patients with psychological factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of Modified Banxia Houpo Decoction(MBHD)in treating patients with functional dyspepsia(FD)accompanied with psychological factors,and to compare it with Domperidone,Neurostan,and Domperidone+Neurostan.Methods Recruited were 89 FD patients

  18. Relationships between psychological factors, pain, and disability in complex regional pain syndrome and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Debbie J; Johnson, Malcolm H; Kydd, Robert R

    2014-08-01

    Cognitive and emotional factors are known to influence peoples' pain experiences in many conditions, including low back pain. However, in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), their role is unclear. This study aimed to assess the relationships between psychological factors, pain, and disability in CRPS, compared with low back pain. This could help to identify target variables for psychological treatment. A total of 88 CRPS patients and 88 low back pain patients completed measures of pain, disability, depression, anxiety, and fear of movement and reinjury (kinesiophobia). Mean scores between the 2 groups were compared, and correlations between psychological factors, pain, and disability were compared between the 2 groups. Predictors of pain and disability were assessed using multiple regression analyses. The 2 groups had remarkably similar scores on measures of pain, disability, depression, anxiety, and kinesiophobia. In both groups, those who were more depressed, anxious, and kinesiophobic were more disabled. For the CRPS group (but not the low back pain group), pain intensity significantly correlated with distress. Multivariate analyses showed that the unique predictors of disability for the 2 groups were pain and depression, and that depression had a stronger relationship with disability for the CRPS group. For both groups, pain intensity was predicted by kinesiophobia, and anxiety was a unique predictor in the CRPS group only. In CRPS, disability and pain severity were more strongly associated with psychological factors than they were in low back pain. Cause and effect relationships could not be established by this cross-sectional study.

  19. Psychological and social-cultural factors of the origination and treatment of anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The paper provides and overview of modern literature on psychological and social-cultural factors of anorexy etiology and psychotherapy. Nutrition problems are pointed out, which are necessary to be solved before any psychotherapeutic intervention, and it also provides the overview of our therapeutic approach efficiency.

  20. Psychological and social-cultural factors of the origination and treatment of anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Dušanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides and overview of modern literature on psychological and social-cultural factors of anorexy etiology and psychotherapy. Nutrition problems are pointed out, which are necessary to be solved before any psychotherapeutic intervention, and it also provides the overview of our therapeutic approach efficiency.

  1. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Hope and College Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…

  2. Predicting mental health after living kidney donation: The importance of psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Timmerman (Lotte); R. Timman (Reinier); M. Laging (Mirjam); W.C. Zuidema (Wilij); D.K. Beck (Denise); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); W. Weimar (Willem); E.K. Massey (Emma)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: Living donor kidney transplantation offers advantages to the patient, however involves risks to the donor. To optimize donors' mental health after donation, we studied the influence of psychological factors on this outcome. Potential predictors were based on models of Lazarus

  3. [The importance of social psychological and clinical factors for prescribing group psychotherapy for neurosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineva, I M; Khokholeva, A A; Obora, V V; Karagodina, E G; Lazarenko, A N

    1989-11-01

    Socio-psychological and clinical factors and their significance for group psychotherapy were investigated in 62 patients with neuroses. The obtained statistically valid differences of some characteristic aspects between groups of patients with positive and negative directives. This indicates the necessity of differential approach to group psychotherapy and active individual and group work on the creation of positive motivation to this type of treatment.

  4. What Are the Social, Psychological, and Cognitive Factors That Drive Individuals to Entrepreneurship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMattina, Lina M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold; first, to uncover the social, psychological, and cognitive factors core to the entrepreneurial individual; and secondly, to provide accurate data to be used in curriculum development to fill the existing educational gap that exists in the current literature regarding understanding the inner workings of the…

  5. Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line;

    and quantify explanatory factors at three levels, individuals nested in classes nested in schools. Results Large variations in psychological complaints from one school to another were found. One example is that the proportion of students with at daily experience of emotional complaints varied between 7% and 32...

  6. Students' Physical and Psychological Reactions to Forensic Dissection: Are There Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Papadodima, Stavroula A.; Evaggelakos, Christos I.; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G.; Goutas, Nikolaos D.; Spiliopoulou, Chara A.

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine…

  7. Acknowledging and Appreciating the Full Spectrum of the Human Condition: School Psychology's (Limited) Focus on Positive Psychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Huebner, E. Scott; Youssef, Al-Jameela; Conte, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    This study is a content analysis of a random selection of 20% (N = 1,168) of articles from "School Psychology Quarterly", "Psychology in the Schools", the "Journal of School Psychology", and "School Psychology Review". Across the four journals, 27% of the articles had a positive focus, and the percentage of articles focused on the positive has…

  8. Decision-making biases and heuristics: A better comprehension of financial markets through human psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAKOUBI Mohamed Lamine; BENTAYEB Feryel

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral finance, inspired by behavioral economics, is an economic thinking on human behaviors convinced that our capabilities are limited because being human, we cannot pretend to be like computers reacting coldly the same way in any kind of situations, be they complicated or even extremely stressful. In this article we are trying to demonstrate that human behaviors may succumb to some psychological biases that can change his perception of reality.

  9. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  10. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  11. Cognitive reserve in the healthy elderly: cognitive and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zihl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR helps explain the mismatch between expected cognitive decline and observed maintenance of cognitive functioning in older age. Factors such as education, literacy, lifestyle, and social networking are usually considered to be proxies of CR and its variability between individuals. A more direct approach to examine CR is through the assessment of capacity to gain from practice in a standardized challenging cognitive task that demands activation of cognitive resources. In this study, we applied a testing-the-limits paradigm to a group of 136 healthy elderly subjects (60–75 years and additionally examined the possible contribution of complex mental activities and quality of sleep to cognitive performance gain. We found a significant but variable gain and identified verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem-solving as significant factors. This outcome is in line with our earlier study on CR in healthy mental aging. Interestingly and contrary to expectations, our analysis revealed that complex mental activities and sleep quality do not significantly influence CR. Contrasting “high” and “low” cognitive performers revealed significant differences in verbal memory and cognitive flexibility; again, complex mental activities and sleep quality did not contribute to this measure of CR. In conclusion, the results of this study support and extend previous findings on CR in older age; further, they underline the need for improvements in existing protocols for assessing CR in a dynamic manner.

  12. Human factors in healthcare level one

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenorn-Lanng, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    The majority of errors, litigation, and complaints in the health service are due to 'human factors', yet the term is still not widely understood and is sometimes used interchangeably to refer to team training or communication skills. Although including these, the subject of 'human factors' goes far beyond this to look at systems, environmental influences, and interactions with equipment, in addition to self-awareness and human interaction. All of these aspects are captured inHuman Factors in Healthcare and are built into a new framework: the SHEEP model, which breaks down into five key areas:

  13. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Jitse P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.

  14. Relationship between psychological factors and symptoms of TMD in university undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris A; Zuim, Paulo R J; Monteiro, Douglas R; Ribeiro, Paula Do Prado; Garcia, Alicio R

    2010-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders is a collective term used to describe a number of related disorders involving the temporomandibular joints, masticatory muscles and occlusion with common symptoms such as pain, restricted movement, muscle tenderness and intermittent joint sounds. The multifactorial TMD etiology is related to emotional tension, occlusal interferences, tooth loss, postural deviation, masticatory muscular dysfunction, internal and external changes in TMJ structure and the various associations of these factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the relationship between signs of psychological distress and temporomandibular disorder in university students. A total 150 volunteers participated in this study. They attended different courses in the field of human science at one public university and four private universities. TMD was assessed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) questionnaire. Anxiety was measured by means of a self-evaluative questionnaire, Spielberger's Trait-State anxiety inventory, to evaluate students'state and trait anxiety. The results of the two questionnaires were compared to determine the relationship between anxiety levels and severity degrees of chronic TMD pain by means of the chi-square test. The significance level was set at 5%. The statistical analysis showed that the TMD degree has a positive association with state-anxiety (p = 0.008; p TMD rate was observed among the students (40%). This study concluded that there is a positive association between TMD and anxiety.

  15. Functional relations and cognitive psychology: Lessons from human performance and animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert W; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    We consider requirements for effective interdisciplinary communication and explore alternative interpretations of "building bridges between functional and cognitive psychology." If the bridges are intended to connect radical behaviourism and cognitive psychology, or functional contextualism and cognitive psychology, the efforts are unlikely to be successful. But if the bridges are intended to connect functional relationships and cognitive theory, no construction is needed because the bridges already exist within cognitive psychology. We use human performance and animal research to illustrate the latter point and to counter the claim that the functional approach is unique in offering a close relationship between science and practice. Effective communication will be enhanced and, indeed, may only occur if the goal of functional contextualism extends beyond just "the advancement of functional contextual cognitive and behavioral science and practice" to "the advancement of cognitive and behavioral science and practice" without restriction.

  16. Traps and gaps in action explanation: theoretical problems of a psychology of human action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, W

    2001-04-01

    This article deals with the question of whether human action can be explained empirically by a psychological theory that refers to intentions, expectancies, and evaluations as determinants. In contrast with the majority of action theories in psychology and philosophy, a logical connection between action and intention is defended and, consequently, a causal relationship between action and intention is refuted. This is illustrated by reference to one of the most widely known and applied psychological action theories: the theory of planned behavior (I. Ajzen, 1991). However, the logical-connection argument can be circumvented if the existing research findings are reinterpreted as part of a psychology of intention. This article demonstrates the value of such an approach for future research. However, the final section of the article outlines some further fundamental theoretical difficulties for this perspective.

  17. Implementing human factors in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. Results The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. Conclusions In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. PMID:24631959

  18. A systematic literature review of psychological factors and the development of late whiplash syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Esther; Williams, Mark; Gates, Simon; Lamb, Sarah E

    2008-03-01

    This systematic literature review aims to assess the prognostic value of psychological factors in the development of late whiplash syndrome (LWS). We included prospective cohort studies that provided a baseline measure of at least one psychological variable and used outcome measures relating to LWS (i.e. pain or disability persisting 6 months post injury). A search of electronic databases (Pubmed, Medline, Cinahl, Embase and Psychinfo) up to August 2006 was done using a predetermined search strategy. Methodological quality was assessed independently by two assessors. Data extraction were carried out using a standardised data extraction form. Twenty-five articles representing data from 17 cohorts were included. Fourteen articles were rated as low quality with 11 rated as adequate quality. Meta-analysis was not undertaken due to the heterogeneity of prognostic factors, outcome measures and methods used. Results were tabulated and predefined criterion applied to rate the overall strength of evidence for associations between psychological factors and LWS. Data on 21 possible psychological risk factors were included. The majority of findings were inconclusive. Limited evidence was found to support an association between lower self-efficacy and greater post-traumatic stress with the development of LWS. No association was found between the development of LWS and personality traits, general psychological distress, wellbeing, social support, life control and psychosocial work factors. The lack of conclusive findings and poor methodological quality of the studies reviewed highlights the need for better quality research. Self-efficacy and post-traumatic distress may be associated with the development of LWS but this needs further investigation.

  19. Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: Factor Structure and Socio-Demographic Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimanysah; Chong, Siow Ann; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Chua, Boon Yiang; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Ong, Lue Ping; Tay, Jenny; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps, and delays in help-seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF) scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a pop...

  20. Associations of psychological capital, demographic and occupational factors with cigarette smoking among Chinese underground coal miners

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Xu, Xin; Wu, Hui; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background As a specific male occupational group, underground coal miners have been commonly found to have a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. It is of urgent need to explore some factors that could be intervened to reduce smoking from personal or internal perspective. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of psychological capital (PsyCap), demographic and occupational factors with smoking among Chinese underground coal miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey w...

  1. Personal and Psychological Factors-Does it Impact the Choice of Advertising Medium?

    OpenAIRE

    Izian Idris; Mohd S.A. Yajid; Ali Khatibi

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Advertising is a multidimensional phenomenon that has been studied in several disciplines. It is one of the most fascinating phenomena in modern capitalist markets. It is pervasive, perplexing, multidimensional and unfathomably rich. The effectiveness of advertising depends on both the quality of the product being advertised and the quality of the ad itself and also the media context in which the ad appears. Personal factors (such as gender and age) and psychological factor...

  2. Which psychological factors influence Internet addiction? Evidence through an integrative model

    OpenAIRE

    Burnay, Jonathan; Billieux, Joël; Blairy, Sylvie; Laroi, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Since the appearance of Internet, several preoccupations have appeared as a result, with Internet addiction being one of the most common. The goals of the present study were two-fold. First, to examine which psychological factors are relevant to explain Internet addiction, including impulsivity, passion and social provision. Second, to incorporate all these factors into an integrative model. Based on multiple regressions and path analysis, results revealed a positive relation between Internet...

  3. Psychological Coercion in Human Trafficking: An Application of Biderman's Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susie B; Fehrenbacher, Anne E; Eisenman, David P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined coercive conditions experienced by trafficked persons in the context of Biderman's theory of coercion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 adult women trafficked into Los Angeles County, from 10 countries, for domestic work and/or sex work. Participants described health problems they experienced in relation to their trafficking experience and their perceptions of conditions that caused health problems. Utilizing a framework analysis approach, we analyzed themes using Biderman's framework. Participants reported experiencing the range of nonphysical coercive tactics outlined by Biderman, including isolation, monopolization of perception, induced debility or exhaustion, threats, occasional indulgences, demonstration of omnipotence, degradation, and enforcement of trivial demands. Our analysis demonstrates how these coercion tactics reinforced the submission of trafficked persons to their traffickers even in the absence of physical force or restraints. Such psychological abuse creates extreme stress that can lead to acute and chronic, physical and mental health problems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Human Cognition and Emotion using Physio Psychological Approach : A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Amutha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A soldier’s responsibility in the military includes his physical and mental attitudes which makes him to support the army in a full-fledged manner. This type of human dimension recognizes Soldier readiness from training proficiency to motivation for the Army’s future success. It introduces the concept of holistic fitness, a comprehensive combination of the whole person, including all components of the human dimension as a triad of moral, cognitive and physical components. The human dimension concept is directly related to the human mind and memory system. In this research, a system which will be capable of recognizing human emotions based on physiological parameters of a human body is discussed. The data from the system is fed to a computer where it is stored. Stored information regarding human parameters is retrieved and classified using support vector machine to generate a data set about the various emotions the human poses at a specific situation. The emotion, thus calculated is grouped to generate a grade for his present status. This grade is used to recommend the suitable working environment for the person.

  5. Identifying blood biomarkers and physiological processes that distinguish humans with superior performance under psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Cooksey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.

  6. Identifying Blood Biomarkers and Physiological Processes That Distinguish Humans with Superior Performance under Psychological Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, Amanda M.; Momen, Nausheen; Stocker, Russell; Burgess, Shane C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB), which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others. Methodology/Principal Findings Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology. Conclusions/Significance The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress. PMID:20020041

  7. Providing the Scientific Backbone for Positive Psychology: A Multi-Level Conception of Human Thriving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennon M. Sheldon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with a consideration of what is missing in positive psychology – namely, an integrative framework within which to view the entire person, especially as nested within more-or-less supportive social contexts and cultures. Thus, I presented a multi-level hierarchical framework for considering and explaining human behavior, arguing that all levels of the framework are necessary for complete exposition. From this point of view, personality processes cannot be reduced to "mere" cognitive processes; there are trans-cognitive rules and laws operating at this higher level. I also considered a four level sub-framework within the personality level of analysis, consisting of organismic needs/characteristics, traits/dispositions, goals/intentions, and self/self-narratives. I contended that each of these spheres of the person operates via unique rules and regularities, processes that cannot be reduced to lower levels of analysis (such as biological, neurological, and cognitive levels of analysis. Finally, I described some recent research that simultaneously examines factors at multiple levels of the SLOPIC model, showing that each has influence for predicting SWB, and moreover, that all of these effects are mediated by basic need satisfaction. Hopefully this line of research will prove useful for other positive psychologists seeking "the big picture" on human flourishing.

  8. Personal and Psychological Factors-Does it Impact the Choice of Advertising Medium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izian Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Advertising is a multidimensional phenomenon that has been studied in several disciplines. It is one of the most fascinating phenomena in modern capitalist markets. It is pervasive, perplexing, multidimensional and unfathomably rich. The effectiveness of advertising depends on both the quality of the product being advertised and the quality of the ad itself and also the media context in which the ad appears. Personal factors (such as gender and age and psychological factors (for example status and personality may affect the choice of advertising medium. Consumers’ interest may change due to these factors. The analysis had proved that both factors do impact the choice of advertising medium. The study may help marketers, advertisers and businesses to create and come out with suitable advertisements that suits the interests of consumers’ derived from those factors. It may help them to choose suitable advertising media for different target market. The study searched for to find out whether personal and psychological factors have any impact to the choice of advertising medium. Approach: For this study purposes, questionnaires and copy testing had been used to addresses issues related to the effectiveness of each advertisement. About 100 printed questionnaires were distributed among respondents which comprised age from 18 years old and above where 30 respondents were tested for copy testing from all mediums, online and traditional where these respondents were given a series of all advertisements from newspaper, magazine, TV, radio, Internet, SMS and MMS. Results: The coefficient analysis showed that both personal and psychological factors had positive relationship with customer satisfaction. Between these two factors, personal factors had high level of significant relationship (p = 0.000 compared to psychological factors (p = 0.087. The analysis had proved that both factors do impact the choice of advertising medium. Conclusion

  9. Psychological factors mediate key symptoms of fibromyalgia through their influence on stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2016-09-01

    The clinical features of fibromyalgia are associated with various psychological factors, including stress. We examined the hypothesis that the path that psychological factors follow in influencing fibromyalgia symptoms is through their direct effect on stress. Ninety-eight females with ACR 1990 classified fibromyalgia completed the following questionnaires: The Big 5 Personality Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Mastery Scale, and Perceived Control of Internal States Scale. SPSS (PASW version 22) was used to perform basic t tests, means, and standard deviations to show difference between symptom characteristics. Pathway analysis using structural equation modelling (Laavan) examined the effect of stress on the relationships between psychological factors and the elements that define the fibromyalgia phenotype. The preferred model showed that the identified path clearly linked the psychological variables of anxiety, neuroticism and mastery, but not internal control, to the three key elements of fibromyalgia, namely pain, fatigue and sleep (p fibromyalgia symptoms. This has implications for the understanding of contributing mechanisms and the clinical care of patients with fibromyalgia.

  10. Psychological factors in pregnancy and mixed-handedness in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2003-01-01

    event in the third trimester of pregnancy and among the offspring of these women 11% were mixed-handed (odds ratio = 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.4). Women who at the same time reported a high level of distress and stressful life events, had a three- to four-fold higher prevalence of mixed......Animal studies suggest that psychological factors may interfere with the development of brain asymmetry during gestation. We evaluated whether psychological exposure in pregnancy was associated with mixed-handedness in the offspring. In a follow-up design study, 824 Danish-speaking women...... with singleton pregnancies provided information on psychological distress and the occurrence of life events in the early second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Handedness of the children was based on maternal reports when the children were 3 years of age. Among the 419 males and 405 females, 7% and 5...

  11. Higher cortical modulation of pain perception in the human brain: Psychological determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew Cn

    2009-10-01

    Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain have been reviewed recently. In the current article, the reports on pain modulation in the human brain were reviewed from higher cortical regulation, i.e. top-down effect, particularly studied in psychological determinants. Pain modulation can be examined by gene therapy, physical modulation, pharmacological modulation, psychological modulation, and pathophysiological modulation. In psychological modulation, this article examined (a) willed determination, (b) distraction, (c) placebo, (d) hypnosis, (e) meditation, (f) qi-gong, (g) belief, and (h) emotions, respectively, in the brain function for pain modulation. In each, the operational definition, cortical processing, neuroimaging, and pain modulation were systematically deliberated. However, not all studies had featured the brain modulation processing but rather demonstrated potential effects on human pain. In our own studies on the emotional modulation on human pain, we observed that emotions could be induced from music melodies or pictures perception for reduction of tonic human pain, mainly in potentiation of the posterior alpha EEG fields, likely resulted from underneath activities of precuneous in regulation of consciousness, including pain perception. To sum, higher brain functions become the leading edge research in all sciences. How to solve the information bit of thinking and feeling in the brain can be the greatest challenge of human intelligence. Application of higher cortical modulation of human pain and suffering can lead to the progress of social humanity and civilization.

  12. Perception of Euro in Poland – Economic and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Matyja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diagnosis of the opportunities and threats associated with the introduction of the euro in Poland was the main focus of this study. The research had two main objectives: exploratory and operational. The exploratory objective was to capture the structure of convictions affecting Poles’ attitudes toward the introduction of the euro. The operational objective was to verify which of those convictions have the most infl uence on the lack of support for the introduction of the euro. Methodology: The research was conducted with a national random sample (n=509 of Polish citizens. The CAPI/ CASI face-to-face questionnaire was used. Findings: There exists a multi-level structure of attitudes towards the euro. The attitude toward the introduction of the euro is explained by attitudes toward the euro and the Polish zloty, perceived gains and losses from introduction of the euro and life attitudes. One cannot force another individual to support the introduction of the euro. However, one can act upon the convictions of the nation, which has a major impact on raising euro acceptance. The most impact is from strengthening of national beliefs, which strongly and positively affect the level of euro acceptance, whereas any reduction lowers the acceptance of the introduction of a new currency. Limitations: As any other social phenomena, money perception is very dynamic and dependent on current political and social issues. Therefore, despite the fact that the model seems to defi ne the factors and their influence on euro perception very accurately, it is essential that every time it is applied, the current state of mind of the society is measured. Furthermore, additional research should be conducted for groups deviating from the average results for the society. Originality: The practical aspect of this research is the opportunity to point out convictions, which need to be modified to increase euro acceptance.

  13. Human factors in safety and business management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  14. Human factors and simulation in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Emily M; Wong, Ambrose H; Ackerman, Jeremy; Sande, Margaret K; Lei, Charles; Kobayashi, Leo; Cassara, Michael; Cooper, Dylan D; Perry, Kimberly; Lewandowski, William E; Scerbo, Mark W

    2017-09-19

    This consensus group from the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes" held in Orlando, Florida on May 16, 2017 focused on the use of human factors and simulation in the field of emergency medicine. The human factors discipline is often underutilized within emergency medicine but has significant potential in improving the interface between technologies and individuals in the field. The discussion explored the domain of human factors, its benefits in medicine, how simulation can be a catalyst for human factors work in emergency medicine, and how emergency medicine can collaborate with human factors professionals to affect change. Implementing human factors in emergency medicine through healthcare simulation will require a demonstration of clinical and safety outcomes, advocacy to stakeholders and administrators, and establishment of structured collaborations between human factors professionals and emergency medicine, such as in this breakout group. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. The hoarding dimension of OCD: psychological comorbidity and the five-factor personality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSalle-Ricci, V Holland; Arnkoff, Diane B; Glass, Carol R; Crawley, Sarah A; Ronquillo, Jonne G; Murphy, Dennis L

    2006-10-01

    Although hoarding has been associated with several psychological disorders, it is most frequently linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study assessed hoarding obsessions and compulsions in 204 individuals with OCD, and evaluated how hoarding was related to obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, psychological comorbidity, and personality as measured by the five-factor model. Results indicated that hoarding in OCD is a dimensional variable that is positively associated with dysphoria, total number of lifetime Axis I disorders, and lifetime histories of bipolar I, PTSD, and body dysmorphic disorder. Hoarding was negatively correlated with the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) factor of Conscientiousness and positively associated with the NEO-PI-R factor of Neuroticism. When all personality and psychopathology variables were entered into a regression equation, dysphoria, bipolar II disorder, Conscientiousness, age, and Extraversion emerged as significant predictors of hoarding severity. Recommendations are made for clinicians and for future research.

  16. Students' physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection: Are there risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Papadodima, Stavroula A; Evaggelakos, Christos I; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G; Goutas, Nikolaos D; Spiliopoulou, Chara A

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine in the 2005-2006 academic year were asked to complete a questionnaire at the conclusion of the five-day course. The questionnaire surveyed physical and psychological reactions (outcomes) and 47 student traits, beliefs, and behaviors (risk factors) that might predispose to adverse reactions. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression yielded five independent risk factors for negative psychological reactions: female gender, stereotypic beliefs about forensic pathologists, a less cognitive and more emotional frame of mind relative to forensic dissection, more passive coping strategies, and greater fear of death. The sole independent risk factor for physical symptoms was a less cognitive/more emotional approach to dissection. Students' reactions to forensic dissection integrate a host of inherent and dissection-related risk factors, and future interventions to improve this aspect of medical education will need to take into account the complexities underlying students' experiences with dissection.

  17. Ethical and psychological factors in 5S and total productive maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Ahmed Hama Kareem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of ethical and psychological factors in the implementation of 5S and TPM at cement plants in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed methods represented in a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews for data collection in the framework of the case study were chosen. The questionnaire survey already has been tested. Findings: The findings of this paper revealed that ethical factors had a larger role than psychological factors in the implementation. Thus, based on the findings, organisations are recommended to provide financial and moral support to employees to enable a comprehensive implementation of 5S and TPM aimed at obtaining the desired results.  Originality/value: The current paper tried to introduce a new theoretical contribution by filling the gap in the literature regarding the important role that can be played by ethical and psychological factors of employees in the successful implementation of contemporary techniques, such as 5S and TPM in industrial organizations. This is contrary to what was done most of previous studies such as Ahuja & Khamba, (2008b Panneerselvam (2012 Singh et al. (2013 and Poduval & Pramod (2015 in the area of 5S and TPM. Where, these studies have focused on studying the other factors such as (organizational, technological, operational and others in implementing 5S and TPM. This without realizing the fact that it is also necessary to examine factors such as (ethical and psychological that would affect the capabilities and employee morale before and during the implementation of those techniques (5S and TPM that are used to bring out the best productivity.

  18. Fundamentals of systems ergonomics/human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics/human factors is, above anything else, a systems discipline and profession, applying a systems philosophy and systems approaches. Many things are labelled as system in today's world, and this paper specifies just what attributes and notions define ergonomics/human factors in systems terms. These are obviously a systems focus, but also concern for context, acknowledgement of interactions and complexity, a holistic approach, recognition of emergence and embedding of the professional effort involved within organization system. These six notions are illustrated with examples from a large body of work on rail human factors.

  19. Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2011-01-01

    The Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design covers basic human factors issues relating to screen design, input devices, and information organization and processing, as well as addresses newer features which will become prominent in the next generation of Web technologies. These include multimodal interfaces, wireless capabilities, and agents that can improve convenience and usability. Written by leading researchers and/or practitioners in the field, this volume reflects the varied backgrounds and interests of individuals involved in all aspects of human factors and Web design and includes chap

  20. Selecting measures for human factors research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, B H

    1992-08-01

    Selecting measures is a necessary component of human factors research. Proper selection must take into account the representation problem (how is the assignment of numbers to objects or phenomena justified?) and the uniqueness problem (to what degree is this assignment unique?). Other key human factors measurement issues include subject representativeness, variable representativeness, and setting representativeness. It is difficult to create a single measure that captures essential characteristics of complex systems. Several examples illustrate how theory can guide measurement selection in such diverse human factors research as vigilance, turning off warning alarms, information requirements for military command centers, subjective workload, heart-rate signal analysis, and heat stress in nuclear power plants.

  1. Study on Angiogenesis Factor of Human Osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenesis factor of human osteosarcoma was partially purified and its biological features were studied. The active peptide with 8000 to 10 000 u molecular weight in the conditioned medium obtained from the cultivation of human osteosarcoma cells were partially purified by ultrafiltration, chromatography and dialysis. The angiogenic effects of the fractions were assessed by proliferation assay of human umbilical vein and pig aorta thoracic endothelial cells. The results showed that the chromatography fractions of 4 to 6 could significantly promote the proliferation of the endothelial cells. It was suggested that the human osteosarcoma cells could synthesize and secrete angiogenesis factor with a molecular weight of 8000 to 10 000 u.

  2. Development of a Teaching Methodology for Undergraduate Human Development in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria A.; Espinoza, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of a teaching methodology for the undergraduate Psychology course Human Development II in a private university in Lima, Peru is described. The theoretical framework consisted of an integration of Citizen Science and Service Learning, with the application of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), specifically Wikipedia and…

  3. Mental time travel : A conceptual overview of social psychological perspectives on a fundamental human capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstude, K.; Peetz, J.

    Humans have the unique capacity to mentally travel through time, that is, to reflect on the past, anticipate the future, and construct alternate realities in their minds. The ability to mentally travel through time affects a variety of social psychological topics. Representations of events can

  4. Introduction of an Undergraduate Course in the Psychology of Human Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinginna, Anne M.; McClure, Gary

    1981-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a course in the psychology of human sexuality which was introduced at Georgia Southern College in 1979. Findings indicated that, despite initial objections, the course was popular with students and has experimentally demonstrated to have produced an increase in knowledge. (DB)

  5. Setting occupational exposure limits in humans: contributions from the field of experimental psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, M.A.M.; Kroeze, J.H.A.; Dalton, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Psychophysical methods from the field of experimental psychology are evaluated for their utility in the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs) for volatile chemicals based on acute sensory irritation in humans. The lateralization threshold method, which involves the localization of trigem

  6. Introduction of an Undergraduate Course in the Psychology of Human Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinginna, Anne M.; McClure, Gary

    1981-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a course in the psychology of human sexuality which was introduced at Georgia Southern College in 1979. Findings indicated that, despite initial objections, the course was popular with students and has experimentally demonstrated to have produced an increase in knowledge. (DB)

  7. Mental time travel : A conceptual overview of social psychological perspectives on a fundamental human capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstude, K.; Peetz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Humans have the unique capacity to mentally travel through time, that is, to reflect on the past, anticipate the future, and construct alternate realities in their minds. The ability to mentally travel through time affects a variety of social psychological topics. Representations of events can diffe

  8. Human factors and information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Key problem areas in the management and transfer of information in the National Airspace System, contributing to human errors are identified. Information-management aspects supporting the user's ability to assess prevailing situations accurately with adequate time to make an informed decision are considered. The relationship between judgment biases and requirements for managing weather information is illustrated by examining such hazardous weather phenomena as microbursts and windshears. The system of air-ground communication relying almost exclusively on voice transmissions is discussed, and recommendations in the areas of communications procedures and technology development are provided.

  9. Headache disorders in children and adolescents: their association with psychological, behavioral, and socio-environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Gassmann, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    This cross-sectional study on a randomly drawn population sample of children and adolescents (n = 3399; aged 9 to 15) aimed at the assessment of patterns of associations between psychosocial variables and primary headache disorders like migraine (MIG) or tension-type headache. A headache-free group served as a control. Data on headache and psychological trait variables (eg, internalizing symptoms), behavioral factors (eg, physical activities), and socio-environmental factors (eg, life events) were gathered by questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with headache types (MIG, tension-type, and non-classifiable headache) as dependent variables. The pattern of correlations was largely congruent between the headache disorders. Associations were closest regarding maladaptive psychological traits (in particular internalizing symptoms with an odds ratio > 4 regarding MIG) compared with socio-environmental factors and particularly the behavioral factors. Unfavorable psychological traits and socio-environmental strains demonstrated distinctly stronger associations with MIG than tension-type headache and explained more variance in the occurrence of pediatric headache disorders than parental headache. Sex-specific analyses showed similarities as well as differences regarding the correlations, and in general, the associations were stronger in girls than boys. A common path model as posited by several researchers in the field may explain the parallelism in biopsychosocial vulnerability regarding the different headache disorders. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  10. [Relationship between neuro-psychological factors and effect of acupuncture in treating Bell's palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun-Hua; Gao, Shan; Chen, Guo-Hua

    2010-10-01

    To study the influence of neuro-psychological factors on the effect of acupuncture in the treatment of Bell's palsy and the overall prognosis in patients. Fifty patients with Bell's palsy were randomized into the treatment group and the control group, and they were treated with manipulated and non-manipulated acupuncture, respectively. Scorings by subjective perceptive scale of acupuncture, Cartel personality test, and Hamilton Anxiety Scale were performed and the curative effect was assessed according House-Brackmann grading standards. The total effective rate of acupuncture was 78.0% (39/50), and that of manipulated acupuncture was better than that of non-manipulated acupuncture [89.2% (25/28) vs. 63.6% (14/22), P Cartel personality test (16PF) found that patients with personality factors of sociability, intellectuality, excitability, braveness, and independence were capable of getting "Deqi" more easily, there existed a significant correlation between personality factors and curative effect. By Hamilton Anxiety Scale scoring, 92.0% (46/50) of the patients were found being in an anxiety state, and the efficacy of treatment was negatively correlated with the degree of anxiety (r = -0.9491, P < 0.05). Neuro-psychological factors put great influence on the efficacy of treatment for Bell's palsy, multiple measures, such as drug-therapy, acupuncture, psychological intervention, rehabilitation therapy, etc., should be taken in combination for improving patients' prognosis.

  11. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  12. Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: Factor Structure and Socio-Demographic Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimanysah; Chong, Siow Ann; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Chua, Boon Yiang; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Ong, Lue Ping; Tay, Jenny; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps, and delays in help-seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF) scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: "Openness to seeking professional help," "Value in seeking professional help," and "Preference to cope on one's own." Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and income were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.

  13. Attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help: Factor structure and socio-demographic predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa ePicco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps and delays in help seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: ‘Openness to seeking professional help’, ‘Value in seeking professional help’ and ‘Preference to cope on one’s own’. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, and employment status were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.

  14. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS THAT FOSTER OR DETER THE DISCLOSURE OF DISABILITY BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesarei, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Despite the increased number of students with disabilities attending university compared to a few decades ago, many students do not declare that they have a disability, reducing their chances to receive support when it is needed. Here, some of the studies investigating the factors that influence disclosure of disability are reviewed. Psychological factors related to identity, stigma, self-worth, and self-awareness are identified as the most important factors in supporting the decision to disclose a disability. Early support for these dimensions is important and should be provided as early as possible in order to facilitate the disclosure and help-seeking of university students with disabilities.

  15. FACTORS OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF TEENAGERS TO EDUCATION IN SUVOROV MILITARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the content of the concept ofsocio-psychological adaptation.Methods. In the course of work theoretical methods of research are used: an overview and synthesis of approaches to the study of such a theoretical construct as adaptation and disadaptation; practical methods: methods of diagnostics of socio-psychological adaptation by K. Rogers and P. Diamond (SPA and multi-factor personality questionnaire by R. Cattell (CPQ. The research is summative. Statistical processing is carried out using the computer programs STATISTICA 6.0 and MS Excel; the method of multiple regression analysis is used to highlight the personal factors influencing the level of adaptation of pupils of the Suvorov military school. Results. According to the empirical study, the authors describe the obtained factors of socio-psychological adaptation and disadaptation of adolescents enrolled in the course at Suvorov military school of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. The results of empirical research of features of adolescents’ adaptation to the conditions of a military educational institution are presented. Special attention is paid to the selection of personality traits characterizing the failure probability of disadaptation. The authors justified the need and described the possibility of organizing a psychological-pedagogical support of adolescents at the initial stage of studying in military educational institution of the closed type.Scientific novelty. The article proposes the authors’ approach to the concept of socio-psychological adaptation; the main indicators of successful socio-psychological adolescents’ adaptation to the conditions of Suvorov military school are identified; the indicators that predict the risk of the failure probability of disadaptation are given. It is concluded that the development of adaptive capacity should be achieved through personal components.Practical significance. The

  16. A Study of the Psychological Views of Attar on the Basis of Humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Najafi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humanism was introduced to psychologists through Maslow and Rogers’s views in the twentieth century. This school deals with the human needs and his innate tendencies. Utopia, exalted experiences, religious experiences, high motivations and human nature are among Maslow and Rogers’s ideas. Attar, one of the greatest Muslim mystics of the 6th and 7th centuries has also considered these subjects in his poems and has tried to explain and interpret them. Many of Attar’s ideas can be explained using ideas and principles in humanism and it can be highlighted that he has tried to advance some theories in this field. In fact, it is obvious that, like many other mystics, Attar has utilized psychological concepts in his teachings, and his ideas and theories in this regard can be unraveled through scholarly research on his writings on the part of experts in psychology. On the other hand, to interpret many of the mystical ideas, it is necessary to be familiar with some theories in psychology. The present research, as a descriptive-analytical research, tries to explain Attar’s ideas about human needs, perfect man, exalted experiences and high motivation using the ideas and principles in humanism.

  17. Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    user’s location and then per- forming the (cognitive) task of Mark A. Livingston Naval Research Laboratory Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality ...00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...the basis for situation awareness or—in combina- tion with visual cues—a navigation task. Tactile tasks. Via haptic devices, we can apply vir- tual

  18. Industrial-Organizational and Human Factors Graduate Program Admission: Information for Undergraduate Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoenfelt, Elizabeth L.; Stone, Nancy J.; Kottke, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    Many psychology departments do not have industrial-organizational (IO) or human factors (HF) faculty members. As such, potential IO and HF graduate students may miss career opportunities because faculty advisors are unfamiliar with the disciplines and their graduate programs. To assist advisors, this article highlights the content of IO and HF…

  19. The "Human Factor" in Pure and in Applied Mathematics. Systems Everywhere: Their Impact on Mathematics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the relationship between people and mathematics could have on the development of pure and applied mathematics. Argues for (1) a growing interest in philosophy, history and sociology of science; (2) new models in educational and psychological research; and (3) a growing awareness of the human factor in technology,…

  20. Comparison of familial and psychological factors in groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çengel-Kültür, S Ebru; Akdemir, Devrim; Saltık-Temizel, İnci N

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the differences between groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation. The Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised, the COPE Questionnaire, the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Parenting Style Scale were used to evaluate, respectively, maternal psychiatric symptoms, coping abilities, attachment style, family functioning and children's perceptions of parenting behaviors. Psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the K-SADS. A higher level of maternal psychiatric symptoms, impaired role and affective involvement functioning of the family and less psychological autonomy were observed in the group of encopresis patients with constipation than in the group of encopresis patients without constipation. No significant differences were found between the groups in psychiatric comorbidities, maternal coping abilities and attachment style. The two groups had a similar pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders and maternal psychological factors, although some familial factors-related mainly to parental authority-were differentiated in the encopresis with constipation group.

  1. Treatment of psychological factors in a child with difficult asthma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Ran D; Sachdeva, Shagun

    2011-07-01

    Difficult asthma is defined as the persistence of asthma symptoms, abnormal pulmonary function showing airway obstruction, and continued requirement for short-acting bronchodilator therapy, despite adequate treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. It calls for a thorough evaluation of the patient to look into alternate and complicating diagnoses. The authors report a case of a 9-year-old patient with difficult asthma who failed to respond to conventional therapy. Although it was recognized that he had a number of potential medical complicating factors including allergies, chronic sinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux, a psychological intervention using hypnosis ultimately appeared to help alleviate his symptoms completely. Thus, psychological evaluation and intervention should be considered early in the course of management of a patient with difficult asthma, because it may help avoid time-consuming and expensive investigations of potential complicating factors, and it may yield rapid improvement in the patient's clinical condition.

  2. Factors associated with psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Dolores; Alarcón, Renato D; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel

    We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants' residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies.

  3. Psychological factors and his influence in the oral health of older people: A narrative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ríos-Erazo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant growth in the elderly population of developing countries. This growth leads health systems in those countries to face an increase in consultations for oral diseases for this age group. Therefore, the biopsychosocial approach is essential for healthy aging in the elderly. The objectives of this review article are to identify the psychological factors that have a relationship with most prevalent oral diseases in elderly people (dental caries and periodontal disease, and then describe how tooth loss, the principal consequence of caries and periodontal disease, impacts the mental health of older people. Finally, some proposals for dental work in the elderly are discussed, considering the psychological factors related to oral health.

  4. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Space Human Factors: Research to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Human Factors has been instrumental in preventing potential on-orbit hazards and increasing overall crew safety. Poor performance & operational learning curves on-orbit are mitigated. Human-centered design is applied to optimize design and minimize potentially hazardous conditions, especially with larger crew sizes and habitat constraints. Lunar and Mars requirements and design developments are enhanced, based on ISS Lessons Learned.

  6. Association of psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, and management among patients with erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huri HZ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hasniza Zaman Huri,1,2 Nurul Diyana Mat Sanusi,1 Azad Hassan Abdul Razack,3 Raymond Mark1 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Clinical Investigation Center, University of Malaya Medical Centre, 3Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED is one of the most common health problems in men. ED can significantly affect a man’s psychological well-being and overall health. Purpose: To investigate the association of psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, and management among ED patients. Patients and methods: A total of 93 patients with an age range from 31 to 81 years who have undergone treatment for ED were included in this study. Results: It was found that the feeling of blame (P=0.001, guilt (P=0.001, anger or bitterness (P=0.001, depression (P=0.001, feeling like a failure (P=0.001, and the feeling of letting down a partner during intercourse (P=0.001 were significantly associated with ED. Age was also found to be significantly associated with patients’ psychological scale (P=0.004. In addition, the majority of patients in this study practice the right method of administration of ED therapy. However, no significant correlation was found between patients’ knowledge of ED therapy and demographic characteristics. Conclusion: This study concluded that ED does affect psychological well-being of people. In addition, patient’s knowledge about ED and its management is also crucial in ensuring that the patient achieves optimal therapeutic outcomes from ED therapy. Keywords: erectile dysfunction, psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, management

  7. Research on disaster prevention by human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Kang, Sun Duck; Jo, Young Do [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Mining, by its very nature, requires workers and technology to function in an unpredictable environment that can not easily be engineered to accommodate human factors. Miners' physical and cognitive capabilities are sometimes stretched to the point that 'human error' in performance result. Mine safety researchers estimate that 50-85% of all mining injuries are due, in large part, to human error. Further research suggests that the primary causes of these errors in performance lie outside the individual and can be minimized by improvements in equipment design, work environments, work procedures and training. The human factors research is providing the science needed to determine which aspects of the mining environment can be made more worker-friendly and how miners can work more safely in environments that can not be improved. Underground mines have long been recognized as an innately hazardous and physically demanding work environment. Recently, mining is becoming a more complicated process as more sophisticated technologies are introduced. The more complicated or difficult the tasks to be performed, the more critical it is to have a systematic understanding of the humans, the technology, the environments, and how they interact. Human factors is a key component in solving most of today's mine safety and health problems. Human factors research primarily centered around solving problems in the following four areas: 1) How mining methods and equipment affect safety, 2) Evaluating the fit between miner's physical capabilities and the demands of their job, 3) Improving miner's ability to perceive and react to hazards, 4) Understanding how organizational and managerial variables influence safety. Human factor research was begun during the World war II. National Coal Board (British Coal) of Great Britain commenced ergonomics in 1969, and Bureau of Mine of United States started human factor researches in same year. Japan has very short history

  8. Association of Psychological Factors to Alcohol Consumption Behavior among U.S. College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Oladunni Oluwoye; Salam Khan; Jacob Oluwoye; Russell J. Fricano; Earl M. Gooding; Joan Fobbs-Wilson; Jitendra Kapoor

    2013-01-01

    This study explores college students’ alcohol consumption behavior and evaluates theeffect of different psychological factors on consumption patterns. Randomly selectedstudents from two different universities completed surveys with perceived scales for stress,self esteem and anxiety and an alcohol consumption questionnaire. Non-parametricanalyses suggests that low self esteem, higher stress and anxiety level and younger ageincrease the likelihood of drinking alcohol. These findings were consi...

  9. Psychological Factors Predict Eating Disorder Onset and Maintenance at 10-year Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Lauren A.; Bodell, Lindsay P.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to identify psychological factors that predict onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from an epidemiological study of health and eating behaviors in men and women (N=1320; 72% female) to examine the prospective and independent influence of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, and Maturity Fears subscales in predicting the onset and maintenance of eating disorders at 10-year follow-...

  10. Interaction of Psychological Factors in Shaping Entrepreneurial Intention Among Computer and Electrical Engineering Students

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chao-Tung; Lee, Jia-Ling; Liang, Chaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous technopreneurs start their ventures at college age, but the entrepreneurship of computer and electrical engineering (CEE) students remains under-studied. This study analysed both the combined and interactive effects of psychological factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of CEE students. In this study, entrepreneurial intention comprised two dimensions, conviction and preparation. Regarding the direct effects, the results indicated that self-efficacy affected entrepreneurial convi...

  11. Influence of psychological factors on pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium. A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Dolores Marín Morales; Mª Ángeles Bullones Rodríguez; Francisco Javier Carmona Monge; Mª Isabel Carretero Abellán; Mª Amparo Moreno Moure; Cecilia Peñacoba Puente

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyze different psychological factors (personality, psychiatric symptoms, pregnancy worries, beliefs about delivery, locus of control, coping styles) and its relation to clinical symptomatology and the presence of complications during pregnancy, quality of life indicators, perception and coping with labour pain, type of delivery, neonatal well-being indicators, delivery satisfaction, maternal bond development and care of the baby and presence of post-partu...

  12. Psychological and Family Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation in Pre-Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas i Poch, Ferran; Canals Sans, Josepa; Gras Pérez, María Eugenia; Ros, Claudia; Domènech, Edelmira

    2002-01-01

    To assess the psychological and family factors associated with suicidal ideation in preadolescent children, we studied a sample of 361 students, average age 9 years old. Two groups were formed, on the basis of the presence (n = 34) or absence (n = 44) of suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the Children’s Depression Inventory and the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, and perceived family environment were compared in both th...

  13. Further evidence of psychological factors underlying choice of elective cesarean delivery (ECD) by primigravidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinnia, Nasrin; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Ibrahim, Faisal B; Rahman, Hejar A; Ghaleiha, Ali; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-06-12

    Requests for elective cesarean delivery (ECD) have increased in Iran. While some sociodemographic and fear-related factors have been linked with this choice, psychological factors such as self-esteem, stress, and health beliefs are under-researched. A total of 342 primigravidae (mean age = 25 years) completed questionnaires covering psychological dimensions such as self-esteem, perceived stress, marital relationship quality, perceived social support, and relevant health-related beliefs. Of the sample, 214 (62.6%) chose to undergo ECD rather than vaginal delivery (VD). This choice was associated with lower self-esteem, greater perceived stress, belief in higher susceptibility to problematic birth and barriers to an easy birth, along with lower perceived severity of ECD, fewer perceived benefits from VD, lower self-efficacy and a lower feeling of preparedness. No differences were found for marital relationship quality or perceived social support. The pattern suggests that various psychological factors such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, and perceived stress underpin the decision by primigravidae to have an ECD.

  14. Identifying principal risk factors for the initiation of adolescent smoking behaviors: the significance of psychological reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Claude H; Burgoon, Michael; Grandpre, Joseph R; Alvaro, Eusebio M

    2006-01-01

    An in-school youth survey for a major state anti-tobacco media campaign was conducted with 1,831 students (Grades 6-12) from 70 randomly selected classrooms throughout the state. Tobacco users accounted for nearly 25% of the sample. Pretest questionnaires assessed demographic variables, tobacco use, and various other risk factors. Several predictors of adolescents' susceptibility to tobacco use, including prior experimentation with tobacco, school performance, parental smoking status, parents' level of education, parental communication, parental relationship satisfaction, best friend's smoking status, prevalence of smokers in social environment, self-perceived potential to smoke related to peer pressure, and psychological reactance, were examined using discriminant analysis and logistic regression to identify the factors most useful in classifying adolescents as either high-risk or low-risk for smoking uptake. Results corroborate findings in the prevention literature indicating that age, prior experimentation, and having friends who smoke are among the principal predictors of smoking risk. New evidence is presented indicating that psychological reactance also should be considered as an important predictor of adolescent smoking initiation. The utility of producing antismoking messages informed by an awareness of the key risk factors-particularly psychological reactance-is discussed both in terms of the targeting and design of anti-tobacco campaigns.

  15. Determining the direction of causality between psychological factors and aircraft noise annoyance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Kroesen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to establish the direction of causality between a range of psychological factors and aircraft noise annoyance. For this purpose, a panel model was estimated within a structural equation modeling approach. Data were gathered from two surveys conducted in April 2006 and April 2008, respectively, among the same residents living within the 45 Level day-evening-night contour of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, the largest airport in the Netherlands (n=250. A surprising result is that none of the paths from the psychological factors to aircraft noise annoyance were found to be significant. Yet 2 effects were significant the other way around: (1 from ′aircraft noise annoyance′ to ′concern about the negative health effects of noise′ and (2 from ′aircraft noise annoyance′ to ′belief that noise can be prevented.′ Hence aircraft noise annoyance measured at time 1 contained information that can effectively explain changes in these 2 variables at time 2, while controlling for their previous values. Secondary results show that (1 aircraft noise annoyance is very stable through time and (2 that changes in aircraft noise annoyance and the identified psychological factors are correlated.

  16. Psychological factors related to eating disordered behaviors: a study with Portuguese athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz; Gomes, A Rui; Martins, Carla

    2011-05-01

    This study analyzes eating disordered behaviors in a sample of Portuguese athletes and explores its relationship with some psychological dimensions. Two hundred and ninety nine athletes (153 male, 51.2%) practicing collective (65.2%) or individual sports (34.8%) were included. The assessment protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994); the Sport Condition Questionnaire (Bruin et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2007); the Sport Anxiety Scale (Smith et al., 2006); the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1992; Duda & Whitehead, 1998); the Cognitive Evaluation of Sport-Threat Perceptions (Cruz, 1994; Lazarus, 1991); and the Self-Presentation Exercise Questionnaire (Gammage et al., 2004). Results revealed that: i) no case of clinical significance was detected in the four dimensions of the EDE-Q simultaneously; ii) females scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score, and athletes with the better sport results scored higher on the Restraint subscale; iii) athletes with a higher desire to weigh less scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score; iv) athletes with lower scores on EDE-Q displayed more positive results on the psychological measures; v) several psychological dimensions were identified as predictors of eating disordered behaviors. In conclusion, the prevalence of eating disordered behaviors was negligible in this study, yet the relationship of this problem with personal, sport and psychological factors was evident.

  17. Subjective Factors of the Hospital Environment and Their Influence on Psychological Well-being of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agalarova K.N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the relationship between man and the space around him, namely between the patient and hospital environment. The article gives a little insight into the history of the issue. The study held in a number of hospitals explored the influence of hospital environment on the psychological state of patients and their recovery, as well as the searching of behavior patterns of patients staying in the hospital. There are several main factors in the right treatment: the doctor’s qualification, quality of medical equipment, novelty of medical technology and medicines prescribed to patients but also the conditions of the hospital environment and trusting relationship between patient and doctor as well. This theme is insufficiently explored especially in Russian medicine. Its studying will serve as a referral base for a more effective treatment of patients, and also for a creating a conducive hospital environment. This theme is interdisciplinary in nature. Mainly it refers to the subject of environmental psychology, also located at the junction of personality, health psychology and rehabilitation psychology.

  18. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  19. Genomic imprinting and the evolutionary psychology of human kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, David

    2011-06-28

    Genomic imprinting is predicted to influence behaviors that affect individuals to whom an actor has different degrees of matrilineal and patrilineal kinship (asymmetric kin). Effects of imprinted genes are not predicted in interactions with nonrelatives or with individuals who are equally related to the actor's maternally and paternally derived genes (unless a gene also has pleiotropic effects on fitness of asymmetric kin). Long-term mating bonds are common in most human populations, but dissolution of marriage has always affected a significant proportion of mated pairs. Children born in a new union are asymmetric kin of children born in a previous union. Therefore, the innate dispositions of children toward parents and sibs are expected to be sensitive to cues of marital stability, and these dispositions may be subject to effects of imprinted genes.

  20. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  1. The Psychology of Learning Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemp, Richard R.

    This book deals with the teaching of mathematical concepts through the use of the psychology of human learning. In the first part of the book, the thought processes which people adopt when they do mathematics are analyzed psychologically. Interpersonal and emotional factors affecting the learning of mathematics are discussed. The second part of…

  2. Psychological consequences of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in an un-selected general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Andersen, John S; Jacobsen, Rikke K

    2015-01-01

    screening in healthy adults leads to mental distress in the study population, independent of participation. Methods: The Inter99 study (1999 – 2006) was a randomised intervention in the general population, aiming to prevent IHD by a healthier lifestyle. We included the whole study population, independent......Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...

  3. Psychological factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in the educational environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmeleva E.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships. The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments. The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers; the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers. Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment. Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the

  4. Ethical and psychological factors in 5S and total productive maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Ahmed Hama Kareem; Othman Abdul-Qader Hama Amin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of ethical and psychological factors in the implementation of 5S and TPM at cement plants in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed methods represented in a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews for data collection in the framework of the case study were chosen. The questionnaire survey already has been tested. Findings: The findings of this paper revealed that ethical factors had a l...

  5. Stress and Predicting Factors of Psychological Well-being among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introuduction: Stress is one of the major causes of many diseases. Adolescence is due to accompanied with puberty a period of stress and pressure and majority of them suffering of mental health problems. Methods: This study was performed among high school students in Tabriz during the 2013-2014. The sample of study consisted of 403 students in the all grades of 9-12. Four schools were randomly selected; then samples were randomly selected using cluster sampling with proportional allocation. GHQ-28, Oxford Happiness, General self-efficacy, Cohen’s perceived stress, Snyder’s Hopefulness and Diner life Satisfaction questionnaires were used to gather data. Results: Results indicated with an increase of stress scores odds of low psychological well-being increased by 27%. Also, 55% of girls and 46.3% of boys had high stress and stress was a predicting factor of psychological well-being and 62% had mental health problem. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated majority of students suffer from mental health problems and stress is one of the significant predicting factors of psychological well-being.

  6. [Factors associated with job satisfaction of human resources in healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Вежновець, Тетяна А; Парій, Валентин Д; Вишнивецький, Іван І; Москаленко, Максим В

    Healthcare employee satisfaction is an important criterion for the efficiency of human resource management and prognostic impact factor for high turnover of staff. Furthermore, job satisfaction positively affects patient satisfaction, which is an important indicator for quality of care. The goal of our study was to identify factors associated with job satisfaction in healthcare organizations in Ukraine. We conducted sociological and psychological survey of 190 healthcare professionals (81% response rate) in Kherson City Hospital. Job satisfaction and organizational climate was assessed through developed questionnaire, "Test Motype" method of Gerchikov (motivational profile designing) and "Diagnosis Syndrome emotional burnout" method of Boyko. Spearman rank correlation was used for analysis. Job satisfaction positively correlated with personnel age and time record, career prospects, professional development, superior-subordinate, peer-to-peer and patient communications (psatisfaction did not correlate with responsibility of executives, factors for satisfaction of job description, working conditions and range of wages (all p> 0.05). Based on findings we developed dual job satisfaction-dissatisfaction approach specific for healthcare employee in Ukraine. This model includes internal factors such as work experience, career prospects, professional motivation; external factors such as leadership, governance, work environment, customer satisfaction and preventive factors such as staff role, job description, company policies, salary and benefits.

  7. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AS PREDICTORS OF INJURIES AMONG SENIOR SOCCER PLAYERS. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ivarsson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is reported that between 65-91% of elite soccer players in Sweden have at least one injury per year. Several studies define different physiological and psychological factors affecting athletic injury-risk. A number of models contain proposals that specify relationships between psychological factors and an increased athletic injury-risk. Examples include Williams and Andersen's stress-injury model and Johnson and Ivarsson's empirical model of injury risk factors which proposes that factors such as trait anxiety and ineffective coping skills are influential. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between (a personality factors, b coping variables, and (c stress and injury risk. Participants were 48 male soccer players from 3 Swedish teams ranging in age from 16 to 36 years (M = 22 years. Participants completed 5 questionnaires: Football Worry Scale, Swedish universities Scales of Personality, Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes, Daily Hassle Scale and Brief COPE. Information on injuries was collected by athletic trainers of the teams over 3-months. Results suggest injury was significantly predicted by 4 personality trait predictors: somatic trait anxiety, psychic trait anxiety, stress susceptibility, and trait irritability. Collectively, the predictors self-blame and acceptance could explain 14.6% of injury occurrence. More injuries were reported among players who score high in daily hassles. These results support previous findings. Recommendations are given for both the athletes and the trainers on working to prevent sport injuries

  8. Psychologic factors are related to some sensory pain thresholds but not nociceptive flexion reflex threshold in chronic whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Michele; Hodkinson, Emily; Pettiford, Catherine; Souvlis, Tina; Curatolo, Michele

    2008-02-01

    Sensory hypersensitivity, central hyperexcitability [lowered nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) thresholds], and psychologic distress are features of chronic whiplash. However, relationships between these substrates are not clear. This study tested the hypothesis that psychologic distress and catastrophization are correlated with sensory hypersensitivity and NFR responses in chronic whiplash. Pressure and thermal pain thresholds (mean values across 3 body sites), NFR threshold, and pain at threshold Visual Analog Scale were measured in 30 participants with chronic whiplash and 30 asymptomatic controls. Pain and disability levels Neck Disability Index, psychologic distress (GHQ-28), and catastrophization (PCS) were also measured in the whiplash group. Whiplash injured participants demonstrated lowered pain thresholds to pressure and cold (Pthresholds (P=0.003), and demonstrated above threshold levels of psychologic distress (GHQ-28) and levels of catastrophization comparable with other musculoskeletal conditions. There were no group differences for heat pain thresholds or pain at NFR threshold. In the whiplash group, PCS scores correlated moderately with cold pain threshold (r=0.51, P=0.01). In contrast, there were no significant correlations between GHQ-28 scores and pain threshold measures or between psychologic factors and NFR responses in whiplash participants. There were no significant correlations between psychologic factors and pain thresholds or NFR responses in controls. We have demonstrated that psychologic factors have some association with sensory hypersensitivity (cold pain threshold measures) in chronic whiplash but do not seem to influence spinal cord excitability. This suggests that psychologic disorders are important, but not the only, determinants of central hypersensitivity in whiplash patients.

  9. Psychological factors of propensity for alcoholism (social anxiety, hostility, Machiavellianism in depressive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popinako A.V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of psychosocial models of alcoholism and depression the general and specific factors of occurrence and course of illness are identified in the present study. The authors put forward hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of activation of psychological addiction to alcohol as an ineffective coping strategy. The necessity of empirical research needed to refine the techniques and targets of patient care within the psychiatric and psychological care is justified. The results of the pilot study show that depressed patients who are subject to alcohol dependence feature marked distress in interpersonal relations, coupled with hostility and aim at gaining profit and pleasure by manipulating other people. These patients are hostile to others, while in interpersonal relationships personal safety is important to them, so they may be more likely to resort to manipulation. In their attitudes with respect to health the communication of these patients is characterized by hedonistic tendencies and histrionic traits in interpersonal contacts.

  10. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Gartrell, Nanette K; Peyser, Heidi; van Balen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by interviewing the children and having the mothers complete questionnaires. No significant differences were found in the psychological adjustment of children in the present study and their age-matched peers in a U.S.-population sample. Homophobia had a negative impact on the well-being of children who experienced it. Attending schools with LGBT curricula and their mothers' participation in the lesbian community were found to protect children against the negative influences of homophobia.

  11. Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE, respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p < .05 the variance of females’ EAT-26 scores, whereas BD, DPCE, fat percentage, age, ethnicity and competitive level significantly explained ( p < .05 the variance of risk behaviours for males’ ED. Thus, only BD influenced risk behaviours for ED in both sexes.

  12. Why human evolution should be a basic science for medicine and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2016-06-20

    Based on our teaching experience in medicine and psychology degree programs, we examine different aspects of human evolution that can help students to understand how the human body and mind work and why they are vulnerable to certain diseases. Three main issues are discussed: 1) the necessity to consider not only the mechanisms, i.e. the "proximate causations", implicated in biological processes but also why these mechanisms have evolved, i.e. the "ultimate causations" or "adaptive significance", to understand the functioning and malfunctioning of human body and mind; 2) examples of how human vulnerabilities to disease are caused by phylogenetic constraints, evolutionary tradeoffs reflecting the combined actions of natural and sexual selection, and/or mismatch between past and present environment (i.e., evolution of the eye, teeth and diets, erect posture and their consequences); 3) human pair-bonding and parent-offspring relationships as the result of socio-sexual selection and evolutionary compromises between cooperation and conflict. These psychobiological mechanisms are interwoven with our brain developmental plasticity and the effects of culture in shaping our behavior and mind, and allow a better understanding of functional (normal) and dysfunctional (pathological) behaviors. Thus, because the study of human evolution offers a powerful framework for clinical practice and research, the curriculum studiorum of medical and psychology students should include evolutionary biology and human phylogeny.

  13. Pilot study of the psychological factors in the professional health of managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingaev S.M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main research problems and tasks of a new scientific field in Russia—the psychology of professional health — are formulated. A definition of professional health as the abilities of a person successfully to cope with the demands and requirements in a professional environment is offered. A psychological vision for professional health with four basic provisions is proposed. The aim of the research was to study the extent of the influence on the professional health of managers of such psychological factors as systems of values, stress in professional activity, individual and psychological features, strategies for overcoming stressful situations. Data are provided from research conducted in 2002-2012 on managers in Russian companies. Taking part in the research were 651 managers of various organizations in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Veliky Novgorod, and Kharkov. For collecting empirical material on methods of supervision, I used polls, tests, interviews, content analysis, self-reports of participants in training programs, and a method for forming the experiment. In addition I employed psychodiagnostic techniques intended for studying the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of health, a technique for revealing the personal potentials (regulatory, communicative, intellectual of the managers, and also my own techniques. The study positively correlated health with such values as having interesting work, having a happy family life, being financially secure, having an active life, and giving and receiving love. Connections between the behavioral manifestations of type A behavior and the managers’ values were revealed. The greatest negative impact on the managers was made by such factors of professional activity as an excessive workload, emotional pressure at work, difficulty in carrying out activity, and insufficient time. Health is important in the structure of the professional activity of managers; it acts as a strategic

  14. Relationship between psychological factors and performance-based and self-reported disability in chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst Preuper, H.R.; Reneman, M.F.; Boonstra, Antje; Dijkstra, P.U.; Versteegen, G.J.; Geertzen, J.H.; Brouwer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cross sectional study, performed in an outpatient university based pain rehabilitation setting. To analyze the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial distress, depression, self efficacy, self-esteem, fear of movement, pain cognitions and coping reactions) and performance-based and

  15. Human Factors and IT Competitive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the system of relationships that may explain the impact of information technology (IT on competitive advantage. In this social and economic system, the study focuses on the human factors that play a key role in IT effectiveness. This is a first step to empirically specifying which human resources can complement the effect of IT on organizations. The paper revisits the main theoretical frameworks that can explain the research issue and proposes an empirical model to test the hypotheses. The results, obtained from a Data Envelopment Analysis, show that there are some human factors that positively affect the influence of IT utilization on competitive advantage. Nevertheless, other structural, industrial and internal factors may play an important role in the relationship.

  16. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  17. Assessing social capacity and vulnerability of private households to natural hazards - integrating psychological and governance factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werg, J.; Grothmann, T.; Schmidt, P.

    2013-06-01

    People are unequally affected by extreme weather events in terms of mortality, morbidity and financial losses; this is the case not only for developing, but also for industrialized countries. Previous research has established indicators for identifying who is particularly vulnerable and why, focusing on socio-demographic factors such as income, age, gender, health and minority status. However, these factors can only partly explain the large disparities in the extent to which people are affected by natural hazards. Moreover, these factors are usually not alterable in the short to medium term, which limits their usefulness for strategies of reducing social vulnerability and building social capacity. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we propose an approach for refining assessments of social vulnerability and building social capacity by integrating psychological and governance factors.

  18. Medical and psychological examination of women seeking asylum: documentation of human rights abuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, A; Patsalides, B

    1997-01-01

    Human rights abuses of women are ubiquitous throughout the world. Those perpetrated by governments entitle women to seek political asylum, and many women refugees do so in the United States. The asylum process often requires medical or psychological evaluations to corroborate women's reports of torture or other abuses. This article provides an overview of how to conduct such examinations and how to document findings for the asylum process.

  19. Information sciences and human factors overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee B.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  20. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live Bakke Finne

    Full Text Available Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2 were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect

  1. Factors impacting on psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Robinson, Eddie; Penman, Joy; Hills, Danny

    2017-06-17

    There are increasing numbers of international students undertaking health professional courses, particularly in Western countries. These courses not only expose students to the usual stresses and strains of academic learning, but also require students to undertake clinical placements and practice-based learning. While much is known about general issues facing international students, less is known about factors that impact on those studying in the health professions. To explore what is known about factors that influence the psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions. A scoping review. A range of databases were searched, including CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Proquest and ERIC, as well as grey literature, reference lists and Google Scholar. The review included qualitative or quantitative primary peer reviewed research studies that focused on international undergraduate or postgraduate students in the health professions. The core concept underpinning the review was psychological issues, with the outcome being psychological and/or social wellbeing. Thematic analysis across studies was used to identify key themes emerging. A total of 13 studies were included in the review, from the disciplines of nursing, medicine and speech-language pathology. Four key factor groups emerged from the review: negotiating structures and systems, communication and learning, quality of life and self-care, and facing discrimination and social isolation. International health professional students face similar issues to other international students. The nature of their courses, however, also requires negotiating different health care systems, and managing a range of clinical practice issues including with communication, and isolation and discrimination from clinical staff and patients. Further research is needed to specifically explore factors impacting on student well-being and how international students can be appropriately prepared and supported for their

  2. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  3. Analysis of Human Beings' Psychological Essence%浅析人的心理实质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞

    2012-01-01

    The problem about the psychological essence of the human beings is the basic problem of the psychological research, and the widely-accepted psychological essence is the Theory of Reflection which is questioned by many scholars in recent years. This paper reviews the history of the study about psychological essence of the human beings at home and abroad, introduces briefly the description and views of Theory of Reflection on the psychological essence, at the same time, it explores and analyzes the errors and shortcomings of the points of view and proposes the new points of view on the problem raised by scholars today.%人的心理实质问题是心理学研究所要解决的基本问题,目前心理学界公认的是反映论的心理实质观,但近年来不少学者对这一观点进行了反思,提出了质疑。本文回顾了国内外心理学界对人的心理实质问题的研究历史,简要介绍了反映论的心理实质观对该问题的论述和观点,进一步探讨和分析反映论的心理实质观的偏差和不足,阐述了当今学者在人的心理实质问题上提出的新观点。

  4. Work and neck pain: a prospective study of psychological, social, and mechanical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2010-10-01

    To determine the impact of occupational psychological/social and mechanical factors on neck pain, a prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 2 years was conducted with a sample of Norwegian employees. The following designs were tested: (i) cross-sectional analyses at baseline (n=4569) and follow-up (n=4122), (ii) prospective analyses with baseline predictors, (iii) prospective analyses with average exposure over time [(T1+T2)/2] as predictor, and (iv) prospective analyses with measures of change in exposure from T1 to T2 as predictors. A total of 2419 employees responded to both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire. Data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. After adjustment for age, sex, neck pain at T1, and other exposure factors that had been estimated to be confounders, the most consistent risk factors were role conflict (highest OR 2.97, 99% CI: 1.29-6.74) and working with arms raised to or above shoulder level (highest OR 1.37, 99% CI: 1.05-1.78). The most consistent protective factors were empowering leadership (lowest OR 0.53, 99% CI: 0.35-0.81) and decision control (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.36-1.00). Hence, psychological and social factors are important precursors of neck pain, along with mechanical factors. Although traditional factors such as quantitative demands and decision control play a part in the etiology of neck pain at work, in this study several new factors emerged as more important.

  5. Peptic Ulcer at the End of the 20th Century: Biological and Psychological Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Levenstein

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing concept of peptic ulcer etiology has swung over entirely in just a few years from the psychological to the infectious, yet the rich literature documenting an association between psychosocial factors and ulcer is not invalidated by the discovery of Helicobacter pylori. Physical and psychological stressors interact to induce ulcers in animal models, concrete life difficulties and subjective distress predict the development of ulcers in prospective cohorts, shared catastrophes such as war and earthquakes lead to surges in hospitalizations for complicated ulcers, and stress or anxiety can worsen ulcer course. Many known ulcer risk factors, including smoking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, heavy drinking, loss of sleep and skipping breakfast, can increase under stress; the association of low socioeconomic status with ulcer is also accounted for in part by psychosocial factors. Among possible physiological mechanisms, stress may induce gastric hypersecretion, reduce acid buffering in the stomach and the duodenum, impair gastroduodenal blood flow, and affect healing or inflammation through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Psychosocial factors seem to be particularly prominent among idiopathic or complicated ulcers, but they are probably operative in run of the mill H pylori disease as well, either through additive effects or by facilitating the spread of the organism across the pylorus, while gastrointestinal damage by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can also be potentiated by stress. Although the clinical importance of peptic ulcer is fading along with the millenium, due to secular trends and new therapies, it remains worthy of study as a splendid example of the biopsychosocial model.

  6. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dziechciaż

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  7. Human genetic factors in tuberculosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tong, Hoang; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Thye, Thorsten; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to human health, especially in many developing countries. Human genetic variability has been recognised to be of great relevance in host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and in regulating both the establishment and the progression of the disease. An increasing number of candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have focused on human genetic factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to TB. To update previous reviews on human genetic factors in TB we searched the MEDLINE database and PubMed for articles from 1 January 2014 through 31 March 2017 and reviewed the role of human genetic variability in TB. Search terms applied in various combinations were 'tuberculosis', 'human genetics', 'candidate gene studies', 'genome-wide association studies' and 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis'. Articles in English retrieved and relevant references cited in these articles were reviewed. Abstracts and reports from meetings were also included. This review provides a recent summary of associations of polymorphisms of human genes with susceptibility/resistance to TB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosenkov A.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.

  9. Social, Psychological, and Environmental-Structural Factors Associated with Tobacco Experimentation among Adolescents in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Qiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and social, psychological and environmental-structural determinants of tobacco experimentation among adolescents in Shanghai, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a two-stage cluster sample design by using the Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS to investigate smoking behavior among 19,117 students from 41 junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China. The association between potential factors and tobacco experimentation were assessed using complex samples procedure logistic regression. Results: Of the 19,117 respondents, 10.5% (15.3% boys and 6.2% girls reported the tobacco experimentation. The main social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors associated with tobacco experimentation were having close friends who smoke (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 6.49–10.39; one or both parents smoking (AOR 1.57; CI: 1.39–1.77; a poor school tobacco control environment (AOR 1.53; CI: 1.37–1.83; a high acceptance level of tobacco use (AOR 1.44; CI: 1.28–1.82; and a high level of media tobacco exposure (AOR 1.23; CI: 1.10–1.37. Peer smoking might contribute to smoking experimentation among girls (AOR 8.93; CI: 5.84–13.66 more so than among boys (AOR 7.79; CI: 5.97–9.94 and media tobacco exposure had no association with tobacco experimentation among female students. Conclusions: Social, psychological, and environmental factors are closely associated with tobacco experimentation among adolescents. Prevention programs aimed at reducing teen tobacco experimentation should be conducted at home and school with support by parents, peers and teachers. Our findings should prove useful for future development of intervention strategies among adolescents in Shanghai, China.

  10. How Social Psychological Factors May Modulate Auditory and Cognitive Functioning During Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The framework for understanding effortful listening (FUEL) draws on psychological theories of cognition and motivation. In the present article, theories of social-cognitive psychology are related to the FUEL. Listening effort is defined in our consensus as the deliberate allocation of mental resources to overcome obstacles in goal pursuit when carrying out a task that involves listening. Listening effort depends not only on hearing difficulties and task demands but also on the listener's motivation to expend mental effort in challenging situations. Listeners' cost/benefit evaluations involve appraisals of listening demands, their own capacity, and the importance of listening goals. Social psychological factors can affect a listener's actual and self-perceived auditory and cognitive abilities, especially when those abilities may be insufficient to readily meet listening demands. Whether or not listeners experience stress depends not only on how demanding a situation is relative to their actual abilities but also on how they appraise their capacity to meet those demands. The self-perception or appraisal of one's abilities can be lowered by poor self-efficacy or negative stereotypes. Stress may affect performance in a given situation and chronic stress can have deleterious effects on many aspects of health, including auditory and cognitive functioning. Social support can offset demands and mitigate stress; however, the burden of providing support may stress the significant other. Some listeners cope by avoiding challenging situations and withdrawing from social participation. Extending the FUEL using social-cognitive psychological theories may provide valuable insights into how effortful listening could be reduced by adopting health-promoting approaches to rehabilitation.

  11. The influence of psychological factors on the outcomes of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Marty

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors play a role in a variety of gastrointestinal illness, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Their impact on the surgical outcomes of antireflux surgery is unknown. Methods This is a single institution prospective controlled trial, comparing patients undergoing a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication for GERD (LNF Group, n = 17 to patients undergoing an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary colic (Control Group, n = 10. All patients had a psychological assessment before surgery, at 3 months and 6 months after surgery (i.e. Symptom CheckList-90-R somatization subset (SCL-90-R, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, Anxiety sensitivity index, Illness attitude scale and Beck Depression Inventory II. GERD symptoms were recorded in the LNF Group using a standardized questionnaire (score 0–60. Patients with post-operative GERD symptoms score above 12 at 6 months were evaluated specifically. Statistical analysis was performed using a Student T test, and statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results There was no significant difference in preoperative and postoperative psychological assessment between the two groups. In the LNF Group, 7 patients had persisting GERD symptoms at 6 months (GERD score greater than 12. The preoperative SCL-90-R score was also significantly higher in this subgroup, when compared to the rest of the LNF Group (18.2 versus 8.3, p Conclusion The SCL-90-R Somatization Subset, reflecting the level of somatization in a patient, may be useful to predict poor outcomes after antireflux surgery. Cognisance of psychological disorders could improve the selection of an optimal treatment for GERD and help reduce the rate of ongoing symptoms after LNF.

  12. Subjective symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome correlate more with psychological factors than electrophysiological severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firosh Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and is one of the most common requests for electrodiagnosis. We aimed to note the relationship of subjective symptom severity of CTS, with objective electrophysiological severity and psychological status of patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients of CTS referred to neurophysiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital over 1 year were prospectively studied. Boston CTS Assessment Questionnaire (BCTSAQ and visual analog scale (VAS were used to assess subjective symptom severity. Psychological status was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Electrophysiological severity of CTS was estimated by median motor distal latency and median to ulnar peak sensory latency difference across the wrist. Each parameter in both hands was scored from 0 to 3 depending on the severity grade, and a composite electrophysiological severity score (CEPSS was calculated for each patient by summing up the scores in both hands. Statistical analysis was done by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: There was significant correlation of BCTSAQ with VAS (P = 0.001, HADS anxiety score (P < 0.001, and HADS depression score (P = 0.01. CEPSS had no significant correlation with VAS (P = 0.103, HADS anxiety score (P = 0.211, or HADS depression score (P = 0.55. CEPSS had a borderline correlation with BCTSAQ (P = 0.048. Conclusions: While the subjective symptoms of CTS are well correlated with psychological factors, their correlation with objective electrophysiological severity is weak. Hence, prompt treatment of psychological comorbidity is important in symptomatic management of CTS; decision about surgical intervention should be based on electrophysiological severity rather than symptom severity.

  13. Runway Incursion: Human Factors In Runway Incursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    R. S., & Harbeson, M. M. (1981). Effects of Extended Practice on Dual-Task Tracking Performance. Human Factors, 23(5), 627- 631. David , H. (1997...investigated, and test results obtained from the installation at Long Beach airport. Edwards, V., Daskalakis, A. C., Oswald, L. J., Brading , J

  14. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Witt, Regina R.; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care. PMID:27242567

  15. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care.

  16. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE CONSUMER’S INTENTION TO USE E- COMMERCE: A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Al-dalahmeh; Ali Salman Saleh

    2007-01-01

    There is a need in the literature for an application of the well known social cognitive theory in the area of e-commerce. Hence, this paper develops and models a theoretical framework to study the impact of psychological factors based on the social cognitive theory on the intention to use e-commerce. More specifically, the paper examines the role of individuals’ beliefs about their abilities towards the intention to use e-commerce technology (e-commerce self-efficacy). A conceptual model, bas...

  17. Association of Psychological Factors to Alcohol Consumption Behavior among U.S. College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladunni Oluwoye

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores college students’ alcohol consumption behavior and evaluates theeffect of different psychological factors on consumption patterns. Randomly selectedstudents from two different universities completed surveys with perceived scales for stress,self esteem and anxiety and an alcohol consumption questionnaire. Non-parametricanalyses suggests that low self esteem, higher stress and anxiety level and younger ageincrease the likelihood of drinking alcohol. These findings were consistent between bothuniversities. These findings have important implications for the selection of appropriateinterventional strategies and health education among college populations.

  18. Individual psychological and social risk factors for violent criminal behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova A.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the risk factors for criminal aggression in adolescents with an organic mental disorder depending on the level of social deviations or severity of pathopsychological factor. The study involved 113 male adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. The main group consisted of juvenile offenders with organic mental disorder. We used the methods of investigation to determine the individual psychological characteristics, we also used structured risk assessment methods. It is shown that risk factors for criminal aggressive behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder are a high level of proactive and reactive aggression, combined with underdeveloped mechanisms deter aggressive intentions. With the increase of organic disease, these features become more stable. An important role in shaping the aggressive criminal behavior plays an unsuccessful social environment. Interfamily problems, social deprivation, learning difficulties, communication in antisocial groups and substance abuse - all this increases the risk of aggressive illegal actions.

  19. Society of Pediatric Psychology Workforce Survey: Factors Related to Compensation of Pediatric Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, Cheryl L; Hilliard, Marisa E; Williams, Andre; Armstrong, F Daniel; Christidis, Peggy; Kichler, Jessica; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Stamm, Karen E; Wysocki, Tim

    2017-05-01

    To summarize compensation results from the 2015 Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) Workforce Survey and identify factors related to compensation of pediatric psychologists. All full members of SPP ( n  = 1,314) received the online Workforce Survey; 404 (32%) were returned with usable data. The survey assessed salary, benefits, and other income sources. The relationship between demographic and employment-related factors and overall compensation was explored.   Academic rank, level of administrative responsibility, and cost of living index of employment location were associated with compensation. Compensation did not vary by gender; however, women were disproportionately represented at the assistant and associate professor level. Compensation of pediatric psychologists is related to multiple factors. Longitudinal administration of the Workforce Survey is needed to determine changes in compensation and career advancement for this profession over time. Strategies to increase the response rate of future Workforce Surveys are discussed.

  20. Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers. Risk factors for negative changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzunov, V O; Loganovsky, K N; Krasnikova, L I; Bomko, M O; Belyaev, Yu M; Yaroshenko, Zh S; Domashevska, T Ye

    2016-12-01

    It is generally recognized that the Chornobyl nuclear accident caused strong psychosocial stress affecting the entire population of Ukraine, primarily people involved in recovery operations. But what are the reasons? What is the struc ture of stressors? What are their social, medical and biological consequences, what are strategy and preventive meas ures? Issues that require special research and development. To study social and psychological state of the Chornobyl cleanup workers 1986-1987, and to determine regularities of changes and dangerous risk factors. On the basis of Polyclinic of Radiation Registry, NRCRM, we conducted sample epidemiolog ical study of social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987. We used method of inter viewing based on «questionnaire», specially developed for this purpose. The study was conducted in October 2013 - May 2015. The sample numbered 235 males aged 18-50 at the time of the accident. Their average age was (31.3 ± 5.3) years at the time of the accident and (58.9 ± 5.3) at the time of survey. The results revealed that the Chornobyl nuclear accident and its consequences caused strong social and psychological stress among clean up workers 1986-1987. We have identified a set of factors closely related to the Chornobyl accident, they have caused a sustainable development of mental syndrome - «Anxiety about their own health and the health of family members, especially children». The other set of stressors which are not closely relat ed to the Chornobyl accident but are the result of the social and economic, social and political situation in the coun try. However the former was found to be the cause of such a psychological state as «dissatisfaction with the com pleteness and quality of life». Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987 is estimated as «poor» and it integrally can be characterized as a state of chronic psychosocial stress. Mental syndrome

  1. "Artificial humans": Psychology and neuroscience perspectives on embodiment and nonverbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary

    2010-01-01

    "Artificial humans", so-called "Embodied Conversational Agents" and humanoid robots, are assumed to facilitate human-technology interaction referring to the unique human capacities of interpersonal communication and social information processing. While early research and development in artificial intelligence (AI) focused on processing and production of natural language, the "new AI" has also taken into account the emotional and relational aspects of communication with an emphasis both on understanding and production of nonverbal behavior. This shift in attention in computer science and engineering is reflected in recent developments in psychology and social cognitive neuroscience. This article addresses key challenges which emerge from the goal to equip machines with socio-emotional intelligence and to enable them to interpret subtle nonverbal cues and to respond to social affordances with naturally appearing behavior from both perspectives. In particular, we propose that the creation of credible artificial humans not only defines the ultimate test for our understanding of human communication and social cognition but also provides a unique research tool to improve our knowledge about the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms.

  2. Placebo and Nocebo Effects: The Advantage of Measuring Expectations and Psychological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Nicole; Colloca, Luana

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have explored the predictability of placebo and nocebo individual responses by investigating personality factors and expectations of pain decreases and increases. Psychological factors such as optimism, suggestibility, empathy and neuroticism have been linked to placebo effects, while pessimism, anxiety and catastrophizing have been associated to nocebo effects. We aimed to investigate the interplay between psychological factors, expectations of low and high pain and placebo hypoalgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia. We studied 46 healthy participants using a well-validated conditioning paradigm with contact heat thermal stimulations. Visual cues were presented to alert participants about the level of intensity of an upcoming thermal pain. We delivered high, medium and low levels of pain associated with red, yellow and green cues, respectively, during the conditioning phase. During the testing phase, the level of painful stimulations was surreptitiously set at the medium control level with all the three cues to measure placebo and nocebo effects. We found both robust placebo hypolagesic and nocebo hyperalgesic responses that were highly correlated with expectancy of low and high pain. Simple linear regression analyses showed that placebo responses were negatively correlated with anxiety severity and different aspects of fear of pain (e.g., medical pain, severe pain). Nocebo responses were positively correlated with anxiety sensitivity and physiological suggestibility with a trend toward catastrophizing. Step-wise regression analyses indicated that an aggregate score of motivation (value/utility and pressure/tense subscales) and suggestibility (physiological reactivity and persuadability subscales), accounted for the 51% of the variance in the placebo responsiveness. When considered together, anxiety severity, NEO openness-extraversion and depression accounted for the 49.1% of the variance of the nocebo responses. Psychological factors per se did not

  3. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, Monday N; Bakare, Muideen O; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Onyeama, Gabriel M; Okonkwo, Kevin O

    2010-06-13

    Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire were administered to the students. The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67+/-3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24+/-3.24, 10.76+/-3.50 and 9.01+/-3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p=0.000), domain 3 (p=0.029), domain 4 (p=0.000) and total score (p=0.000), with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p=0.769). The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r=0.319, p=0.000) and the number of weeks of posting in paediatrics (r=0.372, p=0

  4. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    When planning for control room upgrades, nuclear power plants have to deal with a multitude of engineering and operational impacts. This will inevitably include several human factors considerations, including physical ergonomics of workstations, viewing angles, lighting, seating, new communication requirements, and new concepts of operation. In helping nuclear power utilities to deal with these challenges, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed effective methods to manage the various phases of the upgrade life cycle. These methods focus on integrating human factors engineering processes with the plant’s systems engineering process, a large part of which is the development of end-state concepts for control room modernization. Such an end-state concept is a description of a set of required conditions that define the achievement of the plant’s objectives for the upgrade. Typically, the end-state concept describes the transition of a conventional control room, over time, to a facility that employs advanced digital automation technologies in a way that significantly improves system reliability, reduces human and control room-related hazards, reduces system and component obsolescence, and significantly improves operator performance. To make the various upgrade phases as concrete and as visible as possible, an end-state concept would include a set of visual representations of the control room before and after various upgrade phases to provide the context and a framework within which to consider the various options in the upgrade. This includes the various control systems, human-system interfaces to be replaced, and possible changes to operator workstations. This paper describes how this framework helps to ensure an integrated and cohesive outcome that is consistent with human factors engineering principles and also provide substantial improvement in operator performance. The paper further describes the application of this integrated approach in the

  5. The Model of Unreliable Elements (Human Resources) Intellectual Management System on the Basis of Their Psychological and Personal Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabtsev, Timofey; Antonova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The Article suggests a possible approach to creation of the Intellectual Management System for human resources and personnel (during their professional tasks solving), and that could consider personal characteristics and psychological condition of the human resources as an “unreliable” element. The Article describes some elements of the Intellectual Management System: professional activity model and “unreliable” element (human resources) model.

  6. The dating mind: evolutionary psychology and the emerging science of human courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, Nathan; Miklousic, Igor

    2012-12-20

    In the New York Times bestselling book The Game: Penetrating the Secret Society of Pickup Artists (2006), the world was granted its first exclusive introduction to the steadily growing dating coach and pick-up artist community. Many of its most prominent authorities claim to use insights and information gleaned both through first-hand experience as well as empirical research in evolutionary psychology. One of the industry's most well-respected authorities, the illusionist Erik von Markovik, promotes a three-phase model of human courtship: Attraction, building mutual Comfort and Trust, and Seduction. The following review argues that many of these claims are in fact grounded in solid empirical findings from social, physiological and evolutionary psychology. Two texts which represent much of this literature are critiqued and their implications discussed.

  7. An approach to integrate the human vision psychology and perception knowledge into image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Xifeng; Ping, Jiang

    2009-07-01

    Image enhancement is very important image preprocessing technology especially when the image is captured in the poor imaging condition or dealing with the high bits image. The benefactor of image enhancement either may be a human observer or a computer vision process performing some kind of higher-level image analysis, such as target detection or scene understanding. One of the main objects of the image enhancement is getting a high dynamic range image and a high contrast degree image for human perception or interpretation. So, it is very necessary to integrate either empirical or statistical human vision psychology and perception knowledge into image enhancement. The human vision psychology and perception claims that humans' perception and response to the intensity fluctuation δu of visual signals are weighted by the background stimulus u, instead of being plainly uniform. There are three main laws: Weber's law, Weber- Fechner's law and Stevens's Law that describe this phenomenon in the psychology and psychophysics. This paper will integrate these three laws of the human vision psychology and perception into a very popular image enhancement algorithm named Adaptive Plateau Equalization (APE). The experiments were done on the high bits star image captured in night scene and the infrared-red image both the static image and the video stream. For the jitter problem in the video stream, this algorithm reduces this problem using the difference between the current frame's plateau value and the previous frame's plateau value to correct the current frame's plateau value. Considering the random noise impacts, the pixel value mapping process is not only depending on the current pixel but the pixels in the window surround the current pixel. The window size is usually 3×3. The process results of this improved algorithms is evaluated by the entropy analysis and visual perception analysis. The experiments' result showed the improved APE algorithms improved the quality of the

  8. Imaging the structure of the human anxious brain: a review of findings from neuroscientific personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Markett, Sebastian; Panksepp, Jaak

    2013-01-01

    The emotion of anxiety represents one of the most studied topics in the neurosciences, in part due to its relevance for understanding the evolutionary development of the human brain and its role in the pathogenesis of psychopathological conditions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) has enabled mapping of the anxious human brain and has contributed substantially to the understanding of anxiety. Alongside the fields of clinical psychology/psychiatry, personality psychology aims to support the research endeavor of mapping the anxious brain and has found that individual differences in anxiety-related personality dimensions such as Neuroticism or Harm Avoidance (measured by self-report) are correlated with gray and white matter volumes in different areas of the human brain. This review reveals that structures including parts of the frontal cortex (e.g., the orbitofrontal cortex) and the temporal lobe (e.g., the hippocampus) are often associated with trait anxiety, and it points out the inconsistencies that exist in the personality-sMRI literature on human anxiety. Consequently, we suggest new research strategies to overcome the inconsistencies. This review outlines how results from animal research can guide scientists in developing testable hypotheses in search of the anxious brain. Moreover, genetic imaging is presented as an interesting approach to mapping the anxious brain.

  9. The role of psychological factors in the career of the independent dancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imogen eAujla

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that psychological factors such as motivation and mental skills play an important role in relation to performance and to negotiating talent development stages. However, little is known about these factors in dance, particularly with regard to the independent dancer whose career may involve multiple roles, varied work patterns and periods of instability. The aim of this study was to explore dancers’ motivation to work in an independent capacity, and the extent to which dancers’ psychological characteristics and skills enabled them to navigate a career in this demanding sector. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 dancers at different stages of their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the dancers were intrinsically motivated and highly committed to the profession. Working in the independent sector offered dancers opportunities for growth and fulfillment; they appreciated the autonomy, flexibility and freedom that the independent career afforded, as well as working with new people across roles and disciplines. In order to overcome the various challenges associated with the independent role, optimism, self-belief, social support and career management skills were crucial. The mental skills reported by the participants had developed gradually in response to the demands that they faced. Therefore, mental skills training could be invaluable for dancers to help them successfully negotiate the independent sector.

  10. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Hildegard M. [Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.

  11. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegard M. Schuller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.

  12. [Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: brief review of the main associated psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, I; Pérez-Marín, M; Montoya-Castilla, I

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a widespread chronic disease among children and adolescents. Diagnosis and evolution usually involves a significant burden on the patient, and their families must change various aspects of their lifestyle to fulfill the demands of treatment. This study aims to identify the main psychological, family, and adjustment to illness features of children and adolescents diagnosed with DM1 and, in particular to highlight the associated psychopathological factors. The methodology involved a systematic literature search in the main scientific databases. Due to the biopsychosocial impact of DM1 usually assumed in the life of the child and family, and how it may compromise the quality of life and emotional well-being of both, different studies have agreed on the importance of identifying the set of psychological factors involved in healthy adjustment to illness in the child and adolescent with DM1. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Dementia worry and its relationship to dementia exposure, psychological factors, and subjective memory concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzer, Adrianna; Suhr, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    With increased societal awareness of dementia, older adults show increased concern about developing dementia, leading to misidentification of aging-related cognitive glitches as signs of dementia. While some researchers have suggested self-reported cognitive concerns accurately identify older adults with early signs of dementia, there is evidence that subjective cognitive decline is not associated with objective cognitive performance and instead reflects psychological factors consistent with models of health anxiety, including dementia worry. We examined the construct of dementia worry and its relationship to subjective memory concerns in 100 older adults (Mage = 69 years) without signs of dementia, using a recently developed measure of dementia worry. Consistent with hypotheses, dementia worry was related to exposure to dementia, having a high number of depressive or general worry symptoms, and having more memory concerns. Exposure to dementia moderated the relationship of dementia worry to depression and general worry. Furthermore, dementia worry moderated the relationship of objective memory impairment to subjective memory ratings. The results provide further evidence of the role of psychological factors such as dementia worry in subjective memory report and emphasize the need for objective cognitive testing before making determinations about dementia in older adults expressing memory concerns.

  14. Financial crisis and collapsed banks: psychological distress and work related factors among surviving employees--a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorradóttir, Ásta; Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar; Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjörg Linda; Tómasson, Kristinn

    2013-09-01

    The study considered psychological distress among surviving bank employees differently entangled in downsizing and restructuring following the financial crisis of 2008. A cross-sectional, nationwide study was conducted among surviving employees (N = 1880, response rate 68%). Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess factors associated with psychological distress. In the banks, where all employees experienced rapid and unpredictable organizational changes, psychological distress was higher among employees most entangled in the downsizing and restructuring process. Being subjected to downsizing within own department, salary cut, and transfer to another department, was directly related to increased psychological distress, controlling for background factors. The associations between downsizing, restructuring, and distress were reduced somewhat by adding job demands, job control, and empowering leadership to the model, however, adding social support had little effect on these associations. Employees most entangled in organizational changes are the most vulnerable and should be prioritized in workplace interventions during organizational changes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.

  16. The influence of psychological and social factors on market behaviour of young consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kicińska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research concerning the influence of psychological and social factors on market behaviour of young consumers in Poland and in the world. The research confirms that children and the youth constitute a separate market group and the age determines their market independence. Making decisions regarding purchase of goods young consumers tend to ask for help those whom they rely on, which is connected with their small market experience. The need to do market shopping is mainly influenced by the feeling of lack of young people and then parents’ suggestions and peers’ advice. Young consumers buy goods also on impulse. It regards mainly comestibles. Fashion is the most important for children and the youth in case of clothing articles and shoes. The factor of market novelty is not a determinant of a big importance in the choice of goods purchased by children and the youth.

  17. Beyond Negative Pain-Related Psychological Factors: Resilience Is Related to Lower Pain Affect in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington, Kasey S; Cheng, Joshua C; Bosma, Rachael L; Rogachov, Anton; Kim, Junseok A; Davis, Karen D

    2017-09-01

    Resilience, a characteristic that enhances adaptation in response to stressful events, is a positive psychological factor that can predict and modulate health outcomes. However, resilience is rarely considered in pain research. Conversely, negative psychological factors (eg, anxiety, depression) are known to be related to the affective dimension of pain. It is critical to understand all potential psychological drivers of pain affect, a prominent component of chronic pain. We tested the hypothesis that higher resilience is associated with lower pain affect, above and beyond the predictive value of negative psychological factors. Healthy adults underwent psychophysical testing to acquire ratings of heat pain intensity and unpleasantness and completed the Resilience Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait form), Beck Depression Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Vigilance and Attention Questionnaire. Multiple regression modeling (n = 68) showed resilience to be a negatively associated with pain affect (unpleasantness). Furthermore, in individuals with higher anxiety scores, resilience was protective against higher pain affect. This highlights the importance of resilience, a positive psychological factor, in the affective dimension of pain. This study is the first to assess a positive psychological factor and experimental pain affect, and has the potential to improve prediction of and treatment strategies for clinical pain. We report that resilience, a positive psychological factor, interacts with anxiety and is associated with heat pain affect (unpleasantness) in healthy individuals. Resilience may provide predictive value of chronic pain affect and treatment outcomes, and could be a target for behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  19. MARINE ACCIDENTS RESEARCHED THROUGH HUMAN FACTOR PRISMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav M Ćorović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We are aware of a large number of marine accidents that result in numerous casualties and even deaths and substantial negative environmental effects. The objective of this paper is to indicate factors that contribute to human errors which is identified as the most frequent cause to marine accidents. Despite rapid technological development and safety legislation, this paper identifies the human factor as the waekest link in maritime safety system. This analysis could lead to decrease of vessel accidents. In addition, starting from the European Maritime Safety Agency data and by linear regression model application, we have obtained the trend of number of ships involved in marine accidents as well as the trend of lives lost in marine accidents  in and around European Union waters.

  20. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, William T.

    1992-01-01

    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  1. Nationwide firefighter survey: the prevalence of lower back pain and its related psychological factors among Korean firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Gi; Seo, Ju-Il; Kim, KyooSang; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2016-09-02

    The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of lower back pain (LBP) and clarify the effect of work-related psychological factors on LBP. Nationwide survey data collected from male Korean firefighters (FIFS) were used. To identify the risk factors (work-related psychological factors such as job stress and depression) affecting LBP, the χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. The prevalence of LBP was 19.3% and was highest in the emergency medical service (31.8%) part of FF job types. Within job stress, an uncomfortable physical environment, high mental job demand and organizational injustice were associated with LBP. However, inadequate social support inversely associated with LBP. Depression and high-risk alcohol drinking were related to LBP. LBP was closely related to job stress, depression and alcohol intake. Proper interventions of psychological factors should therefore be addressed to control LBP in FIFS.

  2. Canadian Ranger Rifle: Human Factors Requirements Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    nation building through programs such as the Junior Canadian Rangers ( JCR )6. Other tasks of the CR include providing local expertise, guidance, and...Requirements FN Fabrique Nationale HF Human Factors HSI Humansystems® Incorporated JCR Junior Canadian Rangers MOTS Military off the Shelf NATO...support the Junior Canadian Rangers ( JCR ) Program, which helps to achieve national and territorial goals through nation building. DEFICIENCY

  3. HSE management excellence: a Human Factors approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Theobald

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Present work discusses the integration of Human Factors in Health, Safety and Enviroment(HSE Management System allowing it as a way of checking the progress obtained, therebyminimizing the efforts and maximizing the result. A bibliographical research was carried outon the theoretical elements of the theme. As a result of this work, a proposal “conceptualstructure” for the integration of “Humais Factors” with the HSE management system ofAssociation of Oil & Gas Produces was presented.

  4. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    AA NUREG -0711,Rev. 2 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model 20081009191 I i m To] Bi U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of...Material As of November 1999, you may electronically access NUREG -series publications and other NRC records at NRC’s Public Electronic Reading Room at...http://www.nrc.qov/readinq-rm.html. Publicly released records include, to name a few, NUREG -series publications; Federal Register notices; applicant

  5. Human factors by descent energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes some of the results of a human factors study of energy management during descent using standard aircraft displays. Discussions with pilots highlighted the practical constraints involved and the techniques (algorithms) used to accomplish the descent. The advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms are examined with respect to workload and their sensitivity to disturbances. Vertical navigation and flight performance computers are discussed in terms of the information needed for effective pilot monitoring and takeover

  6. Addressing Human Factors Gaps in Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    network attack graphs. Paper presented at the IEEE Workshop on Visualization for Computer Security , Minneapolis, MN. Roberts, J.C. (2007). State of...Cyber security is a high-ranking national priority that is only likely to grow as we become more dependent on cyber systems. From a research perspective...Cyber security , cyber operations, human factors 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 5 19a

  7. Human factors for a sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Current human activities are seriously eroding the ability of natural and social systems to cope. Clearly we cannot continue along our current path without seriously damaging our own ability to survive as a species. This problem is usually framed as one of sustainability. As concerned professionals, citizens, and humans there is a strong collective will to address what we see as a failure to protect the natural and social environments that supports us. While acknowledging that we cannot do this alone, human factors and ergonomics needs to apply its relevant skills and knowledge to assist where it can in addressing the commonly identified problem areas. These problems include pollution, climate change, renewable energy, land transformation, and social unrest amongst numerous other emerging global problems. The issue of sustainability raises two fundamental questions for human factors and ergonomics: which system requires sustaining and what length of time is considered sustainable? In this paper we apply Wilson (2014) parent-sibling-child model to understanding what is required of an HFE sustainability response. This model is used to frame the papers that appear in this Special Issue.

  8. Space Station crew safety - Human factors model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  9. Public skepticism of psychology: why many people perceive the study of human behavior as unscientific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2012-01-01

    Data indicate that large percentages of the general public regard psychology's scientific status with considerable skepticism. I examine 6 criticisms commonly directed at the scientific basis of psychology (e.g., psychology is merely common sense, psychology does not use scientific methods, psychology is not useful to society) and offer 6 rebuttals. I then address 8 potential sources of public skepticism toward psychology and argue that although some of these sources reflect cognitive errors (e.g., hindsight bias) or misunderstandings of psychological science (e.g., failure to distinguish basic from applied research), others (e.g., psychology's failure to police itself, psychology's problematic public face) reflect the failure of professional psychology to get its own house in order. I offer several individual and institutional recommendations for enhancing psychology's image and contend that public skepticism toward psychology may, paradoxically, be one of our field's strongest allies.

  10. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales: The Expanded Format as an Alternative to the Likert Scale Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format,…

  11. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  12. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  13. The effect of human resource practices on psychological contracts at an iron ore mining company in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Scheepers

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Human resource practices influence the psychological contract between employee and employer and, ultimately, organisational performance. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of human resource practices on the types of psychological contracts in an iron ore mining company in South Africa empirically. Motivation for the study: Although there have been a number of conceptual studies on the effect of human resource practices on psychological contracts, there has been no effort to synthesise the links between these contracts and various human resource practices systematically. This study endeavoured to provide quantitative evidence to verify or refute conceptual studies on this relationship. Its findings could inform human resource strategies and, ultimately, the prioritisation of human resource practices to improve the cost-effective allocation of resources.Research design, approach and method: The researchers administered two questionnaires. These were Rousseau’s Psychological Contract Inventory (2000 and the Human Resource Practices Scale of Geringer, Colette and Milliman (2002. The researchers conducted the study with 936 knowledge workers at an iron ore mining company in South Africa. They achieved a 32% response rate.Main findings: The findings showed that most participants have relational contracts with the organisation. Another 22% have balanced contracts, 8% have transitional contracts whilst only 1% have transactional contracts. The study suggests that there are relationships between these psychological contracts and specific human resource practices. The study found that training and development was the most important human resource practice for developing relational and balanced contracts. Employees thought that they contributed more than their employer did to the relationship. The researchers developed a model to illustrate the influence of the various human resource practices on

  14. Human epidermal growth factor and the proliferation of human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, G; Cohen, S

    1976-06-01

    The effect of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), a 5,400 molecular weight polypeptide isolated from human urine, on the growth of human foreskin fibroblasts (HF cells) was studied by measuring cell numbers and the incorporation of labeled thymidine. The addition of hEGF to HF cells growing in a medium containing 10% calf serum resulted in a 4-fold increase in the final density. The presence of hEGF also promoted the growth of HF cells in media containing either 1% calf serum or 10% gamma globulin-free serum. The addition of hEGF to quiescent confluent monolayers of HF cells, maintained in a medium with 1% calf serum for 48 hours, resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in the amount of 3H-thymidine incorporation after 20-24 hours. The stimulation of thymidine incorporation was maximal at an hEGF concentration of 2 ng/ml, was dependent on the presence of serum, and was enhanced by the addition of ascorbic acid. In confluent cultures of HF cells, subject to density dependent inhibition of growth, hEGF was able to stimulate DNA synthesis more effectively than fresh calf serum. Human EGF stimulated DNA synthesis in quiescent cultures, however, regardless of cell density. The addition of rabbit anti-hEGF inhibited all effects of this growth factor on HF cells.

  15. [Human origin and evolution. A review of advances in paleoanthropology, comparative genetics, and evolutionary psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, A V

    2009-01-01

    In his main work, "On the origin of species", Darwin has refrained from discusion of the origin of man; be only mentioned that his theory would "throw light" on this problem. This famous Darwin's phrase turned out to be one of the most succesful scientific predictions. In the present paper some of the most important recent adavnces in paleoanthroplogy, comparative genetics and evolutionary psychology are reviewed. These three disciplines currently contribute most to our knowledge of anthropogenesis. The review demonstrates that Darwin's ideas not only "threw light" on human origin and evolution; they provided a comprehensive framework for a great variety of studies concerning different aspects of anthropogenesis.

  16. Correlations Between Quality of Life and Psychological Factors in Patients With Chronic Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Fong Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL and associated factors in patients with chronic neck pain (CNP. The HRQOL of patients with CNP was assessed by the Short Form-36 questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. To evaluate the psychological factors related to HRQOL, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Chinese Health Questionnaire, and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. The scores for the eight subscales of Short Form-36 were all lower than the Taiwanese age-matched normative values (p < 0.001. The two most strongly affected subscales were the role–physical subscale and the bodily pain sub-scale; both scores were below half the score of the age-/sex-matched normative values. The physical components summary score, a summary measure, was moderately correlated with age (ρ = −0.43, education level (ρ = 0.37 and Beck Anxiety Inventory score (ρ = −0.36. The mental components summary score was moderately to highly correlated with the Chinese Health Questionnaire score (ρ = −0.72, the neuroticism domain of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (ρ = −0.52 and Beck Anxiety Inventory score (ρ = −0.41. The HRQOL of patients with CNP was worse than that of normal subjects across all domains. Furthermore, patients with a neurotic personality, minor psychiatric morbidity and higher anxiety status showed poor mental health, as measured by the Short Form-36. We found that patients with CNP had multiple physical and mental health problems in terms of. The mental health of patients with CNP was strongly associated with various psychological factors. Comprehensive assessment of the physical and mental functioning of patients with CNP can improve the management and care of these patients.

  17. Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, V L

    2014-03-15

    COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test - Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism.

  18. Influence of psychological factors on pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium. A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Marín Morales

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze different psychological factors (personality, psychiatric symptoms, pregnancy worries, beliefs about delivery, locus of control, coping styles and its relation to clinical symptomatology and the presence of complications during pregnancy, quality of life indicators, perception and coping with labour pain, type of delivery, neonatal well-being indicators, delivery satisfaction, maternal bond development and care of the baby and presence of post-partum depression.To achieve this we will develop a prospective correlational longitudinal study. The sample will be composed by pregnant women from the area 9 from the Madrid Community that voluntarily accept the inclusion in this research.Structured questionnaires will be used to evaluate all the psychological variables in the following moments in time:- during the first and third trimester the following variables will be assessed: personality, psychiatric symptoms, pregnancy worries, delivery beliefs, locus of control, coping styles, first trimester physical sintomatology, quality of life indicators,- during the inmediate post-partum: pain during labour and after delivery, childbirth satisfaction,- during the puerperium: post-partum depression and anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, child bond, neonatal care, personality, psychiatric symptomatology.From the clinical record the following data will be obtained: sociodemographic variables, and parameters related to pregnancy evolution, delivery and puerperium that are relevant to the research.

  19. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  20. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  1. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Varga

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Material and Methods: Continuous heart rate (HR recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder – Bioport (ZAK, Germany. The work processes were simultaneously documented by video recording along with drawing up the traditional ergonomic workday schedule. All workers passed health evaluation for fitness for work. The effects of different psychological factors (simulated danger, “instrument stress,” presence of managers, and effect of prior involvement in accidents as well as different mining technologies and work place illumination on the work pulse were evaluated. The statistical analysis was completed using SPSS software (version 13.0, SPSS Inc., USA. Results: The work-related physiological strain differed between work places with different mining technologies in groups of 12–18 workers. The work pulse was lowest in bauxite mining (ΔHR = 22±8.9 bpm and highest in drift drilling in dead rock with electric drilling machine (ΔHR = 30±6.9 bpm. During sham alarm situation the work pulse was significantly higher than during normal activities with the same physical task (ΔHR = 36.7±4.8 bpm vs. 25.8±1.6 bpm, p < 0.001. When work was performed under different psychological stress, the work pulse was consistently higher, while improving the work place illumination decreased the physiological strain appreciably (ΔHR (median, 25–75 percentiles = 23, 20–26 bmp vs. 28, 25–31.3 bpm, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Recording the heart rate during whole-shift work along with the work conditions gives reliable results and helps isolating factors that contribute to increased strain. The

  2. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  3. Human reliability, error, and human factors in power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, B S

    2014-01-01

    Human reliability, error, and human factors in the area of power generation have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Each year billions of dollars are spent in the area of power generation to design, construct/manufacture, operate, and maintain various types of power systems around the globe, and such systems often fail due to human error. This book compiles various recent results and data into one volume, and eliminates the need to consult many diverse sources to obtain vital information.  It enables potential readers to delve deeper into a specific area, providing the source of most of the material presented in references at the end of each chapter. Examples along with solutions are also provided at appropriate places, and there are numerous problems for testing the reader’s comprehension.  Chapters cover a broad range of topics, including general methods for performing human reliability and error analysis in power plants, specific human reliability analysis methods for nuclear power pl...

  4. The Physical,Culture and Rational Factors Constraints on Abnormal Psychology Literature and Art%论文艺变态心理的综合影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2011-01-01

    This topic is to discuss literature and art abnormal psychology and human relations between the physical,social and cultural relations and rational factors.With the modern physiological science and psychology of art reveals the development of abnormal psychology by physical factors;socio-cultural factors are bound to have an impact on culture,arts,abnormal psychology,this article believe that this influence through the subconscious or unconscious and the role of art in abnormal psychology;In addition,abnormal psychology literature and art has always been dominated by rational factors.%文章探讨了文艺变态心理与人的生理关系,与社会文化的关系及与理性因素的关系。现代生理科学及心理学的发展揭示出文艺变态心理受到生理因素的制约;社会文化因素也对文艺变态心理产生影响,这种影响通过无意识或潜意识而作用于文艺变态心理;另外,文艺变态心理还始终受到理性因素的支配。

  5. Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

  6. Age Differences in the Association of Severe Psychological Distress and Behavioral Factors with Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the risk factors of serious psychological distress (SPD and behavioral factors for heart disease separately stratified as young (18–44 years, middle aged (45–64 years, and elderly (65 years or older. A total of 3,540 adults with heart disease and 37,703 controls were selected from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential undercoverage and nonresponse biases. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of the factors with heart disease at different ages. The prevalence of SPD was 8% in cases and 4% in controls, respectively. For young adults, SPD and higher federal poverty level (FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease while for middle-aged adults, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, and unemployment were associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In addition, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, unemployment, White, and lower FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease in elderly. Our findings indicate that risk factors for heart disease vary across all ages. Intervention strategies that target risk reduction of heart disease may be tailored accordingly.

  7. The impact of human factor on labor productivity at the mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinigina Galina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the term “human factor” which implies a person involved in the organizational process in the diversity of his natural and socio-psychological characteristics. The necessity to identify the impact of human factor on labour productivity at the mining enterprises is proved. It is assumed that considering human factor can be one of the ways to increase labour productivity. A research technique of the complex – mechanized team in order to identify the impact of human factor on its productivity is described. Definite research results and analysis which strongly support the assumption are given. The stages at which the human factor should be considered are analyzed. Based on the fact that person's mood determines all his vital functions, the following interpretation of the human factor was propose: to consider the human factor means to take into account everything that might spoil the mood of a person starting from his coming to the place of work till the work is finished. If it is necessary to provide high productivity, take care of the human mind. This thesis does not require proof and justification, it is obvious.

  8. Human factors engineering program review model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  9. The Course of Nonspecific Work-Related Upper Limb Disorders and the Influence of Demographic Factors, Psychologic Factors, and Physical Fitness on Clinical Status and Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijsden-Besseling, Marjon D.; van den Bergh, Karien A.; Staal, J. Bart; de Bie, Rob A.; van den Heuvel, Wim J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the course of nonspecific work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD) and the influence of sociodemographic factors, psychologic factors, and physical fitness on clinical status and functional disability. Design: Retrospective cohort study with cross-sectional analysis among compu

  10. Architecture of human translation initiation factor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol-Audi, Jordi; Sun, Chaomin; Vogan, Jacob M; Smith, M Duane; Gu, Yu; Cate, Jamie H D; Nogales, Eva

    2013-06-04

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays a central role in protein synthesis by organizing the formation of the 43S preinitiation complex. Using genetic tag visualization by electron microscopy, we reveal the molecular organization of ten human eIF3 subunits, including an octameric core. The structure of eIF3 bears a close resemblance to that of the proteasome lid, with a conserved spatial organization of eight core subunits containing PCI and MPN domains that coordinate functional interactions in both complexes. We further show that eIF3 subunits a and c interact with initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A, which control the stringency of start codon selection. Finally, we find that subunit j, which modulates messenger RNA interactions with the small ribosomal subunit, makes multiple independent interactions with the eIF3 octameric core. These results highlight the conserved architecture of eIF3 and how it scaffolds key factors that control translation initiation in higher eukaryotes, including humans.

  11. Structural Model of psychological risk and protective factors affecting on quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease: A psychocardiology model

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Khayyam Nekouei; Alireza Yousefy; Hamid Taher Neshat Doost; Gholamreza Manshaee; Masoumeh Sadeghei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conducted researches show that psychological factors may have a very important role in the etiology, continuity and consequences of coronary heart diseases. This study has drawn the psychological risk and protective factors and their effects in patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD) in a structural model. It aims to determine the structural relations between psychological risk and protective factors with quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease. Materials and M...

  12. Which is the dominant factor for perception of rheumatic pain: meteorology or psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Hasan Fatih; Sezer, Ilhan; Firat, Mehmet Z; Kaçar, Cahit

    2011-03-01

    It is believed that there is an association between the weather and rheumatic symptoms. We aimed to investigate what kind of association is present and what are the factors which determine the nature of this association. Fifty-six subjects with rheumatic disease (31 RA, 15 SpA, 10 OA) who live in Antalya were followed between December 2005 and July 2006. Patients were asked to fill diaries which contain questions regarding the symptoms of their rheumatic diseases everyday. In every monthly visit, disease activity measurement, laboratory assessment and Beck depression inventory assessment were recorded. The symptomatic and psychological measurements were matched with the meteorological data of Antalya Regional Directorate of Meteorological Service of Turkish State. Correlation of symptoms with weather variables was investigated. Contributory effect of weather and of psychologic factors on symptom scores were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Eighty-four percent of subjects belive in an association between weather and rheumatism, while 57% claimed to have ability to forecast weather. The maximum correlation coefficient between weather and arthritis symptoms was -0.451 and the maximum contribution of weather on symptoms was 17.1%. Arthritis symptoms were significantly contributed by Beck depression score. The belief about presence of weather-arthritis association was found to be stronger than its statistical power. Our results did not prove or rule out the presence of weather-rheumatism association. As long as the scientific attempts result in failure, the intuitive support in favour of the presence of weather-arthritis association will go on forever.

  13. Association and Correlation between Temporomandibular Disorders and Psychological Factors in a Group of Dental Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and presence of psychological factors (i.e.,anxiety and depression levels in dental undergraduate students. Second purpose was to assess the association and correlation between TMD degree and psychological factors viz. anxiety and depression. Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 400 Dental undergraduatestudents aged 18- 25 years, including both the genders. TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire (modified version of Helkimo’s anamnestic index. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess of levels of anxiety (HADSa and depression (HADSd in the dental undergraduate students. Results: Onbasisof the TMD anamnestic index, 74% of students were TMD free. 24.5% of subjects presented with mild degree of TMD and only 1.5% of subjects presented with moderate degree of TMD. According to the results obtained from HADSa, 35.3% of subjects presented with mild anxiety level, 13.8% with moderate anxiety level, and only 1.3% with severe anxiety level. According to the results obtained from HADSd, 10.3% of subjects presented with mild depression level and only 2.3% with moderate depression level. A definite association between TMD degree and Anxiety level (HADSa was found. A definite association between TMD degree and Depression level (HADSd was found. Therewas significant association between TMD degree and occlusion. Conclusions: On the basis of anamnestic index, this study revealed a 26% TMD prevalence in the dental undergraduate students included in the study; majority of cases being of mild degree. Both anxiety and depression were found to be associated with TMD degree/severity. Both anxiety and depression are weakly correlated with TMD in the present study.

  14. Epidermal growth factor (urogastrone) in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Y; Orth, D N

    1979-04-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), which stimulates the growth of a variety of tissues, was first isolated from mouse submandibular glands, but is also excreted in large amounts (about 50 micrograms/day) in human urine and is probably identical to human beta-urogastrone (hUG), a potent inhibitor of stimulated gastric acid secretion. However, the primary tissue source of hEGF/hUG is as yet unknown. The hEGF/hUG in homogenates of human salivary glands and a wide variety of other endocrine and nonendocrine tissues was extracted by Amberlite CG-50 cation exchange chromatography and immune affinity chromatography using the immunoglobulin fraction of rabbit anti-hEGF serum covalently bound to agarose. The extracts were subjected to homologous hEGF RIA. Immunoreactive hEGF was found in extracts of adult submandibular gland, thyroid gland, duodenum, jejunum, and kidney, but not in several fetal tissues. The tissue immunoreactive hEGF was similar to standard hEGF in terms of immunoreactivity and elution from Sephadex G-50 Fine resin, but its concentrations were very low (1.3-5.5 ng/g wet tissue). Thus, it is not certain that these tissues represent the only source of the large amounts of hEGF/hUG that appear to be filtered by the kidneys each day.

  15. Virtuality in human supervisory control: assessing the effects of psychological and social remoteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; Ashleigh, Melanie J; Roberts, Anthony D; Xu, Francis

    2003-10-10

    Virtuality would seem to offer certain advantages for human supervisory control. First, it could provide a physical analogue of the 'real world' environment. Second, it does not require control room engineers to be in the same place as each other. In order to investigate these issues, a low-fidelity simulation of an energy distribution network was developed. The main aims of the research were to assess some of the psychological concerns associated with virtual environments. First, it may result in the social isolation of the people, and it may have dramatic effects upon the nature of the work. Second, a direct physical correspondence with the 'real world' may not best support human supervisory control activities. Experimental teams were asked to control an energy distribution network. Measures of team performance, group identity and core job characteristics were taken. In general terms, the results showed that teams working in the same location performed better than teams who were remote from one another.

  16. An exploration in the will psychology of Otto Rank: human intentionality and individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Masayo

    2012-12-01

    The author explores the meaning and the importance of the will in Rank's relation-based self-creative, self-constructive psychology and argues for the consideration of the concept of the will in psychoanalysis. The paper shows that Rank's concept of the will explains what gives a human being the impetus to choose an action, positive or negative. When validated by the other, this will, the power of intention, enables a person to create his/her unique individuality. The paper reviews Rank's definition of will and traces the evolution of his ideas of intentionality in his writings. Further, the author discusses how Rank attempts to capture the subtle movements of the human mind as suffused with struggles and dynamic interplay between external and internal forces.

  17. 糖尿病人的心理因素研究%Study of the psychological factors of diabetes patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华清; 王教敏; 李雯

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between diabetes and psychology factors.Methods We investigated 64 patients of diabetes type 2 with EPQ score of character,SCL-90 score of the symptom and the score of social support, and compared the scores with that of control group.Results The SXL-90 score of diabetics was higher than that of control group remarkably (P< 0.01),score of social support of diabetics was lower than that of control group (P< 0.001).Conclusion The psychological factor play a proper role in the generation and development of diabetes.It is worth further study and should be paid more attention.

  18. Russian psychology at the turn of the 21st century and post-Soviet reforms in the humanities disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilieva, Julia

    2010-05-01

    The author traces the changes in Russian psychology in the past 25 years and links these changes to the earlier Russian legacy of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) and Aleksei N. Leontiev (1903-1979). The move into the 21st century coincided for Russian psychology as well as for the Russian society at large with the reforms of perestroika, leading to greater openness in the academic sphere. In particular, Russian psychology was able to connect in a more free and fundamental way with its own heritage and with various developments around the world. The author discusses how these factors affected continuity and innovation with regard to the 2 dominant theoretical perspectives in Russian psychology--the cultural-historical theory of Vygotsky and the theory of activity, initially developed by Leontiev. The author argues that while there are now original and substantial shifts within Russian psychology--namely toward the new paradigm characterized by various researchers as "organic psychology," "nonclassical psychology," or even "post-non-classical" psychology--the issues of agency and meaning, which were central for the previous generation of Russian psychologists, such as Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria, Zaporozhets, Rubinstein, and others, continue to inform the development of the discipline in the 21st century.

  19. Social and Psychological Factors in Second Language Acquisition: A Study of an Individual. Proceedings of the Los Angeles Second Language Research Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca A.

    The social and psychological factors which affect one person's acquisition of a second language are described in journal format. The psychological factors discussed are: (1) language shock, (2) culture shock, and (3) culture stress. The two social factors examined are both grouped under the term "social distance" but include (1) types of…

  20. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, L.F.; O`Brien, J.F. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned.

  2. Investigation of risk factors of psychological acceptance and burnout syndrome among nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongcheng; Yao, Wu; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong; Lan, Yajia

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reliability of Chinese version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), the relationship between psychological acceptance (PA), and burnout syndrome and their risk factors among nurses in China. The reliability of AAQ-II in Chinese was evaluated first by testing on 111 doctors and 108 nurses in China. On the number of 845 nurses selected from nine city hospitals by using stratified cluster sampling method, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was administered to establish the presence of burnout, and the AAQ-II was used to measure their PA. Results showed that the AAQ-II in Chinese had a good test-retest reliability. PA was statistically significantly negatively correlated to the three dimensionalities of burnout among nurses in China. Male and female nurses had a significant difference in PA. Risk factors for burnout were age (25-44 years), marital status (married), gender (male), hospital department (emergency) and position (primary title) as well as PA. The findings provide insights into the risk factors of burnout in Chinese nurses and may have clinical implications in preventing burnout in Chinese nurses. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. The impact of co-morbid factors on the psychological outcome of tinnitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajor, Anna Maria; Ormezowska, Elżbieta Agata; Jozefowicz-Korczynska, Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    The study was carried out to determine the impact of some co-morbid otological symptoms and demographic factors on the emotional distress and cognitive functioning in patients with tinnitus. One hundred consecutive patients, complaining of constant idiopathic tinnitus, were enrolled into the study. Four tests were administered: Beck Depression Inventory, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, A--anxiety, D--depression), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Trail Making Test (TMT). A multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between the results of each of the tests and following co-morbid factors: age, sex, tinnitus duration, tinnitus laterality, hearing status (normal hearing, unilateral hearing loss and bilateral hearing loss) and vertigo/dizziness. It was found that the scores of MMSE and TMT were negatively correlated with age and with hearing status and the scores of HADS-A were slightly correlated with sex. In regression analysis, in HADS-A, sex and to a lesser extent tinnitus duration, in MMSE and TMT age and to a lesser extent tinnitus laterality were the variables that were comprised in the final model. Demographic factors had contributed more than overlapping otological symptoms to the psychological outcome in tinnitus patients.

  4. Measuring the intrapersonal component of psychological empowerment: confirmatory factor analysis of the sociopolitical control scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, N Andrew; Lowe, John B; Hughey, Joseph; Reid, Robert J; Zimmerman, Marc A; Speer, Paul W

    2006-12-01

    The Sociopolitical Control Scale (SPCS) is a widely used measure of the intrapersonal component of psychological empowerment. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted with data from two samples to test the hypothesized structure of the SPCS, the potential effects of method bias on the measure's psychometric properties, and whether a revised version of the scale (SPCS-R) yielded improved model fit. Sample 1 included 316 randomly selected community residents of the Midwestern United States. Sample 2 included 750 community residents of the Northeastern U.S. Results indicated that method bias from the use of negatively worded items had a significant effect on the factor structure of the SPCS. CFA of the SPCS-R, in which negatively worded items were rephrased so that all statements were positively worded, supported the measure's hypothesized two-factor structure (i.e., leadership competence and policy control). Subscales of the SPCS-R were found reliable and related in expected ways with measures of community involvement. Implications of the study for empowerment-based research and practice are described, and strategies to further develop the SPCS are discussed.

  5. Ethical Standards of Scientific Research Involving Human Subjects in Brazil: Perspectives Concerning Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Leitão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBrazilian associations for research in human, social and applied social sciences have long sought ethical aspects regulation compatible with the epistemological, theoretical and methodological specificities of these sciences. Consequently, the Brazilian regulatory system (Research Ethics Committees/CEPs of the National Research Ethics Commission/CONEP is currently undergoing an important review process. This article presents the positions taken by the National Association of Research and Postgraduate Studies in Psychology - ANPEPP. The article: (1 highlights the origins of the current ethics review model, based on biomedical research; (2 summarizes criticisms recurrent to this model; (3 identifies the directions required for the improvement of the system; and (4 lists the challenges to be overcome in the current process of creating specific regulations for the human and social sciences. The considerations presented highlight two crucial points that challenge the construction of a specific resolution for research ethics in the human and social sciences: (1 the clear characterization of what is meant by 'research in the human and social sciences' - and that would, therefore, have its ethical review regulated from the perspective of the specific resolution for the human and social sciences; and (2 the definition of parameters from which different risk levels in studies can be identified.

  6. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  7. Subjective memory complaints, vascular risk factors and psychological distress in the middle-aged: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davenport Tracey A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective memory complaints (SMC are common but their significance is still unclear. It has been suggested they are a precursor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia and an early indicator of cognitive decline. Vascular risk factors have an important role in the development of dementia and possibly MCI. We therefore aimed to test the hypothesis that vascular risk factors were associated with SMC, independent of psychological distress, in a middle-aged community-dwelling population. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the 45 and Up Study was performed. This is a cohort study of people living in New South Wales (Australia, and we explored the sample of 45, 532 participants aged between 45 and 64 years. SMC were defined as 'fair' or 'poor' on a self-reported five-point Likert scale of memory function. Vascular risk factors of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking were identified by self-report. Psychological distress was measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. We tested the model generated from a randomly selected exploratory sample (n = 22, 766 with a confirmatory sample of equal size. Results 5, 479/45, 532 (12% of respondents reported SMC. Using multivariate logistic regression, only two vascular risk factors: smoking (OR 1.18; 95% CI = 1.03 - 1.35 and hypercholesterolaemia (OR 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.36 showed a small independent association with SMC. In contrast psychological distress was strongly associated with SMC. Those with the highest levels of psychological distress were 7.00 (95% CI = 5.41 - 9.07 times more likely to have SMC than the non-distressed. The confirmatory sample also demonstrated the strong association of SMC with psychological distress rather than vascular risk factors. Conclusions In a large sample of middle-aged people without any history of major affective illness or stroke, psychological distress was strongly, and vascular risk

  8. Effect of Psychological Factors on the Level of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Gynecological Malignant Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Cui-ge; LI Lian-xiang; LIU Xiao-qin; SHI Jian-yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of psychological factors on the level of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with gynecological malignant tumors. Methods:Fifty-six patients with gynecological malignant tumors were selected as malignant tumor group in Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital from Jun. 2013 to Jun. 2014, and meanwhile, 56 healthy people were selected as control group at the same term. The life events, social support and coping styles of the subjects in both groups were given questionnaire survey based on life event scale (LES), social support rating scale (SSRS) and trait coping style questionnaire (TCSQ). The scores of LES, SSRS and TCSQ in two groups were compared, and the correlation between the level of serum VEGF and psychological factors in malignant tumor group was analyzed. Results: Both the frequency of negative events and total frequency of life events in malignant tumor group were higher than in control group dramatically (P=0.000, 0.000), while the scores of objective support, subjective support and availability to support lower than in control group (P=0.000, 0.000, 0.001). The scores of positive coping in malignant tumor group was notably lower than in control group, but those of negative coping higher than in control group (P=0.000, P=0.000). Pearson correlation analysis displayed that the level of serum VEGF was positively correlated with the frequency of negative events and scores of negative coping (r=0.828,P=0.000;r=0.944,P=0.000), while negatively correlated with the scores of positive coping, objective and subjective support (r=-0.921,P=0.000;r=-0.951,P=0.000;r=-0.899,P=0.000). Conclusion: Negative life events, low social support and bad coping styles can all promote the increase of VEGF level in patients with gynecological malignant tumors, and are closely associated with occurrence and progression of malignant tumors.

  9. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Gorjala, Srinivasa

    2010-01-01

    Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors) was accounted for by the behavioral model (R2adj = 0.23). Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity. PMID:20700411

  10. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors was accounted for by the behavioral model (2adj=0.23. Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity.

  11. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  12. 新生代农民工市民化意愿影响因素的实证研究--基于人力资本、社会资本和心理资本的考察%Empirical Study on the Influencing factors of the New Generation Migrant Workers ’ Citizenization willness:Based on the Investigation of human capital、social capital and Psychological capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈延; 金晓彤

    2014-01-01

    This study was based on the data from 198 cities. It discussed the influence of human capital , social capital, Psychological capital on the willingness of the new generation migrant workers’ citizeniza-tion. As the model results show, four factors of human capital as “whether to participate in the training”、“the time of training”、“ the number of skills” and “the technical grade” have significant influence on the willingness of the new generation of migrant workers ’ citizenization. But the education level did not pass the significance test. Two factors of the social capital as “the number of friends outside the city”and “the number of social activities ” have significant influence on the willingness of the new generation of migrant workers’ citizenization. Three variables of Psychological capital as “the sense of belonging”、“local people’ s attitude” and “the views on city peers”have a significant impact on the new generation of migrant work-ers’ citizenization willness. Therefore, during the process of urbanization, to nurture human capital of the new generation of migrant workers’, we must meet the needs of the development of urbanization, increas-ing the interaction between migrant workers and the public, strengthen the guidance of migrant workers’ psychology.%本文基于全国198个城市的样本数据,运用二元logistic回归模型,从人力资本、社会资本、心理资本三个维度对新生代农民工市民化意愿影响因素进行了实证分析。结果发现,人力资本中是否参加过培训、培训次数、拥有的技能数以及技术等级四个变量对新生代农民工市民化意愿有显著的影响。而学历水平没能通过显著性检验。社会资本中的外地同学亲戚数和参加社会活动的数量对新生代农民工市民化意愿有显著影响,而当地同学亲戚数没有通过显著性检验。心理资本中城市归属感、本地人态度

  13. The Prevalence of Compassion Fatigue among Veterinary Students in Australia and the Associated Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Michelle L; Andrews, Jena R; Brand, Conor; Hazel, Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and other characteristics such as mindfulness and mental health stigma have not been investigated in veterinary students. The aims of this study were twofold: first to determine the prevalence of compassion, satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress among Australian veterinary students and second to investigate the association between these factors and self-stigma, coping, empathy, and mindfulness. A cross-sectional online survey consisting of demographic questions and four validated psychological measures sampled 828 students, with a response rate of 31% (255/828). We obtained a usable sample of completed surveys from 193 of 828 (23%) veterinary students from six of the seven Australian veterinary schools. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations between the psychological predictors and the outcome variables. Approximately 30% of veterinary students were at high risk of burnout, 24% were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress, and 21% reported low compassion satisfaction. High empathic concern, low personal distress, female gender, and employment history at a veterinary clinic were associated with high compassion satisfaction. High dysfunctional coping, low nonjudgmental and acting-with-awareness mindfulness, and lack of previous employment at a veterinary clinic were associated with high burnout. High dysfunctional coping, low acting-with-awareness mindfulness, high self-stigma, and high personal distress were associated with high secondary traumatic stress. As a result of these findings, certain emotional characteristics can be identified as targets for intervention to minimize the frequency and potentially negative impact of compassion fatigue and burnout in veterinary students.

  14. [Relations between self-discrimination of MSM and sexual behavior and psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Hong-bo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Guang-gui; Yang, Hong-wu; Fan, Jing

    2010-07-01

    To understand the self-discrimination experience of MSM and its relationship with sexual behavior and psychological factors. By respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method, a call-for action and anonymous self-administration questionnaire investigation was carried out in Mianyang city on experience of self-discriminations, sexual partners and behaviors and depression symptom, etc. The first 12 qualified people were designated as the "root" in the whole investigation from different MSM subgroups. Every "root" would get 3 recruit cards after their own investigation, then cards could be promoted to another 3 qualified people who were willing to accept questionnaires. And this process would go on till the sample size was accomplished. χ(2) test, rank correlation and contingency coefficient would be applied for the statistical analysis. In total, 201 persons were investigated. Within the past 6 months, 59.2% (119/201) persons felt they did harm to their family or made the family down as gays, 79.6% (160/201) had to disguise their real sexual orientation in avoidance of being discriminated, 39.3% (79/201) were humiliated for having gay sex. It showed correlation between humiliation or harm to family and frequency to disco balls/night clubs (r = 0.196, χ(2) = 7.95, P sexual partners (r = 0.265, χ(2) = 11.422, P sexual behavior in the past 6 months (r = 0.513, χ(2) = 7.442, P sexual orientation in avoidance of being discriminated and the frequency of show up in the cybercafé (r = 0.272, χ(2) = 15.932, P sexual partners. Meanwhile, the pressure was rising when depression was checked out. Self-discrimination was prevalent among MSM, which had brought critical influence on the individual behavior, MSM psychological health and prevalence of AIDS.

  15. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory - revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective) the Beck Depression Inventory - second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial dissociation level, harm avoidance, and self-stigma, and higher amounts of hope and self-directedness. Also, individuals without a comorbid personality disorder improved considerably more than comorbid patients. According to backward-stepwise multiple regression, the best

  16. Stress and psychological factors before a migraine attack: A time-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino Mariko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to examine the stress and mood changes of Japanese subjects over the 1–3 days before a migraine headache. Methods The study participants were 16 patients with migraines who consented to participate in this study. Each subject kept a headache diary four times a day for two weeks. They evaluated the number of stressful events, daily hassles, domestic and non-domestic stress, anxiety, depressive tendency and irritability by visual analog scales. The days were classified into migraine days, pre-migraine days, buffer days and control days based on the intensity of the headaches and accompanying symptoms, and a comparative study was conducted for each factor on the migraine days, pre-migraine days and control days. Results The stressful event value of pre-migraine days showed no significant difference compared to other days. The daily hassle value of pre-migraine days was the highest and was significantly higher than that of buffer days. In non-domestic stress, values on migraine days were significantly higher than on other days, and there was no significant difference between pre-migraine days and buffer days or between pre-migraine days and control days. There was no significant difference in the values of domestic stress between the categories. In non-domestic stress, values on migraine days were significantly higher than other days, and there was no significant difference between pre-migraine days and buffer days or between pre-migraine days and control days. There was little difference in sleep quality on migraine and pre-migraine days, but other psychological factors were higher on migraine days than on pre-migraine days. Conclusion Psychosocial stress preceding the onset of migraines by several days was suggested to play an important role in the occurrence of migraines. However, stress 2–3 days before a migraine attack was not so high as it has been reported to be in the United States and

  17. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociskova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie Ociskova, Jan Prasko, Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Ales Grambal Department of Psychiatry, Olomouc University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. Subjects and methods: A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory – revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective the Beck Depression Inventory – second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Results: Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial

  18. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  19. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  20. Trends in anecdotal fox sightings in Tasmania accounted for by psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Clive A; Clark, Malcolm; Obendorf, David; Hall, Graham P; Soares, Inês; Pereira, Filipe

    2017-04-06

    There has been little evaluation of anecdotal sightings as a means to confirm new incursions of invasive species. This paper explores the potential for equivocal information communicated by the media to account for patterns of anecdotal reports. In 2001, it was widely reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) had been deliberately released in the island state of Tasmania (Australia), although this claim was later revealed to be baseless. Regardless, by 2013 a total of 3153 anecdotal fox sightings had been reported by members of the public, which implied their distribution was wide. For each month in 2001-2003, we defined a monthly media index (MMI) of fox-related media coverage, an index of their relative seasonal abundance (abundance), and a factor denoting claims of fox evidence (claimed evidence) regardless of its evidentiary quality. We fitted a generalized linear model with Poisson error for monthly totals of anecdotal sightings with factors of year and claimed evidence and covariates of MMI, abundance, and hours of darkness. The collective effect of psychological factors (MMI, claimed evidence, and year) relative to biophysical factors (photoperiod and abundance) was highly significant (χ(2) = 122.1, df = 6, p < 0.0001), whereas anticipated changes in abundance had no significant influence on reported sightings (p = 0.15). An annual index of fox media from 2001 to 2010 was strongly associated with the yearly tally of anecdotal sightings (p = 0.018). The odds ratio of sightings ranked as reliable by the fox eradication program in any year decreased exponentially at a rate of 0.00643 as the total number of sightings increased (p < 0.0001) and was indicative of an observer-expectancy bias. Our results suggest anecdotal sightings are highly susceptible to cognitive biases and when used to qualify and quantify species presence can contribute to flawed risk assessments. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Association of genetic and psychological factors with persistent pain after cosmetic thoracic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimova V

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Violeta Dimova,1–3 Jörn Lötsch,3 Kathrin Hühne,4 Andreas Winterpacht,4 Michael Heesen,5 Andreas Parthum,1,2 Peter G Weber,6 Roman Carbon,6 Norbert Griessinger,2 Reinhard Sittl,2 Stefan Lautenbacher1 1Physiological Psychology, Otto-Friedrich University Bamberg, 2Pain Center, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, 3Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 4Department of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany; 5Department of Anaesthesia, Kantonsspital Baden, Baden, Switzerland; 6Department of Pediatric Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany Abstract: The genetic control of pain has been repeatedly demonstrated in human association studies. In the present study, we assessed the relative contribution of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pain-related genes, such as cathechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT, fatty acid amino hydrolase gene (FAAH, transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 gene (TRPV1, and δ-opioid receptor gene (OPRD1, for postsurgical pain chronification. Ninety preoperatively pain-free male patients were assigned to good or poor outcome groups according to their intensity or disability score assessed at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after funnel chest correction. The genetic effects were compared with those of two psychological predictors, the attentional bias toward positive words (dot-probe task and the self-reported pain vigilance (Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [PVAQ], which were already shown to be the best predictors for pain intensity and disability at 6 months after surgery in the same sample, respectively. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant effects of any of the genetic predictors up to the end point of survival time at 1 year after surgery. Adding the genetics to the prediction by the attentional bias to positive words for pain intensity and the PVAQ for pain disability, again

  2. ANALYSIS OF PSYCHOLOGIC HEALTH STATE AND INFLUENCING FACTORS IN COLLEGE AND SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SHAANXI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective The psychologic health level of college and secondaryschool students and the relevant fac- tors were investigated to scientific basis and guidance for school mental health work. Methods Standard 1251 cases were drawn from 1% of students in colleges and middle schools of Shaanxi province. Taking 14 psychic health level indexes in SCL-90 as dependent variable and 109 indexes of psychic health back ground as in-dependent variable, multi-factor analyses have been made. Results 22.6 % of students had relatively serious psychological problems. The score of SCL-90 in females was a little bit higher than that in males. The scores of students at both universities and se- nior middle schools were higher than that in junior middle schools students. The score of SCL-90 of students who came from the countryside was higher than that of city students. The score of the whole students was higher than that of the normal. The students with psychic problems showed obsession, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, paranoia and hostility. Factor-analysis showed that influencing factors included history of positive individual risking behavior, physical conditions,grade,address, family influences, menses and sexual prombles, bad relation with others, poor self-assessment. Conclusion The psychologic health level of the students investigated is lower than that of the whole society. The factors, which hamper psychic health of students, are biological ,psychological and social in nature.

  3. More than the "X" Factor! A Longitudinal Investigation of the Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence in Musical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Aine; Collins, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Current findings in talent identification and development research have acknowledged that potential for future performance cannot be identified from single evaluations of performance or anthropometric factors (e.g. Abbott and Collins 2004). Recognising the role of psychological characteristics at elite levels, it is pertinent to consider the role…

  4. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  5. Psychological Factors in the Development of Football-Talent from the Perspective of an Integrative Sport-Talent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Robert; Mezo, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N = 425…

  6. Psychological Factors Associated with Genetic Test Decision-Making among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Richman, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    Making decisions to undergo Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) genetic testing can be challenging. It is important to understand how the perceptions of affected individuals might influence testing decision-making. Although evidence has shown that psychological factors are important in predicting testing decisions, affect-type variables have been…

  7. Why some make it and others do not: Identifying psychological factors that predict career success in professional adult soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to identify psychological factors that predict career success in professional adult soccer. Post hoc, two groups were distinguished: (1) Male soccer players who Successfully progressed into professional adult soccer (n = 18) and (2) Male soccer players who did not

  8. Stigmatization and Promotive Factors in Relation to Psychological Health and Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Planned Lesbian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette N.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39 boys; mean age = 17.05 years) completed an…

  9. Psychological factors associated with the intention to choose for risk-reducing mastectomy in family cancer clinic attendees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, C M G; Oosterwijk, J C; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; van Asperen, C J; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, I A; de Vries, J; Mourits, M J E; Henneman, L; Timmermans, D R M; de Bock, G H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Women seeking counseling because of familial breast cancer occurrence face difficult decisions, such as whether and when to opt for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in case of BRCA1/2 mutation. Only limited research has been done to identify the psychological factors associated with the de

  10. Psychological factors associated with the intention to choose for risk-reducing mastectomy in family cancer clinic attendees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, C M G; Oosterwijk, J C; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; van Asperen, C J; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, I A; de Vries, J; Mourits, M J E; Henneman, L; Timmermans, D R M; de Bock, G H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women seeking counseling because of familial breast cancer occurrence face difficult decisions, such as whether and when to opt for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in case of BRCA1/2 mutation. Only limited research has been done to identify the psychological factors associated with the de

  11. Stigmatization and promotive factors in relation to psychological health and life satisfaction of adolescents in planned lesbian families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.N.; Bos, H.M.W.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39

  12. Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van; Wijer, A. de; Genderen, F.R. van; Graaf, Y.D. van; Helders, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Schmitt MA, van Meeteren NL, de Wijer A, van Genderen FR, van der Graaf Y, Helders PJ: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009;88:231-238. Objectives: To examine the relative

  13. Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van; Wijer, A. de; Genderen, F.R. van; Graaf, Y.D. van; Helders, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Schmitt MA, van Meeteren NL, de Wijer A, van Genderen FR, van der Graaf Y, Helders PJ: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009;88:231-238. Objectives: To examine the relative

  14. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Hope and College Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…

  15. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  16. Associations between psychological factors and the effect of home-based physical exercise in women with chronic neck and shoulder pain

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exercise is often used in the treatment of chronic neck and shoulder muscle pain. It is likely that psychological aspects have an impact on the results of exercise-based treatments. Objectives: (1) To examine the associations between psychological factors and the effect of a home-based physical exercise intervention. (2) To examine differences in psychological factors at baseline between (a) subjects who continued in the trial and those who did not and (b) subjects who completed t...

  17. Psychological problems of families and health workers dealing with people infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, M

    1991-03-01

    The psychological problems of the families of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected people, and of the health workers taking care of them, have been addressed in a few empirical studies and in several anecdotal reports and theoretical contributions. Apparently, HIV-1 infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are able to elicit a wide range of emotional reactions, from rejection and refusal to provide care to immersion in the infected person's needs and burnout. Since irrational fears and attitudes play an important role in conditioning these reactions, education may not be sufficient to change behaviour. Counselling sessions and mutual support groups are often the most appropriate contexts where fears and concerns can receive an individually tailored response, and where formal and informal caregivers can be helped to manage stress.

  18. Relevance of Piagetian cross-cultural psychology to the humanities and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W

    2013-01-01

    Jean Piaget held views according to which there are parallels between ontogeny and the historical development of culture, sciences, and reason. His books are full of remarks and considerations about these parallels, with reference to many logical, physical, social, and moral phenomena.This article explains that Piagetian cross-cultural psychology has delivered the decisive data needed to extend the research interests of Piaget. These data provide a basis for reconstructing not only the history of sciences but also the history of religion, politics, morals, culture, philosophy, and social change and the emergence of industrial society. Thus, it is possible to develop Piagetian theory as a historical anthropology in order to provide a basis for the humanities and social sciences.

  19. Human factors and ergonomics for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly

    2016-03-01

    In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.

  20. Organizational crisis management: the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    While many professionals are quite competent when dealing with operational aspects of organizational continuity, often the "human factor" does not receive adequate attention. This article provides a brief overview of a soon to be published book by the same title. It provides a comprehensive understanding of the ubiquitous yet complex reactions of the workforce to a wide array of organizational disruptions. It goes beyond the short term intervention of debriefings to describe the more extensive pre and post incident strategies required to mitigate the impact of crises on the workforce. It is important to remember: "An organization can get its phone lines back up and have its computers backed up...but its workers may still be messed up."

  1. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  2. The compression of perceived time in a hot environment depends on physiological and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Maria; Jakobson, Ainika; Havik, Merle; Burk, Andres; Timpmann, Saima; Allik, Jüri; Oöpik, Vahur; Kreegipuu, Kairi

    2014-01-01

    The human perception of time was observed under extremely hot conditions. Young healthy men performed a time production task repeatedly in 4 experimental trials in either a temperate (22 °C, relative humidity 35%) or a hot (42 °C, relative humidity 18%) environment and with or without a moderate-intensity treadmill exercise. Within 1 hour, the produced durations indicated a significant compression of short intervals (0.5 to 10 s) in the combination of exercising and high ambient temperature, while neither variable/condition alone was enough to yield the effect. Temporal judgement was analysed in relation to different indicators of arousal, such as critical flicker frequency (CFF), core temperature, heart rate, and subjective ratings of fatigue and exertion. The arousal-sensitive internal clock model (originally proposed by Treisman) is used to explain the temporal compression while exercising in heat. As a result, we suggest that the psychological response to heat stress, the more precisely perceived fatigue, is important in describing the relationship between core temperature and time perception. Temporal compression is related to higher core temperature, but only if a certain level of perceived fatigue is accounted for, implying the existence of a thermoemotional internal clock.

  3. Hope as a Psychological Resilience Factor in Mothers and Fathers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, T. J.; Hastings, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Positive psychology is an area gaining credence within the field of intellectual disability (ID). Hope is one facet of positive psychology that is relatively unstudied in parents of children with ID. In the present study, we explore hope and its relationships with parental well-being in parents of school-aged children with ID. Method:…

  4. Factors, Trends, and Topics in the Evolution of Counseling Psychology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Rodney K.; Cortese, Jill R.; Guzzardo, Christine R.; Allison, Russell D.; Claiborn, Charles D.; Packard, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses six forces that have affected the content and process of counseling psychology training and will continue to do so: market forces; practitioner-educator dialogues; expectations and directives from within the profession; social and political forces; technological innovations; and the cultural context of counseling psychology. Briefly…

  5. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN KNOWLEDGE UTILIZATION AS APPLIED TO EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHMUCK, RICHARD

    THREE PROBLEM AREAS ARE EXPLORED IN THIS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH UTILIZATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION--(1) INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS AND SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, (2) PSYCHOLOGICAL LINKAGES BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATOR'S SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE AND HIS ACTIONS, AND (3) THE LACK OF CONNECTION BETWEEN…

  6. Journal Impact Factors and Self-Citations: Implications for Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anseel, Frederik; Duyck, Wouter; De Baene, Wouter; Brysbaert, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Comments on the study by J. G. Adair and N. Vohra (see record 2003-02034-002) of changes in the number of references and citations in psychology journals as a consequence of the current knowledge explosion. They made a striking observation of the sometimes excessive number of self-citations in psychology journals. However, after this illustration,…

  7. Consideration for solar system exploration - A system to Mars. [biomedical, environmental, and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical issues related to a manned mission to Mars are reviewed. Consideration is given to cardiovascular deconditioning, hematological and immunological changes, bone and muscle changes, nutritional issues, and the development of physiological countermeasures. Environmental issues are discussed, including radiation hazards, toxic chemical exposure, and the cabin environment. Also, human factors, performance and behavior, medical screening of the crew, disease prediction, and health maintenance are examined.

  8. National differences in predictors of suicide among young and elderly citizens: linking societal predictors to psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wesley C H; Bond, Michael Harris

    2006-01-01

    Suicide is usually conceptualized as arising either because of social phenomena or individual dynamics. In this study, these approaches were combined by analyzing suicide rates of younger people aged 15-24 and elderly aged 65-74 from 54 nations using societal variables in conjunction with psychological measures of citizen characteristics as mediators. A mediated analysis showed that psychological citizen factors, like home satisfaction and happiness, mediated the impact of societal variables, like the sex ratio, in predicting suicide rates. We found different psychological and societal predictors for young and elderly suicides, with elderly suicide rates being much more predictable. An age-responsive Durkheimian framework focusing on the dynamics of social integration at different ages was used to interpret these results.

  9. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  10. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  11. [An investigation of psychological state at different stages of occupational AIDS exposure and related influencing factors in Nanning, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q; Ge, X M; Mo, J C; Li, S S; Chen, C C; Chen, S Y

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the changes in psychological state after occupational exposure in the AIDS occupational exposure population and related influencing factors, and to provide baseline data and a basis for related departments to conduct mental health prevention and intervention for personnel with occupational AIDS exposure. Methods: AIDS risk assessment was performed for all personnel with occupational AIDS exposure in 2014 in Nanning, China, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) psychological scale was used for psychological state evaluation at 24 hours, 1 week, and 3 months after occupational exposure in all persons who met the research criteria. Results: Most of the persons with occupational AIDS exposure came from secondary and tertiary hospitals (85%) , and nurses accounted for the highest percentage (78.3% ). The age ranged from 21 to 50 years, and the mean age was 31.02 ± 7.92 years. The persons with occupational AIDS exposure aged 20~29 years accounted for the highest percentage (51.6%) , and most persons (76.7%) graduated from junior colleges. Compared with the adult norm, there was significant increases in the total psychological score and the number of positive items after occupational exposure (P<0.05). The scores of all items at 24 hours were significantly higher than those at the other time points, and the scores of all items gradually decreased over time (F=227.24, 267.57, and 287.46, P<0.05). Compared with the adult norm, there were significant increases in the factor points at 24 hours and significant reductions in the factor points at 3 months (P<0.05). Compared with those at 24 hours, the factor scores at 3 months decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Occupational AIDS exposure affects the mental status of related personnel, and the mental status at 24 hours after exposure is poor. Related departments should provide corresponding psychological counseling for the occupational exposure population at different exposure times.

  12. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  13. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  14. Behavioral and Psychological Factors Associated with 12-Month Weight Change in a Physical Activity Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Napolitano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.

  15. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. RESULTS: 547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. CONCLUSIONS: Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  16. How far cardio metabolic and psychological factors affect salt sensitivity in normotensive adult population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Pourmoghaddas, Masoud; Behnamfar, Omid; Pourmoghaddas, Zahra; Heidari, Ebrahim; Mahjoor, Zahra; Mousavi, Mehdi; Bahonar, Ahmad; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the prevalence of salt sensitivity and the impact of cardiometabolic and psychological characteristics on salt sensitivity in normotensive population. METHODS Of all participants, anthropometric measurements and fasting venous blood samples were collected, and study questionnaires were completed. Salt Sensitivity was defined based on the difference in mean arterial pressure with infusion of 2 L of normal saline followed by a low sodium diet and administration of three doses of oral furosemide the day after. RESULTS Of 131 participants, 56 (42.7%) were diagnosed with salt sensitivity. Crude and age and sex adjusted regression analysis showed that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and depression were positively associated with salt sensitivity (OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01-1.04 and OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.00-1.34, respectively). CONCLUSION The high prevalence of salt sensitivity and its significant relation with prevalent risk factors necessitates considering its reduction actions at the population level and the need for further research. PMID:28163836

  17. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    Rapid prototyping and the human factors • • engineering process David Beevis* and Gaetan St Denist *Senior Human Factors Engineer , Defence and...factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the V APS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The...factors engineering (HFE) process re- commended for the development of human-machine systems is based on a series of increasin¥ly detailed analyses of

  18. Psychological Stress and the Human Immune System: A Meta-Analytic Study of 30 Years of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    The present report meta-analyzes more than 300 empirical articles describing a relationship between psychological stress and parameters of the immune system in human participants. Acute stressors (lasting minutes) were associated with potentially adaptive upregulation of some parameters of natural immunity and downregulation of some functions of…

  19. Psychological factors as predictors of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Ibrahim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide. METHOD: The present study examined psychological factors (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress as predictors for suicidal ideation among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 190 students (103 males and 87 females, aged 15 to 19 years old from two different schools in Kuala Lumpur. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21-item version (DASS-21 was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress among the students, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS to measure suicidal ideation. The data were analysed using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: The results show that 11.10%, 10.00%, and 9.50% of the students reported that they were experiencing severe depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. There were significant correlations between depression, anxiety, and stress with suicidal ideation. However, only depression was identified as a predictor for suicidal ideation. CONCLUSION: Hence, this study extends the role of depression in predicting suicidal ideation among adolescents in the Malaysian context. The findings imply that teenagers should be assisted in strengthening their positive coping strategies in managing distress to reduce depression and suicidal ideation.

  20. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine; Kearsley, Greg P.

    The principal human factors engineering issue in robotics is the division of labor between automation (robots) and human beings. This issue reflects a prime human factors engineering consideration in systems design--what equipment should do and what operators and maintainers should do. Understanding of capabilities and limitations of robots and…

  1. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why it Matters for Global Capitalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiller, Robert J. (Yale)

    2010-03-02

    In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.

  2. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  3. A Study on Factors Influencing the Qiang’s Post-Disaster Psychological Resilience---Based on NVivo Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Li; Yuan Jiwei; Xu Mingbo

    2015-01-01

    Psychological resilience is given a lot of attention in studies relating to handling pres-sure and individual development. Psychological re-silience refers to one being able to maintain a rela-tively stable and healthy psychological well-being after experiencing stressful events, such as hurt or loss. This resilience has a multi-level complicated structure,and results from a dynamic interaction of the individual,social,cultural and other social fac-tors. Although there is yet no a common definition of psychological resilience in academic circles, it seems that the concept of psychological resilience reflects much more the dynamic process of the individuals’ ability to adjust after experiencing dif-ficulties/adversity. The Wenchuan Earthquake that occurred on May 12 not only brought many injuries, death and loss to the Qiang people,but it also created psycho-logical trauma of different degrees for the survi-vors. This research discovered that differences in ethnic cultures endow individuals differences in cognition, responses and coping mechanisms when facing the same disaster. How did the Qiang survi-vors from the earthquake manage their psychologi-cal trauma after the disaster? What kinds of factors were helpful for the individual’s psychological resil-ience? This became our focus. This article tries to use a qualitative research methodology and semi-structured interviews to understand the cognition, responses and coping mechanisms of Qiang earth-quake survivors;it explores the factors influencing the Qiang’s psychological resilience; and provides the basis for the ethnic minorities’ post -disaster psychological resilience. We used the methodology of“purposeful sam-pling” to select a research target in Mao county and Li county of Aba Tibetan-Qiang Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan province. These are two places which were severely impacted when the earthquake happened on May 12 . Based on the results of for-mer investigations and research on post -disaster

  4. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igwe Monday N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire were administered to the students. Results The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67 ± 3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24 ± 3.24, 10.76 ± 3.50 and 9.01 ± 3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p = 0.000, domain 3 (p = 0.029, domain 4 (p = 0.000 and total score (p = 0.000, with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p = 0.769. The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r = 0.319, p = 0

  5. Inhalation devices and patient interface: human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Stefan; Parkins, David; Lastow, Orest

    2015-03-01

    The development of any inhalation product that does not consider the patient needs will fail. The needs of the patients must be identified and aligned with engineering options and physical laws to achieve a robust and intuitive-to-use inhaler. A close interaction between development disciplines and real-use evaluations in clinical studies or in human factor studies is suggested. The same holds true when a marketed product needs to be changed. Caution is warranted if an inhaler change leads to a change in the way the patient handles the device. Finally, the article points out potential problems if many inhaler designs are available. Do they confuse the patients? Can patients recall the correct handling of each inhaler they use? How large is the risk that different inhaler designs pose to the public health? The presentations were given at the Orlando Inhalation Conference: Approaches in International Regulation co-organised by the University of Florida and the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation & Science (IPAC-RS) in March 2014.

  6. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R. (BNL); Xing, J.; DAgostino, A. (NRC)

    2010-11-07

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

  7. Inclination of the soul toward obscenity in the human life from viewpoint of the Quran and School of the analytical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Taher Neshat Doost

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human being sometimes inclines toward the goodness and beauty, and sometimes toward the obscenity. So, Allah in the Quran has reminded man of dangers and wicked thoughts of the soul, and has described “al-Nafsul Ammāra” (commanding soul as a source of the souls` inclination toward the obscenity which is quite deceptive. It has also been mentioned that self-scrutiny would act as cause for attaining the way of life recommended by Quran. One of the duties of the psychology is to elaborate on the sources of the souls` inclination toward obscenity and the factors that deviating the human life. One of the psychological schools that especially studies this issue is the School of analytical psychology. Among psychologists of this school, viewpoints of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung need to be compared with the Islamic-Quranic viewpoint. This article firstly tries to clarify the concept of the soul and its characteristics, and then explains the process through which “al-Nafsul Ammāra”, influences. It also describes the origin of the soul's tendency toward obscenity from Freuds` viewpoint and satanic influences from viewpoint of Carl Jung comparing them with the Quranic attitude. The origin of inclination of the soul toward the obscenity is called “al-Nafsul Ammāra” based in the Quranic text while according to the Frauds` theory it is called ID. From the Quranic viewpoint, “al-Nafsul Ammāra” that is affected by the internal negative tendencies of the soul (Haway-e Nafs and external invisible stimuli(Satan commands the human and leads him to the obscenity. So the Quran introduces the Satan as the enemy of the human being that brings about his decadence. The Quran presents the human being a practical plan for struggling against the Satan. Analytical psychology of Jung also emphasizes the role of the satanic influences on the human tendency toward the obscenity and considers struggling with the Satan as a way for freedom and

  8. Inclination of the soul toward obscenity in the human life from viewpoint of the Quran and School of the analytical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Banaeian Esfahani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human being sometimes inclines toward the goodness and beauty, and sometimes toward the obscenity. So, Allah in the Quran has reminded man of dangers and wicked thoughts of the soul, and has described “al-Nafsul Ammāra” (commanding soul as a source of the souls` inclination toward the obscenity which is quite deceptive. It has also been mentioned that self-scrutiny would act as cause for attaining the way of life recommended by Quran. One of the duties of the psychology is to elaborate on the sources of the souls` inclination toward obscenity and the factors that deviating the human life. One of the psychological schools that especially studies this issue is the School of analytical psychology. Among psychologists of this school, viewpoints of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung need to be compared with the Islamic-Quranic viewpoint. This article firstly tries to clarify the concept of the soul and its characteristics, and then explains the process through which “al-Nafsul Ammāra”, influences. It also describes the origin of the soul's tendency toward obscenity from Freuds` viewpoint and satanic influences from viewpoint of Carl Jung comparing them with the Quranic attitude. The origin of inclination of the soul toward the obscenity is called “al-Nafsul Ammāra” based in the Quranic text while according to the Frauds` theory it is called ID. From the Quranic viewpoint, “al-Nafsul Ammāra” that is affected by the internal negative tendencies of the soul (Haway-e Nafs and external invisible stimuli(Satan commands the human and leads him to the obscenity. So the Quran introduces the Satan as the enemy of the human being that brings about his decadence. The Quran presents the human being a practical plan for struggling against the Satan. Analytical psychology of Jung also emphasizes the role of the satanic influences on the human tendency toward the obscenity and considers struggling with the Satan as a way for freedom and sublimation

  9. Subjective health complaints in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD. Relationships with physical, psychological, and collision associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ihlebæk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism

  10. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1996-01-01

    generation. Here, we review the effect of alcohol, air pollution, cigarette smoke, diet, exercise, non-ionizing radiation (UV and microwaves) and psychological stress on the development of oxidative stress. Regular exercise and carbohydrate-rich diets seem to increase the resistance against oxidative stress....... Air pollution, alcohol, cigarette smoke, non-ionizing radiation and psychological stress seem to increase oxidative stress. Alcohol in lower doses may act as an antioxidant on low density lipoproteins and thereby have an anti-atherosclerotic property....

  11. THE IMPACT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE PURCHASE BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG BUYERS OF DURABLE GOODS

    OpenAIRE

    Dominika Woźny

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of consumer purchase behavior have been for years the object of the study of researchers who dealt with the analysis of the consumption process and the behavior of buyers. Among numerous classification proposals for the determinants, the most common are the economic, social and psychological stimuli. The article is an attempt to identify the impact of psychological determinants on consumer purchase behavior, with a particular consideration of young buyers of durable goods. P...

  12. Psychological and Familial Factors of Depression in Relation to Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Omidi, Razieh; Alinia, Tahereh; Heidari, Kamal; Farshad, Marziyeh; Davari, Hossein; Abtin, Zahra; Shahriari, Ezat; Taslimi, Mahshid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several common factors have been identified for smoking and depression. The The present study explores the relation of psychological and familial factors with depression, by student smoking behavior. Materials and Methods: A total of 5500 middle- and high-school students were selected in Isfahan province in 2010. A self-administered questionnaire collected data on background characteristics, smoking status, depression, and risk factors. Univariate analysis multiple logistic regressions were conducted to compare between depressed and nondepressed people by adolescent smoking status. Odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Results: Fathers lower education attainment was accompanied adolescents higher depression prevalence. Parental smoking and sibling smoking increased the depression likelihood by 1.41 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.68) and 1.43 folds (95% CI: 1.04–1.94) for never-smokers. Positive attitude toward smoking increased the probability of depression by 1.18 among never-smokers. Never-smokers lacking refusal skill had 1.23 (1.03–1.47) higher chance of depression. A higher level of self-efficacy related to lower chance of depression. Taking risky behavior, increased the depression likelihood by 1.56 (95% CI: 1.29–1.89) in never-smokers, by 1.85 (95% CI: 1.37–2.44) in experimental smokers, and by 1.14 times (95% CI: 1.01–1.72) in current smokers. Family conflict increased depression chance by 2.25 times (95% CI: 1.89–2.66) in never-smokers, by 1.95 (95% CI: 1.46–2.61) in experimental smokers, and by 2.06 times (95% CI: 1.38–3.08) in current smokers. Conclusions: Targeting self-efficacy level, risky behavior, and family conflict can drop the comorbidity of smoking and depression simultaneously. This may help public health practitioners and policymakers to develop common strategies in reducing adolescents smoking and depression comorbidity. PMID:28217648

  13. The Evaluation of Psychological Factor and Salivary Cortisol and IgA Levels in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Arbabi-Kalati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic immunological disorder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to determine psychological factors and salivary cortisol, IgA level in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 20 patients with OLP and healthy person were admitted to this study. Saliva samples were collected between - Am. saliva cortisol, IgA level was detected by ELIZA method. In this study, patients with anxiety and depression were measured using the SCL-90 questionnaire. Data analyzed by t-test. Results: The mean salivary cortisol level in patients with OLP was 3.2±1.9 ng/mL and the mean saliva cortisol level in healthy person was 3.5±1.9 ng/mL. Significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups (p=0.04. The mean salivary IgA level in patients with OLP was 0.69±0.29 ng/mL and the mean saliva IgA level in healthy person was 0.9±0.43 ng/mL but no significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups. Results showed that anxiety levels in patients with oral lichen planus were slightly higher than controls but there was no significant difference between healthy subjects. Conclusion: Finding revealed the mean salivary cortisol level in patient with OLP less than healthy persons. Significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups. Based on the t-student test, no significant difference was observed in the salivary IgA levels in the 2 study groups. Anxiety levels in patients with oral lichen planus were slightly higher than controls.

  14. Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-02-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive errors that can contribute to belief in pseudoscientific practices within school psychology and allied professions, (c) provide a list of 10 key warning signs of pseudoscience, illustrated by contemporary examples from school psychology and allied disciplines, and (d) offer 10 user-friendly prescriptions designed to encourage scientific thinking among school psychology practitioners and researchers. We argue that scientific thinking, although fallible, is ultimately school psychologists' best safeguard against a host of errors in thinking.

  15. Time Course of Leptin in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa during Inpatient Treatment: Longitudinal Relationships to BMI and Psychological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Wesche, Daniela; Kopf, Stefan; Herzog, Wolfgang; Wild, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, appears to play a major role in the homeostasis of body weight and psychobiological processes associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is scarce data on its exact influence on this disorder, in particular data over time. Objective The present study addresses whether leptin changes during inpatient treatment play a role for treatment outcome and psychological factors in underweight AN patients. Methods In order to understand whether leptin’s role differs in relation to AN severity, data were assessed from 11 patients with a very low BMI and a higher chronicity (high severity group; HSS; mean BMI at the beginning of the study = 13.6; mean duration of illness = 5.1 years) vs. nine with less severe symptoms (LSS; mean BMI = 16.2; mean duration of illness = 3.7 years). During the course of treatment, serum leptin concentrations were assessed weekly while weight (BMI) was assessed twice per week. Concomitantly, psychological variables were obtained by means of electronic diaries. Unconditional linear growth models were calculated to evaluate the temporal course of leptin in relation to BMI. For HSS patients, two phases of treatment (BMI < 16 and BMI ≥ 16 kg/m2) were investigated. Results Leptin increased significantly with BMI in both groups of patients. For HSS patients, the increase of leptin in the first treatment phase did not predict later increases in BMI. Furthermore, the relationship of leptin and psychological factors was modulated by symptom severity. In HSS patients, higher leptin levels were associated with greater feelings of depression, anxiety, and stress whereas in LSS patients a higher leptin level showed the trend to be associated with lower psychological symptom burden. Conclusions Our results suggest that leptin changes are differently associated with weight gain and psychological symptoms depending on the severity of starvation. PMID:28030575

  16. Discussing the Effective Factors on Maintenance of Human Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Bahare Shahriari

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the author has elaborated on detection of effective factors on maintenance and retention of human resources. Since human resources are the most resources for obtaining competitive advantage, it is essential to pay attention to different dimensions of human resources management. One of these dimensions is retention of human resources. Factors such as providing correct and valid information at the time of recruitment, assigning tasks based on competence, existence of a clear c...

  17. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules (eg, lactoferrin) are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing.

  18. Association between symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and gender, morphological occlusion, and psychological factors in a group of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Bonjardim Leonardo; Lopes-Filho Ricardo; Amado Guilherme; Albuquerque Ricardo; Goncalves Suzane

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in a sample of university students and its relationship to gender, occlusion, and psychological factors. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 196 subjects, aged 18-25 years. The TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification (classes I, II, and III). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a 14-...

  19. Prevalence, sociodemographic factors, psychological distress, and coping strategies related to compulsive buying: a cross sectional study in Galicia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Otero-López, José Manuel; Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz

    2014-01-01

    Background Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying preval...

  20. Social and psychological factors affecting eating habits among university students in a Malaysian medical school: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ganasegeran Kurubaran; Al-Dubai Sami AR; Qureshi Ahmad M; Al-abed Al-abed AA; AM, Rizal; Aljunid Syed M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating ha...

  1. Association of psychological risk factors and acute myocardial infarction in China: the INTER-HEART China study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; LI Wei; Koon Teo; WANG Xing-yu; LIU Li-sheng; Salim Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Background Most data about psychological factors relating to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were obtained from studies carried out in western countries. Results from small descriptive cross-sectional studies in China were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between psychological risk factors and AMI among the Chinese population with a large-scale case-control study.Methods This study was part of the INTER-HEART China study, itself part of the large international INTER-HEART study of cardiovascular risk factors. In this case-control study, 2909 cases and 2947 controls were recruited from 17 cities.Psychological stress, negative life events, depression and controllability of life circumstances were assessed.Results Cases reported more psychological stress at home or work and odds ratios (ORs) were 3.2 (95% CI 2.1-4.9)for permanent stress and 2.1 (95% CI 1.5-2.8) for several periods of stress respectively. More cases experienced depression compared with controls (19.6% vs. 9.3%) and ORs were 2.2 (95% CI 1.9-2.6). Subjects with 1, 2 and 3 or more depressive symptoms had increased risk of AMI by 2.1, 2.2 and 2.6 fold, respectively, i.e., more depressive symptoms were associated with higher risks of AMI (P for trend <0.0001). Women had a greater risk of AMI from depression (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.2-4.0) compared to men (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6-2.4), P for interaction =0.0364. Negative life events in subjects were associated with increased risk of AMI, OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.0) for one event and 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4) for two or more events. High levels of controllability of life circumstances reduced the risk for AMI (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.7-1 .0).Conclusions Several psychological factors were closely associated with increased AMI risk among Chinese population.Psychological stress had a greater AMI risk in men but depression was more significant among women.

  2. Association of psychological distress and work psychosocial factors with self-reported musculoskeletal pain among secondary school teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri, E. N.; Moy, F. M.; Hoe, V. C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role. Objectives To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP), and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP) in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP. Results The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 45.2%, 50.9%) and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9%) respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75), high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57), low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43), low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Conclusions Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work

  3. Estimation of psychological stress in humans: a combination of theory and practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Sood

    Full Text Available Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

  4. Estimation of psychological stress in humans: a combination of theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Parul; Priyadarshini, Sushri; Aich, Palok

    2013-01-01

    Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

  5. Importance of psychological factors for the recovery from a first episode of acute non-specific neck pain - a longitudinal observational study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of psychological factors on acute neck pain is sparsely studied. In a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data, this study investigated how several psychological factors develop in the first three months of acute neck pain and how these factors influence self-perceived recovery. Methods Patients were recruited in various chiropractic practices throughout Switzerland between 2010 and 2014. The follow-up telephone interviews were conducted for all patients by ...

  6. Which factors predict proposal and uptake of psychological counselling after BRCA1/2 test result disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Christine; Bouhnik, Anne-Deborah; Nogues, Catherine; Mouret-Fourme, Emmanuelle; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Lasset, Christine; Berthet, Pascaline; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Caron, Olivier; Luporsi, Elizabeth; Gladieff, Laurence; Julian-Reynier, Claire

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to prospectively determine the factors contributing to whether unaffected women from BRCA1/2 families reported that clinicians proposed psychological consultations and that they had attended these consultations during the genetic testing process. A prospective study was performed on a national cohort, using self-administered questionnaires to determine the rates of proposal and use of psychological services at the time of BRCA1/2 test result disclosure (N = 533) and during the first year after disclosure (N = 478) among unaffected French women from BRCA1/2 families who had undergone genetic testing for BRCA1/2. Multivariate adjustment was carried out using logistic regression models fitted using generalized estimation equations, with the genetic testing centre as the clustering variable. At the time of BRCA1/2 test result disclosure, a psychological consultation was proposed by cancer geneticists to 72% and 32% of the carriers (N = 232) and noncarriers (N = 301), respectively (p test results (proposal AOR: 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.03; uptake AOR: 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.06) CONCLUSIONS: Determinants of the proposal/uptake of psychological consultations in the BRCA1/2 testing process highlight the need for inventive strategies to reach the different types of women's profiles. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Pattern of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Key words: Breast cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu, immunohistochemistry, ... therapy.[6‑8] Of all these prognostic and predictive factors, ... one of the biggest private medical laboratories in Nigeria.

  8. The Effect of Organizational Support, Transformational Leadership, Personnel Empowerment, Work Engagement, Performance and Demographical Variables on the Factors of Psychological Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Rodoplu Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation with the work and the role of managers and organizational factors are effective on psychological capital and individual performance of employees. This article investigates the impact of the work engagement, performanmce, empowerment, organizational support and transformational leadership on psychological capital using survey data.

  9. Human physiology and psychology in space flight; Uchu hiko ni okeru ningen no seiri to shinri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Human beings' adaptation to space and the effects on them of a prolonged stay in space are discussed. Some effects may be detrimental to crewmen even when they are medically judged as 'normal' and 'adaptable.' Bone deliming, muscular atrophy, and hypodynamia may be physiologically 'normal' and 'adaptable' in the zero-gravity environment where no strength is required to hold a position or attitude, and they will not cause any serious problems if crewmen are to stay in the zero-gravity environment permanently. Astronauts work on conditions that they return to the earth, however, and they have to stand on their own legs when back on the ground. Such being the case, they in the space vehicle are forced to make efforts at having their bone density and muscular strength sustained. It is inevitable for a space station to be a closed, isolated system, and the crewmen have to live in multinational, multicultural, and multilingual circumstances in case the flight is an international project. They will be exposed to great social and psychological stresses, and their adaptability to such stresses presents an important task. (NEDO)

  10. Psychology and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  11. Awareness of the Family History as a Factor in Psychological Well-being in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakimova T.V.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the study of connection of psychological well-being of adolescents with their awareness of their own family history. We briefly overview the main trends and individual empirical studies on the influence of family history of psychological well-being of the individual. In the present study, we focuses not on pathological influence of family history, but on its resource and supporting effect during the difficulties of adolescence. The study involved 32 teenagers. The empirical study is based on data obtained using a questionnaire designed to examine the links of teenager with extended family members and his awareness of family history. We found that adolescents who know their family history, have an interest in it and keep in touch with the extended family, are characterized by high values of the level of psychological well-being.

  12. On Social Psychology and Human Nature: An Interview with Roy Baumeister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalie Kerr

    2008-01-01

    Roy F. Baumeister currently holds the Eppes Eminent Professorship in the Department of Psychology at Florida State University. He received his PhD in social psychology from Princeton in 1978 working under Edward E. Jones. After a postdoctoral fellowship in sociology at Berkeley, he spent 23 years on the faculty at Case Western Reserve University,…

  13. Contextual Determination of Human Thinking: About Some Conceptual and Methodological Obstacles in Psychology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsana, Christine; Trognon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This theoretical paper discusses some conceptual and methodological obstacles that one encounters when analyzing the contextual determination of thinking in psychology. First, we comment upon the various representations of the "cognitive" individual that have been formed over the years--from the epistemic subject to the psychological subject, and…

  14. An improvement of the applicability of human factors guidelines for coping with human factors issues in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lee, J. Y. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Human factors have been well known as one of the key factors to the system effectiveness as well as the efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants(NPPs). Human factors engineering(HFE) are included in periodic safety review(PSR) on the existing NPPs and the formal safety assessment for the new ones. However, HFE for NPPs is still neither popular in practice nor concrete in methodology. Especially, the human factors guidelines, which are the most frequent form of human factors engineering in practice, reveal the limitations in their applications. We discuss the limitations and their casual factors found in human factors guidelines in order to lesson the workload of HFE practitioners and to improve the applicability of human factors guidelines. According to the purposes and the phases of HFE for NPPs, more selective items and specified criteria should be prepared carefully in the human factors guidelines for the each HFE applications in practice. These finding on the human factors guidelines can be transferred to the other HFE application field, such as military, aviation, telecommunication, HCI, and product safety.

  15. Human factors research as part of a Mars exploration analogue mission on Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsted, Kim; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Griofa, Marc Ó.; Bishop, Sheryl; Lapierre, Judith

    2010-06-01

    Human factors research is a critical element of space exploration as it provides insight into a crew's performance, psychology and interpersonal relationships. Understanding the way humans work in space-exploration analogue environments permits the development and testing of countermeasures for and responses to potential hazardous situations, and can thus help improve mission efficiency and safety. Analogue missions, such as the one described here, have plausible mission constraints and operational scenarios, similar to those that a real Mars crew would experience. Long duration analogue studies, such as those being conducted at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) on Devon Island, Canada, offer an opportunity to study mission operations and human factors in a semi-realistic environment, and contribute to the design of missions to explore the Moon and Mars. The FMARS XI Long Duration Mission (F-XI LDM) was, at four months, the longest designed analogue Mars mission conducted to date, and thus provides a unique insight into human factors issues for long-duration space exploration. Here, we describe the six human factors studies that took place during F-XI LDM, and give a summary of their results, where available. We also present a meta-study, which examined the impact of the human-factors research itself on crew schedule and workload. Based on this experience, we offer some lessons learnt: some aspects (perceived risk and crew motivation, for example) of analogue missions must be realistic for study results to be valid; human factors studies are time-consuming, and should be fully integrated into crew schedules; and crew-ground communication and collaboration under long-term exploration conditions can present serious challenges.

  16. Psychological Factors in the Development of Football-Talent from the Perspective of an Integrative Sport-Talent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert OROSZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N=425 football-players of the First Division Men’s Junior and Adolescent Football Championships of the Hungarian Football League, and their coaches (N=21. The applied instruments were: Sporting Background Questionnaire, The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS – Hungarian version, Psychological Immune Competence Inventory (PICI, Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI, Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM, Co-Player Questionnaire, and Coach Questionnaire. As a result, significant differences were found between talented and control groups in the case of 27 variables out of 48 (6 scales of the SBQ, 5 scales of the ACSI-28, 9 scales of the PISI, 5 subscales and the Total self-concept scale of the TSCS, and in APM. More talented players showed more favourable values in each of the 27 intra-, and interpersonal dimensions. According to our results, the development of psychological factors (e.g. concentration, lack of anxiety, self-confidence, coping skills, and social skills within an integrative approach can enhance personal efficiency in developing football giftedness.

  17. The contribution of psychological factors to recovery after mild traumatic brain injury: is cluster analysis a useful approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Deborah L; Surgenor, Lois J; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Williman, Jonathan; Siegert, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Outcomes after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) vary, with slow or incomplete recovery for a significant minority. This study examines whether groups of cases with shared psychological factors but with different injury outcomes could be identified using cluster analysis. This is a prospective observational study following 147 adults presenting to a hospital-based emergency department or concussion services in Christchurch, New Zealand. This study examined associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychological variables (distress, injury beliefs and symptom burden) and outcome 6 months later. A two-step approach to cluster analysis was applied (Ward's method to identify clusters, K-means to refine results). Three meaningful clusters emerged (high-adapters, medium-adapters, low-adapters). Baseline cluster-group membership was significantly associated with outcomes over time. High-adapters appeared recovered by 6-weeks and medium-adapters revealed improvements by 6-months. The low-adapters continued to endorse many symptoms, negative recovery expectations and distress, being significantly at risk for poor outcome more than 6-months after injury (OR (good outcome) = 0.12; CI = 0.03-0.53; p Cluster analysis supported the notion that groups could be identified early post-injury based on psychological factors, with group membership associated with differing outcomes over time. Implications for clinical care providers regarding therapy targets and cases that may benefit from different intensities of intervention are discussed.

  18. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated...

  19. WHO DOES WHAT IN HUMAN FACTORS/ERGONOMICS IN MALAYSIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahasan, Rabiul

    2014-12-01

    Individuals' expertise in human factors and ergonomics in Malaysia was studied with a view to aiding in gauging the confusion and conjectures of the expertise in this area. The choices and preferences of individuals in dealing with the current issues of human factors and ergonomics were examined. The authors suggest the ways to meet ethical challenges in their work and professions.

  20. NAS Human Factors Safety Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts an integrated program of research on the relationship of factors concerning individuals, work groups, and organizations as employees perform...